Science.gov

Sample records for address increasingly complex

  1. Exploring the Utilization of Complex Algal Communities to Address Algal Pond Crash and Increase Annual Biomass Production for Algal Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Cyd E.

    2014-03-25

    This white paper briefly reviews the research literature exploring complex algal communities as a means of increasing algal biomass production via increased tolerance, resilience, and resistance to a variety of abiotic and biotic perturbations occurring within harvesting timescales. This paper identifies what data are available and whether more research utilizing complex communities is needed to explore the potential of complex algal community stability (CACS) approach as a plausible means to increase biomass yields regardless of ecological context and resulting in decreased algal-based fuel prices by reducing operations costs. By reviewing the literature for what we do and do not know, in terms of CACS methodologies, this report will provide guidance for future research addressing pond crash phenomena.

  2. Atomic clusters with addressable complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, David J.

    2017-02-01

    A general formulation for constructing addressable atomic clusters is introduced, based on one or more reference structures. By modifying the well depths in a given interatomic potential in favour of nearest-neighbour interactions that are defined in the reference(s), the potential energy landscape can be biased to make a particular permutational isomer the global minimum. The magnitude of the bias changes the resulting potential energy landscape systematically, providing a framework to produce clusters that should self-organise efficiently into the target structure. These features are illustrated for small systems, where all the relevant local minima and transition states can be identified, and for the low-energy regions of the landscape for larger clusters. For a 55-particle cluster, it is possible to design a target structure from a transition state of the original potential and to retain this structure in a doubly addressable landscape. Disconnectivity graphs based on local minima that have no direct connections to a lower minimum provide a helpful way to visualise the larger databases. These minima correspond to the termini of monotonic sequences, which always proceed downhill in terms of potential energy, and we identify them as a class of biminimum. Multiple copies of the target cluster are treated by adding a repulsive term between particles with the same address to maintain distinguishable targets upon aggregation. By tuning the magnitude of this term, it is possible to create assemblies of the target cluster corresponding to a variety of structures, including rings and chains.

  3. Increasing hope by addressing clients' outcome expectations.

    PubMed

    Swift, Joshua K; Derthick, Annie O

    2013-09-01

    Addressing clients' outcome expectations is an important clinical process that can lead to a strong therapeutic alliance, more positive treatment outcomes, and decreased rates of premature termination from psychotherapy. Five interventions designed to foster appropriate outcome expectations are discussed, including presenting a convincing treatment rationale, increasing clients' faith in their therapists, expressing faith in clients, providing outcome education, and comparing progress with expectations. Clinical examples and research support are provided for each.

  4. Addressing the Complexity of the Earth System

    SciTech Connect

    Nobre, Carlos; Brasseur, Guy P.; Shapiro, Melvyn; Lahsen, Myanna; Brunet, Gilbert; Busalacchi, Antonio; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Seitzinger, Sybil; Noone, Kevin; Ometto, Jean P.

    2010-10-01

    This paper highlights the role of the Earth-system biosphere and illustrates the complex: biosphere-atmosphere interactions in the Amazon Basin, changes in nitrogen cycling, ocean chemistry, and land use. It introduces three important requirements for accelerating the development and use of Earth system information. The first requirement is to develop Earth system analysis and prediction models that account for multi-scale physical, chemical and biological processes, including their interactions in the coupled atmosphere-ocean-land-ice system. The development of these models requires partnerships between academia, national research centers, and operational prediction facilities, and builds upon accomplishments in weather and climate predictions. They will highlight the regional aspects of global change, and include modules for water system, agriculture, forestry, energy, air quality, health, etc. The second requirement is to model the interactions between humans and the weather-climate-biogeochemical system. The third requirement is to introduce novel methodologies to account for societal drivers, impacts and feedbacks. This is a challenging endeavor requiring creative solutions and some compromising because human behavior cannot be fully represented within the framework of present-day physical prediction systems.

  5. Interweaving Knowledge Resources to Address Complex Environmental Health Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Beth Ellen; Suk, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Complex problems do not respect academic disciplinary boundaries. Environmental health research is complex and often moves beyond these boundaries, integrating diverse knowledge resources to solve such challenges. Here we describe an evolving paradigm for interweaving approaches that integrates widely diverse resources outside of traditional academic environments in full partnerships of mutual respect and understanding. We demonstrate that scientists, social scientists, and engineers can work with government agencies, industry, and communities to interweave their expertise into metaphorical knowledge fabrics to share understanding, resources, and enthusiasm. Objective Our goal is to acknowledge and validate how interweaving research approaches can contribute to research-driven, solution-oriented problem solving in environmental health, and to inspire more members of the environmental health community to consider this approach. Discussion The National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program (SRP), as mandated by Congress, has evolved to become a program that reaches across a wide range of knowledge resources. SRP fosters interweaving multiple knowledge resources to develop innovative multidirectional partnerships for research and training. Here we describe examples of how motivation, ideas, knowledge, and expertise from different people, institutions, and agencies can integrate to tackle challenges that can be as complex as the resources they bring to bear on it. Conclusions By providing structure for interweaving science with its stakeholders, we are better able to leverage resources, increase potential for innovation, and proactively ensure a more fully developed spectrum of beneficial outcomes of research investments. Citation Anderson BE, Naujokas MF, Suk WA. 2015. Interweaving knowledge resources to address complex environmental health challenges. Environ Health Perspect 123:1095–1099

  6. Self-Assembly of Structures with Addressable Complexity.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, William M; Frenkel, Daan

    2016-03-02

    The self-assembly of structures with "addressable complexity", where every component is distinct and is programmed to occupy a specific location within a target structure, is a promising route to engineering materials with precisely defined morphologies. Because systems with many components are inherently complicated, one might assume that the chances of successful self-assembly are extraordinarily small. Yet recent advances suggest otherwise: addressable structures with hundreds of distinct building blocks have been designed and assembled with nanometer precision. Despite this remarkable success, it is often challenging to optimize a self-assembly reaction to ensure that the intended structure is kinetically accessible. In this Perspective, we focus on the prediction of kinetic pathways for self-assembly and implications for the design of robust experimental protocols. The development of general principles to predict these pathways will enable the engineering of complex materials using a much wider range of building blocks than is currently possible.

  7. Evaluating complex community-based health promotion: addressing the challenges.

    PubMed

    Jolley, Gwyneth

    2014-08-01

    Community-based health promotion is poorly theorised and lacks an agreed evidence-base. This paper examines characteristics of community-based health promotion and the challenges they present to evaluation. A review of health promotion evaluation leads to an exploration of more recent approaches, drawing on ideas from complexity theory and developmental evaluation. A reflexive analysis of three program evaluations previously undertaken as an evaluation consultant is used to develop a conceptual model to help in the design and conduct of health promotion evaluation. The model is further explored by applying it retrospectively to one evaluation. Findings suggest that the context-contingent nature of health promotion programs; turbulence in the community context and players; multiple stakeholders, goals and strategies; and uncertainty of outcomes all contribute to the complexity of interventions. Bringing together insights from developmental evaluation and complexity theory can help to address some evaluation challenges. The proposed model emphasises recognising and responding to changing contexts and emerging outcomes, providing rapid feedback and facilitating reflexive practice. This will enable the evaluator to gain a better understanding of the influence of context and other implementation factors in a complex setting. Use of the model should contribute to building cumulative evidence and knowledge in order to identify the principles of health promotion effectiveness that may be transferable to new situations.

  8. Increasing complexity with quantum physics.

    PubMed

    Anders, Janet; Wiesner, Karoline

    2011-09-01

    We argue that complex systems science and the rules of quantum physics are intricately related. We discuss a range of quantum phenomena, such as cryptography, computation and quantum phases, and the rules responsible for their complexity. We identify correlations as a central concept connecting quantum information and complex systems science. We present two examples for the power of correlations: using quantum resources to simulate the correlations of a stochastic process and to implement a classically impossible computational task.

  9. Connectivity and complex systems in geomorphology: addressing some key challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöppl, Ronald; Turnbull-Lloyd, Laura; Parsons, Anthony; Bracken, Louise; Keesstra, Saskia; Masselink, Rens

    2016-04-01

    "Connectivity thinking" and related concepts have a long history in geomorphology. Since the beginning of the 21st century connectivity research experienced a huge boom in geomorphology as geomorphologists started to develop new concepts on connectivity to better understand the complexity of geomorphic systems and system response to change. However, progress in the field of connectivity in geomorphology has mostly been developing in a parallel manner, resulting in a multiplicity of definitions, concepts and methodological approaches. Nevertheless, a set of common key challenges amongst the different connectivity concepts and approaches used to understand complex geomorphic systems are also evident. In the course of a theory think tank of the COST Action ES1306 (CONNECTEUR - Connecting European Connectivity Research) the following five different key challenges were detected (Turnbull et al., in prep.): (i) defining the fundamental unit, (ii) distinguishing between structural and functional boundaries, (iii) emergent behavior, (iv) memory effects, (v) measuring connectivity. In this presentation we will a) discuss how these key challenges are addressed and approached in connectivity research in geomorphology, b) evaluate ways in which cross-disciplinary advances may be made by exploring potential for a common toolbox approach to the study of connectivity.

  10. Increasing the capacity of health sciences to address health disparities.

    PubMed

    Daley, Sandra P; Broyles, Shelia L; Rivera, Lourdes M; Reznik, Vivian M

    2009-09-01

    In order to create a cohort of investigators who are engaged in health disparities research, scholarship, and practice, and to increase the amount of funding in the university that is invested in research focused on reducing health disparities, the San Diego EXPORT Center implemented 2 major initiatives: (1) the support of underrepresented minority (URM) junior faculty development and (2) the funding for pilot research grants in health disparities. This paper describes the activities employed by the center and summarizes the outcomes of these two initiatives. Ninety-five percent (18 of 19) URM junior faculty completed the faculty development program, and 83.3% (15 of 18) of the completers are advancing in their academic careers at University of California San Diego (UCSD) and are teaching, working with populations at risk and/or conducting research in health disparities. EXPORT awarded 7 investigators a total of $429186 to conduct pilot research, and 71.4% (5/7) have now obtained $4.7 million in independent extramural funding. The San Diego EXPORT Center has increased the research capacity, strengthened the infrastructure for health disparities research, and created a cohort of successful URM junior faculty who are advancing in their academic careers. These investigators are already changing the climate at UCSD by their leadership activities, research focus, peer-networking, and mentoring of students.

  11. Strong Start Wraparound: Addressing the Complex Needs of Mothers in Early Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teel, M. Kay

    2014-01-01

    The Strong Start Study tested an innovative, High-Fidelity Wraparound intervention with families in early recovery from substance use. The Strong Start Wraparound model addressed the complex needs of pregnant and parenting women who were in early recovery to increase the protective factors of parental resilience, social connections, concrete…

  12. Applied social and behavioral science to address complex health problems.

    PubMed

    Livingood, William C; Allegrante, John P; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Clark, Noreen M; Windsor, Richard C; Zimmerman, Marc A; Green, Lawrence W

    2011-11-01

    Complex and dynamic societal factors continue to challenge the capacity of the social and behavioral sciences in preventive medicine and public health to overcome the most seemingly intractable health problems. This paper proposes a fundamental shift from a research approach that presumes to identify (from highly controlled trials) universally applicable interventions expected to be implemented "with fidelity" by practitioners, to an applied social and behavioral science approach similar to that of engineering. Such a shift would build on and complement the recent recommendations of the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research and require reformulation of the research-practice dichotomy. It would also require disciplines now engaged in preventive medicine and public health practice to develop a better understanding of systems thinking and the science of application that is sensitive to the complexity, interactivity, and unique elements of community and practice settings. Also needed is a modification of health-related education to ensure that those entering the disciplines develop instincts and capacities as applied scientists.

  13. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  14. Increasing the luminescence of lanthanide complexes.

    PubMed

    Leif, Robert C; Vallarino, Lidia M; Becker, Margie C; Yang, Sean

    2006-08-01

    This review compares the chemical and physical properties of lanthanide ion complexes and of other narrow-emitting species that can be used as labels for cytometry. A series of luminescent lanthanide ion macrocyclic complexes, Quantum Dyes, which do not release or exchange their central lanthanide ion, do accept energy transfer from ligands, and are capable of covalent binding to macromolecules, including proteins and nucleic acids, is described and their properties are discussed. Two methods are described for increasing the luminescence intensity of lanthanide ion complexes, which intrinsically is not as high as that of standard fluorophores or quantum dots. One method consists of adding a complex of a second lanthanide ion in a micellar solution (columinescence); the other method produces dry preparations by evaporation of a homogeneous solution containing an added complex of a second lanthanide ion or an excess of an unbound antenna ligand. Both methods involve the Resonance Energy Transfer Enhanced Luminescence, RETEL, effect as the mechanism for the luminescence enhancement.

  15. A phenomenographic study of the ability to address complex socio-technical systems via variation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza Garcia, John A.

    Sometimes engineers fail when addressing the inherent complexity of socio-technical systems because they lack the ability to address the complexity of socio-technical systems. Teaching undergraduate engineering students how to address complex socio-technical systems, has been an educational endeavor at different levels ranging from kindergarten to post-graduate education. The literature presents different pedagogical strategies and content to reach this goal. However, there are no existing empirically-based assessments guided by a learning theory. This may be because at the same time explanations of how the skill is developed are scarce. My study bridges this gap, and I propose a developmental path for the ability to address the complex socio-technical systems via Variation Theory, and according to the conceptual framework provided by Variation Theory, my research question was "What are the various ways in which engineers address complex socio-technical systems?" I chose the research approach of phenomenography to answer my research question. I also chose to use a blended approach, Marton's approach for finding the dimensions of variation, and the developmental approach (Australian) for finding a hierarchical relationship between the dimensions. Accordingly, I recruited 25 participants with different levels of experience with addressing complex socio-technical systems and asked them all to address the same two tasks: A design of a system for a county, and a case study in a manufacturing firm. My outcome space is a nona-dimensional (nine) developmental path for the ability to address the complexity in socio-technical systems, and I propose 9 different ways of experiencing the complexity of a socio-technical system. The findings of this study suggest that the critical aspects that are needed to address the complexity of socio-technical systems are: being aware of the use of models, the ecosystem around, start recognizing different boundaries, being aware of time as a

  16. Race and Science: Using a Comprehensive Interdisciplinary Approach To Address Complex Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Arri; Cimino, Ashley; Aparicio, Hugo; Marsteller, Patricia; Kushner, Howard

    2003-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary approach that integrates the strengths of a research and teaching institution to address issues in a complex problem: the study of race, science, and health. The model involved a feedback loop among two undergraduate courses and a weekly seminar. (SLD)

  17. On Using Meta-Modeling and Multi-Modeling to Address Complex Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu Jbara, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Models, created using different modeling techniques, usually serve different purposes and provide unique insights. While each modeling technique might be capable of answering specific questions, complex problems require multiple models interoperating to complement/supplement each other; we call this Multi-Modeling. To address the syntactic and…

  18. Addressing the Needs of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Considerations and Complexities for High School Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucharczyk, Suzanne; Reutebuch, Colleen K.; Carter, Erik W.; Hedges, Susan; El Zein, Farah; Fan, Hannah; Gustafson, Jenny R.

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are driving the field to address how secondary education might be optimally designed and delivered. We conducted 28 focus groups across four states to explore the contexts, considerations, and complexities associated with delivering and combining evidence-based interventions to meet the…

  19. Training Social Workers and Human Service Professionals to Address the Complex Financial Needs of Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Jodi Jacobson; Hopkins, Karen; Osteen, Philip; Callahan, Christine; Hageman, Sally; Ko, Jungyai

    2017-01-01

    In social work and other community-based human services settings, clients often present with complex financial problems. As a need for more formal training is beginning to be addressed, evaluation of existing training is important, and this study evaluates outcomes from the Financial Stability Pathway (FSP) project. Designed to prepare…

  20. Safety nets can help address the risks to nutrition from increasing climate variability.

    PubMed

    Alderman, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Models of climate change predict increased variability of weather as well as changes in agro-ecology. The increased variability will pose special challenges for nutrition. This study reviews evidence on climate shocks and nutrition and estimates the economic consequences in terms of reduced schooling and economic productivity stemming from nutritional insults in childhood. Panel data covering up to 20 y indicate that that short-term climate shocks have long-term impacts on children that persist, often into their adult lives. Other studies document the potential for relief programs to offset these shocks providing that the programs can be implemented with flexible financing, rapid identification of those affected by the shock, and timely scale-up. The last of these presumes that programs are already in place with contingency plans drawn up. Arguably, direct food distribution, including that of ready-to-use therapeutic food, may be part of the overall strategy. Even if such programs are too expensive for sustainable widespread use in the prevention of malnutrition, scalable food distribution programs may be cost effective to address the heightened risk of malnutrition following weather-related shocks.

  1. Stroke: the increasing complexity of carer needs.

    PubMed

    Ski, Chantal; O'Connell, Bev

    2007-06-01

    In Australia, more than 346,000 individuals who experience a stroke return to living in their homes with varying degrees of disability. They rely on emotional and physical support from informal carers, typically family members. Informal carers have an indispensable role in patient care poststroke, and the ability of carers to manage this role effectively is crucial for stroke survivors to be able to return home. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of the caring role on carers of stroke survivors, particularly the services provided and the levels of depression and well-being experienced. The study used a longitudinal design incorporating survey methods. Stroke survivors were assessed for functional ability, quality of life, and depression using three assessment tools: the Stroke Impact Scale, World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF scale, and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. A total of 26 people were surveyed: 13 stroke survivors and their 13 carers. Carer knowledge of stroke support services was also explored. Information was collected by using survey methods and structured interviews at 3 weeks and at 3 months postdischarge. The main finding was that depression scores for carers and stroke survivors were below Australian norms at both assessment time points. The major concern identified by carers was poor follow-up procedures for initiating rehabilitation in the home. This study highlighted that a lack of appropriate discharge planning, in conjunction with early discharge of stroke survivors, can have an impact on the rehabilitation process and place increased and unrealistic demands on carers.

  2. Megacities and Large Urban Complexes - WMO Role in Addressing Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terblanche, Deon; Jalkanen, Liisa

    2013-04-01

    Megacities and Large Urban Complexes - WMO Role in Addressing Challenges and Opportunities Deon E. Terblanche and Liisa Jalkanen dterblanche@wmo.int ljalkanen@wmo.int World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland The 21st Century could amongst others, become known as the century in which our species has evolved from Homo sapiens to Homo urbanus. By now the urban population has surpassed the rural population and the rate of urbanization will continue at such a pace that by 2050 urban dwellers could outnumber their rural counterpart by more than two to one. Most of this growth in urban population will occur in developing countries and along coastal areas. Urbanization is to a large extent the outcome of humans seeking a better life through improved opportunities presented by high-density communities. Megacities and large urban complexes provide more job opportunities and social structures, better transport and communication links and a relative abundance of physical goods and services when compared to most rural areas. Unfortunately these urban complexes also present numerous social and environmental challenges. Urban areas differ from their surroundings by morphology, population density, and with high concentration of industrial activities, energy consumption and transport. They also pose unique challenges to atmospheric modelling and monitoring and create a multi-disciplinary spectrum of potential threats, including air pollution, which need to be addressed in an integrated way. These areas are also vulnerable to the changing climate and its implications to sea-level and extreme events, air quality and related health impacts. Many urban activities are significantly impacted by weather events that would not be considered to be of high impact in less densely populated areas. For instance, moderate precipitation events can cause flooding and landslides as modified urban catchments generally have higher run-off to rainfall ratios than their more pristine rural

  3. Increased temporolimbic cortical folding complexity in temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Voets, N.L.; Bernhardt, B.C.; Kim, H.; Yoon, U.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Converging evidence suggests that abnormalities of brain development may play a role in the pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). As sulco-gyral patterns are thought to be a footprint of cortical development, we set out to quantitatively map folding complexity across the neocortex in TLE. Additionally, we tested whether there was a relationship between cortical complexity and features of hippocampal maldevelopment, commonly referred to as malrotation. Methods: To quantify folding complexity, we obtained whole-brain surface-based measures of absolute mean cortical curvature from MRI scans acquired in 43 drug-resistant patients with TLE with unilateral hippocampal atrophy, and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. In patients, we correlated changes in cortical curvature with 3-dimensional measures of hippocampal positioning. Results: We found increased folding complexity in the temporolimbic cortices encompassing parahippocampal, temporopolar, insular, and fronto-opercular regions. Increased complexity was observed ipsilateral to the seizure focus in patients with left TLE (LTLE), whereas these changes were bilateral in patients with right TLE (RTLE). In both TLE groups, increased temporolimbic complexity was associated with increased hippocampal malrotation. We found tendencies for increased complexity in bilateral posterior temporal cortices in LTLE and contralateral parahippocampal cortices in RTLE to be predictive of unfavorable seizure outcome after surgery. Conclusion: The anatomic distribution of increased cortical complexity overlapping with limbic seizure networks in TLE and its association with hippocampal maldevelopment further imply that neurodevelopmental factors may play a role in the epileptogenic process of TLE. PMID:21148116

  4. Increasing Accessibility: Using Universal Design Principles to Address Disability Impairments in the Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Candice N.; Heiselt, April K.

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing number of students enrolling in distance education, there is a need to consider the accessibility of course materials in online learning environments. Four major groups of disabilities: mobility, auditory, visual, and cognitive are explored as they relate to their implementation into instructional design and their impact on…

  5. Addressing the health benefits and risks, involving vitamin D or skin cancer, of increased sun exposure

    PubMed Central

    Moan, Johan; Porojnicu, Alina Carmen; Dahlback, Arne; Setlow, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    Solar radiation is the main cause of skin cancers. However, it also is a main source of vitamin D for humans. Because the optimal status of vitamin D protects against internal cancers and a number of other diseases, a controversy exists: Will increased sun exposure lead to net health benefits or risks? We calculated the relative yield of vitamin D photosynthesis as a function of latitude with a radiative transfer model and cylinder geometry for the human skin surface. The annual yield of vitamin D is 3.4 and 4.8 times larger below the equator than in the U.K. and Scandinavia, respectively. In populations with similar skin types, there are clear latitude gradients of all major forms of skin cancer, indicating a north–south gradient in real sun exposure. Surprisingly, the incidence rates of major internal cancers also increase from north to south. However, the survival prognosis also improves significantly from north to south. Reasons for these findings are discussed in view of the role of vitamin D. In Norway, melanoma rates increased by a factor of 6 from 1960 to 1990, while the prognosis improved in the same period. After 1990, melanoma rates have remained constant or even decreased in age groups <50 years, whereas the prognosis has not improved further. These data, together with those for internal cancers and the beneficial effects of an optimal vitamin D status, indicate that increased sun exposure may lead to improved cancer prognosis and, possibly, give more positive than adverse health effects. PMID:18180454

  6. Activities for Challenging Gifted Learners by Increasing Complexity in the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeone, Alyssa; Caruso, Lenora; Bettle, Kailyn; Chase, Ashley; Bryson, Bridget; Schneider, Jean S.; Rule, Audrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Gifted learners need opportunities for critical and creative thinking to stretch their minds and imaginations. Strategies for increasing complexity in the four core areas of language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies were addressed using the Common Core and Iowa Core Standards through several methods. Descriptive adjective object…

  7. International experience in addressing combined exposures: increasing the efficiency of assessment.

    PubMed

    Meek, M E Bette

    2013-11-16

    More efficient methodology for assessing the impact of combined exposures to multiple chemicals has been considered in a project of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). Recommendations regarding terminology and the status of development of the framework, its content, review and application are described. Evolving experience in its application is illustrated by example (polybrominated diphenyls) with special emphasis on the critical content of problem formulation, the role of predictive tools in grouping of chemicals for consideration and the importance of explicit delineation of relative uncertainty and sensitivity for tiered assessment. Priorities in increasing the efficiency of risk assessment not only for combined exposures, but more generally based on experience acquired in developing the framework and its application in case studies are identified and recommendations included.

  8. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics branch--interdisciplinary research for addressing complex natural resource issues across landscapes and time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wilson, Juliette T.

    2013-01-01

    The Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center offers an interdisciplinary team of talented and creative scientists with expertise in biology, botany, ecology, geology, biogeochemistry, physical sciences, geographic information systems, and remote-sensing, for tackling complex questions about natural resources. As demand for natural resources increases, the issues facing natural resource managers, planners, policy makers, industry, and private landowners are increasing in spatial and temporal scope, often involving entire regions, multiple jurisdictions, and long timeframes. Needs for addressing these issues include (1) a better understanding of biotic and abiotic ecosystem components and their complex interactions; (2) the ability to easily monitor, assess, and visualize the spatially complex movements of animals, plants, water, and elements across highly variable landscapes; and (3) the techniques for accurately predicting both immediate and long-term responses of system components to natural and human-caused change. The overall objectives of our research are to provide the knowledge, tools, and techniques needed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, state agencies, and other stakeholders in their endeavors to meet the demand for natural resources while conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services. Ecosystem Dynamics scientists use field and laboratory research, data assimilation, and ecological modeling to understand ecosystem patterns, trends, and mechanistic processes. This information is used to predict the outcomes of changes imposed on species, habitats, landscapes, and climate across spatiotemporal scales. The products we develop include conceptual models to illustrate system structure and processes; regional baseline and integrated assessments; predictive spatial and mathematical models; literature syntheses; and frameworks or protocols for improved ecosystem monitoring, adaptive management, and program evaluation. The descriptions

  9. Does problem complexity matter for environmental policy delivery? How public authorities address problems of water governance.

    PubMed

    Kirschke, Sabrina; Newig, Jens; Völker, Jeanette; Borchardt, Dietrich

    2017-03-08

    Problem complexity is often assumed to hamper effective environmental policy delivery. However, this claim is hardly substantiated, given the dominance of qualitative small-n designs in environmental governance research. We studied 37 types of contemporary problems defined by German water governance to assess the impact of problem complexity on policy delivery through public authorities. The analysis is based on a unique data set related to these problems, encompassing both in-depth interview-based data on complexities and independent official data on policy delivery. Our findings show that complexity in fact tends to delay implementation at the stage of planning. However, different dimensions of complexity (goals, variables, dynamics, interconnections, and uncertainty) impact on the different stages of policy delivery (goal formulation, stages and degrees of implementation) in various ways.

  10. Teaching Water: Connecting across Disciplines and into Daily Life to Address Complex Societal Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Arri; Hall, Anne; Lee, Tong Soon; Zupko, Jack

    2009-01-01

    A central problem in higher education is how to best develop in students interdisciplinary thinking and application skills necessary to work and engage effectively in the twenty-first century. Traditional university structures make addressing this problem especially challenging. Using as a model courses with diverse perspectives on water taught by…

  11. The increasing genomic complexity of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Jacob M

    2014-01-01

    Therapy of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is impacted by the increasing genomic complexity of the disease. Multiple targets as expressed by genetics and mutations and the relationships between them add another layer of intricacy to the prognosis and treatment of the disease. It is becoming increasingly apparent that the interactions between mutations are of utmost importance, particularly from a prognostic standpoint. For example, inv(16) or 6(16; 16) AML frequently involves a second genetic lesion that significantly impacts prognosis. In addition, epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, are becoming increasingly integrated into the genetic landscape and may also have prognostic impact. Despite increased understanding of the genetic and epigenetic aspects of AML, the outcome for AML patients has not changed significantly. Until it does, further inquiry into the genomic complexity of the disease and advances in drug development are needed.

  12. Increasing task complexity and ice hockey skills of youth athletes.

    PubMed

    Fait, Philippe E; McFadyen, Bradford J; Zabjek, Karl; Reed, Nick; Taha, Tim; Keightley, Michelle

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the effects on cognitive performance of progressively adding tasks specific to ice hockey (skating, stick handling, and obstacle avoidance) during a visual interference task (Stroop Color Word Test-interference condition). In addition, the effects on locomotor performance of progressively adding tasks of stickhandling, visual interference, and obstacle avoidance related to maximal skating speed and minimal obstacle clearance were investigated in eight male athletes ages 10 to 12 years. Results revealed decreased performance on both cognitive and physical measures with increased task complexity, suggesting that adding complexity to an environment influences hockey skill performance.

  13. Ecosystem services and cooperative fisheries research to address a complex fishery problem

    EPA Science Inventory

    The St. Louis River represents a complex fishery management problem. Current fishery management goals have to be developed taking into account bi-state commercial, subsistence and recreational fisheries which are valued for different characteristics by a wide range of anglers, as...

  14. When Time Makes a Difference: Addressing Ergodicity and Complexity in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopmans, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    The detection of complexity in behavioral outcomes often requires an estimation of their variability over a prolonged time spectrum to assess processes of stability and transformation. Conventional scholarship typically relies on time-independent measures, "snapshots", to analyze those outcomes, assuming that group means and their…

  15. Intervention Fidelity for a Complex Behaviour Change Intervention in Community Pharmacy Addressing Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, K. P.; O'Reilly, S. L.; George, J.; Peterson, G. M.; Jackson, S. L.; Duncan, G.; Howarth, H.; Dunbar, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delivery of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programs by community pharmacists appears effective and enhances health service access. However, their capacity to implement complex behavioural change processes during patient counselling remains largely unexplored. This study aims to determine intervention fidelity by pharmacists…

  16. Addressing the Complexity of Writing Development: Toward an Ecological Model of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardle, Elizabeth; Roozen, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This article offers one potential response to Yancey's (1999) call for a fourth wave of writing assessment able to capture writing development in all of its complexity. Based on an ecological perspective of literate development that situates students' growth as writers across multiple engagements with writing, including those outside of school,…

  17. The symptom matrix: Using a formalism-based approach to address complex syndromes systematically.

    PubMed

    Skillen, Jennifer D

    2016-12-01

    Complex rheumatological syndromes such as Systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's Syndrome and many connective tissue disorders can be a challenge to classify and diagnose, due to their wide-ranging signs and symptoms, not all of which will necessarily be present in all patients. This can result in difficulties for the clinician, patient and researcher if signs and symptoms are either overlooked or are incorrectly included in the nosology or classification of diseases. This article presents a formalism-based approach to describing syndromes. This approach offers a more systematic way of representing signs and symptoms, to aid in diagnosis and classification of complex, heterogeneous and little understood syndromes. To illustrate this approach, Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome - Hypermobility Type is used as a worked example. This approach can also be applied to other syndromes in both clinical and educational settings, to assist with research, diagnosis, choice of treatment or intervention and nosology revision.

  18. Does plant architectural complexity increase with increasing habitat complexity? A test with a pioneer shrub in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Silveira, F A O; Oliveira, E G

    2013-05-01

    Understanding variation in plant traits in heterogeneous habitats is important to predict responses to changing environments, but trait-environment associations are poorly known along ecological gradients. We tested the hypothesis that plant architectural complexity increases with habitat complexity along a soil fertility gradient in a Cerrado (Neotropical savanna) area in southeastern Brazil. Plant architecture and productivity (estimated as the total number of healthy infructescences) of Miconia albicans (SW.) Triana were examined in three types of vegetation which together form a natural gradient of increasing soil fertility, tree density and canopy cover: grasslands (campo sujo, CS), shrublands (cerrado sensu strico, CE) and woodlands (cerradão, CD). As expected, plants growing at the CS were shorter and had a lower branching pattern, whereas plants at the CD were the tallest. Unexpectedly, however, CD plants did not show higher architectural complexity compared to CE plants. Higher architectural similarity between CE and CD plants compared to similarity between CS and CE plants suggests reduced expression of functional architectural traits under shade. Plants growing at the CE produced more quaternary shoots, leading to a larger number of infructescences. This higher plant productivity in CE indicates that trait variation in ecological gradients is more complex than previously thought. Nematode-induced galls accounted for fruit destruction in 76.5% infructescences across physiognomies, but percentage of attack was poorly related to architectural variables. Our data suggest shade-induced limitation in M. albicans architecture, and point to complex phenotypic variation in heterogeneous habitats in Neotropical savannas.

  19. The Advantages of Structural Equation Modeling to Address the Complexity of Spatial Reference Learning

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Pedro S.; Sotiropoulos, Ioannis; Silva, Joana; Takashima, Akihiko; Sousa, Nuno; Leite-Almeida, Hugo; Costa, Patrício S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cognitive performance is a complex process influenced by multiple factors. Cognitive assessment in experimental animals is often based on longitudinal datasets analyzed using uni- and multi-variate analyses, that do not account for the temporal dimension of cognitive performance and also do not adequately quantify the relative contribution of individual factors onto the overall behavioral outcome. To circumvent these limitations, we applied an Autoregressive Latent Trajectory (ALT) to analyze the Morris water maze (MWM) test in a complex experimental design involving four factors: stress, age, sex, and genotype. Outcomes were compared with a traditional Mixed-Design Factorial ANOVA (MDF ANOVA). Results: In both the MDF ANOVA and ALT models, sex, and stress had a significant effect on learning throughout the 9 days. However, on the ALT approach, the effects of sex were restricted to the learning growth. Unlike the MDF ANOVA, the ALT model revealed the influence of single factors at each specific learning stage and quantified the cross interactions among them. In addition, ALT allows us to consider the influence of baseline performance, a critical and unsolved problem that frequently yields inaccurate interpretations in the classical ANOVA model. Discussion: Our findings suggest the beneficial use of ALT models in the analysis of complex longitudinal datasets offering a better biological interpretation of the interrelationship of the factors that may influence cognitive performance. PMID:26955327

  20. Teaching Genetic Counseling Skills: Incorporating a Genetic Counseling Adaptation Continuum Model to Address Psychosocial Complexity.

    PubMed

    Shugar, Andrea

    2016-11-28

    Genetic counselors are trained health care professionals who effectively integrate both psychosocial counseling and information-giving into their practice. Preparing genetic counseling students for clinical practice is a challenging task, particularly when helping them develop effective and active counseling skills. Resistance to incorporating these skills may stem from decreased confidence, fear of causing harm or a lack of clarity of psycho-social goals. The author reflects on the personal challenges experienced in teaching genetic counselling students to work with psychological and social complexity, and proposes a Genetic Counseling Adaptation Continuum model and methodology to guide students in the use of advanced counseling skills.

  1. Morphine Increases Acetylcholine Release in the Trigeminal Nuclear Complex

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhenghong; Bowman, Heather R.; Baghdoyan, Helen A.; Lydic, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: The trigeminal nuclear complex (V) contains cholinergic neurons and includes the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus (PSTN) which receives sensory input from the face and jaw, and the trigeminal motor nucleus (MoV) which innervates the muscles of mastication. Pain associated with pathologies of V is often managed with opioids but no studies have characterized the effect of opioids on acetylcholine (ACh) release in PSTN and MoV. Opioids can increase or decrease ACh release in brainstem nuclei. Therefore, the present experiments tested the 2-tailed hypothesis that microdialysis delivery of opioids to the PSTN and MoV significantly alters ACh release. Design: Using a within-subjects design and isoflurane-anesthetized Wistar rats (n = 53), ACh release in PSTN during microdialysis with Ringer's solution (control) was compared to ACh release during dialysis delivery of the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin, muscarinic agonist bethanechol, opioid agonist morphine, mu opioid agonist DAMGO, antagonists for mu (naloxone) and kappa (nor-binaltorphimine; nor-BNI) opioid receptors, and GABAA antagonist bicuculline. Measurements and Results: Tetrodotoxin decreased ACh, confirming action potential-dependent ACh release. Bethanechol and morphine caused a concentration-dependent increase in PSTN ACh release. The morphine-induced increase in ACh release was blocked by nor-BNI but not by naloxone. Bicuculline delivered to the PSTN also increased ACh release. ACh release in the MoV was increased by morphine, and this increase was not blocked by naloxone or nor-BNI. Conclusions: These data comprise the first direct measures of ACh release in PSTN and MoV and suggest synaptic disinhibition as one possible mechanism by which morphine increases ACh release in the trigeminal nuclei. Citation: Zhu Z; Bowman HR; Baghdoyan HA; Lydic R. Morphine increases acetylcholine release in the trigeminal nuclear complex. SLEEP 2008;31(12):1629–1637. PMID:19090318

  2. Addressing the Complexity of Tourette's Syndrome through the Use of Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Nespoli, Ester; Rizzo, Francesca; Boeckers, Tobias M.; Hengerer, Bastian; Ludolph, Andrea G.

    2016-01-01

    Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by fluctuating motor and vocal tics, usually preceded by sensory premonitions, called premonitory urges. Besides tics, the vast majority—up to 90%—of TS patients suffer from psychiatric comorbidities, mainly attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The etiology of TS remains elusive. Genetics is believed to play an important role, but it is clear that other factors contribute to TS, possibly altering brain functioning and architecture during a sensitive phase of neural development. Clinical brain imaging and genetic studies have contributed to elucidate TS pathophysiology and disease mechanisms; however, TS disease etiology still is poorly understood. Findings from genetic studies led to the development of genetic animal models, but they poorly reflect the pathophysiology of TS. Addressing the role of neurotransmission, brain regions, and brain circuits in TS disease pathomechanisms is another focus area for preclinical TS model development. We are now in an interesting moment in time when numerous innovative animal models are continuously brought to the attention of the public. Due to the diverse and largely unknown etiology of TS, there is no single preclinical model featuring all different aspects of TS symptomatology. TS has been dissected into its key symptomst hat have been investigated separately, in line with the Research Domain Criteria concept. The different rationales used to develop the respective animal models are critically reviewed, to discuss the potential of the contribution of animal models to elucidate TS disease mechanisms. PMID:27092043

  3. To address surface reaction network complexity using scaling relations machine learning and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Ulissi, Zachary W; Medford, Andrew J; Bligaard, Thomas; Nørskov, Jens K

    2017-03-06

    Surface reaction networks involving hydrocarbons exhibit enormous complexity with thousands of species and reactions for all but the very simplest of chemistries. We present a framework for optimization under uncertainty for heterogeneous catalysis reaction networks using surrogate models that are trained on the fly. The surrogate model is constructed by teaching a Gaussian process adsorption energies based on group additivity fingerprints, combined with transition-state scaling relations and a simple classifier for determining the rate-limiting step. The surrogate model is iteratively used to predict the most important reaction step to be calculated explicitly with computationally demanding electronic structure theory. Applying these methods to the reaction of syngas on rhodium(111), we identify the most likely reaction mechanism. Propagating uncertainty throughout this process yields the likelihood that the final mechanism is complete given measurements on only a subset of the entire network and uncertainty in the underlying density functional theory calculations.

  4. Traceability and Risk Analysis Strategies for Addressing Counterfeit Electronics in Supply Chains for Complex Systems.

    PubMed

    DiMase, Daniel; Collier, Zachary A; Carlson, Jinae; Gray, Robin B; Linkov, Igor

    2016-10-01

    Within the microelectronics industry, there is a growing concern regarding the introduction of counterfeit electronic parts into the supply chain. Even though this problem is widespread, there have been limited attempts to implement risk-based approaches for testing and supply chain management. Supply chain risk management tends to focus on the highly visible disruptions of the supply chain instead of the covert entrance of counterfeits; thus counterfeit risk is difficult to mitigate. This article provides an overview of the complexities of the electronics supply chain, and highlights some gaps in risk assessment practices. In particular, this article calls for enhanced traceability capabilities to track and trace parts at risk through various stages of the supply chain. Placing the focus on risk-informed decision making through the following strategies is needed, including prioritization of high-risk parts, moving beyond certificates of conformance, incentivizing best supply chain management practices, adoption of industry standards, and design and management for supply chain resilience.

  5. To address surface reaction network complexity using scaling relations machine learning and DFT calculations

    PubMed Central

    Ulissi, Zachary W.; Medford, Andrew J.; Bligaard, Thomas; Nørskov, Jens K.

    2017-01-01

    Surface reaction networks involving hydrocarbons exhibit enormous complexity with thousands of species and reactions for all but the very simplest of chemistries. We present a framework for optimization under uncertainty for heterogeneous catalysis reaction networks using surrogate models that are trained on the fly. The surrogate model is constructed by teaching a Gaussian process adsorption energies based on group additivity fingerprints, combined with transition-state scaling relations and a simple classifier for determining the rate-limiting step. The surrogate model is iteratively used to predict the most important reaction step to be calculated explicitly with computationally demanding electronic structure theory. Applying these methods to the reaction of syngas on rhodium(111), we identify the most likely reaction mechanism. Propagating uncertainty throughout this process yields the likelihood that the final mechanism is complete given measurements on only a subset of the entire network and uncertainty in the underlying density functional theory calculations. PMID:28262694

  6. To address surface reaction network complexity using scaling relations machine learning and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulissi, Zachary W.; Medford, Andrew J.; Bligaard, Thomas; Nørskov, Jens K.

    2017-03-01

    Surface reaction networks involving hydrocarbons exhibit enormous complexity with thousands of species and reactions for all but the very simplest of chemistries. We present a framework for optimization under uncertainty for heterogeneous catalysis reaction networks using surrogate models that are trained on the fly. The surrogate model is constructed by teaching a Gaussian process adsorption energies based on group additivity fingerprints, combined with transition-state scaling relations and a simple classifier for determining the rate-limiting step. The surrogate model is iteratively used to predict the most important reaction step to be calculated explicitly with computationally demanding electronic structure theory. Applying these methods to the reaction of syngas on rhodium(111), we identify the most likely reaction mechanism. Propagating uncertainty throughout this process yields the likelihood that the final mechanism is complete given measurements on only a subset of the entire network and uncertainty in the underlying density functional theory calculations.

  7. Technological challenges of addressing new and more complex migrating products from novel food packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Munro, Ian C; Haighton, Lois A; Lynch, Barry S; Tafazoli, Shahrzad

    2009-12-01

    The risk assessment of migration products resulting from packaging material has and continues to pose a difficult challenge. In most jurisdictions, there are regulatory requirements for the approval or notification of food contact substances that will be used in packaging. These processes generally require risk assessment to ensure safety concerns are addressed. The science of assessing food contact materials was instrumental in the development of the concept of Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern procedures. While the risk assessment process is in place, the technology of food packaging continues to evolve to include new initiatives, such as the inclusion of antimicrobial substances or enzyme systems to prevent spoilage, use of plastic packaging intended to remain on foods as they are being cooked, to the introduction of more rigid, stable and reusable materials, and active packaging to extend the shelf-life of food. Each new technology brings with it the potential for exposure to new and possibly novel substances as a result of migration, interaction with other chemical packaging components, or, in the case of plastics now used in direct cooking of products, degradation products formed during heating. Furthermore, the presence of trace levels of certain chemicals from packaging that were once accepted as being of low risk based on traditional toxicology studies are being challenged on the basis of reports of adverse effects, particularly with respect to endocrine disruption, alleged to occur at very low doses. A recent example is the case of bisphenol A. The way forward to assess new packaging technologies and reports of very low dose effects in non-standard studies of food contact substances is likely to remain controversial. However, the risk assessment paradigm is sufficiently robust and flexible to be adapted to meet these challenges. The use of the Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern concepts may

  8. Addressing the complexity of water chemistry in environmental fate modeling for engineered nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sani-Kast, Nicole; Scheringer, Martin; Slomberg, Danielle; Labille, Jérôme; Praetorius, Antonia; Ollivier, Patrick; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2015-12-01

    Engineered nanoparticle (ENP) fate models developed to date - aimed at predicting ENP concentration in the aqueous environment - have limited applicability because they employ constant environmental conditions along the modeled system or a highly specific environmental representation; both approaches do not show the effects of spatial and/or temporal variability. To address this conceptual gap, we developed a novel modeling strategy that: 1) incorporates spatial variability in environmental conditions in an existing ENP fate model; and 2) analyzes the effect of a wide range of randomly sampled environmental conditions (representing variations in water chemistry). This approach was employed to investigate the transport of nano-TiO2 in the Lower Rhône River (France) under numerous sets of environmental conditions. The predicted spatial concentration profiles of nano-TiO2 were then grouped according to their similarity by using cluster analysis. The analysis resulted in a small number of clusters representing groups of spatial concentration profiles. All clusters show nano-TiO2 accumulation in the sediment layer, supporting results from previous studies. Analysis of the characteristic features of each cluster demonstrated a strong association between the water conditions in regions close to the ENP emission source and the cluster membership of the corresponding spatial concentration profiles. In particular, water compositions favoring heteroaggregation between the ENPs and suspended particulate matter resulted in clusters of low variability. These conditions are, therefore, reliable predictors of the eventual fate of the modeled ENPs. The conclusions from this study are also valid for ENP fate in other large river systems. Our results, therefore, shift the focus of future modeling and experimental research of ENP environmental fate to the water characteristic in regions near the expected ENP emission sources. Under conditions favoring heteroaggregation in these

  9. Using Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Practices to Address Scientific Misunderstandings Around Complex Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    The new NGSS provide an important opportunity for scientists to develop curriculum that links the practice of science to research-based data in order to improve understanding in areas of science that are both complex and confusing. Our curriculum focuses in particular on the fate and transport of anthropogenic radionuclides. Radioactivity, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic, is highly debated and largely misunderstood, and for large sections of the population is a source of scientific misunderstanding. Developed as part of the international GEOTRACES project which focuses on identifying ocean processes and quantifying fluxes that control the distributions of selected trace elements and isotopes in the ocean, and on establishing the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions, the curriculum topic fits nicely into the applied focus of NGSS with both environmental and topical relevance. Our curriculum design focuses on small group discussion driven by questions, yet unlike more traditional curriculum pieces these are not questions posed to the students, rather they are questions posed by the students to facilitate their deeper understanding. Our curriculum design challenges the traditional question/answer memorization approach to instruction as we strive to develop an educational approach that supports the practice of science as well as the NGSS Cross Cutting Concepts and the Science & Engineering Practices. Our goal is for students to develop a methodology they can employ when faced with a complex scientific issue. Through background readings and team discussions they identify what type of information is important for them to know and where to find a reliable source for that information. Framing their discovery around key questions such as "What type of radioactive decay are we dealing with?", "What is the potential half-life of the isotope?", and "What are the pathways of transport of radioactivity?" allows students to evaluate a

  10. Nanotechnology for sustainability: what does nanotechnology offer to address complex sustainability problems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiek, Arnim; Foley, Rider W.; Guston, David H.

    2012-09-01

    Nanotechnology is widely associated with the promise of positively contributing to sustainability. However, this view often focuses on end-of-pipe applications, for instance, for water purification or energy efficiency, and relies on a narrow concept of sustainability. Approaching sustainability problems and solution options from a comprehensive and systemic perspective instead may yield quite different conclusions about the contribution of nanotechnology to sustainability. This study conceptualizes sustainability problems as complex constellations with several potential intervention points and amenable to different solution options. The study presents results from interdisciplinary workshops and literature reviews that appraise the contribution of the selected nanotechnologies to mitigate such problems. The study focuses exemplarily on the urban context to make the appraisals tangible and relevant. The solution potential of nanotechnology is explored not only for well-known urban sustainability problems such as water contamination and energy use but also for less obvious ones such as childhood obesity. Results indicate not only potentials but also limitations of nanotechnology's contribution to sustainability and can inform anticipatory governance of nanotechnology in general, and in the urban context in particular.

  11. On the road to a stronger public health workforce: visual tools to address complex challenges.

    PubMed

    Drehobl, Patricia; Stover, Beth H; Koo, Denise

    2014-11-01

    The public health workforce is vital to protecting the health and safety of the public, yet for years, state and local governmental public health agencies have reported substantial workforce losses and other challenges to the workforce that threaten the public's health. These challenges are complex, often involve multiple influencing or related causal factors, and demand comprehensive solutions. However, proposed solutions often focus on selected factors and might be fragmented rather than comprehensive. This paper describes approaches to characterizing the situation more comprehensively and includes two visual tools: (1) a fishbone, or Ishikawa, diagram that depicts multiple factors affecting the public health workforce; and (2) a roadmap that displays key elements-goals and strategies-to strengthen the public health workforce, thus moving from the problems depicted in the fishbone toward solutions. The visual tools aid thinking about ways to strengthen the public health workforce through collective solutions and to help leverage resources and build on each other's work. The strategic roadmap is intended to serve as a dynamic tool for partnership, prioritization, and gap assessment. These tools reflect and support CDC's commitment to working with partners on the highest priorities for strengthening the workforce to improve the public's health.

  12. Geometric complexity is increased in in vitro activated platelets.

    PubMed

    Bianciardi, Giorgio

    2015-06-01

    This article investigates the use of computerized fractal analysis for objective characterization of the complexity of platelets in vitro stimulated by low level thrombin (0.02 U mL(-1) ), collected from healthy individuals and observed by means of transmission electron microscopy. Platelet boundaries were extracted by means of automatically image analysis. Local fractal dimension was evaluated by the box-counting technique (measure of geometric complexity of the platelet outline). The results showed that the platelet boundary is fractal when observed by transmission electron microscopy and that, after an in vitro platelet activation test, the shape of platelets present increased geometric complexity in comparison to the no stimulated platelets (P < 0.001), with 100% correct classification. Computerized fractal analysis of platelet shape by transmission electron microscopy can provide accurate, quantitative, data to study platelet activation. The results may play important roles in the evaluation of the platelets status in pathological conditions, like as atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus, where in in vivo activated platelets have been described.

  13. Addressing the cultural complexity of OHS in the Australian mining industry.

    PubMed

    Aickin, Christine; Shaw, Andrea; Blewett, Verna; Stiller, Laurie; Cox, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings of the site assessments of ten pilot mine sites involved in a project entitled, Creating a world-leading OHS culture in the NSW Mining Industry which was undertaken for the New South Wales Mine Safety Advisory Council (NSW MSAC). NSW MSAC was established in 1998 in NSW Australia and aims to increase the emphasis on safety and health within the mining industry by reviewing and analyzing safety performance, setting strategic directions, providing advice and developing policy recommendations. The project itself aimed to deliver a self-sustaining method for achieving and monitoring continuous improvement in OHS culture and practice to the NSW mining industry. The pilot sites involved in the project tested a set of self-assessment tools to enable mines to assess and improve their own OHS culture and performance on key elements of an OHS management system. The tools allowed examination of the current OHS culture of the sites. Sites then used a participative planning process to develop an improvement plan. This paper provides summary data only, without identifying the individual sites that were the source of the data.

  14. EqualChance: Addressing Intra-set Write Variation to Increase Lifetime of Non-volatile Caches

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh; Vetter, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    To address the limitations of SRAM such as high-leakage and low-density, researchers have explored use of non-volatile memory (NVM) devices, such as ReRAM (resistive RAM) and STT-RAM (spin transfer torque RAM) for designing on-chip caches. A crucial limitation of NVMs, however, is that their write endurance is low and the large intra-set write variation introduced by existing cache management policies may further exacerbate this problem, thereby reducing the cache lifetime significantly. We present EqualChance, a technique to increase cache lifetime by reducing intra-set write variation. EqualChance works by periodically changing the physical cache-block location of a write-intensive data item within a set to achieve wear-leveling. Simulations using workloads from SPEC CPU2006 suite and HPC (high-performance computing) field show that EqualChance improves the cache lifetime by 4.29X. Also, its implementation overhead is small, and it incurs very small performance and energy loss.

  15. Quantum Chemistry Meets Rotational Spectroscopy for Astrochemistry: Increasing Molecular Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puzzarini, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    For many years, scientists suspected that the interstellar medium was too hostile for organic species and that only a few simple molecules could be formed under such extreme conditions. However, the detection of approximately 180 molecules in interstellar or circumstellar environments in recent decades has changed this view dramatically. A rich chemistry has emerged, and relatively complex molecules such as C60 and C70 are formed. Recently, researchers have also detected complex organic and potentially prebiotic molecules, such as amino acids, in meteorites and in other space environments. Those discoveries have further stimulated the debate on the origin of the building blocks of life in the universe. Rotational spectroscopy plays a crucial role in the investigation of planetary atmosphere and the interstellar medium. Increasingly these astrochemical investigations are assisted by quantum-mechanical calculations of structures as well as spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties to guide and support observations, line assignments, and data analysis in these new and chemically complicated situations. However, it has proved challenging to extend accurate quantum-chemical computational approaches to larger systems because of the unfavorable scaling with the number of degrees of freedom (both electronic and nuclear). In this contribution, it is demonstrated that it is now possible to compute physicochemical properties of building blocks of biomolecules with an accuracy rivaling that of the most sophisticated experimental techniques. We analyze the spectroscopic properties of representative building blocks of DNA bases (uracil and thiouracil), of proteins (glycine and glycine dipeptide analogue), and also of PAH (phenalenyl radical and cation). V. Barone, M. Biczysko, C. Puzzarini 2015, Acc. Chem. Res., 48, 1413

  16. New and improved proteomics technologies for understanding complex biological systems: Addressing a grand challenge in the life sciences

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Leroy E.; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Moritz, Robert L.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Yamamoto, Keith R.; Amos, Michael; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Locascio, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    This White Paper sets out a Life Sciences Grand Challenge for Proteomics Technologies to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, link genomes with phenotypes, and bring broad benefits to the biosciences and the US economy. The paper is based on a workshop hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, 14–15 February 2011, with participants from many federal R&D agencies and research communities, under the aegis of the US National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Opportunities are identified for a coordinated R&D effort to achieve major technology-based goals and address societal challenges in health, agriculture, nutrition, energy, environment, national security, and economic development. PMID:22807061

  17. New and improved proteomics technologies for understanding complex biological systems: addressing a grand challenge in the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Hood, Leroy E; Omenn, Gilbert S; Moritz, Robert L; Aebersold, Ruedi; Yamamoto, Keith R; Amos, Michael; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Locascio, Laurie

    2012-09-01

    This White Paper sets out a Life Sciences Grand Challenge for Proteomics Technologies to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, link genomes with phenotypes, and bring broad benefits to the biosciences and the US economy. The paper is based on a workshop hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, 14-15 February 2011, with participants from many federal R&D agencies and research communities, under the aegis of the US National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Opportunities are identified for a coordinated R&D effort to achieve major technology-based goals and address societal challenges in health, agriculture, nutrition, energy, environment, national security, and economic development.

  18. Evolution in students' understanding of thermal physics with increasing complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langbeheim, Elon; Safran, Samuel A.; Livne, Shelly; Yerushalmi, Edit

    2013-12-01

    We analyze the development in students’ understanding of fundamental principles in the context of learning a current interdisciplinary research topic—soft matter—that was adapted to the level of high school students. The topic was introduced in a program for interested 11th grade high school students majoring in chemistry and/or physics, in an off-school setting. Soft matter was presented in a gradual increase in the degree of complexity of the phenomena as well as in the level of the quantitative analysis. We describe the evolution in students’ use of fundamental thermodynamics principles to reason about phase separation—a phenomenon that is ubiquitous in soft matter. In particular, we examine the impact of the use of free energy analysis, a common approach in soft matter, on the understanding of the fundamental principles of thermodynamics. The study used diagnostic questions and classroom observations to gauge the student’s learning. In order to gain insight on the aspects that shape the understanding of the basic principles, we focus on the responses and explanations of two case-study students who represent two trends of evolution in conceptual understanding in the group. We analyze changes in the two case studies’ management of conceptual resources used in their analysis of phase separation, and suggest how their prior knowledge and epistemological framing (a combination of their personal tendencies and their prior exposure to different learning styles) affect their conceptual evolution. Finally, we propose strategies to improve the instruction of these concepts.

  19. Evolving paradigms in the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma: increased options and increased complexity

    PubMed Central

    Cornell, R F; Kassim, A A

    2016-01-01

    The use of modern therapies such as thalidomide, bortezomib and lenalidomide coupled with upfront high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) has resulted in improved survival in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). However, patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) often have poorer clinical outcomes and might benefit from novel therapeutic strategies. Emerging therapies, such as deacetylase inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies and new proteasome inhibitors, appear promising and may change the therapeutic landscape in RRMM. A limited number of studies has shown a benefit with salvage ASCT in patients with RRMM, although there remains ongoing debate about its timing and effectiveness. Improvement in transplant outcomes has re-ignited a debate on the timing and possible role for salvage ASCT and allogeneic stem cell transplant in RRMM. As the treatment options for management of patients with RRMM become increasingly complex, physicians must consider both disease- and patient-related factors in choosing the appropriate therapeutic approach, with the goal of improving efficacy while minimizing toxicity. PMID:26726946

  20. Complexing Methylene Blue with Phosphorus Dendrimers to Increase Photodynamic Activity.

    PubMed

    Dabrzalska, Monika; Janaszewska, Anna; Zablocka, Maria; Mignani, Serge; Majoral, Jean Pierre; Klajnert-Maculewicz, Barbara

    2017-02-23

    The efficiency of photodynamic therapy is limited mainly due to low selectivity, unfavorable biodistribution of photosensitizers, and long-lasting skin sensitivity to light. However, drug delivery systems based on nanoparticles may overcome the limitations mentioned above. Among others, dendrimers are particularly attractive as carriers, because of their globular architecture and high loading capacity. The goal of the study was to check whether an anionic phosphorus dendrimer is suitable as a carrier of a photosensitizer-methylene blue (MB). As a biological model, basal cell carcinoma cell lines were used. We checked the influence of the MB complexation on its singlet oxygen production ability using a commercial fluorescence probe. Next, cellular uptake, phototoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and cell death were investigated. The MB-anionic dendrimer complex (MB-1an) was found to generate less singlet oxygen; however, the complex showed higher cellular uptake and phototoxicity against basal cell carcinoma cell lines, which was accompanied with enhanced ROS production. Owing to the obtained results, we conclude that the photodynamic activity of MB complexed with an anionic dendrimer is higher than free MB against basal cell carcinoma cell lines.

  1. Future prospects for prophylactic immune stimulation in crustacean aquaculture - the need for improved metadata to address immune system complexity.

    PubMed

    Hauton, Chris; Hudspith, Meggie; Gunton, Laetitia

    2015-02-01

    Future expansion of the crustacean aquaculture industry will be required to ensure global food security. However, this expansion must ensure: (a) that natural resources (including habitat use and fish meal) are sustainably exploited, (b) that the socio-economic development of producing nations is safeguarded, and (c) that the challenge presented by crustacean diseases is adequately met. Conventionally, the problem of disease in crustacean aquaculture has been addressed through prophylactic administration of stimulants, additives or probiotics. However, these approaches have been questioned both experimentally and philosophically. In this review, we argue that real progress in the field of crustacean immune stimulants has now slowed, with only incremental advances now being made. We further contend that an overt focus on the immune effector response has been misguided. In light of the wealth of new data reporting immune system complexity, a more refined approach is necessary - one that must consider the important role played by pattern recognition proteins. In support of this more refined approach, there is now a much greater requirement for the reporting of essential metadata. We propose a broad series of recommendations regarding the 'Minimum Information required to support a Stimulant Assessment experiment' (MISA guidelines) to foster new progression within the field.

  2. A responsive evaluation of mental health treatment in Cambodia: Intentionally addressing poverty to increase cultural responsiveness in therapy.

    PubMed

    Seponski, Desiree M; Lewis, Denise C; Megginson, Maegan C

    2014-01-01

    Mental health issues are significant contributors to the global burden of disease with the highest incidence in resource poor countries; 90% of those in need of mental health treatment reside in low resource countries but receive only 10% of the world's resources. Cambodia, the eighth least developed country in the world, serves as one example of the need to address mental health concerns in low-income, resource poor countries. The current study utilises responsive evaluation methodology to explore how poverty-stricken Cambodian clients, therapists and supervisors experience Western models of therapy as culturally responsive to their unique needs. Quantitative and qualitative data were triangulated across multiple stakeholders using numerous methods including a focus group, interviews, surveys, case illustrations and live supervision observation and analysed using constant comparative analysis. Emerging findings suggest that poverty, material needs, therapy location and financial situations greatly impact the daily lives and mental health conditions of Cambodians and hinder clients' therapeutic progress. The local community needs and context of poverty greatly hinder clients' therapeutic progress in therapy treatment and when therapy does not directly address the culture of poverty, clients did not experience therapy as valuable despite some temporary decreases in mental health symptoms.

  3. Tolerance to Ischemia – an increasingly complex biology

    PubMed Central

    Meller, Robert; Simon, Roger P.

    2013-01-01

    In this review we identify and discuss some of the genomics studies of preconditioning and the ischemic tolerance phenomenon. Such studies have been attempted in multiple species, using different array technologies and with different preconditioning and tolerance models. In addition, studies are starting to reveal epigenetic mechanisms and modifiers of tolerance and preconditioning. Together these studies are starting to reveal some of the immense complexity of the ischemic tolerance phenomenon, yet further studies await to be performed. PMID:23504451

  4. Increasing value: a research agenda for addressing the managerial and organizational challenges facing health care delivery in the United States.

    PubMed

    Shortell, Stephen M

    2004-09-01

    There is growing consensus that the U.S. health care system is not producing value relative to the resources invested. Unwarranted variation exists in quality and outcomes of care and underutilization of both evidence-based medicine and evidence-management practices. To address these issues, this article calls for a broad-based social science approach focused on obtaining a greater understanding of change at the individual, group, organizational, and environmental levels as they influence each other. Specific examples and questions for research are suggested with regard to the redesign of care systems, enhancing learning and transferring knowledge, and creating effective financial incentives. The specific measurement, analysis, and study design issues involved in under-taking such a research agenda are discussed.

  5. Addressing health care disparities and increasing workforce diversity: the next step for the dental, medical, and public health professions.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Dennis A; Lassiter, Shana L

    2006-12-01

    The racial/ethnic composition of our nation is projected to change drastically in the coming decades. It is therefore important that the health professions improve their efforts to provide culturally competent care to all patients. We reviewed literature concerning health care disparities and workforce diversity issues--particularly within the oral health field--and provide a synthesis of recommendations to address these issues. This review is highly relevant to both the medical and public health professions, because they are facing similar disparity and workforce issues. In addition, the recent establishment of relationships between oral health and certain systemic health conditions will elevate oral health promotion and disease prevention as important points of intervention in the quest to improve our nation's public health.

  6. Chemical complexity of odors increases reliability of olfactory threshold testing.

    PubMed

    Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Pellegrino, Robert; Pusch, Katharina; Margot, Celine; Hummel, Thomas

    2017-01-10

    Assessment of odor thresholds is a widely recognized method of measuring olfactory abilities in humans. To date no attempts have been made to assess whether chemical complexity of odors used can produce more reliable results. To this end, we performed two studies of repeated measures design with 121 healthy volunteers (age 19-62 years). In Study 1, we compared thresholds obtained from tests based on one odor presented in a pen-like odor dispensing device with three odors and six odors mixtures presented in glass containers. In study 2 we compared stimuli of one and three odors, both presented in glass containers. In both studies measurements were performed twice, separated by at least three days. Results indicate that the multiple odor mixtures produced more reliable threshold scores, as compared to thresholds based on a single substance.

  7. Chemical complexity of odors increases reliability of olfactory threshold testing

    PubMed Central

    Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Pellegrino, Robert; Pusch, Katharina; Margot, Celine; Hummel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of odor thresholds is a widely recognized method of measuring olfactory abilities in humans. To date no attempts have been made to assess whether chemical complexity of odors used can produce more reliable results. To this end, we performed two studies of repeated measures design with 121 healthy volunteers (age 19–62 years). In Study 1, we compared thresholds obtained from tests based on one odor presented in a pen-like odor dispensing device with three odors and six odors mixtures presented in glass containers. In study 2 we compared stimuli of one and three odors, both presented in glass containers. In both studies measurements were performed twice, separated by at least three days. Results indicate that the multiple odor mixtures produced more reliable threshold scores, as compared to thresholds based on a single substance. PMID:28071665

  8. Increasing quality and managing complexity in neuroinformatics software development with continuous integration

    PubMed Central

    Zaytsev, Yury V.; Morrison, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    High quality neuroscience research requires accurate, reliable and well maintained neuroinformatics applications. As software projects become larger, offering more functionality and developing a denser web of interdependence between their component parts, we need more sophisticated methods to manage their complexity. If complexity is allowed to get out of hand, either the quality of the software or the speed of development suffer, and in many cases both. To address this issue, here we develop a scalable, low-cost and open source solution for continuous integration (CI), a technique which ensures the quality of changes to the code base during the development procedure, rather than relying on a pre-release integration phase. We demonstrate that a CI-based workflow, due to rapid feedback about code integration problems and tracking of code health measures, enabled substantial increases in productivity for a major neuroinformatics project and additional benefits for three further projects. Beyond the scope of the current study, we identify multiple areas in which CI can be employed to further increase the quality of neuroinformatics projects by improving development practices and incorporating appropriate development tools. Finally, we discuss what measures can be taken to lower the barrier for developers of neuroinformatics applications to adopt this useful technique. PMID:23316158

  9. Functional group diversity increases with modularity in complex food webs

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, D.; Yallop, M.L.; Memmott, J.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity increases the ability of ecosystems to provide multiple functions. Most studies report a positive relationship between species richness and the number of ecosystem functions. However, it is not known whether the number of functional groups is related to the structure of the underlying species interaction network. Here we present food web data from 115 salt marsh islands and show that network structure is associated with the number of functional groups present. Functional group diversity is heterogeneously distributed across spatial scales, with some islands hosting more functional groups than others. Functional groups form modules within the community so that food webs with more modular architectures have more functional group diversity. Further, in communities with different interaction types, modularity can be seen as the multifunctional equivalent of trophic complementarity. Collectively, these findings reveal spatial heterogeneity in the number of functional groups that emerges from patterns in the structure of the food web. PMID:26059871

  10. Functional group diversity increases with modularity in complex food webs.

    PubMed

    Montoya, D; Yallop, M L; Memmott, J

    2015-06-10

    Biodiversity increases the ability of ecosystems to provide multiple functions. Most studies report a positive relationship between species richness and the number of ecosystem functions. However, it is not known whether the number of functional groups is related to the structure of the underlying species interaction network. Here we present food web data from 115 salt marsh islands and show that network structure is associated with the number of functional groups present. Functional group diversity is heterogeneously distributed across spatial scales, with some islands hosting more functional groups than others. Functional groups form modules within the community so that food webs with more modular architectures have more functional group diversity. Further, in communities with different interaction types, modularity can be seen as the multifunctional equivalent of trophic complementarity. Collectively, these findings reveal spatial heterogeneity in the number of functional groups that emerges from patterns in the structure of the food web.

  11. Ecological community integration increases with added trophic complexity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Christopher K.

    2008-01-01

    The existence of functional biological organization at the level of multi-species communities has long been contested in ecology and evolutionary biology. I found that adding a trophic level to simulated ecological communities enhanced their ability to compete at the community level, increasing the likelihood of one community forcing all or most species in a second community to extinction. Community-level identity emerged within systems of interacting ecological networks, while competitive ability at the community level was enhanced by intense within-community selection pressure. These results suggest a reassessment of the nature of biological organization above the level of species, indicating that the drive toward biological integration, so prominent throughout the history of life, might extend to multi-species communities.

  12. Did Genetic Drift Drive Increases in Genome Complexity?

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Kenneth D.; Garland, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying the dramatic patterns of genome size variation across the tree of life remain mysterious. Effective population size (Ne) has been proposed as a major driver of genome size: selection is expected to efficiently weed out deleterious mutations increasing genome size in lineages with large (but not small) Ne. Strong support for this model was claimed from a comparative analysis of Neu and genome size for ≈30 phylogenetically diverse species ranging from bacteria to vertebrates, but analyses at that scale have so far failed to account for phylogenetic nonindependence of species. In our reanalysis, accounting for phylogenetic history substantially altered the perceived strength of the relationship between Neu and genomic attributes: there were no statistically significant associations between Neu and gene number, intron size, intron number, the half-life of gene duplicates, transposon number, transposons as a fraction of the genome, or overall genome size. We conclude that current datasets do not support the hypothesis of a mechanistic connection between Ne and these genomic attributes, and we suggest that further progress requires larger datasets, phylogenetic comparative methods, more robust estimators of genetic drift, and a multivariate approach that accounts for correlations between putative explanatory variables. PMID:20865118

  13. Non-proteolytic functions of microbial proteases increase pathological complexity.

    PubMed

    Jarocki, Veronica M; Tacchi, Jessica L; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2015-03-01

    Proteases are enzymes that catalyse hydrolysis of peptide bonds thereby controlling the shape, size, function, composition, turnover and degradation of other proteins. In microbes, proteases are often identified as important virulence factors and as such have been targets for novel drug design. It is emerging that some proteases possess additional non-proteolytic functions that play important roles in host epithelia adhesion, tissue invasion and in modulating immune responses. These additional "moonlighting" functions have the potential to obfuscate data interpretation and have implications for therapeutic design. Moonlighting enzymes comprise a subcategory of multifunctional proteins that possess at least two distinct biological functions on a single polypeptide chain. Presently, identifying moonlighting proteins relies heavily on serendipitous empirical data with clues arising from proteins lacking signal peptides that are localised to the cell surface. Here, we describe examples of microbial proteases with additional non-proteolytic functions, including streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B, PepO and C5a peptidases, mycoplasmal aminopeptidases, mycobacterial chaperones and viral papain-like proteases. We explore how these non-proteolytic functions contribute to host cell adhesion, modulate the coagulation pathway, assist in non-covalent folding of proteins, participate in cell signalling, and increase substrate repertoire. We conclude by describing how proteomics has aided in moonlighting protein discovery, focusing attention on potential moonlighters in microbial exoproteomes.

  14. Does Increasing Treatment Frequency Address Suboptimal Responses to Ivermectin for the Control and Elimination of River Blindness?

    PubMed Central

    Frempong, Kwadwo K.; Walker, Martin; Cheke, Robert A.; Tetevi, Edward Jenner; Gyan, Ernest Tawiah; Owusu, Ebenezer O.; Wilson, Michael D.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Taylor, Mark J.; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Background. Several African countries have adopted a biannual ivermectin distribution strategy in some foci to control and eliminate onchocerciasis. In 2010, the Ghana Health Service started biannual distribution to combat transmission hotspots and suboptimal responses to treatment. We assessed the epidemiological impact of the first 3 years of this strategy and quantified responses to ivermectin over 2 consecutive rounds of treatment in 10 sentinel communities. Methods. We evaluated Onchocerca volvulus community microfilarial intensity and prevalence in persons aged ≥20 years before the first, second, and fifth (or sixth) biannual treatment rounds using skin snip data from 956 participants. We used longitudinal regression modeling to estimate rates of microfilarial repopulation of the skin in a cohort of 217 participants who were followed up over the first 2 rounds of biannual treatment. Results. Biannual treatment has had a positive impact, with substantial reductions in infection intensity after 4 or 5 rounds in most communities. We identified 3 communities—all having been previously recognized as responding suboptimally to ivermectin—with statistically significantly high microfilarial repopulation rates. We did not find any clear association between microfilarial repopulation rate and the number of years of prior intervention, coverage, or the community level of infection. Conclusions. The strategy of biannual ivermectin treatment in Ghana has reduced O. volvulus microfilarial intensity and prevalence, but suboptimal responses to treatment remain evident in a number of previously and consistently implicated communities. Whether increasing the frequency of treatment will be sufficient to meet the World Health Organization's 2020 elimination goals remains uncertain. PMID:27001801

  15. Do complex models increase prediction of complex behaviours? Predicting driving ability in people with brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Innes, Carrie R H; Lee, Dominic; Chen, Chen; Ponder-Sutton, Agate M; Melzer, Tracy R; Jones, Richard D

    2011-09-01

    Prediction of complex behavioural tasks via relatively simple modelling techniques, such as logistic regression and discriminant analysis, often has limited success. We hypothesized that to more accurately model complex behaviour, more complex models, such as kernel-based methods, would be needed. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the value of six modelling approaches for predicting driving ability based on performance on computerized sensory-motor and cognitive tests (SMCTests™) in 501 people with brain disorders. The models included three models previously used to predict driving ability (discriminant analysis, DA; binary logistic regression, BLR; and nonlinear causal resource analysis, NCRA) and three kernel methods (support vector machine, SVM; product kernel density, PK; and kernel product density, KP). At the classification level, two kernel methods were substantially more accurate at classifying on-road pass or fail (SVM 99.6%, PK 99.8%) than the other models (DA 76%, BLR 78%, NCRA 74%, KP 81%). However, accuracy decreased substantially for all of the kernel models when cross-validation techniques were used to estimate prediction of on-road pass or fail in an independent referral group (SVM 73-76%, PK 72-73%, KP 71-72%) but decreased only slightly for DA (74-75%) and BLR (75-76%). Cross-validation of NCRA was not possible. In conclusion, while kernel-based models are successful at modelling complex data at a classification level, this is likely to be due to overfitting of the data, which does not lead to an improvement in accuracy in independent data over and above the accuracy of other less complex modelling techniques.

  16. Final Environmental Assessment Addressing Construction, Operation, and Maintenance of a Security Forces Complex at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JUL 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE...Regulations. Date cc: Attachment ROBERT L. MANESS, Colonel, USAF Commander FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT ADDRESSING CONSTRUCTION...effective date of the designation of that area for the 8-hour O3 NAAQS. The effective designation date for most areas was June 15, 2004. The USEPA

  17. Social workers' roles in addressing the complex end-of-life care needs of elders with advanced chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Betty J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined social workers' roles in caring for low-income elders with advanced chronic disease in an innovative, community-based managed care program, from the perspective of elders, family, team members, and social workers. The results are drawn from a larger longitudinal, multimethod case study. Sources of data include survey reports of needs addressed by social workers for 120 deceased elders, five focus groups with interdisciplinary team members, and in-depth interviews with 14 elders and 10 of their family caregivers. A thematic conceptual matrix was developed to detail 32 distinctive social work roles that address divergent needs of elders, family, and team members. Distinctive perceptions of social workers' roles were identified for the different stakeholder groups (i.e., elders, family caregivers, team members, and social workers). Findings from this study may inform supervisors and educators regarding training needs of those preparing to enter the rapidly growing workforce of gerontological social workers who may be called upon to care for elders at the end of life. Training is particularly warranted to help social workers gain the skills needed to more successfully treat symptom management, depression, anxiety, agitation, grief, funeral planning, and spiritual needs that are common to the end of life.

  18. Managing Increasing Complexity in Undergraduate Digital Media Design Education: The Impact and Benefits of Multidisciplinary Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischmann, Katja; Daniel, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Increasing complexity is one of the most pertinent issues when discussing the role and future of design, designers and their education. The evolving nature of digital media technology has resulted in a profession in a state of flux with increasingly complex communication and design problems. The ability to collaborate and interact with other…

  19. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  20. Molecular paleoecology: using gene regulatory analysis to address the origins of complex life cycles in the late Precambrian.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Ewan F; Moy, Vanessa N; Angerer, Lynne M; Angerer, Robert C; Morris, Robert L; Peterson, Kevin J

    2007-01-01

    Molecular paleoecology is the application of molecular data to test hypotheses made by paleoecological scenarios. Here, we use gene regulatory analysis to test between two competing paleoecological scenarios put forth to explain the evolution of complex life cycles. The first posits that early bilaterians were holobenthic, and the evolution of macrophagous grazing drove the exploitation of the pelagos by metazoan eggs and embryos, and eventually larvae. The alternative hypothesis predicts that early bilaterians were holopelagic, and new adult stages were added on when these holopelagic forms began to feed on the benthos. The former hypothesis predicts that the larvae of protostomes and deuterostomes are not homologous, with the implication that larval-specific structures, including the apical organ, are the products of convergent evolution, whereas the latter hypothesis predicts homology of larvae, specifically homology of the apical organ. We show that in the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, the transcription factors NK2.1 and HNF6 are necessary for the correct spatial expression profiles of five different cilia genes. All of these genes are expressed exclusively in the apical plate after the mesenchyme-blastula stage in cells that also express NK2.1 and HNF6. In addition, abrogation of SpNK2.1 results in embryos that lack the apical tuft. However, in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, NK2.1 and HNF6 are not expressed in any cells that also express these same five cilia genes. Nonetheless, like the sea urchin, the gastropod expresses both NK2.1 and FoxA around the stomodeum and foregut, and FoxA around the proctodeum. As we detected no similarity in the development of the apical tuft between the sea urchin and the abalone, these molecular data are consistent with the hypothesis that the evolution of mobile, macrophagous metazoans drove the evolution of complex life cycles multiple times independently in the late Precambrian.

  1. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Kakodkar, A

    1999-07-01

    This convocation addressed by Dr. Anil Kakodkar focuses on the challenges faced by graduating students. In his speech, he emphasized the high level of excellence achieved by the industrial sector; however, he noted that there has been a loss of initiative in maximizing value addition, which was worsened by an increasing population pressure. In facing a stiff competition in the external and domestic markets, it is imperative to maximize value addition within the country in a competitive manner and capture the highest possible market share. To achieve this, high-quality human resources are central. Likewise, family planning programs should become more effective and direct available resources toward national advantage. To boost the domestic market, he suggests the need to search for strengths to achieve leadership position in those areas. First, an insight into the relationship between the lifestyles and the needs of our people and the natural resource endowment must be gained. Second, remodeling of the education system must be undertaken to prepare the people for adding the necessary innovative content in our value addition activities. Lastly, Dr. Kakodkar emphasizes the significance of developing a strong bond between parents and children to provide a sound foundation and allow the education system to grow upon it.

  2. Complexity.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Hernández, J Jaime

    2006-01-01

    It is difficult to define complexity in modeling. Complexity is often associated with uncertainty since modeling uncertainty is an intrinsically difficult task. However, modeling uncertainty does not require, necessarily, complex models, in the sense of a model requiring an unmanageable number of degrees of freedom to characterize the aquifer. The relationship between complexity, uncertainty, heterogeneity, and stochastic modeling is not simple. Aquifer models should be able to quantify the uncertainty of their predictions, which can be done using stochastic models that produce heterogeneous realizations of aquifer parameters. This is the type of complexity addressed in this article.

  3. [Morphogenetic foundations for increased evolutionary complexity in the organization of thecate hydroids shoots (Cnidaria, Hydroidomedusa, Leptomedusae)].

    PubMed

    Kosevich, I A

    2012-01-01

    The morphogenetic approach is applied to analyze the diversity of spatial organization of shoots in thecate hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydroidomedusa, Leptomedusae). The main tendencies and constraints of increased evolutionary complexity in thecate hydroids colonies are uncovered.

  4. Fc receptor-mediated immune responses: new tools but increased complexity in HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Inchaustegui, Diego A; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2013-07-01

    The modest success of the RV144 HIV vaccine trial in Thailand and the ensuing suggestion that a Fc-receptormediated antibody activity might have played a role in the protection observed have intensified investigations on Fcrelated immune responses. HIV neutralizing antibodies have been and continue to be the focal point of research into humoral immune protection. However, recent knowledge that their protective efficacy can be augmented by Fc-FcR interactions has increased the complexity of identifying immune correlates of protection. If anything, continued studies of both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms point to the lack of a single protective anti-HIV immune response. Here we focus on humoral immunity, analyzing the role played by Fc receptor-related responses and discussing how new knowledge of their interactions requires further investigation, but may also spur novel vaccination approaches. We initially address classical Fc-receptor mediated anti-viral mechanisms including antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent cell mediated viral inhibition (ADCVI), and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), as well as the effector cells that mediate these functions. Next, we summarize key aspects of FcR-Fc interactions that are important for potential control of HIV/SIV such as FcR polymorphisms and post-transcriptional modifications. Finally we discuss less commonly studied non-mechanistic anti-HIV immune functions: antibody avidity and envelopespecific B cell memory. Overall, a spectrum of immune responses, reflecting the immune system's redundancy, will likely be needed to prevent HIV infection and/or disease progression. Aside from elicitation of critical immune mechanisms, a successful vaccine will need to induce mature B cell responses and long-lasting immune memory.

  5. An enzyme complex increases in vitro dry matter digestibility of corn and wheat in pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyu Ree; Park, Chan Sol; Kim, Beob Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of enzyme complex on in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility for feed ingredients. The objective of experiment 1 was to screen feed ingredients that can be effective substrates for an enzyme complex, mainly consisted of β-pentosanase, β-glucanase and α-amylase, using in vitro digestibility methods. In experiment 1, the test ingredients were three grain sources (barley, corn and wheat) and six protein supplements (canola meal, copra expellers, cottonseed meal, distillers dried grains with solubles, palm kernel expellers and soybean meal). In vitro ileal and total tract digestibility (IVID and IVTTD, respectively) of DM for test ingredients were determined. In vitro digestibility methods consisted of two- or three-step procedure simulating in vivo digestion in the pig gastrointestinal tracts with or without enzyme complex. As the enzyme complex added, the IVID of DM for corn and wheat increased (p < 0.05) by 5.0 and 2.6 percentage unit, respectively. The IVTTD of DM for corn increased (p < 0.05) by 3.1 percentage unit with enzyme complex addition. As the effect of enzyme complex was the greatest in corn digestibility, corn grains were selected to determine the in vitro digestibility of the fractions (starch, germ, hull and gluten) that maximally respond to the enzyme complex in experiment 2. The IVID of DM for corn starch, germ and hull increased (p < 0.05) by 16.0, 2.8 and 1.2 percentage unit, respectively. The IVTTD of DM for corn starch and hull also increased (p < 0.05) by 8.6 and 0.9 percentage unit, respectively, with enzyme complex addition. In conclusion, the enzyme complex increases in vitro DM digestibility of corn and wheat, and the digestibility increments of corn are mainly attributed to the increased digestibility of corn starch.

  6. A model for integrating clinical care and basic science research, and pitfalls of performing complex research projects for addressing a clinical challenge.

    PubMed

    Steck, R; Epari, D R; Schuetz, M A

    2010-07-01

    The collaboration of clinicians with basic science researchers is crucial for addressing clinically relevant research questions. In order to initiate such mutually beneficial relationships, we propose a model where early career clinicians spend a designated time embedded in established basic science research groups, in order to pursue a postgraduate qualification. During this time, clinicians become integral members of the research team, fostering long term relationships and opening up opportunities for continuing collaboration. However, for these collaborations to be successful there are pitfalls to be avoided. Limited time and funding can lead to attempts to answer clinical challenges with highly complex research projects characterised by a large number of "clinical" factors being introduced in the hope that the research outcomes will be more clinically relevant. As a result, the complexity of such studies and variability of its outcomes may lead to difficulties in drawing scientifically justified and clinically useful conclusions. Consequently, we stress that it is the basic science researcher and the clinician's obligation to be mindful of the limitations and challenges of such multi-factorial research projects. A systematic step-by-step approach to address clinical research questions with limited, but highly targeted and well defined research projects provides the solid foundation which may lead to the development of a longer term research program for addressing more challenging clinical problems. Ultimately, we believe that it is such models, encouraging the vital collaboration between clinicians and researchers for the work on targeted, well defined research projects, which will result in answers to the important clinical challenges of today.

  7. Positive Psychology Interventions Addressing Pleasure, Engagement, Meaning, Positive Relationships, and Accomplishment Increase Well-Being and Ameliorate Depressive Symptoms: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Online Study.

    PubMed

    Gander, Fabian; Proyer, René T; Ruch, Willibald

    2016-01-01

    Seligman (2002) suggested three paths to well-being, the pursuit of pleasure, the pursuit of meaning, and the pursuit of engagement, later adding two more, positive relationships and accomplishment, in his 2011 version. The contribution of these new components to well-being has yet to be addressed. In an online positive psychology intervention study, we randomly assigned 1624 adults aged 18-78 (M = 46.13; 79.2% women) to seven conditions. Participants wrote down three things they related to either one of the five components of Seligman's Well-Being theory (Conditions 1-5), all of the five components (Condition 6) or early childhood memories (placebo control condition). We assessed happiness (AHI) and depression (CES-D) before and after the intervention, and 1-, 3-, and 6 months afterwards. Additionally, we considered moderation effects of well-being levels at baseline. Results confirmed that all interventions were effective in increasing happiness and most ameliorated depressive symptoms. The interventions worked best for those in the middle-range of the well-being continuum. We conclude that interventions based on pleasure, engagement, meaning, positive relationships, and accomplishment are effective strategies for increasing well-being and ameliorating depressive symptoms and that positive psychology interventions are most effective for those people in the middle range of the well-being continuum.

  8. Positive Psychology Interventions Addressing Pleasure, Engagement, Meaning, Positive Relationships, and Accomplishment Increase Well-Being and Ameliorate Depressive Symptoms: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Online Study

    PubMed Central

    Gander, Fabian; Proyer, René T.; Ruch, Willibald

    2016-01-01

    Seligman (2002) suggested three paths to well-being, the pursuit of pleasure, the pursuit of meaning, and the pursuit of engagement, later adding two more, positive relationships and accomplishment, in his 2011 version. The contribution of these new components to well-being has yet to be addressed. In an online positive psychology intervention study, we randomly assigned 1624 adults aged 18–78 (M = 46.13; 79.2% women) to seven conditions. Participants wrote down three things they related to either one of the five components of Seligman's Well-Being theory (Conditions 1–5), all of the five components (Condition 6) or early childhood memories (placebo control condition). We assessed happiness (AHI) and depression (CES-D) before and after the intervention, and 1-, 3-, and 6 months afterwards. Additionally, we considered moderation effects of well-being levels at baseline. Results confirmed that all interventions were effective in increasing happiness and most ameliorated depressive symptoms. The interventions worked best for those in the middle-range of the well-being continuum. We conclude that interventions based on pleasure, engagement, meaning, positive relationships, and accomplishment are effective strategies for increasing well-being and ameliorating depressive symptoms and that positive psychology interventions are most effective for those people in the middle range of the well-being continuum. PMID:27242600

  9. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system.

  10. Protein Targeting and Transport as a Necessary Consequence of Increased Cellular Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Maik S.; Schleiff, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    With increasing intracellular complexity, a new cell-biological problem that is the allocation of cytoplasmically synthesized proteins to their final destinations within the cell emerged. A special challenge is thereby the translocation of proteins into or across cellular membranes. The underlying mechanisms are only in parts well understood, but it can be assumed that the course of cellular evolution had a deep impact on the design of the required molecular machines. In this article, we aim to summarize the current knowledge and concepts of the evolutionary development of protein trafficking as a necessary premise and consequence of increased cellular complexity. PMID:25085907

  11. Acute and Chronic Treatments with Quetiapine Increase Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex Activity in the Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Ignácio, Zuleide M; Réus, Gislaine Z; Abelaira, Helena M; Titus, Stephanie E; Carlessi, Anelise S; da Luz, Jaine R; Matias, Beatriz I; Bruchchen, Livia; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gomes, Lara M; Rebelo, Joyce; Streck, Emilio L; Quevedo, João

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have found that the molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial energy metabolism are impaired in major depressive disorder (MDD). Classic antidepressants and atypical antipsychotics can alter the function of enzymes involved in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism. Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic that, in addition to having a therapeutic benefit in treating MDD, appears to exert antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the acute and chronic effects of quetiapine on the activity of enzyme complexes I to IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and creatine kinase (CK) in brain regions involved with MDD. After a single dose or serial injections over 14 days of quetiapine (20, 40, and 80 mg) were administered, isolates from the pre- frontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and nucleus accumbens were analyzed for enzyme activity levels. The enzyme activity varied according to the dose, brain region, and acute or chronic dosing protocols. In general, complexes I-III activity was increased, especially after acute administration. Acute administration also increased the activity of complex IV and CK in the amygdala while complex I was inhibited in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. These results suggest that quetiapine produces an increase in respiratory chain complex activity, which may be underlying its efficacy against psychiatric disorders and neuronal damage.

  12. Simulation study on effects of signaling network structure on the developmental increase in complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Keranen, Soile V.E.

    2003-04-02

    The developmental increase in structural complexity in multicellular life forms depends on local, often non-periodic differences in gene expression. These depend on a network of gene-gene interactions coded within the organismal genome. To better understand how genomic information generates complex expression patterns, I have modeled the pattern forming behavior of small artificial genomes in virtual blastoderm embryos. I varied several basic properties of these genomic signaling networks, such as the number of genes, the distributions of positive (inductive) and negative (repressive) interactions, and the strengths of gene-gene interactions, and analyzed their effects on developmental pattern formation. The results show how even simple genomes can generate complex non-periodic patterns under suitable conditions. They also show how the frequency of complex patterns depended on the numbers and relative arrangements of positive and negative interactions. For example, negative co-regulation of signaling pathway components increased the likelihood of (complex) patterns relative to differential negative regulation of the pathway components. Interestingly, neither quantitative differences either in strengths of signaling interactions nor multiple response thresholds to signal concentration (as in morphogen gradients) were essential for formation of multiple, spatially unique cell types. Thus, with combinatorial code of gene regulation and hierarchical signaling interactions, it is theoretically possible to organize metazoan embryogenesis with just a small fraction of the metazoan genome. Because even small networks can generate complex patterns when they contain a suitable set of connections, evolution of metazoan complexity may have depended more on selection for favourable configurations of signaling interactions than on the increase in numbers of regulatory genes.

  13. Systems Thinking as a Competency for Community College Leaders in an Era of Increasing Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Anne Powel

    2013-01-01

    The pluralistic and often competing goals of myriad constituents, the changing demographics of students, the uncertainty of funding, and the growing demands for accountability from stakeholders have increased the complexity of systems which community college leaders must manage. Emerging from the recent literature on community colleges is a call…

  14. IMAGE: Simulation for Understanding Complex Situations and Increasing Future Force Agility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    IMAGE: SIMULATION FOR UNDERSTANDING COMPLEX SITUATIONS AND INCREASING FUTURE FORCE AGILITY Michel Lizotte, François Bernier, Marielle Mokhtari...ism exploiting this common vocabulary. Supporting a team sharing ideas also means handling ownership of comprehension models and allowing a user to...simulation models are closely related. Any meaning - ful simulation object actually implements a Representa- tion concept. Some comprehension model

  15. Use of Increasingly Complex Text to Advance ELs' Knowledge and Academic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Lisa M.; Leighton, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    This mixed-methods study explored joining use of increasing-complex text with sound instructional practices on English Learners' (ELs) academic language and conceptual knowledge. Findings showed one-week postintervention, ELs achieved significant academic vocabulary gains such that there were no differences between ELs and general education (GE)…

  16. Lessons from Red Data Books: Plant Vulnerability Increases with Floral Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Stefanaki, Anastasia; Kantsa, Aphrodite; Tscheulin, Thomas; Charitonidou, Martha; Petanidou, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    The architectural complexity of flower structures (hereafter referred to as floral complexity) may be linked to pollination by specialized pollinators that can increase the probability of successful seed set. As plant—pollinator systems become fragile, a loss of such specialized pollinators could presumably result in an increased likelihood of pollination failure. This is an issue likely to be particularly evident in plants that are currently rare. Using a novel index describing floral complexity we explored whether this aspect of the structure of flowers could be used to predict vulnerability of plant species to extinction. To do this we defined plant vulnerability using the Red Data Book of Rare and Threatened Plants of Greece, a Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot. We also tested whether other intrinsic (e.g. life form, asexual reproduction) or extrinsic (e.g. habitat, altitude, range-restrictedness) factors could affect plant vulnerability. We found that plants with high floral complexity scores were significantly more likely to be vulnerable to extinction. Among all the floral complexity components only floral symmetry was found to have a significant effect, with radial-flower plants appearing to be less vulnerable. Life form was also a predictor of vulnerability, with woody perennial plants having significantly lower risk of extinction. Among the extrinsic factors, both habitat and maximum range were significantly associated with plant vulnerability (coastal plants and narrow-ranged plants are more likely to face higher risk). Although extrinsic and in particular anthropogenic factors determine plant extinction risk, intrinsic traits can indicate a plant’s proneness to vulnerability. This raises the potential threat of declining global pollinator diversity interacting with floral complexity to increase the vulnerability of individual plant species. There is potential scope for using plant—pollinator specializations to identify plant species particularly

  17. Lessons from Red Data Books: Plant Vulnerability Increases with Floral Complexity.

    PubMed

    Stefanaki, Anastasia; Kantsa, Aphrodite; Tscheulin, Thomas; Charitonidou, Martha; Petanidou, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    The architectural complexity of flower structures (hereafter referred to as floral complexity) may be linked to pollination by specialized pollinators that can increase the probability of successful seed set. As plant-pollinator systems become fragile, a loss of such specialized pollinators could presumably result in an increased likelihood of pollination failure. This is an issue likely to be particularly evident in plants that are currently rare. Using a novel index describing floral complexity we explored whether this aspect of the structure of flowers could be used to predict vulnerability of plant species to extinction. To do this we defined plant vulnerability using the Red Data Book of Rare and Threatened Plants of Greece, a Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot. We also tested whether other intrinsic (e.g. life form, asexual reproduction) or extrinsic (e.g. habitat, altitude, range-restrictedness) factors could affect plant vulnerability. We found that plants with high floral complexity scores were significantly more likely to be vulnerable to extinction. Among all the floral complexity components only floral symmetry was found to have a significant effect, with radial-flower plants appearing to be less vulnerable. Life form was also a predictor of vulnerability, with woody perennial plants having significantly lower risk of extinction. Among the extrinsic factors, both habitat and maximum range were significantly associated with plant vulnerability (coastal plants and narrow-ranged plants are more likely to face higher risk). Although extrinsic and in particular anthropogenic factors determine plant extinction risk, intrinsic traits can indicate a plant's proneness to vulnerability. This raises the potential threat of declining global pollinator diversity interacting with floral complexity to increase the vulnerability of individual plant species. There is potential scope for using plant-pollinator specializations to identify plant species particularly at

  18. Increase of resolution by use of microspheres related to complex Snell's law.

    PubMed

    Ben-Aryeh, Y

    2016-12-01

    The increase of resolution by the use of microspheres is related to the use of evanescent waves satisfying complex Snell's law with complex trigonometric functions related to the incident and refracted angles, while the refractive indices are real. The evanescent waves are obtained in addition to initial propagating waves satisfying the ordinary Snell's law. The lateral spatial wave vectors of the evanescent waves, which include information on the object fine structures, are converted at the microsphere surface to smaller wave vectors. Due to the reduction in the magnitudes of the spatial wave vectors of the evanescent waves, they become propagating waves including the fine structures which are recovered in the image plane.

  19. INCREASED EXPRESSION OF AT2 RECEPTORS IN THE SOLITARY-VAGAL COMPLEX BLUNTS RENOVASCULAR HYPERTENSION

    PubMed Central

    Blanch, Graziela Torres; Freiria-Oliveira, André Henrique; Speretta, Guilherme Fina Fleury; Carrera, Eduardo J.; Li, Hongwei; Speth, Robert C.; Colombari, Eduardo; Sumners, Colin; Colombari, Débora S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin II increases and decreases arterial pressure by acting at angiotensin type 1 and type 2 receptors respectively. Renovascular hypertensive rats exhibit a high level of activity of the peripheral and central renin-angiotensin system. Therefore, in the present study we evaluated the effect of increasing the expression of angiotensin type 2 receptors in the solitary-vagal complex [nucleus of the solitary tract/dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus], a key brainstem region for cardiovascular regulation, on the development of renovascular hypertension. Holtzman normotensive rats were implanted with a silver clip around the left renal artery to induce 2 kidney-1 clip renovascular hypertension. Three weeks later, rats were microinjected in the solitary-vagal complex with either an adeno-associated virus to increase the expression of angiotensin type 2 receptors, or with a control vector. We observed that increasing angiotensin type 2 receptor expression in the solitary-vagal complex attenuated the development of renovascular hypertension and also reversed the impairment of the baroreflex and the increase in the low frequency component of systolic blood pressure observed in renovascular hypertensive rats. Further, an observed decrease in mRNA levels of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 in the solitary-vagal complex of renovascular hypertensive rats was restored to control levels following viral-mediated increases in angiotensin type 2 receptors at this site. Collectively, these data demonstrate specific and beneficial effects of angiotensin type 2 receptors via the brain of hypertensive rats, and suggest that central angiotensin type 2 receptors may be a potential target for therapeutics in renovascular hypertension. PMID:24958505

  20. Radiation increases the cellular uptake of exosomes through CD29/CD81 complex formation

    SciTech Connect

    Hazawa, Masaharu; Tomiyama, Kenichi; Saotome-Nakamura, Ai; Obara, Chizuka; Yasuda, Takeshi; Gotoh, Takaya; Tanaka, Izumi; Yakumaru, Haruko; Ishihara, Hiroshi; Tajima, Katsushi

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Radiation increases cellular uptake of exosomes. • Radiation induces colocalization of CD29 and CD81. • Exosomes selectively bind the CD29/CD81 complex. • Radiation increases the cellular uptake of exosomes through CD29/CD81 complex formation. - Abstract: Exosomes mediate intercellular communication, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) or their secreted exosomes affect a number of pathophysiologic states. Clinical applications of MSC and exosomes are increasingly anticipated. Radiation therapy is the main therapeutic tool for a number of various conditions. The cellular uptake mechanisms of exosomes and the effects of radiation on exosome–cell interactions are crucial, but they are not well understood. Here we examined the basic mechanisms and effects of radiation on exosome uptake processes in MSC. Radiation increased the cellular uptake of exosomes. Radiation markedly enhanced the initial cellular attachment to exosomes and induced the colocalization of integrin CD29 and tetraspanin CD81 on the cell surface without affecting their expression levels. Exosomes dominantly bound to the CD29/CD81 complex. Knockdown of CD29 completely inhibited the radiation-induced uptake, and additional or single knockdown of CD81 inhibited basal uptake as well as the increase in radiation-induced uptake. We also examined possible exosome uptake processes affected by radiation. Radiation-induced changes did not involve dynamin2, reactive oxygen species, or their evoked p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent endocytic or pinocytic pathways. Radiation increased the cellular uptake of exosomes through CD29/CD81 complex formation. These findings provide essential basic insights for potential therapeutic applications of exosomes or MSC in combination with radiation.

  1. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  2. Chemometric and Statistical Analyses of ToF-SIMS Spectra of Increasingly Complex Biological Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, E S; Wu, L; Fortson, S L; Nelson, D O; Kulp, K S; Wu, K J

    2007-10-24

    Characterizing and classifying molecular variation within biological samples is critical for determining fundamental mechanisms of biological processes that will lead to new insights including improved disease understanding. Towards these ends, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used to examine increasingly complex samples of biological relevance, including monosaccharide isomers, pure proteins, complex protein mixtures, and mouse embryo tissues. The complex mass spectral data sets produced were analyzed using five common statistical and chemometric multivariate analysis techniques: principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and decision tree analysis by recursive partitioning. PCA was found to be a valuable first step in multivariate analysis, providing insight both into the relative groupings of samples and into the molecular basis for those groupings. For the monosaccharides, pure proteins and protein mixture samples, all of LDA, PLSDA, and SIMCA were found to produce excellent classification given a sufficient number of compound variables calculated. For the mouse embryo tissues, however, SIMCA did not produce as accurate a classification. The decision tree analysis was found to be the least successful for all the data sets, providing neither as accurate a classification nor chemical insight for any of the tested samples. Based on these results we conclude that as the complexity of the sample increases, so must the sophistication of the multivariate technique used to classify the samples. PCA is a preferred first step for understanding ToF-SIMS data that can be followed by either LDA or PLSDA for effective classification analysis. This study demonstrates the strength of ToF-SIMS combined with multivariate statistical and chemometric techniques to classify increasingly complex biological samples

  3. Increased anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus activation in Complex PTSD during encoding of negative words

    PubMed Central

    Dorrepaal, Ethy; Draijer, Nel; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; van Balkom, Anton J.; Smit, Johannes H.; Veltman, Dick J.

    2013-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with impaired memory performance coupled with functional changes in brain areas involved in declarative memory and emotion regulation. It is not yet clear how symptom severity and comorbidity affect neurocognitive functioning in PTSD. We performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study with an emotional declarative memory task in 28 Complex PTSD patients with comorbid depressive and personality disorders, and 21 healthy non-trauma-exposed controls. In Complex PTSD patients—compared to controls—encoding of later remembered negative words vs baseline was associated with increased blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response in the left ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsal ACC extending to the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) together with a trend for increased left hippocampus activation. Patients tended to commit more False Alarms to negative words compared to controls, which was associated with enhanced left ventrolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex (vlPFC/OFC) responses. Severity of child abuse was positively correlated with left ventral ACC activity and severity of depression with (para) hippocampal and ventral ACC activity. Presented results demonstrate functional abnormalities in Complex PTSD in the frontolimbic brain circuit also implicated in fear conditioning models, but generally in the opposite direction, which may be explained by severity of the trauma and severity of comorbid depression in Complex PTSD. PMID:22156722

  4. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  5. Increasing the bioavailability of Ru(III) anticancer complexes through hydrophobic albumin interactions.

    PubMed

    Webb, Michael I; Wu, Boris; Jang, Thalia; Chard, Ryan A; Wong, Edwin W Y; Wong, May Q; Yapp, Donald T T; Walsby, Charles J

    2013-12-09

    A series of pyridine-based derivatives of the clinically successful Ru(III)-based complexes indazolium [trans-RuCl4(1H-indazole)2] (KP1019) and sodium [trans-RuCl4(1H-indazole)2] (KP1339) have been synthesized to probe the effect of hydrophobic interactions with human serum albumin (hsA) on anticancer activity. The solution behavior and protein interactions of the new compounds were characterized by using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and UV/Vis spectroscopy. These studies have revealed that incorporation of hydrophobic substituents at the 4'-position of the axial pyridine ligand stabilizes non-coordinate interactions with hsA. As a consequence, direct coordination to the protein is inhibited, which is expected to increase the bioavailability of the complexes, thus potentially leading to improved anticancer activity. By using this approach, the lifetimes of hydrophobic protein interactions were extended from 2 h for the unsubstituted pyridine complex, to more than 24 h for several derivatives. Free complexes were tested for their anticancer activity against the SW480 human colon carcinoma cell line, exhibiting low cytotoxicity. Pre-treatment with hsA improved the solubility of every compound and led to some changes in activity. Particularly notable was the difference in activity between the methyl- and dibenzyl-functionalized complexes. The former shows reduced activity after incubation with hsA, indicating reduced bioavailability due to protein coordination. The latter exhibits little activity on its own but, following treatment with hsA, exhibited significant cytotoxicity, which is consistent with its ability to form non-coordinate interactions with the protein. Overall, our studies demonstrate that non-coordinate interactions with hsA are a viable target for enhancing the activity of Ru(III)-based complexes in vivo.

  6. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  7. Optical Addressing And Clocking Of RAM's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R.; Nixon, Robert H.; Bergman, Larry A.; Esener, Sadik

    1989-01-01

    Proposed random-access-memory (RAM) addressing system, in which memory linked optically to read/write logic circuits, greatly increases computer operating speed. System - comprises addressing circuits including numerous lasers as signal sources, numerous optical gates including optical detectors associated with memory cells, and holographic element to direct light signals to desired memory-cell locations - applied to high-capacity digital systems, supercomputers, and complex microcircuits.

  8. Increasing solubility of red bell pepper carotenoids by complexation with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    de Lima Petito, Nicolly; da Silva Dias, Daiana; Costa, Valéria Gonçalves; Falcão, Deborah Quintanilha; de Lima Araujo, Kátia Gome

    2016-10-01

    Red bell pepper carotenoids were complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2-HPβCD) in different mass ratios (1:4, 1:6, 1:8 and 1:10) through ultrasonic homogenization in order to increase carotenoid solubility and their use as natural pigment in food. Inclusion complexes, red bell pepper extract and physical mixtures were analyzed by DSC, FT-IR, (1)H NMR and DLS. Solubility assay was performed to identify the effect of complexation on the solubility of carotenoids. From characterization assays, results showed that inclusion process occurred for all tested ratios. Results for water solubility assays demonstrated clear differences between solubility index of inclusion complexes (8.06±2.59-16.55±4.40mg/mL) and physical mixtures (3.53±1.44-7.3±1.88mg/mL), while carotenoid extract was no water soluble, as expected. These results indicated that molecular inclusion of carotenoids in 2-HPβCD was efficient to enhance their solubility in water, enabling application of red bell pepper carotenoid as natural pigment and/or bioactive substances in food.

  9. Ensuring Access to Safe, Legal Abortion in an Increasingly Complex Regulatory Environment.

    PubMed

    Paul, Maureen; Norton, Mary E

    2016-07-01

    Restrictions on access to abortion in the United States have reached proportions unprecedented since the nationwide legalization of abortion in 1973. Although some restrictions aim to discourage women from having abortions, many others impede access by affecting the timeliness, affordability, or availability of services. Evidence indicates that these restrictions do not increase abortion safety; rather, they create logistic barriers for women seeking abortion, and they have the greatest effect on women with the fewest resources. In this commentary, we recall the important role that obstetrician-gynecologists (ob-gyns) have played, both before and after Roe v. Wade, in facilitating access to safe abortion care. Using the literature on abortion safety and access as a foundation, we propose several practical ideas about what we as ob-gyns can do to address the current threat to abortion access, whether or not we provide abortion services in practice. We hope that this commentary will encourage discourse within our profession and prompt other suggestions. As ob-gyns who are dedicated to addressing health disparities and promoting the health and well-being of our patients, we can make a difference.

  10. Biochemical filter with sigmoidal response: increasing the complexity of biomolecular logic.

    PubMed

    Privman, Vladimir; Halámek, Jan; Arugula, Mary A; Melnikov, Dmitriy; Bocharova, Vera; Katz, Evgeny

    2010-11-11

    The first realization of a designed, rather than natural, biochemical filter process is reported and analyzed as a promising network component for increasing the complexity of biomolecular logic systems. Key challenge in biochemical logic research has been achieving scalability for complex network designs. Various logic gates have been realized, but a "toolbox" of analog elements for interconnectivity and signal processing has remained elusive. Filters are important as network elements that allow control of noise in signal transmission and conversion. We report a versatile biochemical filtering mechanism designed to have sigmoidal response in combination with signal-conversion process. Horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of chromogenic electron donor by H(2)O(2) was altered by adding ascorbate, allowing to selectively suppress the output signal, modifying the response from convex to sigmoidal. A kinetic model was developed for evaluation of the quality of filtering. The results offer improved capabilities for design of scalable biomolecular information processing systems.

  11. High order intra-strand partial symmetry increases with organismal complexity in animal evolution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengqin; Tu, Jing; Jia, Zhongwei; Lu, Zuhong

    2014-09-29

    For sufficiently long genomic sequence, the frequency of any short nucleotide fragment on one strand is approximately equal to the frequency of its reverse complement on the same strand. Despite being studied over two decades, the precise mechanism involved has not yet been made clear. In this study, we calculated the high order intra-strand partial symmetry (IPS) for 14 animal species by using a fixed sliding window method to scan each genome sequence. The study showed that the IPS was positive associated with organismal complexity measured by the number of distinct cell types. The results indicated that the IPS might be resulted from the increasing of functional non-coding DNAs, and plays an important role in the evolution process of complex body plans.

  12. Increasing complex social behaviors in children with autism: effects of peer-implemented pivotal response training.

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, K; Schreibman, L

    1995-01-01

    Two children with autism were taught to engage in a variety of complex social behaviors using peer-implemented pivotal response training (PRT), a set of procedures designed to increase motivation and promote generalization. Typical peers were taught to implement PRT strategies by modeling, role playing, and didactic instruction. After training, peers implemented the procedures in the absence of direct supervision in a classroom environment. After the intervention, both children with autism maintained prolonged interactions with the peer, initiated play and conversations, and increased engagement in language and joint attention behaviors. In addition, teachers reported positive changes in social behavior, with the largest increases in peer-preferred social behavior. Further, these effects showed generality and maintenance. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:7592145

  13. Gas spark switches with increased operating life for Marx generator of lightning test complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, Yu. A.; Krastelev, E. G.

    2016-12-01

    A new design of gas spark switches with an increased operating life and stable dynamic characteristics for the Marx generator of the lightning test complex has been developed. The switches are characterized by the following parameters in the mode of operation: voltage up to 80 kV, discharge current up to 50 kA, flowing charge up to 3.5 C/pulse. An increased operating life is achieved by using torus-shaped electrodes with increased working surface area and a trigger electrode in the form of a thick disk with a hole located between them. Low breakdown delay time and high stability of breakdown voltage under dynamic conditions are provided by gas preionization in the spark gap using UV radiation of an additional corona discharge in the axial region.

  14. New reagents for increasing ESI multiple charging of proteins and protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Lomeli, Shirley H; Peng, Ivory X; Yin, Sheng; Loo, Rachel R Ogorzalek; Loo, Joseph A

    2010-01-01

    The addition of m-nitrobenzyl alcohol (m-NBA) was shown previously (Lomeli et al., J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2009, 20, 593-596) to enhance multiple charging of native proteins and noncovalent protein complexes in electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectra. Additional new reagents have been found to "supercharge" proteins from nondenaturing solutions; several of these reagents are shown to be more effective than m-NBA for increasing positive charging. Using the myoglobin protein-protoporphyrin IX (heme) complex, the following reagents were shown to increase ESI charging: benzyl alcohol, m-nitroacetophenone, m-nitrobenzonitrile, o-NBA, m-NBA, p-NBA, m-nitrophenyl ethanol, sulfolane (tetramethylene sulfone), and m-(trifluoromethyl)-benzyl alcohol. Based on average charge state, sulfolane displayed a greater charge increase (61%) than m-NBA (21%) for myoglobin in aqueous solutions. The reagents that promote higher ESI charging appear to have low solution-phase basicities and relatively low gas-phase basicities, and are less volatile than water. Another feature of mass spectra from some of the active reagents is that adducts are present on higher charge states, suggesting that a mechanism by which proteins acquire additional charge involves direct interaction with the reagent, in addition to other factors such as surface tension and protein denaturation.

  15. Evolution of Integrated Causal Structures in Animats Exposed to Environments of Increasing Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Albantakis, Larissa; Hintze, Arend; Koch, Christof; Adami, Christoph; Tononi, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection favors the evolution of brains that can capture fitness-relevant features of the environment's causal structure. We investigated the evolution of small, adaptive logic-gate networks (“animats”) in task environments where falling blocks of different sizes have to be caught or avoided in a ‘Tetris-like’ game. Solving these tasks requires the integration of sensor inputs and memory. Evolved networks were evaluated using measures of information integration, including the number of evolved concepts and the total amount of integrated conceptual information. The results show that, over the course of the animats' adaptation, i) the number of concepts grows; ii) integrated conceptual information increases; iii) this increase depends on the complexity of the environment, especially on the requirement for sequential memory. These results suggest that the need to capture the causal structure of a rich environment, given limited sensors and internal mechanisms, is an important driving force for organisms to develop highly integrated networks (“brains”) with many concepts, leading to an increase in their internal complexity. PMID:25521484

  16. Soluble complex of complement increases hydraulic conductivity in single microvessels of rat lung.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, S; Tsukada, H; Bhattacharya, J

    1993-01-01

    We determined the effect of sera enriched with the soluble complex of complement (SC5b-9), on hydraulic conductivity (Lp) of single pulmonary venules (diameter 20-30 microns). Sera free of anticoagulants and blood cells were prepared from rat and human blood. Lp were determined by our split drop technique in isolated, blood-perfused lungs prepared from anesthetized rats (2% halothane; Sprague Dawley, 500 g; n = 73). Zymosan-activated (ZAS) and control sera were used for Lp determinations. In ZAS prepared from human serum, SC5b-9 concentration was > 300 micrograms/ml (control: < 1 microgram/ml) as determined by ELISA. At baseline, Lp averaged 3.4 +/- .4 x 10(-7) ml/(cm2.s.cm H2O), but it increased by 217 +/- 32% with undiluted ZAS (P < 0.05). The Lp increase correlated significantly with different ZAS dilutions for rat serum and with SC5b-9 concentration for human serum. Lp did not increase significantly with ZAS prepared from heat-treated sera, C6- and C8-deficient sera; or with ZAS in which SC5b-9 had been depleted by immunoprecipitation. The ZAS-induced increase of Lp was blocked completely by venular preinfusion with the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) tripeptide (1 mg/ml, 10 min). We report for the first time that: (a) SC5b-9 increases lung endothelial Lp; and (b) the increase of Lp is attributable to an integrin-dependent mechanism.

  17. President's Address

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Maurice

    1928-01-01

    Conditions which experience has proved conducive to mental disturbance considered.—Suggestions as to their treatment.—A weakened inhibition, rather than any positive condition, is probably the most important factor in the production of the exhaustion psycho-neuroses or psychoses. This view is supported by the prophylactic value of giving for prolonged periods small doses of bromide to hypersensitive children or to highly-strung persons exposed to stress or tropical climate, etc.—Pavlov's work on the conditioned reflexes in dogs quoted in support of the author's clinical experience: Pavlov states that bromides should not be regarded as sedatives, diminishing the excitability of the central nervous system, but as simply regulating the nervous system by strengthening the intensity of internal inhibition. This agrees with the author's clinical experience, as small doses of bromide taken regularly over a period of many years do not diminish the mental powers but in fact increase them. Question of sleeplessness considered with regard to the way in which sedatives act. Most of these do not act as so-called “sleeping draughts”; research may ultimately show that their action is to strengthen a weakened inhibition and that sleep is only a secondary benefit.—Value of sedatives before and after surgical operation. Importance of toxæmia in the production of mental disorder; insomnia often precedes a toxic process and permits it to become active. The theory of weakened inhibition explains many problems; e.g., why certain brilliant children or adults break down and why at first there is no interference with their normal mental activity which only becomes involved as sleep and other bodily functions become affected; why a toxæmia may affect the nervous system of certain people; why a breakdown may follow over-stimulation or occur with advancing years; why some persons relapse when certain treatment is discontinued; why treatment should at times be continuous, and why

  18. Opening address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castagnoli, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen My cordial thanks to you for participating in our workshop and to all those who have sponsored it. When in 1957 I attended the International Congress on Fundamental Constants held in Turin on the occasion of the first centenary of the death of Amedeo Avogadro, I did not expect that about thirty-five years later a small but representative number of distinguished scientists would meet here again, to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal figure of the Avogadro constant. At that time, the uncertainty of the value of this constant was linked to the fourth decimal figure, as reported in the book by DuMond and Cohen. The progress made in the meantime is universally acknowledged to be due to the discovery of x-ray interferometry. We are honoured that one of the two founding fathers, Prof. Ulrich Bonse, is here with us, but we regret that the other, Prof. Michael Hart, is not present. After Bonse and Hart's discovery, the x-ray crystal density method triggered, as in a chain reaction, the investigation of two other quantities related to the Avogadro constant—density and molar mass. Scientists became, so to speak, resonant and since then have directed their efforts, just to mention a few examples, to producing near-perfect silicon spheres and determining their density, to calibrating, with increasing accuracy, mass spectrometers, and to studying the degree of homogeneity of silicon specimens. Obviously, I do not need to explain to you why the Avogadro constant is important. I wish, however, to underline that it is not only because of its position among fundamental constants, as we all know very well its direct links with the fine structure constant, the Boltzmann and Faraday constants, the h/e ratio, but also because when a new value of NA is obtained, the whole structure of the fundamental constants is shaken to a lesser or greater extent. Let me also remind you that the second part of the title of this workshop concerns the silicon

  19. Parasites affect food web structure primarily through increased diversity and complexity.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Jennifer A; Lafferty, Kevin D; Dobson, Andrew P; Hechinger, Ryan F; Kuris, Armand M; Martinez, Neo D; McLaughlin, John P; Mouritsen, Kim N; Poulin, Robert; Reise, Karsten; Stouffer, Daniel B; Thieltges, David W; Williams, Richard J; Zander, Claus Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Comparative research on food web structure has revealed generalities in trophic organization, produced simple models, and allowed assessment of robustness to species loss. These studies have mostly focused on free-living species. Recent research has suggested that inclusion of parasites alters structure. We assess whether such changes in network structure result from unique roles and traits of parasites or from changes to diversity and complexity. We analyzed seven highly resolved food webs that include metazoan parasite data. Our analyses show that adding parasites usually increases link density and connectance (simple measures of complexity), particularly when including concomitant links (links from predators to parasites of their prey). However, we clarify prior claims that parasites "dominate" food web links. Although parasites can be involved in a majority of links, in most cases classic predation links outnumber classic parasitism links. Regarding network structure, observed changes in degree distributions, 14 commonly studied metrics, and link probabilities are consistent with scale-dependent changes in structure associated with changes in diversity and complexity. Parasite and free-living species thus have similar effects on these aspects of structure. However, two changes point to unique roles of parasites. First, adding parasites and concomitant links strongly alters the frequency of most motifs of interactions among three taxa, reflecting parasites' roles as resources for predators of their hosts, driven by trophic intimacy with their hosts. Second, compared to free-living consumers, many parasites' feeding niches appear broader and less contiguous, which may reflect complex life cycles and small body sizes. This study provides new insights about generic versus unique impacts of parasites on food web structure, extends the generality of food web theory, gives a more rigorous framework for assessing the impact of any species on trophic organization

  20. Parasites affect food web structure primarily through increased diversity and complexity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunne, Jennifer A.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Hechinger, Ryan F.; Kuris, Armand M.; Martinez, Neo D.; McLaughlin, John P.; Mouritsen, Kim N.; Poulin, Robert; Reise, Karsten; Stouffer, Daniel B.; Thieltges, David W.; Williams, Richard J.; Zander, Claus Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Comparative research on food web structure has revealed generalities in trophic organization, produced simple models, and allowed assessment of robustness to species loss. These studies have mostly focused on free-living species. Recent research has suggested that inclusion of parasites alters structure. We assess whether such changes in network structure result from unique roles and traits of parasites or from changes to diversity and complexity. We analyzed seven highly resolved food webs that include metazoan parasite data. Our analyses show that adding parasites usually increases link density and connectance (simple measures of complexity), particularly when including concomitant links (links from predators to parasites of their prey). However, we clarify prior claims that parasites ‘‘dominate’’ food web links. Although parasites can be involved in a majority of links, in most cases classic predation links outnumber classic parasitism links. Regarding network structure, observed changes in degree distributions, 14 commonly studied metrics, and link probabilities are consistent with scale-dependent changes in structure associated with changes in diversity and complexity. Parasite and free-living species thus have similar effects on these aspects of structure. However, two changes point to unique roles of parasites. First, adding parasites and concomitant links strongly alters the frequency of most motifs of interactions among three taxa, reflecting parasites’ roles as resources for predators of their hosts, driven by trophic intimacy with their hosts. Second, compared to free-living consumers, many parasites’ feeding niches appear broader and less contiguous, which may reflect complex life cycles and small body sizes. This study provides new insights about generic versus unique impacts of parasites on food web structure, extends the generality of food web theory, gives a more rigorous framework for assessing the impact of any species on trophic

  1. Increased Substitution Rates Surrounding Low-Complexity Regions within Primate Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Carolyn; Haerty, Wilfried; Golding, G. Brian

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have found that DNA-flanking low-complexity regions (LCRs) have an increased substitution rate. Here, the substitution rate was confirmed to increase in the vicinity of LCRs in several primate species, including humans. This effect was also found among human sequences from the 1000 Genomes Project. A strong correlation was found between average substitution rate per site and distance from the LCR, as well as the proportion of genes with gaps in the alignment at each site and distance from the LCR. Along with substitution rates, dN/dS ratios were also determined for each site, and the proportion of sites undergoing negative selection was found to have a negative relationship with distance from the LCR. PMID:24572016

  2. Academic Institutions and One Health: Building Capacity for Transdisciplinary Research Approaches to Address Complex Health Issues at the Animal–Human–Ecosystem Interface

    PubMed Central

    Allen-Scott, Lisa K.; Buntain, Bonnie; Hatfield, Jennifer M.; Meisser, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    To improve health at the human, animal, and ecosystem interface, defined as One Health, training of researchers must transcend individual disciplines to develop a new process of collaboration. The transdisciplinary research approach integrates frameworks and methodologies beyond academic disciplines and includes involvement of and input from policy makers and members of the community. The authors argue that there should be a significant shift in academic institutions’ research capacity to achieve the added value of a transdisciplinary approach for addressing One Health problems. This Perspective is a call to action for academic institutions to provide the foundations for this salient shift. The authors begin by describing the transdisciplinary approach, propose methods for building transdisciplinary research capacity, and highlight three value propositions that support the case. Examples are provided to illustrate how the transdisciplinary approach to research adds value through improved sustainability of impact, increased cost-effectiveness, and enhanced abilities to mitigate potentially harmful unintended consequences. The authors conclude with three key recommendations for academic institutions: (1) a focus on creating enabling environments for One Health and transdisciplinary research, (2) the development of novel funding structures for transdisciplinary research, and (3) training of “transmitters” using real-world-oriented educational programs that break down research silos through collaboration across disciplines. PMID:25650827

  3. Academic Institutions and One Health: Building Capacity for Transdisciplinary Research Approaches to Address Complex Health Issues at the Animal-Human-Ecosystem Interface.

    PubMed

    Allen-Scott, Lisa K; Buntain, Bonnie; Hatfield, Jennifer M; Meisser, Andrea; Thomas, Christopher James

    2015-07-01

    To improve health at the human, animal, and ecosystem interface, defined as One Health, training of researchers must transcend individual disciplines to develop a new process of collaboration. The transdisciplinary research approach integrates frameworks and methodologies beyond academic disciplines and includes involvement of and input from policy makers and members of the community. The authors argue that there should be a significant shift in academic institutions' research capacity to achieve the added value of a transdisciplinary approach for addressing One Health problems. This Perspective is a call to action for academic institutions to provide the foundations for this salient shift. The authors begin by describing the transdisciplinary approach, propose methods for building transdisciplinary research capacity, and highlight three value propositions that support the case. Examples are provided to illustrate how the transdisciplinary approach to research adds value through improved sustainability of impact, increased cost-effectiveness, and enhanced abilities to mitigate potentially harmful unintended consequences. The authors conclude with three key recommendations for academic institutions: (1) a focus on creating enabling environments for One Health and transdisciplinary research, (2) the development of novel funding structures for transdisciplinary research, and (3) training of "transmitters" using real-world-oriented educational programs that break down research silos through collaboration across disciplines.

  4. Cholesterol-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate complexed with thulium ions integrated into bicelles to increase their magnetic alignability.

    PubMed

    Liebi, Marianne; Kuster, Simon; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Ishikawa, Takashi; Fischer, Peter; Walde, Peter; Windhab, Erich J

    2013-11-27

    Lanthanides have been used for several decades to increase the magnetic alignability of bicelles. DMPE-DTPA (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate) is commonly applied to anchor the lanthanides into the bicelles. However, because DMPE-DTPA has the tendency to accumulate at the highly curved edge region of the bicelles and if located there does not contribute to the magnetic orientation energy, we have tested cholesterol-DTPA complexed with thulium ions (Tm(3+)) as an alternative chelator to increase the magnetic alignability. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) measurements indicate the successful integration of cholesterol-DTPA into a DMPC (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) bilayer. Cryo transmission electron microscopy and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements show that the disklike structure, that is, bicelles, is maintained if cholesterol-DTPA·Tm(3+) is integrated into a mixture of DMPC, cholesterol, and DMPE-DTPA·Tm(3+). The size of the bicelles is increased compared to the size of the bicelles obtained from mixtures without cholesterol-DTPA·Tm(3+). Magnetic-field-induced birefringence and SANS measurements in a magnetic field show that with addition of cholesterol-DTPA·Tm(3+) the magnetic alignability of these bicelles is significantly increased compared to bicelles composed of DMPC, cholesterol, and DMPE-DTPA·Tm(3+) only.

  5. Postural control in bipolar disorder: increased sway area and decreased dynamical complexity.

    PubMed

    Bolbecker, Amanda R; Hong, S Lee; Kent, Jerillyn S; Klaunig, Mallory J; O'Donnell, Brian F; Hetrick, William P

    2011-01-01

    Structural, neurochemical, and functional abnormalities have been identified in the brains of individuals with bipolar disorder, including in key brain structures implicated in postural control, i.e. the cerebellum, brainstem, and basal ganglia. Given these findings, we tested the hypothesis that postural control deficits are present in individuals with bipolar disorder. Sixteen participants with bipolar disorder (BD) and 16 age-matched non-psychiatric healthy controls were asked to stand as still as possible on a force platform for 2 minutes under 4 conditions: (1) eyes open-open base; (2) eyes closed-open base; (3) eyes open-closed base; and (4) eyes closed-closed base. Postural sway data were submitted to conventional quantitative analyses of the magnitude of sway area using the center of pressure measurement. In addition, data were submitted to detrended fluctuation analysis, a nonlinear dynamical systems analytic technique that measures complexity of a time-series, on both the anterior-posterior and medio-lateral directions. The bipolar disorder group had increased sway area, indicative of reduced postural control. Decreased complexity in the medio-lateral direction was also observed for the bipolar disorder group, suggesting both a reduction in dynamic range available to them for postural control, and that their postural corrections were primarily dominated by longer time-scales. On both of these measures, significant interactions between diagnostic group and visual condition were also observed, suggesting that the BD participants were impaired in their ability to make corrections to their sway pattern when no visual information was available. Greater sway magnitude and reduced complexity suggest that individuals with bipolar disorder have deficits in sensorimotor integration and a reduced range of timescales available on which to make postural corrections.

  6. Genome-enabled Modeling of Microbial Biogeochemistry using a Trait-based Approach. Does Increasing Metabolic Complexity Increase Predictive Capabilities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, E.; Karaoz, U.; Molins, S.; Bouskill, N.; Anantharaman, K.; Beller, H. R.; Banfield, J. F.; Steefel, C. I.; Brodie, E.

    2015-12-01

    The biogeochemical functioning of ecosystems is shaped in part by genomic information stored in the subsurface microbiome. Cultivation-independent approaches allow us to extract this information through reconstruction of thousands of genomes from a microbial community. Analysis of these genomes, in turn, gives an indication of the organisms present and their functional roles. However, metagenomic analyses can currently deliver thousands of different genomes that range in abundance/importance, requiring the identification and assimilation of key physiologies and metabolisms to be represented as traits for successful simulation of subsurface processes. Here we focus on incorporating -omics information into BioCrunch, a genome-informed trait-based model that represents the diversity of microbial functional processes within a reactive transport framework. This approach models the rate of nutrient uptake and the thermodynamics of coupled electron donors and acceptors for a range of microbial metabolisms including heterotrophs and chemolithotrophs. Metabolism of exogenous substrates fuels catabolic and anabolic processes, with the proportion of energy used for cellular maintenance, respiration, biomass development, and enzyme production based upon dynamic intracellular and environmental conditions. This internal resource partitioning represents a trade-off against biomass formation and results in microbial community emergence across a fitness landscape. Biocrunch was used here in simulations that included organisms and metabolic pathways derived from a dataset of ~1200 non-redundant genomes reflecting a microbial community in a floodplain aquifer. Metagenomic data was directly used to parameterize trait values related to growth and to identify trait linkages associated with respiration, fermentation, and key enzymatic functions such as plant polymer degradation. Simulations spanned a range of metabolic complexities and highlight benefits originating from simulations

  7. Increasing the enrolment of rural applicants to the faculty of medicine and addressing diversity by using a priority matrix approach to assign values to rural attributes.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, M; Martin, B D; Roberts, D; Aoki, F; MacKalski, B A; Sandham, J D

    2011-01-01

    In an external review of the admissions process for the Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Canada, it was suggested that admissions policies be modified to increase the enrolment of students more likely to practise in rural locations, by selecting a cohort of students with attributes reflecting potential for rural practice. A broad-based Working Group devised a framework for scoring personal attributes reflecting a potential for living and working in rural areas. This framework, based on established characteristics reported in the literature, valued applicants who had rural connections, a history of rural employment, a history of rural community service, or a combination of these attributes. Relative weights for the attributes were determined using a priority matrix approach. Historic admissions data, comprising applicants' rural origin (defined only by location of high school graduation), composite scores, and ranking, were reanalyzed to identify the magnitude of numerical constants that, when applied to composite scores, enhanced the relative ranking of eligible rural-origin applicants. This resulted in a hypothetical 29%-33% increase in the number of rural-origin students in incoming classes in those years. In the inaugural year of implementation of the policy and methodology, 60 admission offers (44.1%) were made to applicants with one or more rural attributes. Without adjustments, only 49 applicants with rural attributes (36%) would have been offered admission. This methodology resulted in a 22.4% increase in admission offers to applicants with rural attributes, and ushered in an incoming class that was more representative of the province's rural-urban demographics than in previous years. This methodology, although focused on rurality, could be equally applicable to any attribute, and to achieve greater diversity and equity among medical school applicants.

  8. A coordinated cross-disciplinary research initiative to address an increased incidence of narcolepsy following the 2009-2010 Pandemrix vaccination programme in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Feltelius, N; Persson, I; Ahlqvist-Rastad, J; Andersson, M; Arnheim-Dahlström, L; Bergman, P; Granath, F; Adori, C; Hökfelt, T; Kühlmann-Berenzon, S; Liljeström, P; Maeurer, M; Olsson, T; Örtqvist, Å; Partinen, M; Salmonson, T; Zethelius, B

    2015-10-01

    In response to the 2009-2010 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic, a mass vaccination programme with the AS03-adjuvanted influenza A(H1N1) vaccine Pandemrix was initiated in Sweden. Unexpectedly, there were a number of narcolepsy cases amongst vaccinated children and adolescents reported. In this review, we summarize the results of a joint cross-disciplinary national research effort to investigate the adverse reaction signal from the spontaneous reporting system and to better understand possible causative mechanisms. A three- to fourfold increased risk of narcolepsy in vaccinated children and adolescents was verified by epidemiological studies. Of importance, no risk increase was observed for the other neurological and autoimmune diseases studied. Genetic studies confirmed the association with the allele HLA-DQB1*06:02, which is known to be related to sporadic narcolepsy. Furthermore, a number of studies using cellular and molecular experimental models investigated possible links between influenza vaccination and narcolepsy. Serum analysis, using a peptide microarray platform, showed that individuals who received Pandemrix exhibited a different epitope reactivity pattern to neuraminidase and haemagglutinin, as compared to individuals who were infected with H1N1. Patients with narcolepsy were also found to have increased levels of interferon-gamma production in response to streptococcus-associated antigens. The chain of patient-related events and the study results emerging over time were subjected to intense nationwide media attention. The importance of transparent communication and collaboration with patient representatives to maintain public trust in vaccination programmes is also discussed in the review. Organizational challenges due to this unexpected event delayed the initiation of some of the research projects, still the main objectives of this joint, cross-disciplinary research effort were reached, and important insights were acquired for future, similar

  9. Modeling Increased Complexity and the Reliance on Automation: FLightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP) Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the development of a model that is focused on the safety issue of increasing complexity and reliance on automation systems in transport category aircraft. Recent statistics show an increase in mishaps related to manual handling and automation errors due to pilot complacency and over-reliance on automation, loss of situational awareness, automation system failures and/or pilot deficiencies. Consequently, the aircraft can enter a state outside the flight envelope and/or air traffic safety margins which potentially can lead to loss-of-control (LOC), controlled-flight-into-terrain (CFIT), or runway excursion/confusion accidents, etc. The goal of this modeling effort is to provide NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) with a platform capable of assessing the impacts of AvSP technologies and products towards reducing the relative risk of automation related accidents and incidents. In order to do so, a generic framework, capable of mapping both latent and active causal factors leading to automation errors, is developed. Next, the framework is converted into a Bayesian Belief Network model and populated with data gathered from Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). With the insertion of technologies and products, the model provides individual and collective risk reduction acquired by technologies and methodologies developed within AvSP.

  10. Increases in Retrograde Injury Signaling Complex-Related Transcripts in Central Axons following Injury

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Gunja K.; Ornstein, Hannah; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim; Karlsson, Amy J.

    2016-01-01

    Axons in the peripheral nervous system respond to injury by activating retrograde injury signaling (RIS) pathways, which promote local axonal protein synthesis (LPS) and neuronal regeneration. RIS is also initiated following injury of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). However, regulation of the localization of axonal mRNA required for LPS is not well understood. We used a hippocampal explant system to probe the regulation of axonal levels of RIS-associated transcripts following axonal injury. Axonal levels of importin β1 and RanBP1 were elevated biphasically at 1 and 24 hrs after axotomy. Transcript levels for β-actin, a prototypic axonally synthesized protein, were similarly elevated. Our data suggest differential regulation of axonal transcripts. At 1 hr after injury, deployment of actinomycin revealed that RanBP1, but not importin β1, requires de novo mRNA synthesis. At 24 hrs after injury, use of importazole revealed that the second wave of increased axonal mRNA levels required importin β-mediated nuclear import. We also observed increased importin β1 axonal protein levels at 1 and 6 hrs after injury. RanBP1 levels and vimentin levels fluctuated but were unchanged at 3 and 6 hrs after injury. This study revealed temporally complex regulation of axonal transcript levels, and it has implications for understanding neuronal response to injury in the CNS. PMID:27847648

  11. Impacts of increasing the aerosol complexity in the Met Office global numerical weather prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulcahy, J. P.; Walters, D. N.; Bellouin, N.; Milton, S. F.

    2014-05-01

    The inclusion of the direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosols in high-resolution global numerical weather prediction (NWP) models is being increasingly recognised as important for the improved accuracy of short-range weather forecasts. In this study the impacts of increasing the aerosol complexity in the global NWP configuration of the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) are investigated. A hierarchy of aerosol representations are evaluated including three-dimensional monthly mean speciated aerosol climatologies, fully prognostic aerosols modelled using the CLASSIC aerosol scheme and finally, initialised aerosols using assimilated aerosol fields from the GEMS project. The prognostic aerosol schemes are better able to predict the temporal and spatial variation of atmospheric aerosol optical depth, which is particularly important in cases of large sporadic aerosol events such as large dust storms or forest fires. Including the direct effect of aerosols improves model biases in outgoing long-wave radiation over West Africa due to a better representation of dust. However, uncertainties in dust optical properties propagate to its direct effect and the subsequent model response. Inclusion of the indirect aerosol effects improves surface radiation biases at the North Slope of Alaska ARM site due to lower cloud amounts in high-latitude clean-air regions. This leads to improved temperature and height forecasts in this region. Impacts on the global mean model precipitation and large-scale circulation fields were found to be generally small in the short-range forecasts. However, the indirect aerosol effect leads to a strengthening of the low-level monsoon flow over the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal and an increase in precipitation over Southeast Asia. Regional impacts on the African Easterly Jet (AEJ) are also presented with the large dust loading in the aerosol climatology enhancing of the heat low over West Africa and weakening the AEJ. This study highlights the

  12. Impacts of increasing the aerosol complexity in the Met Office global NWP model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulcahy, J. P.; Walters, D. N.; Bellouin, N.; Milton, S. F.

    2013-11-01

    Inclusion of the direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosols in high resolution global numerical weather prediction (NWP) models is being increasingly recognised as important for the improved accuracy of short-range weather forecasts. In this study the impacts of increasing the aerosol complexity in the global NWP configuration of the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) are investigated. A hierarchy of aerosol representations are evaluated including three dimensional monthly mean speciated aerosol climatologies, fully prognostic aerosols modelled using the CLASSIC aerosol scheme and finally, initialised aerosols using assimilated aerosol fields from the GEMS project. The prognostic aerosol schemes are better able to predict the temporal and spatial variation of atmospheric aerosol optical depth, which is particularly important in cases of large sporadic aerosol events such as large dust storms or forest fires. Including the direct effect of aerosols improves model biases in outgoing longwave radiation over West Africa due to a better representation of dust. However, uncertainties in dust optical properties propogate to its direct effect and the subsequent model response. Inclusion of the indirect aerosol effects improves surface radiation biases at the North Slope of Alaska ARM site due to lower cloud amounts in high latitude clean air regions. This leads to improved temperature and height forecasts in this region. Impacts on the global mean model precipitation and large-scale circulation fields were found to be generally small in the short range forecasts. However, the indirect aerosol effect leads to a strengthening of the low level monsoon flow over the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal and an increase in precipitation over Southeast Asia. Regional impacts on the African Easterly Jet (AEJ) are also presented with the large dust loading in the aerosol climatology enhancing of the heat low over West Africa and weakening the AEJ. This study highlights the importance

  13. Impacts of increasing the aerosol complexity in the Met Office global NWP model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulcahy, Jane; Walters, David; Bellouin, Nicolas; Milton, Sean

    2014-05-01

    Inclusion of the direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosols in high resolution global numerical weather prediction (NWP) models is being increasingly recognised as important for the improved accuracy of short-range weather forecasts. In this study the impacts of increasing the aerosol complexity in the global NWP configuration of the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) are investigated. A hierarchy of aerosol representations are evaluated including three dimensional monthly mean speciated aerosol climatologies, fully prognostic aerosols modelled using the CLASSIC aerosol scheme and finally, initialised aerosols using assimilated aerosol fields from the GEMS project. The prognostic aerosol schemes are better able to predict the temporal and spatial variation of atmospheric aerosol optical depth, which is particularly important in cases of large sporadic aerosol events such as large dust storms or forest fires. Including the direct effect of aerosols improves model biases in outgoing longwave radiation over West Africa due to a better representation of dust. Inclusion of the indirect aerosol effects has significant impacts on the SW radiation particularly at high latitudes due to lower cloud amounts in high latitude clean air regions. This leads to improved surface radiation biases at the North Slope of Alaska ARM site. Verification of temperature and height forecasts is also improved in this region. Impacts on the global mean model precipitation and large-scale circulation fields were found to be generally small in the short range forecasts. However, the indirect aerosol effect leads to a strengthening of the low level monsoon flow over the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal and an increase in precipitation over Southeast Asia. This study highlights the importance of including a more realistic treatment of aerosol-cloud interactions in global NWP models and the potential for improved global environmental prediction systems through the incorporation of more complex

  14. Transcriptome survey reveals increased complexity of the alternative splicing landscape in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Yamile; Brown, John W.S.; Simpson, Craig; Barta, Andrea; Kalyna, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a key regulatory mechanism that contributes to transcriptome and proteome diversity. As very few genome-wide studies analyzing AS in plants are available, we have performed high-throughput sequencing of a normalized cDNA library which resulted in a high coverage transcriptome map of Arabidopsis. We detect ∼150,000 splice junctions derived mostly from typical plant introns, including an eightfold increase in the number of U12 introns (2069). Around 61% of multiexonic genes are alternatively spliced under normal growth conditions. Moreover, we provide experimental validation of 540 AS transcripts (from 256 genes coding for important regulatory factors) using high-resolution RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. Intron retention (IR) is the most frequent AS event (∼40%), but many IRs have relatively low read coverage and are less well-represented in assembled transcripts. Additionally, ∼51% of Arabidopsis genes produce AS transcripts which do not involve IR. Therefore, the significance of IR in generating transcript diversity was generally overestimated in previous assessments. IR analysis allowed the identification of a large set of cryptic introns inside annotated coding exons. Importantly, a significant fraction of these cryptic introns are spliced out in frame, indicating a role in protein diversity. Furthermore, we show extensive AS coupled to nonsense-mediated decay in AFC2, encoding a highly conserved LAMMER kinase which phosphorylates splicing factors, thus establishing a complex loop in AS regulation. We provide the most comprehensive analysis of AS to date which will serve as a valuable resource for the plant community to study transcriptome complexity and gene regulation. PMID:22391557

  15. Increasing Complexity of Heart Transplantation in Patients With Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Shi, William Y; Saxena, Pankaj; Yong, Matthew S; Marasco, Silvana F; McGiffin, David C; Shipp, Anne; Weintraub, Robert G; d'Udekem, Yves; Brizard, Christian P; Konstantinov, Igor E

    2016-01-01

    Owing to improved surgical results, there is a growing population of patients with repaired congenital heart disease (CHD) requiring heart transplantation. The objective of the study was to review our experience in these patients. A retrospective review of the outcomes of heart transplantation in patients with CHD (n = 77) between 1988 and 2014 was performed. Outcomes of early (1988-1999) and late (2000-2014) eras were compared. In results, the mean age was 18 ± 14 years (range: 16 days-58 years). Seventy (91%) patients underwent a mean of 2.6 ± 1.3 (range: 1-6) cardiac operations before transplantation, whereas 7 were primary transplants. Univentricular palliation had been performed in 44 (57%) patients. Patients with CHD in the later era had longer mean cardiopulmonary bypass time (early: 190 ± 70 minute vs late: 271 ± 115 minute; P < 0.001), ischemic times (early: 222 ± 98 minute vs late: 275 ± 102 minute; P = 0.039), and more often required reconstruction of the great arteries at the time of transplantation (8% vs 28%; P = 0.036). In those with prior univentricular palliations, the ratio of ischemic to cardiopulmonary bypass time decreased in the later era (early: 1.41 ± 0.60 vs late: 0.99 ± 0.37; P = 0.016), reflecting increased intraoperative complexity. Following transplantation, hospital mortality was 13% (10/77; 7 due to primary graft failure). There was no difference in inhospital mortality between the 2 eras (P = 0.52); however, patients in the later era more often required postoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (early: 8%, 3/38 vs late: 28%, 11/39; P = 0.036). In patients with prior univentricular palliations, those in the late era were more likely to experience postoperative renal impairment (early: 1/21, 5% vs late: 9/23, 39%; P = 0.01). Patients with CHD had higher 30-day mortality (CHD: n = 8, 10% vs non-CHD: n = 17, 3.8%; P = 0.021), but similar survival at 10 years (67% ± 12% vs 70% ± 4.7%; P = 0.87) compared to those without

  16. Peptidoglycan recognition protein–peptidoglycan complexes increase monocyte/macrophage activation and enhance the inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    De Marzi, Mauricio C; Todone, Marcos; Ganem, María B; Wang, Qian; Mariuzza, Roy A; Fernández, Marisa M; Malchiodi, Emilio L

    2015-01-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRP) are pattern recognition receptors that can bind or hydrolyse peptidoglycan (PGN). Four human PGRP have been described: PGRP-S, PGRP-L, PGRP-Iα and PGRP-Iβ. Mammalian PGRP-S has been implicated in intracellular destruction of bacteria by polymorphonuclear cells, PGRP-Iα and PGRP-Iβ have been found in keratinocytes and epithelial cells, and PGRP-L is a serum protein that hydrolyses PGN. We have expressed recombinant human PGRP and observed that PGRP-S and PGRP-Iα exist as monomer and disulphide dimer proteins. The PGRP dimers maintain their biological functions. We detected the PGRP-S dimer in human serum and polymorphonuclear cells, from where it is secreted after degranulation; these cells being a possible source of serum PGRP-S. Recombinant PGRP do not act as bactericidal or bacteriostatic agents in the assayed conditions; however, PGRP-S and PGRP-Iα cause slight damage in the bacterial membrane. Monocytes/macrophages increase Staphylococcus aureus phagocytosis in the presence of PGRP-S, PGRP-Iα and PGRP-Iβ. All PGRP bind to monocyte/macrophage membranes and are endocytosed by them. In addition, all PGRP protect cells from PGN-induced apoptosis. PGRP increase THP-1 cell proliferation and enhance activation by PGN. PGRP-S–PGN complexes increase the membrane expression of CD14, CD80 and CD86, and enhance secretion of interleukin-8, interleukin-12 and tumour necrosis factor-α, but reduce interleukin-10, clearly inducing an inflammatory profile. PMID:25752767

  17. Peptidoglycan recognition protein-peptidoglycan complexes increase monocyte/macrophage activation and enhance the inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    De Marzi, Mauricio C; Todone, Marcos; Ganem, María B; Wang, Qian; Mariuzza, Roy A; Fernández, Marisa M; Malchiodi, Emilio L

    2015-07-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRP) are pattern recognition receptors that can bind or hydrolyse peptidoglycan (PGN). Four human PGRP have been described: PGRP-S, PGRP-L, PGRP-Iα and PGRP-Iβ. Mammalian PGRP-S has been implicated in intracellular destruction of bacteria by polymorphonuclear cells, PGRP-Iα and PGRP-Iβ have been found in keratinocytes and epithelial cells, and PGRP-L is a serum protein that hydrolyses PGN. We have expressed recombinant human PGRP and observed that PGRP-S and PGRP-Iα exist as monomer and disulphide dimer proteins. The PGRP dimers maintain their biological functions. We detected the PGRP-S dimer in human serum and polymorphonuclear cells, from where it is secreted after degranulation; these cells being a possible source of serum PGRP-S. Recombinant PGRP do not act as bactericidal or bacteriostatic agents in the assayed conditions; however, PGRP-S and PGRP-Iα cause slight damage in the bacterial membrane. Monocytes/macrophages increase Staphylococcus aureus phagocytosis in the presence of PGRP-S, PGRP-Iα and PGRP-Iβ. All PGRP bind to monocyte/macrophage membranes and are endocytosed by them. In addition, all PGRP protect cells from PGN-induced apoptosis. PGRP increase THP-1 cell proliferation and enhance activation by PGN. PGRP-S-PGN complexes increase the membrane expression of CD14, CD80 and CD86, and enhance secretion of interleukin-8, interleukin-12 and tumour necrosis factor-α, but reduce interleukin-10, clearly inducing an inflammatory profile.

  18. Repeated Listening Increases the Liking for Music Regardless of Its Complexity: Implications for the Appreciation and Aesthetics of Music

    PubMed Central

    Madison, Guy; Schiölde, Gunilla

    2017-01-01

    Psychological and aesthetic theories predict that music is appreciated at optimal, peak levels of familiarity and complexity, and that appreciation of music exhibits an inverted U-shaped relationship with familiarity as well as complexity. Because increased familiarity conceivably leads to improved processing and less perceived complexity, we test whether there is an interaction between familiarity and complexity. Specifically, increased familiarity should render the music subjectively less complex, and therefore move the apex of the U curve toward greater complexity. A naturalistic listening experiment was conducted, featuring 40 music examples (ME) divided by experts into 4 levels of complexity prior to the main experiment. The MEs were presented 28 times each across a period of approximately 4 weeks, and individual ratings were assessed throughout the experiment. Ratings of liking increased monotonically with repeated listening at all levels of complexity; both the simplest and the most complex MEs were liked more as a function of listening time, without any indication of a U-shaped relation. Although the MEs were previously unknown to the participants, the strongest predictor of liking was familiarity in terms of having listened to similar music before, i.e., familiarity with musical style. We conclude that familiarity is the single most important variable for explaining differences in liking among music, regardless of the complexity of the music.

  19. Maintaining Qubit Coherence in the face of Increased Superconducting Circuit Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hover, David; Weber, Steve; Rosenberg, Danna; Samach, Gabriel; Sears, Adam; Birenbaum, Jeffrey; Woods, Wayne; Yoder, Jonilyn; Racz, Livia; Kerman, Jamie; Oliver, William D.

    Maintaining qubit coherence in the face of increased superconducting circuit complexity is a challenge when designing an extensible quantum computing architecture. We consider this challenge in the context of inductively coupled, long-lived, capacitively-shunted flux qubits. Specifically, we discuss our efforts to mitigate the effects of radiation loss, parasitic chip-modes, cross-coupling, and Purcell decay. Our approach employs numerical modeling of the ideal Hamiltonian and electromagnetic analysis of the circuit, both of which are independently shown to be consistent with experimental results. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) and by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research & Engineering under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of ODNI, IARPA, or the US Government.

  20. Mitochondrial Complex I Deficiency Increases Protein Acetylation and Accelerates Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Karamanlidis, Georgios; Lee, Chi Fung; Garcia-Menendez, Lorena; Kolwicz, Stephen C.; Suthammarak, Wichit; Gong, Guohua; Sedensky, Margaret M.; Morgan, Philip G.; Wang, Wang; Tian, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Summary Mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction is linked to the pathogenesis of multiple diseases including heart failure but the specific mechanisms for this link remain largely elusive. We modeled the impairment of mitochondrial respiration by inactivation of the Ndufs4 gene, a protein critical for Complex I (C-I) assembly, in the mouse heart (cKO). While C-I supported respiration decreased by >40%, the cKO mice maintained normal cardiac function in vivo and high-energy phosphate content in isolated perfused hearts. However, the cKO mice developed accelerated heart failure after pressure overload or repeated pregnancy. Decreased NAD+/NADH ratio by C-I deficiency inhibited Sirt3 activity, leading to increase in protein acetylation, and sensitization of the permeability transition in mitochondria (mPTP). NAD+ precursor supplementation to cKO mice partially normalized the NAD+/NADH ratio, protein acetylation and mPTP sensitivity. These findings describe a mechanism connecting mitochondrial dysfunction to the susceptibility to diseases and propose a potential therapeutic target. PMID:23931755

  1. Protein interaction evolution from promiscuity to specificity with reduced flexibility in an increasingly complex network

    PubMed Central

    Alhindi, T.; Zhang, Z.; Ruelens, P.; Coenen, H.; Degroote, H.; Iraci, N.; Geuten, K.

    2017-01-01

    A key question regarding protein evolution is how proteins adapt to the dynamic environment in which they function and how in turn their evolution shapes the protein interaction network. We used extant and resurrected ancestral plant MADS-domain transcription factors to understand how SEPALLATA3, a protein with hub and glue properties, evolved and takes part in network organization. Although the density of dimeric interactions was saturated in the network, many new interactions became mediated by SEPALLATA3 after a whole genome triplication event. By swapping SEPALLATA3 and its ancestors between dimeric networks of different ages, we found that the protein lost the capacity of promiscuous interaction and acquired specificity in evolution. This was accompanied with constraints on conformations through proline residue accumulation, which made the protein less flexible. SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE on the other hand (non-hub) was able to gain protein-protein interactions due to a C-terminal domain insertion, allowing for a larger interaction interface. These findings illustrate that protein interaction evolution occurs at the level of conformational dynamics, when the binding mechanism concerns an induced fit or conformational selection. Proteins can evolve towards increased specificity with reduced flexibility when the complexity of the protein interaction network requires specificity. PMID:28337996

  2. Quantum Chemistry Meets Spectroscopy for Astrochemistry: Increasing Complexity toward Prebiotic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Barone, Vincenzo; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Puzzarini, Cristina

    2015-05-19

    For many years, scientists suspected that the interstellar medium was too hostile for organic species and that only a few simple molecules could be formed under such extreme conditions. However, the detection of approximately 180 molecules in interstellar or circumstellar environments in recent decades has changed this view dramatically. A rich chemistry has emerged, and relatively complex molecules such as C60 and C70 are formed. Recently, researchers have also detected complex organic and potentially prebiotic molecules, such as amino acids, in meteorites and in other space environments. Those discoveries have further stimulated the debate on the origin of the building blocks of life in the universe. Many efforts continue to focus on the physical, chemical, and astrophysical processes by which prebiotic molecules can be formed in the interstellar dust and dispersed to Earth or to other planets.Spectroscopic techniques, which are widely used to infer information about molecular structure and dynamics, play a crucial role in the investigation of planetary atmosphere and the interstellar medium. Increasingly these astrochemical investigations are assisted by quantum-mechanical calculations of structures as well as spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties, such as transition frequencies and reaction enthalpies, to guide and support observations, line assignments, and data analysis in these new and chemically complicated situations. However, it has proved challenging to extend accurate quantum-chemical computational approaches to larger systems because of the unfavorable scaling with the number of degrees of freedom (both electronic and nuclear).In this Account, we show that it is now possible to compute physicochemical properties of building blocks of biomolecules with an accuracy rivaling that of the most sophisticated experimental techniques, and we summarize specific contributions from our groups. As a test case, we present the underlying computational machinery

  3. Supervision of Group Work: A Model to Increase Supervisee Cognitive Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granello, Darcy Haag; Underfer-Babalis, Jean

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a model for supervisors of group counselors to use to promote cognitive complexity in their supervisees. Counselor cognitive complexity has been linked to many positive counseling skills, including greater flexibility, empathy, confidence, and client conceptualization. Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives provides a…

  4. Addressing Cost Increases in Evolutionary Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-30

    Financing ROI of Information Warfare Systems Special Termination Liability in MDAPs Strategic Sourcing Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) to...of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB...RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI

  5. Novel BRD4-NUT fusion isoforms increase the pathogenic complexity in NUT midline carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Wicking, K; Francis, R W; Stirnweiss, A; Ferrari, E; Welch, M D; Baker, E; Murch, A R; Gout, A M; Carter, K W; Charles, A K; Phillips, M B; Kees, U R; Beesley, A H

    2013-09-26

    Nuclear protein in testis (NUT)-midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare, aggressive disease typically presenting with a single t(15;19) translocation that results in the generation of a bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4)-NUT fusion. PER-624 is a cell line generated from an NMC patient with an unusually complex karyotype that gave no initial indication of the involvement of the NUT locus. Analysis of PER-624 next-generation transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) using the algorithm FusionFinder identified a novel transcript in which Exon 15 of BRD4 was fused to Exon 2 of NUT, therefore differing from all published NMC fusion transcripts. The three additional exons contained in the PER-624 fusion encode a series of polyproline repeats, with one predicted to form a helix. In the NMC cell line PER-403, we identified the 'standard' NMC fusion and two novel isoforms. Knockdown by small interfering RNA in either cell line resulted in decreased proliferation, increased cell size and expression of cytokeratins consistent with epithelial differentiation. These data demonstrate that the novel BRD4-NUT fusion in PER-624 encodes a functional protein that is central to the oncogenic mechanism in these cells. Genomic PCR indicated that in both PER-624 and PER-403, the translocation fuses an intron of BRD4 to a region upstream of the NUT coding sequence. Thus, the generation of BRD4-NUT fusion transcripts through post-translocation RNA-splicing appears to be a common feature of these carcinomas that has not previously been appreciated, with the mechanism facilitating the expression of alternative isoforms of the fusion. Finally, ectopic expression of wild-type NUT, a protein normally restricted to the testis, could be demonstrated in PER-403, indicating additional pathways for aberrant cell signaling in NMC. This study contributes to our understanding of the genetic diversity of NMC, an important step towards finding therapeutic targets for a disease that is refractory to current

  6. Bounded rationality and voting decisions over 160 years: voter behavior and increasing complexity in decision-making.

    PubMed

    Stadelmann, David; Torgler, Benno

    2013-01-01

    Using a quasi-natural voting experiment encompassing a 160-year period (1848-2009) in Switzerland, we investigate whether a higher level of complexity leads to increased reliance on trusted parliamentary representatives. We find that when more referenda are held on the same day, constituents are more likely to refer to parliamentary recommendations when making their decisions. This finding holds true even when we narrow our focus to referenda with a relatively lower voter turnout on days on which more than one referendum is held. We also demonstrate that when constituents face a higher level of complexity, they follow the parliamentary recommendations rather than those of interest groups. "Viewed as a geometric figure, the ant's path is irregular, complex, hard to describe. But its complexity is really a complexity in the surface of the beach, not a complexity in the ant." ( [1] p. 51).

  7. Increased Metabolic Flexibility and Complexity in a Long-Lived Growth Hormone Insensitive Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test whether the “loss of the complexity” hypothesis can be applied to compare the metabolic patterns of mouse models with known differences in metabolic and endocrine function as well as life span. Here, we compare the complexity of locomotor activity and metabolic patterns (energy expenditure, VO2, and respiratory quotient) of the long-lived growth hormone receptor gene deleted mice (GHR− /−) and their wild-type littermates. Using approximate entropy as a measure of complexity, we observed greater metabolic complexity, as indicated by greater irregularity in the physiological fluctuations of the GHR− /− mice. Further analysis of the data also revealed lower energy costs of locomotor activity and a stronger relationship between locomotor activity and respiratory quotient in the GHR− /− mice relative to controls. These findings suggest underlying differences in metabolic modulation in the GHR− /− mice revealed especially through measures of complexity of their time-dependent fluctuations. PMID:23788654

  8. Spectral determination of concentrations of functionally diverse pigments in increasingly complex arctic tundra canopies.

    PubMed

    Boelman, Natalie T; Magney, Troy S; Logan, Barry A; Griffin, Kevin L; Eitel, Jan U H; Greaves, Heather; Prager, Case M; Vierling, Lee A

    2016-09-01

    As the Arctic warms, tundra vegetation is becoming taller and more structurally complex, as tall deciduous shrubs become increasingly dominant. Emerging studies reveal that shrubs exhibit photosynthetic resource partitioning, akin to forests, that may need accounting for in the "big leaf" net ecosystem exchange models. We conducted a lab experiment on sun and shade leaves from S. pulchra shrubs to determine the influence of both constitutive (slowly changing bulk carotenoid and chlorophyll pools) and facultative (rapidly changing xanthophyll cycle) pigment pools on a suite of spectral vegetation indices, to devise a rapid means of estimating within canopy resource partitioning. We found that: (1) the PRI of dark-adapted shade leaves (PRIo) was double that of sun leaves, and that PRIo was sensitive to variation among sun and shade leaves in both xanthophyll cycle pool size (V + A + Z) (r (2) = 0.59) and Chla/b (r (2) = 0.64); (2) A corrected PRI (difference between dark and illuminated leaves, ΔPRI) was more sensitive to variation among sun and shade leaves in changes to the epoxidation state of their xanthophyll cycle pigments (dEPS) (r (2) = 0.78, RMSE = 0.007) compared to the uncorrected PRI of illuminated leaves (PRI) (r (2) = 0.34, RMSE = 0.02); and (3) the SR680 index was correlated with each of (V + A + Z), lutein, bulk carotenoids, (V + A + Z)/(Chla + b), and Chla/b (r (2) range = 0.52-0.69). We suggest that ΔPRI be employed as a proxy for facultative pigment dynamics, and the SR680 for the estimation of constitutive pigment pools. We contribute the first Arctic-specific information on disentangling PRI-pigment relationships, and offer insight into how spectral indices can assess resource partitioning within shrub tundra canopies.

  9. Temporal regularity increases with repertoire complexity in the Australian pied butcherbird's song

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Hollis; Scharff, Constance; Rothenberg, David; Parra, Lucas C.; Tchernichovski, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    Music maintains a characteristic balance between repetition and novelty. Here, we report a similar balance in singing performances of free-living Australian pied butcherbirds. Their songs include many phrase types. The more phrase types in a bird's repertoire, the more diverse the singing performance can be. However, without sufficient temporal organization, avian listeners may find diverse singing performances difficult to perceive and memorize. We tested for a correlation between the complexity of song repertoire and the temporal regularity of singing performance. We found that different phrase types often share motifs (notes or stereotyped groups of notes). These shared motifs reappeared in strikingly regular temporal intervals across different phrase types, over hundreds of phrases produced without interruption by each bird. We developed a statistical estimate to quantify the degree to which phrase transition structure is optimized for maximizing the regularity of shared motifs. We found that transition probabilities between phrase types tend to maximize regularity in the repetition of shared motifs, but only in birds of high repertoire complexity. Conversely, in birds of low repertoire complexity, shared motifs were produced with less regularity. The strong correlation between repertoire complexity and motif regularity suggests that birds possess a mechanism that regulates the temporal placement of shared motifs in a manner that takes repertoire complexity into account. We discuss alternative musical, mechanistic and ecological explanations to this effect. PMID:27703699

  10. A Novel Approach to Mission-Level Engineering of Complex Systems of Systems: Addressing Integration and Interoperability Shortfalls by Interrogating the Interstitials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-17

    components on nodes, interconnections on edges) and emphasizes the components on the nodes. Figure 2 illustrates a simple system of two sensors (node A...other types of modeling – DoDAF views (OV-1, OV- 2 ), SysML Context Diagrams, UML Use Case Diagrams, etc. In fact, any model that depicts entities of...simulation, and analysis tools and processes for integrating a complex, adaptive System of Systems . Mr. Garrett was recognized by the International

  11. Increased feelings of the sensed presence and increased geomagnetic activity at the time of the experience during exposures to transcerebral weak complex magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Booth, J N; Koren, S A; Persinger, M A

    2005-07-01

    In 2 separate experiments involving 39 subjects the incidence of sensing a presence or Sentient Being while being exposed to weak complex magnetic fields over the right hemisphere was moderately correlated with increased global geomagnetic activity during the 3-h periods of the experiences. Analyses of magnetometer values near the laboratory indicated the intensity of the east-west component of the geomagnetic field had been increasing consistently at about 1 pT/s for at least 10 min for a cumulative change of about 15 to 20 nT. The ratios of the durations of alpha rhythms over the temporal lobes compared to the occipital lobes were correlated significantly with both increased geomagnetic activity and the reports of a presence. Removal of the shared variance between the sensed presence and various psychometric inferences of temporal lobe sensitivity and the history of dissociation increased and decreased, respectively, the strength of the partial correlations between geomagnetic activity and the reports of a sensed presence. The results suggest the culturally and historically ubiquitous phenomena of sensed presences are generated by right hemispheric processes that once enhanced by a variety of stimuli, including weak complex magnetic fields, can be encouraged by increased global geomagnetic activity.

  12. An Examination of Changes in Attitudes to Visual Complexity with Increasing Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, H. I.; Crawford, Gail

    In measuring affective evaluations of complexity, two questions have been generated by findings in the literature: (1) whether the response indicators, "interesting,""pleasing," and "liking," represent interchangeable labels for the same evaluative responses, and (2) whether these evaluations evidence a positive attitude towards complex…

  13. Type 1 copper site synthetic model complexes with increased redox potentials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Tolman, William B

    2012-02-01

    Reactions of NaSCPh(3) with (R(3)tacn)Cu(OTf)(2) (R is Me, iPr; tacn is 1,4,7-triazacyclononane; OTf is CF(3)SO(3)(-)) yield blue complexes identified as ((R(3)tacn)CuSCPh(3))(OTf) on the basis of UV-vis, resonance Raman, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These complexes exhibit spectroscopic properties typical of type 1 copper sites in proteins, including diagnostic Sπ → Cu(d(x(2)-y(2))) ligand-to-metal charge transfer transitions at approximately 610-630 nm and small A(||) values in EPR spectra of less than 100 × 10(-4) cm(-1). Cyclic voltammetry experiments revealed redox potentials for the complexes similar to those of several low-potential type 1 copper proteins (e.g., azurin, stellacyanin) and approximately 0.5 V higher than those of previously reported model compounds. Thus, the new complexes mimic key aspects of both the structure and the function of type 1 copper sites.

  14. A Systematic Review of Interventions to Increase Peer Interactions for Students with Complex Communication Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Yun-Ching; Carter, Erik W.; Sisco, Lynn G.

    2012-01-01

    Although positive peer relationships can facilitate the academic learning, skill development, and emotional well-being of students with complex communication challenges, few peer interactions are likely to take place in school settings apart from intentional intervention and support efforts. We conducted a systematic review to identify and examine…

  15. SIRT1 overexpression in skeletal muscle in vivo induces increased insulin sensitivity and enhanced complex I but not complex II-V functions in individual subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao-Hao; Qin, Gui-Jun; Li, Xia-Lian; Zhang, Ying-Hui; Du, Pei-Jie; Zhang, Peng-Yu; Zhao, Yan-Yan; Wu, Jing

    2015-06-01

    SIRT1 is known to improve insulin resistance (IR), but whether this effect is direct or not is still unclear, and this question has not been addressed in vivo in the skeletal muscle. Therefore, we sought to test if acute overexpression of SIRT1 in skeletal muscle of high-fat diet (HFD) rats in vivo would affect subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondrial complexes I-V activities and antioxidant enzymes thereby improving insulin action. In vivo electrotransfer was used to overexpress SIRT1 in the skeletal muscle of rats fed HFD for 12 weeks. Skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and downstream effects of SIRT1 on AMPK, SIRT3, and mitochondrial biogenesis were studied. Citrate synthase (CS), complexes I-V, oxidative stress, and antioxidant levels were assessed in SS and IMF mitochondria. HFD rats showed skeletal muscle IR as well as decreased SIRT1 and SIRT3 expressions, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and mitochondrial biogenesis (p < 0.05). SS and IMF mitochondria displayed lower CS, complexes I-V, and antioxidant enzyme activities (p < 0.05). By contrast, moderate (~2.5 folds) SIRT1 overexpression attenuated HFD-induced skeletal muscle IR. This improvement was associated with increased AMPK, PGC-1α, SIRT3, and mtDNA expressions as well as SS and IMF mitochondrial CS and complexes I-V activities. Importantly, SIRT1 overexpression largely restored antioxidant enzyme activities and enhanced complex I but not complexes II-V functions in individual SS and IMF mitochondria. This study suggests that SIRT1 overexpression improved IR at least partly by targeting complex I functions of SS and IMF mitochondria through the activation of SIRT1 and SIRT3.

  16. A New Approach to Address Complexities in Single-Well Push-Pull Test Data: Application of a Multi-Species Reactive Transport Model to Estimate Biogeochemical Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneeshaw, T.; Phanikumar, M. S.; McGuire, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    The ability to interrogate the subsurface is important for improving flow and transport models and for developing a quantitative understanding of the nature of interactions between surface water, the vadose zone and groundwater. Push-pull tests are a popular technique to investigate aquifer properties, chemical transformation rates and microbial reaction kinetics in situ. Earlier studies have interpreted push-pull test data using approximate analytical solutions that may or may not be able to describe complexities in the data. Here we describe the application of a new reactive transport model (PPTEST) to analyze push-pull test data from several sites in the United States. The model has the ability to describe an arbitrary number of species, Monod / Michelis-Menten kinetics, sorption, and reaction lag times as well as a user-defined reaction module that can be used to support additional functionality (e.g. mobile-immobile or residence-time distribution modeling). We use the model to describe the observed breakthrough data for tracer and reactive components and demonstrate its use in testing hypotheses related to the complex set of processes operating in the subsurface environment.

  17. The good of two worlds: increasing complexity in cell-free systems.

    PubMed

    Billerbeck, Sonja; Härle, Johannes; Panke, Sven

    2013-12-01

    In vitro biocatalytic systems have moved far beyond established uses in food, diagnostic, and chemical applications. As new strategies to construct and manage multiple enzymes in ever more complex systems are developed, novel applications emerge. In the field of chemistry, complex protein networks are applied to enable the production of fine chemicals, such as dihydroxyacetone phosphate, and even bulk chemicals, such as biofuels, from cheap sugars. Cell-free protein synthesis is applied to expanding protein and nucleic acid biochemistry and enabling novel assay formats, while programmable DNA-circuits can be exploited to engineer sensitive detection methods. Novel developments in chemical analytics such as real-time mass spectrometry to follow the metabolism online, directed physical assembly of network members facilitating substrate channeling, and encapsulation forming biofunctional subunits enable a better control and potential for optimization.

  18. Spatially addressable chemoselective C-terminal ligation of an intein fusion protein from a complex mixture to a hydrazine-terminated surface.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Marinakos, Stella M; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2011-02-15

    Protein immobilization on surfaces is useful in many areas of research, including biological characterization, antibody purification, and clinical diagnostics. A critical limitation in the development of protein microarrays and heterogeneous protein-based assays is the enormous amount of work and associated costs in the purification of proteins prior to their immobilization onto a surface. Methods to address this problem would simplify the development of interfacial diagnostics that use a protein as the recognition element. Herein, we describe an approach for the facile, site-specific immobilization of proteins on a surface without any preprocessing or sample purification steps that ligates an intein fusion protein at its C-terminus by reaction with a hydrazine group presented by a surface. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this methodology can directly immobilize a protein directly from cell lysate onto a protein-resistant surface. This methodology is also compatible with soft lithography and inkjet printing so that one or more proteins can be patterned on a surface without the need for purification.

  19. Increased Resistance of Complex I Mutants to Phytosphingosine-induced Programmed Cell Death*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Ana; Lemos, Catarina; Falcão, Artur; Glass, N. Louise; Videira, Arnaldo

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the effects of phytosphingosine (PHS) on cells of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. Highly reduced viability, impairment of asexual spore germination, DNA condensation and fragmentation, and production of reactive oxygen species were observed in conidia treated with the drug, suggesting that PHS induces an apoptosis-like death in this fungus. Interestingly, we found that complex I mutants are more resistant to PHS treatment than the wild type strain. This effect appears to be specific because it was not observed in mutants defective in other components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, pointing to a particular involvement of complex I in cell death. The response of the mutant strains to PHS correlated with their response to hydrogen peroxide. The fact that complex I mutants generate fewer reactive oxygen species than the wild type strain when exposed to PHS likely explains the PHS-resistant phenotype. As compared with the wild type strain, we also found that a strain containing a deletion in the gene encoding an AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor)-like protein is more resistant to PHS and H2O2. In contrast, a strain containing a deletion in a gene encoding an AMID (AIF-homologous mitochondrion-associated inducer of death)-like polypeptide is more sensitive to both drugs. These results indicate that N. crassa has the potential to be a model organism to investigate the molecular basis of programmed cell death in eukaryotic species. PMID:18474589

  20. Increased resistance of complex I mutants to phytosphingosine-induced programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Castro, Ana; Lemos, Catarina; Falcão, Artur; Glass, N Louise; Videira, Arnaldo

    2008-07-11

    We have studied the effects of phytosphingosine (PHS) on cells of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. Highly reduced viability, impairment of asexual spore germination, DNA condensation and fragmentation, and production of reactive oxygen species were observed in conidia treated with the drug, suggesting that PHS induces an apoptosis-like death in this fungus. Interestingly, we found that complex I mutants are more resistant to PHS treatment than the wild type strain. This effect appears to be specific because it was not observed in mutants defective in other components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, pointing to a particular involvement of complex I in cell death. The response of the mutant strains to PHS correlated with their response to hydrogen peroxide. The fact that complex I mutants generate fewer reactive oxygen species than the wild type strain when exposed to PHS likely explains the PHS-resistant phenotype. As compared with the wild type strain, we also found that a strain containing a deletion in the gene encoding an AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor)-like protein is more resistant to PHS and H2O2. In contrast, a strain containing a deletion in a gene encoding an AMID (AIF-homologous mitochondrion-associated inducer of death)-like polypeptide is more sensitive to both drugs. These results indicate that N. crassa has the potential to be a model organism to investigate the molecular basis of programmed cell death in eukaryotic species.

  1. Resveratrol Directly Binds to Mitochondrial Complex I and Increases Oxidative Stress in Brain Mitochondria of Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chupin, Stéphanie; Baron, Stéphanie; Nivet-Antoine, Valérie; Vessières, Emilie; Ayer, Audrey; Henrion, Daniel; Lenaers, Guy; Reynier, Pascal; Procaccio, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol is often described as a promising therapeutic molecule for numerous diseases, especially in metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders. While the mechanism of action is still debated, an increasing literature reports that resveratrol regulates the mitochondrial respiratory chain function. In a recent study we have identified mitochondrial complex I as a direct target of this molecule. Nevertheless, the mechanisms and consequences of such an interaction still require further investigation. In this study, we identified in silico by docking study a binding site for resveratrol at the nucleotide pocket of complex I. In vitro, using solubilized complex I, we demonstrated a competition between NAD+ and resveratrol. At low doses (<5μM), resveratrol stimulated complex I activity, whereas at high dose (50 μM) it rather decreased it. In vivo, in brain mitochondria from resveratrol treated young mice, we showed that complex I activity was increased, whereas the respiration rate was not improved. Moreover, in old mice with low antioxidant defenses, we demonstrated that complex I activation by resveratrol led to oxidative stress. These results bring new insights into the mechanism of action of resveratrol on mitochondria and highlight the importance of the balance between pro- and antioxidant effects of resveratrol depending on its dose and age. These parameters should be taken into account when clinical trials using resveratrol or analogues have to be designed. PMID:26684010

  2. Increased burden of de novo predicted deleterious variants in complex congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lan; Sawle, Ashley D.; Wynn, Julia; Aspelund, Gudrun; Stolar, Charles J.; Arkovitz, Marc S.; Potoka, Douglas; Azarow, Kenneth S.; Mychaliska, George B.; Shen, Yufeng; Chung, Wendy K.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a serious birth defect that accounts for 8% of all major birth anomalies. Approximately 40% of cases occur in association with other anomalies. As sporadic complex CDH likely has a significant impact on reproductive fitness, we hypothesized that de novo variants would account for the etiology in a significant fraction of cases. We performed exome sequencing in 39 CDH trios and compared the frequency of de novo variants with 787 unaffected controls from the Simons Simplex Collection. We found no significant difference in overall frequency of de novo variants between cases and controls. However, among genes that are highly expressed during diaphragm development, there was a significant burden of likely gene disrupting (LGD) and predicted deleterious missense variants in cases (fold enrichment = 3.2, P-value = 0.003), and these genes are more likely to be haploinsufficient (P-value = 0.01) than the ones with benign missense or synonymous de novo variants in cases. After accounting for the frequency of de novo variants in the control population, we estimate that 15% of sporadic complex CDH patients are attributable to de novo LGD or deleterious missense variants. We identified several genes with predicted deleterious de novo variants that fall into common categories of genes related to transcription factors and cell migration that we believe are related to the pathogenesis of CDH. These data provide supportive evidence for novel genes in the pathogenesis of CDH associated with other anomalies and suggest that de novo variants play a significant role in complex CDH cases. PMID:26034137

  3. Pneumatosis Coli in Complex Neurodisability: An Increasingly Problematic Disease Spectrum and Proposed Management.

    PubMed

    West, Rebecca; Dass, Dipanker; Mordekar, Santosh; Campbell, David; Lindley, Richard

    2017-02-01

    This case series describes our experience in managing 4 children with complex neurodisability, feed intolerance, and pneumatosis coli. In all of the 4 patients, symptoms and feed tolerance were substantially improved by the formation of a laparoscopically assisted defunctioning ileostomy. We describe our present management strategy and believe this is a promising treatment for those patients who can reduce long-term dependence on parenteral nutrition, although we acknowledge that there is a long-term risk of disuse colitits in the defunctioned bowel.

  4. Storage and Bioavailability of Molybdenum in Soils Increased by Organic Matter Complexation

    SciTech Connect

    Wichard, T.; Mishra, B; Myneni, S; Bellenger, J; Kraepiel, A

    2009-01-01

    The micronutrient molybdenum is a necessary component of the nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase1, 2. Molybdenum is very rare in soils, and is usually present in a highly soluble form, making it susceptible to leaching3, 4. However, it is generally thought that molybdenum attaches to mineral surfaces in acidic soils; this would prevent its escape into the groundwater, but would also impede uptake by microbes3. Here we use X-ray spectroscopy to examine the chemical speciation of molybdenum in soil samples from forests in Arizona and New Jersey. We show that in the leaf litter layer, most of the molybdenum forms strong complexes with plant-derived tannins and tannin-like compounds; molybdenum binds to these organic ligands across a wide pH range. In deeper soils, molybdenum binds to both iron oxides and natural organic matter. We suggest that the molybdenum bound to organic matter can be captured by small complexing agents that are released by nitrogen-fixing bacteria; the molybdenum can then be incorporated into nitrogenase. We conclude that the binding of molybdenum to natural organic matter helps prevent leaching of molybdenum, and is thus a critical step in securing new nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems.

  5. Storage and bioavailability of molybdenum in soils increased by organic matter complexation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichard, Thomas; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Myneni, Satish C. B.; Bellenger, Jean-Philippe; Kraepiel, Anne M. L.

    2009-09-01

    The micronutrient molybdenum is a necessary component of the nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase. Molybdenum is very rare in soils, and is usually present in a highly soluble form, making it susceptible to leaching. However, it is generally thought that molybdenum attaches to mineral surfaces in acidic soils; this would prevent its escape into the groundwater, but would also impede uptake by microbes. Here we use X-ray spectroscopy to examine the chemical speciation of molybdenum in soil samples from forests in Arizona and New Jersey. We show that in the leaf litter layer, most of the molybdenum forms strong complexes with plant-derived tannins and tannin-like compounds; molybdenum binds to these organic ligands across a wide pH range. In deeper soils, molybdenum binds to both iron oxides and natural organic matter. We suggest that the molybdenum bound to organic matter can be captured by small complexing agents that are released by nitrogen-fixing bacteria; the molybdenum can then be incorporated into nitrogenase. We conclude that the binding of molybdenum to natural organic matter helps prevent leaching of molybdenum, and is thus a critical step in securing new nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems.

  6. Increasing Complexity in Rule-Based Clinical Decision Support: The Symptom Assessment and Management Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Ellis B; Halpenny, Barbara; Saunders, Toni-Ann; Brzozowski, Jane; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Berry, Donna L; Braun, Ilana M; Finn, Kathleen; Wolfe, Joanne; Abrahm, Janet L; Cooley, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Background Management of uncontrolled symptoms is an important component of quality cancer care. Clinical guidelines are available for optimal symptom management, but are not often integrated into the front lines of care. The use of clinical decision support (CDS) at the point-of-care is an innovative way to incorporate guideline-based symptom management into routine cancer care. Objective The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a rule-based CDS system to enable management of multiple symptoms in lung cancer patients at the point-of-care. Methods This study was conducted in three phases involving a formative evaluation, a system evaluation, and a contextual evaluation of clinical use. In Phase 1, we conducted iterative usability testing of user interface prototypes with patients and health care providers (HCPs) in two thoracic oncology clinics. In Phase 2, we programmed complex algorithms derived from clinical practice guidelines into a rules engine that used Web services to communicate with the end-user application. Unit testing of algorithms was conducted using a stack-traversal tree-spanning methodology to identify all possible permutations of pathways through each algorithm, to validate accuracy. In Phase 3, we evaluated clinical use of the system among patients and HCPs in the two clinics via observations, structured interviews, and questionnaires. Results In Phase 1, 13 patients and 5 HCPs engaged in two rounds of formative testing, and suggested improvements leading to revisions until overall usability scores met a priori benchmarks. In Phase 2, symptom management algorithms contained between 29 and 1425 decision nodes, resulting in 19 to 3194 unique pathways per algorithm. Unit testing required 240 person-hours, and integration testing required 40 person-hours. In Phase 3, both patients and HCPs found the system usable and acceptable, and offered suggestions for improvements. Conclusions A rule-based CDS system for complex symptom management

  7. The Evolution and Increasing Complexity of the Resident Assistant Role in the United States from Colonial to Modern Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Katherine B.; Davidson, Denise L.; Bauman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the resident assistant position and its history are important to understanding its increasing complexities. In this article we examine how court cases and federal legislation, along with changes in popular culture, have altered and shaped the role of the resident assistant. Our premise is that this role, originally relatively…

  8. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  9. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  10. Dietary arginine silicate inositol complex increased bone healing: histologic and histomorphometric study

    PubMed Central

    Yaman, Ferhan; Acikan, Izzet; Dundar, Serkan; Simsek, Sercan; Gul, Mehmet; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanifi; Komorowski, James; Sahin, Kazim

    2016-01-01

    Background Arginine silicate inositol complex (ASI; arginine 49.5%, silicon 8.2%, and inositol 25%) is a novel material that is a bioavailable source of silicon and arginine. ASI offers potential benefits for vascular and bone health. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of ASI complex on bone healing of critical-sized defects in rats. Methods The rats were randomly assigned to two groups of 21 rats each. The control group was fed a standard diet for 12 weeks; after the first 8 weeks, a calvarial critical-sized defect was created, and the rats were sacrificed 7, 14, and 28 days later. The ASI group was fed a diet containing 1.81 g/kg of ASI for 12 weeks; after the first 8 weeks, a calvarial critical-sized defect was created, and the rats were sacrificed 7, 14, and 28 days later. The calvarial bones of all the rats were then harvested for evaluation. Results Osteoblasts and osteoclasts were detected at higher levels in the ASI group compared with the control group at days 7, 14, and 28 of the calvarial defect (P<0.05). New bone formation was detected at higher levels in the ASI group compared with the controls at day 28 (P<0.05). However, new bone formation was not detected at days 7 and 14 in both the groups (P>0.05). Conclusion ASI supplementation significantly improved bone tissue healing in rats with critical-sized defects. This study demonstrated that ASI can enhance bone repair and has potential as a therapeutic regimen in humans. PMID:27390517

  11. Inhibition of neuronal mitochondrial complex I or lysosomal glucocerebrosidase is associated with increased dopamine and serotonin turnover.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Carmen; Burke, Derek; Eaton, Simon; Heales, Simon J

    2017-02-24

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by loss of dopaminergic and serotoninergic signalling. A number of pathogenic mechanisms have been implicated including loss of mitochondrial function at the level of complex I, and lysosomal metabolism at the level of lysosomal glucocerebrosidase (GBA1). In order to investigate further the potential involvement of complex I and GBA1 in PD, we assessed the impact of loss of respective enzyme activities upon dopamine and serotonin turnover. Using SH-SY5Y cells, complex I deficiency was modelled by using rotenone whilst GBA1 deficiency was modelled by the use of conduritol B epoxide (CBE). Dopamine, its principal metabolites, and the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the extracellular medium were quantified by HPLC. Inhibition of complex I significantly increased extracellular concentrations of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and 5-HIAA. Comparable results were observed with CBE. These results suggest increased monoamine oxidase activity and provide evidence for involvement of impaired complex I or GBA1 activity in the dopamine/serotonin deficiency seen in PD. Use of extracellular media may also permit relatively rapid assessment of dopamine/serotonin metabolism and permit screening of novel therapeutic agents.

  12. Repeating a Monologue under Increasing Time Pressure: Effects on Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thai, Chau; Boers, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that learners' task performance improves when they have the opportunity to repeat the task. Conditions for task repetition vary, however. In the 4/3/2 activity, learners repeat a monologue under increasing time pressure. The purpose is to foster fluency, but it has been suggested in the literature that it also benefits other…

  13. Mixed Heritage Said to Present Complex Issues: Multiracial Children Attracting Interest as Visibility Increases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    With Barack Obama making history by becoming the United States' first mixed-race president, his inauguration is calling attention to the nation's growing multiracial population, whose youngest members are showing up with increasing frequency at schoolhouse doors. Yet while the growth of the U.S. population of children with mixed-race backgrounds…

  14. Postpartum corticosterone administration reduces dendritic complexity and increases the density of mushroom spines of hippocampal CA3 arbours in dams.

    PubMed

    Workman, J L; Brummelte, S; Galea, L A M

    2013-02-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) affects approximately 15% of mothers after giving birth. A complete understanding of depression during the postpartum period has yet to be established, although disruptions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and stress during the postpartum may be involved. To model these components in rats, we administered high corticosterone (CORT) postpartum, which increases immobility in the forced swim test (FST), and reduces maternal care, body weight and hippocampal cell proliferation in dams. The hippocampus is altered in response to chronic stress, exposure to high glucocorticoids and in major depression in humans. In the present study, we examined whether high CORT reduced dendritic complexity and spines in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. Additionally, housing complexity was manipulated so that dams and litters were housed either with tubes (complex) or without tubes (impoverished) to investigate the consequences of new animal care regulations. Dams received 40 mg/kg/day of CORT or oil starting on day 2 postpartum for 23 days. Maternal behaviours were assessed on postpartum days 2-8 and dams were tested using the FST on days 21 and 22. Dams were killed on day 24 and brains were processed for Golgi impregnation. Pyramidal cells in the CA3 subfield were traced using a camera lucida and analysed for branch points and dendritic complexity, as well as spine density and type on both basal and apical arbours. As previously established, high CORT postpartum reduced maternal care and increased immobility in the FST, which is a measure of depressive-like behaviour. High CORT postpartum reduced the complexity of basal arbours and increased mushroom spines on both apical and basal dendrites. Housing complexity had no effect on spines of CA3 pyramidal cells but modest effects on cell morphology. These data show that chronic high CORT in postpartum females alters hippocampal morphology and may provide insight regarding the neurobiological

  15. Duration of Purkinje cell complex spikes increases with their firing frequency

    PubMed Central

    Warnaar, Pascal; Couto, Joao; Negrello, Mario; Junker, Marc; Smilgin, Aleksandra; Ignashchenkova, Alla; Giugliano, Michele; Thier, Peter; De Schutter, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Climbing fiber (CF) triggered complex spikes (CS) are massive depolarization bursts in the cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC), showing several high frequency spikelet components (±600 Hz). Since its early observations, the CS is known to vary in shape. In this study we describe CS waveforms, extracellularly recorded in awake primates (Macaca mulatta) performing saccades. Every PC analyzed showed a range of CS shapes with profoundly different duration and number of spikelets. The initial part of the CS was rather constant but the later part differed greatly, with a pronounced jitter of the last spikelets causing a large variation in total CS duration. Waveforms did not effect the following pause duration in the simple spike (SS) train, nor were SS firing rates predictive of the waveform shapes or vice versa. The waveforms did not differ between experimental conditions nor was there a preferred sequential order of CS shapes throughout the recordings. Instead, part of their variability, the timing jitter of the CS’s last spikelets, strongly correlated with interval length to the preceding CS: shorter CS intervals resulted in later appearance of the last spikelets in the CS burst, and vice versa. A similar phenomenon was observed in rat PCs recorded in vitro upon repeated extracellular stimulation of CFs at different frequencies in slice experiments. All together these results strongly suggest that the variability in the timing of the last spikelet is due to CS frequency dependent changes in PC excitability. PMID:25918500

  16. Will our training programs meet the challenges of increasingly complex endovascular aortic surgery?

    PubMed

    Diethrich, Edward B

    2012-09-01

    It has been more than 2 decades since endovascular therapies appeared for the treatment of vascular disease. With each new enhancement in a therapeutic approach has come the demand for training to assure competence in the clinical setting. In the early days when the technology was relatively simple, training within the specific specialty through established training programs (eg, residencies, fellowships) was effective. However, today's endovascular treatment of complex aortic disease, as well as other vascular pathologies, is presenting demands that the current system cannot meet. New technologies will demand multispecialty collaboration, so current training programs must be altered if we are to meet the demands in education for future aortic interventions. This personal perspective reviews the evolution of endovascular therapy and the impact of product development's changing landscape on training. A new training paradigm must concentrate on centers of excellence with maximum flexibility to meet the needs and demands of our young trainees. It is vital that this approach be global, disease-focused, and linked to developments in epigenomics.

  17. Non-Conventional Yeast Strains Increase the Aroma Complexity of Bread

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Steensels, Jan; Courtin, Christophe M.; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is routinely used yeast in food fermentations because it combines several key traits, including fermentation efficiency and production of desirable flavors. However, the dominance of S. cerevisiae in industrial fermentations limits the diversity in the aroma profiles of the end products. Hence, there is a growing interest in non-conventional yeast strains that can help generate the diversity and complexity desired in today’s diversified and consumer-driven markets. Here, we selected a set of non-conventional yeast strains to examine their potential for bread fermentation. Here, we tested ten non-conventional yeasts for bread fermentation, including two Saccharomyces species that are not currently used in bread making and 8 non-Saccharomyces strains. The results show that Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces bayanus combine satisfactory dough fermentation with an interesting flavor profile. Sensory analysis and HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis confirmed that these strains produce aroma profiles that are very different from that produced by a commercial bakery strain. Moreover, bread produced with these yeasts was preferred by a majority of a trained sensory panel. These results demonstrate the potential of T. delbrueckii and S. bayanus as alternative yeasts for bread dough leavening, and provide a general experimental framework for the evaluation of more yeasts and bacteria. PMID:27776154

  18. Pharmaceutical companies and Italian Regional Governments: managing relationships in an increasing institutional complexity.

    PubMed

    Compagni, Amelia; Cavalli, Laura; Jommi, Claudio

    2008-09-01

    In Italy, the process of power decentralization to Regional Governments has particularly affected pharmaceutical care policies. Regions are experimenting with various strategies to govern drugs utilization and expenditure, and differentiating their approaches, leading to an ever-changing and complex institutional scenario. Pharmaceutical companies have created new professional roles, the Regional Affairs Managers (RAM), with the mandate to monitor the different regional contexts and measures, and to establish relationships with the public actors in charge of pharmaceutical policies. This analysis shows how public affairs/lobbying actions at regional level and the creation of a solid political competence within companies are still in an early phase. The activities carried out by RAMs remain limited to an exchange of information and only rarely are perceived by Regional public servants (RRs) as giving support to their work or influence decisions. The interaction with RAMs is often seen as little relevant and still too concentrated on products and a marketing/commercial approach rather than on broader issues of interest to RRs who need to manage the pharmaceutical care system at large. The level of acceptance of this type of activity is also variable and RRs' attitudes alternate between diffidence, polite tolerance, and openness to a constructive dialogue about pharmaceuticals and their management in a regional healthcare system.

  19. Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase increases complex I activity in SH-SY5Y cells via sirtuin 3.

    PubMed

    Liu, Karolina Y; Mistry, Rakhee J; Aguirre, Carlos A; Fasouli, Eirini S; Thomas, Martin G; Klamt, Fábio; Ramsden, David B; Parsons, Richard B

    2015-11-20

    Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT, E.C. 2.1.1.1) N-methylates nicotinamide to 1-methylnicotinamide. We have previously shown that NNMT is significantly overexpressed in the brains of patients who have died of Parkinson's disease, and others have shown that NNMT is significantly overexpressed in a variety of diseases ranging from cancer to hepatic cirrhosis. In vitro overexpression has revealed many cytoprotective effects of NNMT, in particular increased complex I activity and ATP synthesis. Although this appears to be mediated by an increase in 1-methylnicotinamide production, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. In the present study, we have investigated the role that sirtuins 1, 2 and 3, class III DNA deacetylase enzymes known to regulate mitochondrial energy production and cell cycle, have in mediating the effects of NNMT upon complex I activity. Expression of NNMT in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, which have no endogenous expression of NNMT, significantly increased the expression of all three sirtuins. siRNA-mediated silencing of sirtuin 3 expression decreased complex I activity in NNMT-expressing SH-SY5Y cells to that observed in wild-type SH-SY5Y, and significantly reduced cellular ATP content also. These results demonstrate that sirtuin 3 is a key mediator of NNMT-induced complex I activity and ATP synthesis. These results further reinforce a central role for NNMT in the regulation of energy homeostasis and provide further mechanistic insight into the consequences of enhanced NNMT expression.

  20. Insulin-activated Elk-1 recruits the TIP60/NuA4 complex to increase prolactin gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Muktar A; Stanley, Frederick M

    2014-01-25

    Insulin increases prolactin gene expression in GH4 cells through phosphorylation of Elk-1 (Jacob and Stanley, 2001). We preformed a reverse two-hybrid screen using Elk-1-B42 as bait to identify proteins from GH4 cells that might serve as co-activators or co-repressors for insulin-increased prolactin gene expression. A number of the components of the TIP60/NuA4 complex interacted with Elk-1 suggesting that Elk-1 might activate transcription by recruiting the TIP60 chromatin-remodeling complex to the prolactin promoter. Inhibition of insulin-increased prolactin-luciferase expression by wild type and mutant adenovirus E1A protein provided physiological context for these yeast studies. Inhibition of histone deacetylases dramatically increased both basal and insulin-increased prolactin gene transcription. Co-immune precipitation experiments demonstrated Elk-1 and TIP60 associate in vitro. Transient or stable expression of TIP60 activated insulin-increased prolactin gene expression while a mutated TIP60 blocked insulin-increased prolactin gene expression. Analysis of the prolactin mRNA by quantitative RT-PCR showed that insulin-increased prolactin mRNA accumulation and that this was inhibited in GH4 cells that stably expressed mutant TIP60. Finally, ChIP experiments demonstrate the insulin-dependent occupancy of the prolactin promoter by Elk-1 and TIP60. Our studies suggest that insulin activates prolactin gene transcription by activating Elk-1 that recruits the NuA4 complex to the promoter.

  1. Anticandidal activity of cinnamaldehyde, its ligand and Ni(II) complex: effect of increase in ring and side chain.

    PubMed

    Shreaz, Sheikh; Sheikh, Rayees A; Rimple, Bhatia; Hashmi, Athar Adil; Nikhat, Manzoor; Khan, Luqman A

    2010-09-01

    To increase efficacy of cinnamaldehyde as an antimycotic agent, N, N'- Bis (trans-cinnamadehyde) ethylenediimine [C(20)H(20)N(2)] and Ni(II) complex of the type [Ni(C(40)H(40)N(4))Cl(2)] have been synthesized. The ligand [P] and Ni(II) complex have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, FTIR, ESI- MS, IR, (1)H NMR, UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques, conductivity and magnetic measurements. MIC of cinnamaldehyde against clinical isolate of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis was 400 microg/ml and 500 microg/ml, respectively. Synthesized ligand has markedly reduced MIC; 200 microg/ml and 300 microg/ml whereas Ni(II) complex of ligand displayed MIC of 90 microg/ml and 120 microg/ml. Growth and sensitivity of the organisms were effected by ligand & complex at significantly reduced concentration. Plasma membrane ATPase activity and ergosterol content have been investigated as site of action. Result obtained indicates ergosterol biosynthesis pathway as site of action of cinnamaldehyde, synthesized ligand and its Ni(II) complex.

  2. Botulinum Toxin Complex Increases Paracellular Permeability in Intestinal Epithelial Cells via Activation of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    MIYASHITA, Shin-ichiro; SAGANE, Yoshimasa; INUI, Ken; HAYASHI, Shintaro; MIYATA, Keita; SUZUKI, Tomonori; OHYAMA, Tohru; WATANABE, Toshihiro; NIWA, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium botulinum produces a large toxin complex (L-TC) that increases paracellular permeability in intestinal epithelial cells by a mechanism that remains unclear. Here, we show that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in this permeability increase. Paracellular permeability was measured by FITC-dextran flux through a monolayer of rat intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cells, and MAPK activation was estimated from western blots. L-TC of C. botulinum serotype D strain 4947 increased paracellular dextran flux and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in IEC-6 cells. The permeability increase induced by L-TC was abrogated by the p38 inhibitor SB203580. These results indicate that L-TC increases paracellular permeability by activating p38, but not JNK and ERK. PMID:23884081

  3. Temperate mountain forest biodiversity under climate change: compensating negative effects by increasing structural complexity.

    PubMed

    Braunisch, Veronika; Coppes, Joy; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Suchant, Rudi; Zellweger, Florian; Bollmann, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Species adapted to cold-climatic mountain environments are expected to face a high risk of range contractions, if not local extinctions under climate change. Yet, the populations of many endothermic species may not be primarily affected by physiological constraints, but indirectly by climate-induced changes of habitat characteristics. In mountain forests, where vertebrate species largely depend on vegetation composition and structure, deteriorating habitat suitability may thus be mitigated or even compensated by habitat management aiming at compositional and structural enhancement. We tested this possibility using four cold-adapted bird species with complementary habitat requirements as model organisms. Based on species data and environmental information collected in 300 1-km2 grid cells distributed across four mountain ranges in central Europe, we investigated (1) how species' occurrence is explained by climate, landscape, and vegetation, (2) to what extent climate change and climate-induced vegetation changes will affect habitat suitability, and (3) whether these changes could be compensated by adaptive habitat management. Species presence was modelled as a function of climate, landscape and vegetation variables under current climate; moreover, vegetation-climate relationships were assessed. The models were extrapolated to the climatic conditions of 2050, assuming the moderate IPCC-scenario A1B, and changes in species' occurrence probability were quantified. Finally, we assessed the maximum increase in occurrence probability that could be achieved by modifying one or multiple vegetation variables under altered climate conditions. Climate variables contributed significantly to explaining species occurrence, and expected climatic changes, as well as climate-induced vegetation trends, decreased the occurrence probability of all four species, particularly at the low-altitudinal margins of their distribution. These effects could be partly compensated by modifying

  4. Temperate Mountain Forest Biodiversity under Climate Change: Compensating Negative Effects by Increasing Structural Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Braunisch, Veronika; Coppes, Joy; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Suchant, Rudi; Zellweger, Florian; Bollmann, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Species adapted to cold-climatic mountain environments are expected to face a high risk of range contractions, if not local extinctions under climate change. Yet, the populations of many endothermic species may not be primarily affected by physiological constraints, but indirectly by climate-induced changes of habitat characteristics. In mountain forests, where vertebrate species largely depend on vegetation composition and structure, deteriorating habitat suitability may thus be mitigated or even compensated by habitat management aiming at compositional and structural enhancement. We tested this possibility using four cold-adapted bird species with complementary habitat requirements as model organisms. Based on species data and environmental information collected in 300 1-km2 grid cells distributed across four mountain ranges in central Europe, we investigated (1) how species’ occurrence is explained by climate, landscape, and vegetation, (2) to what extent climate change and climate-induced vegetation changes will affect habitat suitability, and (3) whether these changes could be compensated by adaptive habitat management. Species presence was modelled as a function of climate, landscape and vegetation variables under current climate; moreover, vegetation-climate relationships were assessed. The models were extrapolated to the climatic conditions of 2050, assuming the moderate IPCC-scenario A1B, and changes in species’ occurrence probability were quantified. Finally, we assessed the maximum increase in occurrence probability that could be achieved by modifying one or multiple vegetation variables under altered climate conditions. Climate variables contributed significantly to explaining species occurrence, and expected climatic changes, as well as climate-induced vegetation trends, decreased the occurrence probability of all four species, particularly at the low-altitudinal margins of their distribution. These effects could be partly compensated by modifying

  5. Increasing fat content from 20 to 45 wt% in a complex diet induces lower endotoxemia in parallel with an increased number of intestinal goblet cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Bérengère; Laugerette, Fabienne; Plaisancié, Pascale; Géloën, Alain; Bodennec, Jacques; Estienne, Monique; Pineau, Gaëlle; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick; Vidal, Hubert; Michalski, Marie-Caroline

    2015-04-01

    The impacts of high-fat diets (HFDs) on the onset of metabolic endotoxemia and low-grade inflammation are well established in rodent models. However, the dose-effect of dietary lipid intakes on these parameters is not known. We hypothesized that increasing dietary lipid amounts could be linked to parallel increases of endotoxemia, low-grade inflammation, and metabolic and intestinal alterations. Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD, 2.6 wt% of lipids), a moderate HFD (mHFD, 22 wt% of lipids), or a very HFD (vHFD, 45 wt% of lipids) formulated mainly using chow ingredients and milk fat. After 12 weeks, white adipose tissues, liver, intestine, distal colon contents, and plasma were collected. Only vHFD mice significantly increased body weight and fat mass vs LFD mice. This was associated with increases of plasma concentrations of triglycerides, leptin and adiponectin, and liver lipids. No such differences were observed between LFD and mHFD mice. However, mHFD developed metabolic endotoxemia and inflammation, unlike vHFD mice. In turn, vHFD mice showed more goblet cells in all intestine segments vs both other groups and a decrease of Bacteroides-Prevotella in their microbiota vs LFD mice. Finally, mHFD mice colon exhibited a decrease in lactobacilli and in the levels of occludin phosphorylation. Altogether, using complex HFD, no associations were observed between dietary lipid amounts and the magnitude of endotoxemia, inflammation, and physiological alterations developed. These results reveal the impact of the diet composition on intestinal goblet cells and mucus coat, bringing new insights about further consequences on HFD-induced metabolic disorders.

  6. The Increasing Complexity of the Oncofetal H19 Gene Locus: Functional Dissection and Therapeutic Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Matouk, Imad; Raveh, Eli; Ohana, Patricia; Lail, Rasha Abu; Gershtain, Eitan; Gilon, Michal; De Groot, Nathan; Czerniak, Abraham; Hochberg, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    The field of the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is advancing rapidly. Currently, it is one of the most popular fields in the biological and medical sciences. It is becoming increasingly obvious that the majority of the human transcriptome has little or no-protein coding capacity. Historically, H19 was the first imprinted non-coding RNA (ncRNA) transcript identified, and the H19/IGF2 locus has served as a paradigm for the study of genomic imprinting since its discovery. In recent years, we have extensively investigated the expression of the H19 gene in a number of human cancers and explored the role of H19 RNA in tumor development. Here, we discuss recently published data from our group and others that provide further support for a central role of H19 RNA in the process of tumorigenesis. Furthermore, we focus on major transcriptional modulators of the H19 gene and discuss them in the context of the tumor-promoting activity of the H19 RNA. Based on the pivotal role of the H19 gene in human cancers, we have developed a DNA-based therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancers that have upregulated levels of H19 expression. This approach uses a diphtheria toxin A (DTA) protein expressed under the regulation of the H19 promoter to treat tumors with significant expression of H19 RNA. In this review, we discuss the treatment of four cancer indications in human subjects using this approach, which is currently under development. This represents perhaps one of the very few examples of an existing DNA-based therapy centered on an lncRNA system. Apart from cancer, H19 expression has been reported also in other conditions, syndromes and diseases, where deregulated imprinting at the H19 locus was obvious in some cases and will be summarized below. Moreover, the H19 locus proved to be much more complicated than initially thought. It houses a genomic sequence that can transcribe, yielding various transcriptional outputs, both in sense and antisense directions. The major

  7. Previous exposure to intact speech increases intelligibility of its digitally degraded counterpart as a function of stimulus complexity.

    PubMed

    Hakonen, Maria; May, Patrick J C; Alho, Jussi; Alku, Paavo; Jokinen, Emma; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Tiitinen, Hannu

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have shown that acoustically distorted sentences can be perceived as either unintelligible or intelligible depending on whether one has previously been exposed to the undistorted, intelligible versions of the sentences. This allows studying processes specifically related to speech intelligibility since any change between the responses to the distorted stimuli before and after the presentation of their undistorted counterparts cannot be attributed to acoustic variability but, rather, to the successful mapping of sensory information onto memory representations. To estimate how the complexity of the message is reflected in speech comprehension, we applied this rapid change in perception to behavioral and magnetoencephalography (MEG) experiments using vowels, words and sentences. In the experiments, stimuli were initially presented to the subject in a distorted form, after which undistorted versions of the stimuli were presented. Finally, the original distorted stimuli were presented once more. The resulting increase in intelligibility observed for the second presentation of the distorted stimuli depended on the complexity of the stimulus: vowels remained unintelligible (behaviorally measured intelligibility 27%) whereas the intelligibility of the words increased from 19% to 45% and that of the sentences from 31% to 65%. This increase in the intelligibility of the degraded stimuli was reflected as an enhancement of activity in the auditory cortex and surrounding areas at early latencies of 130-160ms. In the same regions, increasing stimulus complexity attenuated mean currents at latencies of 130-160ms whereas at latencies of 200-270ms the mean currents increased. These modulations in cortical activity may reflect feedback from top-down mechanisms enhancing the extraction of information from speech. The behavioral results suggest that memory-driven expectancies can have a significant effect on speech comprehension, especially in acoustically adverse

  8. Exposure to Increased Environmental Complexity during Rearing Reduces Fearfulness and Increases Use of Three-Dimensional Space in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Nordgreen, Janicke; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Popova, Anastasija; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of the rearing environment is important for behavioral development and fearfulness. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that laying hens reared in a complex aviary system with exposure to mild intermittent stressors would be less fearful, less sensitive to stress, and would use elevated areas of the pen more often as adults than hens reared in a barren cage environment. Laying hens (N = 160) were housed in the same rearing house; half of the birds (n = 80) in an aviary and the other half (n = 80) in cages. At 16 weeks of age, the birds were transported to the experimental facilities. Their behavior was recorded at 19 and 23 weeks of age and analyzed by analysis of variance on individual scores for a fearfulness-related principal component generated using principal component analysis. The results indicate that aviary-reared birds have lower levels of fearfulness compared with cage-reared birds both at 19 weeks and at 23 weeks of age. When comparing the response induced by initial exposure to a novel object at 19 and 23 weeks of age, more aviary-reared birds tended to fly up at 19 weeks compared to the cage-reared birds, indicating a tendency toward a more active behavioral response in the aviary-reared birds than in cage-reared birds. There was no difference between treatments in the flight response at 23 weeks. The groups did not differ in defecation frequency or the concentration of fecal corticosterone metabolites at either age. At 19 weeks, observation of the spatial distribution in the home pens indicated that more aviary-reared birds spent time on the low perch, the elevated platform, and the upper perch, compared to the cage-reared birds. However, at 23 weeks of age, these differences were no longer detected. The results of this study support the hypothesis that increased environmental complexity during rearing reduces fearfulness of adult laying hens. PMID:26973843

  9. Strong topographic sheltering effects lead to spatially complex treeline advance and increased forest density in a subtropical mountain region.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Sarah; Chen, Jan-Chang; Chen, Chaur-Tzuhn; Jump, Alistair S

    2014-12-01

    Altitudinal treelines are typically temperature limited such that increasing temperatures linked to global climate change are causing upslope shifts of treelines worldwide. While such elevational increases are readily predicted based on shifting isotherms, at the regional level the realized response is often much more complex, with topography and local environmental conditions playing an important modifying role. Here, we used repeated aerial photographs in combination with forest inventory data to investigate changes in treeline position in the Central Mountain Range of Taiwan over the last 60 years. A highly spatially variable upslope advance of treeline was identified in which topography is a major driver of both treeline form and advance. The changes in treeline position that we observed occurred alongside substantial increases in forest density, and lead to a large increase in overall forest area. These changes will have a significant impact on carbon stocking in the high altitude zone, while the concomitant decrease in alpine grassland area is likely to have negative implications for alpine species. The complex and spatially variable changes that we report highlight the necessity for considering local factors such as topography when attempting to predict species distributional responses to warming climate.

  10. PTP1B deficiency increases glucose uptake in neonatal hepatocytes: involvement of IRA/GLUT2 complexes.

    PubMed

    González-Rodriguez, Agueda; Nevado, Carmen; Escrivá, Fernando; Sesti, Giorgio; Rondinone, Cristina M; Benito, Manuel; Valverde, Angela M

    2008-08-01

    The contribution of the liver to glucose utilization is essential to maintain glucose homeostasis. Previous data from protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) 1B-deficient mice demonstrated that the liver is a major site for PTP1B action in the periphery. In this study, we have investigated the consequences of PTP1B deficiency in glucose uptake in hepatocytes from neonatal and adult mice. The lack of PTP1B increased basal glucose uptake in hepatocytes from neonatal (3-5 days old) but not adult (10-12 wk old) mice. This occurs without changes in hexokinase, glucokinase, and glucose 6-phosphatase enzymatic activities. By contrast, the glucose transporter GLUT2 was upregulated at the protein level in neonatal hepatocytes and livers from PTP1B-deficient neonates. These results were accompanied by a significant increase in the net free intrahepatic glucose levels in the livers of PTP1B(-/-) neonates. The association between GLUT2 and insulin receptor (IR) A isoform was increased in PTP1B(-/-) neonatal hepatocytes compared with the wild-type. Indeed, PTP1B deficiency in neonatal hepatocytes shifted the ratio of isoforms A and B of the IR by increasing the amount of IRA and decreasing IRB. Moreover, overexpression of IRA in PTP1B(-/-) neonatal hepatocytes increased the amount of IRA/GLUT2 complexes. Conversely, hepatocytes from adult mice only expressed IRB. Since IRA plays a direct role in the regulation of glucose uptake in neonatal hepatocytes through its specific association with GLUT2, we propose the increase in IRA/GLUT2 complexes due to PTP1B deficiency as the molecular mechanism of the increased glucose uptake in the neonatal stage.

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis Tarp cooperates with the Arp2/3 complex to increase the rate of actin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Jiwani, Shahanawaz; Ohr, Ryan J; Fischer, Elizabeth R; Hackstadt, Ted; Alvarado, Stephenie; Romero, Adriana; Jewett, Travis J

    2012-04-20

    Actin polymerization is required for Chlamydia trachomatis entry into nonphagocytic host cells. Host and chlamydial actin nucleators are essential for internalization of chlamydiae by eukaryotic cells. The host cell Arp2/3 complex and the chlamydial translocated actin recruiting phosphoprotein (Tarp) are both required for entry. Tarp and the Arp2/3 complex exhibit unique actin polymerization kinetics individually, but the molecular details of how these two actin nucleators cooperate to promote bacterial entry is not understood. In this study we provide biochemical evidence that the two actin nucleators act synergistically by co-opting the unique attributes of each to enhance the dynamics of actin filament formation. This process is independent of Tarp phosphorylation. We further demonstrate that Tarp colocalization with actin filaments is independent of the Tarp phosphorylation domain. The results are consistent with a model in which chlamydial and host cell actin nucleators cooperate to increase the rate of actin filament formation.

  12. Microbial Adhesion and Biofilm Formation on Microfiltration Membranes: A Detailed Characterization Using Model Organisms with Increasing Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Vanysacker, L.; Denis, C.; Declerck, P.; Piasecka, A.; Vankelecom, I. F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Since many years, membrane biofouling has been described as the Achilles heel of membrane fouling. In the present study, an ecological assay was performed using model systems with increasing complexity: a monospecies assay using Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli separately, a duospecies assay using both microorganisms, and a multispecies assay using activated sludge with or without spiked P. aeruginosa. The microbial adhesion and biofilm formation were evaluated in terms of bacterial cell densities, species richness, and bacterial community composition on polyvinyldifluoride, polyethylene, and polysulfone membranes. The data show that biofouling formation was strongly influenced by the kind of microorganism, the interactions between the organisms, and the changes in environmental conditions whereas the membrane effect was less important. The findings obtained in this study suggest that more knowledge in species composition and microbial interactions is needed in order to understand the complex biofouling process. This is the first report describing the microbial interactions with a membrane during the biofouling development. PMID:23986906

  13. Microbial adhesion and biofilm formation on microfiltration membranes: a detailed characterization using model organisms with increasing complexity.

    PubMed

    Vanysacker, L; Denis, C; Declerck, P; Piasecka, A; Vankelecom, I F J

    2013-01-01

    Since many years, membrane biofouling has been described as the Achilles heel of membrane fouling. In the present study, an ecological assay was performed using model systems with increasing complexity: a monospecies assay using Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli separately, a duospecies assay using both microorganisms, and a multispecies assay using activated sludge with or without spiked P. aeruginosa. The microbial adhesion and biofilm formation were evaluated in terms of bacterial cell densities, species richness, and bacterial community composition on polyvinyldifluoride, polyethylene, and polysulfone membranes. The data show that biofouling formation was strongly influenced by the kind of microorganism, the interactions between the organisms, and the changes in environmental conditions whereas the membrane effect was less important. The findings obtained in this study suggest that more knowledge in species composition and microbial interactions is needed in order to understand the complex biofouling process. This is the first report describing the microbial interactions with a membrane during the biofouling development.

  14. Capture antibody targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (CAT-FISH): dual labeling allows for increased specificity in complex samples.

    PubMed

    Stroot, Joyce M; Leach, Kelly M; Stroot, Peter G; Lim, Daniel V

    2012-02-01

    Pathogen detection using biosensors is commonly limited due to the need for sensitivity and specificity in detecting targets within mixed populations. These issues were addressed through development of a dual labeling method that allows for both liquid-phase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and capture antibody targeted detection (CAT-FISH). CAT-FISH was developed using Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus as representative bacteria, and processing techniques were evaluated with regard to FISH intensities and antibody recognition. The alternative fixative solution, methacarn, proved to be superior to standard solid-phase paraformaldehyde fixation procedures, allowing both FISH labeling and antibody recognition. CAT-FISH treated cells were successfully labeled with FISH probes, captured by immunomagnetic separation using fluorescent cytometric array beads, and detected using a cytometric array biosensor. CAT-FISH treated cells were detectable with LODs comparable to the standard antibody-based technique, (~10(3)cells/ml in PBS), and the technique was also successfully applied to two complex matrices. Although immunomagnetic capture and detection using cytometric arrays were demonstrated, CAT-FISH is readily applicable to any antibody-based fluorescence detection platform, and further optimization for sensitivity is possible via inclusion of fluorescently tagged antibodies. Since the confidence level needed for positive identification of a detected target is often paramount, CAT-FISH was developed to allow two separate levels of specificity, namely nucleic acid and protein signatures. With proper selection of FISH probes and capture antibodies, CAT-FISH may be used to provide rapid detection of target pathogens from within complex matrices with high levels of confidence.

  15. Addressing tomorrow's DMO technical challenges today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, James R.

    2009-05-01

    Distributed Mission Operations (DMO) is essentially a type of networked training that pulls in participants from all the armed services and, increasingly, allies to permit them to "game" and rehearse highly complex campaigns, using a mix of local, distant, and virtual players. The United States Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is pursuing Science and Technology (S&T) solutions to address technical challenges associated with distributed communications and information management as DMO continues to progressively scale up the number, diversity, and geographic dispersal of participants in training and rehearsal exercises.

  16. Low-dose ionizing radiation induces mitochondrial fusion and increases expression of mitochondrial complexes I and III in hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chuang-Rung; Kao, Mou-Chieh; Chen, Kuan-Wei; Chiu, Shih-Che; Hsu, Ming-Ling; Hsiang, I-Chou; Chen, Yu-Jen; Chen, Linyi

    2015-01-01

    High energy ionizing radiation can cause DNA damage and cell death. During clinical radiation therapy, the radiation dose could range from 15 to 60 Gy depending on targets. While 2 Gy radiation has been shown to cause cancer cell death, studies also suggest a protective potential by low dose radiation. In this study, we examined the effect of 0.2-2 Gy radiation on hippocampal neurons. Low dose 0.2 Gy radiation treatment increased the levels of MTT. Since hippocampal neurons are post-mitotic, this result reveals a possibility that 0.2 Gy irradiation may increase mitochondrial activity to cope with stimuli. Maintaining neural plasticity is an energy-demanding process that requires high efficient mitochondrial function. We thus hypothesized that low dose radiation may regulate mitochondrial dynamics and function to ensure survival of neurons. Our results showed that five days after 0.2 Gy irradiation, no obvious changes on neuronal survival, neuronal synapses, membrane potential of mitochondria, reactive oxygen species levels, and mitochondrial DNA copy numbers. Interestingly, 0.2 Gy irradiation promoted the mitochondria fusion, resulting in part from the increased level of a mitochondrial fusion protein, Mfn2, and inhibition of Drp1 fission protein trafficking to the mitochondria. Accompanying with the increased mitochondrial fusion, the expressions of complexes I and III of the electron transport chain were also increased. These findings suggest that, hippocampal neurons undergo increased mitochondrial fusion to modulate cellular activity as an adaptive mechanism in response to low dose radiation. PMID:26415228

  17. Low-dose ionizing radiation induces mitochondrial fusion and increases expression of mitochondrial complexes I and III in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Chien, Ling; Chen, Wun-Ke; Liu, Szu-Ting; Chang, Chuang-Rung; Kao, Mou-Chieh; Chen, Kuan-Wei; Chiu, Shih-Che; Hsu, Ming-Ling; Hsiang, I-Chou; Chen, Yu-Jen; Chen, Linyi

    2015-10-13

    High energy ionizing radiation can cause DNA damage and cell death. During clinical radiation therapy, the radiation dose could range from 15 to 60 Gy depending on targets. While 2 Gy radiation has been shown to cause cancer cell death, studies also suggest a protective potential by low dose radiation. In this study, we examined the effect of 0.2-2 Gy radiation on hippocampal neurons. Low dose 0.2 Gy radiation treatment increased the levels of MTT. Since hippocampal neurons are post-mitotic, this result reveals a possibility that 0.2 Gy irradiation may increase mitochondrial activity to cope with stimuli. Maintaining neural plasticity is an energy-demanding process that requires high efficient mitochondrial function. We thus hypothesized that low dose radiation may regulate mitochondrial dynamics and function to ensure survival of neurons. Our results showed that five days after 0.2 Gy irradiation, no obvious changes on neuronal survival, neuronal synapses, membrane potential of mitochondria, reactive oxygen species levels, and mitochondrial DNA copy numbers. Interestingly, 0.2 Gy irradiation promoted the mitochondria fusion, resulting in part from the increased level of a mitochondrial fusion protein, Mfn2, and inhibition of Drp1 fission protein trafficking to the mitochondria. Accompanying with the increased mitochondrial fusion, the expressions of complexes I and III of the electron transport chain were also increased. These findings suggest that, hippocampal neurons undergo increased mitochondrial fusion to modulate cellular activity as an adaptive mechanism in response to low dose radiation.

  18. The ketogenic diet component decanoic acid increases mitochondrial citrate synthase and complex I activity in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Sean David; Kanabus, Marta; Anderson, Glenn; Hargreaves, Iain P; Rutherford, Tricia; O'Donnell, Maura; Cross, J Helen; Rahman, Shamima; Eaton, Simon; Heales, Simon J R

    2014-05-01

    The Ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective treatment with regards to treating pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. However, there are difficulties around compliance and tolerability. Consequently, there is a need for refined/simpler formulations that could replicate the efficacy of the KD. One of the proposed hypotheses is that the KD increases cellular mitochondrial content which results in elevation of the seizure threshold. Here, we have focussed on the medium-chain triglyceride form of the diet and the observation that plasma octanoic acid (C8) and decanoic acid (C10) levels are elevated in patients on the medium-chain triglyceride KD. Using a neuronal cell line (SH-SY5Y), we demonstrated that 250-μM C10, but not C8, caused, over a 6-day period, a marked increase in the mitochondrial enzyme, citrate synthase along with complex I activity and catalase activity. Increased mitochondrial number was also indicated by electron microscopy. C10 is a reported peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ agonist, and the use of a peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ antagonist was shown to prevent the C10-mediated increase in mitochondrial content and catalase. C10 may mimic the mitochondrial proliferation associated with the KD and raises the possibility that formulations based on this fatty acid could replace a more complex diet. We propose that decanoic acid (C10) results in increased mitochondrial number. Our data suggest that this may occur via the activation of the PPARγ receptor and its target genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. This finding could be of significant benefit to epilepsy patients who are currently on a strict ketogenic diet. Evidence that C10 on its own can modulate mitochondrial number raises the possibility that a simplified and less stringent C10-based diet could be developed.

  19. Increased mitochondrial ATP production capacity in brain of healthy mice and a mouse model of isolated complex I deficiency after isoflurane anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Manjeri, Ganesh R; Rodenburg, Richard J; Blanchet, Lionel; Roelofs, Suzanne; Nijtmans, Leo G; Smeitink, Jan A; Driessen, Jacques J; Koopman, Werner J H; Willems, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    We reported before that the minimal alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane is decreased in complex I-deficient mice lacking the NDUFS4 subunit of the respiratory chain (RC) (1.55 and 0.81% at postnatal (PN) 22-25 days and 1.68 and 0.65% at PN 31-34 days for wildtype (WT) and CI-deficient KO, respectively). A more severe respiratory depression was caused by 1.0 MAC isoflurane in KO mice (respiratory rate values of 86 and 45 at PN 22-25 days and 69 and 29 at PN 31-34 days for anesthetized WT and KO, respectively). Here, we address the idea that isoflurane anesthesia causes a much larger decrease in brain mitochondrial ATP production in KO mice thus explaining their increased sensitivity to this anesthetic. Brains from WT and KO mice of the above study were removed immediately after MAC determination at PN 31-34 days and a mitochondria-enriched fraction was prepared. Aliquots were used for measurement of maximal ATP production in the presence of pyruvate, malate, ADP and creatine and, after freeze-thawing, the maximal activity of the individual RC complexes in the presence of complex-specific substrates. CI activity was dramatically decreased in KO, whereas ATP production was decreased by only 26% (p < 0.05). The activities of CII, CIII, and CIV were the same for WT and KO. Isoflurane anesthesia decreased the activity of CI by 30% (p < 0.001) in WT. In sharp contrast, it increased the activity of CII by 37% (p < 0.001) and 50% (p < 0.001) and that of CIII by 37% (p < 0.001) and 40% (p < 0.001) in WT and KO, respectively, whereas it tended to increase that of CIV in both WT and KO. Isoflurane anesthesia increased ATP production by 52 and 69% in WT (p < 0.05) and KO (p < 0.01), respectively. Together these findings indicate that isoflurane anesthesia interferes positively rather than negatively with the ability of CI-deficient mice brain mitochondria to convert their main substrate pyruvate into ATP.

  20. Dietary Tocotrienol/γ-Cyclodextrin Complex Increases Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and ATP Concentrations in the Brains of Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schloesser, Anke; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Dose, Janina; Ikuta, Naoko; Okamoto, Hinako; Ishida, Yoshiyuki; Terao, Keiji; Matsugo, Seiichi; Rimbach, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Brain aging is accompanied by a decrease in mitochondrial function. In vitro studies suggest that tocotrienols, including γ- and δ-tocotrienol (T3), may exhibit neuroprotective properties. However, little is known about the effect of dietary T3 on mitochondrial function in vivo. In this study, we monitored the effect of a dietary T3/γ-cyclodextrin complex (T3CD) on mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels in the brain of 21-month-old mice. Mice were fed either a control diet or a diet enriched with T3CD providing 100 mg T3 per kg diet for 6 months. Dietary T3CD significantly increased mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels compared to those of controls. The increase in MMP and ATP due to dietary T3CD was accompanied by an increase in the protein levels of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM). Furthermore, dietary T3CD slightly increased the mRNA levels of superoxide dismutase, γ-glutamyl cysteinyl synthetase, and heme oxygenase 1 in the brain. Overall, the present data suggest that T3CD increases TFAM, mitochondrial membrane potential, and ATP synthesis in the brains of aged mice. PMID:26301044

  1. Acute Carnosine Administration Increases Respiratory Chain Complexes and Citric Acid Cycle Enzyme Activities in Cerebral Cortex of Young Rats.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Levy W; Cararo, José H; Maravai, Soliany G; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Kist, Luiza W; Guerra Martinez, Camila; Kurtenbach, Eleonora; Bogo, Maurício R; Hipkiss, Alan R; Streck, Emilio L; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C

    2016-10-01

    Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is an imidazole dipeptide synthesized in excitable tissues of many animals, whose biochemical properties include carbonyl scavenger, anti-oxidant, bivalent metal ion chelator, proton buffer, and immunomodulating agent, although its precise physiological role(s) in skeletal muscle and brain tissues in vivo remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo effects of acute carnosine administration on various aspects of brain bioenergetics of young Wistar rats. The activity of mitochondrial enzymes in cerebral cortex was assessed using a spectrophotometer, and it was found that there was an increase in the activities of complexes I-III and II-III and succinate dehydrogenase in carnosine-treated rats, as compared to vehicle-treated animals. However, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) data on mRNA levels of mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins (nuclear respiratory factor 1 (Nrf1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-α (Ppargc1α), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam)) were not altered significantly and therefore suggest that short-term carnosine administration does not affect mitochondrial biogenesis. It was in agreement with the finding that immunocontent of respiratory chain complexes was not altered in animals receiving carnosine. These observations indicate that acute carnosine administration increases the respiratory chain and citric acid cycle enzyme activities in cerebral cortex of young rats, substantiating, at least in part, a neuroprotector effect assigned to carnosine against oxidative-driven disorders.

  2. Advancing efforts to address youth violence involvement.

    PubMed

    Weist, M D; Cooley-Quille, M

    2001-06-01

    Discusses the increased public attention on violence-related problems among youth and the concomitant increased diversity in research. Youth violence involvement is a complex construct that includes violence experienced in multiple settings (home, school, neighborhood) and in multiple forms (as victims, witnesses, perpetrators, and through family members, friends, and the media). Potential impacts of such violence involvement are considerable, including increased internalizing and externalizing behaviors among youth and future problems in school adjustment and life-course development. This introductory article reviews key dimensions of youth-related violence, describes an American Psychological Association Task Force (Division 12) developed to advance relevant research, and presents examples of national resources and efforts that attempt to address this critical public health issue.

  3. The Need for a Counseling Psychology Model Training Values Statement Addressing Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Laurie B.; Jackson, Aaron P.; Neville, Helen A.; Illfelder-Kaye, Joyce; Winterowd, Carrie L.; Loewy, Michael I.

    2009-01-01

    The authors articulate the need for a "Counseling Psychology Model Training Values Statement Addressing Diversity" (henceforth "Values Statement"). They discuss the historic unwillingness of the field to address values in a sophisticated or complex way and highlight the increasingly common training scenario in which trainees state that certain…

  4. Dietary nitrate increases arginine availability and protects mitochondrial complex I and energetics in the hypoxic rat heart

    PubMed Central

    Ashmore, Tom; Fernandez, Bernadette O; Branco-Price, Cristina; West, James A; Cowburn, Andrew S; Heather, Lisa C; Griffin, Julian L; Johnson, Randall S; Feelisch, Martin; Murray, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic exposure is associated with impaired cardiac energetics in humans and altered mitochondrial function, with suppressed complex I-supported respiration, in rat heart. This response might limit reactive oxygen species generation, but at the cost of impaired electron transport chain (ETC) activity. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves mitochondrial efficiency and can promote tissue oxygenation by enhancing blood flow. We therefore hypothesised that ETC dysfunction, impaired energetics and oxidative damage in the hearts of rats exposed to chronic hypoxia could be alleviated by sustained administration of a moderate dose of dietary nitrate. Male Wistar rats (n = 40) were given water supplemented with 0.7 mmol l−1 NaCl (as control) or 0.7 mmol l−1 NaNO3, elevating plasma nitrate levels by 80%, and were exposed to 13% O2 (hypoxia) or normoxia (n = 10 per group) for 14 days. Respiration rates, ETC protein levels, mitochondrial density, ATP content and protein carbonylation were measured in cardiac muscle. Complex I respiration rates and protein levels were 33% lower in hypoxic/NaCl rats compared with normoxic/NaCl controls. Protein carbonylation was 65% higher in hearts of hypoxic rats compared with controls, indicating increased oxidative stress, whilst ATP levels were 62% lower. Respiration rates, complex I protein and activity, protein carbonylation and ATP levels were all fully protected in the hearts of nitrate-supplemented hypoxic rats. Both in normoxia and hypoxia, dietary nitrate suppressed cardiac arginase expression and activity and markedly elevated cardiac l-arginine concentrations, unmasking a novel mechanism of action by which nitrate enhances tissue NO bioavailability. Dietary nitrate therefore alleviates metabolic abnormalities in the hypoxic heart, improving myocardial energetics. PMID:25172947

  5. How complexity increases in development: An analysis of the spatial-temporal dynamics of 1218 genes in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Salvador-Martínez, Irepan; Salazar-Ciudad, Isaac

    2015-09-15

    One of the most apparent phenomena in development is that it starts with something apparently simple and leads to something clearly complex with a specific and functional structure. At the level of gene expression it seems also clear that the embryo becomes progressively compartmentalized over time and space. However, there have not been any systematic attempts to quantify how this occurs. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of the compartmentalization and spatial complexity of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster over developmental time by analyzing thousands of gene expression spatial patterns from FlyExpress database. We use three different mathematical measures of compartmentalization of gene expression in space. All these measures show a similar non-linear increase in compartmentalization over time, with the most dramatic change occurring from the maternal to the early gastrula stage. Transcription factors and growth factors showed an earlier compartmentalization. Finally, we partitioned the embryo space in 257 equally sized regions and clustered them depending on their expression similarity, within and between stages. This provides a global overview about the effective degree of differentiation and compartmentalization between body parts at each developmental stage and when and where in the embryo there are more changes, due to signaling or movement.

  6. Constitutive activation of CREB in mice enhances temporal association learning and increases hippocampal CA1 neuronal spine density and complexity

    PubMed Central

    Serita, Tatsurou; Fukushima, Hotaka; Kida, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Transcription factor CREB is believed to play essential roles in the formation of long-term memory (LTM), but not in learning and short-term memory (STM). Surprisingly, we previously showed that transgenic mice expressing a dominant active mutant of CREB (DIEDML) in the forebrain (DIEDML mice) demonstrated enhanced STM and LTM in hippocampal-dependent, rapid, one-trial learning tasks. Here we show that constitutive activation of CREB enhances hippocampal-dependent learning of temporal association in trace fear conditioning and delayed matching-to-place tasks. We then show that in DIEDML mice the apical tuft dendrites of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, required for temporal association learning, display increased spine density, especially of thin spines and of Homer1-negative spines. In contrast, the basal and apical oblique dendrites of CA1 neurons, required for rapid one-trial learning, show increased density of thin, stubby, and mushroom spines and of Homer1-positive spines. Furthermore, DIEDML mice showed increased dendritic complexity in the proximal portion of apical CA1 dendrites to the soma. In contrast, forebrain overexpression of CaMKIV, leading to enhanced LTM but not STM, show normal learning and CA1 neuron morphology. These findings suggest that dendritic region-specific morphological changes in CA1 neurons by constitutive activation of CREB may contribute to improved learning and STM. PMID:28195219

  7. Planting increases the abundance and structure complexity of soil core functional genes relevant to carbon and nitrogen cycling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Liang, Yuting; Jiang, Yuji; Yang, Yunfeng; Xue, Kai; Xiong, Jinbo; Zhou, Jizhong; Sun, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Plants have an important impact on soil microbial communities and their functions. However, how plants determine the microbial composition and network interactions is still poorly understood. During a four-year field experiment, we investigated the functional gene composition of three types of soils (Phaeozem, Cambisols and Acrisol) under maize planting and bare fallow regimes located in cold temperate, warm temperate and subtropical regions, respectively. The core genes were identified using high-throughput functional gene microarray (GeoChip 3.0), and functional molecular ecological networks (fMENs) were subsequently developed with the random matrix theory (RMT)-based conceptual framework. Our results demonstrated that planting significantly (P < 0.05) increased the gene alpha-diversity in terms of richness and Shannon – Simpson’s indexes for all three types of soils and 83.5% of microbial alpha-diversity can be explained by the plant factor. Moreover, planting had significant impacts on the microbial community structure and the network interactions of the microbial communities. The calculated network complexity was higher under maize planting than under bare fallow regimes. The increase of the functional genes led to an increase in both soil respiration and nitrification potential with maize planting, indicating that changes in the soil microbial communities and network interactions influenced ecological functioning. PMID:26396042

  8. Pressure increases, the formation of chromite seams, and the development of the ultramafic series in the Stillwater Complex, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipin, B.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper explores the hypothesis that chromate seams in the Stillwater Complex formed in response to periodic increases in total pressure in the chamber. Total pressure increased because of the positive ??V of nucleation of CO2 bubbles in the melt and their subsequent rise through the magma chamber, during which the bubbles increased in volume by a factor of 4-6. By analogy with the pressure changes in the summit chambers of Kilauea and Krafla volcanoes, the maximum variation was 0.2-0.25 kbar, or 5-10% of the total pressure in the Stillwater chamber. An evaluation of the likelihood of fountaining and mixing of a new, primitive liquid that entered the chamber with the somewhat more evolved liquid already in the chamber is based upon calculations using observed and inferred velocities and flow rates of basaltic magmas moving through volcanic fissures. The calculations indicate that hot, dense magma would have oozed, rather than fountained into the chamber, and early mixing of the new and residual magmas that could have resulted in chromite crystallizing alone did not take place. -from Author

  9. Planting increases the abundance and structure complexity of soil core functional genes relevant to carbon and nitrogen cycling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Liang, Yuting; Jiang, Yuji; Yang, Yunfeng; Xue, Kai; Xiong, Jinbo; Zhou, Jizhong; Sun, Bo

    2015-09-23

    Plants have an important impact on soil microbial communities and their functions. However, how plants determine the microbial composition and network interactions is still poorly understood. During a four-year field experiment, we investigated the functional gene composition of three types of soils (Phaeozem, Cambisols and Acrisol) under maize planting and bare fallow regimes located in cold temperate, warm temperate and subtropical regions, respectively. The core genes were identified using high-throughput functional gene microarray (GeoChip 3.0), and functional molecular ecological networks (fMENs) were subsequently developed with the random matrix theory (RMT)-based conceptual framework. Our results demonstrated that planting significantly (P < 0.05) increased the gene alpha-diversity in terms of richness and Shannon - Simpson's indexes for all three types of soils and 83.5% of microbial alpha-diversity can be explained by the plant factor. Moreover, planting had significant impacts on the microbial community structure and the network interactions of the microbial communities. The calculated network complexity was higher under maize planting than under bare fallow regimes. The increase of the functional genes led to an increase in both soil respiration and nitrification potential with maize planting, indicating that changes in the soil microbial communities and network interactions influenced ecological functioning.

  10. Planting increases the abundance and structure complexity of soil core functional genes relevant to carbon and nitrogen cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Liang, Yuting; Jiang, Yuji; Yang, Yunfeng; Xue, Kai; Xiong, Jinbo; Zhou, Jizhong; Sun, Bo

    2015-09-01

    Plants have an important impact on soil microbial communities and their functions. However, how plants determine the microbial composition and network interactions is still poorly understood. During a four-year field experiment, we investigated the functional gene composition of three types of soils (Phaeozem, Cambisols and Acrisol) under maize planting and bare fallow regimes located in cold temperate, warm temperate and subtropical regions, respectively. The core genes were identified using high-throughput functional gene microarray (GeoChip 3.0), and functional molecular ecological networks (fMENs) were subsequently developed with the random matrix theory (RMT)-based conceptual framework. Our results demonstrated that planting significantly (P < 0.05) increased the gene alpha-diversity in terms of richness and Shannon - Simpson’s indexes for all three types of soils and 83.5% of microbial alpha-diversity can be explained by the plant factor. Moreover, planting had significant impacts on the microbial community structure and the network interactions of the microbial communities. The calculated network complexity was higher under maize planting than under bare fallow regimes. The increase of the functional genes led to an increase in both soil respiration and nitrification potential with maize planting, indicating that changes in the soil microbial communities and network interactions influenced ecological functioning.

  11. Constitutive activation of CREB in mice enhances temporal association learning and increases hippocampal CA1 neuronal spine density and complexity.

    PubMed

    Serita, Tatsurou; Fukushima, Hotaka; Kida, Satoshi

    2017-02-14

    Transcription factor CREB is believed to play essential roles in the formation of long-term memory (LTM), but not in learning and short-term memory (STM). Surprisingly, we previously showed that transgenic mice expressing a dominant active mutant of CREB (DIEDML) in the forebrain (DIEDML mice) demonstrated enhanced STM and LTM in hippocampal-dependent, rapid, one-trial learning tasks. Here we show that constitutive activation of CREB enhances hippocampal-dependent learning of temporal association in trace fear conditioning and delayed matching-to-place tasks. We then show that in DIEDML mice the apical tuft dendrites of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, required for temporal association learning, display increased spine density, especially of thin spines and of Homer1-negative spines. In contrast, the basal and apical oblique dendrites of CA1 neurons, required for rapid one-trial learning, show increased density of thin, stubby, and mushroom spines and of Homer1-positive spines. Furthermore, DIEDML mice showed increased dendritic complexity in the proximal portion of apical CA1 dendrites to the soma. In contrast, forebrain overexpression of CaMKIV, leading to enhanced LTM but not STM, show normal learning and CA1 neuron morphology. These findings suggest that dendritic region-specific morphological changes in CA1 neurons by constitutive activation of CREB may contribute to improved learning and STM.

  12. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  13. Increased Maternal Genome Dosage Bypasses the Requirement of the FIS Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 in Arabidopsis Seed Development

    PubMed Central

    Kradolfer, David; Hennig, Lars; Köhler, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Seed development in flowering plants is initiated after a double fertilization event with two sperm cells fertilizing two female gametes, the egg cell and the central cell, leading to the formation of embryo and endosperm, respectively. In most species the endosperm is a polyploid tissue inheriting two maternal genomes and one paternal genome. As a consequence of this particular genomic configuration the endosperm is a dosage sensitive tissue, and changes in the ratio of maternal to paternal contributions strongly impact on endosperm development. The FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT SEED (FIS) Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is essential for endosperm development; however, the underlying forces that led to the evolution of the FIS-PRC2 remained unknown. Here, we show that the functional requirement of the FIS-PRC2 can be bypassed by increasing the ratio of maternal to paternal genomes in the endosperm, suggesting that the main functional requirement of the FIS-PRC2 is to balance parental genome contributions and to reduce genetic conflict. We furthermore reveal that the AGAMOUS LIKE (AGL) gene AGL62 acts as a dosage-sensitive seed size regulator and that reduced expression of AGL62 might be responsible for reduced size of seeds with increased maternal genome dosage. PMID:23326241

  14. Increasing concentrations of prothrombin complex concentrate induce disseminated intravascular coagulation in a pig model of coagulopathy with blunt liver injury.

    PubMed

    Grottke, Oliver; Braunschweig, Till; Spronk, Henri M H; Esch, Stephanie; Rieg, Annette D; van Oerle, Rene; ten Cate, Hugo; Fitzner, Christina; Tolba, Rene; Rossaint, Rolf

    2011-08-18

    Despite increasing use of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) to treat hemorrhage-associated coagulopathy, few studies have investigated PCC in trauma, and there is a particular lack of safety data. This study was performed to evaluate PCC therapy in a porcine model of coagulopathy with blunt liver injury. Coagulopathy was induced in 27 anesthetized pigs by replacing approximately 70% blood volume with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 and Ringer's lactate solution; erythrocytes were collected and retransfused. Ten minutes after trauma, animals randomly received PCC (35 or 50 IU/kg) or saline. Coagulation parameters including thromboelastometry, thrombin generation, and blood loss were monitored for 2 hours. Internal organs were examined macroscopically and histologically to determine the presence of emboli and assess liver injury. Total blood loss was significantly lower and survival was higher in both PCC groups versus the control group (P < .05). These outcomes appeared to be dose-independent. Thromboembolism was found in all animals treated with 50 IU/kg PCC; 44% also showed signs of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Liver injury was similar in all animals. In conclusion, 35 IU/kg PCC safely improved coagulation and attenuated blood loss. However, the higher dose of PCC (50 IU/kg) appeared to increase the risk of thromboembolism and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

  15. Increased gene dosage for β- and κ-casein in transgenic cattle improves milk composition through complex effects

    PubMed Central

    Laible, Götz; Smolenski, Grant; Wheeler, Thomas; Brophy, Brigid

    2016-01-01

    We have previously generated transgenic cattle with additional copies of bovine β- and κ casein genes. An initial characterisation of milk produced with a hormonally induced lactation from these transgenic cows showed an altered milk composition with elevated β-casein levels and twofold increased κ-casein content. Here we report the first in-depth characterisation of the composition of the enriched casein milk that was produced through a natural lactation. We have analyzed milk from the high expressing transgenic line TG3 for milk composition at early, peak, mid and late lactation. The introduction of additional β- and κ-casein genes resulted in the expected expression of the transgene derived proteins and an associated reduction in the size of the casein micelles. Expression of the transgenes was associated with complex changes in the expression levels of other milk proteins. Two other major milk components were affected, namely fat and micronutrients. In addition, the sialic acid content of the milk was increased. In contrast, the level of lactose remained unchanged. This novel milk with its substantially altered composition will provide insights into the regulatory processes synchronizing the synthesis and assembly of milk components, as well as production of potentially healthier milk with improved dairy processing characteristics. PMID:27876865

  16. Mitochondrial complex I inhibition triggers a mitophagy-dependent ROS increase leading to necroptosis and ferroptosis in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Basit, Farhan; van Oppen, Lisanne Mpe; Schöckel, Laura; Bossenbroek, Hasse M; van Emst-de Vries, Sjenet E; Hermeling, Johannes Cw; Grefte, Sander; Kopitz, Charlotte; Heroult, Melanie; Hgm Willems, Peter; Koopman, Werner Jh

    2017-03-30

    Inhibition of complex I (CI) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain by BAY 87-2243 ('BAY') triggers death of BRAF(V600E) melanoma cell lines and inhibits in vivo tumor growth. Here we studied the mechanism by which this inhibition induces melanoma cell death. BAY treatment depolarized the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ), increased cellular ROS levels, stimulated lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione levels. These effects were paralleled by increased opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and stimulation of autophagosome formation and mitophagy. BAY-induced cell death was not due to glucose shortage and inhibited by the antioxidant α-tocopherol and the mPTP inhibitor cyclosporin A. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) overexpression in BAY-treated cells lowered ROS levels and inhibited mPTP opening and cell death, whereas the latter was potentiated by TRAP1 knockdown. Knockdown of autophagy-related 5 (ATG5) inhibited the BAY-stimulated autophagosome formation, cellular ROS increase and cell death. Knockdown of phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) inhibited the BAY-induced Δψ depolarization, mitophagy stimulation, ROS increase and cell death. Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) knockdown induced mitochondrial filamentation and inhibited BAY-induced cell death. The latter was insensitive to the pancaspase inhibitor z-VAD-FMK, but reduced by necroptosis inhibitors (necrostatin-1, necrostatin-1s)) and knockdown of key necroptosis proteins (receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) and mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL)). BAY-induced cell death was also reduced by the ferroptosis inhibitor ferrostatin-1 and overexpression of the ferroptosis-inhibiting protein glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4). This overexpression also inhibited the BAY-induced ROS increase and lipid peroxidation. Conversely, GPX4 knockdown potentiated BAY-induced cell death. We propose a

  17. Adsorption and self-assembly of bio-organic molecules at model surfaces: A route towards increased complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Dominique; Pradier, Claire-Marie; Tielens, Frederik; Savio, Letizia

    2015-12-01

    attention will be drawn to the added value provided by the combination of several experimental surface science techniques and to the precious contribution of advanced complementary computational methods to resolve the details of systems of increased complexity. Finally, some hints on experiments performed in presence of water and then characterized in UHV and on the related theoretical work will be presented. This is a further step towards a better approximation of real biological systems. However, since the methods employed are often not typical of surface science, this topic is not developed in detail.

  18. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating.

  19. Enhancing the ferromagnetic coupling in extended phloroglucinol complexes by increasing the metal SOMO-ligand overlap: synthesis and characterization of a trinuclear Co(II)(3) triplesalophen complex.

    PubMed

    Oldengott, Jan; Stammler, Anja; Bögge, Hartmut; Glaser, Thorsten

    2015-06-07

    The triplesalophen complex [(baron(Me))Co(II)(3)] has been synthesized and characterized. The low-spin Co(II) ions possess an (2)A2 ground state with the magnetic orbitals of dyz type. These are well oriented for a strong π overlap with the bridging phloroglucinol, which results in the strongest ferromagnetic interactions by the spin-polarization mechanism for a 3d phloroglucinol complex.

  20. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  1. Invitational Addresses, 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Arthur I.; And Others

    The full texts of invitational addresses given at the 1965 International Reading Association (IRA) Convention in Detroit, Michigan, by six recipients of IRA citation awards are presented. Gates suggests steps IRA should take to revive and redirect reading research. McCallister discusses the implications of the changing and expanding vocabulary of…

  2. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  3. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  4. An E2 Accessory Domain Increases Affinity for the Anaphase-promoting Complex and Ensures E2 Competition*

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Juliet R.; Tenthorey, Jeanette L.; Morgan, David O.

    2015-01-01

    The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a member of the RING family of E3 ubiquitin ligases, which promote ubiquitin transfer from an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme to a substrate. In budding yeast, the APC/C collaborates with two E2s, Ubc4 and Ubc1, to promote the initiation and elongation, respectively, of polyubiquitin chains on the substrate. Ubc4 and Ubc1 are thought to compete for the same site on the APC/C, but it is not clear how their affinities are balanced. Here, we demonstrate that a C-terminal ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain enhances the affinity of Ubc1 for the APC/C. Deletion of the UBA domain reduced apparent APC/C affinity for Ubc1 and decreased polyubiquitin chain length. Surprisingly, the positive effect of the UBA domain was not due to an interaction with the acceptor ubiquitin attached to the APC/C substrate or the donor ubiquitin attached to Ubc1 itself. Instead, our evidence suggests that the UBA domain binds to a site on the APC/C core, thereby increasing Ubc1 affinity and enhancing its ability to compete with Ubc4. The UBA domain is required for normal Ubc1 function and E2 competition in vivo. Thus, the UBA domain of Ubc1 ensures efficient polyubiquitination of substrate by balancing Ubc1 affinity with that of Ubc4. PMID:26306044

  5. Gene expression analysis of tuberous sclerosis complex cortical tubers reveals increased expression of adhesion and inflammatory factors

    PubMed Central

    Boer, Karin; Crino, Peter B.; Gorter, Jan A.; Nellist, Mark; Jansen, Floor E.; Spliet, Wim G.M.; van Rijen, Peter C.; Wittink, Floyd R.A.; Breit, Timo M.; Troost, Dirk; Wadman, Wytse J.; Aronica, Eleonora

    2009-01-01

    Cortical tubers in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex are associated with disabling neurological manifestations, including intractable epilepsy. While these malformations are believed to result from the effects of TSC1 or TSC2 gene mutations, the molecular mechanisms leading to tuber formation, as well as the onset of seizures remain largely unknown. We used the Affymetrix Gene Chip platform to provide the first genome wide investigation of gene expression in surgically resected tubers, compared with histological normal perituberal tissue from the same patients or autopsy control tissue. We identified 2501 differentially expressed genes in cortical tubers compared with autopsy controls. Expression of genes associated with cell adhesion e.g., VCAM1, integrins and CD44, or with the inflammatory response, including complement factors, serpinA3, CCL2 and several cytokines, was increased in cortical tubers, whereas genes related to synaptic transmission e.g., the glial glutamate transporter GLT-1, and voltage-gated channel activity, exhibited lower expression. Gene expression in perituberal cortex was distinct from autopsy control cortex suggesting that even in the absence of tissue pathology the transcriptome is altered in TSC. Changes in gene expression yield insights into new candidate genes that may contribute to tuber formation or seizure onset, representing new targets for potential therapeutic development. PMID:19912235

  6. Sex and species specific isotopic niche specialisation increases with trophic complexity: evidence from an ephemeral pond ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Dalu, Tatenda; Wasserman, Ryan J; Vink, Tim J F; Weyl, Olaf L F

    2017-02-24

    It is generally accepted that organisms that naturally exploit an ecosystem facilitate coexistence, at least partially, through resource partitioning. Resource availability is, however, highly variable in space and time and as such the extent of resource partitioning must be somewhat dependent on availability. Here we test aspects of resource partitioning at the inter- and intra-specific level, in relation to resource availability in an atypical aquatic environment using an isotope approach. Using closely related key organisms from an ephemeral pond, we test for differences in isotopic signatures between two species of copepod and between sexes within each species, in relation to heterogeneity of basal food resources over the course of the ponds hydroperiod. We show that basal food resource heterogeneity increases over time initially, and then decreases towards the end of the hydroperiod, reflective of the expected evolution of trophic complexity for these systems. Resource partitioning also varied between species and sexes, over the hydroperiod with intra- and inter-specific specialisation relating to resource availability. Intra-specific specialisation was particularly evident in the omnivorous copepod species. Our findings imply that trophic specialisation at both the intra- and inter-specific level is partly driven by basal food resource availability.

  7. Sex and species specific isotopic niche specialisation increases with trophic complexity: evidence from an ephemeral pond ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Dalu, Tatenda; Wasserman, Ryan J.; Vink, Tim J. F.; Weyl, Olaf L. F.

    2017-01-01

    It is generally accepted that organisms that naturally exploit an ecosystem facilitate coexistence, at least partially, through resource partitioning. Resource availability is, however, highly variable in space and time and as such the extent of resource partitioning must be somewhat dependent on availability. Here we test aspects of resource partitioning at the inter- and intra-specific level, in relation to resource availability in an atypical aquatic environment using an isotope approach. Using closely related key organisms from an ephemeral pond, we test for differences in isotopic signatures between two species of copepod and between sexes within each species, in relation to heterogeneity of basal food resources over the course of the ponds hydroperiod. We show that basal food resource heterogeneity increases over time initially, and then decreases towards the end of the hydroperiod, reflective of the expected evolution of trophic complexity for these systems. Resource partitioning also varied between species and sexes, over the hydroperiod with intra- and inter-specific specialisation relating to resource availability. Intra-specific specialisation was particularly evident in the omnivorous copepod species. Our findings imply that trophic specialisation at both the intra- and inter-specific level is partly driven by basal food resource availability. PMID:28233858

  8. Inhibition of the Tcf/beta-catenin complex increases apoptosis and impairs adrenocortical tumor cell proliferation and adrenal steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Letícia F.; Bueno, Ana Carolina; Gomes, Débora C.; Abduch, Rafael; de Castro, Margaret; Antonini, Sonir R.

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, there is no effective therapy for patients with advanced/metastatic adrenocortical cancer (ACC). The activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is frequent in ACC and this pathway is a promising therapeutic target. Aim To investigate the effects of the inhibition of the Wnt/beta-catenin in ACC cells. Methods Adrenal (NCI-H295 and Y1) and non-adrenal (HeLa) cell lines were treated with PNU-74654 (5–200 μM) for 24–96 h to assess cell viability (MTS-based assay), apoptosis (Annexin V), expression/localization of beta-catenin (qPCR, immunofluorescence, immunocytochemistry and western blot), expression of beta-catenin target genes (qPCR and western blot), and adrenal steroidogenesis (radioimmunoassay, qPCR and western blot). Results In NCI-H295 cells, PNU-74654 significantly decreased cell proliferation 96 h after treatment, increased early and late apoptosis, decreased nuclear beta-catenin accumulation, impaired CTNNB1/beta-catenin expression and increased beta-catenin target genes 48 h after treatment. No effects were observed on HeLa cells. In NCI-H295 cells, PNU-74654 decreased cortisol, testosterone and androstenedione secretion 24 and 48 h after treatment. Additionally, in NCI-H295 cells, PNU-74654 decreased SF1 and CYP21A2 mRNA expression as well as the protein levels of STAR and aldosterone synthase 48 h after treatment. In Y1 cells, PNU-74654 impaired corticosterone secretion 24 h after treatment but did not decrease cell viability. Conclusions Blocking the Tcf/beta-catenin complex inhibits the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in adrenocortical tumor cells triggering increased apoptosis, decreased cell viability and impairment of adrenal steroidogenesis. These promising findings pave the way for further experiments inhibiting the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway in pre-clinical models of ACC. The inhibition of this pathway may become a promising adjuvant therapy for patients with ACC. PMID:26515592

  9. Content Addressable Memory Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    The Content Addressable M1-emory Project consists of the development of several experimental software systems on an AMT Distributed Array Processor...searching (database) compiler algorithms memory management other systems software) Linear C is an unlovely hybrid language which imports the CAM...memory from AMT’s operating system for the DAP; how- ever, other than this limitation, the memory management routines work exactly as their C counterparts

  10. Will Genetic Testing for Complex Diseases Increase Motivation to Quit Smoking? Anticipated Reactions in a Survey of Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Saskia C.; Wardle, Jane

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve understanding of smokers' potential reactions to genetic testing for smoking-related diseases. One thousand twenty-four respondents completed a postal survey; 186 were smokers. Questions addressed anticipated psychological and behavioral reactions to genetic test results using hypothetical scenarios. Of…

  11. An Excess of Risk-Increasing Low-Frequency Variants Can Be a Signal of Polygenic Inheritance in Complex Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yingleong; Lim, Elaine T.; Sandholm, Niina; Wang, Sophie R.; McKnight, Amy Jayne; Ripke, Stephan; Daly, Mark J.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Salem, Rany M.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.

    2014-01-01

    In most complex diseases, much of the heritability remains unaccounted for by common variants. It has been postulated that lower-frequency variants contribute to the remaining heritability. Here, we describe a method to test for polygenic inheritance from lower-frequency variants by using GWAS summary association statistics. We explored scenarios with many causal low-frequency variants and showed that there is more power to detect risk variants than to detect protective variants, resulting in an increase in the ratio of detected risk to protective variants (R/P ratio). Such an excess can also occur if risk variants are present and kept at lower frequencies because of negative selection. The R/P ratio can be falsely elevated because of reasons unrelated to polygenic inheritance, such as uneven sample sizes or asymmetric population stratification, so precautions to correct for these confounders are essential. We tested our method on published GWAS results and observed a strong signal in some diseases (schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes) but not others. We also explored the shared genetic component in overlapping phenotypes related to inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC]) and diabetic nephropathy (macroalbuminuria and end-stage renal disease [ESRD]). Although the signal was still present when both CD and UC were jointly analyzed, the signal was lost when macroalbuminuria and ESRD were jointly analyzed, suggesting that these phenotypes should best be studied separately. Thus, our method may also help guide the design of future genetic studies of various traits and diseases. PMID:24607388

  12. Dependency Resolution Difficulty Increases with Distance in Persian Separable Complex Predicates: Evidence for Expectation and Memory-Based Accounts.

    PubMed

    Safavi, Molood S; Husain, Samar; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    Delaying the appearance of a verb in a noun-verb dependency tends to increase processing difficulty at the verb; one explanation for this locality effect is decay and/or interference of the noun in working memory. Surprisal, an expectation-based account, predicts that delaying the appearance of a verb either renders it no more predictable or more predictable, leading respectively to a prediction of no effect of distance or a facilitation. Recently, Husain et al. (2014) suggested that when the exact identity of the upcoming verb is predictable (strong predictability), increasing argument-verb distance leads to facilitation effects, which is consistent with surprisal; but when the exact identity of the upcoming verb is not predictable (weak predictability), locality effects are seen. We investigated Husain et al.'s proposal using Persian complex predicates (CPs), which consist of a non-verbal element-a noun in the current study-and a verb. In CPs, once the noun has been read, the exact identity of the verb is highly predictable (strong predictability); this was confirmed using a sentence completion study. In two self-paced reading (SPR) and two eye-tracking (ET) experiments, we delayed the appearance of the verb by interposing a relative clause (Experiments 1 and 3) or a long PP (Experiments 2 and 4). We also included a simple Noun-Verb predicate configuration with the same distance manipulation; here, the exact identity of the verb was not predictable (weak predictability). Thus, the design crossed Predictability Strength and Distance. We found that, consistent with surprisal, the verb in the strong predictability conditions was read faster than in the weak predictability conditions. Furthermore, greater verb-argument distance led to slower reading times; strong predictability did not neutralize or attenuate the locality effects. As regards the effect of distance on dependency resolution difficulty, these four experiments present evidence in favor of working memory

  13. Dependency Resolution Difficulty Increases with Distance in Persian Separable Complex Predicates: Evidence for Expectation and Memory-Based Accounts

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Molood S.; Husain, Samar; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    Delaying the appearance of a verb in a noun-verb dependency tends to increase processing difficulty at the verb; one explanation for this locality effect is decay and/or interference of the noun in working memory. Surprisal, an expectation-based account, predicts that delaying the appearance of a verb either renders it no more predictable or more predictable, leading respectively to a prediction of no effect of distance or a facilitation. Recently, Husain et al. (2014) suggested that when the exact identity of the upcoming verb is predictable (strong predictability), increasing argument-verb distance leads to facilitation effects, which is consistent with surprisal; but when the exact identity of the upcoming verb is not predictable (weak predictability), locality effects are seen. We investigated Husain et al.'s proposal using Persian complex predicates (CPs), which consist of a non-verbal element—a noun in the current study—and a verb. In CPs, once the noun has been read, the exact identity of the verb is highly predictable (strong predictability); this was confirmed using a sentence completion study. In two self-paced reading (SPR) and two eye-tracking (ET) experiments, we delayed the appearance of the verb by interposing a relative clause (Experiments 1 and 3) or a long PP (Experiments 2 and 4). We also included a simple Noun-Verb predicate configuration with the same distance manipulation; here, the exact identity of the verb was not predictable (weak predictability). Thus, the design crossed Predictability Strength and Distance. We found that, consistent with surprisal, the verb in the strong predictability conditions was read faster than in the weak predictability conditions. Furthermore, greater verb-argument distance led to slower reading times; strong predictability did not neutralize or attenuate the locality effects. As regards the effect of distance on dependency resolution difficulty, these four experiments present evidence in favor of working

  14. The lack of mitochondrial complex I in a CMSII mutant of Nicotiana sylvestris increases photorespiration through an increased internal resistance to CO2 diffusion.

    PubMed

    Priault, P; Tcherkez, G; Cornic, G; De Paepe, R; Naik, R; Ghashghaie, J; Streb, P

    2006-01-01

    The cytoplasmic male sterile II (CMSII) mutant lacking complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain has a lower photosynthetic activity but exhibits higher rates of excess electron transport than the wild type (WT) when grown at high light intensity. In order to examine the cause of the lower photosynthetic activity and to determine whether excess electrons are consumed by photorespiration, light, and intercellular CO(2), molar fraction (c(i)) response curves of carbon assimilation were measured at varying oxygen molar fractions. While oxygen is the major acceptor for excess electrons in CMSII and WT leaves, electron flux to photorespiration is favoured in the mutant as compared with the WT leaves. Isotopic mass spectrometry measurements showed that leaf internal conductance to CO(2) diffusion (g(m)) in mutant leaves was half that of WT leaves, thus decreasing the c(c) and favouring photorespiration in the mutant. The specificity factor of Rubisco did not differ significantly between both types of leaves. Furthermore, carbon assimilation as a function of electrons used for carboxylation processes/electrons used for oxygenation processes (J(C)/J(O)) and as a function of the calculated chloroplastic CO(2) molar fraction (c(c)) values was similar in WT and mutant leaves. Enhanced rates of photorespiration also explain the consumption of excess electrons in CMSII plants and agreed with potential ATP consumption. Furthermore, the lower initial Rubisco activity in CMSII as compared with WT leaves resulted from the lower c(c) in ambient air, since initial Rubisco activity on the basis of equal c(c) values was similar in WT and mutant leaves. The retarded growth and the lower photosynthetic activity of the mutant were largely overcome when plants were grown in high CO(2) concentrations, showing that limiting CO(2) supply for photosynthesis was a major cause of the lower growth rate and photosynthetic activity in CMSII.

  15. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  16. Glucose, fructose and sucrose increase the solubility of protein-tannin complexes and at high concentration, glucose and sucrose interfere with bisulphite bleaching of wine pigments.

    PubMed

    Harbertson, James F; Yuan, Chunlong; Mireles, Maria S; Hanlin, Rachel L; Downey, Mark O

    2013-05-01

    Wines were modified with increasing sugar concentrations and decreasing tannin concentrations and analysed by a combination of protein precipitation and bisulphite bleaching. Increasing sugar concentration decreased the precipitation of tannin and protein-precipitable polymeric pigments (PPP). The use of a hydrogen bond disruptor (urea) to reduce protein-tannin and protein-pigment complex formation showed that the effect of sugar concentration occurred by increasing the solubility of the tannin-protein complex, not by interfering with protein-tannin complex formation. By increasing the solubility of pigment-protein complexes, non-protein-precipitable polymeric pigments (nPPP) appeared to increase. There was also an increase in total polymeric pigments at each tannin concentration with increasing glucose and sucrose concentration, indicating that sugar concentration might also affect bisulphite bleaching of wine pigments. While a significant effect of sugar concentration on tannin-protein complex solubility was observed, these effects were greatest at sugar concentrations far in excess of normal wine making conditions. Under normal wine making conditions, sugar concentration will have a negligible effect on protein-precipitable tannin, PPP and nPPP concentrations.

  17. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  18. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Burkholderia contaminans, a Burkholderia cepacia Complex Species That Is Increasingly Recovered from Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bloodworth, Ruhi A. M.; Selin, Carrie; López De Volder, Maria Agustina; Drevinek, Pavel; Galanternik, Laura; Degrossi, José

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia contaminans belongs to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), a group of bacteria that are ubiquitous in the environment and capable of infecting the immunocompromised and people with cystic fibrosis. We report here draft genome sequences for the B. contaminans type strain LMG 23361 and an Argentinian cystic fibrosis sputum isolate. PMID:26251482

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of Burkholderia contaminans, a Burkholderia cepacia Complex Species That Is Increasingly Recovered from Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Bloodworth, Ruhi A M; Selin, Carrie; López De Volder, Maria Agustina; Drevinek, Pavel; Galanternik, Laura; Degrossi, José; Cardona, Silvia T

    2015-08-06

    Burkholderia contaminans belongs to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), a group of bacteria that are ubiquitous in the environment and capable of infecting the immunocompromised and people with cystic fibrosis. We report here draft genome sequences for the B. contaminans type strain LMG 23361 and an Argentinian cystic fibrosis sputum isolate.

  1. Exploring Innovation Processes from a Complexity Perspective. Part II. Experiences from the Subsea Increased Oil Recovery Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aasen, Tone Merethe Berg; Johannessen, Stig

    2007-01-01

    In this second part of the papers, exploring innovation processes from a complexity perspective, we present an empirical example to strengthen further the relevance of the approach. The example draws on a longitudinal research initiative conducted in cooperation with the Norwegian petroleum company Statoil ASA. We conducted our research into the…

  2. Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide acid) nanoparticles for DNA delivery: waiving preparation complexity and increasing efficiency.

    PubMed

    Gvili, Koby; Benny, Ofra; Danino, Dganit; Machluf, Marcelle

    When designing a nonviral gene delivery system based on polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), it is important to keep in mind obstacles associated with future clinical applications. Simplifying the procedure of NPs production and taking toxicity into account are the most important issues that need to be addressed. Toxicity concerns in clinical trials may be raised when using additives such as cationic polymers/lipids, buffering reagents, and proteins. Therefore, the aim of this study was to simplify the formulation of poly (lactide-co-glycolide) acid NPs by shortening steps such as sonication time and by avoiding the use of additives while preserving its efficiency. NPs (300 nm) were formulated using a modified w/o/w technique with DNA entrapment efficiency of 80%. Once achieving such NPs, formulation parameters such as DNA loading, release kinetics, DNA integrity and bioactivity, uptake by cells, and toxicity were addressed. The NPs were readily taken by several cell lines and were localized mostly in their endo-lysosomal compartments. The NPs did not affect cells viability. Most importantly, transfection studies in COS-7 and Cf2th cells resulted with a 250-fold protein expression levels when compared with the control. These expression levels are higher than ones achieved with more complicated NPs systems, demonstrating the efficiency of our simplified NPs for gene delivery.

  3. USGS Science: Addressing Our Nation's Challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Tania M.

    2009-01-01

    With 6.6 billion people already living on Earth, and that number increasing every day, human influence on our planet is ever more apparent. Changes to the natural world combined with increasing human demands threaten our health and safety, our national security, our economy, and our quality of life. As a planet and a Nation, we face unprecedented challenges: loss of critical and unique ecosystems, the effects of climate change, increasing demand for limited energy and mineral resources, increasing vulnerability to natural hazards, the effects of emerging diseases on wildlife and human health, and growing needs for clean water. The time to respond to these challenges is now, but policymakers and decisionmakers face difficult choices. With competing priorities to balance, and potentially serious - perhaps irreversible - consequences at stake, our leaders need reliable scientific information to guide their decisions. As the Nation's earth and natural science agency, the USGS monitors and conducts scientific research on natural hazards and resources and how these elements and human activities influence our environment. Because the challenges we face are complex, the science needed to better understand and deal with these challenges must reflect the complex interplay among natural and human systems. With world-class expertise in biology, geology, geography, hydrology, geospatial information, and remote sensing, the USGS is uniquely capable of conducting the comprehensive scientific research needed to better understand the interdependent interactions of Earth's systems. Every day, the USGS helps decisionmakers to minimize loss of life and property, manage our natural resources, and protect and enhance our quality of life. This brochure provides examples of the challenges we face and how USGS science helps decisionmakers to address these challenges.

  4. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  5. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance.

  6. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  7. Plant Utility Improvements Increase Profits and Productivity at a Clothing Manufacturing Complex (MJ Soffee's Wastewater Heat Recovery System)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-01

    In response to increased marketplace competition and the need for expanded production capacity, MJ Soffee's manufacturing facility in Fayetteville, North Carolina implemented several energy improvement projects,

  8. Hypoxic increase in nitric oxide generation of rat sensory neurons requires activation of mitochondrial complex II and voltage-gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Henrich, M; Paddenberg, R; Haberberger, R V; Scholz, A; Gruss, M; Hempelmann, G; Kummer, W

    2004-01-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that sensory neurons of rat lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) respond to hypoxia with an activation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) resulting in enhanced NO production associated with mitochondria which contributes to resistance against hypoxia. Extracellular calcium is essential to this effect. In the present study on rat DRG slices, we set out to determine what types of calcium channels operate under hypoxia, and which upstream events contribute to their activation, thereby focusing upon mitochondrial complex II. Both the metallic ions Cd2+ and Ni2+, known to inhibit voltage-gated calcium channels and T-type channels, respectively, and verapamil and nifedipine, typical blocker of L-type calcium channels completely prevented the hypoxic neuronal NO generation. Inhibition of complex II by thenoyltrifluoroacetone at the ubiquinon binding site or by 3-nitropropionic acid at the substrate binding site largely diminished hypoxic-induced NO production while having an opposite effect under normoxia. An additional blockade of voltage-gated calcium channels entirely abolished the hypoxic response. The complex II inhibitor malonate inhibited both normoxic and hypoxic NO generation. These data show that complex II activity is required for increased hypoxic NO production. Since succinate dehydrogenase activity of complex II decreased at hypoxia, as measured by histochemistry and densitometry, we propose a hypoxia-induced functional switch of complex II from succinate dehydrogenase to fumarate reductase, which subsequently leads to activation of voltage-gated calcium channels resulting in increased NO production by eNOS.

  9. Increasing the sensitivity of NMR diffusion measurements by paramagnetic longitudinal relaxation enhancement, with application to ribosome–nascent chain complexes

    PubMed Central

    Cassaignau, Anaïs M. E.; Cabrita, Lisa D.

    2016-01-01

    The translational diffusion of macromolecules can be examined non-invasively by stimulated echo (STE) NMR experiments to accurately determine their molecular sizes. These measurements can be important probes of intermolecular interactions and protein folding and unfolding, and are crucial in monitoring the integrity of large macromolecular assemblies such as ribosome–nascent chain complexes (RNCs). However, NMR studies of these complexes can be severely constrained by their slow tumbling, low solubility (with maximum concentrations of up to 10 μM), and short lifetimes resulting in weak signal, and therefore continuing improvements in experimental sensitivity are essential. Here we explore the use of the paramagnetic longitudinal relaxation enhancement (PLRE) agent NiDO2A on the sensitivity of 15N XSTE and SORDID heteronuclear STE experiments, which can be used to monitor the integrity of these unstable complexes. We exploit the dependence of the PLRE effect on the gyromagnetic ratio and electronic relaxation time to accelerate recovery of 1H magnetization without adversely affecting storage on Nz during diffusion delays or introducing significant transverse relaxation line broadening. By applying the longitudinal relaxation-optimized SORDID pulse sequence together with NiDO2A to 70S Escherichia coli ribosomes and RNCs, NMR diffusion sensitivity enhancements of up to 4.5-fold relative to XSTE are achieved, alongside ~1.9-fold improvements in two-dimensional NMR sensitivity, without compromising the sample integrity. We anticipate these results will significantly advance the use of NMR to probe dynamic regions of ribosomes and other large, unstable macromolecular assemblies. PMID:26253948

  10. Risk assessment tools to identify women with increased risk of osteoporotic fracture: complexity or simplicity? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Abrahamsen, Bo; Brixen, Kim

    2013-08-01

    A huge number of risk assessment tools have been developed. Far from all have been validated in external studies, more of them have absence of methodological and transparent evidence, and few are integrated in national guidelines. Therefore, we performed a systematic review to provide an overview of existing valid and reliable risk assessment tools for prediction of osteoporotic fractures. Additionally, we aimed to determine if the performance of each tool was sufficient for practical use, and last, to examine whether the complexity of the tools influenced their discriminative power. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases for papers and evaluated these with respect to methodological quality using the Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) checklist. A total of 48 tools were identified; 20 had been externally validated, however, only six tools had been tested more than once in a population-based setting with acceptable methodological quality. None of the tools performed consistently better than the others and simple tools (i.e., the Osteoporosis Self-assessment Tool [OST], Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Instrument [ORAI], and Garvan Fracture Risk Calculator [Garvan]) often did as well or better than more complex tools (i.e., Simple Calculated Risk Estimation Score [SCORE], WHO Fracture Risk Assessment Tool [FRAX], and Qfracture). No studies determined the effectiveness of tools in selecting patients for therapy and thus improving fracture outcomes. High-quality studies in randomized design with population-based cohorts with different case mixes are needed.

  11. 19F-lanthanide complexes with increased sensitivity for 19F-MRI: optimization of the MR acquisition.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Kirsten H; Kenwright, Alan M; Parker, David; Blamire, Andrew M

    2011-10-01

    Fluorine-19 magnetic resonance methods offer advantages for molecular or cellular imaging in vivo due to the absence of radioactivity, lack of naturally occurring background signal, and the ability to easily combine measurements with anatomical MRI. Previous studies have shown that (19) F-MRI sensitivity is limited to millimolar concentrations by slow longitudinal relaxation. In this study, a new class of macrocyclic fluorinated lanthanide complexes is investigated where relaxation rates are significantly shortened by proximity of the fluorine group to a paramagnetic lanthanide ion located within the same molecule. Longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates are field dependent and in the range 50-150 s(-1) and 70-200 s(-1), respectively, at 7 T. Relaxation rates in these complexes are a function of the molecular structure and are independent of concentration at biologically relevant levels, so can be used as criteria to optimize imaging acquisition. Phantom experiments at 7 T indicate a lower limit for detection by imaging of 20 μM.

  12. Use of multicriteria decision analysis to address conservation conflicts.

    PubMed

    Davies, A L; Bryce, R; Redpath, S M

    2013-10-01

    Conservation conflicts are increasing on a global scale and instruments for reconciling competing interests are urgently needed. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a structured, decision-support process that can facilitate dialogue between groups with differing interests and incorporate human and environmental dimensions of conflict. MCDA is a structured and transparent method of breaking down complex problems and incorporating multiple objectives. The value of this process for addressing major challenges in conservation conflict management is that MCDA helps in setting realistic goals; entails a transparent decision-making process; and addresses mistrust, differing world views, cross-scale issues, patchy or contested information, and inflexible legislative tools. Overall we believe MCDA provides a valuable decision-support tool, particularly for increasing awareness of the effects of particular values and choices for working toward negotiated compromise, although an awareness of the effect of methodological choices and the limitations of the method is vital before applying it in conflict situations.

  13. For a Real Increase in the Military Platforms Safety, as a Consequence of the Transition to Insensitive Munitions: A Complex Issue Which Requires Intrinsic Solutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-01

    FOR A REAL INCREASE IN THE MILITARY PLATFORMS SAFETY, AS A CONSEQUENCE OF THE TRANSITION TO INSENSITIVE MUNITIONS: A complex issue which requires...33.1.64.99.12.34. Fax : 33.1.64.99.15.95 ABSTRACT The transition to Insensitive Munitions ( IM ) is a need coming from the necessity of increasing the...safety of weapon platforms which are going to carry, to store or to use munitions. This transition to IM must then bring solutions to the requirements

  14. Age-specific CUGBP1-eIF2 complex increases translation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta in old liver.

    PubMed

    Timchenko, Lubov T; Salisbury, Elizabeth; Wang, Guo-Li; Nguyen, Heather; Albrecht, Jeffrey H; Hershey, John W B; Timchenko, Nikolai A

    2006-10-27

    The RNA-binding protein CUGBP1 regulates translation of proteins in a variety of biological processes. In this study, we show that aging liver increases CUGBP1 translational activities by induction of a high molecular weight protein-protein complex of CUGBP1. The complex contains CUGBP1, subunits alpha, beta, and gamma of the initiation translation factor eIF2, and four proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum, eR90, CRT, eR60, and Grp78. The induction of the CUGBP1-eIF2 complex in old livers is associated with the elevation of protein levels of CUGBP1 and with the hyper-phosphorylation of CUGBP1 by a cyclin D3-cdk4 kinase, activity of which is increased with age. We have examined the role of the elevation of CUGBP1 and the role of cyclin D3-cdk4-mediated phosphorylation of CUGBP1 in the formation of the CUGBP1-eIF2 complex by using CUGBP1 transgenic mice and young animals expressing high levels of cyclin D3 after injection with cyclin D3 plasmid. These studies showed that both the increased levels of CUGBP1 and cdk4-mediated hyper-phosphorylation of CUGBP1 are involved in the age-associated induction of the CUGBP1-eIF2 complex. The CUGBP1-eIF2 complex is bound to C/EBPbeta mRNA in the liver of old animals, and this binding correlates with the increased amounts of liver-enriched activator protein and liver-enriched inhibitory protein. Consistent with these observations, the purified CUGBP1-eIF2 complex binds to the 5' region of C/EBPbeta mRNA and significantly increases translation of the three isoforms of C/EBPbeta in a cell-free translation system, in cultured cells, and in the liver. Thus, these studies demonstrated that age-mediated induction of the CUGBP1-eIF2 complex changes translation of C/EBPbeta in old livers.

  15. Increased sensitivity of antigen-experienced T cells through the enrichment of oligomeric T cell receptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rashmi; Ferez, María; Swamy, Mahima; Arechaga, Ignacio; Rejas, María Teresa; Valpuesta, Jose M; Schamel, Wolfgang W A; Alarcon, Balbino; van Santen, Hisse M

    2011-09-23

    Although memory T cells respond more vigorously to stimulation and they are more sensitive to low doses of antigen than naive T cells, the molecular basis of this increased sensitivity remains unclear. We have previously shown that the T cell receptor (TCR) exists as different-sized oligomers on the surface of resting T cells and that large oligomers are preferentially activated in response to low antigen doses. Through biochemistry and electron microscopy, we now showed that previously stimulated and memory T cells have more and larger TCR oligomers at the cell surface than their naive counterparts. Reconstitution of cells and mice with a point mutant of the CD3ζ subunit, which impairs TCR oligomer formation, demonstrated that the increased size of TCR oligomers was directly responsible for the increased sensitivity of antigen-experienced T cells. Thus, we propose that an "avidity maturation" mechanism underlies T cell antigenic memory.

  16. Neural Signals Evoked by Stimuli of Increasing Social Scene Complexity Are Detectable at the Single-Trial Level and Right Lateralized

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Carlos P.; Simões, Marco A.; Castelo-Branco, Miguel S.

    2015-01-01

    Classification of neural signals at the single-trial level and the study of their relevance in affective and cognitive neuroscience are still in their infancy. Here we investigated the neurophysiological correlates of conditions of increasing social scene complexity using 3D human models as targets of attention, which may also be important in autism research. Challenging single-trial statistical classification of EEG neural signals was attempted for detection of oddball stimuli with increasing social scene complexity. Stimuli had an oddball structure and were as follows: 1) flashed schematic eyes, 2) simple 3D faces flashed between averted and non-averted gaze (only eye position changing), 3) simple 3D faces flashed between averted and non-averted gaze (head and eye position changing), 4) animated avatar alternated its gaze direction to the left and to the right (head and eye position), 5) environment with 4 animated avatars all of which change gaze and one of which is the target of attention. We found a late (> 300 ms) neurophysiological oddball correlate for all conditions irrespective of their complexity as assessed by repeated measures ANOVA. We attempted single-trial detection of this signal with automatic classifiers and obtained a significant balanced accuracy classification of around 79%, which is noteworthy given the amount of scene complexity. Lateralization analysis showed a specific right lateralization only for more complex realistic social scenes. In sum, complex ecological animations with social content elicit neurophysiological events which can be characterized even at the single-trial level. These signals are right lateralized. These finding paves the way for neuroscientific studies in affective neuroscience based on complex social scenes, and given the detectability at the single trial level this suggests the feasibility of brain computer interfaces that can be applied to social cognition disorders such as autism. PMID:25807525

  17. Neural signals evoked by stimuli of increasing social scene complexity are detectable at the single-trial level and right lateralized.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Carlos P; Simões, Marco A; Castelo-Branco, Miguel S

    2015-01-01

    Classification of neural signals at the single-trial level and the study of their relevance in affective and cognitive neuroscience are still in their infancy. Here we investigated the neurophysiological correlates of conditions of increasing social scene complexity using 3D human models as targets of attention, which may also be important in autism research. Challenging single-trial statistical classification of EEG neural signals was attempted for detection of oddball stimuli with increasing social scene complexity. Stimuli had an oddball structure and were as follows: 1) flashed schematic eyes, 2) simple 3D faces flashed between averted and non-averted gaze (only eye position changing), 3) simple 3D faces flashed between averted and non-averted gaze (head and eye position changing), 4) animated avatar alternated its gaze direction to the left and to the right (head and eye position), 5) environment with 4 animated avatars all of which change gaze and one of which is the target of attention. We found a late (> 300 ms) neurophysiological oddball correlate for all conditions irrespective of their complexity as assessed by repeated measures ANOVA. We attempted single-trial detection of this signal with automatic classifiers and obtained a significant balanced accuracy classification of around 79%, which is noteworthy given the amount of scene complexity. Lateralization analysis showed a specific right lateralization only for more complex realistic social scenes. In sum, complex ecological animations with social content elicit neurophysiological events which can be characterized even at the single-trial level. These signals are right lateralized. These finding paves the way for neuroscientific studies in affective neuroscience based on complex social scenes, and given the detectability at the single trial level this suggests the feasibility of brain computer interfaces that can be applied to social cognition disorders such as autism.

  18. Retrieval Can Increase or Decrease Suggestibility Depending on How Memory Is Tested: The Importance of Source Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jason C. K.; Wilford, Miko M.; Hughes, Katharine L.

    2012-01-01

    Taking an intervening test between learning episodes can enhance later source recollection. Paradoxically, testing can also increase people's susceptibility to the misinformation effect--a finding termed retrieval-enhanced suggestibility (RES, Chan, Thomas, & Bulevich, 2009). We conducted three experiments to examine this apparent contradiction.…

  19. Experimental increase in availability of a PAH complex organic contamination from an aged contaminated soil: consequences on biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Cébron, Aurélie; Faure, Pierre; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Leyval, Corinne

    2013-06-01

    Although high PAH content and detection of PAH-degraders, the PAH biodegradation is limited in aged-contaminated soils due to low PAH availability (i.e., 1%). Here, we tried to experimentally increase the soil PAH availability by keeping both soil properties and contamination composition. Organic extract was first removed and then re-incorporated in the raw soil as fresh contaminants. Though drastic, this procedure only allowed a 6-time increase in the PAH availability suggesting that the organic constituents more than ageing were responsible for low availability. In the re-contaminated soil, the mineralization rate was twice more important, the proportion of 5-6 cycles PAH was higher indicating a preferential degradation of lower molecular weight PAH. The extraction treatment induced bacterial and fungal community structures modifications, Pseudomonas and Fusarium solani species were favoured, and the relative quantity of fungi increased. In re-contaminated soil the percentage of PAH-dioxygenase gene increased, with 10 times more Gram negative representatives.

  20. Deletion of flbA results in increased secretome complexity and reduced secretion heterogeneity in colonies of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Krijgsheld, Pauline; Nitsche, Benjamin M; Post, Harm; Levin, Ana M; Müller, Wally H; Heck, Albert J R; Ram, Arthur F J; Altelaar, A F Maarten; Wösten, Han A B

    2013-04-05

    Aspergillus niger is a cell factory for the production of enzymes. This fungus secretes proteins in the central part and at the periphery of the colony. The sporulating zone of the colony overlapped with the nonsecreting subperipheral zone, indicating that sporulation inhibits protein secretion. Indeed, strain ΔflbA that is affected early in the sporulation program secreted proteins throughout the colony. In contrast, the ΔbrlA strain that initiates but not completes sporulation did not show altered spatial secretion. The secretome of 5 concentric zones of xylose-grown ΔflbA colonies was assessed by quantitative proteomics. In total 138 proteins with a signal sequence for secretion were identified in the medium of ΔflbA colonies. Of these, 18 proteins had never been reported to be part of the secretome of A. niger, while 101 proteins had previously not been identified in the culture medium of xylose-grown wild type colonies. Taken together, inactivation of flbA results in spatial changes in secretion and in a more complex secretome. The latter may be explained by the fact that strain ΔflbA has a thinner cell wall compared to the wild type, enabling efficient release of proteins. These results are of interest to improve A. niger as a cell factory.

  1. Increased oral bioavailability of paclitaxel by its encapsulation through complex formation with cyclodextrins in poly(anhydride) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Agüeros, M; Zabaleta, V; Espuelas, S; Campanero, M A; Irache, J M

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the oral bioavailability in rats of paclitaxel (PTX) when encapsulated as a complex with cyclodextrins in poly(anhydride) nanoparticles (NP). For this purpose three different cyclodextrins were selected: beta-cyclodextrin (CD), 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and 6-monodeoxy-6-monoamino-beta-cyclodextrin (NHCD). A single dose of 10mg paclitaxel per kg body weight as PTX-cyclodextrin nanoparticles was used. Plasma curves were characterised by a plateau of paclitaxel concentration close to the C(max) from T(max) till 24h post-administration. For PTX-CD NP and PTX-HPCD NP, these sustained levels of the anticancer drug were found to be between 27 and 33-fold higher than the reported value of drug activity whereas the relative oral bioavailability of paclitaxel was calculated to be higher than 80%. These facts would be directly related with a synergistic effect obtained by the combination of the bioadhesive properties of poly(anhydride) nanoparticles and the inhibitory effect of cyclodextrins on the activity of P-glycoprotein and cythocrome P450.

  2. Addressing the insider threat

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-05-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  3. Addressing the insider threat

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  4. The Reach Address Database (RAD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores reach address information for each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams, lakes, etc) in the National Hydrology Database (NHD) Plus dataset.

  5. Increasing the luminescence of lanthanide(III) macrocyclic complexes by the use of polymers and lanthanide enhanced luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.; Becker, Margie C.; Bromm, Alfred J., Jr.; Vallarino, Lidia M.; Williams, Steven A.; Yang, Sean

    2001-05-01

    A Eu (III)-macrocycle-isothiocyanate, Quantum DyeTM, has been reacted with lysine homo- and hetero-peptides to give polymers with multiple luminescent side chains. Contrary to the concentration quenching that occurs with conventional organic fluorophores, the attachment of multiple Quantum Dyes to a polymer results in a concomitant increase in luminescence. The emission intensity of the peptide-bound Quantum Dye units is approximately linearly related to their number. The attachment of peptides containing multiple lanthanide (III) macrocycles to analyte-binding species is facilitated by employing solid-phase technology. Bead-bound peptides are first labeled with multiple Quantum Dye units, then conjugated to an antibody, and finally released from the bead by specific cleavage with Proteinase K unedr physiological conditions. Since the luminescence of lanthanide(III) macrocycles is enhanced by the presence of GD(III) or Y(III) ions in a micellar system, a significant increase in signal can be achieved by attaching a polymer labeled with multiple Quantum Dye units to an analyte- binding species, such as a monoclonal antibody, or by taking advantage of the luminescence enhancing effects of Gd(III) or Y(III), or by both approaches concomitantly. A comparison between the integrated intensity and lifetime measurements of the Eu(III)-macrocycle under a variety of conditions show that the signal increase caused by Gd(III) can not be explained solely by the increase in lifetime, and must result in significant part from an energy transfer process invloving donors not directly bound to the Eu(III).

  6. Complex coupled metabolic and prokaryotic community responses to increasing temperatures in anaerobic marine sediments: critical temperatures and substrate changes

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, Erwan G.; Cragg, Barry A.; Webster, Gordon; Sass, Henrik; Tang, Xiaohong; Williams, Angharad S.; Gorra, Roberta; Weightman, Andrew J.; Parkes, R. John

    2015-01-01

    The impact of temperature (0–80°C) on anaerobic biogeochemical processes and prokaryotic communities in marine sediments (tidal flat) was investigated in slurries for up to 100 days. Temperature had a non-linear effect on biogeochemistry and prokaryotes with rapid changes over small temperature intervals. Some activities (e.g. methanogenesis) had multiple ‘windows’ within a large temperature range (∼10 to 80°C). Others, including acetate oxidation, had maximum activities within a temperature zone, which varied with electron acceptor [metal oxide (up to ∼34°C) and sulphate (up to ∼50°C)]. Substrates for sulphate reduction changed from predominantly acetate below, and H2 above, a 43°C critical temperature, along with changes in activation energies and types of sulphate-reducing Bacteria. Above ∼43°C, methylamine metabolism ceased with changes in methanogen types and increased acetate concentrations (>1 mM). Abundances of uncultured Archaea, characteristic of deep marine sediments (e.g. MBGD Euryarchaeota, ‘Bathyarchaeota’) changed, indicating their possible metabolic activity and temperature range. Bacterial cell numbers were consistently higher than archaeal cells and both decreased above ∼15°C. Substrate addition stimulated activities, widened some activity temperature ranges (methanogenesis) and increased bacterial (×10) more than archaeal cell numbers. Hence, additional organic matter input from climate-related eutrophication may amplify the impact of temperature increases on sedimentary biogeochemistry. PMID:26207045

  7. Complex coupled metabolic and prokaryotic community responses to increasing temperatures in anaerobic marine sediments: critical temperatures and substrate changes.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Erwan G; Cragg, Barry A; Webster, Gordon; Sass, Henrik; Tang, Xiaohong; Williams, Angharad S; Gorra, Roberta; Weightman, Andrew J; Parkes, R John

    2015-08-01

    The impact of temperature (0-80°C) on anaerobic biogeochemical processes and prokaryotic communities in marine sediments (tidal flat) was investigated in slurries for up to 100 days. Temperature had a non-linear effect on biogeochemistry and prokaryotes with rapid changes over small temperature intervals. Some activities (e.g. methanogenesis) had multiple 'windows' within a large temperature range (∼10 to 80°C). Others, including acetate oxidation, had maximum activities within a temperature zone, which varied with electron acceptor [metal oxide (up to ∼34°C) and sulphate (up to ∼50°C)]. Substrates for sulphate reduction changed from predominantly acetate below, and H2 above, a 43°C critical temperature, along with changes in activation energies and types of sulphate-reducing Bacteria. Above ∼43°C, methylamine metabolism ceased with changes in methanogen types and increased acetate concentrations (>1 mM). Abundances of uncultured Archaea, characteristic of deep marine sediments (e.g. MBGD Euryarchaeota, 'Bathyarchaeota') changed, indicating their possible metabolic activity and temperature range. Bacterial cell numbers were consistently higher than archaeal cells and both decreased above ∼15°C. Substrate addition stimulated activities, widened some activity temperature ranges (methanogenesis) and increased bacterial (×10) more than archaeal cell numbers. Hence, additional organic matter input from climate-related eutrophication may amplify the impact of temperature increases on sedimentary biogeochemistry.

  8. Cattle with increased severity of bovine respiratory disease complex exhibit decreased capacity to protect against histone cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Matera, J A; Wilson, B K; Hernandez Gifford, J A; Step, D L; Krehbiel, C R; Gifford, C A

    2015-04-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle. Significant inflammation and lesions are often observed in lungs of infected cattle. During acute inflammatory responses, histones contribute to mortality in rodents and humans and serum proteins can protect against histone-induced cytotoxicity. We hypothesized that cattle experiencing chronic or fatal cases of BRDC have reduced ability to protect against cytotoxic effects of histones. Serum samples were collected from 66 bull calves at the time of normal feedlot processing procedures. Animals were retrospectively assigned to groups consisting of calves never treated for BRDC (control [CONT]; n = 10), calves treated with antimicrobials once for BRDC (1T; n = 16), calves treated twice for BRDC (2T; n = 13), calves treated 3 times for BRDC (3T; n = 14), or calves treated 4 times for BRDC (4T; n = 13). Samples were also collected each time animals received antimicrobial treatment; animals within a group were further sorted by calves that recovered and calves that died to test histone cytotoxicity. Bovine kidney cells were cultured in duplicate in 96-well plates and exposed to 0 or 50 μg/mL of total histones for 18 h with 1% serum from each animal. Cell viability was assessed by the addition of resazurin for 6 h followed by fluorescent quantification. Fluorescent values from serum alone were subtracted from values obtained for histone treatment for each animal. Serum from CONT, 1T, and 2T at initial processing all exhibited a similar (P > 0.10) response to histone treatment with fluorescent values of -312 ± 557, -1,059 ± 441, and -975 ± 489, respectively. However, 3T and 4T demonstrated an impaired capacity (P < 0.05) to protect against histones (-2,778 ± 471 and -3,026 ± 489) at initial processing when compared to the other groups. When sorted by mortality within group, calves that were treated twice and recovered (-847 ± 331) demonstrated a greater (P

  9. Increased Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Activity at Complex I Is Regulated by N-Acetylcysteine in Lymphocytes of Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Edward; Oaks, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients' peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) show mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. To determine the electrochemical bases of mitochondrial dysfunction, we measured electron transport chain (ETC) activity and its regulation by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) that reversed glutathione depletion and improved disease activity in SLE. ETC activity was assessed in PBL of 69 SLE patients and 37 healthy donors. Negatively isolated T cells were examined in 7 SLE patients, 11 healthy donors, and 10 nonlupus inflammatory arthritis (IA) donors. Results: O2 consumption (in nmol/ml/min) by lupus PBL was increased at baseline (SLE: 2.492±0.196, control: 2.137±0.153; p=0.027) and with complex IV substrates (SLE: 7.722±0.419, control: 7.006±0.505; p=0.028). SLE PBL consumed more O2 upon in-chamber T-cell activation (p=0.012). After overnight T-cell stimulation, ETC activity of SLE PBL was 2.27-fold increased through complex I (SLE: 1.606±0.273, control: 0.709±0.169; p=0.001) and, to a lesser extent, through complex IV. Likewise, complex I activity was elevated in negatively isolated “untouched” T cells of SLE patients (1.816±0.180) relative to healthy controls (0.917±0.094; p=0.0003) and IA disease controls studied in parallel (1.057±0.199; p=0.0308). NAC diminished O2 consumption through complex I and H2O2 levels both in SLE and in control PBL. Innovation: O2 consumption was found to be increased in SLE patients' PBL relative to control subjects evaluated in parallel. ETC complex I is identified as the main source of oxidative stress in SLE. Conclusions: Lupus PBL exhibit increased O2 consumption through mitochondrial ETC complex I that is inhibited by NAC, which may have therapeutic efficacy through reducing oxidative stress in SLE. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 56–65. PMID:24673154

  10. Increasing value and reducing waste: addressing inaccessible research

    PubMed Central

    Chan, An-Wen; Song, Fujian; Vickers, Andrew; Jefferson, Tom; Dickersin, Kay; Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Ghersi, Davina; van der Worp, H. Bart

    2015-01-01

    The study protocol, publications, full study report detailing all analyses, and participant-level dataset constitute the main documentation of methods and results for health research. However, journal publications are available for only half of all studies and are plagued by selective reporting of methods and results. The protocol, full study report, and participant-level dataset are rarely available. The quality of information provided in study protocols and reports is variable and often incomplete. Inaccessibility of full information for the vast majority of studies wastes billions of dollars, introduces bias, and has a detrimental impact on patient care and research. To help improve this situation at a systemic level, three main actions are warranted. Firstly, it is important that academic institutions and funders reward investigators who fully disseminate their research protocols, reports, and participant-level datasets. Secondly, standards for the content of protocols, full study reports, and data sharing practices should be rigorously developed and adopted for all types of health research. Finally, journals, funders, sponsors, research ethics committees, regulators, and legislators should implement and enforce policies supporting study registration and availability of journal publications, full study reports, and participant-level datasets. PMID:24411650

  11. The Importance of Exposure in Addressing Current and Emerging Air Quality Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    The air quality issues that we face today and will face in the future are becoming increasingly more complex and require an improved understanding of human exposure to be effectively addressed. The objectives of this paper are (1) to discuss how concepts of human exposure and ex...

  12. Teicoplanin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus expresses a novel membrane protein and increases expression of penicillin-binding protein 2 complex.

    PubMed Central

    Shlaes, D M; Shlaes, J H; Vincent, S; Etter, L; Fey, P D; Goering, R V

    1993-01-01

    In the recent clinical trials of teicoplanin therapy of endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, at least one instance of the emergence of teicoplanin-resistant strains during therapy has been reported (G.W. Kaatz, S. M. Seo, N. J. Dorman, and S. A. Lerner, J. Infect. Dis 162:103-108, 1990). We have confirmed, using conventional electrophoresis of EcoRI-digested chromosomal DNA and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of SmaI-digested chromosomal DNA, that the resistant strain (12873) (MIC, 16 micrograms/ml) is genetically very similar to the susceptible parent (12871) (MIC, 4 micrograms/ml). Kaatz et al. were able to select spontaneous teicoplanin-resistant mutants (10(-9)), suggesting that a single gene might be involved. We have shown that the mutation is highly stable during growth in the absence of teicoplanin. Using Tn551, we have selected insertion mutants of 12873 that become teicoplanin susceptible. We have examined a number of aspects of cell wall physiology in strains 12871 and 12873 and the teicoplanin-susceptible Tn551 mutants of 12873. 12873 was more susceptible to lysostaphin lysis than 12871 and the susceptible Tn551 derivatives of 12873. Autolysis in phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) and cell wall turnover rates were similar in 12871 and 12873. An analysis of membrane proteins revealed the expression of a ca. 35-kDa protein and increased expression of both polypeptides of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 2 (PBP2) in 12873 relative to 12871 and the Tn551 mutants of 12873. This increased expression was not related to PBP2', since both strains were susceptible to oxacillin in 2% NaCl (MIC, < or = 0.25 microgram/ml) and cellular DNA from neither strain hybridized with a specific mec gene probe. Two independent Tn551 inserts have been mapped to a ca. 117-kb SmaI fragment of the chromosome. These data suggest the possibility that the mutation resulting in resistance to teicoplanin involves the regulation of expression of both polypeptides of PBP2 and a 35-k

  13. Minority cytotypes in European populations of the Gymnadenia conopsea complex (Orchidaceae) greatly increase intraspecific and intrapopulation diversity

    PubMed Central

    Trávníček, Pavel; Jersáková, Jana; Kubátová, Barbora; Krejčíková, Jana; Bateman, Richard M.; Lučanová, Magdalena; Krajníková, Eva; Těšitelová, Tamara; Štípková, Zuzana; Amardeilh, Jean-Pierre; Brzosko, Emilia; Jermakowicz, Edyta; Cabanne, Olivier; Durka, Walter; Efimov, Peter; Hedrén, Mikael; Hermosilla, Carlos E.; Kreutz, Karel; Kull, Tiiu; Tali, Kadri; Marchand, Olivier; Rey, Manel; Schiestl, Florian P.; Čurn, Vladislav; Suda, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Patterns of ploidy variation among and within populations can provide valuable insights into the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the dynamics of plant systems showing ploidy diversity. Whereas data on majority ploidies are, by definition, often sufficiently extensive, much less is known about the incidence and evolutionary role of minority cytotypes. Methods Ploidy and proportions of endoreplicated genome were determined using DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) flow cytometry in 6150 Gymnadenia plants (fragrant orchids) collected from 141 populations in 17 European countries. All widely recognized European species, and several taxa of less certain taxonomic status were sampled within Gymnadenia conopsea sensu lato. Key Results Most Gymnadenia populations were taxonomically and/or ploidy heterogeneous. Two majority (2x and 4x) and three minority (3x, 5x and 6x) cytotypes were identified. Evolution largely proceeded at the diploid level, whereas tetraploids were much more geographically and taxonomically restricted. Although minority ploidies constituted <2 % of the individuals sampled, they were found in 35 % of populations across the entire area investigated. The amount of nuclear DNA, together with the level of progressively partial endoreplication, separated all Gymnadenia species currently widely recognized in Europe. Conclusions Despite their low frequency, minority cytotypes substantially increase intraspecific and intrapopulation ploidy diversity estimates for fragrant orchids. The cytogenetic structure of Gymnadenia populations is remarkably dynamic and shaped by multiple evolutionary mechanisms, including both the ongoing production of unreduced gametes and heteroploid hybridization. Overall, it is likely that the level of ploidy heterogeneity experienced by most plant species/populations is currently underestimated; intensive sampling is necessary to obtain a holistic picture. PMID:23002267

  14. Changes in fish communities on a small spatial scale, an effect of increased habitat complexity by an offshore wind farm.

    PubMed

    van Hal, R; Griffioen, A B; van Keeken, O A

    2017-01-31

    The number of offshore wind farms (OWF) is increasing to meet the demands for renewable energy. The piles and hard substrate surrounding these piles creates new habitat for species with preference to hard substrates. We studied the impact of this hard substrate on the fish community in a Dutch OWF in the sandy southern North Sea, which had been in operation for five years. Multi-mesh gillnets were placed near the OWF structures on the hard substrate protection revetments and on the sandy bottom in the middle of the farm. The catches indicated attraction of cod, pouting, bullrout and edible and velvet crab, while attraction to the sandy habitat was shown for flatfish and whiting. Further, two species previously not caught in this area, goldsinny wrasse and grey trigger fish, were caught on the hard substrate. In addition a Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar (DIDSON) was used to record transects through the farm to observe individual fish in the water column throughout the farm and very near the OWF structures. High abundances of fish near the structure were observed during some days, while during other days equal distribution of fish in the area was observed. The area around the structures is thus only used temporarily for shelter or feeding. The DIDSON also allowed looking at the aggregation level of the fish. Seasonally the aggregation level differed most likely due to different species occurring in the area. In April, most fish were aggregated in schools, while in summer most observations were individual fish or loose aggregations. The wind farm structures had limited effect on the aggregation level compared to season or weather conditions.

  15. Automated measurement of printer effective addressability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Brian E.; Eid, Ahmed H.; Rippetoe, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    When evaluating printer resolution, addressability is a key consideration. Addressability defines the maximum number of spots or samples within a given distance, independent of the size of the spots when printed. Effective addressability is the addressability demonstrated by the final, printed output. It is the minimum displacement possible between the centers of printed objects. In this paper, we present a measurement procedure for effective addressability that offers an automated way to experimentally determine the addressability of the printed output. It requires printing, scanning, and measuring a test target. The effective addressability test target contains two types of elements, repeated to fill the page: fiducial lines and line segments. The fiducial lines serve as a relative reference for the incremental displacements of the individual line segments, providing a way to tolerate larger-scale physical distortions in the printer. An ordinary reflection scanner captures the printed test target. By rotating the page on the scanner, it is possible to measure effective addressability well beyond the scanner's sampling resolution. The measurement algorithm computes the distribution of incremental displacements, forming either a unimodal or bimodal histogram. In the latter case, the mean of the second (non-zero) peak indicates the effective addressability. In the former case, the printer successfully rendered the target's resolution, requiring another iteration of the procedure after increasing the resolution of the test target. The algorithm automatically estimates whether the histogram is unimodal or bimodal and computes parameters describing the quality of the measured histogram. Several experiments have refined the test target and measurement procedure, including two round-robin evaluations by the ISO WG4 committee. Results include an analysis of approximately 150 printed samples. The effective addressability attribute and measurement procedure are included in

  16. CONTENT-ADDRESSABLE MEMORY SYSTEMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The utility of content -addressable memories (CAM’s) within a general purpose computing system is investigated. Word cells within CAM may be...addressed by the character of all or a part of cell contents . Multimembered sets of word cells may be addressed simultaneously. The distributed logical...package is developed which allows simulation of CAM commands within job programs run on the IBM 7090 and derives tallies of execution times corresponding to a particular realization of a CAM system . (Author)

  17. A knowledge-based agent prototype for Chinese address geocoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ran; Zhang, Xuehu; Ding, Linfang; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2009-10-01

    Chinese address geocoding is a difficult problem to deal with due to intrinsic complexities in Chinese address systems and a lack of standards in address assignments and usages. In order to improve existing address geocoding algorithm, a spatial knowledge-based agent prototype aimed at validating address geocoding results is built to determine the spatial accuracies as well as matching confidence. A portion of human's knowledge of judging the spatial closeness of two addresses is represented via first order logic and the corresponding algorithms are implemented with the Prolog language. Preliminary tests conducted using addresses matching result in Beijing area showed that the prototype can successfully assess the spatial closeness between the matching address and the query address with 97% accuracy.

  18. Preparation and characterization of a new harmine-based antiproliferative compound in complex with cyclodextrin: Increasing solubility while maintaining biological activity.

    PubMed

    Meinguet, Céline; Masereel, Bernard; Wouters, Johan

    2015-09-18

    The trisubstituted harmine derivative, 2, present a submicromolar antiproliferative activity on 5 cancer cell lines but a moderate kinetic solubility in pH 7.4 buffer. The aim of this work was to develop a 2-cyclodextrin complex in order to increase the drug solubility while maintaining the biological activity. Firstly, the 2 increasing solubility in presence of several cyclodextrins (CDs) has been shown, with a maximum for 7 glucose subunit CD (βCD and 2 HP-βCD). Phase solubility experiment in presence of 2 HP-βCD has underline an AL-type profile until 80 mM which suggest a 1:1 stoichiometry and a K1:1 of 116 M(-1) and a CE of 0.28 have been calculated. This 1:1 stoichiometry was confirmed by Job Plot experiment, following the CD H-3 proton by (1)H NMR. Secondly, (1)H NMR study of compound 2 in presence of βCD and geometry optimization of the complex has underline an inclusion of 2 into the CD, via the indole part of the drug. Finally, the efficiency of the 2 antiproliferative effect is not affected by the complexation, as shown by viability test.

  19. High mobility group box protein 1 in complex with lipopolysaccharide or IL-1 promotes an increased inflammatory phenotype in synovial fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In addition to its direct proinflammatory activity, extracellular high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) can strongly enhance the cytokine response evoked by other proinflammatory molecules, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CpG-DNA and IL-1β, through the formation of complexes. Extracellular HMGB1 is abundant in arthritic joint tissue where it is suggested to promote inflammation as intra-articular injections of HMGB1 induce synovitis in mice and HMGB1 neutralizing therapy suppresses development of experimental arthritis. The aim of this study was to determine whether HMGB1 in complex with LPS, interleukin (IL)-1α or IL-1β has enhancing effects on the production of proinflammatory mediators by rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASF) and osteoarthritis synovial fibroblasts (OASF). Furthermore, we examined the toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and IL-1RI requirement for the cytokine-enhancing effects of the investigated HMGB1-ligand complexes. Methods Synovial fibroblasts obtained from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) patients were stimulated with HMGB1 alone or in complex with LPS, IL-1α or IL-1β. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) production was determined by enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) assessment. Levels of IL-10, IL-1-β, IL-6 and IL-8 were measured using Cytokine Bead Array and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 3 production was determined by ELISA. Results Stimulation with HMGB1 in complex with LPS, IL-1α or IL-1β enhanced production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8. HMGB1 in complex with IL-1β increased MMP production from both RASF and OASF. The cytokine production was inhibited by specific receptor blockade using detoxified LPS or IL-1 receptor antagonist, indicating that the synergistic effects were mediated through the partner ligand-reciprocal receptors TLR4 and IL-1RI, respectively. Conclusions HMGB1 in complex with LPS, IL-1α or IL-1β boosted proinflammatory cytokine- and MMP production in synovial fibroblasts from

  20. A simple thermodynamic model for quantitatively addressing cooperativity in multicomponent self-assembly processes--part 1: Theoretical concepts and application to monometallic coordination complexes and bimetallic helicates possessing identical binding sites.

    PubMed

    Hamacek, Josef; Borkovec, Michal; Piguet, Claude

    2005-09-05

    A thermodynamic model has been developed for quantitatively estimating cooperativity in supramolecular polymetallic [M(m)L(n)] assemblies, as the combination of two simple indexes measuring intermetallic (I(c)MM) and interligand (I(c)LL) interactions. The usual microscopic intermolecular metal-ligand affinities (f(i)(M,L)) and intermetallic interaction parameters (uMM), adapted to the description of successive intermolecular binding of metal ions to a preorganized receptor, are completed with interligand interactions (uLL) and effective concentrations (c(eff)), accounting for the explicit free energy associated with the aggregation of the ligands forming the receptor. Application to standard monometallic pseudo-octahedral complexes [M(L)(n)(H2O)(6 - n)] (M = Co, Ni, Hf, L = ammonia, fluoride, imidazole, n = 1-6) systematically shows negative cooperativity (uLL < 1), which can be modulated by the electronic structures, charges, and sizes of the entering ligands and of the metal ions. Extension to the self-assembly of more sophisticated bimetallic helicates possessing identical binding sites is discussed, together with the origin of the positively cooperative formation of [Eu2(L3)3].

  1. Functional characterization of EZH2β reveals the increased complexity of EZH2 isoforms involved in the regulation of mammalian gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Histone methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) forms an obligate repressive complex with suppressor of zeste 12 and embryonic ectoderm development, which is thought, along with EZH1, to be primarily responsible for mediating Polycomb-dependent gene silencing. Polycomb-mediated repression influences gene expression across the entire gamut of biological processes, including development, differentiation and cellular proliferation. Deregulation of EZH2 expression is implicated in numerous complex human diseases. To date, most EZH2-mediated function has been primarily ascribed to a single protein product of the EZH2 locus. Results We report that the EZH2 locus undergoes alternative splicing to yield at least two structurally and functionally distinct EZH2 methyltransferases. The longest protein encoded by this locus is the conventional enzyme, which we refer to as EZH2α, whereas EZH2β, characterized here, represents a novel isoform. We find that EZH2β localizes to the cell nucleus, complexes with embryonic ectoderm development and suppressor of zeste 12, trimethylates histone 3 at lysine 27, and mediates silencing of target promoters. At the cell biological level, we find that increased EZH2β induces cell proliferation, demonstrating that this protein is functional in the regulation of processes previously attributed to EZH2α. Biochemically, through the use of genome-wide expression profiling, we demonstrate that EZH2β governs a pattern of gene repression that is often ontologically redundant from that of EZH2α, but also divergent for a wide variety of specific target genes. Conclusions Combined, these results demonstrate that an expanded repertoire of EZH2 writers can modulate histone code instruction during histone 3 lysine 27-mediated gene silencing. These data support the notion that the regulation of EZH2-mediated gene silencing is more complex than previously anticipated and should guide the design and interpretation of future

  2. Double dose plateletpheresis by continuous and intermittent flow devices increases platelet-neutrophil complex formation in healthy donors without noticeable neutrophil activation.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Aynur Ugur; Karadogan, Ihsan; Yilmaz, Ferahnaz Gencay; Undar, Levent

    2007-02-01

    Several reports have demonstrated that during a single plateletpheresis procedure, platelets may form heterotypic aggregates which may predispose certain donors to thrombotic complications. In this study, changes in the expression of neutrophil adhesion molecules (CD11b/CD18, CD50/54, CD62L) and platelet-neutrophil complex (PNC) formation were investigated by a flow cytometric method in healthy donors following a double dose plateletpheresis (DDP) procedure. Our results show that DDP which are carried out by the Fresenius AS.TEC 204 and Haemonetics MCS+ cause a significant increase in PNC formation in donors. Additionally, the Fresenius AS.TEC 204 device caused a decrease in CD62L expression which is a sign of mild neutrophil activation. Although the clinical significance of these laboratory changes is not clear, the occurrence of neutrophil activation and increased PNC formation might predispose certain donors to thrombotic complications following DDP.

  3. A Phospholipid-Protein Complex from Antarctic Krill Reduced Plasma Homocysteine Levels and Increased Plasma Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) and Carnitine Levels in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bjørndal, Bodil; Ramsvik, Marie S.; Lindquist, Carine; Nordrehaug, Jan E.; Bruheim, Inge; Svardal, Asbjørn; Nygård, Ottar; Berge, Rolf K.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is assumed to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, mainly based on plasma lipid lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, other plasma risk factors linked to cardiovascular disease are less studied. This study aimed to penetrate the effect of a phospholipid-protein complex (PPC) from Antarctic krill on one-carbon metabolism and production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed isoenergetic control, 6%, or 11% PPC diets for four weeks. Rats fed PPC had reduced total homocysteine plasma level and increased levels of choline, dimethylglycine and cysteine, whereas the plasma level of methionine was unchanged compared to control. PPC feeding increased the plasma level of TMAO, carnitine, its precursors trimethyllysine and γ-butyrobetaine. There was a close correlation between plasma TMAO and carnitine, trimethyllysine, and γ-butyrobetaine, but not between TMAO and choline. The present data suggest that PPC has a homocysteine lowering effect and is associated with altered plasma concentrations of metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism and B-vitamin status in rats. Moreover, the present study reveals a non-obligatory role of gut microbiota in the increased plasma TMAO level as it can be explained by the PPC’s content of TMAO. The increased level of carnitine and carnitine precursors is interpreted to reflect increased carnitine biosynthesis. PMID:26371012

  4. A Phospholipid-Protein Complex from Antarctic Krill Reduced Plasma Homocysteine Levels and Increased Plasma Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) and Carnitine Levels in Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Bjørndal, Bodil; Ramsvik, Marie S; Lindquist, Carine; Nordrehaug, Jan E; Bruheim, Inge; Svardal, Asbjørn; Nygård, Ottar; Berge, Rolf K

    2015-09-08

    Seafood is assumed to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, mainly based on plasma lipid lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, other plasma risk factors linked to cardiovascular disease are less studied. This study aimed to penetrate the effect of a phospholipid-protein complex (PPC) from Antarctic krill on one-carbon metabolism and production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed isoenergetic control, 6%, or 11% PPC diets for four weeks. Rats fed PPC had reduced total homocysteine plasma level and increased levels of choline, dimethylglycine and cysteine, whereas the plasma level of methionine was unchanged compared to control. PPC feeding increased the plasma level of TMAO, carnitine, its precursors trimethyllysine and γ-butyrobetaine. There was a close correlation between plasma TMAO and carnitine, trimethyllysine, and γ-butyrobetaine, but not between TMAO and choline. The present data suggest that PPC has a homocysteine lowering effect and is associated with altered plasma concentrations of metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism and B-vitamin status in rats. Moreover, the present study reveals a non-obligatory role of gut microbiota in the increased plasma TMAO level as it can be explained by the PPC's content of TMAO. The increased level of carnitine and carnitine precursors is interpreted to reflect increased carnitine biosynthesis.

  5. Address tracing for parallel machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stunkel, Craig B.; Janssens, Bob; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1991-01-01

    Recently implemented parallel system address-tracing methods based on several metrics are surveyed. The issues specific to collection of traces for both shared and distributed memory parallel computers are highlighted. Five general categories of address-trace collection methods are examined: hardware-captured, interrupt-based, simulation-based, altered microcode-based, and instrumented program-based traces. The problems unique to shared memory and distributed memory multiprocessors are examined separately.

  6. Amino-terminal alteration of the HLA-A*0201-restricted human immunodeficiency virus pol peptide increases complex stability and in vitro immunogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Pogue, R R; Eron, J; Frelinger, J A; Matsui, M

    1995-01-01

    Initial studies suggested that major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted viral epitopes could be predicted by the presence of particular residues termed anchors. However, recent studies showed that nonanchor positions of the epitopes are also significant for class I binding and recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). We investigated if changing nonanchor amino acids could increase class I affinity, complex stability, and T-cell recognition of a natural viral epitope. This concept was tested by using the HLA-A 0201-restricted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 epitope from reverse transcriptase (pol). Position 1 (P1) amino acid substitutions were emphasized because P1 alterations may not alter the T-cell receptor interaction. The peptide with the P1 substitution of tyrosine for isoleucine (I1Y) showed a binding affinity for HLA-A 0201 similar to that of the wild-type pol peptide in a cell lysate assembly assay. Surprisingly, I1Y significantly increased the HLA-A 0201-peptide complex stability at the cell surface. I1Y sensitized HLA-A 0201-expressing target cells for wild-type pol-specific CTL lysis as well as wild-type pol. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from three HLA-A2 HIV-seropositive individuals were stimulated in vitro with I1Y and wild-type pol. I1Y stimulated a higher wild-type pol-specific CTL response than wild-type pol in all three donors. Thus, I1Y may be an "improved" epitope for use as a CTL-based human immunodeficiency virus vaccine component. The design of improved epitopes has important ramifications for prophylaxis and therapeutic vaccine development. PMID:7545295

  7. Managing complexity of aerospace systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaskar, Shashank

    Growing complexity of modern aerospace systems has exposed the limits of conventional systems engineering tools and challenged our ability to design them in a timely and cost effective manner. According to the US Government Accountability Office (GAO), in 2009 nearly half of the defense acquisition programs are expecting 25% or more increase in unit acquisition cost. Increase in technical complexity has been identified as one of the primary drivers behind cost-schedule overruns. Thus to assure the affordability of future aerospace systems, it is increasingly important to develop tools and capabilities for managing their complexity. We propose an approach for managing the complexity of aerospace systems to address this pertinent problem. To this end, we develop a measure that improves upon the state-of-the-art metrics and incorporates key aspects of system complexity. We address the problem of system decomposition by presenting an algorithm for module identification that generates modules to minimize integration complexity. We demonstrate the framework on diverse spacecraft and show the impact of design decisions on integration cost. The measure and the algorithm together help the designer track and manage complexity in different phases of system design. We next investigate how complexity can be used as a decision metric in the model-based design (MBD) paradigm. We propose a framework for complexity enabled design space exploration that introduces the idea of using complexity as a non-traditional design objective. We also incorporate complexity with the component based design paradigm (a sub-field of MBD) and demonstrate it on several case studies. The approach for managing complexity is a small but significant contribution to the vast field of complexity management. We envision our approach being used in concert with a suite of complexity metrics to provide an ability to measure and track complexity through different stages of design and development. This will not

  8. Exposure to an open-field arena increases c-Fos expression in a distributed anxiety-related system projecting to the basolateral amygdaloid complex.

    PubMed

    Hale, M W; Hay-Schmidt, A; Mikkelsen, J D; Poulsen, B; Shekhar, A; Lowry, C A

    2008-08-26

    Anxiety states and anxiety-related behaviors appear to be regulated by a distributed and highly interconnected system of brain structures including the basolateral amygdala. Our previous studies demonstrate that exposure of rats to an open-field in high- and low-light conditions results in a marked increase in c-Fos expression in the anterior part of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (BLA) compared with controls. The neural mechanisms underlying the anatomically specific effects of open-field exposure on c-Fos expression in the BLA are not clear, however, it is likely that this reflects activation of specific afferent input to this region of the amygdala. In order to identify candidate brain regions mediating anxiety-induced activation of the basolateral amygdaloid complex in rats, we used cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) as a retrograde tracer to identify neurons with direct afferent projections to this region in combination with c-Fos immunostaining to identify cells responding to exposure to an open-field arena in low-light (8-13 lux) conditions (an anxiogenic stimulus in rats). Adult male Wistar rats received a unilateral microinjection of 4% CTb in phosphate-buffered saline into the basolateral amygdaloid complex. Rats were housed individually for 11 days after CTb injections and handled (HA) for 2 min each day. On the test day rats were either, 1) exposed to an open-field in low-light conditions (8-13 lux) for 15 min (OF); 2) briefly HA or 3) left undisturbed (control). We report that dual immunohistochemical staining for c-Fos and CTb revealed an increase in the percentage of c-Fos-immunopositive basolateral amygdaloid complex-projecting neurons in open-field-exposed rats compared with HA and control rats in the ipsilateral CA1 region of the ventral hippocampus, subiculum and lateral entorhinal cortex. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to the open-field arena activates an anxiety-related neuronal system with convergent input to the

  9. Attenuation of lymphocyte immune responses during Mycobacterium avium complex-induced lung disease due to increasing expression of programmed death-1 on lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Chin-Chung; Wang, Jann-Yuan; Wu, Ming-Fang; Wu, Chen-Tu; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Lee, Li-Na; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex-induced lung disease (MAC-LD) becomes important due to its increasing prevalence. Attenuated cellular immunity associated with programmed cell death (PD)–1 may play a pathophysiological role in MAC-LD but lacks of investigation. We enrolled 80 participants in this prospective study, including 50 with MAC-LD and 30 healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), lymphocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages were used for MAC antigen stimulation. Patients with MAC-LD had lower tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ responses compared to the healthy controls in PBMC stimulation assays with MAC bacilli. These responses improved after MAC treatment. The PD-1 and PD ligand expressions and apoptosis were higher in the lymphocytes of the patients with MAC-LD compared to the controls. Both PD-1 and apoptosis on T lymphocytes were significantly increased in the patients with MAC-LD, either by direct MAC stimulation or by MAC-primed macrophage activation. Partially blocking PD-1 and the PD ligand with antagonizing antibodies in the stimulation assay significantly increased the cytokine production of IFN-γ and decreased the apoptosis on T lymphocytes. In conclusion, the patients with MAC-LD have attenuated lymphocyte immunity, which might be associated with increasing activation of PD-1 and PD-1 ligand. Regulating such activation might improve the lymphocytic secretion of IFN-γ and reduce apoptosis. PMID:28169347

  10. Cytidine-5-diphosphocholine supplement in early life induces stable increase in dendritic complexity of neurons in the somatosensory cortex of adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Rema, V.; Bali, K.K.; Ramachandra, R.; Chugh, M.; Darokhan, Z.; Chaudhary, R.

    2008-01-01

    Cytidine-5-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline or citicholine) is an essential molecule that is required for biosynthesis of cell membranes. In adult humans it is used as a memory-enhancing drug for treatment of age-related dementia and cerebrovascular conditions. However the effect of CDP-choline on perinatal brain is not known. We administered CDP-choline to Long Evans rats each day from conception (maternal ingestion) to postnatal day 60 (P60). Pyramidal neurons from supragranular layers 2/3, granular layer 4 and infragranular layer 5 of somatosensory cortex were examined with Golgi–Cox staining at P240. CDP-choline treatment significantly increased length and branch points of apical and basal dendrites. Sholl analysis shows that the complexity of apical and basal dendrites of neurons is maximal in layers 2/3 and layer 5. In layer 4 significant increases were seen in basilar dendritic arborization. CDP-choline did not increase the number of primary basal dendrites on neurons in the somatosensory cortex. Primary cultures from somatosensory cortex were treated with CDP-choline to test its effect on neuronal survival. CDP-choline treatment neither enhanced the survival of neurons in culture nor increased the number of neurites. However significant increases in neurite length, branch points and total area occupied by the neurons were observed. We conclude that exogenous supplementation of CDP-choline during development causes stable changes in neuronal morphology. Significant increase in dendritic growth and branching of pyramidal neurons from the somatosensory cortex resulted in enlarging the surface area occupied by the neurons which we speculate will augment processing of sensory information. PMID:18619738

  11. Cytidine-5-diphosphocholine supplement in early life induces stable increase in dendritic complexity of neurons in the somatosensory cortex of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Rema, V; Bali, K K; Ramachandra, R; Chugh, M; Darokhan, Z; Chaudhary, R

    2008-08-13

    Cytidine-5-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline or citicholine) is an essential molecule that is required for biosynthesis of cell membranes. In adult humans it is used as a memory-enhancing drug for treatment of age-related dementia and cerebrovascular conditions. However the effect of CDP-choline on perinatal brain is not known. We administered CDP-choline to Long Evans rats each day from conception (maternal ingestion) to postnatal day 60 (P60). Pyramidal neurons from supragranular layers 2/3, granular layer 4 and infragranular layer 5 of somatosensory cortex were examined with Golgi-Cox staining at P240. CDP-choline treatment significantly increased length and branch points of apical and basal dendrites. Sholl analysis shows that the complexity of apical and basal dendrites of neurons is maximal in layers 2/3 and layer 5. In layer 4 significant increases were seen in basilar dendritic arborization. CDP-choline did not increase the number of primary basal dendrites on neurons in the somatosensory cortex. Primary cultures from somatosensory cortex were treated with CDP-choline to test its effect on neuronal survival. CDP-choline treatment neither enhanced the survival of neurons in culture nor increased the number of neurites. However significant increases in neurite length, branch points and total area occupied by the neurons were observed. We conclude that exogenous supplementation of CDP-choline during development causes stable changes in neuronal morphology. Significant increase in dendritic growth and branching of pyramidal neurons from the somatosensory cortex resulted in enlarging the surface area occupied by the neurons which we speculate will augment processing of sensory information.

  12. CREB, AP‐1, ternary complex factors and MAP kinases connect transient receptor potential melastatin‐3 (TRPM3) channel stimulation with increased c‐Fos expression

    PubMed Central

    Rubil, Sandra; Rössler, Oliver G.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The rise in intracellular Ca2+ stimulates the expression of the transcription factor c‐Fos. Depending on the mode of entry of Ca2+ into the cytosol, distinct signal transducers and transcription factors are required. Here, we have analysed the signalling pathway connecting a Ca2+ influx via activation of transient receptor potential melastatin‐3 (TRPM3) channels with enhanced c‐Fos expression. Experimental Approach Transcription of c‐Fos promoter/reporter genes that were integrated into the chromatin via lentiviral gene transfer was analysed in HEK293 cells overexpressing TRPM3. The transcriptional activation potential of c‐Fos was measured using a GAL4‐c‐Fos fusion protein. Key Results The signalling pathway connecting TRPM3 stimulation with enhanced c‐Fos expression requires the activation of MAP kinases. On the transcriptional level, three Ca2+‐responsive elements, the cAMP‐response element and the binding sites for the serum response factor (SRF) and AP‐1, are essential for the TRPM3‐mediated stimulation of the c‐Fos promoter. Ternary complex factors are additionally involved in connecting TRPM3 stimulation with the up‐regulation of c‐Fos expression. Stimulation of TRPM3 channels also increases the transcriptional activation potential of c‐Fos. Conclusions and Implications Signalling molecules involved in connecting TRPM3 with the c‐Fos gene are MAP kinases and the transcription factors CREB, SRF, AP‐1 and ternary complex factors. As c‐Fos constitutes, together with other basic region leucine zipper transcription factors, the AP‐1 transcription factor complex, the results of this study explain TRPM3‐induced activation of AP‐1 and connects TRPM3 with the biological functions regulated by AP‐1. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society PMID:26493679

  13. Cyclodextrin-complexed Ocimum basilicum leaves essential oil increases Fos protein expression in the central nervous system and produce an antihyperalgesic effect in animal models for fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Simone S; Araújo, Adriano A S; Brito, Renan G; Serafini, Mairim R; Menezes, Paula P; DeSantana, Josimari M; Lucca, Waldecy; Alves, Pericles B; Blank, Arie F; Oliveira, Rita C M; Oliveira, Aldeidia P; Albuquerque, Ricardo L C; Almeida, Jackson R G S; Quintans, Lucindo J

    2014-12-29

    O. basilicum leaves produce essential oils (LEO) rich in monoterpenes. The short half-life and water insolubility are limitations for LEO medical uses. β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) has been employed to improve the pharmacological properties of LEO. We assessed the antihyperalgesic profile of LEO, isolated or complexed in β-CD (LEO/β-CD), on an animal model for fibromyalgia. Behavioral tests: mice were treated every day with either LEO/β-CD (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg, p.o.), LEO (25 mg/kg, p.o.), tramadol (TRM 4 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle (saline), and 60 min after treatment behavioral parameters were assessed. Therefore, mice were evaluated for mechanical hyperalgesia (von Frey), motor coordination (Rota-rod) and muscle strength (Grip Strength Metter) in a mice fibromyalgia model. After 27 days, we evaluated the central nervous system (CNS) pathways involved in the effect induced by experimental drugs through immunofluorescence protocol to Fos protein. The differential scanning analysis (DSC), thermogravimetry/derivate thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) and infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) curves indicated that the products prepared were able to incorporate the LEO efficiently. Oral treatment with LEO or LEO-βCD, at all doses tested, produced a significant reduction of mechanical hyperalgesia and we were able to significantly increase Fos protein expression. Together, our results provide evidence that LEO, isolated or complexed with β-CD, produces analgesic effects on chronic non-inflammatory pain as fibromyalgia.

  14. Cyclodextrin-Complexed Ocimum basilicum Leaves Essential Oil Increases Fos Protein Expression in the Central Nervous System and Produce an Antihyperalgesic Effect in Animal Models for Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Simone S.; Araújo, Adriano A. S.; Brito, Renan G.; Serafini, Mairim R.; Menezes, Paula P.; DeSantana, Josimari M.; Lucca Júnior, Waldecy; Alves, Pericles B.; Blank, Arie F.; Oliveira, Rita C. M.; Oliveira, Aldeidia P.; Albuquerque-Júnior, Ricardo L. C.; Almeida, Jackson R. G. S.; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J.

    2014-01-01

    O. basilicum leaves produce essential oils (LEO) rich in monoterpenes. The short half-life and water insolubility are limitations for LEO medical uses. β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) has been employed to improve the pharmacological properties of LEO. We assessed the antihyperalgesic profile of LEO, isolated or complexed in β-CD (LEO/β-CD), on an animal model for fibromyalgia. Behavioral tests: mice were treated every day with either LEO/β-CD (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg, p.o.), LEO (25 mg/kg, p.o.), tramadol (TRM 4 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle (saline), and 60 min after treatment behavioral parameters were assessed. Therefore, mice were evaluated for mechanical hyperalgesia (von Frey), motor coordination (Rota-rod) and muscle strength (Grip Strength Metter) in a mice fibromyalgia model. After 27 days, we evaluated the central nervous system (CNS) pathways involved in the effect induced by experimental drugs through immunofluorescence protocol to Fos protein. The differential scanning analysis (DSC), thermogravimetry/derivate thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) and infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) curves indicated that the products prepared were able to incorporate the LEO efficiently. Oral treatment with LEO or LEO-βCD, at all doses tested, produced a significant reduction of mechanical hyperalgesia and we were able to significantly increase Fos protein expression. Together, our results provide evidence that LEO, isolated or complexed with β-CD, produces analgesic effects on chronic non-inflammatory pain as fibromyalgia. PMID:25551603

  15. The Protein Phosphatase-1/Inhibitor-2 Complex Differentially Regulates GSK-3 Dephosphorylation and Increases Sarcoplasmic/Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPase 2 Levels

    PubMed Central

    King, Taj D.; Gandy, Johanna C.; Bijur, Gautam N.

    2007-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed protein glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is constitutively active, however its activity is markedly diminished following phosphorylation of Ser21 of GSK3α and Ser9 of GSK3β. Although several kinases are known to phosphorylate Ser21/9 of GSK3, for example Akt, relatively much less is known about the mechanisms that cause the dephosphorylation of GSK3 at Ser21/9. In the present study KCl-induced plasma membrane depolarization of SH-SY5Y cells, which increases intracellular calcium concentrations caused a transient decrease in the phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 and Ser473, and GSK3 at Ser21/9. Overexpression of the selective protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor protein, inhibitor-2, increased basal GSK3 phosphorylation at Ser21/9 and significantly blocked the KCl-induced dephosphorylation of GSK3β, but not GSK3α. The phosphorylation of Akt was not affected by the overexpression of inhibitor-2. GSK3 activity is known to affect sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2) levels. Overexpression of inhibitor-2 or treatment of cells with the GSK3 inhibitors lithium and SB216763 increased the levels of SERCA2. These results indicate that the protein phosphatase-1/inhibitor-2 complex differentially regulates GSK3 dephosphorylation induced by KCl and that GSK3 activity regulates SERCA2 levels. PMID:16987514

  16. Ongoing group B Neisseria meningitidis epidemic in São Paulo, Brazil, due to increased prevalence of a single clone of the ET-5 complex.

    PubMed Central

    Sacchi, C T; Pessoa, L L; Ramos, S R; Milagres, L G; Camargo, M C; Hidalgo, N T; Melles, C E; Caugant, D A; Frasch, C E

    1992-01-01

    Beginning in 1988, the incidence of meningococcal disease in the area of greater São Paulo began to surpass the upper confidence limit of an 8-year average incidence (from 1979 to 1986), thus characterizing a new epidemic in the region of greater São Paulo. This epidemic, which extended to 1990, was different from previous epidemics in that it was caused by serogroup B. The increased incidence of meningococcal disease was paralleled by an increased prevalence of a single group B clone, B:4:P1.15, of the ET-5 complex. ET-5 strains have been present in the greater São Paulo area since 1979; however, they have been associated with a high percentage of the group B disease only from 1987 to the present. On the basis of the increased incidence of group B disease in São Paulo, a mass vaccination program with a serotype 4:P1.15 meningococcal protein vaccine was undertaken. The impact of this vaccination program is under analysis. PMID:1629328

  17. Increased expression of pentraxin 3 after in vivo and in vitro stimulation with gonadotropins in porcine oocyte-cumulus complexes and granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Nagyova, E; Kalous, J; Nemcova, L

    2016-07-01

    It has been previously shown that multimeric pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a key component of the cumulus oophorus extracellular matrix (ECM) in mice. In response to the ovulatory LH surge, the cumulus cells assemble a unique ECM that envelopes the oocyte and cumulus cell complex. Importantly, cumuli from PTX3(-/-) mice were defective in their ECM organization and their fertility was impaired. It has been demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 6 catalyzes the formation of heavy chains of (inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor) -hyaluronan complexes and these are then cross-linked via PTX3. This process is tightly regulated and requires the proteins to meet/interact in the correct order. Finally, in this way, the above-listed proteins form the cumulus oophorus ECM. We investigated whether PTX3 is expressed in the porcine preovulatory follicle. Porcine oocyte-cumulus complexes (OCC) and mural granulosa cells (MGC) from gilts were obtained either after stimulation in vivo with eCG/hCG (4, 8, 16, 24, and 32 h) or culture in vitro (4, 24, and 44 h) in FSH/LH-supplemented medium. The methods performed were real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and immunostaining. The expression of PTX3 transcripts was significantly increased 24 h after either in vivo hCG stimulation or in vitro FSH/LH treatment in both OCC and MGC. Western blot analysis with PTX3 antibody revealed that not only matrix extracts from in vivo-stimulated gilts contain high levels of PTX3 protein but also matrix extracts of FSH/LH-stimulated OCC cultured in medium supplemented either with follicular fluid or with porcine serum. The localization of PTX3 in the cumulus oocyte complex was confirmed by immunostaining. In conclusion, PTX3 is produced by porcine OCC and MGC both in vivo and in vitro with gonadotropin stimuli inducing cumulus expansion.

  18. Address the Major Societal Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubichler, Manfred

    In his famous historical account about the origins of molecular biology Gunther Stent introduced a three phase sequence that turns out to be characteristic for many newly emerging paradigms within science. New ideas, according to Stent, follow a sequence of romantic, dogmatic, and academic phases. One can easily see that complex systems science followed this path. The question now is whether we are in an extended academic phase of gradually expanding both theoretical and practical knowledge, or whether we are entering a new transformation of complex systems science that might well bring about a new romantic phase. I would argue that complexity science, indeed, is at the dawn of a new period - let's call it complexity 3.0. The last academic phase has seen the application of complex systems ideas and methods in a variety of different domains. It has been to a large extent business as usual...

  19. Increased complexity in interstellar chemistry: detection and chemical modeling of ethyl formate and n-propyl cyanide in Sagittarius B2(N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloche, A.; Garrod, R. T.; Müller, H. S. P.; Menten, K. M.; Comito, C.; Schilke, P.

    2009-05-01

    Context: In recent years, organic molecules of increasing complexity have been found toward the prolific Galactic center source Sagittarius B2. Aims: We wish to explore the degree of complexity that the interstellar chemistry can reach in star-forming regions. Methods: We carried out a complete line survey of the hot cores Sgr B2(N) and (M) with the IRAM 30 m telescope in the 3 mm range, plus partial surveys at 2 and 1.3 mm. We analyzed this spectral survey in the local thermodynamical equilibrium approximation. We modeled the emission of all known molecules simultaneously, which allows us to search for less abundant, more complex molecules. We compared the derived column densities with the predictions of a coupled gas-phase and grain-surface chemical code. Results: We report the first detection in space of ethyl formate (C2H5OCHO) and n-propyl cyanide (C3H7CN) toward Sgr B2(N). The detection of n-propyl cyanide is based on refined spectroscopic parameters derived from combined analyses of available laboratory spectroscopic data. For each molecule, we identified spectral features at the predicted frequencies having intensities compatible with a unique rotation temperature. For an assumed source size of 3 arcsec, our modeling yields a column density of 5.4 × 1016 cm-2, a temperature of 100 K, and a linewidth of 7 km s-1 for ethyl formate. n-Propyl cyanide is detected with two velocity components having column densities of 1.5 × 1016 cm-2 and 6.6 × 1015 cm-2, respectively, for a source size of 3 arcsec, a temperature of 150 K, and a linewidth of 7 km s-1. The abundances of ethyl formate and n-propyl cyanide relative to H2 are estimated to be 3.6 × 10-9 and 1.0 × 10-9, respectively. We derived column density ratios of 0.8/15/1 for the related species t-HCOOH/CH3OCHO/C2H5OCHO and 108/80/1 for CH3CN/C2H5CN/C3H7CN. Our chemical modeling reproduces these ratios reasonably well. It suggests that the sequential, piecewise construction of ethyl and n-propyl cyanide from

  20. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every…

  1. Agenda to address climate change

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This document looks at addressing climate change in the 21st century. Topics covered are: Responding to climate change; exploring new avenues in energy efficiency; energy efficiency and alternative energy; residential sector; commercial sector; industrial sector; transportation sector; communities; renewable energy; understanding forests to mitigate and adapt to climate change; the Forest Carbon budget; mitigation and adaptation.

  2. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  3. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  4. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2016-07-12

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  5. Research strategies for addressing uncertainties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busch, David E.; Brekke, Levi D.; Averyt, Kristen; Jardine, Angela; Welling, Leigh; Garfin, Gregg; Jardine, Angela; Merideth, Robert; Black, Mary; LeRoy, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Research Strategies for Addressing Uncertainties builds on descriptions of research needs presented elsewhere in the book; describes current research efforts and the challenges and opportunities to reduce the uncertainties of climate change; explores ways to improve the understanding of changes in climate and hydrology; and emphasizes the use of research to inform decision making.

  6. Addressing the Complex Needs of Students with Attachment Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losinski, Mickey; Katsiyannis, Antonis; White, Sherry; Wiseman, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Attachment disorders are a relatively rare condition affecting children. This is particularly true for those who are adopted or living in foster care, and are thought to be attributed to an interruption in the bonding between a child and his or her caregiver. Attachment disorders are divided into two distinct categories: a predominately withdrawn…

  7. Sexual maturation and administration of 17β-estradiol and testosterone induce complex gene expression changes in skin and increase resistance of Atlantic salmon to ectoparasite salmon louse.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, Aleksei; Wesmajervi Breiland, Mette S; Hatlen, Bjarne; Afanasyev, Sergey; Skugor, Stanko

    2015-02-01

    The crustacean ectoparasitic salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is a major problem of Atlantic salmon aquaculture in the Northern hemisphere. Host-pathogen interactions in this system are highly complex. Resistance to the parasite involves variations in genetic background, nutrition, properties of skin, and status of the endocrine and immune systems. This study addressed the relationship between sex hormones and lice infection. Field observation revealed a sharp reduction of lice prevalence during sexual maturation with no difference between male and female fish. To determine if higher resistance against lice was related to sex hormones, post-smolt salmon were administered control feed and feeds containing 17β-estradiol (20 mg/kg) and testosterone (25 mg/kg) during a 3-week pre-challenge period. After challenge with lice, counts were reduced 2-fold and 1.5-fold in fish that received 17β-estradiol and testosterone, respectively. Gene expression analyses were performed from skin of salmon collected in the field trial and from the controlled lab experiment at three time points (end of feeding-before challenge, 3 days post challenge (dpc) and 16 dpc) using oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR. Differential expression was observed in genes associated with diverse biological processes. Both studies revealed similar changes of several antibacterial acute phase proteins; of note was induction of cathelicidin and down-regulation of a defensin gene. Treatment with hormones revealed their ability to modulate T helper cell (Th)-mediated immunity in skin. Enhanced protection achieved by 17β-estradiol administration might in part be due to the skewing of Th responses away from the prototypic anti-parasitic Th2 immunity and towards the more effective Th1 responses. Multiple genes involved in wound healing, differentiation and remodelling of skin tissue were stimulated during maturation but suppressed with sex hormones. Such opposite regulation suggested that these processes

  8. A modified Wright-Fisher model that incorporates Ne: A variant of the standard model with increased biological realism and reduced computational complexity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Gossmann, Toni I; Waxman, David

    2016-03-21

    The Wright-Fisher model is an important model in evolutionary biology and population genetics. It has been applied in numerous analyses of finite populations with discrete generations. It is recognised that real populations can behave, in some key aspects, as though their size that is not the census size, N, but rather a smaller size, namely the effective population size, Ne. However, in the Wright-Fisher model, there is no distinction between the effective and census population sizes. Equivalently, we can say that in this model, Ne coincides with N. The Wright-Fisher model therefore lacks an important aspect of biological realism. Here, we present a method that allows Ne to be directly incorporated into the Wright-Fisher model. The modified model involves matrices whose size is determined by Ne. Thus apart from increased biological realism, the modified model also has reduced computational complexity, particularly so when Ne⪡N. For complex problems, it may be hard or impossible to numerically analyse the most commonly-used approximation of the Wright-Fisher model that incorporates Ne, namely the diffusion approximation. An alternative approach is simulation. However, the simulations need to be sufficiently detailed that they yield an effective size that is different to the census size. Simulations may also be time consuming and have attendant statistical errors. The method presented in this work may then be the only alternative to simulations, when Ne differs from N. We illustrate the straightforward application of the method to some problems involving allele fixation and the determination of the equilibrium site frequency spectrum. We then apply the method to the problem of fixation when three alleles are segregating in a population. This latter problem is significantly more complex than a two allele problem and since the diffusion equation cannot be numerically solved, the only other way Ne can be incorporated into the analysis is by simulation. We have

  9. Addressing Asthma Health Disparities: A Multilevel Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Canino, Glorisa; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Rand, Cynthia S.

    2009-01-01

    Substantial research has documented pervasive disparities in the prevalence, severity, and morbidity of asthma among minority populations compared to non-Latino whites. The underlying causes of these disparities are not well understood, and as a result, the leverage points to address them remain unclear. A multilevel framework for integrating research in asthma health disparities is proposed in order to advance both future research and clinical practice. The components of the proposed model include health care policies and regulations, operation of the health care system, provider/clinician-level factors, social/environmental factors, and individual/family attitudes and behaviors. The body of research suggests that asthma disparities have multiple, complex and inter-related sources. Disparities occur when individual, environmental, health system, and provider factors interact with one another over time. Given that the causes of asthma disparities are complex and multilevel, clinical strategies to address these disparities must therefore be comparably multilevel and target many aspects of asthma care. Clinical Implications: Several strategies that could be applied in clinical settings to reduce asthma disparities are described including the need for routine assessment of the patient’s beliefs, financial barriers to disease management, and health literacy, and the provision of cultural competence training and communication skills to health care provider groups. PMID:19447484

  10. Evaluation of CO2 migration and formation storage capacity in the Dalders formations, Baltic Sea - Preliminary analysis by means of models of increasing complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, Auli; Yang, Zhibing; Tian, Liang; Jung, Byeongju; Fagerlund, Fritjof; Joodaki, Saba; Pasquali, Riccardo; O'Neill, Nick; Vernon, Richard

    2014-05-01

    We present preliminary data analysis and modeling of CO2 injection into selected parts of the Dalders Monocline and Dalders Structure, formations situated under the Baltic Sea and of potential interest for CO2 geological storage. The approach taken is to use models of increasing complexity successively, thereby increasing the confidence and reliability of the predictions. The objective is to get order-of-magnitude estimates of the behavior of the formations during potential industrial scale CO2 injection and subsequent storage periods. The focus has been in regions with best cap-rock characteristics, according to the present knowledge. Data has been compiled from various sources available, such as boreholes within the region. As the first approximation we use analytical solutions, in order to get an initial estimate the CO2 injection rates that can be used without causing unacceptable pressure increases. These preliminary values are then used as basis for more detailed numerical analyses with TOUGH2/TOUGH2-MP (e.g. Zhang et al, 2008) simulator and vertical equilibrium based (e.g. Gasda et al, 2009) models. With the numerical models the variations in material properties, formation thickness etc., as well as more processes such as CO2 dissolution can also be taken into account. The presentation discusses results from these preliminary analyses in terms of estimated storage capacity, CO2 and pressure plume extent caused by various injection scenarios, as well as CO2 travel time after the end of the injection. The effect of factors such as number of injection wells and the positioning of these, the effect of formation properties and the boundary conditions are discussed as are the benefits and disadvantages of the various modeling approaches used. References: Gasda S.E. et al, 2009. Computational Geosciences 13, 469-481. Zhang et al, 2008. Report LBNL-315E, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  11. Increased Awareness, Increased Appreciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nightingale, Barbra

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a student's viewpoint in response to Larry Andrews' article, "The Humanities Are Dead! Long Live the Humanities!," which addresses and solidifies the notion that, at least from the standpoint of academicians, the humanities are alive and well. The author believes that a broader base of learning, an increased…

  12. ATP sensitivity of preBötzinger complex neurones in neonatal rat in vitro: mechanism underlying a P2 receptor-mediated increase in inspiratory frequency

    PubMed Central

    Lorier, A R; Lipski, J; Housley, G D; Greer, J J; Funk, G D

    2008-01-01

    P2 receptor (R) signalling plays an important role in the central ventilatory response to hypoxia. The frequency increase that results from activation of P2Y1Rs in the preBötzinger complex (preBötC; putative site of inspiratory rhythm generation) may contribute, but neither the cellular nor ionic mechanism(s) underlying these effects are known. We applied whole-cell recording to rhythmically-active medullary slices from neonatal rat to define, in preBötC neurones, the candidate cellular and ionic mechanisms through which ATP influences rhythm, and tested the hypothesis that putative rhythmogenic preBötC neurones are uniquely sensitive to ATP. ATP (1 mm) evoked inward currents in all non-respiratory neurones and the majority of respiratory neurons, which included inspiratory, expiratory and putative rhythmogenic inspiratory neurones identified by sensitivity to substance P (1 μm) and DAMGO (50 μm) or by voltage-dependent pacemaker-like activity. ATP current densities were similar in all classes of preBötC respiratory neurone. Reversal potentials and input resistance changes for ATP currents in respiratory neurones suggested they resulted from either inhibition of a K+ channel or activation of a mixed cationic conductance. The P2YR agonist 2MeSADP (1 mm) evoked only the latter type of current in inspiratory and pacemaker-like neurones. In summary, putative rhythmogenic preBötC neurones were sensitive to ATP. However, this sensitivity was not unique; ATP evoked similar currents in all types of preBötC respiratory neurone. The P2Y1R-mediated frequency increase is therefore more likely to reflect activation of a mixed cationic conductance in multiple types of preBötC neurone than excitation of one, highly sensitive group. PMID:18174215

  13. Resveratrol increases anti-aging Klotho gene expression via the activating transcription factor 3/c-Jun complex-mediated signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shih-Che; Huang, Shih-Ming; Chen, Ann; Sun, Chiao-Yin; Lin, Shih-Hua; Chen, Jin-Shuen; Liu, Shu-Ting; Hsu, Yu-Juei

    2014-08-01

    The Klotho gene functions as an aging suppressor gene. Evidence from animal models suggests that induction of Klotho expression may be a potential treatment for age-associated diseases. However, the molecular mechanism involved in regulating renal Klotho gene expression remains unclear. In this study, we determined that resveratrol, a natural polyphenol, induced renal Klotho expression both in vivo and in vitro. In the mouse kidney, resveratrol administration markedly increased both Klotho mRNA and protein expression. In resveratrol-treated NRK-52E cells, increased Klotho expression was accompanied by the upregulation and nuclear translocation of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) and c-Jun. ATF3 or c-Jun overexpression enhanced the transcriptional activation of Klotho. Conversely, resveratrol-induced Klotho expression was attenuated in the presence of dominant-negative ATF3 or c-Jun. Coimmunoprecipitation and a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that ATF3 physically interacted with c-Jun and that the ATF3/c-Jun complex directly bound to the Klotho promoter through ATF3- and AP-1-binding elements. c-Jun cotransfection augmented the effects of ATF3 on Klotho transcription in vitro. Although Sirtuin 1 mRNA expression was induced by resveratrol and involved in regulating Klotho mRNA expression, it was not the primary cause for the aforementioned ATF3/c-Jun pathway. In summary, resveratrol enhances the renal expression of the anti-aging Klotho gene, and the transcriptional factors ATF3 and c-Jun functionally interact and coordinately regulate the resveratrol-mediated transcriptional activation of Klotho.

  14. Flexible Workflow Software enables the Management of an Increased Volume and Heterogeneity of Sensors, and evolves with the Expansion of Complex Ocean Observatory Infrastructures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomlin, M. C.; Jenkyns, R.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) collects data from observatories in the northeast Pacific, Salish Sea, Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and land-based sites in British Columbia. Data are streamed, collected autonomously, or transmitted via satellite from a variety of instruments. The Software Engineering group at ONC develops and maintains Oceans 2.0, an in-house software system that acquires and archives data from sensors, and makes data available to scientists, the public, government and non-government agencies. The Oceans 2.0 workflow tool was developed by ONC to manage a large volume of tasks and processes required for instrument installation, recovery and maintenance activities. Since 2013, the workflow tool has supported 70 expeditions and grown to include 30 different workflow processes for the increasing complexity of infrastructures at ONC. The workflow tool strives to keep pace with an increasing heterogeneity of sensors, connections and environments by supporting versioning of existing workflows, and allowing the creation of new processes and tasks. Despite challenges in training and gaining mutual support from multidisciplinary teams, the workflow tool has become invaluable in project management in an innovative setting. It provides a collective place to contribute to ONC's diverse projects and expeditions and encourages more repeatable processes, while promoting interactions between the multidisciplinary teams who manage various aspects of instrument development and the data they produce. The workflow tool inspires documentation of terminologies and procedures, and effectively links to other tools at ONC such as JIRA, Alfresco and Wiki. Motivated by growing sensor schemes, modes of collecting data, archiving, and data distribution at ONC, the workflow tool ensures that infrastructure is managed completely from instrument purchase to data distribution. It integrates all areas of expertise and helps fulfill ONC's mandate to offer quality data to users.

  15. 2’f-OMe-phosphorodithioate modified siRNAs show increased loading into the RISC complex and enhanced anti-tumour activity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sherry Y.; Yang, Xianbin; Gharpure, Kshipra M.; Hatakeyama, Hiroto; Egli, Martin; McGuire, Michael H.; Nagaraja, Archana S.; Miyake, Takahito M.; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Pecot, Chad V.; Taylor, Morgan; Pradeep, Sunila; Sierant, Malgorzata; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Choi, Hyun J.; Previs, Rebecca A.; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N.; Huang, Li; Martinez, Carlos; Hassell, Tom; Ivan, Cristina; Sehgal, Vasudha; Singhania, Richa; Han, Hee-Dong; Su, Chang; Kim, Ji Hoon; Dalton, Heather J.; Kowali, Chandra; Keyomarsi, Khandan; McMillan, Nigel A.J.; Overwijk, Willem W.; Liu, Jinsong; Lee, Ju-Seog; Baggerly, Keith A.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Ram, Prahlad T.; Nawrot, Barbara; Sood, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    Improving small interfering RNA (siRNA) efficacy in target cell populations remains a challenge to its clinical implementation. Here, we report a chemical modification, consisting of phosphorodithioate (PS2) and 2’-O-Methyl (2’-OMe) MePS2 on one nucleotide that significantly enhances potency and resistance to degradation for various siRNAs. We find enhanced potency stems from an unforeseen increase in siRNA loading to the RNA-induced silencing complex, likely due to the unique interaction mediated by 2’-OMe and PS2. We demonstrate the therapeutic utility of MePS2 siRNAs in chemoresistant ovarian cancer mouse models via targeting GRAM Domain Containing 1B (GRAMD1B), a protein involved in chemoresistance. GRAMD1B silencing is achieved in tumors following MePS2-modified siRNA treatment, leading to a synergistic anti-tumor effect in combination with paclitaxel. Given the previously limited success in enhancing siRNA potency with chemically modified siRNAs, our findings represent an important advance in siRNA design with the potential for application in numerous cancer types. PMID:24619206

  16. Molecular evolution and expression divergence of the Populus polygalacturonase supergene family shed light on the evolution of increasingly complex organs in plants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-Ling; Liu, Hai-Jing; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Zeng, Qing-Yin

    2013-03-01

    Plant polygalacturonases (PGs) are involved in cell separation processes during many stages of plant development. Investigation into the diversification of this large gene family in land plants could shed light on the evolution of structural development. We conducted whole-genome annotation, molecular evolution and gene expression analyses of PG genes in five species of land plant: Populus, Arabidopsis, rice, Selaginella and Physcomitrella. We identified 75, 44, 16 and 11 PG genes from Populus, rice, Selaginella and Physcomitrella genomes, respectively, which were divided into three classes. We inferred rapid expansion of class I PG genes in Populus, Arabidopsis and rice, while copy numbers of classes II and III PG genes were relatively conserved in all five species. Populus, Arabidopsis and rice class I PG genes were under more relaxed selection constraints than class II PG genes, while this selective pressure divergence was not observed in Selaginella and Physcomitrella PG families. In addition, class I PG genes underwent marked expression divergence in Populus, rice and Selaginella. Our results suggest that PG gene expansion occurred after the divergence of the lycophytes and euphyllophytes, and this expansion was likely paralleled by the evolution of increasingly complex organs in land plants.

  17. Increasing the complexity of young adolescents' beliefs about poverty and inequality: results of an 8th grade social studies curriculum intervention.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Rashmita S; Brown, Christia Spears; Chow, Kirby A; Collins, Geri S

    2012-06-01

    Poverty and economic hardship remain a reality for many of America's children. Although the causes of poverty are varied, Americans strongly endorse individual responsibility as a primary cause. Because beliefs about poverty originate in childhood and adolescence, intervention efforts targeting young people may be particularly effective in shifting attitudes about the poor and policies designed to help the disadvantaged. To test this proposition, the current study evaluated the efficacy of a 1-week 8th grade social studies curriculum focusing on poverty and inequality. Study participants were upper middle-class youth enrolled in multiple sections of a Social Studies course taught by a single teacher. Participants had little direct contact with marginalized groups such as poor and homeless individuals in their communities. Students (N=66) completed a survey assessing their attitudes and beliefs about poverty and poor people prior to, and 1 week and 6 months post-instruction. Results indicated that the curriculum was partially effective in increasing the complexity of students' beliefs about poverty. Students were more likely to emphasize fatalistic causes and less likely to list individualistic causes for poverty following instruction than before, but rarely emphasized structural causes for poverty and rated individual effort as the most influential factor in determining one's success. Implications of the study findings for curriculum efforts targeting young adolescents' reasoning about economic inequality and inequity and directions for future studies are discussed.

  18. Increasing the structural complexity of chromium(IV) oxides by high-pressure and high-temperature reactions of CrO2.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Martínez, E; Arévalo-López, A M; Ruiz-Bustos, R; Alario-Franco, M A

    2008-10-06

    This work presents an overview of a series of increasingly complex oxides synthesized from CrO 2, under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions, having Cr (4+) in octahedral coordination. Although the emphasis is on the structure and microstructure of the compounds as obtained from X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy and diffraction, attention is also given to their interesting electronic and magnetic properties. The study is complemented with an electron energy loss spectroscopic analysis of the different phases. These are the cubic perovskite SrCrO 3, the orthorhombic perovskite CaCrO 3, the solid solution Sr 1-xCa xCrO 3, the Ruddlesden-Popper-type Sr 3Cr 2O 7, the family CrSr 2RECu 2O 8 (RE = rare earth), a compositionally modulated perovskite "PbCrO 3", and the misfit layer oxide SrO 2[CrO 2] 1.85.

  19. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  20. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  1. Helping Teachers Address Academic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    2011-01-01

    Children are natural learners, but they need to have their internal, intrinsic motivation to be lifelong learners reinforced. In today's media-driven, pressure cooker world, children don't always know how to engage in the complex play that leads to deeper learning. They often need adult intervention to help them move from simplistic, repetitive…

  2. Aboriginal health promotion through addressing employment discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Perry, Ryan; Kelaher, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Localities Embracing and Accepting Diversity (LEAD) program aimed to improve the mental health of Aboriginal Victorians by addressing racial discrimination and facilitating social and economic participation. As part of LEAD, Whittlesea Council adopted the Aboriginal Employment Pathways Strategy (AEPS) to increase Aboriginal employment and retention within the organisation. The Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Training Program was developed to build internal cultural competency and skills in recruiting and retaining Aboriginal staff. Analysis of surveys conducted before (pre; n=124) and after (post; n=107) the training program indicated a significant increase in participant understanding across all program objectives and in support of organisational policies to improve Aboriginal recruitment and retention. Participants ended the training with concrete ideas about intended changes, as well as how these changes could be supported by their supervisors and the wider organisation. Significant resources have since been allocated to implementing the AEPS over 5 years. In line with principles underpinning the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013-23, particularly the focus on addressing racism as a determinant of health, this paper explores the AEPS and training program as promising approaches to health promotion through addressing barriers to Aboriginal employment. Possible implications for other large organisations are also considered.

  3. Films prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol) and amylose-fatty acid salt inclusion complexes with increased surface hydrophobicity and high elongation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, water-soluble amylose-inclusion complexes were prepared from high amylose corn starch and sodium salts of lauric, palmitic, and stearic acid by steam jet cooking. Cast films were prepared by combining the amylose complexes with poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVOH) solution at ratios varying from...

  4. Hydrocomplexity: Addressing water security and emergent environmental risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Praveen

    2015-07-01

    Water security and emergent environmental risks are among the most significant societal concerns. They are highly interlinked to other global risks such as those related to climate, human health, food, human migration, biodiversity loss, urban sustainability, etc. Emergent risks result from the confluence of unanticipated interactions from evolving interdependencies between complex systems, such as those embedded in the water cycle. They are associated with the novelty of dynamical possibilities that have significant potential consequences to human and ecological systems, and not with probabilities based on historical precedence. To ensure water security we need to be able to anticipate the likelihood of risk possibilities as they present the prospect of the most impact through cascade of vulnerabilities. They arise due to a confluence of nonstationary drivers that include growing population, climate change, demographic shifts, urban growth, and economic expansion, among others, which create novel interdependencies leading to a potential of cascading network effects. Hydrocomplexity aims to address water security and emergent risks through the development of science, methods, and practices with the potential to foster a "Blue Revolution" akin to the Green revolution for food security. It blends both hard infrastructure based solution with soft knowledge driven solutions to increase the range of planning and design, management, mitigation and adaptation strategies. It provides a conceptual and synthetic framework to enable us to integrate discovery science and engineering, observational and information science, computational and communication systems, and social and institutional approaches to address consequential water and environmental challenges.

  5. Content-addressable holographic databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grawert, Felix; Kobras, Sebastian; Burr, Geoffrey W.; Coufal, Hans J.; Hanssen, Holger; Riedel, Marc; Jefferson, C. Michael; Jurich, Mark C.

    2000-11-01

    Holographic data storage allows the simultaneous search of an entire database by performing multiple optical correlations between stored data pages and a search argument. We have recently developed fuzzy encoding techniques for this fast parallel search and demonstrated a holographic data storage system that searches digital data records with high fidelity. This content-addressable retrieval is based on the ability to take the two-dimensional inner product between the search page and each stored data page. We show that this ability is lost when the correlator is defocussed to avoid material oversaturation, but can be regained by the combination of a random phase mask and beam confinement through total internal reflection. Finally, we propose an architecture in which spatially multiplexed holograms are distributed along the path of the search beam, allowing parallel search of large databases.

  6. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  7. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  8. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  9. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. OPENING ADDRESS: Heterostructures in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmeiss, Hermann G.

    1996-01-01

    Good morning, Gentlemen! On behalf of the Nobel Foundation, I should like to welcome you to the Nobel Symposium on "Heterostructures in Semiconductors". It gives me great pleasure to see so many colleagues and old friends from all over the world in the audience and, in particular, to bid welcome to our Nobel laureates, Prof. Esaki and Prof. von Klitzing. In front of a different audience I would now commend the scientific and technological importance of heterostructures in semiconductors and emphatically emphasise that heterostructures, as an important contribution to microelectronics and, hence, information technology, have changed societies all over the world. I would also mention that information technology is one of the most important global key industries which covers a wide field of important areas each of which bears its own character. Ever since the invention of the transistor, we have witnessed a fantastic growth in semiconductor technology, leading to more complex functions and higher densities of devices. This development would hardly be possible without an increasing understanding of semiconductor materials and new concepts in material growth techniques which allow the fabrication of previously unknown semiconductor structures. But here and today I will not do it because it would mean to carry coals to Newcastle. I will therefore not remind you that heterostructures were already suggested and discussed in detail a long time before proper technologies were available for the fabrication of such structures. Now, heterostructures are a foundation in science and part of our everyday life. Though this is certainly true, it is nevertheless fair to say that not all properties of heterostructures are yet understood and that further technologies have to be developed before a still better understanding is obtained. The organisers therefore hope that this symposium will contribute not only to improving our understanding of heterostructures but also to opening new

  11. Addressing the world water crisis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The world is facing an impinging crisis on water as population growth continues, energy use increases, and affluence (standard of living) increases all requiring more water. Agriculture must find ways to use water more productively while improving the impact of agriculture on the environment. Agri...

  12. Image Coding Based on Address Vector Quantization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yushu

    Image coding is finding increased application in teleconferencing, archiving, and remote sensing. This thesis investigates the potential of Vector Quantization (VQ), a relatively new source coding technique, for compression of monochromatic and color images. Extensions of the Vector Quantization technique to the Address Vector Quantization method have been investigated. In Vector Quantization, the image data to be encoded are first processed to yield a set of vectors. A codeword from the codebook which best matches the input image vector is then selected. Compression is achieved by replacing the image vector with the index of the code-word which produced the best match, the index is sent to the channel. Reconstruction of the image is done by using a table lookup technique, where the label is simply used as an address for a table containing the representative vectors. A code-book of representative vectors (codewords) is generated using an iterative clustering algorithm such as K-means, or the generalized Lloyd algorithm. A review of different Vector Quantization techniques are given in chapter 1. Chapter 2 gives an overview of codebook design methods including the Kohonen neural network to design codebook. During the encoding process, the correlation of the address is considered and Address Vector Quantization is developed for color image and monochrome image coding. Address VQ which includes static and dynamic processes is introduced in chapter 3. In order to overcome the problems in Hierarchical VQ, Multi-layer Address Vector Quantization is proposed in chapter 4. This approach gives the same performance as that of the normal VQ scheme but the bit rate is about 1/2 to 1/3 as that of the normal VQ method. In chapter 5, a Dynamic Finite State VQ based on a probability transition matrix to select the best subcodebook to encode the image is developed. In chapter 6, a new adaptive vector quantization scheme, suitable for color video coding, called "A Self -Organizing

  13. Neutron activation increases activity of ruthenium-based complexes and induces cell death in glioma cells independent of p53 tumor suppressor gene.

    PubMed

    Montel, Aline Monezi; Dos Santos, Raquel Gouvêa; da Costa, Pryscila Rodrigues; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela de Paula; Batista, Alzir Azevedo; Dos Santos, Wagner Gouvêa

    2017-04-01

    Novel metal complexes have received great attention in the last decades due to their potential anticancer activity. Notably, ruthenium-based complexes have emerged as good alternative to the currently used platinum-based drugs for cancer therapy, providing less toxicity and side effects to patients. Glioblastoma is an aggressive and invasive type of brain tumor and despite of advances is the field of neurooncology there is no effective treatment until now. Therefore, we sought to investigate the potential antiproliferative activity of phosphine-ruthenium-based complexes on human glioblastoma cell lines. Due to its octahedral structure as opposed to the square-planar geometry of platinum(II) compounds, ruthenium(II) complexes exhibit different structure-function relationship probably acting through a different mechanism from that of cisplatin beyond their ability to bind DNA. To better improve the pharmacological activity of metal complexes we hypothesized that neutron activation of ruthenium in the complexes would allow to decrease the effective concentration of the compound needed to kill tumor cells. Herein we report on the effect of unmodified and neutron activated phosphine ruthenium II complexes on glioblastoma cell lines carrying wild-type and mutated p53 tumor suppressor gene. Induction of apoptosis/authophagy as well as generation of reactive oxygen species were determined. The phosphine ruthenium II complexes tested were highly active against glioblastoma cell lines inducing cell death both through apoptosis and autophagy in a p53 independent fashion. Neutron activation of ruthenium compounds rendered them more active than their original counterparts suggesting a new strategy to improve the antitumor activity of these compounds.

  14. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  15. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution.

  16. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.

  17. Expression of the core exon-junction complex factor eukaryotic initiation factor 4A3 is increased during spatial exploration and striatally-mediated learning.

    PubMed

    Barker-Haliski, M L; Pastuzyn, E D; Keefe, K A

    2012-12-13

    Regulation of dendritically localized mRNAs offers an important means by which neurons can sculpt precise signals at synapses. Arc is one such dendritically localized mRNA, and it has been shown to contain two exon-junction complexes (EJCs) within its 3'UTR. The EJC has been postulated to regulate cytoplasmic Arc mRNA availability through translation-dependent decay and thus contribute to synaptic plasticity. Core proteins of the EJC include eIF4A3, an RNA helicase, and Magoh, which stabilizes the interaction of eIF4A3 with target mRNAs. Arc mRNA expression is activity-regulated in numerous brain regions, including the dorsal striatum and hippocampus. Therefore in this study, the in vivo expression of these core EJC components was investigated in adult Sprague-Dawley rats to determine whether there are also behaviorally regulated changes in their expression. In the present work, there was no change in the expression of Magoh mRNA following spatial exploration, a paradigm previously reported to robustly and reliably upregulate Arc mRNA expression. Interestingly, however, there were increases in eIF4A3 mRNA levels in the dorsal striatum and hippocampus following spatial exploration, similar to previous reports for Arc mRNA. Furthermore, there were activity-dependent changes in eIF4A3 protein distribution and expression within the striatum following spatial exploration. Importantly, eIF4A3 protein colocalized with Arc mRNA in vivo. Like Arc mRNA expression, eIF4A3 mRNA expression in the dorsomedial striatum, but not dorsolateral striatum or hippocampus, significantly correlated with behavioral performance on a striatally-mediated, response-reversal learning task. This study provides direct evidence that a core EJC component, eIF4A3, shows activity-dependent changes in both mRNA and protein expression in the adult mammalian brain. These findings thus further implicate eIF4A3 as a key mediator of Arc mRNA availability underlying learning and memory processes in vivo.

  18. Simulation with models of increasing complexity of CO2 emissions and nitrogen mineralisation, after soil application of labelled pig slurry and maize stalks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechini, Luca; Marino Gallina, Pietro; Geromel, Gabriele; Corti, Martina; Cavalli, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    High amounts of nitrogen are available per unit area in regions with intensive livestock operations. In swine farms, pig slurries are frequently incorporated in the soil together with maize stalks. Simulation models may help to understand nitrogen dynamics associated with animal manure and crop residue decomposition in the soil, and to support the definition of best management practices. The objective of this work was to test the ability of different models to simulate CO2 emissions and nitrogen mineralisation during a laboratory incubation (under optimal soil water content and constant temperature) of maize stalks (ST) and pig slurry (PS). A loam soil was amended with labelled (15N) or unlabelled maize stalks and pig slurries, in the presence of ammonium sulphate (AS). These treatments were established: unfertilised soil; ST15 + AS + PS; ST + AS15 + PS; and ST + AS + PS15. During 180 days, we measured CO2 emissions; microbial biomass C, N, and 15N; and soil mineral N (SMN and SM-15N). Three models of increasing complexity were calibrated using measured data. The models were two modifications of ICBM 2B/N (Kätterer and Andrén, 2001) and CN-SIM (Petersen et al., 2005). The three models simulated rather accurately the emissions of CO2 throughout the incubation period (Relative Root Mean Squared Error, RRMSE = 8-25). The simplest model (with one pool for ST and one for PS) strongly overestimated SMN immobilisation from day 3 to day 21, both in the treatments with AS15 and PS15 (RRMSE = 27-30%). The other two models represented rather well the dynamics of SMN in the soil (RRMSE = 21-25%), simulating a fast increase of nitrate concentration in the first days, and slower rates of nitrification thereafter. Worse performances were obtained with all models for the simulation of SM-15N in the treatment with ST15 (RRMSE = 64-104%): experimental data showed positive mineralization of stalk-derived N from the beginning of the incubation, while models strongly underestimated

  19. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  20. Name-Based Address Mapping for Virtual Private Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surányi, Péter; Shinjo, Yasushi; Kato, Kazuhiko

    IPv4 private addresses are commonly used in local area networks (LANs). With the increasing popularity of virtual private networks (VPNs), it has become common that a user connects to multiple LANs at the same time. However, private address ranges for LANs frequently overlap. In such cases, existing systems do not allow the user to access the resources on all LANs at the same time. In this paper, we propose name-based address mapping for VPNs, a novel method that allows connecting to hosts through multiple VPNs at the same time, even when the address ranges of the VPNs overlap. In name-based address mapping, rather than using the IP addresses used on the LANs (the real addresses), we assign a unique virtual address to each remote host based on its domain name. The local host uses the virtual addresses to communicate with remote hosts. We have implemented name-based address mapping for layer 3 OpenVPN connections on Linux and measured its performance. The communication overhead of our system is less than 1.5% for throughput and less than 0.2ms for each name resolution.

  1. Welfare Entitlements: Addressing New Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Jon R.; Fandetti, Donald V.

    1995-01-01

    Because welfare entitlements are increasingly unpopular, social work advocates need to place greater emphasis on job growth and alternate mechanisms for wealth redistribution, including refundable tax credits for working poor people. The Internal Revenue Code can be an effective weapon in combating poverty if antipoverty approaches in the code are…

  2. Design of phase-only, binary phase-only, and complex ternary matched filters with increased signal-to-noise ratios for colored noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, B. V. K. V.; Juday, Richard D.

    1991-01-01

    An algorithm is provided for treating nonwhite additive noise in determining regions of support for phase-only filters, binary phase-only filters, and complex ternary matched filters. It is analytically shown to be optimal in the signal-to-noise ratio sense. It extends earlier research that assumed white noise.

  3. Addressing palliative care clinician burnout in organizations: a workforce necessity, an ethical imperative.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Krista L; Dzeng, Elizabeth; Ritchie, Christine S; Shanafelt, Tait D; Kamal, Arif H; Bull, Janet H; Tilburt, Jon C; Swetz, Keith M

    2017-02-11

    Clinician burnout reduces the capacity for providers and health systems to deliver timely, high quality, patient-centered care and increases the risk that clinicians will leave practice. This is especially problematic in hospice and palliative care: patients are often frail, elderly, vulnerable and complex; access to care is often outstripped by need; and demand for clinical experts will increase as palliative care further integrates into usual care. Efforts to mitigate and prevent burnout currently focus on individual clinicians. However, analysis of the problem of burnout should be expanded to include both individual- and systems-level factors as well as solutions; comprehensive interventions must address both. As a society, we hold organizations responsible for acting ethically, especially when it relates to deployment and protection of valuable and constrained resources. We should similarly hold organizations responsible for being ethical stewards of the resource of highly trained and talented clinicians through comprehensive programs to address burnout.

  4. Addressing the Mathematics-Specific Needs of Beginning Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Beginning mathematics teachers at the secondary level (middle and high school grades) have mathematics-specific needs that induction programs should address more substantially. However, a number of issues in how programs can accomplish this are more complex than often framed in discussions occurring in the induction programs and the field of…

  5. Challenges in an Aging Society: Presidential Address to APPAM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The United States is at a critical crossroads in its history right now. The public policy problems that the people are facing are complex and interrelated, and the demographic changes that are about to significantly change their country are not well understood by large numbers of people. In this presidential address to the Association for Public…

  6. SkBQ - prooxidant addressed to mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Vyssokikh, M Y; Chernyak, B V; Domnina, L V; Esipov, D S; Ivanova, O Y; Korshunova, G A; Symonyan, R A; Skulachev, M V; Zinevich, T V; Skulachev, V P

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are the key links in the chain of development of pathologies associated with the violation of cellular energy metabolism. Development of mitochondria-addressed compounds highly specific for chemical processes is one of the most promising ways to develop approaches to the treatment of inherited and age-related diseases with mitochondrial etiology. Correlation of structure and chemical activity of the test compounds from a class of lipophilic cations revealed the key role of substituents in the aromatic ring of 1,4-benzoquinones in the manifestation of high antioxidant properties. In this work, it is shown that a synthesized benzoquinone derivative conjugated in position 6 with membrane-penetrating cation of decyltriphenylphosphonium and with substituents at position 2, 3, and 5 (SkBQ) has much lower antioxidant and significantly higher prooxidant activity in comparison with similar derivatives of plasto- and toluquinone SkQ1 and SkQT1 in experiments on isolated mitochondria. At the same time, SkBQ, like SkQ1 and SkQT1, can be reduced by the respiratory chain in the center i of complex III and decrease the mitochondrial membrane potential. In cell cultures of human fibroblasts, it was revealed that SkBQ does not protect cells from apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide. Under the same conditions, SkQ1 and SkQT1 exhibit a powerful protective effect. Thus, SkBQ can be seen as a mitochondria-addressed prooxidant. The possibility of using SkBQ as an anticancer drug for the treatment of cancers such as prostate cancer whose cells are sensitive to mitochondrial reactive oxygen species is discussed.

  7. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin’s dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber’s structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure.

  8. GEOSS: Addressing Big Data Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Ochiai, O.

    2014-12-01

    In the sector of Earth Observation, the explosion of data is due to many factors including: new satellite constellations, the increased capabilities of sensor technologies, social media, crowdsourcing, and the need for multidisciplinary and collaborative research to face Global Changes. In this area, there are many expectations and concerns about Big Data. Vendors have attempted to use this term for their commercial purposes. It is necessary to understand whether Big Data is a radical shift or an incremental change for the existing digital infrastructures. This presentation tries to explore and discuss the impact of Big Data challenges and new capabilities on the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and particularly on its common digital infrastructure called GCI. GEOSS is a global and flexible network of content providers allowing decision makers to access an extraordinary range of data and information at their desk. The impact of the Big Data dimensionalities (commonly known as 'V' axes: volume, variety, velocity, veracity, visualization) on GEOSS is discussed. The main solutions and experimentation developed by GEOSS along these axes are introduced and analyzed. GEOSS is a pioneering framework for global and multidisciplinary data sharing in the Earth Observation realm; its experience on Big Data is valuable for the many lessons learned.

  9. Dynamic properties of photosystem II membranes at physiological temperatures characterized by elastic incoherent neutron scattering. Increased flexibility associated with the inactivation of the oxygen evolving complex.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Gergely; Pieper, Jörg; Krumova, Sashka B; Kovács, László; Trapp, Marcus; Garab, Győző; Peters, Judith

    2012-03-01

    Elastic incoherent neutron scattering (EINS), a non-invasive technique which is capable of measuring the mean square displacement of atoms in the sample, has been widely used in biology for exploring the dynamics of proteins and lipid membranes but studies on photosynthetic systems are scarce. In this study we investigated the dynamic characteristics of Photosystem II (PSII) membrane fragments between 280 and 340 K, i.e., in the physiological temperature range and in the range of thermal denaturation of some of the protein complexes. The mean square displacement values revealed the presence of a hydration-sensitive transition in the sample between 310 and 320 K, suggesting that the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) plays an important role in the transition. Indeed, in samples in which the OEC had been removed by TRIS- or heat-treatments (323 and 333 K) no such transition was found. Further support on the main role of OEC in these reorganizations is provided by data obtained from differential scanning calorimetry experiments, showing marked differences between the untreated and TRIS-treated samples. In contrast, circular dichroism spectra exhibited only minor changes in the excitonic interactions below 323 K, showing that the molecular organization of the pigment-protein complexes remains essentially unaffected. Our data, along with earlier incoherent neutron scattering data on PSII membranes at cryogenic temperatures (Pieper et al., Biochemistry 46:11398-11409, 2007), demonstrate that this technique can be applied to characterize the dynamic features of PSII membranes, and can be used to investigate photosynthetic membranes under physiologically relevant experimental conditions.

  10. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  11. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  12. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  13. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Scott P; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T; Bergstrom, Carl T; Denison, R Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B; Strauss, Sharon Y; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2014-10-17

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens, and pests that evolve too quickly and the second, from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This Review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental, and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development.

  14. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Scott P.; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Denison, R. Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B.; Strauss, Sharon Y.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens and pests that evolve too quickly, and the second from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution, or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development. PMID:25213376

  15. Visuo-spatial path learning, stress, and cortisol secretion following military cadets' first parachute jump: the effect of increasing task complexity.

    PubMed

    Taverniers, John; Smeets, Tom; Lo Bue, Salvatore; Syroit, Jef; Van Ruysseveldt, Joris; Pattyn, Nathalie; von Grumbkow, Jasper

    2011-09-01

    The present field experiment examined how multi-trial visuo-spatial learning and memory performance are impacted by excessive arousal, instigated by a potentially life-threatening event (i.e., a first parachute jump). Throughout a parachute training activity, subjective and neuroendocrine (i.e., cortisol) stress levels were assessed of 61 male military cadets who were randomly assigned to a control (n = 30) or a jump stress condition (n = 31). Post-stress learning and memory capacity was assessed with a 10-trial path-learning task that permitted emergence of learning curves. Pre-activity cortisol concentrations indicated a significant neuroendocrine anticipatory stress response in the stress group. Following parachuting, subjective stress levels and salivary cortisol reactivity differed significantly between groups. Visuo-spatial path-learning performance was impaired significantly after jump stress exposure, relative to the control group. Moreover, examination of the learning curves showed similar learning and memory performance at onset of the trials, with curves bifurcating as the task became more complex. These findings are in accordance with leading theories that acknowledge a moderating effect of task complexity. In sum, the present study extends knowledge concerning anticipatory stress effects, endogenously instigated cortisol reactivity, and the influence of extreme arousal on visuo-spatial path learning.

  16. Increased Mitochondrial Pro-oxidant Activity Mediates Up-regulation of Complex I S-glutathionylation via Protein Thiyl Radical in the Murine Heart of eNOS−/−

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Patrick T.; Chen, Chwen-Lih; Chen, Yeong-Renn

    2014-01-01

    In response to oxidative stress, mitochondrial Complex I is reversibly S-glutathionylated. We hypothesized that protein S-glutathionylation (PrSSG) of Complex I is mediated by a kinetic mechanism involving reactive protein thiyl radical (PrS•) and GSH in vivo. Previous studies have shown that in vitro S-glutathionylation of isolated Complex I at the 51 kDa and 75 kDa subunits was detected under the conditions of •O2− production, and mass spectrometry confirmed that formation of Complex I PrS• mediates PrSSG. Exposure of myocytes to menadione resulted in enhanced Complex I PrSSG and PrS• (Kang et al Free Radical Biol. Med. 2012; 52: 962–73). In this investigation, we tested our hypothesis in the murine heart of eNOS−/−. The eNOS−/− mouse is known to be hypertensive and develops the pathological phenotype of progressive cardiac hypertrophy. The mitochondria isolated from the eNOS−/− myocardium exhibited a marked dysfunction with impaired state 3 respiration, a declining respiratory control index, and decreasing enzymatic activities of ETC components. Further biochemical analysis and EPR measurement indicated defective aconitase activity, a marked increase in •O2− generation activity, and a more oxidized physiological setting. These results suggest increasing prooxidant activity and subsequent oxidative stress in the mitochondria of the eNOS−/− murine heart. When Complex I from the mitochondria of the eNOS−/− murine heart was analyzed by immuno-spin trapping and probed with anti-GSH antibody, both PrS• and PrSSG of Complex I were significantly enhanced. Overexpression of SOD2 in the murine heart dramatically diminished the detected PrS•, supporting the conclusion that mediation of Complex I PrSSG by oxidative stress-induced PrS• is a unique pathway for the redox regulation of mitochondrial function in vivo. PMID:25445401

  17. Assessing what to address in science communication

    PubMed Central

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-01-01

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people’s decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people’s understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people’s decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people’s mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients’ understanding and ability to make informed decisions. PMID:23942122

  18. Assessing what to address in science communication.

    PubMed

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-08-20

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people's decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people's understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people's decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people's mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients' understanding and ability to make informed decisions.

  19. Programming chemistry in DNA-addressable bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Fellermann, Harold; Cardelli, Luca

    2014-10-06

    We present a formal calculus, termed the chemtainer calculus, able to capture the complexity of compartmentalized reaction systems such as populations of possibly nested vesicular compartments. Compartments contain molecular cargo as well as surface markers in the form of DNA single strands. These markers serve as compartment addresses and allow for their targeted transport and fusion, thereby enabling reactions of previously separated chemicals. The overall system organization allows for the set-up of programmable chemistry in microfluidic or other automated environments. We introduce a simple sequential programming language whose instructions are motivated by state-of-the-art microfluidic technology. Our approach integrates electronic control, chemical computing and material production in a unified formal framework that is able to mimic the integrated computational and constructive capabilities of the subcellular matrix. We provide a non-deterministic semantics of our programming language that enables us to analytically derive the computational and constructive power of our machinery. This semantics is used to derive the sets of all constructable chemicals and supermolecular structures that emerge from different underlying instruction sets. Because our proofs are constructive, they can be used to automatically infer control programs for the construction of target structures from a limited set of resource molecules. Finally, we present an example of our framework from the area of oligosaccharide synthesis.

  20. Programming chemistry in DNA-addressable bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Fellermann, Harold; Cardelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    We present a formal calculus, termed the chemtainer calculus, able to capture the complexity of compartmentalized reaction systems such as populations of possibly nested vesicular compartments. Compartments contain molecular cargo as well as surface markers in the form of DNA single strands. These markers serve as compartment addresses and allow for their targeted transport and fusion, thereby enabling reactions of previously separated chemicals. The overall system organization allows for the set-up of programmable chemistry in microfluidic or other automated environments. We introduce a simple sequential programming language whose instructions are motivated by state-of-the-art microfluidic technology. Our approach integrates electronic control, chemical computing and material production in a unified formal framework that is able to mimic the integrated computational and constructive capabilities of the subcellular matrix. We provide a non-deterministic semantics of our programming language that enables us to analytically derive the computational and constructive power of our machinery. This semantics is used to derive the sets of all constructable chemicals and supermolecular structures that emerge from different underlying instruction sets. Because our proofs are constructive, they can be used to automatically infer control programs for the construction of target structures from a limited set of resource molecules. Finally, we present an example of our framework from the area of oligosaccharide synthesis. PMID:25121647

  1. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  2. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  3. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  4. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  5. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  6. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41... Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in an application... correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which an address is...

  7. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41... Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in an application... correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which an address is...

  8. 47 CFR 13.10 - Licensee address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee address. 13.10 Section 13.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.10 Licensee address. In accordance with § 1.923 of this chapter all applications must specify an address where...

  9. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  10. IP address management : augmenting Sandia's capabilities through open source tools.

    SciTech Connect

    Nayar, R. Daniel

    2005-08-01

    Internet Protocol (IP) address management is an increasingly growing concern at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the networking community as a whole. The current state of the available IP addresses indicates that they are nearly exhausted. Currently SNL doesn't have the justification to obtain more IP address space from Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). There must exist a local entity to manage and allocate IP assignments efficiently. Ongoing efforts at Sandia have been in the form of a multifunctional database application notably known as Network Information System (NWIS). NWIS is a database responsible for a multitude of network administrative services including IP address management. This study will explore the feasibility of augmenting NWIS's IP management capabilities utilizing open source tools. Modifications of existing capabilities to better allocate available IP address space are studied.

  11. Complex spatiotemporal responses of global terrestrial primary production to climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shufen; Tian, Hanqin; Dangal, Shree R S; Zhang, Chi; Yang, Jia; Tao, Bo; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Wang, Xiaoke; Lu, Chaoqun; Ren, Wei; Banger, Kamaljit; Yang, Qichun; Zhang, Bowen; Li, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative information on the response of global terrestrial net primary production (NPP) to climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 is essential for climate change adaptation and mitigation in the 21st century. Using a process-based ecosystem model (the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model, DLEM), we quantified the magnitude and spatiotemporal variations of contemporary (2000s) global NPP, and projected its potential responses to climate and CO2 changes in the 21st century under the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A2 and B1 of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). We estimated a global terrestrial NPP of 54.6 (52.8-56.4) PgC yr(-1) as a result of multiple factors during 2000-2009. Climate change would either reduce global NPP (4.6%) under the A2 scenario or slightly enhance NPP (2.2%) under the B1 scenario during 2010-2099. In response to climate change, global NPP would first increase until surface air temperature increases by 1.5 °C (until the 2030s) and then level-off or decline after it increases by more than 1.5 °C (after the 2030s). This result supports the Copenhagen Accord Acknowledgement, which states that staying below 2 °C may not be sufficient and the need to potentially aim for staying below 1.5 °C. The CO2 fertilization effect would result in a 12%-13.9% increase in global NPP during the 21st century. The relative CO2 fertilization effect, i.e. change in NPP on per CO2 (ppm) bases, is projected to first increase quickly then level off in the 2070s and even decline by the end of the 2080s, possibly due to CO2 saturation and nutrient limitation. Terrestrial NPP responses to climate change and elevated atmospheric CO2 largely varied among biomes, with the largest increases in the tundra and boreal needleleaf deciduous forest. Compared to the low emission scenario (B1), the high emission scenario (A2) would lead to larger spatiotemporal variations in NPP, and more dramatic and counteracting impacts from climate and increasing

  12. Complex Spatiotemporal Responses of Global Terrestrial Primary Production to Climate Change and Increasing Atmospheric CO2 in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shufen; Tian, Hanqin; Dangal, Shree R. S.; Zhang, Chi; Yang, Jia; Tao, Bo; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Wang, Xiaoke; Lu, Chaoqun; Ren, Wei; Banger, Kamaljit; Yang, Qichun; Zhang, Bowen; Li, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative information on the response of global terrestrial net primary production (NPP) to climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 is essential for climate change adaptation and mitigation in the 21st century. Using a process-based ecosystem model (the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model, DLEM), we quantified the magnitude and spatiotemporal variations of contemporary (2000s) global NPP, and projected its potential responses to climate and CO2 changes in the 21st century under the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A2 and B1 of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). We estimated a global terrestrial NPP of 54.6 (52.8–56.4) PgC yr−1 as a result of multiple factors during 2000–2009. Climate change would either reduce global NPP (4.6%) under the A2 scenario or slightly enhance NPP (2.2%) under the B1 scenario during 2010–2099. In response to climate change, global NPP would first increase until surface air temperature increases by 1.5°C (until the 2030s) and then level-off or decline after it increases by more than 1.5°C (after the 2030s). This result supports the Copenhagen Accord Acknowledgement, which states that staying below 2°C may not be sufficient and the need to potentially aim for staying below 1.5°C. The CO2 fertilization effect would result in a 12%–13.9% increase in global NPP during the 21st century. The relative CO2 fertilization effect, i.e. change in NPP on per CO2 (ppm) bases, is projected to first increase quickly then level off in the 2070s and even decline by the end of the 2080s, possibly due to CO2 saturation and nutrient limitation. Terrestrial NPP responses to climate change and elevated atmospheric CO2 largely varied among biomes, with the largest increases in the tundra and boreal needleleaf deciduous forest. Compared to the low emission scenario (B1), the high emission scenario (A2) would lead to larger spatiotemporal variations in NPP, and more dramatic and counteracting impacts from climate and

  13. National Institutes of Health addresses the science of diversity.

    PubMed

    Valantine, Hannah A; Collins, Francis S

    2015-10-06

    The US biomedical research workforce does not currently mirror the nation's population demographically, despite numerous attempts to increase diversity. This imbalance is limiting the promise of our biomedical enterprise for building knowledge and improving the nation's health. Beyond ensuring fairness in scientific workforce representation, recruiting and retaining a diverse set of minds and approaches is vital to harnessing the complete intellectual capital of the nation. The complexity inherent in diversifying the research workforce underscores the need for a rigorous scientific approach, consistent with the ways we address the challenges of science discovery and translation to human health. Herein, we identify four cross-cutting diversity challenges ripe for scientific exploration and opportunity: research evidence for diversity's impact on the quality and outputs of science; evidence-based approaches to recruitment and training; individual and institutional barriers to workforce diversity; and a national strategy for eliminating barriers to career transition, with scientifically based approaches for scaling and dissemination. Evidence-based data for each of these challenges should provide an integrated, stepwise approach to programs that enhance diversity rapidly within the biomedical research workforce.

  14. National Institutes of Health addresses the science of diversity

    PubMed Central

    Valantine, Hannah A.; Collins, Francis S.

    2015-01-01

    The US biomedical research workforce does not currently mirror the nation’s population demographically, despite numerous attempts to increase diversity. This imbalance is limiting the promise of our biomedical enterprise for building knowledge and improving the nation’s health. Beyond ensuring fairness in scientific workforce representation, recruiting and retaining a diverse set of minds and approaches is vital to harnessing the complete intellectual capital of the nation. The complexity inherent in diversifying the research workforce underscores the need for a rigorous scientific approach, consistent with the ways we address the challenges of science discovery and translation to human health. Herein, we identify four cross-cutting diversity challenges ripe for scientific exploration and opportunity: research evidence for diversity’s impact on the quality and outputs of science; evidence-based approaches to recruitment and training; individual and institutional barriers to workforce diversity; and a national strategy for eliminating barriers to career transition, with scientifically based approaches for scaling and dissemination. Evidence-based data for each of these challenges should provide an integrated, stepwise approach to programs that enhance diversity rapidly within the biomedical research workforce. PMID:26392553

  15. Complex correlation between excitatory amino acid-induced increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration and subsequent loss of neuronal function in individual neocortical neurons in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Witt, M R; Dekermendjian, K; Frandsen, A; Schousboe, A; Nielsen, M

    1994-01-01

    Primary cultures of cerebral cortical neurons and single-cell imaging of intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) with the ratiometric dye fura-2 were used to assess excitatory amino acid (EAA)-induced neurotoxicity; the loss of neuronal function as defined by the ability of the cells to respond to K(+)-induced depolarization by a transient increase in Ca2+ influx was measured. The responsiveness of individual neurons was measured quantitatively as the [Ca2+]i values of the second KCl (2.KCl) stimulation divided by those of the first KCl (1.KCl) stimulation, giving the value of the ratio (2.KCl/1.KCl). Exposure to EAAs led to an increase in [Ca2+]i, but no simple correlation between the increase in [Ca2+]i and neuronal responsiveness could be demonstrated. Rather, below a threshold level of [Ca2+]i (ca. 1 microM), the neuronal responsiveness was largely independent of the glutamate receptor-agonist-induced increase in [Ca2+]i. However, when [Ca2+]i increased above this threshold level, the neurons almost invariably lost the ability to respond to a K(+)-induced depolarization, particularly after exposure to glutamate. Therefore, the cortical neurons were found to be exceptionally vulnerable to the glutamate-induced loss of function when compared with the effect induced by the glutamate receptor subtype-specific agonists, N-methyl-D-aspartate, quisqualate, and 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl) propionate. The findings suggest that the loss of neuronal membrane polarization precedes plasma membrane disruption and is a sensitive marker of EAA-induced neurodegeneration observed at the single-cell level. Images PMID:7527559

  16. Addressing health literacy in patient decision aids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective use of a patient decision aid (PtDA) can be affected by the user’s health literacy and the PtDA’s characteristics. Systematic reviews of the relevant literature can guide PtDA developers to attend to the health literacy needs of patients. The reviews reported here aimed to assess: 1. a) the effects of health literacy / numeracy on selected decision-making outcomes, and b) the effects of interventions designed to mitigate the influence of lower health literacy on decision-making outcomes, and 2. the extent to which existing PtDAs a) account for health literacy, and b) are tested in lower health literacy populations. Methods We reviewed literature for evidence relevant to these two aims. When high-quality systematic reviews existed, we summarized their evidence. When reviews were unavailable, we conducted our own systematic reviews. Results Aim 1: In an existing systematic review of PtDA trials, lower health literacy was associated with lower patient health knowledge (14 of 16 eligible studies). Fourteen studies reported practical design strategies to improve knowledge for lower health literacy patients. In our own systematic review, no studies reported on values clarity per se, but in 2 lower health literacy was related to higher decisional uncertainty and regret. Lower health literacy was associated with less desire for involvement in 3 studies, less question-asking in 2, and less patient-centered communication in 4 studies; its effects on other measures of patient involvement were mixed. Only one study assessed the effects of a health literacy intervention on outcomes; it showed that using video to improve the salience of health states reduced decisional uncertainty. Aim 2: In our review of 97 trials, only 3 PtDAs overtly addressed the needs of lower health literacy users. In 90% of trials, user health literacy and readability of the PtDA were not reported. However, increases in knowledge and informed choice were reported in those studies

  17. MicroRNA-1 and -133 Increase Arrhythmogenesis in Heart Failure by Dissociating Phosphatase Activity from RyR2 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Belevych, Andriy E.; Sansom, Sarah E.; Terentyeva, Radmila; Ho, Hsiang-Ting; Nishijima, Yoshinori; Martin, Mickey M.; Jindal, Hitesh K.; Rochira, Jennifer A.; Kunitomo, Yukiko; Abdellatif, Maha; Carnes, Cynthia A.; Elton, Terry S.; Györke, Sandor; Terentyev, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    In heart failure (HF), arrhythmogenic spontaneous sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release and afterdepolarizations in cardiac myocytes have been linked to abnormally high activity of ryanodine receptors (RyR2s) associated with enhanced phosphorylation of the channel. However, the specific molecular mechanisms underlying RyR2 hyperphosphorylation in HF remain poorly understood. The objective of the current study was to test the hypothesis that the enhanced expression of muscle-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) underlies the HF-related alterations in RyR2 phosphorylation in ventricular myocytes by targeting phosphatase activity localized to the RyR2. We studied hearts isolated from canines with chronic HF exhibiting increased left ventricular (LV) dimensions and decreased LV contractility. qRT-PCR revealed that the levels of miR-1 and miR-133, the most abundant muscle-specific miRNAs, were significantly increased in HF myocytes compared with controls (2- and 1.6-fold, respectively). Western blot analyses demonstrated that expression levels of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) catalytic and regulatory subunits, which are putative targets of miR-133 and miR-1, were decreased in HF cells. PP2A catalytic subunit mRNAs were validated as targets of miR-133 by using luciferase reporter assays. Pharmacological inhibition of phosphatase activity increased the frequency of diastolic Ca2+ waves and afterdepolarizations in control myocytes. The decreased PP2A activity observed in HF was accompanied by enhanced Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII)-mediated phosphorylation of RyR2 at sites Ser-2814 and Ser-2030 and increased frequency of diastolic Ca2+ waves and afterdepolarizations in HF myocytes compared with controls. In HF myocytes, CaMKII inhibitory peptide normalized the frequency of pro-arrhythmic spontaneous diastolic Ca2+ waves. These findings suggest that altered levels of major muscle-specific miRNAs contribute to abnormal RyR2 function in HF by depressing

  18. Prediction Models of Retention Indices for Increased Confidence in Structural Elucidation during Complex Matrix Analysis: Application to Gas Chromatography Coupled with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dossin, Eric; Martin, Elyette; Diana, Pierrick; Castellon, Antonio; Monge, Aurelien; Pospisil, Pavel; Bentley, Mark; Guy, Philippe A

    2016-08-02

    Monitoring of volatile and semivolatile compounds was performed using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to high-resolution electron ionization mass spectrometry, using both headspace and liquid injection modes. A total of 560 reference compounds, including 8 odd n-alkanes, were analyzed and experimental linear retention indices (LRI) were determined. These reference compounds were randomly split into training (n = 401) and test (n = 151) sets. LRI for all 552 reference compounds were also calculated based upon computational Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) models, using two independent approaches RapidMiner (coupled to Dragon) and ACD/ChromGenius software. Correlation coefficients for experimental versus predicted LRI values calculated for both training and test set compounds were calculated at 0.966 and 0.949 for RapidMiner and at 0.977 and 0.976 for ACD/ChromGenius, respectively. In addition, the cross-validation correlation was calculated at 0.96 from RapidMiner and the residual standard error value obtained from ACD/ChromGenius was 53.635. These models were then used to predict LRI values for several thousand compounds reported present in tobacco and tobacco-related fractions, plus a range of specific flavor compounds. It was demonstrated that using the mean of the LRI values predicted by RapidMiner and ACD/ChromGenius, in combination with accurate mass data, could enhance the confidence level for compound identification from the analysis of complex matrixes, particularly when the two predicted LRI values for a compound were in close agreement. Application of this LRI modeling approach to matrixes with unknown composition has already enabled the confirmation of 23 postulated compounds, demonstrating its ability to facilitate compound identification in an analytical workflow. The goal is to reduce the list of putative candidates to a reasonable relevant number that can be obtained and measured for confirmation.

  19. Symmetric covalent linkage of N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W-7) results in novel derivatives with increased inhibitory activities against calcium/calmodulin complex.

    PubMed

    Yokokura, H; Osawa, M; Inoue, T; Umezawa, I; Naito, Y; Ikura, M; Hidaka, H

    1999-11-01

    A useful calmodulin (CaM) antagonist, N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W-7), was invented by Hidaka et al. in 1978 (J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 207, 8-15). Here, we have designed new CaM antagonists on the basis of the three-dimensional structure of Ca2+/CaM complexed with W-7. Eleven new compounds all share a similar architecture, in which two W-7 molecules are linked between their aminohexyl termini by a linker with different functionalities. A wide range of inhibitory activities against Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase I (CaM kinase I) has been observed with these self-crosslinked W-7 analogs, (W-7)2. In vitro competitive CaM kinase I assays using CaM kinase I and nuclear magnetic resonance studies indicated that one (W-7)2 molecule binds to one CaM molecule as expected, with the two chloronaphthalene rings of (W-7)2 being anchored separately to the N- and C-terminal hydrophobic pockets of Ca2+/CaM. The most potent compound, N,N'-bis[6-(5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonyl)-amino-1-hexyl]-p-xylen e-diamine ((W-7)2 - 10), inhibits CaM kinase I activity at an IC50 value of 0.23 microM; about 75 times more effectively than W-7. The length and basicity of the linker sequence in (W-7)2 significantly contribute to inhibitory activity. The present study opens an avenue for developing powerful CaM antagonists that could be used at low doses in vivo.

  20. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function

    PubMed Central

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the “Hash_64” field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  1. Complex chemistry with complex compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, Robert; Asai, M.; Brand, H.; Chiera, N. M.; Di Nitto, A.; Dressler, R.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Even, J.; Fangli, F.; Goetz, M.; Haba, H.; Hartmann, W.; Jäger, E.; Kaji, D.; Kanaya, J.; Kaneya, Y.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kindler, B.; Komori, Y.; Kraus, B.; Kratz, J. V.; Krier, J.; Kudou, Y.; Kurz, N.; Miyashita, S.; Morimoto, K.; Morita, K.; Murakami, M.; Nagame, Y.; Ooe, K.; Piguet, D.; Sato, N.; Sato, T. K.; Steiner, J.; Steinegger, P.; Sumita, T.; Takeyama, M.; Tanaka, K.; Tomitsuka, T.; Toyoshima, A.; Tsukada, K.; Türler, A.; Usoltsev, I.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Wang, Y.; Wiehl, N.; Wittwer, Y.; Yakushev, A.; Yamaki, S.; Yano, S.; Yamaki, S.; Qin, Z.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the investigation of fragile single molecular species by gas-phase chromatography. The latest success with the heaviest group 6 transactinide seaborgium is highlighted. The formation of a very volatile hexacarbonyl compound Sg(CO)6 was observed similarly to its lighter homologues molybdenum and tungsten. The interactions of these gaseous carbonyl complex compounds with quartz surfaces were investigated by thermochromatography. Second-generation experiments are under way to investigate the intramolecular bond between the central metal atom of the complexes and the ligands addressing the influence of relativistic effects in the heaviest compounds. Our contribution comprises some aspects of the ongoing challenging experiments as well as an outlook towards other interesting compounds related to volatile complex compounds in the gas phase.

  2. Increased Probability of Co-Occurrence of Two Rare Diseases in Consanguineous Families and Resolution of a Complex Phenotype by Next Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Dennis; Neubauer, Bernd A.; Toliat, Mohammad R.; Altmüller, Janine; Thiele, Holger; Nürnberg, Peter; Kamrath, Clemens; Schänzer, Anne; Sander, Thomas; Hahn, Andreas; Nothnagel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing of whole genomes and exomes has facilitated a direct assessment of causative genetic variation, now enabling the identification of genetic factors involved in rare diseases (RD) with Mendelian inheritance patterns on an almost routine basis. Here, we describe the illustrative case of a single consanguineous family where this strategy suffered from the difficulty to distinguish between two etiologically distinct disorders, namely the co-occurrence of hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets (HRR) and congenital myopathies (CM), by their phenotypic manifestation alone. We used parametric linkage analysis, homozygosity mapping and whole exome-sequencing to identify mutations underlying HRR and CM. We also present an approximate approach for assessing the probability of co-occurrence of two unlinked recessive RD in a single family as a function of the degree of consanguinity and the frequency of the disease-causing alleles. Linkage analysis and homozygosity mapping yielded elusive results when assuming a single RD, but whole-exome sequencing helped to identify two mutations in two genes, namely SLC34A3 and SEPN1, that segregated independently in this family and that have previously been linked to two etiologically different diseases. We assess the increase in chance co-occurrence of rare diseases due to consanguinity, i.e. under circumstances that generally favor linkage mapping of recessive disease, and show that this probability can increase by several orders of magnitudes. We conclude that such potential co-occurrence represents an underestimated risk when analyzing rare or undefined diseases in consanguineous families and should be given more consideration in the clinical and genetic evaluation. PMID:26789268

  3. Battery Cell Voltage Sensing and Balancing Using Addressable Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis

    2009-01-01

    A document discusses the use of saturating transformers in a matrix arrangement to address individual cells in a high voltage battery. This arrangement is able to monitor and charge individual cells while limiting the complexity of circuitry in the battery. The arrangement has inherent galvanic isolation, low cell leakage currents, and allows a single bad cell in a battery of several hundred cells to be easily spotted.

  4. Duplicate Address Detection Table in IPv6 Mobile Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alisherov, Farkhod; Kim, Taihoon

    In IP networks, each computer or communication equipment needs an IP address. To supply enough IP addresses, the new Internet protocol IPv6 is used in next generatoion mobile communication. Although IPv6 improves the existing IPv4 Internet protocol, Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) mechanism may consume resources and suffer from long delay. DAD is used to ensure whether the IP address is unique or not. When a mobile node performs an inter-domain handoff, it will first generate a new IP and perform a DAD procedure. The DAD procedure not only wastes time but also increases the signaling load on Internet. In this paper, the author proposes a new DAD mechanism to speed up the DAD procedure. A DAD table is created in access or mobility routers in IP networks and record all IP addresses of the area. When a new IP address needs to perform DAD, it can just search in the DAD table to confirm the uniqueness of the address.

  5. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  6. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  7. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  8. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  9. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  10. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  11. 49 CFR 369.6 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS REPORTS OF MOTOR CARRIERS § 369.6 Address. The following address must be used by motor carriers when submitting a report, requesting an exemption from filing...

  12. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2... 20580, unless otherwise specifically directed. The Commission's Web site address is www.ftc.gov....

  13. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  14. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  15. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  16. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  17. History Forum Addresses Creation/Evolution Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinsberg, John

    1997-01-01

    A series of programs entitled Creationism and Evolution: The History of a Controversy was presented at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The controversy was addressed from an historical and sociological, rather than a scientific perspective. Speakers addressed the evolution of scientific creationism, ancient texts versus sedimentary rocks…

  18. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... litigation; (2) The account is assigned to the United States; or (3) The account is written off under §...

  19. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... litigation; (2) The account is assigned to the United States; or (3) The account is written off under §...

  20. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding…

  1. Image compression using address-vector quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu

    1990-12-01

    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  2. Using Systems Approaches to Address Challenges for Clinical Implementation of Pharmacogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Karnes, Jason H; Van Driest, Sara; Bowton, Erica A; Weeke, Peter E; Mosley, Jonathan D; Peterson, Josh F; Denny, Joshua C

    2014-01-01

    Many genetic variants have been shown to affect drug response through changes in drug efficacy and likelihood of adverse effects. Much of pharmacogenomic science has focused on discovering and clinically implementing single gene variants with large effect sizes. Given the increasing complexities of drug responses and their variability, a systems approach may be enabling for discovery of new biology in this area. Further, systems approaches may be useful in addressing challenges in moving these data to clinical implementation, including creation of predictive models of drug response phenotypes, improved clinical decision-making through complex biological models, improving strategies for integrating genomics into clinical practice, and evaluating the impact of implementation programs on public health. PMID:24319008

  3. An addressable cell array for a platform of biosensor chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Seungkyoung; Choi, Soo-hee; Jung, Moon Youn; Song, Kibong; Park, Jeong Won

    2013-05-01

    In order to detect interested matters in fields, various lab-on-a-chips where chemical, physical, or biological sensors are loaded have been developed. eNOSE can be a representative example among them. Because animals can sense 300~1000 different chemicals by olfactory system - smell -, the olfactory system has been spotlighted as new materials in the field of sensing. Those investigations, however, are usually focused on how to detect signals from the olfactory neurons or receptors loaded on chips and enhance sensing efficacy of chips. Therefore, almost of those chips are designed for only one material sensing. Multi-sensing using multi-channels will be needed when the olfactory systems are adopted well on chips. For multiple sensing, we developed an addressable cell array. The chip has 38 cell-chambers arranged in a circle shape and different cell types of thirty eight can be allocated with specific addresses on the chip without any complex valve system. In order to confirm the cell addressing, we loaded EGFP-transfected and empty vector-transfected HEK293a cells into inlets of the cell array in a planned address and those cells were positioned into each chamber by brief aspiration. The arrayed cells were confirmed as a specific pattern through EGFP and nuclei staining. This cell array which can generate address of sensor materials like cells with their own specification is expected to be applied to a platform for a biosensor chip at various sensing fields.

  4. Using chiral molecules as an approach to address low-druggability recognition sites.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Xavier; Günther, Stefan

    2014-11-05

    The content of chiral carbon atoms or structural complexity, which is known to correlate well with relevant physicochemical properties of small molecules, represents a promising descriptor that could fill the gap in existing drug discovery between ligand library filtering rules and the corresponding properties of the target's recognition site. Herein, we present an in silico study on the yet unclear underlying correlations between molecular complexity and other more sophisticated physicochemical and biological properties. By analyzing thousands of protein-ligand complexes from DrugBank, we show that increasing molecular complexity of drugs is an approach to addressing particularly low-druggability and polar recognition sites. We also show that biologically relevant protein classes characteristically bind molecules with a certain degree of structural complexity. Three distinct behaviors toward drug recognition are described. The reported results set the basis for a better understanding of protein-drug recognition, and open the possibility of including target information in the filtering of large ligand libraries for screening.

  5. The significance of addressing trauma in outpatient psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Al-Saffar, S; Borgå, P; Lawoko, S; Edman, G; Hällström, T

    2004-01-01

    Establishing post-traumatic stress disorder as a psychiatric diagnosis has only marginally increased awareness of traumatic experiences. Traumas are inconsistently recorded in initial psychiatric histories and, when observed, rarely reflected in the primary diagnosis and treatment. The present study aimed to investigate if there is an association between sufficiently addressing trauma and long-term outcome and what factors affect whether trauma, according to the patient's view, is sufficiently addressed or not. Socio-demographic data, experiences of trauma and treatment, and outcome, were collected retrospectively from Arabic, Iranian, Turkish and Swedish patients, who had visited a psychiatric clinic 3-4 years earlier. Fifty-one patients whose traumatic experiences had been sufficiently addressed were compared with 39 patients who perceived that their traumas had not been addressed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine relationships between clinical variables and whether or not traumas had been addressed. Patients with trauma sufficiently addressed reported high confidence in staff (odds ratio, OR=7.2, p<0.001), high self-rated health (OR=8.0, p<0.01) and low scores on the Self-rating Inventory for PTSD (OR=7.7, p<0.05) and Depression Scale (OR=3.0, p<0.15). Reporting less than five different traumas (OR=4.6, p<0.01) and being an ethnic Swede (OR=2.4, p<0.10) were the background variables independently related to having trauma sufficiently addressed. Addressing trauma may improve patients' confidence in staff, self-rated health and trauma-related symptoms. Multiplicity of traumas and belonging to an ethnic minority implied that trauma was less addressed.

  6. Soluble non-starch polysaccharides derived from complex food matrices do not increase average lipid droplet size during gastric lipid emulsification in rats.

    PubMed

    Fillery-Travis, A J; Gee, J M; Waldron, K W; Robins, M M; Johnson, I T

    1997-11-01

    The creation of a finely dispersed lipid emulsion is essential for efficient hydrolysis of dietary triglycerides. The effectiveness of emulsification within the stomach depends upon the shear force generated by gastric motility and the concentration of emulsifiers present in the gastric contents. Other dietary constituents can modify these factors, and previous studies have suggested that the presence of soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) during digestion might increase the average size of intraluminal emulsion droplets. In the present study, we developed a new technique for the isolation and analysis of intraluminal lipid emulsions by optical diffraction analysis. The method was applied to rats fed powdered semipurified diets that were free of all NSP or supplemented with insoluble cellulose, guar gum, or NSP derived from apple, carrot or rolled oats. Cellulose had no significant effect on emulsion size, and there was no evidence that the average sizes of lipid droplets in the gastric fundus or antrum were higher than control values in rats fed diets supplemented with any source of soluble NSP. In the groups fed oats and cooked carrot NSP, the mean droplet diameters approached half the values for diets free of NSP or containing insoluble cellulose. The difference between rats fed NSP from cooked carrot and those fed cellulose was significant in the proximal stomach (P < 0.05), and that between rats fed raw oats and rats fed cellulose was significant in the distal stomach (P < 0.05). Soluble dietary fiber does not inhibit lipid or cholesterol absorption via any inhibition of lipid emulsification.

  7. Positional error in automated geocoding of residential addresses

    PubMed Central

    Cayo, Michael R; Talbot, Thomas O

    2003-01-01

    Background Public health applications using geographic information system (GIS) technology are steadily increasing. Many of these rely on the ability to locate where people live with respect to areas of exposure from environmental contaminants. Automated geocoding is a method used to assign geographic coordinates to an individual based on their street address. This method often relies on street centerline files as a geographic reference. Such a process introduces positional error in the geocoded point. Our study evaluated the positional error caused during automated geocoding of residential addresses and how this error varies between population densities. We also evaluated an alternative method of geocoding using residential property parcel data. Results Positional error was determined for 3,000 residential addresses using the distance between each geocoded point and its true location as determined with aerial imagery. Error was found to increase as population density decreased. In rural areas of an upstate New York study area, 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 2,872 m of their true location. Suburban areas revealed less error where 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 421 m. Urban areas demonstrated the least error where 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 152 m of their true location. As an alternative to using street centerline files for geocoding, we used residential property parcel points to locate the addresses. In the rural areas, 95 percent of the parcel points were within 195 m of the true location. In suburban areas, this distance was 39 m while in urban areas 95 percent of the parcel points were within 21 m of the true location. Conclusion Researchers need to determine if the level of error caused by a chosen method of geocoding may affect the results of their project. As an alternative method, property data can be used for geocoding addresses if the error caused by traditional methods is found to be unacceptable. PMID

  8. Complexity, Systems, and Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-14

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University Complexity, Systems, and Software Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA...NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 8...for the operation of the Software Engineering Institute, a federally funded research and development center sponsored by the United States

  9. Addressing the vulnerabilities of pass-thoughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Gabriel C.; Danko, Amanda S.

    2016-05-01

    As biometrics become increasingly pervasive, consumer electronics are reaping the benefits of improved authentication methods. Leveraging the physical characteristics of a user reduces the burden of setting and remembering complex passwords, while enabling stronger security. Multi-factor systems lend further credence to this model, increasing security via multiple passive data points. In recent years, brainwaves have been shown to be another feasible source for biometric authentication. Physically unique to an individual in certain circumstances, the signals can also be changed by the user at will, making them more robust than static physical characteristics. No paradigm is impervious however, and even well-established medical technologies have deficiencies. In this work, a system for biometric authentication via brainwaves is constructed with electroencephalography (EEG). The efficacy of EEG biometrics via existing consumer electronics is evaluated, and vulnerabilities of such a system are enumerated. Impersonation attacks are performed to expose the extent to which the system is vulnerable. Finally, a multimodal system combining EEG with additional factors is recommended and outlined.

  10. Communication skills training to address disruptive physician behavior.

    PubMed

    Saxton, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Disruptive behavior among health care providers has been linked to negative patient outcomes. High-stress areas, including the perioperative setting, are especially prone to this behavior. The purpose of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate an educational communication skills intervention aimed at increasing the perceived self-efficacy of perioperative nurses to address disruptive physician behavior. Seventeen perioperative nurses participated in a two-day communication skills program presented by a certified Crucial Conversations trainer. By using paired t test analysis, I found that there was a statistically significant increase in total mean self-efficacy scores immediately after the intervention and four weeks after the intervention. In addition, four weeks after the intervention, participants reported the ability to address disruptive physician behavior 71% of the time. The results of this study suggest that one intervention strategy to address the serious threat of disruptive physician behavior to patient safety is to educate nurses in communication skills.

  11. Addressing Your Child's Weight at the Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  12. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  13. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  14. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  15. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  16. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  17. 76 FR 27020 - Representative and Address Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Representative and Address Provisions ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of...

  18. Contextual analysis of machine-printed addresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, Peter B.; Ho, Tin K.; Hull, Jonathan J.; Prussak, Michal; Srihari, Sargur N.

    1992-08-01

    The assignment of a nine digit ZIP Code (ZIP + 4 Code) to the digital image of a machine printed address block is a problem of central importance in automated mail sorting. This problem is especially difficult since most addresses do not contain ZIP + 4 Codes and often the information that must be read to match an address to one of the 28 million entries in the ZIP + 4 file is either erroneous, incomplete, or missing altogether. This paper discusses a system for interpreting a machine printed address and assigning a ZIP + 4 Code that uses a constraint satisfaction approach. Words in an address block are first segmented and parsed to assign probable semantic categories. Word images are then recognized by a combination of digit, character, and word recognition algorithms. The control structure uses a constraint satisfaction problem solving approach to match the recognition results to an entry in the ZIP + 4 file. It is shown how this technique can both determine correct responses as well as compensate for incomplete or erroneous information. Experimental results demonstrate the success of this system. In a recent test on over 1000 machine printed address blocks, the ZIP + 4 encode rate was over 73 percent. This compares to the success rate of current postal OCRs which is about 45 percent. Additionally, the word recognition algorithm recognizes over 92 percent of the input images (over 98 percent in the top 10 choices.

  19. Climate change in China and China's policies and actions for addressing climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, D.; Huang, J.; Luo, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Since the first assessment report (FAR) of Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1990, the international scientific community has made substantial progresses in climate change sciences. Changes in components of climate system, including the atmosphere, oceans and cryosphere, indicate that global warming is unequivocal. Instrumental records demonstrate that the global mean temperature has a significant increasing trend during the 20th century and in the latest 50 years the warming become faster. In the meantime, the global sea level has a strong increasing trend, as well as the snow coverage of Northern Hemisphere showed an obvious downward trend. Moreover, the global warming plays a key role in significantly affecting the climate system and social-economy on both global and regional scales, such as sea level rise, melting of mountain glaciers and ice sheets, desertification, deforestation, increase of weather extremes (typhoon, hurricane and rainstorm) and so on. The state of the art understanding of IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) was most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in the concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Climate change issues, as a grave challenge to the sustainable development of the human society, have received ever greater attention from the international community. Deeply cognizant of the complexity and extensive influence of these issues and fully aware of the arduousness and urgency of the task of addressing climate change, the Chinese government is determined to address climate change in the process of pursuing sustainable development. The facts of climate change in China and its impacts, and China’s policies and actions for addressing climate change are introduced in this paper.

  20. Addressing the Public About Science and Religion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peshkin, Murray

    2010-03-01

    Attacks on the integrity of science teaching in our public schools have recently become increasingly threatening. Geology and Darwinian evolution are the primary targets and cosmology is at risk. Up to now, the Supreme Court has excluded teachings based on religion from public schools for constitutional, not scientific, reasons. But now the incumbent Supreme Court seem less committed to strict separation of church and state than were their predecessors, and federal courts are beginning to judge the science itself. In this situation, we need to create a climate of public opinion favorable to the protection of good science by explaining the issues both to students and to others. I have been trying to do that by addressing audiences such as church groups, other community groups, and high school and college classes. I do not seek to convert committed anti-evolutionists. I am trying to inform the reasonable majority who do not really know what science is and does, or what a theory is and how we know when it's right, or why we tell them that all knowledge is provisional but still insist that we are teaching the right science. Many have been advised by their religious teachers that there is no conflict between science and their religious beliefs but do not see how that can be. I try to explain how they are disjoint discussions. I also discuss the likely consequences for our country if we degrade the teaching of science in the public schools. My audiences have generally been receptive. Here I will relate some lessons I have learned from my experience with such talks. Without doubt, the most important lesson is that most Americans have religious beliefs that are important to them and are willing to consider what I say only because they know I respect their beliefs. This work was partially supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  1. The increasingly complex regulation of adipocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Poulos, Sylvia P; Dodson, Michael V; Culver, Melinda F

    2015-01-01

    Adipose (AD) tissue development and function relies on the ability of adipocytes to proliferate and differentiate into lipid-containing cells that also have endocrine function. Research suggests that certain conditions can induce AD tissue stem cells to differentiate into various cell types and that the microenvironment of the cell, including the extracellular matrix (ECM), is essential in maintaining cell and tissue function. This review provides an overview of factors involved in the proliferation and differentiation of adipocytes. A brief review of the numerous factors that influence PPARγ, the transcription factor thought to be the master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, provides context of established pathways that regulate adipogenesis. Thought provoking findings from research with hypoxia that is supported by earlier research that vascular development is related to adipogenesis are reviewed. Finally, our understanding of the critical role of the ECM and environment in adipogenesis is discussed and compared with studies that suggest that adipocytes may dedifferentiate and can convert into other cell types. PMID:26645953

  2. Catholic Social Teaching: Addressing Globalization in Catholic Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, James B.; Martinez, Zaida; Toyne, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Although business schools are increasingly aware of the importance of globalization in educating future business leaders, their business programs have addressed globalization from a limited perspective that fails to provide students with a broader understanding of its impact on societies and its moral consequences. The conventional approach to the…

  3. Strength in Diversity: An Address by His Excellency John Ralston Saul

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saul, John Ralston

    2004-01-01

    This article contains the address given by His Excellency John Ralston Saul in St. Petersburg, Russia, September 29, 2003, when he was presented with an Honorary Degree during a state visit. In this address, Saul discusses the need to embrace complexity, the strength that is gained from diversity, and the need to respect and protect minority…

  4. Bioethicists Can and Should Contribute to Addressing Racism.

    PubMed

    Danis, Marion; Wilson, Yolonda; White, Amina

    2016-01-01

    The problems of racism and racially motivated violence in predominantly African American communities in the United States are complex, multifactorial, and historically rooted. While these problems are also deeply morally troubling, bioethicists have not contributed substantially to addressing them. Concern for justice has been one of the core commitments of bioethics. For this and other reasons, bioethicists should contribute to addressing these problems. We consider how bioethicists can offer meaningful contributions to the public discourse, research, teaching, training, policy development, and academic scholarship in response to the alarming and persistent patterns of racism and implicit biases associated with it. To make any useful contribution, bioethicists will require preparation and should expect to play a significant role through collaborative action with others.

  5. Winners and losers in the complex web of global supply chains.

    PubMed

    Glendon, Lee

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses how supply chain, risk and business continuity professionals can collaboratively address the consequences of increasing supply chain complexity in order to deliver both resilient and sustainable supply chains. The paper identifies the key drivers of complexity supported by recent case examples, including the equine DNA scandal and the Rana Plaza tragedy in Bangladesh.

  6. Predictive Surface Complexation Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sverjensky, Dimitri A.

    2016-11-29

    Surface complexation plays an important role in the equilibria and kinetics of processes controlling the compositions of soilwaters and groundwaters, the fate of contaminants in groundwaters, and the subsurface storage of CO2 and nuclear waste. Over the last several decades, many dozens of individual experimental studies have addressed aspects of surface complexation that have contributed to an increased understanding of its role in natural systems. However, there has been no previous attempt to develop a model of surface complexation that can be used to link all the experimental studies in order to place them on a predictive basis. Overall, my research has successfully integrated the results of the work of many experimentalists published over several decades. For the first time in studies of the geochemistry of the mineral-water interface, a practical predictive capability for modeling has become available. The predictive correlations developed in my research now enable extrapolations of experimental studies to provide estimates of surface chemistry for systems not yet studied experimentally and for natural and anthropogenically perturbed systems.

  7. Biologically inspired robotic inspectors: the engineering reality and future outlook (Keynote address)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2005-04-01

    Human errors have long been recognized as a major factor in the reliability of nondestructive evaluation results. To minimize such errors, there is an increasing reliance on automatic inspection tools that allow faster and consistent tests. Crawlers and various manipulation devices are commonly used to perform variety of inspection procedures that include C-scan with contour following capability to rapidly inspect complex structures. The emergence of robots has been the result of the need to deal with parts that are too complex to handle by a simple automatic system. Economical factors are continuing to hamper the wide use of robotics for inspection applications however technology advances are increasingly changing this paradigm. Autonomous robots, which may look like human, can potentially address the need to inspect structures with configuration that are not predetermined. The operation of such robots that mimic biology may take place at harsh or hazardous environments that are too dangerous for human presence. Biomimetic technologies such as artificial intelligence, artificial muscles, artificial vision and numerous others are increasingly becoming common engineering tools. Inspired by science fiction, making biomimetic robots is increasingly becoming an engineering reality and in this paper the state-of-the-art will be reviewed and the outlook for the future will be discussed.

  8. Neutralizing a Surface Charge on the FMN Subdomain Increases the Activity of Neuronal Nitric-oxide Synthase by Enhancing the Oxygen Reactivity of the Enzyme Heme-Nitric Oxide Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Mohammad Mahfuzul; Fadlalla, Mohammed; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Ray, Sougata Sinha; Panda, Koustubh; Stuehr, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    Nitric-oxide synthases (NOSs) are calmodulin-dependent flavoheme enzymes that oxidize l-Arg to nitric oxide (NO) and l-citrulline. Their catalytic behaviors are complex and are determined by their rates of heme reduction (kr), ferric heme-NO dissociation (kd), and ferrous heme-NO oxidation (kox). We found that point mutation (E762N) of a conserved residue on the enzyme's FMN subdomain caused the NO synthesis activity to double compared with wild type nNOS. However, in the absence of l-Arg, NADPH oxidation rates suggested that electron flux through the heme was slower in E762N nNOS, and this correlated with the mutant having a 60% slower kr. During NO synthesis, little heme-NO complex accumulated in the mutant, compared with ∼50–70% of the wild-type nNOS accumulating as this complex. This suggested that the E762N nNOS is hyperactive because it minimizes buildup of an inactive ferrous heme-NO complex during NO synthesis. Indeed, we found that kox was 2 times faster in the E762N mutant than in wild-type nNOS. The mutational effect on kox was independent of calmodulin. Computer simulation and experimental measures both indicated that the slower kr and faster kox of E762N nNOS combine to lower its apparent Km,O2 for NO synthesis by at least 5-fold, which in turn increases its V/Km value and enables it to be hyperactive in steady-state NO synthesis. Our work underscores how sensitive nNOS activity is to changes in the kox and reveals a novel means for the FMN module or protein-protein interactions to alter nNOS activity. PMID:19473991

  9. Frequency addressable beams for land mobile communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. D.; Dubellay, G. G.

    1988-01-01

    Satellites used for mobile communications need to serve large numbers of small, low cost terminals. The most important parameters affecting the capacity of such systems are the satellite equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) and gain to noise temperature ratio (G/T) and available bandwidth. Satellites using frequency addressed beams provide high EIRP and G/T with high-gain antenna beams that also permit frequency reuse over the composite coverage area. Frequency addressing is easy to implement and compatible with low-cost terminals and offers higher capacity than alternative approaches.

  10. Shared address collectives using counter mechanisms

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael; Dozsa, Gabor; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R; Miller, Douglas

    2014-02-18

    A shared address space on a compute node stores data received from a network and data to transmit to the network. The shared address space includes an application buffer that can be directly operated upon by a plurality of processes, for instance, running on different cores on the compute node. A shared counter is used for one or more of signaling arrival of the data across the plurality of processes running on the compute node, signaling completion of an operation performed by one or more of the plurality of processes, obtaining reservation slots by one or more of the plurality of processes, or combinations thereof.

  11. Cheaper Adjoints by Reversing Address Computations

    DOE PAGES

    Hascoët, L.; Utke, J.; Naumann, U.

    2008-01-01

    The reverse mode of automatic differentiation is widely used in science and engineering. A severe bottleneck for the performance of the reverse mode, however, is the necessity to recover certain intermediate values of the program in reverse order. Among these values are computed addresses, which traditionally are recovered through forward recomputation and storage in memory. We propose an alternative approach for recovery that uses inverse computation based on dependency information. Address storage constitutes a significant portion of the overall storage requirements. An example illustrates substantial gains that the proposed approach yields, and we show use cases in practical applications.

  12. New generation of content addressable memories for associative processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, H. G., Jr.; Giambalov, Paul

    2000-05-01

    Content addressable memories (CAMS) store both key and association data. A key is presented to the CAN when it is searched and all of the addresses are scanned in parallel to find the address referenced by the key. When a match occurs, the corresponding association is returned. With the explosion of telecommunications packet switching protocols, large data base servers, routers and search engines a new generation of dense sub-micron high throughput CAMS has been developed. The introduction of this paper presents a brief history and tutorial on CAMS, their many uses and advantages, and describes the architecture and functionality of several of MUSIC Semiconductors CAM devices. In subsequent sections of the paper we address using Associative Processing to accommodate the continued increase in sensor resolution, number of spectral bands, required coverage, the desire to implement real-time target cueing, and the data flow and image processing required for optimum performance of reconnaissance and surveillance Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). To be competitive the system designer must provide the most computational power, per watt, per dollar, per cubic inch, within the boundaries of cost effective UAV environmental control systems. To address these problems we demonstrate leveraging DARPA and DoD funded Commercial Off-the-Shelf technology to integrate CAM based Associative Processing into a real-time heterogenous multiprocessing system for UAVs and other platforms with limited weight, volume and power budgets.

  13. Identification and Addressing Reduction-Related Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal-Ezer, Judith; Trakhtenbrot, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Reduction is one of the key techniques used for problem-solving in computer science. In particular, in the theory of computation and complexity (TCC), mapping and polynomial reductions are used for analysis of decidability and computational complexity of problems, including the core concept of NP-completeness. Reduction is a highly abstract…

  14. mTOR Hyperactivation by Ablation of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 in the Mouse Heart Induces Cardiac Dysfunction with the Increased Number of Small Mitochondria Mediated through the Down-Regulation of Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Taneike, Manabu; Nishida, Kazuhiko; Omiya, Shigemiki; Zarrinpashneh, Elham; Misaka, Tomofumi; Kitazume-Taneike, Rika; Austin, Ruth; Takaoka, Minoru; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Gambello, Michael J; Shah, Ajay M; Otsu, Kinya

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a key regulator of cell growth, proliferation and metabolism. mTORC1 regulates protein synthesis positively and autophagy negatively. Autophagy is a major system to manage bulk degradation and recycling of cytoplasmic components and organelles. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) 1 and 2 form a heterodimeric complex and inactivate Ras homolog enriched in brain, resulting in inhibition of mTORC1. Here, we investigated the effects of hyperactivation of mTORC1 on cardiac function and structure using cardiac-specific TSC2-deficient (TSC2-/-) mice. TSC2-/- mice were born normally at the expected Mendelian ratio. However, the median life span of TSC2-/- mice was approximately 10 months and significantly shorter than that of control mice. TSC2-/- mice showed cardiac dysfunction and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy without considerable fibrosis, cell infiltration or apoptotic cardiomyocyte death. Ultrastructural analysis of TSC2-/- hearts revealed misalignment, aggregation and a decrease in the size and an increase in the number of mitochondria, but the mitochondrial function was maintained. Autophagic flux was inhibited, while the phosphorylation level of S6 or eukaryotic initiation factor 4E -binding protein 1, downstream of mTORC1, was increased. The upregulation of autophagic flux by trehalose treatment attenuated the cardiac phenotypes such as cardiac dysfunction and structural abnormalities of mitochondria in TSC2-/- hearts. The results suggest that autophagy via the TSC2-mTORC1 signaling pathway plays an important role in maintenance of cardiac function and mitochondrial quantity and size in the heart and could be a therapeutic target to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis in failing hearts.

  15. Addressable Inverter Matrix Tests Integrated-Circuit Wafer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G.

    1988-01-01

    Addressing elements indirectly through shift register reduces number of test probes. With aid of new technique, complex test structure on silicon wafer tested with relatively small number of test probes. Conserves silicon area by reduction of area devoted to pads. Allows thorough evaluation of test structure characteristics and of manufacturing process parameters. Test structure consists of shift register and matrix of inverter/transmission-gate cells connected to two-by-ten array of probe pads. Entire pattern contained in square area having only 1.6-millimeter sides. Shift register is conventional static CMOS device using inverters and transmission gates in master/slave D flip-flop configuration.

  16. Complex issues affecting student pharmacist debt.

    PubMed

    Cain, Jeff; Campbell, Tom; Congdon, Heather Brennan; Hancock, Kim; Kaun, Megan; Lockman, Paul R; Evans, R Lee

    2014-09-15

    It is time for colleges and schools of pharmacy to examine and confront the rising costs of pharmacy education and the increasing student loan debt borne by graduates. These phenomena likely result from a variety of complex factors. The academy should begin addressing these issues before pharmacy education becomes cost-prohibitive for future generations. This paper discusses some of the more salient drivers of cost and student debt load and offers suggestions that may help alleviate some of the financial pressures.

  17. Naming and Address in Afghan Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miran, M. Alam

    Forms of address in Afghan society reflect the relationships between the speakers as well as the society's structure. In Afghan Persian, or Dari, first, second, and last names have different semantic dimensions. Boys' first names usually consist of two parts or morphemes, of which one may be part of the father's name. Girls' names usually consist…

  18. Problem Solvers: Solutions--The Inaugural Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dause, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Fourth graders in Miss Dause's and Mrs. Hicks's mathematics classes at South Mountain Elementary School in Dillsburg, Pennsylvania, worked with the data from the Inauagural Address problem that was previously published published in the February 2013 issue of "Teaching Children Mathematics". This activity allowed students to showcase…

  19. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mailing addresses. 600.2 Section 600.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... (HFM-99), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401...

  20. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mailing addresses. 600.2 Section 600.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... (HFM-99), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401...

  1. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mailing addresses. 600.2 Section 600.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... (HFM-99), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401...

  2. Transition through Teamwork: Professionals Address Student Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bube, Sue Ann; Carrothers, Carol; Johnson, Cinda

    2016-01-01

    Prior to 2013, there was no collaboration around the transition services for deaf and hard of hearing students in Washington State. Washington had numerous agencies providing excellent support, but those agencies were not working together. It was not until January 29, 2013, when pepnet 2 hosted the Building State Capacity to Address Critical…

  3. Addressing Student Debt in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, David; Johnston, Tim; Lytle, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Student debt is a national concern. The authors address debt in the classroom to enhance students' understanding of the consequences of debt and the need for caution when financing their education. However, student feedback indicates this understanding has a delayed effect on borrowing behavior and underscores the importance of making difficult…

  4. Preservice Educators' Confidence in Addressing Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy Jordan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 328 preservice educators' level of confidence in addressing four sexuality education domains and 21 sexuality education topics. Significant differences in confidence levels across the four domains were found for gender, academic major, sexuality education philosophy, and sexuality education knowledge. Preservice educators…

  5. Native Women at Risk: Addressing Cancer Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiemann, Kay M. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses outcomes of a conference that brought together representatives from Indian tribes, state health departments, the Indian Health Service, the Mayo Clinic, and the American Cancer Society, to address the high rate of cervical cancer among American Indian women. Describes barriers to health care and plans to promote cancer screening among…

  6. 50 CFR 18.78 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 18.78 Section 18.78 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Notice and Hearing on Section 103 Regulations § 18.78 Mailing...

  7. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... litigation; (2) The account is assigned to the United States; or (3) The account is written off under §...

  8. Address Systems in "The Plum Plum Pickers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geuder, Patricia A.

    1975-01-01

    The address systems in Raymond Barrio's "The Plum Plum Pickers" imply sociolinguistic differences between the Chicano and the Anglo characters. The kinds of sociolinguistic situations, the number of dyadic patterns, and the quantity of the dyadic patterns strongly suggest the differences. (Author)

  9. Addressing Psychosocial Factors with Library Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Bridget; Alabi, Jaena; Whaley, Pambanisha; Jenda, Claudine

    2017-01-01

    The majority of articles on mentoring in the library and information science field address career development by emphasizing the orientation process for new librarians and building the requisite skills for a specific job. Few articles deal with the psychological and social challenges that many early-career and minority librarians face, which can…

  10. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  11. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores…

  12. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  13. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonso, William R.

    2004-01-01

    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  14. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  15. 40 CFR 98.9 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... submitted to the following address: (a) For U.S. mail. Director, Climate Change Division, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Mail Code: 6207J, Washington, DC 20460. (b) For package deliveries. Director, Climate Change Division, 1310 L St, NW., Washington, DC 20005....

  16. 40 CFR 98.9 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... submitted to the following address: (a) For U.S. mail. Director, Climate Change Division, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Mail Code: 6207J, Washington, DC 20460. (b) For package deliveries. Director, Climate Change Division, 1310 L St, NW., Washington, DC 20005....

  17. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  18. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  19. 78 FR 35149 - Addresses of Regional Offices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Addresses of Regional Offices AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We... offices in our regulations at title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations. We are also making...

  20. EPA Addresses Environmental Justice in Houston

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Oct. 8, 2015) Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced Texas Environmental Justice Advocacy Services (t.e.j.a.s.) was selected as a grant recipient to address environmental justice (EJ) issues in the Manchester area

  1. Federal Offices That Address Women's Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Patricia A.; And Others

    This directory contains a listing of federal offices that address women's issues. Among the departments and agencies included are: the executive branch and the executive agencies departments of agriculture, commerce, defense (Air Force, Army, Coast Guard, Marine Corps, National Guard and Navy), education, health and human services, housing and…

  2. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Copyright Royalty Board, P.O. Box 70977, Southwest Station, Washington, DC 20024-0977. (b) If hand delivered... Building, 101 Independence Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20559-6000. (c) If hand delivered by a commercial...., Washington, DC, Monday through Friday, between 8:30 a.m. and 4 p.m., and be addressed as follows:...

  3. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Copyright Royalty Board, P.O. Box 70977, Southwest Station, Washington, DC 20024-0977. (b) If hand delivered... Building, 101 Independence Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20559-6000. (c) If hand delivered by a commercial...., Washington, DC, Monday through Friday, between 8:30 a.m. and 4 p.m., and be addressed as follows:...

  4. Autocheck: Addressing the Problem of Rural Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Guy A.

    This paper describes a project implemented by a social worker from the Glynn County School District in rural Georgia to address transportation problems experienced by students and their families. The project aims to assist families who are unable to keep appointments or attend other important events due to unreliable transportation. A county needs…

  5. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  6. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  7. Addressing Deaf Culture in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagliaro, Claudia

    2001-01-01

    The importance of recognizing the culture of deaf people is often overlooked when addressing issues of student diversity in the schools. Including the culture of deaf students can add vitality and energy to the educational environment, providing an alternative and unique perspective. This paper describes deafness, explains deaf culture, and…

  8. 50 CFR 228.8 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 228.8 Section 228.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... the Presiding Officer, c/o Assistant Administrator, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315...

  9. Mapping virtual addresses to different physical addresses for value disambiguation for thread memory access requests

    DOEpatents

    Gala, Alan; Ohmacht, Martin

    2014-09-02

    A multiprocessor system includes nodes. Each node includes a data path that includes a core, a TLB, and a first level cache implementing disambiguation. The system also includes at least one second level cache and a main memory. For thread memory access requests, the core uses an address associated with an instruction format of the core. The first level cache uses an address format related to the size of the main memory plus an offset corresponding to hardware thread meta data. The second level cache uses a physical main memory address plus software thread meta data to store the memory access request. The second level cache accesses the main memory using the physical address with neither the offset nor the thread meta data after resolving speculation. In short, this system includes mapping of a virtual address to a different physical addresses for value disambiguation for different threads.

  10. Addressing Emerging Risks: Scientific and Regulatory Challenges Associated with Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Tammy R.; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Cormier, Stephania A.; Dellinger, Barry; Reams, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Airborne fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) are often generated through widely-used thermal processes such as the combustion of fuels or the thermal decomposition of waste. Residents near Superfund sites are exposed to PM through the inhalation of windblown dust, ingestion of soil and sediments, and inhalation of emissions from the on-site thermal treatment of contaminated soils. Epidemiological evidence supports a link between exposure to airborne PM and an increased risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. It is well-known that during combustion processes, incomplete combustion can lead to the production of organic pollutants that can adsorb to the surface of PM. Recent studies have demonstrated that their interaction with metal centers can lead to the generation of a surface stabilized metal-radical complex capable of redox cycling to produce ROS. Moreover, these free radicals can persist in the environment, hence their designation as Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFR). EPFR has been demonstrated in both ambient air PM2.5 (diameter < 2.5 µm) and in PM from a variety of combustion sources. Thus, low-temperature, thermal treatment of soils can potentially increase the concentration of EPFR in areas in and around Superfund sites. In this review, we will outline the evidence to date supporting EPFR formation and its environmental significance. Furthermore, we will address the lack of methodologies for specifically addressing its risk assessment and challenges associated with regulating this new, emerging contaminant. PMID:27338429

  11. Addressing Emerging Risks: Scientific and Regulatory Challenges Associated with Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Tammy R; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Cormier, Stephania A; Dellinger, Barry; Reams, Margaret

    2016-06-08

    Airborne fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) are often generated through widely-used thermal processes such as the combustion of fuels or the thermal decomposition of waste. Residents near Superfund sites are exposed to PM through the inhalation of windblown dust, ingestion of soil and sediments, and inhalation of emissions from the on-site thermal treatment of contaminated soils. Epidemiological evidence supports a link between exposure to airborne PM and an increased risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. It is well-known that during combustion processes, incomplete combustion can lead to the production of organic pollutants that can adsorb to the surface of PM. Recent studies have demonstrated that their interaction with metal centers can lead to the generation of a surface stabilized metal-radical complex capable of redox cycling to produce ROS. Moreover, these free radicals can persist in the environment, hence their designation as Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFR). EPFR has been demonstrated in both ambient air PM2.5 (diameter < 2.5 µm) and in PM from a variety of combustion sources. Thus, low-temperature, thermal treatment of soils can potentially increase the concentration of EPFR in areas in and around Superfund sites. In this review, we will outline the evidence to date supporting EPFR formation and its environmental significance. Furthermore, we will address the lack of methodologies for specifically addressing its risk assessment and challenges associated with regulating this new, emerging contaminant.

  12. Address block localization based on graph theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaceb, Djamel; Eglin, Véronique; Lebourgeois, Frank; Emptoz, Hubert

    2008-01-01

    An efficient mail sorting system is mainly based on an accurate optical recognition of the addresses on the envelopes. However, the localizing of the address block (ABL) should be done before the OCR recognition process. The location step is very crucial as it has a great impact on the global performance of the system. Currently, a good localizing step leads to a better recognition rate. The limit of current methods is mainly caused by modular linear architectures used for ABL: their performances greatly depend on each independent module performance. We are presenting in this paper a new approach for ABL based on a pyramidal data organization and on a hierarchical graph coloring for classification process. This new approach presents the advantage to guarantee a good coherence between different modules and reduces both the computation time and the rejection rate. The proposed method gives a very satisfying rate of 98% of good locations on a set of 750 envelope images.

  13. Optically addressed asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsson, A.; Maserjian, J.

    1991-01-01

    A low power, high contrast optically addressed modulator, operating with normal incidence, has been fabricated. Optically controlled reflection modulation is achieved through optically induced absorption modulation in a periodically delta-doped InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well structure inserted in an integrated asymmetric Fabry-Perot resonator. A contrast ratio over 60:1 was measured using a spectrally matched low power InGaAs/GaAs quantum well laser to generate the write (control) signal. The insertion loss for the normally off modulator is 4.6 dB at the highest write signal power (30 mW) used. The device lends itself to the fabrication of arrays for optically addressed spatial light modulation.

  14. Addressing Medical Errors in Hand Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Shepard P.; Adkinson, Joshua M.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Influential think-tank such as the Institute of Medicine has raised awareness about the implications of medical errors. In response, organizations, medical societies, and institutions have initiated programs to decrease the incidence and effects of these errors. Surgeons deal with the direct implications of adverse events involving patients. In addition to managing the physical consequences, they are confronted with ethical and social issues when caring for a harmed patient. Although there is considerable effort to implement system-wide changes, there is little guidance for hand surgeons on how to address medical errors. Admitting an error is difficult, but a transparent environment where patients are notified of errors and offered consolation and compensation is essential to maintain trust. Further, equipping hand surgeons with a guide for addressing medical errors will promote compassionate patient interaction, help identify system failures, provide learning points for safety improvement, and demonstrate a commitment to ethically responsible medical care. PMID:25154576

  15. Matrix-addressable electrochromic display cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beni, G.; Schiavone, L. M.

    1981-04-01

    We report an electrochromic display cell with intrinsic matrix addressability. The cell, based on a sputtered iridium oxide film (SIROF) and a tantalum-oxide hysteretic counterelectrode, has electrochromic parameters (i.e., response times, operating voltages, and contrast) similar to those of other SIROF display devices, but in addition, has short-circuit memory and voltage threshold. Memory and threshold are sufficiently large to allow, in principle, multiplexing of electrochromic display panels of large-screen TV pixel size.

  16. Addressing the United States Debt and Deficit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    effectively with the American debt and deficit, by first describing the background of our current government approach to the economy , then examining the...to address the problem of deficit financing and the associated debt in a positive manner and thereby strengthen the economy of the United States...current government approach to the economy , then examining the current projections for United States’ spending from 2009 through 2019 and examining what

  17. Global-Address Space Networking (GASNet) Library

    SciTech Connect

    Welcome, Michael L.; Bell, Christian S.

    2011-04-06

    GASNet (Global-Address Space Networking) is a language-independent, low-level networking layer that provides network-independent, high-performance communication primitives tailored for implementing parallel global address space SPMD languages such as UPC and Titanium. The interface is primarily intended as a compilation target and for use by runtime library writers (as opposed to end users), and the primary goals are high performance, interface portability, and expressiveness. GASNet is designed specifically to support high-performance, portable implementations of global address space languages on modern high-end communication networks. The interface provides the flexibility and extensibility required to express a wide variety of communication patterns without sacrificing performance by imposing large computational overheads in the interface. The design of the GASNet interface is partitioned into two layers to maximize porting ease without sacrificing performance: the lower level is a narrow but very general interface called the GASNet core API - the design is basedheavily on Active Messages, and is implemented directly on top of each individual network architecture. The upper level is a wider and more expressive interface called GASNet extended API, which provides high-level operations such as remote memory access and various collective operations. This release implements GASNet over MPI, the Quadrics "elan" API, the Myrinet "GM" API and the "LAPI" interface to the IBM SP switch. A template is provided for adding support for additional network interfaces.

  18. Matching Alternative Addresses: a Semantic Web Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariannamazi, S.; Karimipour, F.; Hakimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI) provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature's literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  19. Specific increases in urinary excretion of anti-DNA antibodies in lupus mice induced by lysozyme administration: further evidence for DNA-anti-DNA immune complexes in the pathogenesis of nephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, T; Nagase, M; Hishida, A; Honda, N

    1993-01-01

    We previously reported that lysozyme electrostatically inhibits the fibronectin-mediated DNA binding to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and reduces in situ DNA-anti-DNA complex formation in the GBM in NZB/W F1 mice [1]. In this study, we further noticed significant increases in urinary excretion of anti-DNA antibodies and immune complexes (IC) in lysozyme-treated NZB/W F1 mice. Their clearance ratios of IgG anti-DNA antibody to whole IgG were markedly high compared with those of saline-treated animals. A large number of IgG and C3 positive granules were observed in the tubular cells of NZB/W F1 mice treated with lysozyme. On the contrary, nil or only small amounts of anti-DNA antibodies were detected in the urine of NZB/W F1 mice without lysozyme administration despite a large amount of proteinuria, suggesting entrapment of the antibodies in lupus glomeruli. Lysozyme neither inhibited the binding of anti-DNA antibodies to DNA or heparan sulphate nor did it displace anti-DNA antibodies and IC from the kidney homogenates of lupus mice. It thus appears that the inhibition of DNA binding to the GBM due to lysozyme reduced the entrapment of anti-DNA antibodies in the GBM, resulting in urinary excretion of the antibodies. PMID:8419071

  20. Interaction of octahedral ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex [Ru(bpy)2(PIP)](2+) with poly(U)·poly(A)*poly(U) triplex: Increasing third-strand stabilization of the triplex without affecting the stability of the duplex.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiyuan; Peng, Mengna; Zhang, Jingwen; Tan, Lifeng

    2017-04-01

    Triple-helical RNA are of interest because of possible biological roles as well as the potential therapeutic uses of these structures, while the stability of triplexes is usually weaker than that of the Watson-Crick base pairing duplex strand due to the electrostatic repulsion between three polyanionic strands. Therefore, how to increase the stability of the specific sequences of triplexes are of importance. In this paper the binding of a Ru(II) complex, [Ru(bpy)2(PIP)](2+) (bpy=2.2'-bipyridine, PIP=2-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-f]- [1,10]-phenanthroline), with poly(U)·poly(A)*poly(U) triplex has been investigated by spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry, viscosimetry and circular dichroism. The results suggest that [Ru(bpy)2(PIP)](2+) as a metallointercalator can stabilize poly(U)·poly(A)*poly(U) triplex (where · denotes the Watson-Crick base pairing and * denotes the Hoogsteen base pairing),while it stabilizes third-strand with no obvious effect on the duplex of poly(U)·poly(A), reflecting the binding of this complex with the triplex is favored by the Hoogsteen paired poly(U) third strand to a great extent.

  1. Exposure to high- and low-light conditions in an open-field test of anxiety increases c-Fos expression in specific subdivisions of the rat basolateral amygdaloid complex.

    PubMed

    Hale, Matthew W; Bouwknecht, J Adriaan; Spiga, Francesca; Shekhar, Anantha; Lowry, Christopher A

    2006-12-11

    Anxiety states and anxiety-related behaviors appear to be regulated by a distributed and highly interconnected system of forebrain structures including the basolateral amygdaloid complex (basolateral amygdala). Despite a wealth of research examining the role of the basolateral amygdala in anxiety-related behaviors and anxiety states, the specific subdivisions of the basolateral amygdala that are involved in responses to anxiogenic stimuli have not been examined. In this study, we investigated the effects of exposure to a novel open-field environment, with either low- or high-levels of illumination, on expression of the protein product of the immediate-early gene c-Fos in subdivisions of the rat basolateral amygdala. The subdivisions studied included the lateral, ventrolateral and ventromedial parts of the lateral amygdaloid nucleus, the anterior, posterior and ventral parts of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus and the anterior and posterior part of the basomedial amygdaloid nucleus. Small increases in the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive cells were observed in several, but not all, of the subdivisions of the basolateral amygdala studied following exposure of rats to either the high- or low-light conditions, compared to home cage or handled control groups. Open-field exposure in both the high- and low-light conditions resulted in a marked increase in c-Fos expression in the anterior part of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus compared to either home cage or handled control groups. These findings point toward anatomical and functional heterogeneity within the basolateral amygdaloid complex and an important role of the anterior part of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus in the neural mechanisms underlying physiological or behavioral responses to this anxiety-related stimulus.

  2. The High Efficiency of Photosystem I in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Is Maintained after the Antenna Size Is Substantially Increased by the Association of Light-harvesting Complexes II*

    PubMed Central

    Le Quiniou, Clotilde; van Oort, Bart; Drop, Bartlomiej; van Stokkum, Ivo H. M.; Croce, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Photosystems (PS) I and II activities depend on their light-harvesting capacity and trapping efficiency, which vary in different environmental conditions. For optimal functioning, these activities need to be balanced. This is achieved by redistribution of excitation energy between the two photosystems via the association and disassociation of light-harvesting complexes (LHC) II, in a process known as state transitions. Here we study the effect of LHCII binding to PSI on its absorption properties and trapping efficiency by comparing time-resolved fluorescence kinetics of PSI-LHCI and PSI-LHCI-LHCII complexes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. PSI-LHCI-LHCII of C. reinhardtii is the largest PSI supercomplex isolated so far and contains seven Lhcbs, in addition to the PSI core and the nine Lhcas that compose PSI-LHCI, together binding ∼320 chlorophylls. The average decay time for PSI-LHCI-LHCII is ∼65 ps upon 400 nm excitation (15 ps slower than PSI-LHCI) and ∼78 ps upon 475 nm excitation (27 ps slower). The transfer of excitation energy from LHCII to PSI-LHCI occurs in ∼60 ps. This relatively slow transfer, as compared with that from LHCI to the PSI core, suggests loose connectivity between LHCII and PSI-LHCI. Despite the relatively slow transfer, the overall decay time of PSI-LHCI-LHCII remains fast enough to assure a 96% trapping efficiency, which is only 1.4% lower than that of PSI-LHCI, concomitant with an increase of the absorption cross section of 47%. This indicates that, at variance with PSII, the design of PSI allows for a large increase of its light-harvesting capacities. PMID:26504081

  3. The High Efficiency of Photosystem I in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Is Maintained after the Antenna Size Is Substantially Increased by the Association of Light-harvesting Complexes II.

    PubMed

    Le Quiniou, Clotilde; van Oort, Bart; Drop, Bartlomiej; van Stokkum, Ivo H M; Croce, Roberta

    2015-12-18

    Photosystems (PS) I and II activities depend on their light-harvesting capacity and trapping efficiency, which vary in different environmental conditions. For optimal functioning, these activities need to be balanced. This is achieved by redistribution of excitation energy between the two photosystems via the association and disassociation of light-harvesting complexes (LHC) II, in a process known as state transitions. Here we study the effect of LHCII binding to PSI on its absorption properties and trapping efficiency by comparing time-resolved fluorescence kinetics of PSI-LHCI and PSI-LHCI-LHCII complexes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. PSI-LHCI-LHCII of C. reinhardtii is the largest PSI supercomplex isolated so far and contains seven Lhcbs, in addition to the PSI core and the nine Lhcas that compose PSI-LHCI, together binding ∼ 320 chlorophylls. The average decay time for PSI-LHCI-LHCII is ∼ 65 ps upon 400 nm excitation (15 ps slower than PSI-LHCI) and ∼ 78 ps upon 475 nm excitation (27 ps slower). The transfer of excitation energy from LHCII to PSI-LHCI occurs in ∼ 60 ps. This relatively slow transfer, as compared with that from LHCI to the PSI core, suggests loose connectivity between LHCII and PSI-LHCI. Despite the relatively slow transfer, the overall decay time of PSI-LHCI-LHCII remains fast enough to assure a 96% trapping efficiency, which is only 1.4% lower than that of PSI-LHCI, concomitant with an increase of the absorption cross section of 47%. This indicates that, at variance with PSII, the design of PSI allows for a large increase of its light-harvesting capacities.

  4. Participatory action research in practice: a case study in addressing domestic violence in nine cultural communities.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Marianne; Bhuyan, Rupaleem; Senturia, Kirsten; Shiu-Thornton, Sharyne; Ciske, Sandy

    2005-08-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) is increasingly recognized as a viable approach to developing relationships with communities and working closely with them to address complex public health problems. In the case of domestic violence research, where ensuring the safety of women participants who are battered is paramount, participatory approaches to research that include advocates and women who are battered in research design, implementation, analysis, and dissemination are critical to successful and mutually beneficial projects. This article presents a case study of a PAR project that conducted formative qualitative research on domestic violence in nine ethnic and sexual minority communities. The article describes the specific ways in which a PAR approach was operationalized and discusses in detail how community participation shaped various stages of the research. Furthermore, specific actions that resulted from the research project are reported.

  5. Addressing Risks to Advance Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Iltis, Ana S.; Misra, Sahana; Dunn, Laura B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Campbell, Amy; Earll, Sarah A.; Glowinski, Anne; Hadley, Whitney B.; Pies, Ronald; DuBois, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk communication and management are essential to the ethical conduct of research, yet addressing risks may be time consuming for investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) may reject study designs that appear too risky. This can discourage needed research, particularly in higher risk protocols or those enrolling potentially vulnerable individuals, such as those with some level of suicidality. Improved mechanisms for addressing research risks may facilitate much needed psychiatric research. This article provides mental health researchers with practical approaches to: 1) identify and define various intrinsic research risks; 2) communicate these risks to others (e.g., potential participants, regulatory bodies, society); 3) manage these risks during the course of a study; and 4) justify the risks. Methods As part of a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded scientific meeting series, a public conference and a closed-session expert panel meeting were held on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. The expert panel reviewed the literature with a focus on empirical studies and developed recommendations for best practices and further research on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. IRB review was not required because there were no human subjects. The NIMH played no role in developing or reviewing the manuscript. Results Challenges, current data, practical strategies, and topics for future research are addressed for each of four key areas pertaining to management and disclosure of risks in clinical trials: identifying and defining risks, communicating risks, managing risks during studies, and justifying research risks. Conclusions Empirical data on risk communication, managing risks, and the benefits of research can support the ethical conduct of mental health research and may help investigators better conceptualize and confront risks and to gain IRB approval. PMID:24173618

  6. Building technology services that address student needs.

    PubMed

    Le Ber, Jeanne M; Lombardo, Nancy T; Wimmer, Erin

    2015-01-01

    A 16-question technology use survey was conducted to assess incoming health sciences students' knowledge of and interest in current technologies, and to identify student device and tool preferences. Survey questions were developed by colleagues at a peer institution and then edited to match this library's student population. Two years of student responses have been compiled, compared, and reviewed as a means for informing library decisions related to technology and resource purchases. Instruction and event programming have been revised to meet student preferences. Based on the number of students using Apple products, librarians are addressing the need to become more proficient with this platform.

  7. Optical addressing technique for a CMOS RAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, W. H.; Bergman, L. A.; Allen, R. A.; Johnston, A. R.

    1988-01-01

    Progress on optically addressing a CMOS RAM for a feasibility demonstration of free space optical interconnection is reported in this paper. The optical RAM chip has been fabricated and functional testing is in progress. Initial results seem promising. New design and SPICE simulation of optical gate cell (OGC) circuits have been carried out to correct the slow fall time of the 'weak pull down' OGC, which has been characterized experimentally. Methods of reducing the response times of the photodiodes and the associated circuits are discussed. Even with the current photodiode, it appears that an OGC can be designed with a performance that is compatible with a CMOS circuit such as the RAM.

  8. Addressing the water budget with SMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Y. H.; AlBitar, A.; Tomer, S. K.; Merlin, O.; Pellarin, T.

    2012-12-01

    SMOS, a L Band radiometer using aperture synthesis to achieve a good spatial resolution, was successfully launched on November 2, 2009. It was developed and made under the leadership of the European Space Agency (ESA) as an Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. It is a joint program with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France and the Centro para el Desarrollo Teccnologico Industrial (CDTI) in Spain. SMOS carries a single payload, an L band 2D interferometric,radiometer in the 1400-1427 MHz h protected band. This wavelength penetrates well through the vegetation and the atmosphere is almost transparent enabling to infer both soil moisture and vegetation water content. SMOS achieves an unprecedented spatial resolution of 50 km at L-band maximum (43 km on average) with multi angular-dual polarized (or fully polarized) brightness temperatures over the globe and with a revisit time smaller than 3 days. SMOS as been now acquiring data for almost 2 years. The data quality exceeds what was expected, showing very good sensitivity and stability. The data is however very much impaired by man made emission in the protected band, leading to degraded measurements in several areas including parts of Europe and of China. However, many different international teams are now addressing cal val activities in various parts of the world, with notably large field campaigns either on the long time scale or over specific targets to address the specific issues. In parallel different teams are now starting addressing data use in various fields including hydrology. It requires coupling with other models and or disaggregation to address soil moisture distribution over watersheds. Significant new results were obtained for floods and drought events, together with new potential applications in terms of precipitation monitoring This paper thus gives an overview of the science goals of the SMOS mission, a description of its main elements, and a taste of the first results including

  9. Addressing the underperformance of faculty and staff.

    PubMed

    Kenner, Carole; Pressler, Jana L

    2006-01-01

    Many new nursing leaders assuming work as deans, assistant deans, or interim deans have limited education, experience, or background to prepare them for the job. To assist new deans and those aspiring to be deans, the authors of this department, both deans, offer survival tips based on their personal experiences and insights. They address common issues, challenges, and opportunities that face academic executive teams, such as negotiating an executive contract, obtaining faculty lines, building effective work teams, managing difficult employees, and creating nimble organizational structure to respond to changing consumer, healthcare delivery, and community needs. The authors welcome counterpoint discussions with readers.

  10. A Task Force to Address Bullying.

    PubMed

    Keller, Ronald; Budin, Wendy C; Allie, Tammy

    2016-02-01

    Bullying in the workplace can create a dysfunctional environment that is associated with serious physical and psychological harm to the person being bullied. Nurses' experience with bullying has gained considerable attention in recent years, and warrants further discussion. Nurse leaders need to develop and implement effective bullying prevention initiatives that will foster the functioning of a professional and productive staff in a healthy work environment. The aim of this article is to review workplace bullying as experienced by nurses, and describe how nurses at a Magnet-designated academic medical center developed and implemented a bullying task force to address the problem.

  11. Appetite - increased

    MedlinePlus

    ... Have you noticed any other symptoms such as anxiety, palpitations , increased thirst , vomiting , frequent urination , or unintentional weight gain? Tests that may be done include: Blood tests, ...

  12. Accelerating adaptation of natural resource management to address climate change.

    PubMed

    Cross, Molly S; McCarthy, Patrick D; Garfin, Gregg; Gori, David; Enquist, Carolyn A F

    2013-02-01

    Natural resource managers are seeking tools to help them address current and future effects of climate change. We present a model for collaborative planning aimed at identifying ways to adapt management actions to address the effects of climate change in landscapes that cross public and private jurisdictional boundaries. The Southwest Climate Change Initiative (SWCCI) piloted the Adaptation for Conservation Targets (ACT) planning approach at workshops in 4 southwestern U.S. landscapes. This planning approach successfully increased participants' self-reported capacity to address climate change by providing them with a better understanding of potential effects and guiding the identification of solutions. The workshops fostered cross-jurisdictional and multidisciplinary dialogue on climate change through active participation of scientists and managers in assessing climate change effects, discussing the implications of those effects for determining management goals and activities, and cultivating opportunities for regional coordination on adaptation of management plans. Facilitated application of the ACT framework advanced group discussions beyond assessing effects to devising options to mitigate the effects of climate change on specific species, ecological functions, and ecosystems. Participants addressed uncertainty about future conditions by considering more than one climate-change scenario. They outlined opportunities and identified next steps for implementing several actions, and local partnerships have begun implementing actions and conducting additional planning. Continued investment in adaptation of management plans and actions to address the effects of climate change in the southwestern United States and extension of the approaches used in this project to additional landscapes are needed if biological diversity and ecosystem services are to be maintained in a rapidly changing world.

  13. Multi-port, optically addressed RAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R. (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Bergman, Larry A. (Inventor); Esener, Sadik (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A random access memory addressing system utilizing optical links between memory and the read/write logic circuits comprises addressing circuits including a plurality of light signal sources, a plurality of optical gates including optical detectors associated with the memory cells, and a holographic optical element adapted to reflect and direct the light signals to the desired memory cell locations. More particularly, it is a multi-port, binary computer memory for interfacing with a plurality of computers. There are a plurality of storage cells for containing bits of binary information, the storage cells being disposed at the intersections of a plurality of row conductors and a plurality of column conductors. There is interfacing logic for receiving information from the computers directing access to ones of the storage cells. There are first light sources associated with the interfacing logic for transmitting a first light beam with the access information modulated thereon. First light detectors are associated with the storage cells for receiving the first light beam, for generating an electrical signal containing the access information, and for conducting the electrical signal to the one of the storage cells to which it is directed. There are holographic optical elements for reflecting the first light beam from the first light sources to the first light detectors.

  14. Addressing Science Use Cases with HELIO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, R. D.; Aboudarham, J.; Csillaghy, A.; Jacquey, C.; Hapgood, M. A.; Messerotti, M.; Gallagher, P.; Bocchialini, K.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Roberts, D.; Sanchez Duarte, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Heliophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) is a new VO project funded under the EC's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). It includes thirteen partners scattered over six countries and is led by University College London. HELIO is designed to support the heliophysics community and is based on a Service Oriented Architecture. The services developed by and integrated into HELIO can be used to address a wide range of science problems; they can be used individually or as part of a work-flow driven search engine that can use a propagation (or other) model to help locate obervations that describe interesting phenomena. We will describe and discuss how the components of HELIO could be used to address science use cases, particularly how a user can adapt the work flow to their own science interests. Networking is one of the three Activities of the HELIO Integrated Infrastructure Initiatives (I3) project. Within this activity we plan to involve the community in all aspects of the design and testing of the HELIO system, including determining which data and metadata should be included, how the quality and content of metadata can be included, etc. We are investigating ways of making HELIO "domain-aware" so that researchers who are specialists in one of the communities that constitute heliophysics can easily identify, access and use data they need from the other communities. We will discuss how the community can help us develop this capability.

  15. Increasing the impact of health plan report cards by addressing consumers' concerns.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, J H; Harris-Kojetin, L; Mullin, P; Lubalin, J; Garfinkel, S

    2000-01-01

    Most plan report cards that compare the performance of health plans have framed the decision about plan choice as an opportunity to get better-quality care. This study uses a controlled experimental design to examine the effect of reframing the health plan choice decision to one that emphasizes protecting oneself from possible risk. The findings show that framing the health plan decision using a risk message has a consistent and significant positive impact on how consumers comprehend, value, and weight comparative performance information.

  16. Addressing The Achievement Gap Between Minority And Nonminority Children By Increasing Access To Gifted Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Lee, Seon-Young; Ngoi, Mephie; Ngoi,Daphne

    2004-01-01

    Project EXCITE is a collaborative program of a university-based gifted center and local school districts designed to prepare gifted minority elementary and middle school students for advanced tracks in math and science in high school. This paper describes the characteristics and components of the EXCITE program and gives data regarding the…

  17. Addressing the Achievement Gap between Minority and Nonminority Children: Increasing Access and Achievement through Project EXCITE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Project EXCITE was developed and implemented specifically to raise the achievement of gifted minority students in a large suburban school district of Chicago so that they could qualify for advanced programs and accelerated tracks in high school in mathematics and science. This paper describes the goals, components, eligibility, and selection…

  18. Carriers of the Complex Allele HFE c.[187C>G;340+4T>C] Have Increased Risk of Iron Overload in São Miguel Island Population (Azores, Portugal)

    PubMed Central

    Bulhões, Sara; Brilhante, Maria José; Pereirinha, Tânia; Cabral, Rita; Rego, Ana Catarina; Fraga, Cristina; Miguel, António G.; Brasil, Gracinda; Macedo, Paula; Mota-Vieira, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Iron overload is associated with acquired and genetic conditions, the most common being hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) type-I, caused by HFE mutations. Here, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study of 41 patients from the São Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal), six belonging to a family with HH type-I pseudodominant inheritance, and 35 unrelated individuals fulfilling the biochemical criteria of iron overload compatible with HH type-I. For this purpose, we analyzed the most common HFE mutations– c.845G>A [p.Cys282Tyr], c.187C>G [p.His63Asp], and c.193A>T [p.Ser65Cys]. Results revealed that the family’s HH pseudodominant pattern is due to consanguineous marriage of HFE-c.845G>A carriers, and to marriage with a genetically unrelated spouse that is a -c.187G carrier. Regarding unrelated patients, six were homozygous for c.845A, and three were c.845A/c.187G compound heterozygous. We then performed sequencing of HFE exons 2, 4, 5 and their intron-flanking regions. No other mutations were observed, but we identified the -c.340+4C [IVS2+4C] splice variant in 26 (74.3%) patients. Functionally, the c.340+4C may generate alternative splicing by HFE exon 2 skipping and consequently, a protein missing the α1-domain essential for HFE/ transferrin receptor-1 interactions. Finally, we investigated HFE mutations configuration with iron overload by determining haplotypes and genotypic profiles. Results evidenced that carriers of HFE-c.187G allele also carry -c.340+4C, suggesting in-cis configuration. This data is corroborated by the association analysis where carriers of the complex allele HFE-c.[187C>G;340+4T>C] have an increased iron overload risk (RR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.40−2.94, p<0.001). Therefore, homozygous for this complex allele are at risk of having iron overload because they will produce two altered proteins—the p.63Asp [c.187G], and the protein lacking 88 amino acids encoded by exon 2. In summary, we provide evidence that the complex allele HFE-c.[187C

  19. Project NO REST: Addressing Human Trafficking in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Dean F

    Project NO REST (North Carolina Organizing and Responding to the Exploitation and Sexual Trafficking of Children) is a 5-year effort funded by the US Children's Bureau to address the trafficking of individuals age 25 years and younger in North Carolina. The project aims to increase awareness of human trafficking affecting children and youth, especially those in the child welfare system; to reduce the number of these youth who are trafficked; and to improve outcomes for those who are trafficked. In the project's first year, nearly 100 stakeholders statewide developed a comprehensive plan to address trafficking. Later, 5 communities were recruited to implement the plan at the local level. Their experiences will be used to develop a toolkit for future anti-trafficking efforts.

  20. A strategy to address the nursing faculty shortage.

    PubMed

    Ganley, Barbara J; Sheets, Ingrid

    2009-07-01

    This article describes one university's experience in creating a master's geriatric clinical nurse specialist-nurse educator program to address the nursing faculty shortage and the need for geriatric clinical nurse specialists. The successes and challenges are outlined, and curricular ideas that may be beneficial to other nursing programs also are presented. This program has enhanced the university's pool of clinical instructors, increased its ability to provide services to older adults, and allowed faculty to instruct and focus undergraduates in the distinctions of geriatric nursing care. The biggest challenges faced were marketing and recruitment of nurses; these challenges were addressed, and possible solutions are offered. The most immediate benefit of this program was the generation of geriatric clinical nurse specialists.