Science.gov

Sample records for address key questions

  1. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  2. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

    2003-10-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has both “outcome” and “process” goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. A classic decision-making approach to such a multi-attribute problem would be to weight individual quantified criteria and calculate an overall figure of merit. This is inappropriate for several reasons. First, the goals are not independent. Second, the importance of different goals varies among stakeholders. Third, the importance of different goals is likely to vary with time, especially the “energy future.” Fourth, some key considerations are not easily or meaningfully quantifiable at present. Instead, at this point, we have developed 16 questions the AFCI program should answer and suggest an approach of determining for each whether relevant options improve meeting each of the program goals. We find that it is not always clear which option is best for a specific question and specific goal; this helps identify key issues for future work. In general, we suggest attempting to create as many win-win decisions (options that are attractive or neutral to most goals) as possible. Thus, to help clarify why the program is exploring the options it is, and to set the stage for future narrowing of options, we have developed 16 questions, as follows: · What are the AFCI program goals? · Which potential waste disposition approaches do we plan for? · What are the major separations, transmutation, and fuel options? · How do we address proliferation resistance? · Which potential energy futures do we plan for? · What potential external triggers do we

  3. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-10-03

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties.

  4. Introduction strategies raise key questions.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R; Keller, S

    1995-09-01

    Key issues that must be considered before a new contraceptive is introduced center on the need for a trained provider to begin or terminate the method, its side effects, duration of use, method's ability to meet users' needs and preferences, and extra training or staff requirements. Logistics and economic issues to consider are identifying a dependable way of effectively supplying commodities, planning extra services needed for the method, and cost of providing the method. Each contraceptive method presents a different side effect pattern and burdens the service delivery setting differently. The strategy developed to introduce or expand the 3-month injectable Depo-Provera (DMPA) can be used for any method. It includes a needs assessment and addresses regulatory issues, service delivery policies and procedures, information and training, evaluation, and other concerns. Viet Nam's needs assessment showed that Norplant should not be introduced until the service delivery system becomes stronger. Any needs assessment for expansion of contraceptive services should cover sexually transmitted disease/HIV issues. A World Health Organization strategy helps officials identify the best method mix for local situations. Introductory strategies must aim to improve the quality of family planning programs and expand choices. Many begin by examining existing data and conducting interviews with policymakers, users, providers, and women's health advocates. Introductory programs for Norplant focus on provider training, adequate counseling and informed consent for users, and ready access to removal. They need a well-prepared service delivery infrastructure. The first phase of the DMPA introductory strategy for the Philippines comprised a social marketing campaign and DMPA introduction at public clinics in 10 pilot areas with strong service delivery. Successful AIDS prevention programs show that people tend to use barrier methods when they are available. USAID is currently studying

  5. Addressing Parental Vaccination Questions in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luthy, Karlen E.; Burningham, Jana; Eden, Lacey M.; Macintosh, Janelle L. B.; Beckstrand, Renea L.

    2016-01-01

    School nurses work in a unique environment with key opportunities to address parental concerns and questions regarding their child's health. A common concern for parents during school enrollment is childhood vaccination safety and efficacy. As public health leaders, school nurses are well respected among parents, therefore school nurses are in a…

  6. Business Education: Addressing the "What" Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almoharby, Darwish

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to diversify the economy and stimulate private enterprise development, government agencies and private institutions in many countries have emphasized the importance of setting up and developing small and medium-size enterprises and promoting entrepreneurship. An important question confronting policy makers, however, is how they can…

  7. Key questions for conducting role delineation research.

    PubMed

    Taub, Alyson; Gilmore, Gary D; Olsen, Larry K; Connell, Dave

    2011-06-01

    Role delineation research for the verification of professional competencies is essential in many professions to promote quality assurance and support capacity building and workforce development. In this article, guidance is provided about key aspects of role delineation research. The information contained in this article focuses on 13 key questions within three selected research phases when attempting to identify and verify the roles that are inherent within any given profession. The major sections in the paper include planning the research, collecting and analyzing the data, interpreting findings, and considering the future. Recommendations and examples related to each of the important questions are provided to assist others undertaking role delineation research.

  8. Basic Physics Questions Addressed by Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Dark matter, dark energy, the Big Bang, testing relativity -- all are physics questions accessible to astrophysicists -- but all require new equipment. As Harwit's "Cosmic Discovery" pointed out, almost all great surprises in astronomy came from new equipment or new uses of equipment designed for other purposes, and many of those had military applications. I will outline prospects for new equipment and discuss how that equipment can be developed and built. Bigger and lighter mirrors, wavefront sensing and control, new detector technology, cryogenics -- each has its own social network, its own special possibilities, and its own funding sources outside science. I will discuss some examples drawn from real-life experience with the James Webb Space Telescope, a telescope that was said to have a "giggle factor" when it was proposed in 1995. Now each of the 10 major technologies has been brought to maturity, flight hardware is being built, and launch is planned for 2014. As an instrument builder all my life, I will speculate a little on what may be within our reach over the next few decades.

  9. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology.

    PubMed

    Hays, Graeme C; Ferreira, Luciana C; Sequeira, Ana M M; Meekan, Mark G; Duarte, Carlos M; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W Don; Caley, M Julian; Costa, Daniel P; Eguíluz, Victor M; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L; Heithaus, Michael R; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L; Lowe, Christopher G; Madsen, Peter T; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; Sims, David W; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N; Thums, Michele

    2016-06-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology.

  10. Key questions to consider in stalking cases.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Lorraine; Roberts, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Stalkers can inflict severe injury upon and have been known to kill their victims. Based on the detailed responses of 1,565 stalking victims, a set of key questions was produced with the aim of increasing the opportunities of police officers to identify potentially dangerous stalkers. Despite marked methodological differences and the inclusion of a large number of variables, regression analyses for significant correlates for physical assault per se and for severe violence largely reflected the results of earlier works. For severe violence (n=136), the most important correlate was a high level of victim fear, suggesting that victims are adept at assessing their own risk of stalker violence. The set of 11 questions performed well on preliminary tests and is presented here.

  11. Addressing Questions on Life in Terrestrial Geothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedlund, Brian P.; Li, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Chuanlun

    2013-09-01

    A binational research team met on the campus of Yunnan University in Kunming, China, to discuss recent progress and future plans to leverage binational support to address major questions on life in terrestrial geothermal systems. The symposium included about 90 faculty, postdocs, and students from China and about 30 faculty, postdocs, students, and high school teachers from the United States. The introductory session reviewed the progress of the Tengchong PIRE project funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) Partnerships for International Research and Education (PIRE) program (OISE-0836450). It also introduced a new collaborative project funded as a Key Project of International Cooperation by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST, 2013DFA31980), which is the first project funded through a memorandum of understanding between NSF and MOST to promote China-U.S. collaboration.

  12. Secondary Data Analysis: An Important Tool for Addressing Developmental Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Dowsett, Chantelle J.

    2012-01-01

    Existing data sets can be an efficient, powerful, and readily available resource for addressing questions about developmental science. Many of the available databases contain hundreds of variables of interest to developmental psychologists, track participants longitudinally, and have representative samples. In this article, the authors discuss the…

  13. Optimizing available network resources to address questions in environmental biogeochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinckley, Eve-Lyn; Suzanne Andersen,; Baron, Jill S.; Peter Blanken,; Gordon Bonan,; William Bowman,; Sarah Elmendorf,; Fierer, Noah; Andrew Fox,; Keli Goodman,; Katherine Jones,; Danica Lombardozzi,; Claire Lunch,; Jason Neff,; Michael SanClements,; Katherine Suding,; Will Wieder,

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of network observatories have been established globally to collect long-term biogeochemical data at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although many outstanding questions in biogeochemistry would benefit from network science, the ability of the earth- and environmental-sciences community to conduct synthesis studies within and across networks is limited and seldom done satisfactorily. We identify the ideal characteristics of networks, common problems with using data, and key improvements to strengthen intra- and internetwork compatibility. We suggest that targeted improvements to existing networks should include promoting standardization in data collection, developing incentives to promote rapid data release to the public, and increasing the ability of investigators to conduct their own studies across sites. Internetwork efforts should include identifying a standard measurement suite—we propose profiles of plant canopy and soil properties—and an online, searchable data portal that connects network, investigator-led, and citizen-science projects.

  14. A Nominal Balloon Instrument Payload to Address Questions from the Planetary Decadal Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eliot; Kremic, Tibor; Dankanich, John

    The Planetary Science Decadal Survey (entitled "Visions and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013 - 2022", available online at https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/2013decadal/) serves as a roadmap for activities to be pursued by the Planetary Science Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. This document outlines roughly 200 key research areas and questions in chapters covering different parts of the solar system (e.g., Mars, Small Bodies, etc.). We have reviewed the Decadal Survey to assess whether any of the key questions can be addressed by high altitude balloon-borne payloads. Although some questions can only be answered by in situ experiments, we found that approximately one quarter of the key questions were well suited to balloon payloads. In many of those cases, balloons were competitive or superior to other existing facilities, including HST, SOFIA or Keck telescopes. We will present specific telescope and instrument bench designs that are capable of addressing key questions in the Decadal Survey. The instrument bench takes advantage of two of the main benefits of high-altitude observations: diffraction-limited imaging in visible and UV wavelengths and unobstructed spectroscopy in near-IR (1 - 5 microns) wavelengths. Our optical prescription produces diffraction-limited PSFs in both visible and IR beams. We will discuss pointing and thermal stability, two of the main challenges facing a balloon-borne telescope.

  15. Keys to Success: School Facilities Primer, Questions & Answers 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Jim

    This publication provides answers to basic questions to help school board members more fully address the complexities of the planning, design, and construction process in order to maximize the goal of student success. The 101 questions and answers are in the areas of: facility planning; learning environment; information technology; safe schools;…

  16. Preventing and Addressing Challenging Behavior: Common Questions and Practical Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Corso, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer preschool teachers strategies for preventing challenging behavior and supporting the development of social skills and emotional competencies. This article is framed in a question and answer format using questions from teachers who the authors have worked with in the past. These questions and strategies are…

  17. Experimental approaches for addressing fundamental biological questions in living, functioning cells with single molecule precision.

    PubMed

    Lenn, Tchern; Leake, Mark C

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, single molecule experimentation has allowed researchers to observe biological processes at the sensitivity level of single molecules in actual functioning, living cells, thereby allowing us to observe the molecular basis of the key mechanistic processes in question in a very direct way, rather than inferring these from ensemble average data gained from traditional molecular and biochemical techniques. In this short review, we demonstrate the impact that the application of single molecule bioscience experimentation has had on our understanding of various cellular systems and processes, and the potential that this approach has for the future to really address very challenging and fundamental questions in the life sciences.

  18. Three Naive Questions: Addressed to the Modern Educational Optimism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krstic, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to question anew the popular and supposedly self-evident affirmation of education, in its modern incarnation as in its historical notion. The "naive" questions suggest that we have recently taken for granted that education ought to be for the masses, that it ought to be upbringing, and that it is better than ignorance.…

  19. Lunar Geoscience: Key Questions for Future Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, James

    2014-05-01

    ) Was there extensive volcanism and resurfacing prior to mare basalt volcanism; if so, what is its origin and how is it manifested? 8) Are there other shallow magmatic intrusions besides floor-fractured craters, and if so, what is their origin? 9) What clues can we derive from the geology and gravity structure of floor-fractured craters concerning the modes of emplacement and magmatic evolution of shallow intrusions; does differentiation and volatile build-up take place? 10) What are the factors that explain the formation of complex craters, peak-ring basins and multi-ring basins? 11) What are the ages of key multi-ring basin impact melt sheets and how do they help to determine lunar impact chronology and flux? 12) How can lunar crustal density and thickness structure revealed by GRAIL be related to geological impact, magmatic and tectonic processes? 13) What is the origin, distribution and mode of emplacement of polar and circum-polar volatile deposits? 14) What is the origin of central peaks and their often unusual mineralogy and how do we account for the evidence for heterogeneous melt composition and structure? These and other major geoscience questions form the basis for robust and exciting future international robotic and human exploration and sample return missions. A series of candidate sites of interest are identified that can address these questions.

  20. Republished: Respiratory microbiota: addressing clinical questions, informing clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Geraint B; Shaw, Dominick; Marsh, Robyn L; Carroll, Mary P; Serisier, David J; Bruce, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, technological advances have revolutionised efforts to understand the role played by microbes in airways disease. With the application of ever more sophisticated techniques, the literature has become increasingly inaccessible to the non-specialist reader, potentially hampering the translation of these gains into improvements in patient care. In this article, we set out the key principles underpinning microbiota research in respiratory contexts and provide practical guidance on how best such studies can be designed, executed and interpreted. We examine how an understanding of the respiratory microbiota both challenges fundamental assumptions and provides novel clinical insights into lung disease, and we set out a number of important targets for ongoing research. PMID:26304986

  1. Connectivity and complex systems in geomorphology: addressing some key challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöppl, Ronald; Turnbull-Lloyd, Laura; Parsons, Anthony; Bracken, Louise; Keesstra, Saskia; Masselink, Rens

    2016-04-01

    "Connectivity thinking" and related concepts have a long history in geomorphology. Since the beginning of the 21st century connectivity research experienced a huge boom in geomorphology as geomorphologists started to develop new concepts on connectivity to better understand the complexity of geomorphic systems and system response to change. However, progress in the field of connectivity in geomorphology has mostly been developing in a parallel manner, resulting in a multiplicity of definitions, concepts and methodological approaches. Nevertheless, a set of common key challenges amongst the different connectivity concepts and approaches used to understand complex geomorphic systems are also evident. In the course of a theory think tank of the COST Action ES1306 (CONNECTEUR - Connecting European Connectivity Research) the following five different key challenges were detected (Turnbull et al., in prep.): (i) defining the fundamental unit, (ii) distinguishing between structural and functional boundaries, (iii) emergent behavior, (iv) memory effects, (v) measuring connectivity. In this presentation we will a) discuss how these key challenges are addressed and approached in connectivity research in geomorphology, b) evaluate ways in which cross-disciplinary advances may be made by exploring potential for a common toolbox approach to the study of connectivity.

  2. Age-friendly community initiatives: conceptual issues and key questions.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Emily A; Oberlink, Mia; Scharlach, Andrew E; Neal, Margaret B; Stafford, Philip B

    2015-04-01

    Public policy and programs for older adults traditionally have focused on the delivery of benefits to targeted individuals. Over the past decade, age-friendly community initiatives (AFCIs) have developed as a paradigm shift in contrast to this predominant focus. AFCIs engage stakeholders from multiple sectors within a typically local geographic area to make social and/or physical environments more conducive to older adults' health, well-being, and ability to age in place and in the community. We describe three general categories of AFCIs, including community planning approaches, support-focused approaches, and cross-sector partnership approaches. Following from this conceptual overview, we posit four key policy-relevant questions with implications for the expansion of AFCIs, including what public policy supports are necessary for the implementation of AFCIs across diverse communities, how entities outside of aging can be engaged to collaborate, to what extent advocates for various models can work together, and how the outcomes of these initiatives can be rigorously evaluated. We conclude by discussing how AFCIs are germane to the primary issues highlighted by the 2015 White House Conference on Aging.

  3. Vitamin D and the brain: key questions for future research.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaoying; Gooch, Helen; Groves, Natalie J; Sah, Pankaj; Burne, Thomas H; Eyles, Darryl W; McGrath, John J

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade a convergent body of evidence has emerged from epidemiology, animal experiments and clinical trials which links low vitamin D status with a range of adverse neuropsychiatric outcomes. This research demonstrates that the timing of exposure to low vitamin D influences the nature of brain phenotypes, as exposures during gestation versus adulthood result in different phenotypes. With respect to early life exposures, there is robust evidence from rodent experiments indicating that transient developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is associated with changes in brain structure, neurochemistry, gene and protein expression and behavior. In particular, DVD deficiency is associated with alterations in the dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems. In contrast, recently published animal experiments indicate that adult vitamin D (AVD) deficiency is associated with more subtle neurochemical and behavioral phenotypes. This paper explores key issues that need to be addressed in future research. There is a need to define the timing and duration of the 'critical window' during which low vitamin D status is associated with differential and adverse brain outcomes. We discuss the role for 'two-hit hypotheses', which propose that adult vitamin D deficiency leaves the brain more vulnerable to secondary adverse exposures, and thus may exacerbate disease progression. Finally, we explore the evidence implicating a role for vitamin D in rapid, non-genomic mechanisms that may involve L-type calcium channels and brain function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  4. Strategies of Educational Decentralization: Key Questions and Core Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, E. Mark

    1998-01-01

    Explains key issues and forces that shape organization and management strategies of educational decentralization, using examples from Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Nicaragua, and Spain. Core decentralization issues include national and regional goals, planning, political stress, resource distribution, infrastructure development, and job…

  5. Questions Addressed to V.V. Putin during an Internet Conference on Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agranovich, M.; Zair-Bek, S.; Seliverstova, I.; Shishmakova, E.

    2007-01-01

    On instructions from the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation, the Federal Institute for the Development of Education prepared an analytical report on the topic "Questions Addressed to Russian President V.V. Putin During an Internet Conference on 6 July 2006 on the Problems of "Career"." That document presents an…

  6. A meta-analysis of personality and workplace safety: addressing unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Beus, Jeremy M; Dhanani, Lindsay Y; McCord, Mallory A

    2015-03-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 100(2) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2015-08139-001). Table 3 contained formatting errors. Minus signs used to indicate negative statistical estimates within the table were inadvertently changed to m-dashes. All versions of this article have been corrected.] The purpose of this meta-analysis was to address unanswered questions regarding the associations between personality and workplace safety by (a) clarifying the magnitude and meaning of these associations with both broad and facet-level personality traits, (b) delineating how personality is associated with workplace safety, and (c) testing the relative importance of personality in comparison to perceptions of the social context of safety (i.e., safety climate) in predicting safety-related behavior. Our results revealed that whereas agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively associated with unsafe behaviors, extraversion and neuroticism were positively associated with them. Of these traits, agreeableness accounted for the largest proportion of explained variance in safety-related behavior and openness to experience was unrelated. At the facet level, sensation seeking, altruism, anger, and impulsiveness were all meaningfully associated with safety-related behavior, though sensation seeking was the only facet that demonstrated a stronger relationship than its parent trait (i.e., extraversion). In addition, meta-analytic path modeling supported the theoretical expectation that personality's associations with accidents are mediated by safety-related behavior. Finally, although safety climate perceptions accounted for the majority of explained variance in safety-related behavior, personality traits (i.e., agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism) still accounted for a unique and substantive proportion of the explained variance. Taken together, these results substantiate the value of considering personality traits as key

  7. Challenges and key research questions for yaws eradication

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Michael; Mitjà, Oriol; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Pillay, Allan; Knauf, Sascha; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Bassat, Quique; Martin, Diana L.; Fegan, David; Taleo, Fasihah; Kool, Jacob; Lukehart, Sheila; Emerson, Paul M; Solomon, Anthony W; Ye, Tun; Ballard, Ronald C; Mabey, David CW; Asiedu, Kingsley B

    2015-01-01

    Yaws is endemic in West Africa, Southeast Asia and the Pacific. The WHO has launched a campaign based on mass treatment with azithromycin, to eradicate yaws by 2020. Progress has been made towards achieving this ambitious goal, including the validation of point-of-care and molecular diagnostic tests and piloting of the strategy in a number of countries including Ghana, Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea. There is a need to address gaps in knowledge to allow refinement of the eradication strategy. Studies exploring determinants of the spatial distribution of yaws are needed to facilitate completion of baseline mapping. The finding that Haemophilus ducreyi causes lesions similar to yaws is particularly important and further work is required to assess the impact of azithromycin on these lesions. The integration of diagnostic tests in to different stages of the eradication campaign requires evaluation. Finally studies to inform the optimum mass treatment strategy for sustainably interrupting transmission must be conducted. PMID:26362174

  8. Challenges and key research questions for yaws eradication.

    PubMed

    Marks, Michael; Mitjà, Oriol; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Pillay, Allan; Knauf, Sascha; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Bassat, Quique; Martin, Diana L; Fegan, David; Taleo, Fasihah; Kool, Jacob; Lukehart, Sheila; Emerson, Paul M; Solomon, Anthony W; Ye, Tun; Ballard, Ronald C; Mabey, David C W; Asiedu, Kingsley B

    2015-10-01

    Yaws is endemic in west Africa, southeast Asia, and the Pacific region. To eradicate yaws by 2020, WHO has launched a campaign of mass treatment with azithromycin. Progress has been made towards achievement of this ambitious goal, including the validation of point-of-care and molecular diagnostic tests and piloting of the strategy in several countries, including Ghana, Vanuatu, and Papua New Guinea. Gaps in knowledge need to be addressed to allow refinement of the eradication strategy. Studies exploring determinants of the spatial distribution of yaws are needed to help with the completion of baseline mapping. The finding that Haemophilus ducreyi causes lesions similar to yaws is particularly important and further work is needed to assess the effect of azithromycin on these lesions. The integration of diagnostic tests into different stages of the eradication campaign needs investigation. Finally, studies must be done to inform the optimum mass-treatment strategy for sustainable interruption of transmission.

  9. Inflammation in AKI: Current Understanding, Key Questions, and Knowledge Gaps.

    PubMed

    Rabb, Hamid; Griffin, Matthew D; McKay, Dianne B; Swaminathan, Sundararaman; Pickkers, Peter; Rosner, Mitchell H; Kellum, John A; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    Inflammation is a complex biologic response that is essential for eliminating microbial pathogens and repairing tissue after injury. AKI associates with intrarenal and systemic inflammation; thus, improved understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the inflammatory response has high potential for identifying effective therapies to prevent or ameliorate AKI. In the past decade, much knowledge has been generated about the fundamental mechanisms of inflammation. Experimental work in small animal models has revealed many details of the inflammatory response that occurs within the kidney after typical causes of AKI, including insights into the molecular signals released by dying cells, the role of pattern recognition receptors, the diverse subtypes of resident and recruited immune cells, and the phased transition from destructive to reparative inflammation. Although this expansion of the basic knowledge base has increased the number of mechanistically relevant targets of intervention, progress in developing therapies that improve AKI outcomes by modulation of inflammation remains slow. In this article, we summarize the most important recent developments in understanding the inflammatory mechanisms of AKI, highlight key limitations of the commonly used animal models and clinical trial designs that may prevent successful clinical application, and suggest priority approaches for research toward clinical translation in this area.

  10. To Address or Not to Address the Violent Past in the Classroom? That Is the Question in Côte D'ivoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppens, Line; Langer, Arnim

    2016-01-01

    In the aftermath of violent conflict, divided societies have to answer the important question of whether, when and how to address their country's violent past within their educational system. Whereas some scholars within the field of peace education and transitional justice argue that addressing the violent past in the classroom is important for…

  11. Asking Questions as a Key Strategy in Guiding a Novice Teacher: A Self-Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsher, Gila; Kantor, Itay-Danny

    2012-01-01

    This self-study explores the instruction of a novice teacher by an expert mentor teacher, while applying the strategy of asking questions instead of the more common pattern of giving advice and guidance in the form of telling. The study examines the educational potential embedded in the question-asking strategy as a key mentoring resource when…

  12. Early Parental Positive Behavior Support and Childhood Adjustment: Addressing Enduring Questions with New Methods

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Winter, Charlotte E.; Wilson, Melvin

    2016-01-01

    A large literature provides strong empirical support for the influence of parenting on child outcomes. The current study addresses enduring research questions testing the importance of early parenting behavior to children’s adjustment. Specifically, we developed and tested a novel multi-method observational measure of parental positive behavior support at age 2. Next, we tested whether early parental positive behavior support was related to child adjustment at school age, within a multi-agent and multi-method measurement approach and design. Observational and parent-reported data from mother–child dyads (N = 731; 49 percent female) were collected from a high-risk sample at age 2. Follow-up data were collected via teacher report and child assessment at age 7.5. The results supported combining three different observational methods to assess positive behavior support at age 2 within a latent factor. Further, parents’ observed positive behavior support at age 2 predicted multiple types of teacher-reported and child-assessed problem behavior and competencies at 7.5 years old. Results supported the validity and predictive capability of a multi-method observational measure of parenting and the importance of a continued focus on the early years within preventive interventions. PMID:26997757

  13. Mars 2001 Mission: Addressing Scientific Questions Regarding the Characteristics and Origin of Local Bedrock and Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Weitz, C. M.; Marshall, J.; Squyres, S. W.; Christensen, P. R.; Meloy, T.; Smith, P.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Mission will carry instruments on the orbiter, lander and rover that will support synergistic observations and experiments to address important scientific questions regarding the local bedrock and soils. The martian surface is covered in varying degrees by fine materials less than a few mms in size. Viking and Pathfinder images of the surface indicate that soils at those sites are composed of fine particles. Wheel tracks from the Sojourner rover suggest that soil deposits are composed of particles <40 mm. Viking images show that dunes are common in many areas on Mars and new MOC images indicate that dunes occur nearly everywhere. Dunes on Mars are thought to be composed of 250-500 microns particles based upon Viking IRTM data and Mars wind tunnel experiments. If martian dunes are composed of sand particles > 100 microns and soils are dominated by <10 micron particles, then where are the intermediate grain sizes? Have they been wom away through prolonged transport over the eons? Were they never generated to begin with? Or are they simply less easy to identify because do they not form distinctive geomorphic features such as dunes or uniform mantles that tend to assume superposition in the soil structure?

  14. Early Parental Positive Behavior Support and Childhood Adjustment: Addressing Enduring Questions with New Methods.

    PubMed

    Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Winter, Charlotte E; Wilson, Melvin

    2015-05-01

    A large literature provides strong empirical support for the influence of parenting on child outcomes. The current study addresses enduring research questions testing the importance of early parenting behavior to children's adjustment. Specifically, we developed and tested a novel multi-method observational measure of parental positive behavior support at age 2. Next, we tested whether early parental positive behavior support was related to child adjustment at school age, within a multi-agent and multi-method measurement approach and design. Observational and parent-reported data from mother-child dyads (N = 731; 49 percent female) were collected from a high-risk sample at age 2. Follow-up data were collected via teacher report and child assessment at age 7.5. The results supported combining three different observational methods to assess positive behavior support at age 2 within a latent factor. Further, parents' observed positive behavior support at age 2 predicted multiple types of teacher-reported and child-assessed problem behavior and competencies at 7.5 years old. Results supported the validity and predictive capability of a multi-method observational measure of parenting and the importance of a continued focus on the early years within preventive interventions.

  15. Key Questions on the Role of Phenotypic Plasticity in Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Ecology and evolution have long been recognized as reciprocally influencing each other, with recent research emphasizing how such interactions can occur even on very short (contemporary) time scales. Given that these interactions are mediated by organismal phenotypes, they can be variously shaped by genetic variation, phenotypic plasticity, or both. I here address 8 key questions relevant to the role of plasticity in eco-evolutionary dynamics. Focusing on empirical evidence, especially from natural populations, I offer the following conclusions. 1) Plasticity is--not surprisingly--sometimes adaptive, sometimes maladaptive, and sometimes neutral. 2) Plasticity has costs and limits but these constraints are highly variable, often weak, and hard to detect. 3) Variable environments favor the evolution of increased trait plasticity, which can then buffer fitness/performance (i.e., tolerance). 4) Plasticity sometimes aids colonization of new environments (Baldwin Effect) and responses to in situ environmental change. However, plastic responses are not always necessary or sufficient in these contexts. 5) Plasticity will sometimes promote and sometimes constrain genetic evolution. 6) Plasticity will sometimes help and sometimes hinder ecological speciation but, at present, empirical tests are limited. 7) Plasticity can show considerable evolutionary change in contemporary time, although the rates of this reaction norm evolution are highly variable among taxa and traits. 8) Plasticity appears to have considerable influences on ecological dynamics at the community and ecosystem levels, although many more studies are needed. In summary, plasticity needs to be an integral part of any conceptual framework and empirical investigation of eco-evolutionary dynamics.

  16. European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - Establishing the key unanswered research questions within gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Rees, Colin J; Ngu, Wee Sing; Regula, Jaroslaw; Bisschops, Raf; Saftoiu, Adrian; Dekker, Evelien; Gralnek, Ian; Ciocirlan, Mihai; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mario; Jover, Rodrigo; Meisner, Søren; Spada, Cristiano; Hassan, Cesare; Valori, Roland; Hucl, Tomas; Le Moine, Olivier; Domagk, Dirk; Kaminski, Michal F; Bretthauer, Michael; Rutter, Matthew D; Aabakken, Lars; Ponchon, Thierry; Fockens, Paul; Siersema, Peter D

    2016-10-01

    Background and study aim: Gastrointestinal endoscopy is a rapidly evolving research field. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) plays a key role in shaping opinion and endoscopy activity throughout Europe and further afield. Establishing key unanswered questions within the field of endoscopy and prioritizing those that are important enables researchers and funders to appropriately allocate resources. Methods: Over 2 years, the ESGE Research Committee gathered information on research priorities and refined them through a modified Delphi approach. Consultations were held with the ESGE Governing Board and Quality Improvement Committee to identify important unanswered questions. Research workshops were held at the 21st United European Gastroenterology Week. Research questions were refined by the ESGE Research Committee and Governing Board, compiled into an online survey, and distributed to all ESGE members, who were invited to rank each question by priority. Results: The final questionnaire yielded 291 responses from over 60 countries. The three countries with the highest response rates were Spain, Italy, and United Kingdom. Most responders were from teaching hospitals (62 %) and were specialist endoscopists (51 %). Responses were analyzed with weighted rankings, resulting in prioritization of 26 key unanswered questions. The top ranked generic questions were: 1) How do we define the correct surveillance interval following endoscopic diagnosis? 2) How do we correctly utilize advanced endoscopic imaging? 3) What are the best markers of endoscopy quality? Conclusion: Following this comprehensive process, the ESGE has identified and ranked the key unanswered questions within the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy. Researchers, funders, and journals should prioritize studies that seek to answer these important questions.

  17. The Sanford Science Education Center: Addressing Key Design Challenges in Sharing Complex Science with Diverse Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inverness Research, 2016

    2016-01-01

    In facilities throughout the United States and abroad, communities of scientists share infrastructure, instrumentation, and equipment to conduct scientific research. In these large facilities--laboratories, accelerators, telescope arrays, and research vessels--scientists are researching key questions that have the potential to make a significant…

  18. Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Haley

    2007-01-01

    A canoe trip guide for young people gets used to the never-ending flow of questions. Kids are constantly inquiring about how many kilometres have been traveled that day, how many kilometres to go that day, what is for dinner, and when the next set of moving water is coming up. With kids, the questions are endless. Questions often are used as a…

  19. Comments on "Reviewing Adolescent Literacy Reports: Key Components and Critical Questions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moje, Elizabeth Birr

    2010-01-01

    The author begins her comments on "Reviewing Adolescent Literacy Reports: Key Components and Critical Questions" by commending the authors for taking on this rather massive project. The project required not only locating and reading the many lengthy reports that exist on adolescent literacy but also sifting through the numerous claims, ideas, and…

  20. Key Questions on the Obama Administration's 2014 Education Budget Request. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New America Foundation, 2013

    2013-01-01

    President Obama sent his fiscal year 2014 budget request to Congress on April 10, 2013. The New America Foundation's Education Policy Program released this subsequent issue brief, "Key Questions on the Obama Administration's 2014 Budget Request." Obama's budget request totals $71.2 billion in appropriations funding for the U.S.…

  1. The Amazon tall tower observatory (ATTO) site - Multi-year aerosol observations and scientific key questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöhlker, C.; Barbosa, H. M.; Brito, J.; Carbone, S.; Chi, X.; Kesselmeier, J.; Ditas, F.; Pöhlker, M. L.; Manzi, A. O.; Moran, D.; Poeschl, U.; Ruckteschler, N.; Saturno, J.; Soergel, M.; Su, H.; Walter, D.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Z.; Weber, B.; Wolff, S.; Yanez-Serrano, A. M.; Artaxo, P.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    The Amazon tall tower observatory site is located 150 km NE of Manaus in undisturbed rain forest areas. It serves as a remote measurement station in the Amazon forest with continuous aerosol, trace gas, micrometeorological, and ecological measurements. During part of the rainy season, the atmospheric state approximates pre-industrial conditions, in strong contrast to the dry season, which is dominated by significant pollution from deforestation fires and urban emissions. This presentation will focus on aerosol studies of the past three years. It aims to provide a brief overview of the characteristic seasonality of the aerosol burden at the ATTO site. Moreover, it will discuss the following key questions and current results of the ongoing observations: (i) During the wet season and in the absence of long-range advection of African aerosols, atmospheric conditions at the ATTO site approximate a pristine state, which reveals the genuine contribution of biogenic aerosols. Biogenic particles in the super- and submicron range have been observed and their properties as well as potential sources will be discussed. (ii) In contrast to the classical new particle formation, the occurrence of ultrafine particles is comparably sparse and mainly occurs as short 'bursts', indicating a rather localized character. Our current understanding of this phenomenon and its significance for the overall aerosol burden will be addressed. (iii) Aerosol absorptivity is mainly caused by black carbon, however, indications for the presence of other light absorbing aerosol species have been found. Current results on light absorbing aerosol under clean and polluted conditions will be presented. (iv) Aerosol particles at the ATTO site are typically strongly aged and comprise pronounced internal mixtures, with important implications for their properties. Microspectroscopic analysis helps to obtain insights into atmospheric processing and its impact on particle morphology and phase state.

  2. The RCP's 'Three Key Questions' for asthma: review of practical use.

    PubMed

    Steven, K; Neville, R G; Hoskins, G; Sullivan, F M; Drummond, N; Alder, E M

    2002-06-01

    Assessment tools are a vital component of chronic disease management. The Royal College of Physicians has developed a patient-focused outcome measure for the treatment of asthma, the 'Three Key Questions'. However, in a study investigating the goals of people with asthma, several issues related to the tool emerged. Forty-seven adults of a range of ages and asthma severity but with no significant co-morbidity were interviewed. It emerged that the outcome measure may be subject to recall bias. Also, symptom reports may be conflated if daytime symptoms also occur with activity. 'Interference with activity' is a subjective term the interpretation of which varies considerably. Changes in the level of activity undertaken may be reported rather than changes in symptom severity. The 'Three Key Questions' are not fully patient-centred because they assess the presence of symptoms rather than their importance to the individual. The use of the 'Three Key Questions' as an outcome measure may not allow valid comparisons to be made between settings.

  3. From experience to definition: addressing the question 'what is qualitative research?'.

    PubMed

    Smythe, Liz; Giddings, Lynne S

    2007-07-01

    Most health professionals today have heard of 'qualitative research' but many remain confused as to what it is and how to go about doing it. In this paper, two experienced qualitative researchers become engaged in conversation exploring the question 'what is qualitative research?' Lynne Giddings and Liz Smythe are Associate Professors in the Faculty of Health & Environmental Sciences at the Auckland University of Technology. They engage a reader in exploring issues such as: What might draw you to qualitative research? How does qualitative research make a difference to practice? How can reading a qualitative research article inform practice? From a qualitative perspective, what is 'truth'? How many participants? What happens to the data? What about the bias of the researcher? Can qualitative findings be trusted? Stories and exemplars are used to highlight the processes and issues involved in undertaking a qualitative research study.

  4. Talking with women about personal health resources in general practice. Key questions about salutogenesis.

    PubMed

    Malterud, K; Hollnagel, H

    1998-06-01

    We want to share experiences from an approach for clinical communication and research, intended to identify and mobilize personal health resources in female patients, and promote strategies for resource oriented talk in general practice. We used an action research design with qualitative evaluation to summarize the process where we developed a key question about self-assessed health resources in women, based on The Health Resource/Risk Balance Model, including salutogenesis, patient-centredness and gender perspectives. From consultations with 49 female patients in our own practices, we have drawn a narrative description of the development process, a summary of issues that facilitated resource talk, and our final version of the key question. We suggest that resource talk is based on 1) an explicit shift of language from disease to health, but nevertheless recognizing the fact that illness occurs, 2) options for answers given by the female patient and not by the doctor, 3) signification of the woman's assessment of her own situation (in contrast to the doctor's assessment), and 4) taking for granted that women's personal health resources exist as numerous strategies which are utilized, and may be identified. We have learnt that communicative action can provide tools for shifting the attention of doctor and patients from risks and diseases to resources and strengths. This is an example of one way to change your practice through systematic reflection in dialogue with a colleague.

  5. The Swimming Ammonite: How Computed Tomography can Address Questions of Functional Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemanis, Robert; Hoffmann, Rene; Zachow, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    has strong potential to address the controversial life-habits of adult ammonites through the study of the buoyant properties of the phragmocone and the structural properties of the shell. The implications for palaeobiology are clear, however the understanding of ammonite life-habits is also important for utilization as archives for palaeoenvironmetal/geochemical data.

  6. Using Eight Key Questions as an Inquiry-Based Framework for Ethical Reasoning Issues in a General Education Earth Systems and Climate Change Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, E. A.; Ball, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    An important objective in general education geoscience courses is to help students evaluate social and ethical issues based upon scientific knowledge. It can be difficult for instructors trained in the physical sciences to design effective ways of including ethical issues in large lecture courses where whole-class discussions are not practical. The Quality Enhancement Plan for James Madison University, "The Madison Collaborative: Ethical Reasoning in Action," (http://www.jmu.edu/mc/index.shtml) has identified eight key questions to be used as a framework for developing ethical reasoning exercises and evaluating student learning. These eight questions are represented by the acronym FOR CLEAR and are represented by the concepts of Fairness, Outcomes, Responsibilities, Character, Liberty, Empathy, Authority, and Rights. In this study, we use the eight key questions as an inquiry-based framework for addressing ethical issues in a 100-student general education Earth systems and climate change course. Ethical reasoning exercises are presented throughout the course and range from questions of personal behavior to issues regarding potential future generations and global natural resources. In the first few exercises, key questions are identified for the students and calibrated responses are provided as examples. By the end of the semester, students are expected to identify key questions themselves and justify their own ethical and scientific reasoning. Evaluation rubrics are customized to this scaffolding approach to the exercises. Student feedback and course data will be presented to encourage discussion of this and other approaches to explicitly incorporating ethical reasoning in general education geoscience courses.

  7. Addressing Consumer Questions.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It seems people either have very strong thoughts and opinions on food or they could care less as long as food is available to feed them and their families. With the current economy, many individuals are examining food choices more closely to ensure the greatest nutrition for their families at the l...

  8. Use of simulink to address key factors for radon mitigation in a Fairbanks home.

    PubMed

    Marsik, Tom; Johnson, Ron

    2008-05-01

    Hilly areas around Fairbanks, Alaska, are known to have elevated soil radon concentrations. Due to geological conditions, cold winters, and the resulting stack effect, houses in these areas are prone to higher indoor radon concentrations. Key variables with respect to radon mitigation were addressed in this paper by using a dynamic model implemented in MATLAB Simulink. These variables included the ventilation rate; the foundation flow resistance, which can be affected by sealing the foundation during the construction of a house; and the differential pressure between the subslab and the house interior, which can be affected by using a subslab depressurization system. The model was used for the scenario of a varying differential pressure and then for the scenario of a varying ventilation rate at a Fairbanks home where real-time radon concentrations were measured. The correlation coefficients between the model-predicted and measured radon concentrations were 0.96 and 0.94, for both scenarios respectively, which verified the feasibility of the model for predicting indoor radon concentrations.

  9. Key findings and remaining questions in the areas of core-concrete interaction and debris coolability

    DOE PAGES

    Farmer, M. T.; Gerardi, C.; Bremer, N.; ...

    2016-10-31

    The reactor accidents at Fukushima-Dai-ichi have rekindled interest in late phase severe accident behavior involving reactor pressure vessel breach and discharge of molten core melt into the containment. Two technical issues of interest in this area include core-concrete interaction and the extent to which the core debris may be quenched and rendered coolable by top flooding. The OECD-sponsored Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction (MCCI) programs at Argonne National Laboratory included the conduct of large scale reactor material experiments and associated analysis with the objectives of resolving the ex-vessel debris coolability issue, and to address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensionalmore » molten core-concrete interactions under both wet and dry cavity conditions. These tests provided a broad database to support accident management planning, as well as the development and validation of models and codes that can be used to extrapolate the experiment results to plant conditions. This paper provides a high level overview of the key experiment results obtained during the program. Finally, a discussion is also provided that describes technical gaps that remain in this area, several of which have arisen based on the sequence of events and operator actions during Fukushima.« less

  10. Key findings and remaining questions in the areas of core-concrete interaction and debris coolability

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Gerardi, C.; Bremer, N.; Basu, S.

    2016-10-31

    The reactor accidents at Fukushima-Dai-ichi have rekindled interest in late phase severe accident behavior involving reactor pressure vessel breach and discharge of molten core melt into the containment. Two technical issues of interest in this area include core-concrete interaction and the extent to which the core debris may be quenched and rendered coolable by top flooding. The OECD-sponsored Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction (MCCI) programs at Argonne National Laboratory included the conduct of large scale reactor material experiments and associated analysis with the objectives of resolving the ex-vessel debris coolability issue, and to address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensional molten core-concrete interactions under both wet and dry cavity conditions. These tests provided a broad database to support accident management planning, as well as the development and validation of models and codes that can be used to extrapolate the experiment results to plant conditions. This paper provides a high level overview of the key experiment results obtained during the program. Finally, a discussion is also provided that describes technical gaps that remain in this area, several of which have arisen based on the sequence of events and operator actions during Fukushima.

  11. Key challenges of offshore wind power: Three essays addressing public acceptance, stakeholder conflict, and wildlife impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Alison Waterbury

    Society is facing a pressing need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to limit anthropogenic climate change, which has far reaching implications for humans and the environment. Transforming the energy infrastructure to carbon-free sources is one solution to curb greenhouse gas emissions, but this transformation has been slow to materialize in many places, such as the United States (U.S.). Offshore wind energy is one of the most promising renewable energy sources available, which can be deployed in large-scale developments in many parts of the world. Yet, offshore wind has faced many challenges, which are more social and regulatory than technical. This dissertation addresses social and regulatory issues surrounding offshore wind development through three stand-alone essays, which, in combination, address a decision-making framework of where to locate offshore wind turbines, by minimizing effects on people and wildlife. The challenges to offshore wind that are addressed by this dissertation include (1) understanding underlying factors that drive support for or opposition to offshore wind energy; (2) conflict with existing ocean uses and users; and (3) public concern and regulatory processes related to wildlife impacts. The first paper identifies unique factors that drive public opinion of proposed offshore wind projects in nearby coastal communities. Wind energy development on land has faced local opposition for reasons such as effects on cultural landscapes and wildlife, which can be instrumental in whether or not and the speed with which a project moves ahead toward completion. Factors leading to support for, or opposition to, offshore wind energy are not well known, particularly for developments that are near-shore and in-view of coastal communities. Results are presented from a survey of 699 residents (35.5% response rate) completed in 2013 in greater Atlantic City, New Jersey and coastal Delaware, United States, where near-shore wind demonstration projects had

  12. Key questions resulting from the JUPITER trial assessing cardiovascular disease intervention with rosuvastatin.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Shirya

    2009-12-31

    THIS PAPER PRESENTS AN ANALYSIS OF THE RECENTLY PUBLISHED JUSTIFICATION FOR THE USE OF STATINS IN PREVENTION (JUPITER: an intervention trial evaluating rosuvastatin) trial, which tested the statin rosuvastatin in apparently healthy individuals with no prior cardiovascular (CVD) disease and with normal plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations but with raised plasma high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels. The rate of the combined primary CVD endpoint was significantly reduced in the treatment arm after a median of under 2 years. The JUPITER trial is distinct from previous studies examining statin use in primary prevention groups because the target group for drug therapy was apparently healthy men and women at low or intermediate risk for developing CVD. On the basis of JUPITER's findings, there are key questions that should be assessed on the therapeutic intervention of CVD regarding: the primary prevention groups that should be targeted for statin therapy, the utility of targets in addition to plasma LDL cholesterol levels, and the need to consider the metabolic state of individuals targeted for therapy (including the presence of obesity and inflammation). The conclusion from the current analysis is that the JUPITER results warrant further LDL cholesterol lowering than is currently targeted in primary prevention groups that have a pre-existing condition or lifestyle that elevates CVD risk but still do not have a high global CVD risk (as assessed with current algorithms). This group is not captured in current widely used CVD risk calculations, however, with the identification of useful biomarkers, such as hsCRP, this group can be better identified and targeted for intervention.

  13. The 5 key questions coping with risks due to natural hazards, answered by a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardegger, P.; Sausgruber, J. T.; Schiegg, H. O.

    2009-04-01

    Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, human endeavours concern primarily existential needs, consequently, to be safeguarded against both natural as well as man made threads. The subsequent needs are to realize chances in a variety of fields, as economics and many others. Independently, the 5 crucial questions are the same as for coping with risks due to natural hazards specifically. These 5 key questions are I) What is the impact in function of space and time ? II) What protection measures comply with the general opinion and how much do they mitigate the threat? III) How can the loss be adequately quantified and monetized ? IV) What budget for prevention and reserves for restoration and compensation are to be planned ? V) Which mix of measures and allocation of resources is sustainable, thus, optimal ? The 5 answers, exemplified by a case study, concerning the sustainable management of risk due to the debris flows by the Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria, are as follows : I) The impact, created by both the propagation of flooding and sedimentation, has been forecasted by modeling (numerical simulation) the 30, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 1000 year debris flow. The input was specified by detailed studies in meteorology, precipitation and runoff, in geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology and slope stability, in hydraulics, sediment transport and debris flow, in forestry, agriculture and development of communal settlement and infrastructure. All investigations were performed according to the method of ETAlp (Erosion and Transport in Alpine systems). ETAlp has been developed in order to achieve a sustainable development in alpine areas and has been evaluated by the research project "nab", within the context of the EU-Interreg IIIb projects. II) The risk mitigation measures of concern are in hydraulics at the one hand and in forestry at the other hand. Such risk management is evaluated according to sustainability, which means economic, ecologic and social, in short, "triple

  14. Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2011-03-07

    AMO is developing advanced technologies that cut energy use and carbon emissions in some of the most energy-intensive processes within U.S. manufacturing. The brochure describes the AMO R&D projects that address these challenges.

  15. The Creation of a University-Community Alliance to Address Lead Hazards: Three Keys to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Mary; Caponigro, Jay

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to lead can be devastating for children, and federal regulations established in 2001 are forcing local governments to mitigate this risk. This essay discusses the creation of the Lead Alliance, a university-community coalition created to address lead hazards facing children from low-income households in South Bend, Indiana. Among the…

  16. Welfare Reform: New Challenges, Key Questions. Voices for Illinois Children Special Report (Revised Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Ami

    This special report reviews key aspects of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 and its implications for Illinois. The report describes the major stipulations in the federal welfare bill and summarizes the impact on Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); food stamp, child care, Medicaid, and…

  17. The key role of government in addressing the pandemic of micronutrient deficiency conditions in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Tulchinsky, Theodore H

    2015-04-08

    Micronutrient deficiency conditions are a major global public health problem. While the private sector has an important role in addressing this problem, the main responsibility lies with national governments, in cooperation with international agencies and donors. Mandatory fortification of basic foods provides a basic necessary intake for the majority and needs to be supported by provision of essential vitamin and mineral supplements for mothers and children and other high risk groups. Fortification by government mandate and regulation is essential with cooperation by private sector food manufacturers, and in the context of broader policies for poverty reduction, education and agricultural reform. Iron, iodine, vitamin A, vitamin B complex, folic acid, zinc, vitamin D and vitamin B12 are prime examples of international fortification experience achieved by proactive governmental nutrition policies. These are essential to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and their follow-up sustainable global health targets. National governmental policies for nutritional security and initiatives are essential to implement both food fortification and targeted supplementation policies to reduce the huge burden of micronutrient deficiency conditions in Southeast Asia and other parts of the world.

  18. Enterprise project management is key to success: addressing the people, process and technology dimensions of healthcare.

    PubMed

    Becker, JoAnn; Rhodes, Harry

    2007-01-01

    The world of healthcare professionals is in a constant state of transition, requiring different processes for the organization, and for completing projects and programs. Projects that manage transition are complex undertakings prone to cost and time overruns. An enterprise project management model is proposed to address the people, process and technology dimensions. It includes the five-step PMI project process, vocabulary, processes, soft skills, stakeholder expectation management, portfolio management and talent diversity. Differences in project deliverables and organizational results are discussed, along with a technique to analyze gaps from the current to the new state, which then defines the projects and programs for an organizational initiative. The role and responsibilities of an executive decision team are defined. Learning the model is needed by all members of the organization, regardless of their role or level, for successfully adapting to future changes. Finally, a case is made for healthcare organizations to implement these competencies if they are to be well-performing organizations in this continuous world of change.

  19. Strategies to Address Recruiting and Retention Issues in the Military (Strategies pour aborder les questions de recrutement et de fidelisation dans les armees)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Oct 2009 Strategies to Address Recruiting and Retention Issues in the Military (Stratégies pour aborder les questions de recrutement et de...les questions de recrutement et de fidélisation dans les armées) The material in this publication was assembled to support a Special Course under...HFM-180 Stratégies pour aborder les questions de recrutement et de fidélisation dans les armées (RTO-EN-HFM-180) Synthèse L’objectif des

  20. Fire and aquatic ecosystems of the western USA: Current knowledge and key questions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bisson, P.A.; Rieman, B.; Luce, C.; Hessburg, Paul F.; Lee, D.; Kershner, J.; Reeves, G.H.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding of the effects of wildland fire and fire management on aquatic and riparian ecosystems is an evolving field, with many questions still to be resolved. Limitations of current knowledge, and the certainty that fire management will continue, underscore the need to summarize available information. Integrating fire and fuels management with aquatic ecosystem conservation begins with recognizing that terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are linked and dynamic, and that fire can play a critical role in maintaining aquatic ecological diversity. To protect aquatic ecosystems we argue that it will be important to: (1) accommodate fire-related and other ecological processes that maintain aquatic habitats and biodiversity, and not simply control fires or fuels; (2) prioritize projects according to risks and opportunities for fire control and the protection of aquatic ecosystems; and (3) develop new consistency in the management and regulatory process. Ultimately, all natural resource management is uncertain; the role of science is to apply experimental design and hypothesis testing to management applications that affect fire and aquatic ecosystems. Policy-makers and the public will benefit from an expanded appreciation of fire ecology that enables them to implement watershed management projects as experiments with hypothesized outcomes, adequate controls, and replication.

  1. Key science questions from the second conference on early Mars: geologic, hydrologic, and climatic evolution and the implications for life.

    PubMed

    Beaty, David W; Clifford, Stephen M; Borg, Lars E; Catling, David C; Craddock, Robert A; Des Marais, David J; Farmer, Jack D; Frey, Herbert V; Haberle, Robert M; McKay, Christopher P; Newsom, Horton E; Parker, Timothy J; Segura, Teresa; Tanaka, Kenneth L

    2005-12-01

    In October 2004, more than 130 terrestrial and planetary scientists met in Jackson Hole, WY, to discuss early Mars. The first billion years of martian geologic history is of particular interest because it is a period during which the planet was most active, after which a less dynamic period ensued that extends to the present day. The early activity left a fascinating geological record, which we are only beginning to unravel through direct observation and modeling. In considering this time period, questions outnumber answers, and one of the purposes of the meeting was to gather some of the best experts in the field to consider the current state of knowledge, ascertain which questions remain to be addressed, and identify the most promising approaches to addressing those questions. The purpose of this report is to document that discussion. Throughout the planet's first billion years, planetary-scale processes-including differentiation, hydrodynamic escape, volcanism, large impacts, erosion, and sedimentation-rapidly modified the atmosphere and crust. How did these processes operate, and what were their rates and interdependencies? The early environment was also characterized by both abundant liquid water and plentiful sources of energy, two of the most important conditions considered necessary for the origin of life. Where and when did the most habitable environments occur? Did life actually occupy them, and if so, has life persisted on Mars to the present? Our understanding of early Mars is critical to understanding how the planet we see today came to be.

  2. Introducing Astrophysics and Cosmology as Part of Multidisciplinary Approaches to Liberal Arts Courses Addressing "The Big Questions" of Human Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesney, J. C.

    2012-08-01

    There is an opportunity to bring college students to the exploration of the grandeur and wonder of the universe through the design and crafting of courses for the university and liberal arts curricula that would develop multidisciplinary perspectives within the frames of reference of astrophysics and cosmology. There is broad interest within colleges and universities to provide courses that examine "The Big Questions" of human experience from a variety of perspectives. The study of the history of discoveries and insights that we have gained through the development of astrophysics and cosmology provides course options for students to use to explore these questions. Such hybrid courses enable students to approach the questions of origins, human existence, appreciation of the natural world, appreciation of the universe at large, and the significance of our evolving comprehension of the universe from a variety of disciplinary perspectives, including those that border on the astrophysical and cosmological domains. There are within such courses opportunities to examine historical, philosophical, theological, and cultural perspectives as they intersect with our scientific understanding of where and who we are. The first of these courses at Sacred Heart University has been developed and presented for the past two years as part of the new Core Curriculum. The development of that course, entitled The Journey in the Physical Universe, will be discussed, and insights will be shared.

  3. How much detail and accuracy is required in plant growth sub-models to address questions about optimal management strategies in agricultural systems?

    PubMed Central

    Renton, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Simulations that integrate sub-models of important biological processes can be used to ask questions about optimal management strategies in agricultural and ecological systems. Building sub-models with more detail and aiming for greater accuracy and realism may seem attractive, but is likely to be more expensive and time-consuming and result in more complicated models that lack transparency. This paper illustrates a general integrated approach for constructing models of agricultural and ecological systems that is based on the principle of starting simple and then directly testing for the need to add additional detail and complexity. Methodology The approach is demonstrated using LUSO (Land Use Sequence Optimizer), an agricultural system analysis framework based on simulation and optimization. A simple sensitivity analysis and functional perturbation analysis is used to test to what extent LUSO's crop–weed competition sub-model affects the answers to a number of questions at the scale of the whole farming system regarding optimal land-use sequencing strategies and resulting profitability. Principal results The need for accuracy in the crop–weed competition sub-model within LUSO depended to a small extent on the parameter being varied, but more importantly and interestingly on the type of question being addressed with the model. Only a small part of the crop–weed competition model actually affects the answers to these questions. Conclusions This study illustrates an example application of the proposed integrated approach for constructing models of agricultural and ecological systems based on testing whether complexity needs to be added to address particular questions of interest. We conclude that this example clearly demonstrates the potential value of the general approach. Advantages of this approach include minimizing costs and resources required for model construction, keeping models transparent and easy to analyse, and ensuring the model

  4. DNA methylation and triplet repeat stability: New proposals addressing actual questions on the CGG repeat of fragile X syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Woehrle, D.; Schwemmle, S.; Steinbach, P.

    1996-08-09

    Methylation of expanded CGG repeats in the FMR1 gene may well have different consequences. One is that methylation, extending into upstream regulatory elements, could lead to gene inactivation. Another effect of methylation, which we have obtained evidence for, could be stabilization of the repeat sequence and even prevention of premutations from expansion to full mutation. The full mutation of the fragile X syndrome probably occurs in an early transitional stage of embryonic development. The substrate is a maternally inherited premutation. The product usually is a mosaic pattern of full mutations detectable in early fetal life. These full mutation patterns are mitotically stable as, for instance, different somatic tissues of full mutation fetuses show identical mutation patterns. This raised the following questions: What triggers repeat expansion in that particular stage of development and what causes subsequent mitotic stability of expanded repeats? 21 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum: addressing fundamental questions in bacteriology sixty years on from the 9R vaccine.

    PubMed

    Wigley, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Sixty years on from Smith's seminal work on Fowl Typhoid vaccines, there is renewed interest in experimental avian salmonellosis and in particular the use of Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum as a tool to understand key features of bacterial evolution and host adaptation. In this short review we outline some of the recent advances in avian salmonellosis research that have coupled both the power of whole genome analysis and new tools to understand the host response to existing experimental infection models. These approaches are underpinning a fundamental understanding of Salmonella biology relevant to both the chicken and other avian and mammalian species.

  6. How much flower-rich habitat is enough for wild pollinators? Answering a key policy question with incomplete knowledge.

    PubMed

    Dicks, Lynn V; Baude, Mathilde; Roberts, Stuart P M; Phillips, James; Green, Mike; Carvell, Claire

    2015-09-01

    In 2013, an opportunity arose in England to develop an agri-environment package for wild pollinators, as part of the new Countryside Stewardship scheme launched in 2015. It can be understood as a 'policy window', a rare and time-limited opportunity to change policy, supported by a narrative about pollinator decline and widely supported mitigating actions. An agri-environment package is a bundle of management options that together supply sufficient resources to support a target group of species. This paper documents information that was available at the time to develop such a package for wild pollinators. Four questions needed answering: (1) Which pollinator species should be targeted? (2) Which resources limit these species in farmland? (3) Which management options provide these resources? (4) What area of each option is needed to support populations of the target species? Focussing on wild bees, we provide tentative answers that were used to inform development of the package. There is strong evidence that floral resources can limit wild bee populations, and several sources of evidence identify a set of agri-environment options that provide flowers and other resources for pollinators. The final question could only be answered for floral resources, with a wide range of uncertainty. We show that the areas of some floral resource options in the basic Wild Pollinator and Farmland Wildlife Package (2% flower-rich habitat and 1 km flowering hedgerow), are sufficient to supply a set of six common pollinator species with enough pollen to feed their larvae at lowest estimates, using minimum values for estimated parameters where a range was available. We identify key sources of uncertainty, and stress the importance of keeping the Package flexible, so it can be revised as new evidence emerges about how to achieve the policy aim of supporting pollinators on farmland.

  7. Addressing Consumer Questions and Concerns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food can be a touchy subject. It seems people either have very strong thoughts and opinions on food or they could care less as long as food is available to feed them and their families. With the current economic environment, many individuals are examining the food choices more closely to ensure t...

  8. Key outcomes and addressing remaining challenges--perspectives from a final evaluation of the China GAVI project.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weizhong; Liang, Xiaofeng; Cui, Fuqiang; Li, Li; Hadler, Stephen C; Hutin, Yvan J; Kane, Mark; Wang, Yu

    2013-12-27

    During the China GAVI project, implemented between 2002 and 2010, more than 25 million children received hepatitis B vaccine with the support of project, and the vaccine proved to be safe and effective. With careful consideration for project savings, China and GAVI continually adjusted the budget, additionally allowing the project to spend operational funds to support demonstration projects to improve timely birth dose (TBD), conduct training of EPI staff, and to monitor the project impact. Results from the final evaluation indicated the achievement of key outcomes. As a result of government co-investment, human resources at county level engaged in hepatitis B vaccination increased from 29 per county on average in 2002 to 66 in 2009. All project counties funded by the GAVI project use auto-disable syringes for hepatitis B vaccination and other vaccines. Surveyed hepatitis B vaccine coverage increased from 71% in 2002 to 93% in 2009 among infants. The HBsAg prevalence declined from 9.67% in 1992 to 0.96% in 2006 among children under 5 years of age. However, several important issues remain: (1) China still accounts for the largest annual number of perinatal HBV infections (estimated 84,121) in the WHO WPR region; (2) China still lacks a clear national policy for safe injection of vaccines; (3) vaccination of high risk adults and protection of health care workers are still not implemented; (4) hepatitis B surveillance needs to be refined to more accurately monitor acute hepatitis B; and (5) a program for treatment of persons with chronic HBV infection is needed. Recommendations for future hepatitis B control include: using the lessons learned from the China GAVI project for future introductions of new vaccines; addressing unmet needs with a second generation hepatitis B program to reach every infant, including screening mothers, and providing HBIG for infants born to HBsAg positive mothers; expanding vaccination to high risk adults; addressing remaining unsafe

  9. Technical Study Addresses a Key Challenge to Harmonizing U.S. and International PV Module Standards (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    NREL builds community and industry support by addressing concerns voiced by key standards organizations. Photovoltaic (PV) manufacturers in the United States test the safety of their products using standards developed through consensus processes. Because U.S. PV module safety standards are not aligned with international standards, manufacturers must test their modules twice - and sometimes maintain separate product lines. By meeting with standards organizations such as the Solar ABCs and Underwriters Laboratories (UL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) leaders have worked to identify different stakeholders priorities and concerns. UL, specifically, has expressed concern that the international standards do not address all possible risks. For example, new encapsulant materials could soften at high temperatures and frameless modules could slide apart, exposing live electrical parts or allowing glass to fall on a person below. The deformation of a solid material under the influence of mechanical stresses is known as 'creep.' Current module qualification tests are limited to 85 C, whereas modules can, for short times, reach 105 C outdoors. In response to UL's concern, NREL designed and executed an experiment to compare on-sun and accelerated rates of creep for modules fabricated with various encapsulants, including some that have low melting points. Objectives were to (1) evaluate the potential for creep in outdoor exposure, (2) provide guidance on the risks and design needs with thermoplastic materials, and (3) provide a basis for modifying standards to account for materials with potential to creep. The study tested experimental materials with eight representative encapsulants in both outdoor and indoor (chamber) exposure. The study found that modules with materials that were expected to creep did so in the indoor exposure, but not in most outdoor environments and mounting configurations. The results provide a basis for defining an accelerated test needed to

  10. Addressing key concepts in physical geography through interactive learning activities in an online geo-ICT environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraeten, Gert; Steegen, An; Martens, Lotte

    2016-04-01

    The increasing number of geospatial datasets and free online geo-ICT tools offers new opportunities for education in Earth Sciences. Geospatial technology indeed provides an environment through which interactive learning can be introduced in Earth Sciences curricula. However, the effectiveness of such e-learning approaches in terms of learning outcomes has rarely been addressed. Here, we present our experience with the implementation of digital interactive learning activities within an introductory Physical Geography course attended by 90 undergraduate students in Geography, Geology, Biology and Archaeology. Two traditional lectures were replaced by interactive sessions (each 2 h) in a flexible classroom where students had to work both in team and individually in order to explore some key concepts through the integrated use of geospatial data within Google EarthTM. A first interactive lesson dealt with the classification of river systems and aimed to examine the conditions under which rivers tend to meander or to develop a braided pattern. Students were required to collect properties of rivers (river channel pattern, channel slope, climate, discharge, lithology, vegetation, etc). All these data are available on a global scale and have been added as separate map layers in Google EarthTM. Each student collected data for at least two rivers and added this information to a Google Drive Spreadsheet accessible to the entire group. This resulted in a database of more than one hundred rivers spread over various environments worldwide. In a second phase small groups of students discussed the potential relationships between river channel pattern and its controlling factors. Afterwards, the findings of each discussion group were presented to the entire audience. The same set-up was followed in a second interactive session to explore spatial variations in ecosystem properties such as net primary production and soil carbon content. The qualitative evaluation of both interactive

  11. What Belongs in Your 15-Bean Soup? Using the Learning Cycle to Address Misconceptions about Construction of Taxonomic Keys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Ann; Vanderspool, Staria

    2004-01-01

    Students can use seed characteristics to discriminate between the different kinds of legumes using taxonomic classification processes of sorting and ranking, followed by construction of taxonomic keys. The application of the Learning Cycle process to taxonomic principles, hierarchical classification, and construction of keys presents the…

  12. Research and Teaching: Correlations between Students' Written Responses to Lecture-Tutorial Questions and Their Understandings of Key Astrophysics Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckenrode, Jeffrey; Prather, Edward E.; Wallace, Colin S.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into the correlations between students' understandings of introductory astronomy concepts and the correctness and coherency of their written responses to targeted Lecture-Tutorial questions.

  13. Human Capital. Monitoring of Safeguards and Addressing Employee Perceptions Are Key to Implementing a Civilian Performance Management System in DOD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    negatively about others, such as the performance appraisal process. According to the most recent survey data, the negative perceptions of employees who...Percentage of Responses from NSPS and Non- NSPS Employees to Selected Questions about Performance Appraisals in the 2008 Status of Forces Survey of...performance, and provide an equitable method for appraising and compensating employees

  14. Addressing the Persistence and Retention of Students with Disabilities in Higher Education: Incorporating Key Strategies and Supports on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getzel, Elizabeth Evans

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the key characteristics of postsecondary education programs that help youth and young adults with disabilities persist and remain in college. Student support factors include services that develop stronger self-determination skills, teach and support young adults' self-management skills, expose students to assistive…

  15. Roadmap for Educator Licensure Policy Addressing Data Literacy: Key Focus Areas to Ensure Quality. Data for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    State licensure polices are meant to provide teacher preparation programs with direction about the skills teachers need to be qualified to teach, including skills to use data. This roadmap discusses the 10 key data use skills that states can include in a licensure policy with a quality focus on effective data use.

  16. Addressing the burden of mental, neurological, and substance use disorders: key messages from Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vikram; Chisholm, Dan; Parikh, Rachana; Charlson, Fiona J; Degenhardt, Louisa; Dua, Tarun; Ferrari, Alize J; Hyman, Steve; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Levin, Carol; Lund, Crick; Medina Mora, María Elena; Petersen, Inge; Scott, James; Shidhaye, Rahul; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Thornicroft, Graham; Whiteford, Harvey

    2016-04-16

    chronic and disabling course and adversely affect household welfare, intervention costs should largely be met by government through increased resource allocation and financial protection measures (rather than leaving households to pay out-of-pocket). Moreover, a policy of moving towards universal public finance can also be expected to lead to a far more equitable allocation of public health resources across income groups. Despite this evidence, less than 1% of development assistance for health and government spending on health in low-income and middle-income countries is allocated to the care of people with these disorders. Achieving the health gains associated with prioritised interventions will require not just financial resources, but committed and sustained efforts to address a range of other barriers (such as paucity of human resources, weak governance, and stigma). Ultimately, the goal is to massively increase opportunities for people with MNS disorders to access services without the prospect of discrimination or impoverishment and with the hope of attaining optimal health and social outcomes.

  17. Question 2: Raman spectroscopic approach to analytical astrobiology: the detection of key biomolecular markers in the search for life.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M

    2007-10-01

    The recognition of extinct or extant life signatures in the terrestrial geological record is fundamentally dependent upon the understanding of both the structural morphology and chemical composition of relict biomaterials; the identification of cyanobacterial colonies that have adapted biogeologically their mineral matrices in early evolutionary processes is a fundamental step in the acquisition of analytical data from remote planetary probes designed for life-detection experiments, particularly on Mars and on the planetary satellite moons, Europa and Titan. A key factor in the assessment of early life signatures is the molecular presence of chemicals designed to protect the emerging organisms from the damaging effect of radiation exposure and of desiccation and temperature changes; in this respect the non-destructive capability of Raman spectroscopy to delineate the interfacial interactions between substrates and endolithic biology is now deemed an essential part of the ExoMars life-detection suite of instrumentation planned by the European Space Agency in the AURORA programme. A description of the scientific basis for the biogeological discrimination offered by Raman spectroscopy between organic and inorganic moieties in specimens from terrestrial Mars analogue sites is followed by selected examples of the type of analytical information provided, which will be complementary to the elementary and microscopic data obtained from other instrumentation on the same mission.

  18. Question 2: Raman Spectroscopic Approach to Analytical Astrobiology: The Detection of Key Biomolecular Markers in the Search for Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.

    2007-10-01

    The recognition of extinct or extant life signatures in the terrestrial geological record is fundamentally dependent upon the understanding of both the structural morphology and chemical composition of relict biomaterials; the identification of cyanobacterial colonies that have adapted biogeologically their mineral matrices in early evolutionary processes is a fundamental step in the acquisition of analytical data from remote planetary probes designed for life-detection experiments, particularly on Mars and on the planetary satellite moons, Europa and Titan. A key factor in the assessment of early life signatures is the molecular presence of chemicals designed to protect the emerging organisms from the damaging effect of radiation exposure and of desiccation and temperature changes; in this respect the non-destructive capability of Raman spectroscopy to delineate the interfacial interactions between substrates and endolithic biology is now deemed an essential part of the ExoMars life-detection suite of instrumentation planned by the European Space Agency in the AURORA programme. A description of the scientific basis for the biogeological discrimination offered by Raman spectroscopy between organic and inorganic moieties in specimens from terrestrial Mars analogue sites is followed by selected examples of the type of analytical information provided, which will be complementary to the elementary and microscopic data obtained from other instrumentation on the same mission.

  19. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system.

  20. Why “What Data Are Necessary for This Project?” and Other Basic Questions are Important to Address in Public Health Informatics Practice and Research

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Brian E.; Grannis, Shaun J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the likelihood of poor quality data flowing from clinical information systems to public health information systems, current policies and practices are pushing for the adoption and use of even greater numbers of electronic data feeds. However, using poor data can lead to poor decision-making outcomes in public health. Therefore public health informatics professionals need to assess, and periodically re-evaluate, the quality of electronic data and their sources. Unfortunately there is currently a paucity of tools and strategies in use across public health agencies. Our Center of Excellence in Public Health Informatics is working to develop and disseminate tools and strategies for supporting on-going assessment of data quality and solutions for overcoming data quality challenges. In this article, we outline the need for better data quality assessment and our approach to the development of new tools and strategies. In other words, public health informatics professionals need to ask questions about the electronic data received by public health agencies, and we hope to create tools and strategies to help informaticians ask questions that will lead to improved population health outcomes. PMID:23569618

  1. Why "What Data Are Necessary for This Project?" and Other Basic Questions are Important to Address in Public Health Informatics Practice and Research.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Brian E; Grannis, Shaun J

    2011-01-01

    Despite the likelihood of poor quality data flowing from clinical information systems to public health information systems, current policies and practices are pushing for the adoption and use of even greater numbers of electronic data feeds. However, using poor data can lead to poor decision-making outcomes in public health. Therefore public health informatics professionals need to assess, and periodically re-evaluate, the quality of electronic data and their sources. Unfortunately there is currently a paucity of tools and strategies in use across public health agencies. Our Center of Excellence in Public Health Informatics is working to develop and disseminate tools and strategies for supporting on-going assessment of data quality and solutions for overcoming data quality challenges. In this article, we outline the need for better data quality assessment and our approach to the development of new tools and strategies. In other words, public health informatics professionals need to ask questions about the electronic data received by public health agencies, and we hope to create tools and strategies to help informaticians ask questions that will lead to improved population health outcomes.

  2. Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of…

  3. Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    Well-known historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's classic work "The Republic" (2003). Today, teachers still use questions as one way to help students develop productive thinking skills and to understand concepts and topics.…

  4. “A question of balance”: addressing the public health impacts of multinational enterprises in the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Joshua S.; McDaniel, Patricia A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2012-01-01

    Background The global community is beginning to address non-communicable diseases, but how to increase the accountability of multinational enterprises (MNEs) for the health impacts of their products and practices remains unclear. We examine the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s (OECD) efforts to do so through voluntary MNE guidelines. Methods We developed a historical case study of how the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises were developed and revised from 1973–2000 through an analysis of publicly available archived OECD and tobacco industry documents. Results The first edition of the Guidelines was a purely economic instrument. Outside pressures and a desire to ward off more stringent regulatory efforts resulted in the addition over time of guidelines related to the environment, consumer interests, sustainable development, and human rights. Conclusion Despite their voluntary nature, the Guidelines can play a role in efforts to help balance the interests of MNEs and public health by providing a starting point for efforts to create binding provisions addressing MNEs’ contributions to disease burden or disease reduction. PMID:23046298

  5. Management of Adult Syphilis: Key Questions to Inform the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Khalil G

    2015-12-15

    A panel of experts generated 8 "key questions" in the management of adult syphilis. A systematic literature review was conducted and tables of evidence were constructed to answer these important questions. Penicillin is the drug of choice to treat syphilis. Doxycycline to treat early and late latent syphilis is an acceptable alternate option if penicillin cannot be used. There is no added benefit to enhanced antimicrobial therapy when treating human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons with syphilis. If a patient misses a dose of penicillin in a course of weekly therapy for late syphilis, clinical experience suggests that an interval of 10-14 days between doses might be acceptable before restarting the sequence of injections. Pharmacologic considerations suggest that an interval of 7-9 days between doses, if feasible, may be more optimal. Missed doses are not acceptable for pregnant women. A cerebrospinal fluid examination to diagnose neurosyphilis is recommended in persons diagnosed with tertiary syphilis (eg, cardiovascular syphilis or late benign syphilis), persons with neurological signs or symptoms consistent with neurosyphilis, and asymptomatic persons whose serological titers do not decline appropriately following recommended therapy and in whom reinfection is ruled out. Infection and reinfection rates, particularly among men who have sex with men, are high. Frequent serological screening of this population appears to be the most cost-efficient intervention. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention continues to recommend the use of the traditional rapid plasma reagin-based screening algorithm. The positive predictive value for syphilis associated with an isolated unconfirmed reactive treponemal chemiluminescence assay or enzyme immunoassay is low if the epidemiological risk and clinical probability for syphilis are low. Among pregnant women with serodiscordant serologies (positive treponemal tests and a negative nontreponemal test), the risk of

  6. Are the testing needs of key European populations affected by hepatitis B and hepatitis C being addressed? A scoping review of testing studies in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Sperle, Ida; Spina, Alexander; Rockstroh, Jürgen K

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether or not key populations affected by hepatitis B and hepatitis C are being tested sufficiently for these diseases throughout the European region. Methods We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for studies on HBV and HCV testing in the 53 Member States of the World Health Organization European Region following PRISMA criteria. Results 136 English-language studies from 24 countries published between January 2007 and June 2013 were found. Most studies took place in 6 countries: France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. 37 studies (27%) addressed HBV, 46 (34%) HCV, and 53 (39%) both diseases. The largest categories of study populations were people who use drugs (18%) and health care patient populations (17%). Far fewer studies focused on migrants, prison inmates, or men who have sex with men. Conclusions The overall evidence base on HBV and HCV testing has considerable gaps in terms of the countries and populations represented and validity of testing uptake data. More research is needed throughout Europe to guide efforts to provide testing to certain key populations. PMID:27815935

  7. Pesticide Labeling Questions & Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide manufacturers, applicators, state regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders raise questions or issues about pesticide labels. The questions on this page are those that apply to multiple products or address inconsistencies among product labels.

  8. Synthesizing Nanomaterials for Energy Applications: Probing Activity as a Function of Composition, Morphology and Purity to Address Key Issues Associated with Fuel Cells and Li-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scofield, Megan Elaine

    With the growing need to find alternative clean energy sources to fossil fuels, research into developing efficient fuel cells and batteries stands at the forefront of this grand effort. However, before mass commercialization, fundamental key issues need to be addressed. For example, fuel cells are subject to high catalyst costs and poor durability of the underlying carbon support. As a way to alleviate these issues, we have synthesized ultrathin one-dimensional (1D) alloy nanowires to probe the effect of composition, purity, and one-dimensionality upon the observed overall activity, performance, and durability. In terms of chemical composition, crystalline ultrathin PtM alloy nanowires (NWs) ('M' = Fe, Co, Ru, Cu, and Au) were generated and subsequently evaluated for the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). Additionally, ternary-based catalysts were synthesized (PtRuFe) in order to analyze how chemical composition influences CO tolerance as well as methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR) activities. In both cases, we utilized a sustainably mild, ambient wet-synthesis method for the fabrication of chemically pure and crystalline systems in order to fabricate ultrathin, homogeneous alloy NWs. Moreover, in these studies, our NW systems exhibit favorable synergistic electronic effects with respect to controls. To address another fundamental issue associated with the durability of fuel cells, we have synthesized various metal oxide and perovskite materials of different sizes and chemical compositions as supports for Pt nanoparticles (NPs). Specifically, we have demonstrated favorable metal support interactions between the Pt NPs and the SrRuO3 NP supports, which lead to increased MOR activity as compared with not only the other metal oxide supports tested but also the commercial Pt NP/C standard. In terms of Li-ion batteries, LiFePO4 materials have become increasingly popular as a cathode material due to the many benefits they possess

  9. Behavior Change After 20 Months of a Radio Campaign Addressing Key Lifesaving Family Behaviors for Child Survival: Midline Results From a Cluster Randomized Trial in Rural Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Sarrassat, Sophie; Meda, Nicolas; Ouedraogo, Moctar; Some, Henri; Bambara, Robert; Head, Roy; Murray, Joanna; Remes, Pieter; Cousens, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Burkina Faso, a comprehensive 35-month radio campaign addressed key, multiple family behaviors for improving under-5 child survival and was evaluated using a repeated cross-sectional, cluster randomized design. The primary outcome of the trial was postneonatal under-5 child mortality. This paper reports on behavior change achieved at midline. Method: Fourteen community radio stations in 14 geographic areas were selected based on their high listenership. Seven areas were randomly allocated to receive the intervention while the other 7 areas served as controls. The campaign was launched in March 2012. Cross-sectional surveys of about 5,000 mothers of under-5 children, living in villages close to the radio stations, were conducted at baseline (from December 2011 to February 2012) and at midline (in November 2013), after 20 months of campaigning. Statistical analyses were based on cluster-level summaries using a difference-in-difference (DiD) approach and adjusted for imbalances between arms at baseline. In addition, routine health facility data were analyzed for evidence of changes in health facility utilization. Results: At midline, 75% of women in the intervention arm reported recognizing radio spots from the campaign. There was some evidence of the campaign having positive effects on care seeking for diarrhea (adjusted DiD, 17.5 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5 to 32.5; P = .03), antibiotic treatment for fast/difficult breathing (adjusted DiD, 29.6 percentage points; 95% CI, 3.5 to 55.7; P = .03), and saving money during pregnancy (adjusted DiD, 12.8 percentage points; 95% CI, 1.4 to 24.2; P = .03). For other target behaviors, there was little or no evidence of an impact of the campaign after adjustment for baseline imbalances and confounding factors. There was weak evidence of a positive correlation between the intensity of broadcasting of messages and reported changes in target behaviors. Routine health facility data

  10. Innovate-Ideagora: Addressing Core Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, Denise; McCord, Alan

    2009-01-01

    In this edition of Innovate-Ideagora, Denise Easton and Alan McCord announce the consolidation of Innovate-Live, "Innovate's" venue for author webcasts, with Ideagora; webcasts will now be accessed from Ideagora, and archives will be made available through Ideagora. This change will simplify presentation and merge our multimedia presentations,…

  11. Law addresses question of space artifact ownership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-10-01

    U.S. astronauts who participated in many of NASA's early space missions will receive full ownership rights to artifacts from those missions through legislation that President Barack Obama signed into law on 25 September. The legislation, which received broad bipartisan support, provides artifact ownership rights to any of NASA's Mercury, Gemini, or Apollo space programs through the completion of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, whose flight occurred in July 1975. The law defines artifacts as expendable, disposable, or personal use items—including personal logs and flight hardware salvaged from jettisoned lunar modules—used by astronauts that were not required to be returned to NASA; lunar rocks and other lunar material are not defined as artifacts. Bill cosponsor Rep. Ralph Hall (R-Tex.), chair of the House of Representatives' Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, said on 19 September, “A majority of these items have been in the personal possession of the astronauts for 40 years or more. Over the last decade, NASA has begun to challenge the astronauts' ownership of these mementos. This issue was first brought to my attention late last year. I was surprised to learn that NASA had, on an irregular basis, intervened several times to claim ownership.”

  12. A Question of Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, John; McMillan, Rod

    In a conventional teaching situation, a lecturer may use a wide range of questioning techniques aimed at helping students to become active learners. In distance learning, students are often isolated and have limited opportunities for interaction in a social learning environment. Hence, learning strategies in distance learning need to be structured…

  13. Phrasal Paraphrase Based Question Reformulation for Archived Question Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Lu, Ke; Ji, Rongrong; Wang, Fanglin; Liu, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  14. Phrasal Paraphrase Based Question Reformulation for Archived Question Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ke; Ji, Rongrong; Wang, Fanglin; Liu, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:23805178

  15. Staff Preparation, Reward, and Support: Are Quality Rating and Improvement Systems Addressing All of the Key Ingredients Necessary for Change? Policy Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Lea J. E.; Whitebook, Marcy; Connors, Maia; Darrah, Rory

    2011-01-01

    Reflecting the growing momentum in support of quality rating and improvement systems (QRISs) as a key strategy to improve early care and education quality, significant amounts of public dollars have been devoted to their development and implementation. In this brief, the authors report on their investigation of both quality rating and improvement…

  16. Higher Education and the Debate on Key/Generic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehralizadeh, Yadollah; Salehi, Ebrahim; Marashi, Sid Mansur

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses current questions about the importance of key/generic skills in higher education, based on a Meta-evaluation methodology. It is argued that key skills are a matter of debate among educators and other researchers in the Noe- and post-Ford economy. The article also analyzes questions that relate to the rationality of…

  17. The Earth Science Education Unit's Professional Development Workshop on "The Carbon Question--Cycling, Releasing, Capturing" for Teachers of Key Stages 3 and 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The revised National Curriculum for Science for key stages 3 and 4 (ages 11-16) in England provides the opportunity to develop a new coherent approach to teaching about the carbon cycle, the use of carbon as a fuel and the resulting issues. The Earth Science Education Unit (ESEU) intends to develop a new workshop to support the teaching of this…

  18. Working with Second Language Learners: Answers to Teachers' Top Ten Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cary, Stephen

    This book aims to provide practical, research-informed answers to the questions most frequently asked by teachers of second language learners. Every question targets one of the key instructional issues teachers must address to ensure success for their second language students. Included among the questions are: How do I assess a student's English?…

  19. Toward probabilistic answers to key scientific questions in source modeling: Bayesian explorations of fault slip and coupling over the earthquake cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivet, Romain; Duputel, Zacharie; Simons, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The ever-increasing amount of data sampling ground displacements over tectonically deforming regions continuously opens new perspectives on fundamental questions on the seismogenic behavior of active faults. How much overlap is inferred between seismic and aseismic slip from geodetic and seismological data? Can we quantify the robustness of potential relationships between fault locking, aseismic slip and coseismic slip? However, knowing how much information we have gained compared to our preconceptions and which parameters of our models still need inputs from additional data is difficult to assess and very rarely quantified because of the size of the problems we are dealing with. We have developed AlTar, a massively parallel Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm exploiting cutting-edge computing capabilities of Graphic Processing Units, to sample Probability Density Functions (PDFs) in large-dimensional spaces. We use this solver to derive the PDFs of fault coupling and fault slip, seismic or aseismic, along active faults, focusing on the creeping section of the San Andreas fault, California, and on the northern Chilean subduction zone. We derive the gain of information from our coseismic and interseismic data sets and interrogate these probabilities to derive quantified answers to questions pertaining to the behavior of these faults during the earthquake cycle. Large amounts of data are an opportunity and we need to assess how much we still don't know about distributions of slip during the inter-, co- and post-seismic phases in order to assess where progress has to be made for future data developments.

  20. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  1. A plaidoyer for cutaneous enzymology: our view of some important unanswered questions on the contributions of selected key enzymes to epidermal homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Wood, John M; Schallreuter, Karin U

    2008-07-01

    This review highlights the importance of enzymology, a field of great neglect in current cutaneous biology research. It was therefore the aim by using selected examples of epidermal enzymes and their action including some open questions to demonstrate the importance of this area. Clearly a thorough understanding of basic knowledge in this field is needed which in turn offers a plethora of innovative research projects for a curious mind. Moreover, in order to gain the closest understanding to the truth instead of generating esoteric results, emphasis is put forward on a holistic view utilizing a combination of modern and sometimes old methods to get the answer. Last but not least the bench work is only useful for the welfare of our patients if we can apply our basic knowledge.

  2. Questions for Music Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2008-01-01

    In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…

  3. Approaches to Cell Biology Teaching: Questions about Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Deborah; Tanner, Kimberly

    2002-01-01

    There are many questions to be asked about the pedagogical practice of questioning. Questions provide insight into what students at any age or grade level already know about a topic, which provides a beginning point for teaching. Questions reveal misconceptions and misunderstandings that must be addressed for teachers to move student thinking…

  4. Common questions about herpes: analysis of chat-room transcripts.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Lisa K; Omisore, Folashade

    2009-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with genital herpes typically undergo a period of psychological adjustment. Although healthcare providers can play a key role in this adjustment, in several patient surveys patients have expressed dissatisfaction with the information and counselling offered by professionals. To address this gap, providers must first identify the common questions and myths that are not addressed, or are addressed inadequately. This article is that first step. Through a content analysis of herpes chat-room transcripts captured on their website from autumn 2001 to spring 2006, researchers from the American Social Health Association identified common herpes questions and myths. The 1968 chat passages were coded into 12 themes and 50 sub-themes. Frequently, visitors' questions concerned transmission, symptoms and diagnosis followed by natural history, psychosocial issues and treatment options. The results of this analysis will aid in the creation of tailored messages to address common factual questions and provide psychosocial support.

  5. The ENA Ribbon and the ISN Flow as Key Tools for the ISM-Heliosphere Interaction - Open Questions, the Need for Future Observations with IBEX and IMAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moebius, E.; Bzowski, M.; Frisch, P. C.; Funsten, H. O.; Fuselier, S.; Kucharek, H.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Wurz, P.; Zank, G. P.

    2014-12-01

    The unexpected ribbon in the IBEX energetic neutral atom (ENA) maps is still far from understood. According to most models, the interstellar magnetic field (BISM) controls its location and shape, with the direction in agreement with the termination shock (TS) asymmetry found by the Voyagers, the deflection of the interstellar neutral (ISN) flow, and the high energy cosmic ray anisotropy. With direct ISN flow velocity vector VISM and temperature observations, along with secondary neutrals, most likely from the outer heliosheath, IBEX also probes the conditions and interaction outside the heliospheric boundary. Precise knowledge of the ISN flow direction is key, because small differences have substantial leverage on the VISM-BISM plane, which controls the large-scale heliosphere structure. For quantitative tools, the ribbon formation must be understood and the ISN flow parameters must be further refined. IBEX maps show that the latitudinal ribbon structure carries the imprint of fast and slow solar wind (SW). These results support models that involve charge exchange with the SW, currently in two renditions: secondary ENAs from neutral SW reaching into the outer heliosheath and reflection of SW at the TS. In the TS model, the ribbon distance maps the TS, and reactions to changing SW at 1 AU follow within 1 - 2 years. In the secondary ENA model, ribbon ENAs provide an energy-dependent spatio-temporal probe of the outer heliosheath over several years after SW changes at 1 AU. Therefore, observations over a full solar cycle with IBEX, probing the ribbon depth with SW modulation, are key to its understanding. Likewise, expanding the successful variation of the IBEX pointing strategy over times with varying ionization rates will refine the ISN flow vector. The capabilities of the Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP), which has highest priority in the recent NRC Heliophysics Decadal Survey, are needed to probe the spatio-temporal fine-structure of the ribbon

  6. The RNA world in the 21st century-a systems approach to finding non-coding keys to clinical questions.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Ulf; Naderi-Meshkin, Hojjat; Gupta, Shailendra K; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Vera, Julio

    2016-05-01

    There was evidence that RNAs are a functionally rich class of molecules not only since the arrival of the next-generation sequencing technology. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) could be the key to accelerated diagnosis and enhanced prediction of disease and therapy outcomes as well as the design of advanced therapeutic strategies to overcome yet unsatisfactory approaches.In this review, we discuss the state of the art in RNA systems biology with focus on the application in the systems biomedicine field. We propose guidelines for analysing the role of microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs in human pathologies. We introduce RNA expression profiling and network approaches for the identification of stable and effective RNomics-based biomarkers, providing insights into the role of ncRNAs in disease regulation. Towards this, we discuss ways to model the dynamics of gene regulatory networks and signalling pathways that involve ncRNAs. We also describe data resources and computational methods for finding putative mechanisms of action of ncRNAs. Finally, we discuss avenues for the computer-aided design of novel RNA-based therapeutics.

  7. Question Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Josh

    2012-01-01

    After accepting the principal position at Farmersville (TX) Junior High, the author decided to increase instructional rigor through question mapping because of the success he saw using this instructional practice at his prior campus. Teachers are the number one influence on student achievement (Marzano, 2003), so question mapping provides a…

  8. Curiosity Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip

    2010-01-01

    Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…

  9. The Task-Based Approach: Some Questions and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlewood, William

    2004-01-01

    This article first addresses the question of what tasks are. It suggests that rather than accept the common "communicative" definition, we should return to a broader definition and then focus on key dimensions that distinguish (from the learner's perspective) different types of task, notably degrees of task involvement and degrees of focus on form…

  10. A question of choice.

    PubMed

    Grabiner, Gene

    2011-06-22

    Women's reproductive rights, reproductive health, and constitutional privacy rights in the United States are addressed in light of the contemporary onslaught of the Christian Right. The misuse of State power by fundamentalist social forces in America is critiqued. The article also briefly reviews the question of State control over women's bodies.

  11. A Question of Choice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Women's reproductive rights, reproductive health, and constitutional privacy rights in the United States are addressed in light of the contemporary onslaught of the Christian Right. The misuse of State power by fundamentalist social forces in America is critiqued. The article also briefly reviews the question of State control over women's bodies. PMID:21696627

  12. Questionable Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

    1999-01-01

    This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

  13. Questor's Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary; Dock, Michelle Nichols; Eldridge, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    Questor is a curious little bird whose four broad questions are helpful to anyone interested in making art or understanding the art of others. He was designed as a character in an online video for children, "Building on a River: Questor's Tale." The video is narrated by Questor, who relates the 2000 year history of architecture along the Salt…

  14. "The" Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Pardee, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the suggestions found in Michael Canale's paper, "Considerations in the Testing of Reading and Listening Proficiency," in the light of a possible U.S. Government's Interagency Language Roundtable receptive skills proficiency test which must supply the answer to the question of how well an individual can understand a particular…

  15. Critical Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Jo; Hoffman, James V.

    1998-01-01

    Offers responses from four readers of this journal, all reading and/or classroom teachers, to a question posed by another teacher: whether children who have had limited literacy experiences should start reading in whole-language readers and/or trade books or whether they should start in controlled-vocabulary preprimers. (SR)

  16. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching artists often find themselves working in schools and communities that are new to them, whether these are situations close to home or farther afield. This issue of Four Questions highlights teaching artists who travel extensively as part of their teaching and artistic practices and bring their expertise, energy, and creativity to…

  17. That Is the Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korsunsky, Syd

    2002-01-01

    Describes the author's evolution from a teacher set in his ways to one who adapted to students' voices. Contends that classrooms need to be environments where students are able to ask their own questions. Explains that key elements of such an environment include the following: interviews; mini-lessons; multi-genre projects; literature circles;…

  18. Ethical Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, John M.

    1970-01-01

    Eight key areas suggested for discussion by the APA and APGA as bases for formulation of ethical standards are: (1) leader qualifications; (2) limits on procedure; (3) confidentiality of group participants; (4) participant selection; (5) informed consent of participants; (6) freedom of client to withdraw; (7) safeguards for participants against…

  19. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  20. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Kakodkar, A

    1999-07-01

    This convocation addressed by Dr. Anil Kakodkar focuses on the challenges faced by graduating students. In his speech, he emphasized the high level of excellence achieved by the industrial sector; however, he noted that there has been a loss of initiative in maximizing value addition, which was worsened by an increasing population pressure. In facing a stiff competition in the external and domestic markets, it is imperative to maximize value addition within the country in a competitive manner and capture the highest possible market share. To achieve this, high-quality human resources are central. Likewise, family planning programs should become more effective and direct available resources toward national advantage. To boost the domestic market, he suggests the need to search for strengths to achieve leadership position in those areas. First, an insight into the relationship between the lifestyles and the needs of our people and the natural resource endowment must be gained. Second, remodeling of the education system must be undertaken to prepare the people for adding the necessary innovative content in our value addition activities. Lastly, Dr. Kakodkar emphasizes the significance of developing a strong bond between parents and children to provide a sound foundation and allow the education system to grow upon it.

  1. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  2. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  3. President's Address

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Maurice

    1928-01-01

    Conditions which experience has proved conducive to mental disturbance considered.—Suggestions as to their treatment.—A weakened inhibition, rather than any positive condition, is probably the most important factor in the production of the exhaustion psycho-neuroses or psychoses. This view is supported by the prophylactic value of giving for prolonged periods small doses of bromide to hypersensitive children or to highly-strung persons exposed to stress or tropical climate, etc.—Pavlov's work on the conditioned reflexes in dogs quoted in support of the author's clinical experience: Pavlov states that bromides should not be regarded as sedatives, diminishing the excitability of the central nervous system, but as simply regulating the nervous system by strengthening the intensity of internal inhibition. This agrees with the author's clinical experience, as small doses of bromide taken regularly over a period of many years do not diminish the mental powers but in fact increase them. Question of sleeplessness considered with regard to the way in which sedatives act. Most of these do not act as so-called “sleeping draughts”; research may ultimately show that their action is to strengthen a weakened inhibition and that sleep is only a secondary benefit.—Value of sedatives before and after surgical operation. Importance of toxæmia in the production of mental disorder; insomnia often precedes a toxic process and permits it to become active. The theory of weakened inhibition explains many problems; e.g., why certain brilliant children or adults break down and why at first there is no interference with their normal mental activity which only becomes involved as sleep and other bodily functions become affected; why a toxæmia may affect the nervous system of certain people; why a breakdown may follow over-stimulation or occur with advancing years; why some persons relapse when certain treatment is discontinued; why treatment should at times be continuous, and why

  4. Twenty Questions about Student Errors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kathleen M.; Lipson, Joseph Isaac

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the value of studying errors made by students in the process of learning science. Addresses 20 research questions dealing with student learning errors. Attempts to characterize errors made by students and clarify some terms used in error research. (TW)

  5. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html File Formats Help: How ...

  6. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  7. Questions of wisdom.

    PubMed

    Schmidt Bunkers, Sandra

    2009-04-01

    In this column questions concerning wisdom are addressed, such as, what is wisdom? Can wisdom be taught in the academy? Several perspectives on wisdom from philosophy, education, business, and psychology are presented. Wisdom with creativity-creativity with wisdom is then explored through discussion of Parse's humanbecoming teaching-learning model and Laird Hamilton's life lessons learned from surfing, which he termed wisdom of the wave. The column concludes with consideration of the wise person.

  8. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crovini, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen To quote Mr Jean Terrien: "Physics must be one step ahead of metrology". A long-serving Director of the BIPM, he said these words when visiting the IMGC in 1970 as a member of the scientific board of our Institute. At that time it was still an open question whether the IMGC should start research work on the absolute measurement of silicon lattice spacing. Mr Terrien underlined the revolutionary character of x-ray interferometry and, eventually, he caused the balance needle to lean towards the ... right direction. Mr Terrien correctly foresaw that, like Michelson's interferometer of 1880, x-ray interferometry could have a prominent place in today's science and technology. And while, in the first case, after more than a century we can see instruments based on electromagnetic wave interaction within every one's reach in laboratories and, sometimes, in workshops, in the second case, twenty-five years since the first development of an x-ray interferometer we can witness its role in nanometrology. Today and tomorrow we meet to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal place in the value of the Avogadro constant. We are aware that the quest for this achievement requires the cooperation of scientists with complementary capabilities. I am sure that the present workshop is a very good opportunity to present and discuss results and to improve and extend existing cooperation. The new adjustment of fundamental constants envisaged by the CODATA Task Group is redoubling scientists' efforts to produce competitive values of NA. The results of the measurements of the silicon lattice spacing in terms of an optical wavelength, which were available for the 1986 adjustment, combined with the determination of silicon molar volume, demonstrate how such an NA determination produces a consistent set of other constants and opens the way to a possible redefinition of the kilogram. We shall see in these two days how far we have progressed along this road. For us at the

  9. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV…

  10. Teacher-Student Sexual Relations: Key Risks and Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics…

  11. Questioning Many Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sara F.

    2015-04-01

    The first section of this memoir queries my formative years. Indirectly I address the question, did my childhood and early years make a difference in my choice of career? Why and how did I begin my journey to becoming a scientist? Did I choose the field of solar astronomy or did circumstances dictate it for me? In the second section, I travel through my work environments and experiences, talking about interactions and aspects of being a scientist that do not appear in our research papers. What parts of my research were happenstances and what parts did I plan? What does it feel like to be on scientific quests? Using examples in my journey, I also turn to questions that have intrigued me throughout my sojourn as a solar astronomer. How do scientific discoveries come about? What factors lead to little discoveries? And what factors lead to major exciting discoveries? Are there timely questions we do not think to ask? How can small, seemingly scattered pieces of knowledge suddenly coalesce into a deeper understanding - what is called the "Aha!" experience - the times when our mental light switches on, and with child-like wonder we behold a "big picture"?

  12. Privacy Questions from Practicing School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2004-01-01

    This Question and Answer (Q&A) article addresses practice issues related to school health records and school nursing documentation that were posed by school nurses in the field. Specifically, the questions addressed concern the following: education records, medication privacy issues, sharing of sensitive health information, privacy of…

  13. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  14. Recognizing Question Entailment for Medical Question Answering

    PubMed Central

    Abacha, Asma Ben; Dina, Demner-Fushman

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing heterogeneity and specialization of medical texts, automated question answering is becoming more and more challenging. In this context, answering a given medical question by retrieving similar questions that are already answered by human experts seems to be a promising solution. In this paper, we propose a new approach for the detection of similar questions based on Recognizing Question Entailment (RQE). In particular, we consider Frequently Asked Question (FAQs) as a valuable and widespread source of information. Our final goal is to automatically provide an existing answer if FAQ similar to a consumer health question exists. We evaluate our approach using consumer health questions received by the National Library of Medicine and FAQs collected from NIH websites. Our first results are promising and suggest the feasibility of our approach as a valuable complement to classic question answering approaches. PMID:28269825

  15. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    PubMed

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  16. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  17. Questions, Questioning Techniques, and Effective Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilen, William W., Ed.

    This book focuses on questioning techniques and strategies teachers may employ to make the difference between active and passive learning in the classroom. There are nine chapters: (1) Why Questions? (Ambrose A. Clegg, Jr.); (2) Review of Research on Questioning Techniques (Meredith D. Gall and Tom Rhody); (3) The Multidisciplinary World of…

  18. Questions About Venus after Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    asymmetry in the haze distribution? (vi) what is the direction of the near surface wind at different locations on the planet? JAXA's Akatsuki orbiter will soon begin collecting unique and valuable observations in April 2016 which will increase our knowledge, but other measurements required to answer these questions require careful and sustained observations within the atmosphere and from surface based stations. Some of these measurements should and can be made by large missions such as Venera-D, Venus Climate Mission or the Venus Flagship Design Reference Mission which have been studied in recent years, but some have not been addressed in such studies. Many new missions to Venus are being developed or conceived and it is important to keep the key questions about Venus in focus.

  19. Posing Einstein's Question: Questioning Einstein's Pose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topper, David; Vincent, Dwight E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the events surrounding a famous picture of Albert Einstein in which he poses near a blackboard containing a tensor form of his 10 field equations for pure gravity with a question mark after it. Speculates as to the content of Einstein's lecture and the questions he might have had about the equation. (Contains over 30 references.) (WRM)

  20. Ask Questions to Encourage Questions Asked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    belcastro, sarah-marie

    2017-01-01

    We delineate some types of structured practice (modeling, requests, feedback, and space-making) that help students learn to pose appropriate questions and to initiate exploration of those questions. Developing skills requires practice, so we suggest ways to embed structured practice into existing class sessions. Including structured practice is…

  1. Textbook Questions to Support Spatial Thinking: Differences in Spatiality by Question Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Injeong; Bednarz, Sarah W.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the location and varying spatiality of questions in geography textbooks. The results show that study questions posed in page margins address the three components of spatial thinking--concepts of space, using tools of representation, and processes of reasoning--more than questions in other locations within the text. Three…

  2. Who Asks the Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hervey, Sheena

    2006-01-01

    From a very young age, children actively strive to make sense of their world through constant questioning. The ability to ask questions comes naturally for young children, but such natural inclination does not continue because it teachers who ask most of the questions. Sheena Hervey suggests that teaching students how to pose questions is a…

  3. Revisiting Routine Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Rebecca; Monaghan, John; Shingadia, Eisha; Vaughan, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    What is a routine question? The focus of this paper is routine questions and time (in years) since a hitherto routine question was last attempted by the solver. The data comes from undergraduate students' work on solving two calculus questions. The data was selected for reporting purposes because it is well documented and because it threw up…

  4. Questions of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa de Jesus, Helena; Teixeira-Dias, Jose J. C.; Watts, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Documents the use of student-generated questions as diagnostic of their willingness to engage in classroom interactions. Explores four ways of gathering students' written questions and their relative effectiveness. Examines students' capacity to design and present 'quality questions' and the extent to which these questions are indicative of…

  5. Question analysis for Indonesian comparative question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saelan, A.; Purwarianti, A.; Widyantoro, D. H.

    2017-01-01

    Information seeking is one of human needs today. Comparing things using search engine surely take more times than search only one thing. In this paper, we analyzed comparative questions for comparative question answering system. Comparative question is a question that comparing two or more entities. We grouped comparative questions into 5 types: selection between mentioned entities, selection between unmentioned entities, selection between any entity, comparison, and yes or no question. Then we extracted 4 types of information from comparative questions: entity, aspect, comparison, and constraint. We built classifiers for classification task and information extraction task. Features used for classification task are bag of words, whether for information extraction, we used lexical, 2 previous and following words lexical, and previous label as features. We tried 2 scenarios: classification first and extraction first. For classification first, we used classification result as a feature for extraction. Otherwise, for extraction first, we used extraction result as features for classification. We found that the result would be better if we do extraction first before classification. For the extraction task, classification using SMO gave the best result (88.78%), while for classification, it is better to use naïve bayes (82.35%).

  6. Addressing Inequalities in Health: New Directions in Midwifery Education and Practice. Researching Professional Education Research Reports Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Angie; Lockey, Rachael; Henwood, Flis; Pankhurst, Francesca; Hall, Valerie; Sommerville, Fiona

    This report addresses key questions concerning the effectiveness of midwifery education in preparing midwives to meet the needs of women from minority or disadvantaged groups in England. Chapter 1 sets out the methodological context within which the work was undertaken and provides an overview of data sources and sample sizes. Chapters 3 and 4…

  7. Questioning cochlear amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, Marcel; Versteegh, Corstiaen P. C.

    2015-12-01

    Thirty years ago it was hypothesized that motile processes inject mechanical energy into cochlear traveling waves. This mechanical amplification, alternatively described as negative damping, is invoked to explain both the sensitivity and the nonlinear compression of cochlear responses. There is a recent trend to present cochlear amplification as an established fact, even though the evidence is at most circumstantial and several thorny problems have remained unresolved. We analyze several of these issues, and present new basilar membrane recordings that allowed us to quantify cochlear energy flow. Specifically, we address the following questions: (1) Does auditory sensitivity require narrowband amplification? (2) Has the "RC problem" (lowpass filtering of outer hair cell receptor potential) been resolved? (3) Can OHC motility improve auditory sensitivity? (4) Is there a net power gain between neighboring locations on the basilar membrane? The analyses indicate that mechanical amplification in the cochlea is neither necessary nor useful, and that realizing it by known forms of motility would reduce sensitivity rather than enhance it. Finally, our experimental data show that the peaking of the traveling wave is realized by focusing the acoustic energy rather than amplifying it. (Abbreviations. BM: basilar membrane; CF: characteristic frequency; IHC: inner hair cell; ME: middle ear; MT; mechanotransducer; OHC: outer hair cell; SPL: sound pressure level.)

  8. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  9. Risk Factor Analysis and the Youth Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with exploring how in late modernity the "youth question" is being addressed by public policy and what impact this is having on understandings of childhood and youth. Historically the youth question has been shaped by adult anxieties over youth delinquency and their problems of social integration. In late modernity, this is…

  10. Teaching Dystopias: The Value of Religious Questioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seabury, Marcia Bundy

    1995-01-01

    Argues that a true general education should encourage the exploration of religious questions. Describes the author's use of works showing dystopian societies based on existing values, such as Huxley's "Brave New World," to encourage students to rethink their assumptions and develop openness toward the questions that religions address. (22…

  11. Conscience in Childhood: Old Questions, New Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksan, Nazan; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2005-01-01

    Although conscience has been the focus of reflection for centuries, fundamental questions regarding its organization have not been fully answered. To address those questions, the authors applied structural equation modeling techniques to longitudinal data comprising multiple behavioral measures of children's conscience, obtained in parallel…

  12. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an exam question which challenges college freshmen, enrolled in chemistry, to derive temperature dependence of an equilibrium constant. The question requires cognitive response at the level of synthesis. (Author/SA)

  13. Burning Questions about Calories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, J. David; Berry, Kimberly A.

    2001-01-01

    Uses questioning techniques to teach about caloric consumption and weight gain. Starts with defining questions about calories and includes the stages of measuring calories, analyzing data, and conducting inquiry research. Includes directions for the experiment. (YDS)

  14. Questions in Reference Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Marilyn Domas

    1998-01-01

    Characterizes the questioning behavior in reference interviews preceding delegated online searches of bibliographic databases and relates it to questioning behavior in other types of interviews/settings. Compares questions asked by the information specialist and those asked by the client; findings show the information specialist dominates the…

  15. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Contains two articles relating to chemistry examination questions. One provides examples of how to sequence multiple choice questions so that partial credit may be given for some responses. The second includes a question and solution dealing with stereoisomerism as a result of free radical chlorination of a nonstereoisometic substance. (TW)

  16. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Acceptable answers are provided for two chemistry questions. The first question is related to the prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The second question is related to extraterrestrial kinetic theory of gases. (JN)

  17. Listening and Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haroutunian-Gordon, Sophie

    2007-01-01

    In the article that follows, I take up a debate that has arisen over the past three years concerning the following issue: Does every act of listening involve the listener in questioning? I argue that the answer to the questions is yes. I give background on the question and then consider one instance of listening that may suggest no role for…

  18. Making Questions Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Dan; Santana, Luz; Minigan, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Getting students to ask questions can feel like pulling teeth. How can teachers transform that feeling and create classrooms that come alive with questions? The authors, developers of the question formulation technique, suggest two simple changes: First, teachers need to give students both a structure and the opportunity to practice generating…

  19. Improving Student Question Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  20. Measuring Victimization inside Prisons: Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing; Bachman, Ronet

    2008-01-01

    Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the questions used in the…

  1. Question-Asking and Question-Exploring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Lorraine; Carr, Margaret; Lee, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    The Centre of Innovation Research at Greerton Early Childhood Centre was characterised as a dispositional milieu where working theories were explored through a narrative research methodology. As the research progressed, the teachers at Greerton strengthened the way we were listening to, and watching out for young children's questions to enable…

  2. Asking questions with focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang; Xu, Yi

    2004-05-01

    This study investigates how different interrogative meanings interact with focus in determining the overall F0 profile of a question. We recorded eight native speakers of Mandarin producing statements, yes-no questions with and without a question particle, wh questions, incredulous questions, and confirmation questions. In each sentence, either the initial, medial, final, or no word was focused. The tonal components of the sentences are all high, all rising, all low, or all falling. F0 contours were extracted by measuring every complete vocal period in the initial, medial, and final disyllabic words in each sentence. Preliminary results show that in both statements and questions, the pitch range of the focused words is expanded and that of the postfocus words suppressed (compressed and lowered). However, postfocus pitch-range suppression seems less extensive in questions than in statements, and in some question types than in others. Finally, an extra F0 rise is often observed in the final syllable of a question unless the syllable is the question particle which has the neutral tone. This is indicative of a high or rising boundary tone associated with the interrogative meaning, which seems to be superimposed on the tone of the sentence-final syllable. [Work supported by NIDCD DC03902.

  3. Legislative advocacy is key to addressing teen driving deaths.

    PubMed

    Gillan, J S

    2006-06-01

    The increased crash risk of young, novice drivers, especially in their teenage years, has been a growing concern at both the state and federal levels. Teenage drivers are involved in fatal crashes at more than double the rate of the rest of the population per 100 000 licensed drivers. The best way of stemming these losses is to enact laws adopting graduated licensure systems that restrict young, novice drivers to conditions that reduce crash risk exposure when they first operate motor vehicles and to educate the public on the need for this legislation. Legislated teenage driving restrictions involve night-time vehicle driving restrictions, prohibitions on other teenage passengers, and the required presence of supervising adults. These restrictions are relaxed as teenage drivers successfully progress through initial and intermediate stages of graduated licensure before being granted unrestricted driver licenses. Unfortunately, many states have incomplete graduated licensing systems that need further legislative action to raise them to the desirable three-stage system that has been shown repeatedly to produce the greatest safety benefits. These state efforts should be buttressed by federal legislation that has proved to be crucial in allied driver behavioral concerns. Because reducing crash risk involves other strategies, stringent enforcement of primary seat belt laws as well as improved motor vehicle crash avoidance capabilities and crashworthiness must accompany efforts to reduce young driver crash risk.

  4. Defense Acquisitions: Addressing Incentives is Key to Further Reform Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-30

    defense acquisition fit naturally into the free enterprise model . Most Americans believe that the defense industry, as a part of private industry, is...reduction over profit limitation. DOD should investigate the potential of these concepts as it structures and manages programs moving forward. Central...acquisition strategies, and contracts that incentivize cost reduction over profit limitations are to be explored, the government will need to examine

  5. Reinventing oversight in the twenty-first century: the question of capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosso, Christopher; DeLeo, Rob A.; Kay, W. D.

    2011-04-01

    This article addresses a key question emerging from this project based at the University of Minnesota: the fundamental capacity of government to engage in "dynamic oversight" of emergent technologies. This conception of oversight requires additional or new types of capacity for government agencies that must arbitrate conflicts and endow any outcomes with necessary democratic legitimacy. Rethinking oversight thus also requires consideration of the fundamental design and organizational capacity of the regulatory regime in the democratic state.

  6. Native Language Experience Shapes Neural Basis of Addressed and Assembled Phonologies

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Zhang, Mingxia; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chuansheng

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of addressed and assembled phonologies in reading Chinese and alphabetic languages (e.g., English) and the modulatory role of native language in learning to read a second language. However, it is not clear whether native language experience shapes the neural mechanisms of addressed and assembled phonologies. To address this question, we trained native Chinese and native English speakers to read the same artificial language (based on Korean Hangul) either through addressed (i.e., whole-word mapping) or assembled (i.e., grapheme-to-phoneme mapping) phonology. We found that, for both native Chinese and native English speakers, addressed phonology relied on the regions in the ventral pathway, whereas assembled phonology depended on the regions in the dorsal pathway. More importantly, we found that the neural mechanisms of addressed and assembled phonologies were shaped by native language experience. Specifically, two key regions for addressed phonology (i.e., the left middle temporal gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus) showed greater activation for addressed phonology in native Chinese speakers, while one key region for assembled phonology (i.e., the left supramarginal gyrus) showed more activation for assembled phonology in native English speakers. These results provide direct neuroimaging evidence for the effect of native language experience on the neural mechanisms of phonological access in a new language and support the assimilation-accommodation hypothesis. PMID:25858447

  7. Native language experience shapes neural basis of addressed and assembled phonologies.

    PubMed

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Zhang, Mingxia; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chuansheng

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of addressed and assembled phonologies in reading Chinese and alphabetic languages (e.g., English) and the modulatory role of native language in learning to read a second language. However, it is not clear whether native language experience shapes the neural mechanisms of addressed and assembled phonologies. To address this question, we trained native Chinese and native English speakers to read the same artificial language (based on Korean Hangul) either through addressed (i.e., whole-word mapping) or assembled (i.e., grapheme-to-phoneme mapping) phonology. We found that, for both native Chinese and native English speakers, addressed phonology relied on the regions in the ventral pathway, whereas assembled phonology depended on the regions in the dorsal pathway. More importantly, we found that the neural mechanisms of addressed and assembled phonologies were shaped by native language experience. Specifically, one key region for addressed phonology (i.e., the left middle temporal gyrus) showed greater activation for addressed phonology in native Chinese speakers, while one key region for assembled phonology (i.e., the left supramarginal gyrus) showed more activation for assembled phonology in native English speakers. These results provide direct neuroimaging evidence for the effect of native language experience on the neural mechanisms of phonological access in a new language and support the assimilation-accommodation hypothesis.

  8. Unpark Those Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly

    2013-01-01

    Whenever Mr. Henderson's 3rd grade students had a question that he couldn't immediately answer or that seemed off-topic, he asked them to write the question on a sticky note and place it on a poster dubbed the "Parking Lot." His intention was to find time later to answer those questions, but too often, he said, the parking lot…

  9. Purchasing Educational Materials--Questions from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Lists 16 questions to address when pondering the purchase of educational materials. Addressed are issues of educational potential, health and safety to children, age flexibility, potential for skill development, structural integrity, and adequate customer service. (SD)

  10. A Tattoo for You? Seven Key Questions to Consider

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers ... Safer Spring Break More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical ...

  11. Uncertainties and Key Open Questions in the Geological Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The geological carbon cycle determines the long term distribution of CO2 between the mantle, crust and atmosphere, and therefore controls the concentration of CO2 in the Earth's atmosphere. Records of CO2 concentrations and temperature for the last 600,000 years indicate a relative stability in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, reflecting a balance between CO2 input to the atmosphere from volcanism and metamorphism, and output via silicate weathering. The absolute rates of these global fluxes contributes to controlling the lifetime of CO2 in the atmosphere. It is therefore extremely relevant and important to quantify the rate of the geological cycle for CO2, as this will contribute to the timescale of recovery from a change in policy on anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Here we review the state of the art in our knowledge of Earth's geological CO2 output, and highlight causes of large underestimates, largely due to methodological errors in measurement of CO2 flux. We produce a new, corrected estimate and use this to estimate a CO2 lifetime which is significantly shorter than previously thought.

  12. Teaching Students to Visualize: Nine Key Questions for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Laura A.

    2009-01-01

    The seemingly simple task associated with formal reading instruction may be problematic for many students with speech and language delays who often enter school with meager literacy experiences (B. K. Gunn, D. C. Simmons, & E. J. Kame'enui, 1999). However, the challenges that students face may be reduced when reading instruction includes…

  13. When Revision Is Redesign: Key Questions for Digital Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delagrange, Susan H.

    2009-01-01

    Q: When the interface of an interactive, digital, scholarly article is designed as an integral part of the article's argument, what are the rhetorical, conceptual, and technical challenges of re-designing the project to better enact that argument? Susan Delagrange offers a behind-the-scenes look at the authorial and editorial processes that led to…

  14. Ask Good Questions by Starting with Key Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyek-Franssen, Deborah; Briggs, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    Assessing campus needs for educational technologies and support is no small undertaking, so ensuring that one collects information that truly will help decision making requires careful planning. Data collection can be time-consuming and expensive. A well-organized educational technology needs assessment should add value to campus IT resources, not…

  15. Magna Carta at 800: Ten Key Questions Answered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Howard

    2014-01-01

    2015 marks the 800th anniversary of Magna Carta. For Americans, this iconic document is a formative element of our own legal and political heritage. This "Lessons on the Law" column offers an overview of the "Great Charter," why it is significant, and what students and teachers should know about it. The article also highlights…

  16. Key Questions about School Safety: Critical Issues and Recommended Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Hill M.; Eaton-Walker, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Although school tragedies are not totally preventable, they will be far more preventable if schools develop a written school safety plan. Components should include legally mandated safety drills, regularly scheduled school safety audits and evaluations, a student apparel policy, a schoolwide discipline plan, and a closed campus. (MLH)

  17. Tritium: An analysis of key environmental and dosimetric questions

    SciTech Connect

    Till, J E; Meyer, H R; Etnier, E L; Bomar, E S; Gentry, R D; Killough, G G; Rohwer, P S; Tennery, V J; Travis, C C

    1980-05-01

    This document summarizes new theoretical and experimental data that may affect the assessment of environmental releases of tritium and analyzes the significance of this information in terms of the dose to man. Calculated doses resulting from tritium releases to the environment are linearly dependent upon the quality factor chosen for tritium beta radiation. A reevaluation of the tritium quality factor by the ICRP is needed; a value of 1.7 would seem to be more justifiable than the old 1.0 value. A new exposure model is proposed, based primarily upon the approach recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Employing a /open quotes/typical/close quotes/ LMFBR reprocessing facility source term, a /open quotes/base case/close quotes/ dose commitment to total body (for a maximally exposed individual) was calculated to be 4.0 /times/ 10/sup /minus/2/ mSv, with 3.2 /times/ 10/sup /minus// mSv of the dose due to intake of tritium. The study analyzes models which exist for evaluating the buildup of global releases of tritium from man-made sources. Scenarios for the release of man-made tritium to the environment and prediction of collective dose commitment to future generations suggest that the dose from nuclear weapons testing will be less than that from nuclear energy even though the weapons source term is greater than that for any of our energy scenarios.

  18. 1 Great Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nethery, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an ideal question that can take an art teacher and his or her students through all the levels of thought in Bloom's taxonomy--perfect for modeling the think-aloud process: "How many people is the artist inviting into this picture?" This great question always helps the students look beyond the obvious and dig…

  19. Let's Switch Questioning Around

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovani, Cris

    2015-01-01

    English teacher Cris Tovani knows from her experiences teaching elementary school that students are naturally curious. But, too often, students are so trained to be question answerers that by the time they reach high school, they no longer form questions of their own and instead focus on trying to figure out what answer the teacher wants. Tovani…

  20. Questions About the Oceans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubach, Harold W.; Taber, Robert W.

    This book was prompted by the success of a display mounted by the National Oceanographic Data Center at the 17th International Science Fair in 1966, which enabled visiting teachers and students to ask and receive answers to questions via teletype. The book contains one hundred questions typical of those asked, together with answers ranging in…

  1. Designing Great Hinge Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    According to author Dylan Wiliam, because lessons never go exactly as planned, teachers should build plan B into plan A. This involves designing a lesson with a "hinge" somewhere in the middle and using specific kinds of questions--what he calls hinge questions--to quickly assess students' understanding of a concept before moving on.…

  2. Problem of Questioning

    SciTech Connect

    2005-10-31

    Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet

  3. Problem of Questioning

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet

  4. What is a Question?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A given question can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of the logic of inference to this set of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among questions. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion, there exists an analogous quantity that describes the bearing or relevance that a question has on an outstanding issue. These have been extended to suggest that the logic of inquiry results in functional relationships analogous to, although more general than, those found in information theory. Employing lattice theory, I examine in greater detail the structure of the space of assertions and questions demonstrating that the symmetries between the logical relations in each of the spaces derive directly from the lattice structure. Furthermore, I show that while symmetries between the spaces exist, the two lattices are not isomorphic. The lattice of assertions is described by a Boolean lattice 2(sup N) whereas the lattice of real questions is shown to be a sublattice of the free distributive lattice FD(N) = 2(sup 2(sup N)). Thus there does not exist a one-to-one mapping of assertions to questions, there is no reflection symmetry between the two spaces, and questions in general do not possess unique complements. Last, with these lattice structures in mind, I discuss the relationship between probability, relevance and entropy.

  5. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  6. Statin intolerance: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Guyton, John R; Campbell, Kristen B; Lakey, Wanda C

    2014-01-01

    The dramatic effectiveness of statins in improving the course of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease tends to overshadow questions of statin intolerance. Thus after more than 25 years of clinical statin use, intolerance remains a poorly understood, frustrating issue for patients and providers. It has been extraordinarily difficult to define statin intolerance and its implications for clinical practice. Here, we briefly summarize current knowledge and raise questions that need to be addressed.

  7. EPA Subaward Frequent Questions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These answers to frequent questions (FQ) are intended to provide information to recipients of EPA financial assistance to help them understand EPA’s interpretations of the Uniform Grant Guidance (UGG) and EPA’s Subaward Policy.

  8. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J.

    1980-01-01

    Provides exam questions and solutions for a problem in amplification sequence of reactions, and a problem in applying group theory techniques and making spectral assignments and structural determination by qualitative arguments in the bonding in metal complexes. (CS)

  9. Rubella: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... of special precautions. Does the MMR vaccine cause autism? There is no scientific evidence that measles, MMR, ... other vaccine causes or increases the risk of autism. The question about a possible link between MMR ...

  10. Perchlorate Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA's Interim Health Advisory for Perchlorate in Public Water Systems On January 8, 2009, the Environmental Protection ... thyroid hormone. Questions and Answers about EPA’s Drinking Water Findings If perchlorate is present in my drinking ...

  11. Panspermia asks new questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyce, Brig

    2001-08-01

    There is a widespread sentiment that panspermia is uninteresting is because it does not answer fundamental questions about the origin of life. The strongest version of panspermia asks entirely new questions. While barriers to the acceptance of panspermia are falling and evidence supporting it is accumulating, the mere possibility of panspermia unhinges the Darwinian account of evolutionary progress. The new theory removes an issue dividing science and religion, but it requires an amendment to the big bang theory.

  12. Addressing health literacy in patient decision aids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective use of a patient decision aid (PtDA) can be affected by the user’s health literacy and the PtDA’s characteristics. Systematic reviews of the relevant literature can guide PtDA developers to attend to the health literacy needs of patients. The reviews reported here aimed to assess: 1. a) the effects of health literacy / numeracy on selected decision-making outcomes, and b) the effects of interventions designed to mitigate the influence of lower health literacy on decision-making outcomes, and 2. the extent to which existing PtDAs a) account for health literacy, and b) are tested in lower health literacy populations. Methods We reviewed literature for evidence relevant to these two aims. When high-quality systematic reviews existed, we summarized their evidence. When reviews were unavailable, we conducted our own systematic reviews. Results Aim 1: In an existing systematic review of PtDA trials, lower health literacy was associated with lower patient health knowledge (14 of 16 eligible studies). Fourteen studies reported practical design strategies to improve knowledge for lower health literacy patients. In our own systematic review, no studies reported on values clarity per se, but in 2 lower health literacy was related to higher decisional uncertainty and regret. Lower health literacy was associated with less desire for involvement in 3 studies, less question-asking in 2, and less patient-centered communication in 4 studies; its effects on other measures of patient involvement were mixed. Only one study assessed the effects of a health literacy intervention on outcomes; it showed that using video to improve the salience of health states reduced decisional uncertainty. Aim 2: In our review of 97 trials, only 3 PtDAs overtly addressed the needs of lower health literacy users. In 90% of trials, user health literacy and readability of the PtDA were not reported. However, increases in knowledge and informed choice were reported in those studies

  13. How Effective Are Your Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partin, Ronald L.

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines are given to the teacher on using questions to improve classroom discussions. Included are: reasons for using questions, ways to ask questions and acknowledge students' responses, and types of questions which should and should not be used. (SJL)

  14. Using Notable Children's Literature and Questioning Techniques to Enhance Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Gary; Poole, Scott

    Intended for language arts teachers of the upper elementary grades, this guide suggests vocabulary and discussion questions for teaching novels. The questions are on an inferential level of interpretation, rather than literal, and address such topics as style, technique, and plot development. Novels for which questions are provided are: (1)…

  15. Critical Questions about Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winer, Abby; Hebbeler, Kathy; Nelson, Robin; Gundler, Darla; Cate, Debbie; Hudson, Laura; Taylor, Cornelia; Peters, Mary Louise

    2015-01-01

    What is a high-quality statewide data system? One characteristic is that it provides the information needed to address important questions about early intervention and early childhood special education. But what are those questions? What questions should data users, such as program directors, advocates, and policymakers, be asking? The Center for…

  16. Florida Keys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Florida Keys are a chain of islands, islets and reefs extending from Virginia Key to the Dry Tortugas for about 309 kilometers (192 miles). The keys are chiefly limestone and coral formations. The larger islands of the group are Key West (with its airport), Key Largo, Sugarloaf Key, and Boca Chica Key. A causeway extends from the mainland to Key West.

    This image was acquired on October 28, 2001, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic

  17. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  18. Invitational Addresses, 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Arthur I.; And Others

    The full texts of invitational addresses given at the 1965 International Reading Association (IRA) Convention in Detroit, Michigan, by six recipients of IRA citation awards are presented. Gates suggests steps IRA should take to revive and redirect reading research. McCallister discusses the implications of the changing and expanding vocabulary of…

  19. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  20. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  1. Key Nutrients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Lessons written to help trainer agents prepare aides for work with families in the Food and Nutrition Program are presented in this booklet. The key nutrients discussed in the 10 lessons are protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, iron, iodine, and Vitamins A, B, C, and D. the format of each lesson is as follows: Purpose, Presentation, Application…

  2. Systemic Sclerosis: Commonly Asked Questions by Rheumatologists

    PubMed Central

    Young, Amber; Khanna, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a rare autoimmune disorder with significant morbidity and mortality due to multi-organ system involvement. Early diagnosis and screening for organ involvement is critical as earlier treatment appears to improve function and may impact mortality. The purpose of this article is to address some of the commonly asked questions by rheumatologists on systemic sclerosis. PMID:25807095

  3. Survey Questions Answered Only by Psychosocial Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Twelve tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 48 experts in the psychosocial treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of self-injurious or aggressive behavior, specific psychiatric disorders, specific target symptoms, use of applied behavior analysis…

  4. Evolution, Creationism, and the Courts: 20 Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Randy; Miksch, Karen L.

    2003-01-01

    The teaching of evolution and creationism is controversial to many people in the United States. Knowledge of the many important court-decisions about the teaching of evolution and creationism in the United States can be used not only to resist anti-evolution activities of creationists, but also to help teachers address questions about the teaching…

  5. Computers into Classrooms: More Questions than Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beynon, John, Ed.; Mackay, Hughie, Ed.

    This is one of a series of three books addressing the question of the nature of technological literacy. This volume, consisting of an introduction, an epilogue, and 12 chapters, focuses on classrooms and classroom processes involving computers and deals directly with teacher and student usage of microcomputers in teaching and learning. The 12…

  6. Survey Questions Answered Only by Medication Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Fifty-eight tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 45 experts in the medication treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of specific disorders, ratings of various medications for specific disorders or symptoms, and preferences in mood stabilizers,…

  7. Questioning Ohio's Loyalty Requirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Beginning this past summer, all new employees at some Ohio public universities, including those accepting teaching positions, are being confronted with politically sensitive and intrusive questions. In addition to the "Have you solicited any individual for membership in an organization on the U.S. Department of State Terrorist…

  8. A Question of Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2010-01-01

    When intern placement veteran Jacqueline Perkins begins counseling students at Florida A&M University (FAMU) about their prospects for getting well-paying, security-related jobs with the federal government, she confronts the 800-pound gorilla in the room--the question of whether a student has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to a…

  9. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)

  10. My Favorite Exam Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styer, Dan

    2015-01-01

    My favorite exam question comes from the final exam in an introductory mechanics course: "A rolling 31 ton railroad boxcar collides with a stationary flatcar. The coupling mechanism activates so the cars latch together and roll down the track attached. Of the initial kinetic energy, 38% dissipates as heat, sound, vibrations, mechanical…

  11. Asking Questions about Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Ian; Flanagan, Bernie; Hogarth, Sylvia; Mountford, Paula; Philpott, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    We raise questions about young people's participation in light of findings from a project ("Democracy through Citizenship") funded by the Joseph Rowntree Reform Trust Limited, and managed by the Institute for Citizenship. Following a six-month feasibility study the project took place over a three-year period in one local authority in the…

  12. Asking the Right Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Rob

    2011-01-01

    As a student teacher at Nottingham Trent University, the author explored the issues surrounding children asking investigable questions in science and the repertoire of strategies that could be employed by teachers in the classroom to support this process. His project was carried out in an inner-city primary school in Nottingham. The four focus…

  13. The Compensation Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew; Mishel, Lawrence; Roy, Joydeep

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, as cash-strapped states and school districts have faced tough budget decisions, spending on teacher compensation has come under the microscope. The underlying question is whether, when you take everything into account, today's teachers are fairly paid, underpaid, or overpaid. In this forum, two pairs of respected…

  14. What Is the Question?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Melba D.

    Second language educators need to examine in greater depth the learning processes of young children in order to provide them with the kind of teaching they need in order to really learn. This means searching other fields to learn as much as possible about: questioning strategies and the development of critical thinking skills; hemispheric…

  15. Questioning and Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-01-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated…

  16. Questioning in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Ronald T.

    This study investigates the pattern of teacher questioning regarding three elements: sequence, student respondent, and cognitive process. The rationale for this type of teaching rests on the claims for teaching students the process of critical (reflective) thinking. In this type of teaching it is necessary to have data before the students. Only…

  17. Big questions about the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, Magda

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy is not only a branch of science but also an important part of the culture and civilisations of peoples. Starting with archeoastronomy to the present day, it has always contributed to a better understanding of life, of humanity. After 400 years of modern astronomy, it still addresses major problems such as: Why there is something rather than nothing? Why is nature comprehensible to humans? How is cosmos related to humanity? Do multiverses exist? Is there life on other planets? Are we alone in the universe? Does the universe have a beginning? If so, what does it mean? How did the universe originate? All these questions are a challenge for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary investigations, for philosophers, physicists, cosmologists, mathematicians, theologians. The new insights gained by pursuing in depth these common investigations will shape the society we live in and have important consequences on the future we are creating.

  18. Content Addressable Memory Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    The Content Addressable M1-emory Project consists of the development of several experimental software systems on an AMT Distributed Array Processor...searching (database) compiler algorithms memory management other systems software) Linear C is an unlovely hybrid language which imports the CAM...memory from AMT’s operating system for the DAP; how- ever, other than this limitation, the memory management routines work exactly as their C counterparts

  19. Method for encryption and transmission of digital keying data

    SciTech Connect

    Mniszewski, S.M.; Springer, E.A.; Brenner, D.P.

    1988-03-29

    A cryptographic method for encrypting, transmitting and decrypting keying data between a master unit and at least one remote unit is described comprising the steps of: storing in the master unit and in the remote unit key encryption keys, generating a first storage address effective to identify a master key encryption key from the key encryption keys; indexing the first storage address by a first predetermined amount to define a second storage address effective to identify a first key encryption key from the key encryption keys; indexing the first storage address by a second predetermined amount to define a third storage address effective to identify a second key encryption key from the key encryption keys; generating a data encryption key in the master unit, using the first key encryption key; encrypting the data encryption key using the second key encryption key to produce an encrypted data encryption key; downloading to the remote unit the encrypted data encryption key together with a designator value for identifying the address of the second key encryption key at the remote unit; and decrypting the encrypted data encryption key at the remote unit to reproduce the data encryption key at the remote unit.

  20. Les questions de migrations internationales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samman, Mouna Liliane

    1993-03-01

    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of origin and countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in defusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programmes address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution so that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in the light of the complementary or competing actions of the media.

  1. Five questions that need answering when considering the design of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Clark, Timothy; Davies, Hugh; Mansmann, Ulrich

    2014-07-16

    Evidence suggests that research protocols often lack important information on study design, which hinders external review. The study protocol should provide an adequate explanation for why the proposed study methodology is appropriate for the question posed, why the study design is likely to answer the research question, and why it is the best approach. It is especially important that researchers explain why the treatment difference sought is worthwhile to patients, and they should reference consultations with the public and patient groups and existing literature. Moreover, the study design should be underpinned by a systematic review of the existing evidence, which should be included in the research protocol. The Health Research Authority in collaboration with partners has published guidance entitled 'Specific questions that need answering when considering the design of clinical trials'. The guidance will help those designing research and those reviewing it to address key issues.

  2. Knowledge based question answering

    SciTech Connect

    Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.

    1983-01-01

    The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.

  3. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment: What Are the Big Questions?

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, Murray A.; Brooks, Bryan W.; Caldwell, Daniel J.; Choi, Kyungho; Hickmann, Silke; Innes, Elizabeth; Ostapyk, Kim; Staveley, Jane P.; Verslycke, Tim; Ankley, Gerald T.; Beazley, Karen F.; Belanger, Scott E.; Berninger, Jason P.; Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Coors, Anja; DeLeo, Paul C.; Dyer, Scott D.; Ericson, Jon F.; Gagné, François; Giesy, John P.; Gouin, Todd; Hallstrom, Lars; Karlsson, Maja V.; Larsson, D. G. Joakim; Lazorchak, James M.; Mastrocco, Frank; McLaughlin, Alison; McMaster, Mark E.; Meyerhoff, Roger D.; Moore, Roberta; Parrott, Joanne L.; Snape, Jason R.; Murray-Smith, Richard; Servos, Mark R.; Sibley, Paul K.; Straub, Jürg Oliver; Szabo, Nora D.; Topp, Edward; Tetreault, Gerald R.; Trudeau, Vance L.; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the past 10–15 years, a substantial amount of work has been done by the scientific, regulatory, and business communities to elucidate the effects and risks of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment. Objective: This review was undertaken to identify key outstanding issues regarding the effects of PPCPs on human and ecological health in order to ensure that future resources will be focused on the most important areas. Data sources: To better understand and manage the risks of PPCPs in the environment, we used the “key question” approach to identify the principle issues that need to be addressed. Initially, questions were solicited from academic, government, and business communities around the world. A list of 101 questions was then discussed at an international expert workshop, and a top-20 list was developed. Following the workshop, workshop attendees ranked the 20 questions by importance. Data synthesis: The top 20 priority questions fell into seven categories: a) prioritization of substances for assessment, b) pathways of exposure, c) bioavailability and uptake, d) effects characterization, e) risk and relative risk, f ) antibiotic resistance, and g) risk management. Conclusions: A large body of information is now available on PPCPs in the environment. This exercise prioritized the most critical questions to aid in development of future research programs on the topic. PMID:22647657

  4. Quantum theory from questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhn, Philipp Andres; Wever, Christopher S. P.

    2017-01-01

    We reconstruct the explicit formalism of qubit quantum theory from elementary rules on an observer's information acquisition. Our approach is purely operational: we consider an observer O interrogating a system S with binary questions and define S 's state as O 's "catalog of knowledge" about S . From the rules we derive the state spaces for N elementary systems and show that (a) they coincide with the set of density matrices over an N -qubit Hilbert space C2N; (b) states evolve unitarily under the group PSU (2N) according to the von Neumann evolution equation; and (c) O 's binary questions correspond to projective Pauli operator measurements with outcome probabilities given by the Born rule. As a by-product, this results in a propositional formulation of quantum theory. Aside from offering an informational explanation for the theory's architecture, the reconstruction also unravels previously unnoticed structural insights. We show that, in a derived quadratic information measure, (d) qubits satisfy inequalities which bound the information content in any set of mutually complementary questions to 1 bit; and (e) maximal sets of mutually complementary questions for one and two qubits must carry precisely 1 bit of information in pure states. The latter relations constitute conserved informational charges which define the unitary groups and, together with their conservation conditions, the sets of pure quantum states. These results highlight information as a "charge of quantum theory" and the benefits of this informational approach. This work emphasizes the sufficiency of restricting to an observer's information to reconstruct the theory and completes the quantum reconstruction initiated in a companion paper (P. Höhn, arXiv:1412.8323).

  5. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  6. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  7. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  8. Building technology services that address student needs.

    PubMed

    Le Ber, Jeanne M; Lombardo, Nancy T; Wimmer, Erin

    2015-01-01

    A 16-question technology use survey was conducted to assess incoming health sciences students' knowledge of and interest in current technologies, and to identify student device and tool preferences. Survey questions were developed by colleagues at a peer institution and then edited to match this library's student population. Two years of student responses have been compiled, compared, and reviewed as a means for informing library decisions related to technology and resource purchases. Instruction and event programming have been revised to meet student preferences. Based on the number of students using Apple products, librarians are addressing the need to become more proficient with this platform.

  9. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  10. Questions, Relatives, and Minimal Projection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Katherine

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the acquisition of wh-questions and relative clauses in Sesotho, a language with no wh-movement in either questions or relatives, and in which wh-questions must be clefted. (10 references) (JL)

  11. The Art of Asking Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Rosetta A.

    1979-01-01

    A rationale is given for the use of questioning techniques and strategies in classroom instruction. B. Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives is presented as one framework for questions. Five pitfalls, including avoiding vague questions and personal pronouns, are discussed. (CL)

  12. To Question or Not to Question: That Seems to Be the Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradtmueller, Weldon G.; Egan, James B.

    Research on the effects of questioning in the classroom has explored the placement, timing, type, and social impact of questions. Principles of good questioning include the following: (1) well-stated questions should be concise, clear, and complete; (2) questions should be topical in nature, requiring a complex answer; (3) yes or no questions…

  13. Limitations on quantum key repeaters.

    PubMed

    Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas

    2015-04-23

    A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol.

  14. Limitations on quantum key repeaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol.

  15. Questioning and Experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-08-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated model can be interpreted realistically. Moreover, the model demonstrates an explicit logic of knowledge acquisition. So, the natural extension of the model is to apply it to an analysis of the learning process.

  16. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  17. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  18. Core questions in domestication research

    PubMed Central

    Zeder, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    The domestication of plants and animals is a key transition in human history, and its profound and continuing impacts are the focus of a broad range of transdisciplinary research spanning the physical, biological, and social sciences. Three central aspects of domestication that cut across and unify this diverse array of research perspectives are addressed here. Domestication is defined as a distinctive coevolutionary, mutualistic relationship between domesticator and domesticate and distinguished from related but ultimately different processes of resource management and agriculture. The relative utility of genetic, phenotypic, plastic, and contextual markers of evolving domesticatory relationships is discussed. Causal factors are considered, and two leading explanatory frameworks for initial domestication of plants and animals, one grounded in optimal foraging theory and the other in niche-construction theory, are compared. PMID:25713127

  19. Automatically Classifying Question Types for Consumer Health Questions

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kirk; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for automatically classifying consumer health questions. Our thirteen question types are designed to aid in the automatic retrieval of medical answers from consumer health resources. To our knowledge, this is the first machine learning-based method specifically for classifying consumer health questions. We demonstrate how previous approaches to medical question classification are insufficient to achieve high accuracy on this task. Additionally, we describe, manually annotate, and automatically classify three important question elements that improve question classification over previous techniques. Our results and analysis illustrate the difficulty of the task and the future directions that are necessary to achieve high-performing consumer health question classification. PMID:25954411

  20. The Gentle Art of Questioning: Writing Great Clicker Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasteen, Stephanie

    2012-02-01

    How does a teacher use questioning effectively? This workshop will focus on writing those questions that engage students, spark their curiosity, help recap material, give you insight into their thinking, or help them learn critical ideas in physics. We will focus on ``peer instruction'' -- a research-tested method of requiring students to discuss challenging questions with one another. We will investigate the surprising power of multiple-choice questions to achieve critical thinking skills. Finally, we will look at writing questions that align with our goals for students, discuss the elements of effective questions, and practice writing questions and work on improving them.

  1. `Question Moments': A Rolling Programme of Question Opportunities in Classroom Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; Leite, Sara; Watts, Mike

    2016-06-01

    This naturalistic study integrates specific `question moments' into lesson plans to increase pupils' classroom interactions. A range of tools explored students' ideas by providing students with opportunities to ask and write questions. Their oral and written outcomes provide data on individual and group misunderstandings. Changes to the schedule of lessons were introduced to explore these questions and address disparities. Flexible lesson planning over 14 lessons across a 4-week period of high school chemistry accommodated students' contributions and increased student participation, promoted inquiring and individualised teaching, with each teaching strategy feeding forward into the next.

  2. Application of cognitive engineering principles to the redesign of a dichotomous identification key for parasitology.

    PubMed

    Smith-Akin, Kimberly A; McLane, Sharon; Craig, Thomas M; Johnson, Todd R

    2006-01-01

    Dichotomous identification keys are used throughout biology for identification of plants, insects, and parasites. However, correct use of identification keys can be difficult as they are not usually intended for novice users who may not be familiar with the terminology used or with the morphology of the organism being identified. Therefore, we applied cognitive engineering principles to redesign a parasitology identification key for the Internet. We addressed issues of visual clutter and spatial distance by displaying a single question couplet at a time and by switching to the appropriate next couplet after the user made a choice. Our analysis of the original paper-based key versus the Web-based approach found that of 26 applicable cognitive engineering principles, the paper key did not meet 4 (15%) and partially met 11 (42%). In contrast, the redesigned key met 100% of 32 applicable cognitive engineering principles.

  3. Three key components to successfully completing a nursing doctoral program.

    PubMed

    Smith, Donald G; Delmore, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Using their personal experience, the authors identify three key components to successfully completing a nursing doctoral program. The first component is asking the right questions to determine the doctoral degree best suited for the potential student. The second component is having a strategic plan that includes aspects such as financial considerations (research costs and potential financial support) and the development of a strong support system (specifically study pairs). The third component is the development of a systematic approach to completing the research, writing the dissertation, and completing the oral requirements. Addressing these areas will help students balance the many demands of doctoral study.

  4. Cataract, cost: curious questions.

    PubMed

    Moran, D J

    1999-02-01

    An investigation of the pricing of implantable prosthetic devices in Australia reveals some alarming practices. A governmental mechanism exists to prop up the pricing of 7500 listed devices to levels that are unacceptably high by world standards. Private hospitals and doctors are able, legally, to profit by marking up the cost of these devices from the market price to this artificially inflated price. Even the open market prices of implantable prosthetic items, such as intra-ocular lenses, are high by international standards. In a time of budgetary constraint for health spending and rapidly increasing use of these devices, these issues urgently need to be addressed in Australia.

  5. Engaging Students through Effective Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Mary-Anne

    2011-01-01

    In what ways might questioning techniques improve student learning? What kinds of questions enable educators to tap into different parts of the cognitive domain? How can questions engage students when their attention begins to wander? Many questions at the lower levels of Bloom's Taxonomy--particularly knowledge and comprehension--are closed-ended…

  6. Improving Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Cristina; Lopes, Ana Paula; Babo, Lurdes; Azevedo, Jose

    2011-01-01

    A MC (multiple-choice) question can be defined as a question in which students are asked to select one alternative from a given set of alternatives in response to a question stem. The objective of this paper is to analyse if MC questions may be considered as an interesting alternative for assessing knowledge, particularly in the mathematics area,…

  7. Unproven (questionable) cancer therapies.

    PubMed Central

    Brigden, M L

    1995-01-01

    More than half of all cancer patients use some form of alternative treatment during the course of their illness. Alternative therapies are often started early in patients' illness, and their use is frequently not acknowledged to health care professionals. Some alternative therapies are harmful, and their promoters may be fraudulent. Persons who try alternative cancer therapies may not be poorly educated but may ultimately abandon conventional treatment. Recent attention has focused on aspects of questionable therapies that make these treatments attractive to patients and that may be perceived as being deficient in the practice of conventional health care professionals. Physicians with patients with cancer should always make sure that unproven therapies are discussed early in the therapeutic relationship. They should also attempt to be aware of alternative therapies that are in vogue in their particular geographic area. PMID:8533410

  8. Stopping and Questioning Suspected Shoplifters Without Creating Civil Liability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Jack R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Legal problems concerned with shoplifting suspects are addressed, including common law, criminal penalties, and the merchant's liability. Tangential questions and answers are presented along with discussion of pertinent court cases. (LBH)

  9. Opportunities and questions for the fundamental biological sciences in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, Joseph C.; Vernikos, Joan

    1993-01-01

    With the advent of sophisticated space facilities we discuss the overall nature of some biological questions that can be addressed. We point out the need for broad participation by the biological community, the necessary facilities, and some unique requirements.

  10. Strategic Science to Address Current and Future Space Weather Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannucci, A. J.; Schwadron, N.; Antiochos, S. K.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Bisi, M. M.; Gopalswamy, N.; Kamalabadi, F.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Tobiska, W. K.; Weimer, D. R.; Withers, P.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) program has contributed a wealth of scientific knowledge that is relevant to space weather and user needs. A targeted approach to science questions has resulted in leveraging new scientific knowledge to improve not only our understanding of the Heliophysics domain, but also to develop predictive capabilities in key areas of LWS science. This fascinating interplay between science and applications promises to benefit both domains. Scientists providing feedback to the LWS program are now discussing an evolution of the targeted approach that explicitly considers how new science improves, or enables, predictive capability directly. Long-term program goals are termed "Strategic Science Areas" (SSAs) that address predictive capabilities in six specific areas: geomagnetically induced currents, satellite drag, solar energetic particles, ionospheric total electron content, radio frequency scintillation induced by the ionosphere, and the radiation environment. SSAs are organized around user needs and the impacts of space weather on society. Scientists involved in the LWS program identify targeted areas of research that reference (or bear upon) societal needs. Such targeted science leads to new discoveries and is one of the valid forms of exploration. In this talk we describe the benefits of targeted science, and how addressing societal impacts in an appropriate way maintains the strong science focus of LWS, while also leading to its broader impacts.

  11. Answering Questions and Questioning Answers. Part I. University of Central Florida Conference Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, C. C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Brief analyses are provided of presentations at a conference, held at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, which addressed questions and answers relating to research and education. Conference sessions explored the role of research in relation to educational practices with special focus on theory, research, issues, and application. Papers…

  12. L'enseignement de la civilisation en questions (Questions on the Teaching of Civilization).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porcher, Louis

    1982-01-01

    The questions addressed concern: (1) the connection between language and culture; (2) the need for a systematic analysis of general methodology in language teaching; and (3) problems related to instructional materials, including content, teaching materials, authentic documents, and the relation between traditional concepts of culture and daily…

  13. Answering Questions and Questioning Answers. Part II. University of Central Florida Conference Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, C. C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Brief analyses are provided of presentations made at a conference, held at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, which addressed questions and answers relating to research and education. Conference sessions explored the role of research in relation to educational practices with special focus on theory, research, issues and application.…

  14. A Hybrid Approach to Clinical Question Answering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    participation in TREC, we submitted a single run using a hybrid Natural Language Processing ( NLP )-driven approach to accomplish the given task. Evaluation re...for the CDS track uses a variety of NLP - based techniques to address the clinical questions provided. We present a description of our approach, and...discuss our experimental setup, results and eval- uation in the subsequent sections. 2 Description of Our Approach Our hybrid NLP -driven method presents a

  15. Automated measurement of printer effective addressability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Brian E.; Eid, Ahmed H.; Rippetoe, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    When evaluating printer resolution, addressability is a key consideration. Addressability defines the maximum number of spots or samples within a given distance, independent of the size of the spots when printed. Effective addressability is the addressability demonstrated by the final, printed output. It is the minimum displacement possible between the centers of printed objects. In this paper, we present a measurement procedure for effective addressability that offers an automated way to experimentally determine the addressability of the printed output. It requires printing, scanning, and measuring a test target. The effective addressability test target contains two types of elements, repeated to fill the page: fiducial lines and line segments. The fiducial lines serve as a relative reference for the incremental displacements of the individual line segments, providing a way to tolerate larger-scale physical distortions in the printer. An ordinary reflection scanner captures the printed test target. By rotating the page on the scanner, it is possible to measure effective addressability well beyond the scanner's sampling resolution. The measurement algorithm computes the distribution of incremental displacements, forming either a unimodal or bimodal histogram. In the latter case, the mean of the second (non-zero) peak indicates the effective addressability. In the former case, the printer successfully rendered the target's resolution, requiring another iteration of the procedure after increasing the resolution of the test target. The algorithm automatically estimates whether the histogram is unimodal or bimodal and computes parameters describing the quality of the measured histogram. Several experiments have refined the test target and measurement procedure, including two round-robin evaluations by the ISO WG4 committee. Results include an analysis of approximately 150 printed samples. The effective addressability attribute and measurement procedure are included in

  16. [Ethical questions in neonatology].

    PubMed

    Popow, C

    1996-01-01

    Rapid scientific progress in the fields of prenatal diagnostics, obstetrics and neonatology has enabled severe malformations and hereditary diseases to be detected at a very early fetal stage and has also led to the survival of very immature newborn infants in increasing numbers. Parents, doctors and nurses must all participate in the difficult decision making with regard to therapeutic alternatives and due respect must be paid to the intersects of the child, the impact on the family, but also to the professional opinion of the attending doctors and carers. Problems of the ethical limits of prenatal diagnostics, as well as the severity of malformations or organ failure justifying termination of pregnancy or intensive care measures are discussed with reference to clinical cases. Likewise, the question of precedence of the rights of the parents and siblings to quality of life versus the right of the infant to live is broached. From the neonatological point of view candid discussion with the parents, painstaking efforts to build up an atmosphere of confidence and the provision of supportive measures on the one hand, whilst avoiding the expression of dogmatic opinions and patronizing attitudes on the other hand, are essential prerequisites in dealing with the ethical dilemmas arising in the pre- and neonatal management of such cases.

  17. Cosmic questions: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Primack, J R; Abrams, N E

    2001-12-01

    This introductory talk at the Cosmic Questions conference sponsored by the AAAS summarizes some earlier pictures of the universe and some pictures based on modern physics and cosmology. The uroboros (snake swallowing its tail) is an example of a traditional picture. The Biblical flat-earth picture was very different from the Greek spherical earth-centered picture, which was the standard view until the end of the Middle Ages. Many people incorrectly assume that the Newtonian picture of stars scattered through otherwise empty space is still the prevailing view. Seeing Earth from space shows the power of a new picture. The Hubble Space Telescope can see all the bright galaxies, all the way to the cosmic Dark Ages. We are at the center of cosmic spheres of time: looking outward is looking backward in time. All the matter and energy in the universe can be represented as a cosmic density pyramid. The laws of physics only allow the material objects in the universe to occupy a wedge-shaped region on a diagram of mass versus size. All sizes--from the smallest size scale, the Planck scale, to the entire visible universe--can be represented on the Cosmic Uroboros. There are interesting connections across this diagram, and the human scale lies in the middle.

  18. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    multi-platform drilling of the Nankai seismogenic zone. Scientific initiatives are flourishing to drive IODP towards the study of submarine geohazards. In the last three years international workshops, were held to address the topic: ESF-ECORD sponsored a Magellan Workshop focussed on submarine landslides (Barcelona, Spain, 2006); IODP sponsored a world-wide Geohazard Workshop (Portland, Oregon, 2007); ESF-ECORD sponsored another Magellan Workshop focussed on Mediterranean submarine geohazards (Luleå, Sweden, 2008). In addition, following the ECORD-Net Conference on the Deep Sea Frontier (Naples, Italy, 2006), the history, monitoring and prediction of geohazards was identified as one of the 6 major areas for a European science plan to integrate Ocean Drilling, Ocean Margin, and Seabed research. More than 200 scientists and private companies representatives have been mobilized world-wide to attend these meetings, from where it emerged that Ocean Drilling will play a key role in the future to answer the following basic open questions on submarine geohazards: - What is the frequency, magnitude, and distribution of geohazard events? - Do precursory phenomena exist and can they be recognized? - What are the physical and mechanical properties of materials prone to failure? - What are the roles of preconditioning vs. triggering in rapid seafloor deformation? - Can the tsunamigenic potential of past and future events be assessed? Within the global-ocean geohazards, worth of note is the attention given in this preparatory phase to submarine geohazards in the Mediterranean basin, a miniature ocean often called a "natural laboratory" because of the diversity of geological environments it contains. The coastline is very densely-populated, totalling 160 million inhabitants sharing 46,000 km of coastline. The Mediterranean is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving an average of 135 million visitors annually. Submarine landslides, volcanic flank collapses, volcanic island

  19. Discriminatory Questions and Applicant Reactions in the Employment Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saks, Alan M.; And Others

    This study investigated the effects of discriminatory interview questions on applicants' perceptions and intentions toward an organization. Participants included 118 graduate business students (59 percent male), average age of 31 with more than eight years of full-time work experience. Discriminatory questions addressed handicaps, plans for…

  20. New Responses to Enduring Questions in Religious and Theological Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siejk, Cate

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a response to two provocative questions about the relationship of theology to religious education posed by Norma Thompson in her Presidential address given at the annual meeting of APRRE in 1978. I offer contemporary answers to these questions from the perspective of a theological educator. First, I show how feminist theory and…

  1. Early Childhood Teacher Research: From Questions to Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    What is early childhood teacher research and why is it important? How does a teacher researcher formulate a research question and a plan for doing research? How do teachers apply research results to effect change? "Early Childhood Teacher Research" is an exciting new resource that will address the sorts of questions and concerns that pre- and…

  2. Seventy-one important questions for the conservation of marine biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Parsons, E C M; Favaro, Brett; Aguirre, A Alonso; Bauer, Amy L; Blight, Louise K; Cigliano, John A; Coleman, Melinda A; Côté, Isabelle M; Draheim, Megan; Fletcher, Stephen; Foley, Melissa M; Jefferson, Rebecca; Jones, Miranda C; Kelaher, Brendan P; Lundquist, Carolyn J; McCarthy, Julie-Beth; Nelson, Anne; Patterson, Katheryn; Walsh, Leslie; Wright, Andrew J; Sutherland, William J

    2014-10-01

    The ocean provides food, economic activity, and cultural value for a large proportion of humanity. Our knowledge of marine ecosystems lags behind that of terrestrial ecosystems, limiting effective protection of marine resources. We describe the outcome of 2 workshops in 2011 and 2012 to establish a list of important questions, which, if answered, would substantially improve our ability to conserve and manage the world's marine resources. Participants included individuals from academia, government, and nongovernment organizations with broad experience across disciplines, marine ecosystems, and countries that vary in levels of development. Contributors from the fields of science, conservation, industry, and government submitted questions to our workshops, which we distilled into a list of priority research questions. Through this process, we identified 71 key questions. We grouped these into 8 subject categories, each pertaining to a broad component of marine conservation: fisheries, climate change, other anthropogenic threats, ecosystems, marine citizenship, policy, societal and cultural considerations, and scientific enterprise. Our questions address many issues that are specific to marine conservation, and will serve as a road map to funders and researchers to develop programs that can greatly benefit marine conservation.

  3. Questions and Answers for Reporting for the 2006 Partial Updating of the TSCA Chemical Inventory Database: Inorganic Chemicals Addendum

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document addresses specific questions related to reporting inorganic chemicals under the IUR and is an addendum to the Questions and Answers for Reporting for the 2006 Partial Updating of the TSCA Chemical Inventory Database (Questions and Answers Document).

  4. Improving the Questions Students Ask

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue-Smith, Maureen

    2006-01-01

    Teachers often tell their classes that "there is no such thing as a stupid question." But this is not completely honest. Questions aren't asked in a vacuum; their intelligence or stupidity depends on a variety of contextual variables. The ideal question is the right one, posed to the right source in the right way at the right time for the right…

  5. The Hermeneutics of Educational Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Charles

    2005-01-01

    This article looks at the practice of educational questioning using the philosophical hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer. It first looks at questions and statements from a hermeneutic perspective, demonstrating some of the differences and similarities between the two. It then details Gadamer's notion of the "true question", asking whether it is…

  6. Does Anyone Have Any Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Judith M.; Ritter, Virginia F.

    The purpose of this study was to determine if answering a child's question with a question produces further analytical questioning by the child. A sample of 80 children in nursery-kindergarten, first, second and third grades (ages ranging from 4-9 years) were divided into two groups. An abstract painting by Kandinsky was shown individually to each…

  7. Children Who Question Their Heterosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Priscilla R.; Egan, Susan K.; Perry, David G.

    2004-01-01

    Many gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults report a period of childhood sexual questioning--an uneasy questioning of their heterosexuality brought on by same-sex attractions and motivating same-sex sexual exploration. This article evaluates hypotheses about the correlates, causes, and consequences of childhood sexual questioning. Participants were 182…

  8. Investigations of Human Question Answering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graesser, Arthur C.

    The development and testing of QUEST, a model of human question answering, are reported. QUEST accounts for answers adults produce for different categories of open-class questions, identifying the information sources associated with the content words in questions. Each information source is organized in a conceptual graph structure. The model…

  9. The Reach Address Database (RAD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores reach address information for each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams, lakes, etc) in the National Hydrology Database (NHD) Plus dataset.

  10. Supporting families of children with autism spectrum disorders: questions parents ask and what nurses need to know.

    PubMed

    Elder, Jennifer Harrison; D'Alessandro, Tina

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a lifelong condition that currently has an unclear etiology and no known cure. Families of children on the autism spectrum typically have many questions and much to learn as they manage the disorder and create meaningful lives for their children and themselves. Helping families understand both features of autism and the diagnostic process is key to supporting family acceptance of the diagnosis. Nurses can also assist families in navigating the common process of grief and adjustment following diagnosis. As the diagnosis becomes real, many questions about medications and other treatments can be addressed by knowledgeable nurses. Additionally, nurses can support families in the critical areas of managing family life, addressing sibling needs, and planning for the future. Parent-to-parent advice from the mother of a child with autism supplements this article.

  11. Occurrence of Children's Echoic Responses According to Interlocutory Question Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Warren H.

    Dialogues with 22 echoic 3-year-old children were analyzed according to question type to determine whether some questions are more likely than others to trigger echoic responses. The children were asked to identify and manipulate toy objects such as a car, to identify a group of familiar objects such as a key or scissors, and to respond to…

  12. Menopause and sexuality: key issues in premature menopause and beyond.

    PubMed

    Graziottin, Alessandra

    2010-09-01

    Woman's sexuality encompasses sexual identity, sexual function, and sexual relationships. It is modulated throughout life by life and reproduction-related events, health, relationships, and sociocultural variables. The aging process and menopause are two potent contributors to female sexual dysfunction. The earlier the menopause, the more severe and complex the impact on sexuality is. The younger the woman, the less she realizes the different key goals of her life cycle (falling in love, having a satisfying sexual life, forming a stable couple, getting married, having a family) and the more pervasive the consequences on her sexual identity, sexual function, and sexual relationship can be. Premature menopause is an amplified paradigm of the complex impact menopause can have on women's and couple's sexuality. This paper will focus on biologically based sexual issues, namely desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain disorders, as well as key questions encountered in infertility. The concepts of "symptom inducer" and "symptom carrier" will also be addressed.

  13. Practical challenges in quantum key distribution

    DOE PAGES

    Diamanti, Eleni; Lo, Hoi -Kwong; Qi, Bing; ...

    2016-11-08

    Here, quantum key distribution (QKD) promises unconditional security in data communication and is currently being deployed in commercial applications. Nonetheless, before QKD can be widely adopted, it faces a number of important challenges such as secret key rate, distance, size, cost and practical security. Here, we survey those key challenges and the approaches that are currently being taken to address them.

  14. Questioning Our Questions: Assessing Question Asking Practices to Evaluate a yPAR Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Sarah; Langhout, Regina Day

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine question asking practices in a youth participatory action research (yPAR) after school program housed at an elementary school. The research question was: In which ways did the adult question asking practices in a yPAR setting challenge and/or reproduce conventional models of power in educational…

  15. Physician-entrepreneurship: a user's manual, part 1: critical questions for early-stage medical ventures.

    PubMed

    Lexa, Frank James; Lexa, Frank J

    2005-07-01

    The medical field is one of the most exciting in America for entrepreneurs. Radiologists and other medical practitioners are in a unique position to take advantage of opportunities to invent and create innovative products and services. Physicians have led many of the most important revolutionary and evolutionary changes that have occurred in the field in the past 100 years. However, many radiologists find the process of entrepreneurship a daunting one and are often deterred from acting on their ideas. This article addresses the key issues and challenges that entrepreneurs face when embarking on new enterprises. Although most of these issues face all entrepreneurs at this stage, this article focuses on medical innovation and its particular challenges. This article concentrates on the kinds of questions that physician-entrepreneurs need to ask before jumping in, the types of common pitfalls that await those who don't address these issues, and some answers to seek if you are to beat the odds and succeed.

  16. Student Moderators in Asynchronous Online Discussion: A Question of Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingaro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Much current research exalts the benefits of having students facilitate weekly discussions in asynchronous online courses. This study seeks to add to what is known about student moderation through an analysis of the types of questions students use to spur each discussion. Prior experimental work has demonstrated that the types of questions posed…

  17. Reference Readiness for AV Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drolet, Leon L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews 50 reference tools which librarians can use to answer almost any audiovisual question including queries on trivia, equipment selection, biographical information, and motion picture ratings. (LLS)

  18. CONTENT-ADDRESSABLE MEMORY SYSTEMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The utility of content -addressable memories (CAM’s) within a general purpose computing system is investigated. Word cells within CAM may be...addressed by the character of all or a part of cell contents . Multimembered sets of word cells may be addressed simultaneously. The distributed logical...package is developed which allows simulation of CAM commands within job programs run on the IBM 7090 and derives tallies of execution times corresponding to a particular realization of a CAM system . (Author)

  19. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions Across the Inquiry Continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2017-01-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in this study. A dataset of 120 elementary science classroom videos and associated lesson plans from 40 elementary teachers (K-5) across 21 elementary school campuses were scored on an instrument measuring the amount of teacher-direction or student-direction of the lessons' investigation questions. Results indicated that the investigation questions were overwhelmingly teacher directed in nature, with no opportunities for students to develop their own questions for investigation. This study has implications for researchers and practitioners alike, calling attention to the teacher-directed nature of investigation questions in existing science curriculum materials, and the need for teacher training in instructional strategies to adapt their existing curriculum materials across the continuum of teacher-directed and student-directed investigation questions. Teachers need strategies for adapting the teacher-directed questions provided in their existing curriculum materials in order to allow students the opportunity to engage in this essential scientific practice.

  20. Introduction: Addressing Air Pollution and Health Science Questions to Inform Science and Policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    This special issue of Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health (AQAH) is the sixth and final in a series of special journal issues (Solomon 2010, 2011a, b; Solomon et al. 2011; Solomon 2012) associated with the 2010 Air Pollution and Heath Conference: Bridging the Gap between Sources ...

  1. Using Dimensional Data to Address Enrollment Management Questions in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duniway, Bob; Wiegand, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Enrollment management is central to the success of a college or university. A school must enroll students into courses, completion of a series of which will lead to graduation. While all colleges and universities must manage the enrollment process at least operationally, it is challenging to keep track of all the related data that would allow for…

  2. Methane emissions in the East Siberian Arctic Shelf: issues addressed and questions raised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhova, N. E.

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions in the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) has been studied during the last decade. Our investigation, including observational studies using hydrological, biogeochemical, geophysical, geo-electrical, microbiological, and isotopic methods, and modeling efforts to assess current subsea permafrost state and the ESAS' contribution to the regional CH4 budget, have clarified processes driving CH4 emissions in the ESAS and spilt some light on possible sources involvement. Despite some authors believe that CH4 fluxes from subsea permafrost in the ESAS will depend on rates of CH4 production in gradually thawing sediments while subsea permafrost will remain frozen for millennia, results of our investigation showed the opposite. Permafrost failure caused by long-lasting warming by sea water due to sea level rise, deep/open taliks formation due to combined heating effects of seawater, river runoff, geothermal flux, and pre-existing thermokarst and global-change-induced warming, determines destabilization of massive gas reservoirs, leading to large-scale CH4 releases, including release of pre-formed CH4 long preserved within/beneath subsea permafrost. Resultant rates of CH4 emissions over the ESAS vary spatially by 3-5 orders of magnitude. Re-drilling of subsea permafrost performed from the fast ice 30 years after it was first drilled in 1982-1983, revealed modern rates of subsea permafrost degradation. These results contradict previous hypotheses that: 1) taliks beneath thermokarst lakes always freeze after submergence; 2) rates of permafrost degradation after inundation decrease over time; and 3) thousands of years required to form escape paths for permafrost-preserved gas. Involvement of shallow relic hydrates is suggested based on results of experimental work with sediment cores extracted from the near-shore zone of the ESAS. In-situ investigations revealed that dissolved CH4 could remain in the seawater up to 1000 days, because oxidation rates are low. Storms could release some aqueous CH4 to atmosphere; dissolved CH4, captured beneath ice in winter, can spread via currents and escape to atmosphere through breaks in the ice. Progressive subsea permafrost thawing and decreasing ice extent could significantly increase CH4 emissions from the ESAS.

  3. Minding Our P's through Q's: Addressing Possibilities and Precautions of Community Work through New Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmendorf, Dana

    2010-01-01

    Art therapists increasingly work outside traditional mental health treatment programs and facilitate art-making experiences within community-based settings. Although traditional mental health facilities provide frameworks for meeting ethical principles such as privacy, roles, consent to treatment, and setting therapeutic goals, community-based art…

  4. Important Questions Remain to Be Addressed before Adopting a Dimensional Classification of Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruscio, Ayelet Meron

    2008-01-01

    Comments on the original article "Plate tectonics in the classification of personality disorder: Shifting to a dimensional model," by T. A. Widiger and T. J. Trull (2007). Widiger and Trull raised important nosological issues that warrant serious consideration not only for the personality disorders but for all mental disorders as the Diagnostic…

  5. Addressing health inequalities by using Structural Funds. A question of opportunities.

    PubMed

    Neagu, Oana Maria; Michelsen, Kai; Watson, Jonathan; Dowdeswell, Barrie; Brand, Helmut

    2017-03-01

    Making up a third of the EU budget, Structural and Investment Funds can provide important opportunities for investing in policies that tackle inequalities in health. This article looks back and forward at the 2007-2013 and 2014-2020 financial periods in an attempt to inform the development of health equity as a strand of policy intervention under regional development. It combines evidence from health projects funded through Structural Funds and a document analyses that locates interventions for health equity under the new regulations. The map of opportunities has changed considerably since the last programming period, creating more visibility for vulnerable groups, social determinants of health and health systems sustainability. As the current programming period is progressing, this paper contributes to maximizing this potential but also identifying challenges and implementation gaps for prospective health system engagement in pursuing health equity as part of Structural Funds projects. The austerity measures and their impact on public spending, building political support for investments as well as the difficulties around pursuing health gains as an objective of other policy areas are some of the challenges to overcome. European Structural and Investment Funds could be a window of opportunity that triggers engagement for health equity if sectors adopt a transformative approach and overcome barriers, cooperate for common goals and make better use of the availability of these resources.

  6. The most intriguing question in synesthesia research.

    PubMed

    Rouw, Romke; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2014-01-01

    This discussion paper forms an insightful addition to the synesthesia literature. Accompanying a steep increase in recent publications on synesthesia, it helps remedy the conspicuous paucity of mechanistic process models explaining the condition. The paper furthermore addresses what is arguably among the most interesting questions: Why do most synesthetes *not* get confused by their additional sensations? This is particularly interesting when phrased in a broader context: What are the mechanisms for deciding which of the sensations we experience reflect something "real" (phenomena in the outside world) and which reflect something that is "not real" (internally generated and private phenomena).

  7. Questioning the Patient, Questioning Hippocrates: Rufus of Ephesus and the Pursuit of Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Letts, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Rufus of Ephesus' short treatise, Quaestiones Medicinales, the only ancient medical work that takes as its topic the dialogue between doctor and patient, has usually been seen as a procedural practical handbook serving an essentially operational purpose. In this paper I argue that the treatise, with its insistent message that doctors cannot properly understand and treat illnesses unless they supplement their own knowledge by questioning patients, and its remarkable appreciation of the singularity of each patient's experience, shows itself to be no mere handbook but a work addressing the place of questioning in the clinical encounter. I illustrate some of the differences between Rufus' conceptualisation of the relevance and use of questioning and that which can be seen in the theoretical and descriptive writings of Galen and in the Hippocratic corpus, and show how apparent resonances with some of the preoccupations of modern Western healthcare can be used judiciously to elucidate the significance of those differences.

  8. Measuring injury risk factors: question reliability in a statewide sample

    PubMed Central

    Koziol-McLain, J.; Brand, D.; Morgan, D.; Leff, M.; Lowenstein, S.

    2000-01-01

    Background—Recently (1996–98), Colorado added 15 questions pertaining to injury related risks and behaviors to the behavioral risk factor surveillance system (BRFSS). Questions addressed bicycle helmet use, traffic crashes, exposure to violence, suicidal behavior, and gun storage. Objective—To measure the test-retest reliability of these injury related questions. Methods—Of 330 BRFSS participants, 229 (69%) were called a second time and reasked nine selected injury questions. Retests were completed 7–28 days after the original interview. Results—Test-retest agreement was very high (κ >0.80) for bicycle helmet use, domestic police visits, and gun ownership. All other injury risk questions had substantial agreement (κ >0.60). Conclusions—The injury related questions added to the Colorado BRFSS have high test-retest reliability. PMID:10875674

  9. Questions Dog Design of Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    On the verge of signing a contract to help design assessments for the common standards, ACT Inc. has withdrawn from the project amid conflict-of-interest questions sparked by its own development of a similar suite of tests. Even though it involves only a small subcontract, the move by the Iowa-based test-maker, and the questions from the state…

  10. Asking Research Questions: Theoretical Presuppositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenberg, Josh

    2014-01-01

    Asking significant research questions is a crucial aspect of building a research foundation in computer science (CS) education. In this article, I argue that the questions that we ask are shaped by internalized theoretical presuppositions about how the social and behavioral worlds operate. And although such presuppositions are essential in making…

  11. Test Pool Questions, Area III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Jamee Reid

    This manual contains multiple choice questions to be used in testing students on nurse training objectives. Each test includes several questions covering each concept. The concepts in section A, medical surgical nursing, are diseases of the following systems: musculoskeletal; central nervous; cardiovascular; gastrointestinal; urinary and male…

  12. Toward Automated Consumer Question Answering: Automatically Separating Consumer Questions from Professional Questions in the Healthcare Domain

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feifan; Antieau, Lamont D.; Yu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Objective Both healthcare professionals and healthcare consumers have information needs that can be met through the use of computers, specifically via medical question answering systems. However, the information needs of both groups are different in terms of literacy levels and technical expertise, and an effective question answering system must be able to account for these differences if it is to formulate the most relevant responses for users from each group. In this paper, we propose that a first step toward answering the queries of different users is automatically classifying questions according to whether they were asked by healthcare professionals or consumers. Design We obtained two sets of consumer questions (~10,000 questions in total) from Yahoo answers. The professional questions consist of two question collections: 4654 point-of-care questions (denoted as PointCare) obtained from interviews of a group of family doctors following patient visits and 5378 questions from physician practices through professional online services (denoted as OnlinePractice). With more than 20,000 questions combined, we developed supervised machine-learning models for automatic classification between consumer questions and professional questions. To evaluate the robustness of our models, we tested the model that was trained on the Consumer-PointCare dataset on the Consumer-OnlinePractice dataset. We evaluated both linguistic features and statistical features and examined how the characteristics in two different types of professional questions (PointCare vs. OnlinePractice) may affect the classification performance. We explored information gain for feature reduction and the back-off linguistic category features. Results 10-fold cross-validation results showed the best F1-measure of 0.936 and 0.946 on Consumer-PointCare and Consumer-OnlinePractice respectively, and the best F1-measure of 0.891 when testing the Consumer-PointCare model on the Consumer-OnlinePractice dataset

  13. A novel key management scheme using biometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Yan; Yang, Kai; Du, Yingzi; Orr, Scott; Zou, Xukai

    2010-04-01

    Key management is one of the most important issues in cryptographic systems. Several important challenges in such a context are represented by secure and efficient key generation, key distribution, as well as key revocation. Addressing such challenges requires a comprehensive solution which is robust, secure and efficient. Compared to traditional key management schemes, key management using biometrics requires the presence of the user, which can reduce fraud and protect the key better. In this paper, we propose a novel key management scheme using iris based biometrics. Our newly proposed scheme outperforms traditional key management schemes as well as some existing key-binding biometric schemes in terms of security, diversity and/or efficiency.

  14. Questioning ORACLE: An Assessment of ORACLE's Analysis of Teachers' Questions and [A Comment on "Questioning ORACLE"].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarth, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of teachers' questions, part of the ORACLE (Observation Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation) project research, is examined in detail. Scarth and Hammersley argue that the rules ORACLE uses for identifying different types of questions involve levels of ambiguity and inference that threaten reliability and validity of the study's…

  15. Hypothetical constructs, hypothetical questions, and the expert witness.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Stanley L; Titcomb, Caroline; Sams, David M; Dickson, Kara; Benda, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Professor John Henry Wigmore in 1940 described the hypothetical question as an intolerable obstruction of truth. Since that time, the nature and application of the hypothetical question in the courtroom, as well as responses to this line of questioning during expert testimony, have been sources of controversy. Governed by legal philosophical foundations, the hypothetical construct addresses what there is, in a general sense, and what can or ought to be. Alexy (2004) has described the nature of legal philosophy as the epistemological question of what we can know. This article begins by examining the philosophical underpinnings, legal parameters, and teaching purposes of posing hypothetical queries. A social-psychological backdrop for the use of hypothetical questions is then discussed followed by a broader discussion of the hypothetical question's role in court procedures. This paper identifies hypothetical questions used in court as devices to elicit information, or as predictions that potentially change underlying factual interpretations of evidence. In particular, on cross examination hypothetical questions seek to make opposing experts assume facts that are incongruent with their conclusions or opinions. Sometimes in these situations, experts are led to re-evaluate opinions based on alternative understandings of events and behaviors. Thus, this paper's final aim is to explore a foundational understanding of hypothetical questions asked of expert witnesses with special reference to mental health issues. Options for responding to hypothetical questions on the stand are considered along the dimensions of assertiveness-passivity, compliance-resistance, and possible redefinitions of the hypothetical issues.

  16. Goldfinger: a framework for resolving affect using ideomotor questioning.

    PubMed

    Walsh, B J

    1997-07-01

    The author presents a structured protocol for resolving repressed, suppressed or otherwise dated affect using ideomotor questioning. Essential to this model is a progressive ratification series which addresses affect, cognition and behavior. A questioning tree illustrates the method of affect inquiry and case examples demonstrate its application. This non-invasive, brief procedure is a useful adjunct to other treatment modalities and instrumental in clarifying the focus of treatment.

  17. OPENING ADDRESS: Heterostructures in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmeiss, Hermann G.

    1996-01-01

    Good morning, Gentlemen! On behalf of the Nobel Foundation, I should like to welcome you to the Nobel Symposium on "Heterostructures in Semiconductors". It gives me great pleasure to see so many colleagues and old friends from all over the world in the audience and, in particular, to bid welcome to our Nobel laureates, Prof. Esaki and Prof. von Klitzing. In front of a different audience I would now commend the scientific and technological importance of heterostructures in semiconductors and emphatically emphasise that heterostructures, as an important contribution to microelectronics and, hence, information technology, have changed societies all over the world. I would also mention that information technology is one of the most important global key industries which covers a wide field of important areas each of which bears its own character. Ever since the invention of the transistor, we have witnessed a fantastic growth in semiconductor technology, leading to more complex functions and higher densities of devices. This development would hardly be possible without an increasing understanding of semiconductor materials and new concepts in material growth techniques which allow the fabrication of previously unknown semiconductor structures. But here and today I will not do it because it would mean to carry coals to Newcastle. I will therefore not remind you that heterostructures were already suggested and discussed in detail a long time before proper technologies were available for the fabrication of such structures. Now, heterostructures are a foundation in science and part of our everyday life. Though this is certainly true, it is nevertheless fair to say that not all properties of heterostructures are yet understood and that further technologies have to be developed before a still better understanding is obtained. The organisers therefore hope that this symposium will contribute not only to improving our understanding of heterostructures but also to opening new

  18. Climate Leadership Awards Frequent Questions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Provides answers to frequently asked questions regarding the Climate Leadership Awards, sponsored by EPA's Center for Corporate Climate Leadership with co-sponsorship from the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions and The Climate Registry.

  19. Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

  20. Frequent Questions about TSCA CBI

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    General Questions and Answers Concerning Confidential Business Information (CBI) Provisions of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), as amended by the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act

  1. Solar physics: Dynamo theory questioned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonneau, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Observations of X-ray emission -- a diagnostic tool for the mechanisms driving stellar magnetic fields -- from four cool stars call into question accepted models of magnetic-field generation in the Sun and stars. See Letter p.526

  2. Birds: Old Questions and New.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses questions such as how birds fly and the meaning of bird songs. Explains the relationship between birds and ecological activism and points out the excitement in research and observation of birds. (Contains 34 references.) (YDS)

  3. Resource Classification for Medical Questions

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kirk; Rodriguez, Laritza; Shooshan, Sonya E.; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach for manually and automatically classifying the resource type of medical questions. Three types of resources are considered: patient-specific, general knowledge, and research. Using this approach, an automatic question answering system could select the best type of resource from which to consider answers. We first describe our methodology for manually annotating resource type on four different question corpora totaling over 5,000 questions. We then describe our approach for automatically identifying the appropriate type of resource. A supervised machine learning approach is used with lexical, syntactic, semantic, and topic-based feature types. This approach is able to achieve accuracies in the range of 80.9% to 92.8% across four datasets. Finally, we discuss the difficulties encountered in both manual and automatic classification of this challenging task. PMID:28269901

  4. Frequent Questions About Universal Waste

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Frequent questions such as Who is affected by the universal waste regulations? What is “mercury-containing equipment”? How are waste batteries managed under universal waste? How are waste pesticides managed under universal waste?

  5. Resource Classification for Medical Questions.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kirk; Rodriguez, Laritza; Shooshan, Sonya E; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach for manually and automatically classifying the resource type of medical questions. Three types of resources are considered: patient-specific, general knowledge, and research. Using this approach, an automatic question answering system could select the best type of resource from which to consider answers. We first describe our methodology for manually annotating resource type on four different question corpora totaling over 5,000 questions. We then describe our approach for automatically identifying the appropriate type of resource. A supervised machine learning approach is used with lexical, syntactic, semantic, and topic-based feature types. This approach is able to achieve accuracies in the range of 80.9% to 92.8% across four datasets. Finally, we discuss the difficulties encountered in both manual and automatic classification of this challenging task.

  6. Extraction of Questions Behind Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Naohiro; Kawahara, Daisuke; Okamoto, Masashi; Kurohashi, Sadao; Nishida, Toyoaki

    To overcome the limitation of conventional text-mining approaches in which frequent patterns of word occurrences are to be extracted to understand obvious user needs, this paper proposes an approach to extracting questions behind messages to understand potential user needs. We first extract characteristic case frames by comparing the case frames constructed from target messages with the ones from 25M sentences in the Web and 20M sentences in newspaper articles of 20 years. Then we extract questions behind messages by transforming the characteristic case frames into interrogative sentences based on new information and old information, i.e., replacing new information with WH-question words. The proposed approach is, in other words, a kind of classification of word occurrence pattern. Qualitative evaluations of our preliminary experiments suggest that extracted questions show problem consciousness and alternative solutions -- all of which help to understand potential user needs.

  7. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  8. Folic Acid Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Controls NCBDDD Cancel Submit Search The CDC Folic Acid Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Folic Acid Homepage Facts Quiz Frequently Asked Questions General Information ...

  9. The soil N cycle: new insights and key challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Groenigen, J. W.; Huygens, D.; Boeckx, P.; Kuyper, T. W.; Lubbers, I. M.; Rütting, T.; Groffman, P. M.

    2014-10-01

    The study of soil N cycling processes has been, is, and will be at the center of attention in soil science research. The importance of N as a nutrient for all biota; the ever increasing rates of its anthropogenic input in terrestrial (agro)ecosystems; its resultant losses to the environment; and the complexity of the biological, physical, and chemical factors that regulate N cycling processes all contribute to the necessity of further understanding, measurement and mitigation of the soil N cycle. Here, we review important insights with respect to the soil N cycle that have been made over the last decade, and present a personal view on the key challenges for future research (Fig. 1). We identified four key questions with respect to N cycling processes: 1. How large is the contribution of non-symbiotic N fixation in natural systems? 2. How important is nitrifier denitrification and what are its main controlling factors? 3. What is the greenhouse gas mitigation potential and microbiological basis for N2O consumption? 4. How can we characterize hot-spots and hot-moments of denitrification? Furthermore, we propose three questions about proximal controls on N cycling processes: 1. How does functional diversity of soil fauna affect N cycling beyond mineralization? 2. What is the functional relationship between root traits and soil N cycling? 3. To what extent do different types of mycorrhizal symbioses (differentially) affect N cycling? Finally, we identified a key challenge with respect to modelling: 1. How can advanced 15N/18O tracing models help us to better disentangle gross N transformation rates? We postulate that addressing these questions would constitute a comprehensive research agenda with respect to the N cycle for the next decade. Such an agenda would help us to meet future challenges on food and energy security, biodiversity conservation and climate stability.

  10. Address tracing for parallel machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stunkel, Craig B.; Janssens, Bob; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1991-01-01

    Recently implemented parallel system address-tracing methods based on several metrics are surveyed. The issues specific to collection of traces for both shared and distributed memory parallel computers are highlighted. Five general categories of address-trace collection methods are examined: hardware-captured, interrupt-based, simulation-based, altered microcode-based, and instrumented program-based traces. The problems unique to shared memory and distributed memory multiprocessors are examined separately.

  11. Encouraging the Development of Key Life Skills in Elementary School-Age Children: A Literature Review and Recommendations to the Tauck Family Foundation. Working Paper. Publication #2012-28

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chien, Nina; Harbin, Vanessa; Goldhagen, Samantha; Lippman, Laura; Walker, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    Child Trends is pleased to support the Tauck Family Foundation in its efforts to focus on programs that help build skills that are important to success in the elementary school years and beyond. This report addresses three key questions: (1) What life skills have been identified in the research literature as contributing to success for elementary…

  12. Records--The Achilles' Heel of School Nursing: Answers to Bothersome Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Nadine C.; Pohlman, Katherine J.

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses practice issues related to school health records and school nursing documentation. Because the issues have been posed by practicing school nurses, the article is in Question and Answer (Q&A) format. Specifically, the questions addressed concern the following: ownership and storage location of student health records when…

  13. Reviewing the regulatory barriers for nanomedicine: global questions and challenges.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Diana M; Gatof, Jake

    2015-01-01

    Nanomedicine will play an increasing role in prevention and treatment across the entire healthcare spectrum. However, their precise market size, economic value and areas of application remain unclear. This opacity, including the question of what constitutes nanomedicine matters, especially when considered alongside the key regulatory questions and concerns. This article begins by placing these key questions into context in relation to the current scientific state of the art, focusing particular attention on the human health and safety context. In exploring these central questions surrounding the regulation of nanomedicine, this perspective also explores existing and suggested frameworks that aim to deal with emerging technologies more generally. It then outlines priority areas for action and general conclusions specific to nanomedicine.

  14. Addressing Common Student Errors with Classroom Voting in Multivariable Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Kelly; Parker, Mark; Zullo, Holly; Stewart, Ann

    2012-01-01

    One technique for identifying and addressing common student errors is the method of classroom voting, in which the instructor presents a multiple-choice question to the class, and after a few minutes for consideration and small group discussion, each student votes on the correct answer, often using a hand-held electronic clicker. If a large number…

  15. CO2 studies remain key to understanding a future world.

    PubMed

    Becklin, Katie M; Walker, S Michael; Way, Danielle A; Ward, Joy K

    2017-04-01

    Contents 34 I. 34 II. 36 III. 37 IV. 37 V. 38 38 References 38 SUMMARY: Characterizing plant responses to past, present and future changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2 ]) is critical for understanding and predicting the consequences of global change over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Previous CO2 studies have provided great insights into the effects of rising [CO2 ] on leaf-level gas exchange, carbohydrate dynamics and plant growth. However, scaling CO2 effects across biological levels, especially in field settings, has proved challenging. Moreover, many questions remain about the fundamental molecular mechanisms driving plant responses to [CO2 ] and other global change factors. Here we discuss three examples of topics in which significant questions in CO2 research remain unresolved: (1) mechanisms of CO2 effects on plant developmental transitions; (2) implications of rising [CO2 ] for integrated plant-water dynamics and drought tolerance; and (3) CO2 effects on symbiotic interactions and eco-evolutionary feedbacks. Addressing these and other key questions in CO2 research will require collaborations across scientific disciplines and new approaches that link molecular mechanisms to complex physiological and ecological interactions across spatiotemporal scales.

  16. Frequent Questions about Section 508

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Reasonable Accommodation addresses the individual's needs in the workplace, while the Rehabilitation Act Section 508 requires accessibility for all people to electronic and information technology (EIT) equipment and tools to access information or work.

  17. Matching Alternative Addresses: a Semantic Web Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariannamazi, S.; Karimipour, F.; Hakimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI) provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature's literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  18. Nanofluids research: key issues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liqiu; Fan, Jing

    2010-05-22

    Nanofluids are a new class of fluids engineered by dispersing nanometer-size structures (particles, fibers, tubes, droplets) in base fluids. The very essence of nanofluids research and development is to enhance fluid macroscopic and megascale properties such as thermal conductivity through manipulating microscopic physics (structures, properties and activities). Therefore, the success of nanofluid technology depends very much on how well we can address issues like effective means of microscale manipulation, interplays among physics at different scales and optimization of microscale physics for the optimal megascale properties. In this work, we take heat-conduction nanofluids as examples to review methodologies available to effectively tackle these key but difficult problems and identify the future research needs as well. The reviewed techniques include nanofluids synthesis through liquid-phase chemical reactions in continuous-flow microfluidic microreactors, scaling-up by the volume averaging and constructal design with the constructal theory. The identified areas of future research contain microfluidic nanofluids, thermal waves and constructal nanofluids.

  19. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every…

  20. Agenda to address climate change

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This document looks at addressing climate change in the 21st century. Topics covered are: Responding to climate change; exploring new avenues in energy efficiency; energy efficiency and alternative energy; residential sector; commercial sector; industrial sector; transportation sector; communities; renewable energy; understanding forests to mitigate and adapt to climate change; the Forest Carbon budget; mitigation and adaptation.

  1. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2016-07-12

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  2. Research strategies for addressing uncertainties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busch, David E.; Brekke, Levi D.; Averyt, Kristen; Jardine, Angela; Welling, Leigh; Garfin, Gregg; Jardine, Angela; Merideth, Robert; Black, Mary; LeRoy, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Research Strategies for Addressing Uncertainties builds on descriptions of research needs presented elsewhere in the book; describes current research efforts and the challenges and opportunities to reduce the uncertainties of climate change; explores ways to improve the understanding of changes in climate and hydrology; and emphasizes the use of research to inform decision making.

  3. Ocean circulation and impacts on plankton near the Florida Keys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willemsen, Jorge F.

    2005-11-01

    The flow structure of the loop current as it passes the Florida Keys and flows into the Florida Straits will be described. Results from a hybrid coordinate ocean model (HYCOM) applied to the region will then be presented. Finally, an NPZD (nutrient-photoplankton-zooplankton-detritus) model will be introduced into the dynamically active flow as passive tracers, with the purpose of evaluating the consequences of transport of these components. As a consequence, spatial distributions are shown to be highly variable and complex. Ultimately we will address the question as to what the dynamical consequences are of being stochastically taken from one domain of attraction into another at successive times-in static models one or another domain is prescribed due to parameter choices. In dynamic models such as this one the parameters change as a function of time, so switching from one domain to another occurs periodically.

  4. The Universe at Large, Key Issues in Astronomy and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munch, Guido; Mampaso, Antonio; Sánchez, Francisco

    The Universe at Large presents a unique survey of key questions outstanding in contemporary astronomy and cosmology. In this timely volume, eleven of the world's greatest living astronomers and cosmologists present their personal views of what problems must be addressed by future research. Allan Sandage presents a 23-point plan to reach a full understanding of the largescale structure in the Universe; Geoffrey Burbidge looks at the future of the Quasi Steady State alternative to the Big Bang; active galactic nuclei (AGN) are discussed by E. Margaret Burbidge, Donald Osterbrock and Malcolm Longair; Igor Novikov, Donald Lynden-Bell, Martin Rees and Rashid Sunyaev look at the physics of black holes; and Bernard Pagel and Hubert Reeves concentrate on what we don't yet understand about elements in the cosmos. This book provides a unique review of our current understanding in astronomy and cosmology, and a host of ideas for profitable future research - for graduate students and researchers.

  5. Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender and Questioning Youth Matter!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kathleen A.

    2009-01-01

    This brief presents general trends in the social and emotional well-being of youth who identify as Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (GLBTQ), followed by a guide of sexual orientation definitions. Additionally, readers learn a series of steps that schools must address in order to build inclusive, safe, and effective schools for…

  6. Substance Abuse among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Karen M.

    2000-01-01

    Studies indicate that substance abuse is a growing problem among gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth. Prevention and intervention efforts can be successful in working with sexual minority adolescents in jeopardy of developing substance abuse problems. School psychologists are uniquely poised to address this problem through…

  7. Perfusion MRI: The Five Most Frequently Asked Clinical Questions

    PubMed Central

    Essig, Marco; Nguyen, Thanh Binh; Shiroishi, Mark S.; Saake, Marc; Provenzale, James M.; Enterline, David S.; Anzalone, Nicoletta; Dörfler, Arnd; Rovira, Àlex; Wintermark, Max; Law, Meng

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This article addresses questions that radiologists frequently ask when planning, performing, processing, and interpreting MRI perfusion studies in CNS imaging. CONCLUSION Perfusion MRI is a promising tool in assessing stroke, brain tumors, and neurodegenerative diseases. Most of the impediments that have limited the use of perfusion MRI can be overcome to allow integration of these methods into modern neuroimaging protocols. PMID:23971482

  8. Questions for the Study and Teaching of Shakespeare and Milton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Angela, Ed.; Medine, Peter, Ed.

    The discussion questions and essay prompts in this collection were compiled from contributions made by participants in the 1991 Arizona Shakespeare-Milton Institute. After an introduction which presents some general guidelines for teachers and students, the collection addresses the following works: "As You Like It"; "The…

  9. Theorizing the Entrepreneurial University: Open Questions and Possible Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotiris, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to address theoretical questions regarding the transition towards an entrepreneurial university and the changes associated with this process, namely the increased commodification, the competitive quest for private funding and the introduction of business management practices. The important theoretical advances made in the…

  10. Naptime Tips: Answers to Caregivers Most Frequent Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Asserts that children vary in the amount of sleep they need but that rest is important. Gives advice in response to caregiver questions concerning child naptime, including determining length of nap, getting children settled, providing a conducive classroom environment, dealing with resistance, and addressing parental concerns. (BGC)

  11. Validating Two Questions in the Force Concept Inventory with Subquestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasuda, Jun-ichiro; Taniguchi, Masa-aki

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate the structural validity of Q.16 and Q.7 in the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). We address whether respondents who answer Q.16 and Q.7 correctly actually have an understanding of the concepts of physics tested in the questions. To examine respondents' levels of understanding, we use subquestions that test them on concepts…

  12. Questions of Matter: Critical Conversations in Online Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albers, Peggy; Turnbull, Sarah; Angay-Crowder, Tuba

    2015-01-01

    How professional development is delivered in today's networked world has shifted greatly, and research into online spaces of learning is growing. Numerous questions, however, remain regarding how online spaces can be leveraged to foster meaningful conversations that address current critical educational issues. This qualitative study examines the…

  13. Explaining Errors in Children's Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Caroline F.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to explain the occurrence of errors in children's speech is an essential component of successful theories of language acquisition. The present study tested some generativist and constructivist predictions about error on the questions produced by ten English-learning children between 2 and 5 years of age. The analyses demonstrated that,…

  14. Teaching Ideas: Building Questioning Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, Randall G.; Allen, Rodney F.

    1986-01-01

    This exercise shows how to turn the expository treatment of a topic or event into a mystery or puzzling situation that students are asked to solve. Once a puzzle is presented, students may pose only questions that can be answered yes or no. Three sample lessons are included to illustrate the process. (JDH)

  15. Four Questions to Ask Yourself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abilock, Debbie, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    One's commitment to intellectual freedom is manifested not just in the creation of a strong and clear selection policy or the celebration of Banned Books Week but by his or her willingness to examine his or her practices openly with others. In this article, the author proposes four questions to explore in one's teaching and in professional…

  16. Instance-Based Question Answering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    answer clustering, composition, and scoring. Moreover, with the effort dedicated to improving monolingual system performance, system parameters are...text collections: document type, manual or automatic annotations (if any), and stylistic and notational differences in technical terms. Monolingual ...forum in which cross language retrieval systems and question answering systems are tested for various Eu- ropean languages. The CLEF QA monolingual task

  17. Constructivism and Objectivism: Additional Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Edmund S.

    2006-01-01

    In past issues of "The Educational Forum," David Elkind (2004; 2005) and Jamin Carson (2005) have engaged in a dialogue about constructivism and objectivism as viable philosophies of education. In this issue, yet another author joins in the discussion by questioning the role of science and religion in objectivism.

  18. Questionable Methods in Alcoholism Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koocher, Gerald P.

    1991-01-01

    Alcoholism research paradigms that use substantial cash incentives to attract participants and that call for alcoholics to consume ethanol in laboratory raise ethical questions. When using such methods, investigators should be obligated to discuss risk-benefit rationales and detail precautionary behaviors to protect participants. Discussion of…

  19. What Children Learn from Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that young children ask a multitude of why and how questions. And when they do, they're not simply trying to get adult attention; instead, they're actively seeking information. In this article, Paul Harris describes the findings of a number of research analyses based on extensive transcripts of children's natural speech. Some of the…

  20. Eight Questions for Better Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriegel, Otis

    2016-01-01

    In this article, veteran educator Otis Kriegel provides eight questions that teachers can ask themselves as they create or tweak lesson plans. With practical, straightforward advice, Kriegel suggests that teachers be mindful of who their audience is, how much students already know, and what materials they'll need. He also urges teachers to…

  1. Ten Practical Questions about Branding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Robert M.; Rattenbury, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    "Marketing" and "branding" were once considered dirty words on campus but faculty, staff, and board members now appreciate the value of getting their message out and managing their reputation. The question is not so much whether to invest, but when, how, and most important, what's the return on investment? A roundtable of accomplished marketing…

  2. The Geography of Virtual Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mon, Lorri; Bishop, Bradley Wade; McClure, Charles R.; McGilvray, Jessica; Most, Linda; Milas, Theodore Patrick; Snead, John T.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the geography of virtual questioning by using geographic information systems to study activity within the Florida Electronic Library "Ask a Librarian" collaborative chat service. Researchers mapped participating libraries throughout the state of Florida that served as virtual "entry portals" for users as…

  3. Interpretation of genomic data: questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Simon, Richard

    2008-07-01

    Using a question and answer format we describe important aspects of using genomic technologies in cancer research. The main challenges are not managing the mass of data, but rather the design, analysis, and accurate reporting of studies that result in increased biological knowledge and medical utility. Many analysis issues address the use of expression microarrays but are also applicable to other whole genome assays. Microarray-based clinical investigations have generated both unrealistic hype and excessive skepticism. Genomic technologies are tremendously powerful and will play instrumental roles in elucidating the mechanisms of oncogenesis and in bringing on an era of predictive medicine in which treatments are tailored to individual tumors. Achieving these goals involves challenges in rethinking many paradigms for the conduct of basic and clinical cancer research and for the organization of interdisciplinary collaboration.

  4. [Menstruation in the systemic context. New questions -- questionable connections].

    PubMed

    Lütje, W

    2005-10-01

    Experiencing and the significance of menstruation could possibly be a decisive factor in your physiology or pathologic physiology, in accordance with blood flow disturbance or endometriosis. Menstruation is a systemic, characteristic experience. Evolution, family, culture, community, media, health service and even the economy have an influence on the "period system". Damage and use, sense and the nonsensical of regular bleeding stand to the test. The cycle comes under increasing "pressure" and is no longer in "rhythm". Counter regulation, through regulation of the period seems to prevent the personal, community and health-wise restrictions. The price for this is unknown. Clearly, there is no longer a path between a natural, relaxed acceptance of and an artificial abolition of blood flow. The question of direction is posed in the menarche. This question remains unanswered even in our time.

  5. Evaluating programs that address ideological issues: ethical and practical considerations for practitioners and evaluators.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Lisa D; Fagen, Michael C; Neiger, Brad L

    2014-03-01

    There are important practical and ethical considerations for organizations in conducting their own, or commissioning external, evaluations and for both practitioners and evaluators, when assessing programs built on strongly held ideological or philosophical approaches. Assessing whether programs "work" has strong political, financial, and/or moral implications, particularly when expending public dollars, and may challenge objectivity about a particular program or approach. Using a case study of the evaluation of a school-based abstinence-until-marriage program, this article discusses the challenges, lessons learned, and ethical responsibilities regarding decisions about evaluation, specifically associated with ideologically driven programs. Organizations should consider various stakeholders and views associated with their program to help identify potential pitfalls in evaluation. Once identified, the program or agency needs to carefully consider its answers to two key questions: Do they want the answer and are they willing to modify the program? Having decided to evaluate, the choice of evaluator is critical to assuring that ethical principles are maintained and potential skepticism or criticism of findings can be addressed appropriately. The relationship between program and evaluator, including agreements about ownership and eventual publication and/or promotion of data, should be addressed at the outset. Programs and organizations should consider, at the outset, their ethical responsibility when findings are not expected or desired. Ultimately, agencies, organizations, and programs have an ethical responsibility to use their data to provide health promotion programs, whether ideologically founded or not, that appropriately and effectively address the problems they seek to solve.

  6. Addressing Breast Cancer's Unequal Burden

    MedlinePlus

    ... be useful for all women. How will the study work? The initiative will gather data from 18 smaller studies. While some of these studies were able to ... future cancer research among minority populations. Dr. Martin's work seeks to ... women in breast cancer studies? Historically, trust has been a key issue in ...

  7. Atomic clusters with addressable complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, David J.

    2017-02-01

    A general formulation for constructing addressable atomic clusters is introduced, based on one or more reference structures. By modifying the well depths in a given interatomic potential in favour of nearest-neighbour interactions that are defined in the reference(s), the potential energy landscape can be biased to make a particular permutational isomer the global minimum. The magnitude of the bias changes the resulting potential energy landscape systematically, providing a framework to produce clusters that should self-organise efficiently into the target structure. These features are illustrated for small systems, where all the relevant local minima and transition states can be identified, and for the low-energy regions of the landscape for larger clusters. For a 55-particle cluster, it is possible to design a target structure from a transition state of the original potential and to retain this structure in a doubly addressable landscape. Disconnectivity graphs based on local minima that have no direct connections to a lower minimum provide a helpful way to visualise the larger databases. These minima correspond to the termini of monotonic sequences, which always proceed downhill in terms of potential energy, and we identify them as a class of biminimum. Multiple copies of the target cluster are treated by adding a repulsive term between particles with the same address to maintain distinguishable targets upon aggregation. By tuning the magnitude of this term, it is possible to create assemblies of the target cluster corresponding to a variety of structures, including rings and chains.

  8. Biochemistry and Biology of GDF11 and Myostatin: Similarities, Differences, and Questions for Future Investigation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ryan G; Poggioli, Tommaso; Katsimpardi, Lida; Buchanan, Sean M; Oh, Juhyun; Wattrus, Sam; Heidecker, Bettina; Fong, Yick W; Rubin, Lee L; Ganz, Peter; Thompson, Thomas B; Wagers, Amy J; Lee, Richard T

    2016-04-01

    Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) and myostatin (or GDF8) are closely related members of the transforming growth factor β superfamily and are often perceived to serve similar or overlapping roles. Yet, despite commonalities in protein sequence, receptor utilization and signaling, accumulating evidence suggests that these 2 ligands can have distinct functions in many situations. GDF11 is essential for mammalian development and has been suggested to regulate aging of multiple tissues, whereas myostatin is a well-described negative regulator of postnatal skeletal and cardiac muscle mass and modulates metabolic processes. In this review, we discuss the biochemical regulation of GDF11 and myostatin and their functions in the heart, skeletal muscle, and brain. We also highlight recent clinical findings with respect to a potential role for GDF11 and/or myostatin in humans with heart disease. Finally, we address key outstanding questions related to GDF11 and myostatin dynamics and signaling during development, growth, and aging.

  9. Conducting systematic reviews of intervention questions I: Writing the review protocol, formulating the question and searching the literature.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, A M; Anderson, K M; Goodell, C K; Sargeant, J M

    2014-06-01

    This article is the fourth of six articles addressing systematic reviews in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine. Previous articles in the series have introduced systematic reviews, discussed study designs and hierarchies of evidence, and provided details on conducting randomized controlled trials, a common design for use in systematic reviews. This article describes development of a review protocol and the first two steps in a systematic review: formulating a review question, and searching the literature for relevant research. The emphasis is on systematic reviews of questions related to interventions. The review protocol is developed prior to conducting the review and specifies the plan for the conduct of the review, identifies the roles and responsibilities of the review team and provides structured definitions related to the review question. For intervention questions, the review question should be defined by the PICO components: population, intervention, comparison and outcome(s). The literature search is designed to identify all potentially relevant original research that may address the question. Search terms related to some or all of the PICO components are entered into literature databases, and searches for unpublished literature also are conducted. All steps of the literature search are documented to provide transparent reporting of the process.

  10. On a question of Gross

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2007-03-01

    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  11. Recognizing Young Readers' Spoken Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wei; Mostow, Jack; Aist, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Free-form spoken input would be the easiest and most natural way for young children to communicate to an intelligent tutoring system. However, achieving such a capability poses a challenge both to instruction design and to automatic speech recognition. To address the difficulties of accepting such input, we adopt the framework of predictable…

  12. Classroom Questions. ERIC/AE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brualdi, Amy C.

    Questioning is one of the most popular modes of teaching, but it has the capacity to turn a child off to learning if done incorrectly. This digest provides teachers with information on the types of questions and questioning behaviors that can facilitate the learning process and on the types of questions that are ineffective. Good questions foster…

  13. Quantum key management

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth

    2016-11-29

    Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.

  14. Advancing efforts to address youth violence involvement.

    PubMed

    Weist, M D; Cooley-Quille, M

    2001-06-01

    Discusses the increased public attention on violence-related problems among youth and the concomitant increased diversity in research. Youth violence involvement is a complex construct that includes violence experienced in multiple settings (home, school, neighborhood) and in multiple forms (as victims, witnesses, perpetrators, and through family members, friends, and the media). Potential impacts of such violence involvement are considerable, including increased internalizing and externalizing behaviors among youth and future problems in school adjustment and life-course development. This introductory article reviews key dimensions of youth-related violence, describes an American Psychological Association Task Force (Division 12) developed to advance relevant research, and presents examples of national resources and efforts that attempt to address this critical public health issue.

  15. The Question of Teaching Vocabulary: Which Words? In What Ways?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of vocabulary for comprehension, Wilhelm asks two key questions: "which words do I teach and how should I teach them?" Through years of trial and error, Wilhelm has adopted these principles to answer "which words": teach "important" words students will see and use again; words necessary to conceptual understanding; words…

  16. SkBQ - prooxidant addressed to mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Vyssokikh, M Y; Chernyak, B V; Domnina, L V; Esipov, D S; Ivanova, O Y; Korshunova, G A; Symonyan, R A; Skulachev, M V; Zinevich, T V; Skulachev, V P

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are the key links in the chain of development of pathologies associated with the violation of cellular energy metabolism. Development of mitochondria-addressed compounds highly specific for chemical processes is one of the most promising ways to develop approaches to the treatment of inherited and age-related diseases with mitochondrial etiology. Correlation of structure and chemical activity of the test compounds from a class of lipophilic cations revealed the key role of substituents in the aromatic ring of 1,4-benzoquinones in the manifestation of high antioxidant properties. In this work, it is shown that a synthesized benzoquinone derivative conjugated in position 6 with membrane-penetrating cation of decyltriphenylphosphonium and with substituents at position 2, 3, and 5 (SkBQ) has much lower antioxidant and significantly higher prooxidant activity in comparison with similar derivatives of plasto- and toluquinone SkQ1 and SkQT1 in experiments on isolated mitochondria. At the same time, SkBQ, like SkQ1 and SkQT1, can be reduced by the respiratory chain in the center i of complex III and decrease the mitochondrial membrane potential. In cell cultures of human fibroblasts, it was revealed that SkBQ does not protect cells from apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide. Under the same conditions, SkQ1 and SkQT1 exhibit a powerful protective effect. Thus, SkBQ can be seen as a mitochondria-addressed prooxidant. The possibility of using SkBQ as an anticancer drug for the treatment of cancers such as prostate cancer whose cells are sensitive to mitochondrial reactive oxygen species is discussed.

  17. Modular Connector Keying Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishman, Scott; Dukes, Scott; Warnica, Gary; Conrad, Guy; Senigla, Steven

    2013-01-01

    For panel-mount-type connectors, keying is usually "built-in" to the connector body, necessitating different part numbers for each key arrangement. This is costly for jobs that require small quantities. This invention was driven to provide a cost savings and to reduce documentation of individual parts. The keys are removable and configurable in up to 16 combinations. Since the key parts are separate from the connector body, a common design can be used for the plug, receptacle, and key parts. The keying can then be set at the next higher assembly.

  18. Group key management

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.

  19. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  20. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance.

  1. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating.

  2. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  3. Numerical approach for unstructured quantum key distribution

    PubMed Central

    Coles, Patrick J.; Metodiev, Eric M.; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows for communication with security guaranteed by quantum theory. The main theoretical problem in QKD is to calculate the secret key rate for a given protocol. Analytical formulas are known for protocols with symmetries, since symmetry simplifies the analysis. However, experimental imperfections break symmetries, hence the effect of imperfections on key rates is difficult to estimate. Furthermore, it is an interesting question whether (intentionally) asymmetric protocols could outperform symmetric ones. Here we develop a robust numerical approach for calculating the key rate for arbitrary discrete-variable QKD protocols. Ultimately this will allow researchers to study ‘unstructured' protocols, that is, those that lack symmetry. Our approach relies on transforming the key rate calculation to the dual optimization problem, which markedly reduces the number of parameters and hence the calculation time. We illustrate our method by investigating some unstructured protocols for which the key rate was previously unknown. PMID:27198739

  4. Addressing Risks to Advance Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Iltis, Ana S.; Misra, Sahana; Dunn, Laura B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Campbell, Amy; Earll, Sarah A.; Glowinski, Anne; Hadley, Whitney B.; Pies, Ronald; DuBois, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk communication and management are essential to the ethical conduct of research, yet addressing risks may be time consuming for investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) may reject study designs that appear too risky. This can discourage needed research, particularly in higher risk protocols or those enrolling potentially vulnerable individuals, such as those with some level of suicidality. Improved mechanisms for addressing research risks may facilitate much needed psychiatric research. This article provides mental health researchers with practical approaches to: 1) identify and define various intrinsic research risks; 2) communicate these risks to others (e.g., potential participants, regulatory bodies, society); 3) manage these risks during the course of a study; and 4) justify the risks. Methods As part of a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded scientific meeting series, a public conference and a closed-session expert panel meeting were held on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. The expert panel reviewed the literature with a focus on empirical studies and developed recommendations for best practices and further research on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. IRB review was not required because there were no human subjects. The NIMH played no role in developing or reviewing the manuscript. Results Challenges, current data, practical strategies, and topics for future research are addressed for each of four key areas pertaining to management and disclosure of risks in clinical trials: identifying and defining risks, communicating risks, managing risks during studies, and justifying research risks. Conclusions Empirical data on risk communication, managing risks, and the benefits of research can support the ethical conduct of mental health research and may help investigators better conceptualize and confront risks and to gain IRB approval. PMID:24173618

  5. Interim Exceptional Events Rule Frequently Asked Questions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Air agencies and other stakeholders have raised technical questions and issues related to implementation since the EPA promulgated the EER. This Question and Answer (Q&A) document is intended to respond to some of these frequently asked questions.

  6. Address the Major Societal Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubichler, Manfred

    In his famous historical account about the origins of molecular biology Gunther Stent introduced a three phase sequence that turns out to be characteristic for many newly emerging paradigms within science. New ideas, according to Stent, follow a sequence of romantic, dogmatic, and academic phases. One can easily see that complex systems science followed this path. The question now is whether we are in an extended academic phase of gradually expanding both theoretical and practical knowledge, or whether we are entering a new transformation of complex systems science that might well bring about a new romantic phase. I would argue that complexity science, indeed, is at the dawn of a new period - let's call it complexity 3.0. The last academic phase has seen the application of complex systems ideas and methods in a variety of different domains. It has been to a large extent business as usual...

  7. The Key to Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Provides tips on using low-tech, traditional key and lock systems for effectively securing university and college facilities. Discusses providing keys with utility patents as well as the need to design doors that offer greater deterrence to vandalism. (GR)

  8. Geomorphic and vegetation processes of the Willamette River floodplain, Oregon: current understanding and unanswered science questions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallick, J. Rose; Jones, Krista L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Hulse, David; Gregory, Stanley V.

    2013-01-01

    4. How is the succession of native floodplain vegetation shaped by present-day flow and sediment conditions? Answering these questions will produce baseline data on the current distributions of landforms and habitats (question 1), the extent of the functional floodplain (question 2), and the effects of modern flow and sediment regimes on future floodplain landforms, habitats, and vegetation succession (questions 3 and 4). Addressing questions 1 and 2 is a logical next step because they underlie questions 3 and 4. Addressing these four questions would better characterize the modern Willamette Basin and help in implementing and setting realistic targets for ongoing management strategies, demonstrating their effectiveness at the site and basin scales, and anticipating future trends and conditions.

  9. Information Extraction Supported Question Answering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-15

    cymfony.com, wei@cymfony.com phone : (716) 565-9114 fax: (716) 565-0308 15 October, 1999 Abstract This paper discusses the use of our information...display a currently valid OMB control number . 1. REPORT DATE 19 OCT 1999 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-10-1999 to 00-10-1999 4. TITLE AND...SUBTITLE Information Extraction Supported Question Answering 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  10. Keys to Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Up ahead, a foreboding wooden door showing wear from passage of earlier travelers is spotted. As the old porch light emits a pale yellow glow, a key ring emerges from deep inside the coat pocket. Searching for just the right key, the voyager settles on one that also shows age. As the key enters its receptacle and begins to turn, a clicking noise…

  11. Work Keys USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Work Keys USA, 1998

    1998-01-01

    "Work Keys" is a comprehensive program for assessing and teaching workplace skills. This serial "special issue" features 18 first-hand reports on Work Keys projects in action in states across North America. They show how the Work Keys is helping businesses and educators solve the challenge of building a world-class work force.…

  12. Biology Question Generation from a Semantic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lishan

    Science instructors need questions for use in exams, homework assignments, class discussions, reviews, and other instructional activities. Textbooks never have enough questions, so instructors must find them from other sources or generate their own questions. In order to supply instructors with biology questions, a semantic network approach was developed for generating open response biology questions. The generated questions were compared to professional authorized questions. To boost students' learning experience, adaptive selection was built on the generated questions. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing was used as embedded assessment of the student's current competence so that a suitable question could be selected based on the student's previous performance. A between-subjects experiment with 42 participants was performed, where half of the participants studied with adaptive selected questions and the rest studied with mal-adaptive order of questions. Both groups significantly improved their test scores, and the participants in adaptive group registered larger learning gains than participants in the control group. To explore the possibility of generating rich instructional feedback for machine-generated questions, a question-paragraph mapping task was identified. Given a set of questions and a list of paragraphs for a textbook, the goal of the task was to map the related paragraphs to each question. An algorithm was developed whose performance was comparable to human annotators. A multiple-choice question with high quality distractors (incorrect answers) can be pedagogically valuable as well as being much easier to grade than open-response questions. Thus, an algorithm was developed to generate good distractors for multiple-choice questions. The machine-generated multiple-choice questions were compared to human-generated questions in terms of three measures: question difficulty, question discrimination and distractor usefulness. By recruiting 200 participants from

  13. Can Innovation Save Gifted Education? 2010 NAGC Presidential Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Connecting innovation with gifted education is a necessity not only in the current political climate but also because it is a field with deeply held beliefs about the importance of problem solving, creativity, imagination, and invention--all critical components of innovation. In this address, the author focuses on three key ideas. First, she…

  14. Addressing Educational Accountability and Political Legitimacy with Citizen Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitzlein, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, Sarah Stitzlein addresses a key current crisis in public education: accountability. Rather than centrally being about poor performance of teachers or inefficiency of schools, as we most often hear in media outlets and in education reform speeches, Stitzlein argues the crisis is at heart one about citizen responsibility and political…

  15. No question about exciting questions in cell biology.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Thomas D

    2013-12-01

    Although we have a good grasp of many important processes in cell biology, including knowledge of many molecules involved and how they interact with each other, we still do not understand most of the dynamical features that are the essence of living systems. Fortunately, we now have the ability to dissect biological systems in enough detail to understand their dynamics, including the use of mathematical models to account for past observations and predict future experiments. This deep level of mechanistic understanding should be our goal—not simply to satisfy our scientific curiosity, but also to understand the causes of disease well enough to predict risks, make early diagnoses, and treat effectively. Many big questions remain to be answered before we reach this goal of understanding cellular dynamics.

  16. New generation of content addressable memories for associative processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, H. G., Jr.; Giambalov, Paul

    2000-05-01

    Content addressable memories (CAMS) store both key and association data. A key is presented to the CAN when it is searched and all of the addresses are scanned in parallel to find the address referenced by the key. When a match occurs, the corresponding association is returned. With the explosion of telecommunications packet switching protocols, large data base servers, routers and search engines a new generation of dense sub-micron high throughput CAMS has been developed. The introduction of this paper presents a brief history and tutorial on CAMS, their many uses and advantages, and describes the architecture and functionality of several of MUSIC Semiconductors CAM devices. In subsequent sections of the paper we address using Associative Processing to accommodate the continued increase in sensor resolution, number of spectral bands, required coverage, the desire to implement real-time target cueing, and the data flow and image processing required for optimum performance of reconnaissance and surveillance Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). To be competitive the system designer must provide the most computational power, per watt, per dollar, per cubic inch, within the boundaries of cost effective UAV environmental control systems. To address these problems we demonstrate leveraging DARPA and DoD funded Commercial Off-the-Shelf technology to integrate CAM based Associative Processing into a real-time heterogenous multiprocessing system for UAVs and other platforms with limited weight, volume and power budgets.

  17. Content-addressable holographic databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grawert, Felix; Kobras, Sebastian; Burr, Geoffrey W.; Coufal, Hans J.; Hanssen, Holger; Riedel, Marc; Jefferson, C. Michael; Jurich, Mark C.

    2000-11-01

    Holographic data storage allows the simultaneous search of an entire database by performing multiple optical correlations between stored data pages and a search argument. We have recently developed fuzzy encoding techniques for this fast parallel search and demonstrated a holographic data storage system that searches digital data records with high fidelity. This content-addressable retrieval is based on the ability to take the two-dimensional inner product between the search page and each stored data page. We show that this ability is lost when the correlator is defocussed to avoid material oversaturation, but can be regained by the combination of a random phase mask and beam confinement through total internal reflection. Finally, we propose an architecture in which spatially multiplexed holograms are distributed along the path of the search beam, allowing parallel search of large databases.

  18. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  19. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  20. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  1. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Open questions in classical gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Mannheim, P.D. )

    1994-04-01

    In this work, the authors discuss some outstanding open questions regarding the validity and uniqueness of the standard second-order Newton-Einstein classical gravitational theory. On the observational side the authors discuss the degree to which the realm of validity of Newton's law of gravity can actually be extended to distances much larger than the solar system distance scales on which the law was originally established. On the theoretical side the authors identify some commonly accepted (but actually still open to question) assumptions which go into the formulation of the standard second-order Einstein theory in the first place. In particular, it is shown that while the familiar second-order Poisson gravitational equation (and accordingly its second-order covariant Einstein generalization) may be sufficient to yield Newton's law of gravity they are not in fact necessary. The standard theory thus still awaits the identification of some principle which would then make it necessary too. It is shown that current observational information does not exclusively mandate the standard theory, and that the conformal invariant fourth-order theory of gravity considered recently by Mannheim and Kazanas is also able to meet the constraints of data, and in fact to do so without the need for any so far unobserved nonluminous or dark matter. 37 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Semantic representation of consumer questions and physician answers.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Laura A; Soergel, Dagobert; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the underlying semantics of health consumers' questions and physicians' answers in order to analyze the semantic patterns within these texts. We manually identified semantic relationships within question-answer pairs from Ask-the-Doctor Web sites. Identification of the semantic relationship instances within the texts was based on the relationship classes and structure of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Semantic Network. We calculated the frequency of occurrence of each semantic relationship class, and conceptual graphs were generated, joining concepts together through the semantic relationships identified. We then analyzed whether representations of physician's answers exactly matched the form of the question representations. Lastly, we examined characteristics of the answer conceptual graphs. We identified 97 semantic relationship instances in the questions and 334 instances in the answers. The most frequently identified semantic relationship in both questions and answers was brings_about (causal). We found that the semantic relationship propositions identified in answers that most frequently contain a concept also expressed in the question were: brings_about, isa, co_occurs_with, diagnoses, and treats. Using extracted semantic relationships from real-life questions and answers can produce a valuable analysis of the characteristics of these texts. This can lead to clues for creating semantic-based retrieval techniques that guide users to further information. For example, we determined that both consumers and physicians often express causative relationships and these play a key role in leading to further related concepts.

  4. Transportation Energy Futures: Key Opportunities and Tools for Decision Makers (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-12-01

    The Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project examines underexplored greenhouse gas-abatement and oil-savings opportunities by consolidating transportation energy knowledge, conducting advanced analysis, and exploring additional opportunities for sound strategic action. Led by NREL, in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, the project's primary goal is to provide analysis to accompany DOE-EERE's long-term transportation energy planning by addressing high-priority questions, informing domestic decisions about transportation energy strategies, priorities, and investments. Research and analysis were conducted with an eye toward short-term actions that support long-term energy goals The project looks beyond technology to examine each key question in the context of the marketplace, consumer behavior, industry capabilities, and infrastructure. This updated fact sheet includes a new section on initial project findings.

  5. Addressing Underrepresentation: Physics Teaching for All

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rifkin, Moses

    2016-02-01

    Every physics teacher wants to give his or her students the opportunity to learn physics well. Despite these intentions, certain groups of students—including women and underrepresented minorities (URMs)—are not taking and not remaining in physics. In many cases, these disturbing trends are more significant in physics than in any other science. This is a missed opportunity for our discipline because demographic diversity strengthens science. The question is what we can do about these trends in our classrooms, as very few physics teachers have been explicitly prepared to address them. In this article, I will share some steps that I've taken in my classroom that have moved my class in the right direction. In the words of Nobel Prize-winning physicist Carl Wieman and psychologists Lauren Aguilar and Gregory Walton: "By investing a small amount of class time in carefully designed and implemented interventions, physics teachers can promote greater success among students from diverse backgrounds. Ultimately, we hope such efforts will indeed improve the diversity and health of the physics profession."

  6. [Nursing] Test Pool Questions. Area II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Nettie; Patton, Bob

    This manual consists of area 2 test pool questions which are designed to assist instructors in selecting appropriate questions to help prepare practical nursing students for the Oklahoma state board exam. Multiple choice questions are utilized to facilitate testing of nursing 2 curriculum objectives. Each test contains questions covering each…

  7. Five Strategies for Questioning with Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Arthur L.; Kallick, Bena

    2015-01-01

    Masterful teachers don't just ask a lot of questions; they ask questions in a purposeful way. In this article, Costa and Kallick describe five strategies that can help teachers become more purposeful in designing and posing questions. One strategy is to plan questions that elicit student thinking at various cognitive levels, from simple recall of…

  8. Socrates' questions: a focus for nursing.

    PubMed

    Bunkers, Sandra S

    2004-07-01

    This column focuses on the philosophical dialogue originated by Socrates. Six questions that Socrates would ask the ancient Greeks are explored in discussing a book written by Phillips entitled Six Questions of Socrates. These questions were: What is virtue? What is moderation? What is justice? What is good? What is courage? What is piety? A human becoming perspective is used as a lens to view the discussion on these questions and the question is posed, "What would it be like to frame discussions on health and quality of life around Socrates' questions?" Parse's teaching-learning processes are presented as a means of creating an environment where dialogue on these questions can occur.

  9. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.

  10. Frequently Asked Questions from EPA's Community Air Monitoring Training Event, July 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Community Air Monitoring Training Event on July 9, 2015 in RTP, NC. Forty citizen scientists attended in person while over 500 others attended the live webinar. Several attendees posted questions, which EPA scientists have addressed here.

  11. Addressing concerns and achieving expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.

    1995-12-01

    Approximately 2-1/2 years ago many of us were gathered here in Prague at a similar conference with a similar name, {open_quotes}Energy and Environment: Transitions in Eastern Europe.{close_quotes} Over 300 professionals from 26 nations attended. The objective of the conference was to: Facilitate the Solution of Long and Short Term Energy and Environmental Problems in Eastern Europe by Bringing Together People, ideas and technologies which could be applied to specific problems in a logical step-by-step manner. It was conceded at the time that the long term solution would consist of thoughtfully integrated steps and that the conference was the first step. We are here in the Czech Republic again this week to continue what was started. As before, this conference continues to: (1) Provide a forum to identify and discuss cost-effective environmentally acceptable energy and environmental technology options and their associated socioeconomic issues. (2) Stimulate the Formation of business partnerships (3) Identify key barrier issues hindering technology applications and identify implementation pathways that eliminate or avoid obstacles to progress.

  12. The Hyperloop as a Source of Interesting Estimation Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allain, Rhett

    2014-03-01

    The Hyperloop is a conceptual high speed transportation system proposed by Elon Musk. The basic idea uses passenger capsules inside a reduced pressure tube. Even though the actual physics of dynamic air flow in a confined space can be complicated, there are a multitude estimation problems that can be addressed. These back-of-the-envelope questions can be approximated by physicists of all levels as well as the general public and serve as a great example of the fundamental aspects of physics.

  13. Perfusion MRI: The Five Most Frequently Asked Technical Questions

    PubMed Central

    Essig, Marco; Shiroishi, Mark S.; Nguyen, Thanh Binh; Saake, Marc; Provenzale, James M.; Enterline, David; Anzalone, Nicoletta; Dörfler, Arnd; Rovira, Àlex; Wintermark, Max; Law, Meng

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This and its companion article address the 10 most frequently asked questions that radiologists face when planning, performing, processing, and interpreting different MR perfusion studies in CNS imaging. CONCLUSION Perfusion MRI is a promising tool in assessing stroke, brain tumors, and patients with neurodegenerative diseases. Most of the impediments that have limited the use of perfusion MRI can be overcome to allow integration of these methods into modern neuroimaging protocols. PMID:23255738

  14. Grids: The Top Ten Questions

    DOE PAGES

    Schopf, Jennifer M.; Nitzberg, Bill

    2002-01-01

    The design and implementation of a national computing system and data grid has become a reachable goal from both the computer science and computational science point of view. A distributed infrastructure capable of sophisticated computational functions can bring many benefits to scientific work, but poses many challenges, both technical and socio-political. Technical challenges include having basic software tools, higher-level services, functioning and pervasive security, and standards, while socio-political issues include building a user community, adding incentives for sites to be part of a user-centric environment, and educating funding sources about the needs of this community. This paper details the areasmore » relating to Grid research that we feel still need to be addressed to fully leverage the advantages of the Grid.« less

  15. Discussing the diagnosis of HPV-OSCC: common questions and answers

    PubMed Central

    Fakhry, Carole; D’Souza, Gypsyamber

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for a rising proportion of oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers (OSCC). HPV-positive OSCCs (HPV-OSCC) are associated with oral HPV infection and sexual behavior. Patient questions regarding risk factors, prognosis and implications for past, present and future relationships often arise. This manuscript addresses frequently asked questions by patients with HPV-OSCC and their families. A framework for clinicians to address these conversations and the limitations of our present knowledge base is also presented. PMID:23876627

  16. Evaluation of four maternal smoking questions.

    PubMed Central

    Kharrazi, M; Epstein, D; Hopkins, B; Kreutzer, R; Doebbert, G; Hiatt, R; Swan, S; Eskenazi, B; Pirkle, J L; Bernert, J T

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors evaluated four questions about maternal smoking during pregnancy for use on birth certificates. METHODS: Question 1 (yes/no format) and Question 2 (trimester-specific design) were tested among 1171 women who delivered at two Kaiser Permanente medical centers in northern California. Responses to Questions 1 and 2 were compared with smoking information provided by participants in telephone interviews conducted during pregnancy. Question 3 (multiple choice format) and Question 4 (month- and grouped month-specific design) were tested among 900 women who enrolled in a statewide prenatal screening program and who delivered in 20 hospitals in four Central Valley counties. Responses to Questions 3 and 4 were compared with mid-pregnancy serum cotinine levels. The authors evaluated the four questions in terms of conciseness, response rate, data accuracy, and type of data requested. RESULTS: Questions 1 and 2 were the most concise. Response rates could not be calculated for Questions 1 and 2. Response rates were 86.0% for Question 3 and 74.2% for Question 4. Sensitivity was 47.3% for Question 1, 62.1% for Question 2, 83.8% for Question 3, and 86.7% for Question 4. The types of data requested by Questions 2 and 4 seem to best satisfy the needs of the broad audience of birth certificate users. CONCLUSIONS: No single question was clearly superior. The authors propose a combination of Questions 2 and 4, which asks about average number of cigarettes smoked per day in the three months before pregnancy and in each trimester of pregnancy. PMID:9925173

  17. Drug discovery FAQs: workflows for answering multidomain drug discovery questions.

    PubMed

    Chichester, Christine; Digles, Daniela; Siebes, Ronald; Loizou, Antonis; Groth, Paul; Harland, Lee

    2015-04-01

    Modern data-driven drug discovery requires integrated resources to support decision-making and enable new discoveries. The Open PHACTS Discovery Platform (http://dev.openphacts.org) was built to address this requirement by focusing on drug discovery questions that are of high priority to the pharmaceutical industry. Although complex, most of these frequently asked questions (FAQs) revolve around the combination of data concerning compounds, targets, pathways and diseases. Computational drug discovery using workflow tools and the integrated resources of Open PHACTS can deliver answers to most of these questions. Here, we report on a selection of workflows used for solving these use cases and discuss some of the research challenges. The workflows are accessible online from myExperiment (http://www.myexperiment.org) and are available for reuse by the scientific community.

  18. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  19. Open questions about giant viruses.

    PubMed

    Claverie, Jean-Michel; Abergel, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    The recent discovery of giant viruses exhibiting double-stranded DNA genomes larger than a million base pairs, encoding more than a thousand proteins and packed in near micron-sized icosahedral particles, opened a new and unexpected chapter in virology. As of today, these giant viruses and their closest relatives of lesser dimensions infect unicellular eukaryotes found in aquatic environments, but belonging to a wide diversity of early branching phyla. This broad phylogenetic distribution of hosts is consistent with the hypothesis that giant viruses originated prior to the radiation of the eukaryotic domain and/or might have been involved in the partition of nuclear versus cytoplasmic functions in ancestral cells. The distinctive features of the known giant viruses, in particular the recurrent presence of components of the translation apparatus in their proteome, raise a number of fundamental questions about their origin, their mode of evolution, and the relationship they may entertain with other dsDNA viruses, the genome size of which exhibits the widest distribution among all biological entities, from less than 5 kb to more than 1.25 Mb (a ratio of 1:250). At a more conceptual level, the convergence between the discovery of increasingly reduced parasitic cellular organisms and that of giant viruses exhibiting a widening array of cellular-like functions may ultimately abolish the historical discontinuity between the viral and the cellular world.

  20. A Key to the New Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerryts, Egbert; Pienaar, Heila

    This paper discusses finding the key to a new library in order to ensure its future, stressing the importance of alignment between strategy and people. The first section addresses management philosophy for renewal, including replacing the inflexible hierarchical pyramidal structure by a network organization with a service and competency management…

  1. Key Management Challenges in Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, Frederick T; Duren, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Agenda Awarded in February 2011 Team of industry and research organizations Project Objectives Address difficult issues Complexity Diversity of systems Scale Longevity of solution Participate in standards efforts and working groups Develop innovative key management solutions Modeling and simulation ORNL Cyber Security Econometric Enterprise System Demonstrate effectiveness of solution Demonstrate scalability

  2. Compilation of Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension Questions for Discussion. 104th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    This volume compiles and reprints the responses of 37 organizations to a series of questions issued by the House Committee on Agriculture in anticipation of debates concerning the Research Title of the 1995 Farm Bill due for updating and revision. The questions address some of the following topics: the role of the federal government in…

  3. Input Consistency in the Acquisition of Questions in Bulgarian and English: A Hypothesis Testing Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tornyova, Lidiya

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation is to address several major empirical and theoretical issues related to English-speaking children's difficulties with auxiliary use and inversion in questions. The empirical data on English question acquisition are inconsistent due to differences in methods and techniques used. A range of proposals about the source of…

  4. What Is Life? An Activity to Convey the Complexities of This Simple Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2013-01-01

    "What is life?" This deceptively simple question lies at the heart of biology. In this activity, students work in groups to come up with their own definition using a set of prompting cards that differs for each team. In doing so, students gain an appreciation of the complexities of addressing this question. The activity takes approximately 60-90…

  5. Questions Often Asked about Special Education Services = Preguntas sobre los servicios de educacion especial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupper, Lisa, Ed.

    This guide, available in both English and Spanish, answers questions often asked by parents about special education services. Questions and answers address the following topics: where to begin if a parent believes a child needs special education services, services available to very young children, the evaluation process, the Individualized…

  6. A Case Study of Question Formations of the Saudi EFL Learners at Bisha University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed Al-Hassaani, Abdulbari Mahboob

    2016-01-01

    This paper has studied the question formation techniques used by the Saudi students at Bisha University. It addresses the problems faced by the students in forming questions in English. The study has identified that a large number of the students suffer from the lack of proper grammar rules in forming various types of interrogative sentences and…

  7. DOD Business Systems Modernization: Recent Slowdown in Institutionalizing Key Management Controls Needs to Be Addressed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    identifying and leveraging shared services . A service-oriented architecture is an approach for sharing business capabilities across the enterprise by...Federated Architecture Source: GAO analysis of DOD data. A rc hi te ct ur es Tr an si tio n P la ns S ys te m s S ol ut io ns Enterprise shared services and... shared services would be identified, exposed, and subscribed to; and what milestones would be used to measure progress and results.60 In January 2008

  8. DIII-D research to address key challenges for ITER and fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Buttery, Richard J.

    2015-07-29

    DIII-D has made significant advances in the scientific basis for fusion energy. The physics mechanism of resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) edge localized mode (ELM) suppression is revealed as field penetration at the pedestal top, and reduced coil set operation was demonstrated. Disruption runaway electrons were effectively quenched by shattered pellets; runaway dissipation is explained by pitch angle scattering. Modest thermal quench radiation asymmetries are well described NIMROD modeling. With good pedestal regulation and error field correction, low torque ITER baselines have been demonstrated and shown to be compatible with an ITER test blanket module simulator. However performance and long wavelength turbulence degrade as low rotation and electron heating are approached. The alternative QH mode scenario is shown to be compatible with high Greenwald density fraction, with an edge harmonic oscillation demonstrating good impurity flushing. Discharge optimization guided by the EPED model has discovered a new super H-mode with doubled pedestal height. Lithium injection also led to wider, higher pedestals. On the path to steady state, 1 MA has been sustained fully non inductively with βN = 4 and RMP ELM suppression, while a peaked current profile scenario provides attractive options for ITER and a βN = 5 future reactor. Energetic particle transport is found to exhibit a critical gradient behavior. Scenarios are shown to be compatible with radiative and snowflake diverter techniques. Physics studies reveal that the transition to H mode is locked in by a rise in ion diamagnetic flows. Intrinsic rotation in the plasma edge is demonstrated to arise from kinetic losses. New 3D magnetic sensors validate linear ideal MHD, but identify issues in nonlinear simulations. Detachment, characterized in 2D with sub-eV resolution, reveals a radiation shortfall in simulations. As a result, future facility development targets burning plasma physics with torque free electron heating, the path to steady state with increased off axis currents, and a new divertor solution for fusion reactors.

  9. Gravity is the Key Experiment to Address the Habitability of the Ocean in Jupiter's Moon Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sessa, A. M.; Dombard, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Life requires three constituents: a liquid solvent (i.e., water), a chemical system that can form large molecules to record genetic information (e.g., carbon based) as well as chemical nutrients (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorous), and a chemical disequilibrium system that can provide metabolic energy. While it is believed that there is a saline water layer located between the rock and ice layers in Jupiter's moon Europa, which would satisfy the first requirement, it is unknown if the other conditions are currently met. The likelihood that Europa is a haven for life in our Solar System skyrockets, however, if there is currently active volcanism at the rock-water interface, much the same that volcanic processes enable the chemosynthetic life that forms the basis of deep sea-vent communities at the bottom of Earth's oceans. Exploring the volcanic activity on this interface is challenging, as direct observation via a submersible or high-resolution indirect observations via a dense global seismic network on the surface is at present technically (and fiscally!) untenable. Thus, gravity studies are the best way to explore currently the structure of this all-important interface. Though mostly a silicate body with only a relatively thin (~100 km) layer of water, Europa is different from the terrestrial planets in that this rock-water interface, and not the surface, represents the largest density contrast across the moon's near-surface layers, and thus topography on this interface could conceivably dominate the gravity. Here, we calculate the potential anomalies that arise from topography on the surface, the water-ice interface (at 20 km depth), and the rock-water interface, finding that the latter dominates the free-air gravity at the longest wavelengths (spherical harmonic degrees < 10) and the Bouguer gravity at intermediate wavelengths (degrees ~10-50), and only for the shortest wavelengths (degrees > 50) does the water-ice interface (and presumably mass-density anomalies within the ice shell) dominate the Bouguer gravity. Thus, gravity can be used to explore this interface. To test whether active volcanism can be detected, we scale gravity models for the terrestrial planets down to a body the size of Europa's silicate core and with a density contrast consistent with a rock-water interface. Here, Venus and Earth serve as proxies for volcanically active bodies, while the Moon and Mars are proxies for inactive bodies. Additionally, we create gravity from synthetic topography on the base of the ice shell. Maps of the Bouguer-gravity and geoid anomalies reveal that active volcanism is characterized by small amplitudes (a few mGal and a few meters). Large-scale topography on the base of the ice shell adds larger geoid anomalies (tens of meters) but still small gravity anomalies. The absence of volcanic activity on the rock-water interface is likely characterized by larger anomalies (tens of mGal and tens of meters), plausibly because the cooler thermal structure permits the rocky lithosphere to support larger mass-density anomalies. Thus, study of the gravity may illuminate the habitability of Europa, and gravity and topography experiments on any future mission (e.g., the Europa Clipper) should be given the highest scientific priority.

  10. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE: Status of Achieving Key Outcomes and Addressing Major Management Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    we used in our analysis included (1) percent of La Cosa Nostra members incarcerated, (2) number of dismantled Asian criminal enterprises [new measure...Agencies Measure or Explain Program Performance (GAO/GGD-00-204, Sept. 29, 2000). 30Illegal Mexican Migration and the United States/ Mexico Border: The

  11. DIII-D research to address key challenges for ITER and fusion energy

    DOE PAGES

    Buttery, Richard J.

    2015-07-29

    DIII-D has made significant advances in the scientific basis for fusion energy. The physics mechanism of resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) edge localized mode (ELM) suppression is revealed as field penetration at the pedestal top, and reduced coil set operation was demonstrated. Disruption runaway electrons were effectively quenched by shattered pellets; runaway dissipation is explained by pitch angle scattering. Modest thermal quench radiation asymmetries are well described NIMROD modeling. With good pedestal regulation and error field correction, low torque ITER baselines have been demonstrated and shown to be compatible with an ITER test blanket module simulator. However performance and long wavelengthmore » turbulence degrade as low rotation and electron heating are approached. The alternative QH mode scenario is shown to be compatible with high Greenwald density fraction, with an edge harmonic oscillation demonstrating good impurity flushing. Discharge optimization guided by the EPED model has discovered a new super H-mode with doubled pedestal height. Lithium injection also led to wider, higher pedestals. On the path to steady state, 1 MA has been sustained fully non inductively with βN = 4 and RMP ELM suppression, while a peaked current profile scenario provides attractive options for ITER and a βN = 5 future reactor. Energetic particle transport is found to exhibit a critical gradient behavior. Scenarios are shown to be compatible with radiative and snowflake diverter techniques. Physics studies reveal that the transition to H mode is locked in by a rise in ion diamagnetic flows. Intrinsic rotation in the plasma edge is demonstrated to arise from kinetic losses. New 3D magnetic sensors validate linear ideal MHD, but identify issues in nonlinear simulations. Detachment, characterized in 2D with sub-eV resolution, reveals a radiation shortfall in simulations. As a result, future facility development targets burning plasma physics with torque free electron heating, the path to steady state with increased off axis currents, and a new divertor solution for fusion reactors.« less

  12. Twenty questions about student errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Kathleen M.; Lipson, Joseph Isaac

    Errors in science learning (errors in expression of organized, purposeful thought within the domain of science) provide a window through which glimpses of mental functioning can be obtained. Errors are valuable and normal occurrences in the process of learning science. A student can use his/her errors to develop a deeper understanding of a concept as long as the error can be recognized and appropriate, informative feedback can be obtained. A safe, non-threatening, and nonpunitive environment which encourages dialogue helps students to express their conceptions and to risk making errors. Pedagogical methods that systematically address common student errors produce significant gains in student learning. Just as the nature-nurture interaction is integral to the development of living things, so the individual-environment interaction is basic to thought processes. At a minimum, four systems interact: (1) the individual problem solver (who has a worldview, relatively stable cognitive characteristics, relatively malleable mental states and conditions, and aims or intentions), (2) task to be performed (including relative importance and nature of the task), (3) knowledge domain in which task is contained, and (4) the environment (including orienting conditions and the social and physical context).Several basic assumptions underlie research on errors and alternative conceptions. Among these are: Knowledge and thought involve active, constructive processes; there are many ways to acquire, organize, store, retrieve, and think about a given concept or event; and understanding is achieved by successive approximations. Application of these ideas will require a fundamental change in how science is taught.

  13. Key Facts about the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The "Alliance for Excellent Education" presents this Fact Sheet of answers to key questions raised surrounding implementation of the Common Core State Standards. Questions raised include: (1) What Are the Common Core State Standards (CCSS)?; (2) How Were the CCSS Developed?; (3) How Were the CCSS Adopted?; (4) What Changes in Instruction…

  14. Public/private key certification authority and key distribution. Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J.P.; Christensen, M.J.; Sturtevant, A.P.; Johnston, W.E.

    1995-09-25

    Traditional encryption, which protects messages from prying eyes, has been used for many decades. The present concepts of encryption are built from that heritage. Utilization of modern software-based encryption techniques implies much more than simply converting files to an unreadable form. Ubiquitous use of computers and advances in encryption technology coupled with the use of wide-area networking completely changed the reasons for utilizing encryption technology. The technology demands a new and extensive infrastructure to support these functions. Full understanding of these functions, their utility and value, and the need for an infrastructure, takes extensive exposure to the new paradigm. This paper addresses issues surrounding the establishment and operation of a key management system (i.e., certification authority) that is essential to the successful implementation and wide-spread use of encryption.

  15. Optical key system

    DOEpatents

    Hagans, Karla G.; Clough, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    An optical key system comprises a battery-operated optical key and an isolated lock that derives both its operating power and unlock signals from the correct optical key. A light emitting diode or laser diode is included within the optical key and is connected to transmit a bit-serial password. The key user physically enters either the code-to-transmit directly, or an index to a pseudorandom number code, in the key. Such person identification numbers can be retained permanently, or ephemeral. When a send button is pressed, the key transmits a beam of light modulated with the password information. The modulated beam of light is received by a corresponding optical lock with a photovoltaic cell that produces enough power from the beam of light to operate a password-screen digital logic. In one application, an acceptable password allows a two watt power laser diode to pump ignition and timing information over a fiberoptic cable into a sealed engine compartment. The receipt of a good password allows the fuel pump, spark, and starter systems to each operate. Therefore, bypassing the lock mechanism as is now routine with automobile thieves is pointless because the engine is so thoroughly disabled.

  16. Optical key system

    SciTech Connect

    Hagans, K.G.; Clough, R.E.

    2000-04-25

    An optical key system comprises a battery-operated optical key and an isolated lock that derives both its operating power and unlock signals from the correct optical key. A light emitting diode or laser diode is included within the optical key and is connected to transmit a bit-serial password. The key user physically enters either the code-to-transmit directly, or an index to a pseudorandom number code, in the key. Such person identification numbers can be retained permanently, or ephemeral. When a send button is pressed, the key transmits a beam of light modulated with the password information. The modulated beam of light is received by a corresponding optical lock with a photovoltaic cell that produces enough power from the beam of light to operate a password-screen digital logic. In one application, an acceptable password allows a two watt power laser diode to pump ignition and timing information over a fiberoptic cable into a sealed engine compartment. The receipt of a good password allows the fuel pump, spark, and starter systems to each operate. Therefore, bypassing the lock mechanism as is now routine with automobile thieves is pointless because the engine is so thoroughly disabled.

  17. Survey questions about party competence: Insights from cognitive interviews☆

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Markus; Zeglovits, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Voter assessments of party competence have become a key explanation of electoral decision-making. However, there are at least three important aspects to understanding responses to questions on issue-specific party competence: comprehension difficulties; a lack of well-formed attitudes and relevant information; and the use of response heuristics. We used 20 cognitive interviews carried out in Austria in 2011 to test competence questions. The interviews show us how respondents explain their responses. We find evidence that many people (1) may hold only weak opinions and have little information on issue-specific party competence and (2) may make use of distinct but related concepts, particularly salience and position, when answering questions about competence. We provide recommendations for researchers and survey designers based on our findings. PMID:25844005

  18. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin’s dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber’s structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure.

  19. Regional Screening Levels Frequent Questions (May 2016)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Regional Screening Level RSL frequently asked question FAQ page provides risk assessors answers to common questions about the preliminary remediation goal PRG risk based concentration RBC and risk calculator for the assessment of human Health.

  20. Questions for Your Doctor: Your First Visit

    MedlinePlus

    The Testicular Cancer Resource Center Questions for your Doctor: Your First Visit This list of questions is intended to help ... cancer, be happy, but also be aware that testicular cancer is misdiagnosed as epididymitis or something similar almost ...

  1. What Questions Should I Ask My Doctor?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Database Supporting Research Raising Awareness Our Blog Patient Education Pancreas News Basics of Pancreatic Cancer FAQs The ... Detection- Goggins Lab Sol Goldman Center Discussion Board Patient Education / Basics of Pancreatic Cancer Questions What questions should ...

  2. Questions and Answers for Architectural Coatings Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA compiled this question and answer document from inquiries received after the publication of the 1999 final architectural coatings rule and from questions raised at meetings with industry associations.

  3. What Questions Do They Ask? Ausubel Rephrased.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spargo, Peter E.; Enderstein, L. Gus

    1997-01-01

    Investigates what questions elementary students would ask when presented with various situations relating to the natural environment. Findings reveal the extraordinary range of questions that elementary students have concerning the solar system and space. (JRH)

  4. Provocative Questions in Cancer: NCI Seminar

    Cancer.gov

    science writers' seminar to discuss various aspects of one of NCI’s signature efforts -- the Provocative Questions project. Discussion will focus on the scientific research that surrounds some of these questions.

  5. Two-Year-Old Children Differentiate Test Questions from Genuine Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Gerlind; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Children are frequently confronted with so-called "test questions". While genuine questions are requests for missing information, test questions ask for information obviously already known to the questioner. In this study we explored whether two-year-old children respond differentially to one and the same question used as either a genuine question…

  6. Key Questions in Career Counseling. Techniques To Deliver Effective Career Counseling Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerriero, Janice M.; Allen, Robert Glenn

    This book, which was written for people responsible for career advising, employee development, performance improvement, organizational planning, and outplacement, explains techniques to deliver effective career counseling services. The book begins with an introductory examination of the factors driving the need for effective career counseling…

  7. Key Words in Instruction. Sift and Sort: The Answers Are in the Questions!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Kym; Largent, Connie

    2005-01-01

    Providing time and guidance to students as they "sift and sort" background information on a potential inquiry topic is important at any level of investigation, from grade school to graduate school. As the inquiring student moves through new information, discusses ideas with teachers and peers and, most of all, has time to reflect on the initial…

  8. Childhood Ataxia: Clinical Features, Pathogenesis, Key Unanswered Questions, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, Claire N.; Hoang, Kelly D.; Lynch, David R.; Perlman, Susan L.; Maria, Bernard L.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood ataxia is characterized by impaired balance and coordination primarily due to cerebellar dysfunction. Friedreich ataxia, a form of childhood ataxia, is the most common multisystem autosomal recessive disease. Most of these patients are homozygous for the GAA repeat expansion located on the first intron of the frataxin gene on chromosome 9. Mutations in the frataxin gene impair mitochondrial function, increase reactive oxygen species, and trigger redistribution of iron in the mitochondria and cytosol. Targeted therapies for Friedreich ataxia are undergoing testing. In addition, a centralized database, patient registry, and natural history study have been launched to support clinical trials in Friedreich ataxia. The 2011 Neurobiology of Disease in Children symposium, held in conjunction with the 40th annual Child Neurology Society meeting, aimed to (1) describe clinical features surrounding Friedreich ataxia, including cardiomyopathy and genetics; (2) discuss recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of Friedreich ataxia and developments of clinical trials; (3) review new investigations of characteristic symptoms; (4) establish clinical and biochemical overlaps in neurodegenerative diseases and possible directions for future basic, translational, and clinical studies. PMID:22859693

  9. Linking Indicators: Key Research Questions to Guide Decisions on What to Measure, Map and Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public policy increasingly demands insight into the social consequences of environmental policy and drivers of human behaviors that affect the environment. Social consequences can provide potent justifications for environmental protection and management, and human preferences and...

  10. Video-Based Intervention for Individuals with Autism: Key Questions that Remain Unanswered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Christopher; Denholm, Carey; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Research on variations of video-based intervention (VBI) suggests that they can be effective for teaching individuals with disabilities a range of socially significant behaviors. Among the relevant studies and reviews, particular emphasis has been given to applications of these procedures for participants diagnosed with autism. The term…

  11. Introduction to the fifth Mars Polar Science special issue: key questions, needed observations, and recommended investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clifford, Stephen M.; Yoshikawa, Kenji; Byrne, Shane; Durham, William; Fisher, David; Forget, Francois; Hecht, Michael; Smith, Peter; Tamppari, Leslie; Titus, Timothy; Zurek, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The Fifth International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration – which was held from September 12–16, 2011, at the Pike’s Waterfront Lodge in Fairbanks, Alaska – is the latest in a continuing series of meetings that are intended to promote the exchange of knowledge and ideas between planetary and terrestrial scientists interested in Mars polar and climate research (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/polar2011/polar20113rd.html). The conference was sponsored by the Lunar and Planetary Institute, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA’s Mars Program Office, University of Alaska Fairbanks, International Association of Cryospheric Sciences and the Centre for Research in Earth and Space Sciences at York University.

  12. African diversity may hold key to human origins, medical questions. Genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    1999-02-01

    The genetic diversity of human populations in Africa has been studied less in Africa than it has been in Europe and Asia. However, the study of such diversity in Africa is important to the determination of where, when, and how modern humans evolved; to gain insight into the genetic diseases of Africans and African-Americans; and to identify potential treatments for diseases like malaria and HIV. Dr. Sarah Tishkoff et al.'s study of 3 locations on DNA samples from 13-18 populations in Africa and 30-45 other populations in other parts of the world found extremely high genetic diversity both within and between the African populations, and much less diversity in non-African populations. Tishkoff's research team examined the genetic information inherited from both the father and mother, which exists upon a strand of DNA close enough together that the markers are transferred intact. The use of genetic markers to trace lineages found that modern humans appear to have emerged from Africa 100,000-150,000 years ago and that the population which left Africa was rather small. These data agree with earlier research findings. The findings of Tishkoff et al. also suggest that the group which migrated from Africa came from northern East Africa.

  13. Key questions in the genetics and genomics of eco-evolutionary dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hendry, A P

    2013-12-01

    Increasing acceptance that evolution can be 'rapid' (or 'contemporary') has generated growing interest in the consequences for ecology. The genetics and genomics of these 'eco-evolutionary dynamics' will be--to a large extent--the genetics and genomics of organismal phenotypes. In the hope of stimulating research in this area, I review empirical data from natural populations and draw the following conclusions. (1) Considerable additive genetic variance is present for most traits in most populations. (2) Trait correlations do not consistently oppose selection. (3) Adaptive differences between populations often involve dominance and epistasis. (4) Most adaptation is the result of genes of small-to-modest effect, although (5) some genes certainly have larger effects than the others. (6) Adaptation by independent lineages to similar environments is mostly driven by different alleles/genes. (7) Adaptation to new environments is mostly driven by standing genetic variation, although new mutations can be important in some instances. (8) Adaptation is driven by both structural and regulatory genetic variation, with recent studies emphasizing the latter. (9) The ecological effects of organisms, considered as extended phenotypes, are often heritable. Overall, the study of eco-evolutionary dynamics will benefit from perspectives and approaches that emphasize standing genetic variation in many genes of small-to-modest effect acting across multiple traits and that analyze overall adaptation or 'fitness'. In addition, increasing attention should be paid to dominance, epistasis and regulatory variation.

  14. Response to "Reviewing Adolescent Literacy Reports: Key Components and Critical Questions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGisi, Lori L.

    2010-01-01

    The International Reading Association's Position Statement on Young Adolescents' Literacy Learning states, "It is during the middle years of schooling that most students refine their reading preferences, become sophisticated readers of informational text, and lay the groundwork for the lifelong reading habit." As the National Assessment of…

  15. Key Questions on the Obama Administration's 2013 Education Budget Request: Federal Education Budget Project. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New America Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    President Barack Obama submitted his third budget request to Congress on February 13th, 2012. The budget request includes proposed funding levels for all federal programs and agencies in aggregate for the upcoming 10 fiscal years, and specific fiscal year 2013 funding levels for programs subject to the annual appropriations process. It is…

  16. An Alternative to Keys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hagan, James

    1977-01-01

    For the secondary school, the author discourages the use of dichotomous keys in favor of a punch-card system. The system is readily constructed by students for use in plant and animal classification. (CP)

  17. Better Questions and Answers Equal Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swicegood, Philip R.; Parsons, James L.

    1989-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities and behavior problems need instruction designed to increase active thinking and questioning skills. Described methods for teaching these skills include T. Raphael's question-answer relationships, A. Hahn's questioning strategy, reciprocal teaching, and the "ReQuest" procedure. Practice activities for…

  18. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  19. Answering Wh- Questions About Sentences and Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Murray

    1986-01-01

    Describes a study designed to identify the mental operations that contribute to people's ability to answer wh- questions, that is, questions which request information that plays a particular role in relation to some action or event. Wh- questions are signaled by interrogative pronouns and adverbs like who, what, when, and where. (SED)

  20. Answers to Your Questions About American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Many of the frequent questions which arise concerning the relationship between Indians and the Federal Government are answered in this document. These questions and answers, in general, relate to Indians with whom the Federal government still retains a special relationship. Questions and answers pertain to the following areas: (1) the Indian…

  1. Wh- Questions and Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the comprehension of questions beginning with different wh- question words presented in two referential conditions to individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Thirty-nine school-age participants completed a battery of who, what, where, when, why, and how questions with and without a picture…

  2. Memory, Knowledge, and the Answering of Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Donald A.

    An examination of the nature of memory reveals that the representation of knowledge cannot be separated from the uses of knowledge. The answering of questions is not a simple retrieval and response of stored information; rather the process is embedded in a general structural framework containing knowledge of the questioner, the question, and the…

  3. What Can We Learn from Students' Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commeyras, Michelle

    1995-01-01

    Creating opportunities and encouraging student-centered questioning requires a special teacher-student dynamic. Students need to be empowered to ask questions. The article explores what teachers can learn from questions students ask, focusing on learning outcomes for teachers, and using a second-grade lesson on Harriet Tubman as an example. (SM)

  4. Questions That Science Teachers Find Difficult (II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)

  5. Delivery of QTIiv2 Question Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Gary B.; Davis, Hugh C.; Gilbert, Lester; Hare, Jonathon; Howard, Yvonne; Jeyes, Steve; Millard, David; Sherratt, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The IMS Question and Test Interoperability (QTI) standard identifies 16 different question types which may be used in online assessment. While some partial implementations exist, the R2Q2 project has developed a complete solution that renders and responds to all 16 question types as specified. In addition, care has been taken in the R2Q2 project…

  6. How to Make Your Questions Essential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Grant; Wilbur, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Good essential questions rarely emerge in the first draft. Common first-draft questions typically are convergent low-level questions designed to support content acquisition. They either point toward the one official "right" answer, or they elicit mere lists and thus no further inquiry. So how can teachers ensure that subsequent drafts…

  7. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS Examination System § 13.215 Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of...

  8. Teaching Students to Form Effective Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Tish

    2009-01-01

    The ability to question lies at the heart of human curiosity and is a necessary component of cognition. The author stresses that forming questions is essential to human thought and communication. As such, forming questions is a foundational process that cuts across curricular areas and is embedded in content standards across the nation, including…

  9. 32 CFR 316.7 - Questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Questions. 316.7 Section 316.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.7 Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedure...

  10. 32 CFR 316.7 - Questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Questions. 316.7 Section 316.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.7 Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedure...

  11. 32 CFR 316.7 - Questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Questions. 316.7 Section 316.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.7 Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedure...

  12. 32 CFR 316.7 - Questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Questions. 316.7 Section 316.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.7 Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedure...

  13. 32 CFR 316.7 - Questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Questions. 316.7 Section 316.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.7 Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedure...

  14. The Contrast between Interrogatives and Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Rodney

    1994-01-01

    Explores the relation between interrogative, a category of grammatical form, and question, a category of meaning. Mismatches between interrogative phrases and questioned elements are also investigated. Two kinds of interrogative and three kinds of question are distinguished. (47 references) (Author/CK)

  15. Developing Qualitative Research Questions: A Reflective Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The reflective and interrogative processes required for developing effective qualitative research questions can give shape and direction to a study in ways that are often underestimated. Good research questions do not necessarily produce good research, but poorly conceived or constructed questions will likely create problems that affect all…

  16. Teaching Culture: Questioning Perspectives on Our Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Met, Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Despite years of training, teaching experience, reading professional literature, attending conferences, and learning from expert colleagues, when it comes to the teaching of culture, the author wishes she knew more answers to many critical questions. Her questions are framed by the basic questions that all curricula seek to answer: WHAT is the…

  17. Public Key FPGA Software

    SciTech Connect

    Hymel, Ross

    2013-07-25

    The Public Key (PK) FPGA software performs asymmetric authentication using the 163-bit Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) on an embedded FPGA platform. A digital signature is created on user-supplied data, and communication with a host system is performed via a Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) bus. Software includes all components necessary for signing, including custom random number generator for key creation and SHA-256 for data hashing.

  18. The Supernova Key Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Dale Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory is a global network of robotic telescopes specializing in time domain astronomy. It currently has nine 1m telescopes, two 2m telescopes, and seven 0.4m telescopes. The Supernova Key Project is a 3 year program to obtain light curves and spectra of 500 supernovae with Las Cumbres Observatory. Here we show recent results, detail plans for the next Supernova Key Project, and explain how the US community can get involved.

  19. Strategic management and organizational behavior in dental education: reflections on key issues in an environment of change.

    PubMed

    Dunning, David G; Durham, Timothy M; Lange, Brian M; Aksu, Mert N

    2009-06-01

    With issues such as shrinking revenue, access to care, faculty workloads, and graying faculty, dental schools are faced with difficult challenges that fall to dental school deans to manage. Do dental school deans have the organizational skill sets and ethical frameworks necessary to address the challenges now facing dental schools? The purpose of this article is to pose questions and suggestions regarding some of the key issues in dental colleges today and to stimulate discussion in the dental community about needed changes in dental education.

  20. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  1. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  2. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  3. Planetary protection - some legal questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasan, E.

    2004-01-01

    When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lexlata, theexistingapplicableLaw, especially Space Law, and also lexferenda, whatshouldbethe law . With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of the notions "Planetary", and "Protection". About " Planetary": Our own Earth is our most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. But what is further meant by "Planetary"? Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B.)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN, etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites, etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protectionfrom what ? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B.Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits.Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there, etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from electronic "noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then, we have to

  4. Planetary protection - some legal questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasan, E.

    When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lex lata, the existing applicable Law, especially Space Law, and also lex ferenda, what should be the law. With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of "Planetary", and of "Protection". About "Planetary": Our own Earth is the most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. Then, we have to discuss what is further meant by "Planetary": Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protection from what? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B. Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits. Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from Electronic "Noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then

  5. Have the Answers to Common Legal Questions Concerning Nutrition Support Changed Over the Past Decade? 10 Questions for 10 Years.

    PubMed

    Barrocas, Albert; Cohen, Michael L

    2016-06-01

    Clinical nutrition specialists (CNSs) are often confronted with technological, ethical, and legal questions, that is, what can be done technologically, what should be done ethically, and what must be done legally, which conflict at times. The conflict represents a "troubling trichotomy" as discussed in the lead article of this issue of Nutrition in Clinical Practice (NCP). During Clinical Nutrition Week in 2006, a symposium covering these 3 topics was presented, and later that year, an article covering the same topic was published in NCP In this article, we revisit several legal questions/issues that were raised 10 years ago and discuss current answers and approaches. Some of the answers remain unchanged. Other answers have been modified by additional legislation, court decisions, or regulations. In addition, new questions/issues have arisen. Some of the most common questions regarding nutrition support involve the following: liability, informed consent, medical decisional incapacity vs legal competence, advance directive specificity, surrogate decision making, physician orders for life-sustaining treatment and electronic medical orders for life-sustaining treatment, legal definition of death, patient vs family decision making, the noncompliant patient, and elder abuse obligations. In the current healthcare environment, these questions and issues are best addressed via a transdisciplinary team that focuses on function rather than form. The CNS can play a pivotal role in dealing with these challenges by applying the acronym ACT: being Accountable and Communicating with all stakeholders while actively participating as an integral part of the transdisciplinary Team.

  6. So Much More than Just a List: Exploring the Nature of Critical Questioning in Undergraduate Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; Moreira, Aurora; Lopes, Betina; Watts, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background: Critical thinking is one of the very highest orders of cognitive abilities and a key competency in higher education. Asking questions is an important component of rich learning experiences, structurally embedded in the operations of critical thinking. Our clear sense is that critical thinking and, within that, critical questioning, is…

  7. Computer-Aided Assessment Questions in Engineering Mathematics Using "MapleTA"[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, I. S.

    2008-01-01

    The use of "MapleTA"[R] in the assessment of engineering mathematics at Liverpool John Moores University (JMU) is discussed with particular reference to the design of questions. Key aspects in the formulation and coding of questions are considered. Problems associated with the submission of symbolic answers, the use of randomly generated numbers…

  8. Actual questions raised by nanoparticle radiosensitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Emilie; Sicard-Roselli, Cécile

    2016-11-01

    Radiosensitization by metallic nanoparticles (NP) has been explored for more than a decade with promising results in vitro and in cellulo reported in a vast number of publications. Yet, few clinical trials are on-going. This could be related to the lack of selectivity of NP leading to massive quantities to be injected to observe an effect but also to the higher degree of complexity than first thought leading to an absence of consensus probably caused by the lack of standardization in pre-clinical studies. Given the wide panel of NP used, in terms of core nature, size, coating, not to mention of cell lines and irradiation modalities, cross-comparison of data is not a walk in the park. But only a thorough examination could help identifying the key parameters and the possible mechanisms involved. This step is crucial as it should provide guidance for designing the most efficient combination NP/radiation and rationally establishing clinical protocols. In this review, we will combine and confront cellular radiosensitization results with in vitro and numerical experiments in order to give the more recent vision of this complex phenomenon. We decided to address a few hot topics such as the influence of the incident radiation energy, the localization of NP or the so-called ;biological; effect. We will highlight that among the barriers to break down, some are not restricted to the ;nano; community: an incontestable support could be offered by the ;radiation; community in the broadest sense.

  9. Addressing the next challenges: A summary of the 22nd international symposium on hepatitis C virus and related viruses.

    PubMed

    Baumert, Thomas F; Schuster, Catherine; Cosset, François-Loïc; Dubuisson, Jean; Hofmann, Maike; Tautz, Norbert; Zeisel, Mirjam B; Thimme, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Following the discovery of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) more than 25 years ago the field has succeeded to develop methods that have changed the safety of blood products, understand the molecular virology, epidemiology and clinical disease of HCV, and identify specific targets for the development of direct-acting antivirals for HCV cure. Nevertheless, major clinical and scientific challenges remain: therapy is still only available to a fraction of infected patients worldwide and many patients remain undiagnosed and/or live in countries where therapy is unattainable. An urgently needed HCV vaccine to eradicate infection remains still elusive. Scientifically, major questions remain regarding the life cycle, pathogenesis and mechanisms of viral clearance and persistence. Addressing these challenges, this meeting report reviews key findings of the 22nd International Symposium on Hepatitis C Virus and Related Viruses in Strasbourg, France from October 9 to 13, 2015.

  10. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  11. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  12. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  13. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  14. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  15. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41... Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in an application... correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which an address is...

  16. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41... Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in an application... correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which an address is...

  17. 47 CFR 13.10 - Licensee address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee address. 13.10 Section 13.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.10 Licensee address. In accordance with § 1.923 of this chapter all applications must specify an address where...

  18. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  19. An Official American Thoracic Society Workshop Report. A Framework for Addressing Multimorbidity in Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pulmonary Disease, Critical Illness, and Sleep Disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kevin C; Gould, Michael K; Krishnan, Jerry A; Boyd, Cynthia M; Brozek, Jan L; Cooke, Colin R; Douglas, Ivor S; Goodman, Richard A; Joo, Min J; Lareau, Suzanne; Mularski, Richard A; Patel, Minal R; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Shanawani, Hasan; Slatore, Christopher; Sockrider, Marianna; Sufian, Beth; Thomson, Carey C; Wiener, Renda Soylemez

    2016-03-01

    Coexistence of multiple chronic conditions (i.e., multimorbidity) is the most common chronic health problem in adults. However, clinical practice guidelines have primarily focused on patients with a single disease, resulting in uncertainty about the care of patients with multimorbidity. The American Thoracic Society convened a workshop with the goal of establishing a strategy to address multimorbidity within clinical practice guidelines. In this Workshop Report, we describe a framework that addresses multimorbidity in each of the key steps of guideline development: topic selection, panel composition, identifying clinical questions, searching for and synthesizing evidence, rating the quality of that evidence, summarizing benefits and harms, formulating recommendations, and rating the strength of the recommendations. For the consideration of multimorbidity in guidelines to be successful and sustainable, the process must be both feasible and pragmatic. It is likely that this will be achieved best by the step-wise addition and refinement of the various components of the framework.

  20. Medical Marijuana: More Questions than Answers

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the limited medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202

  1. Lock and key colloids.

    PubMed

    Sacanna, S; Irvine, W T M; Chaikin, P M; Pine, D J

    2010-03-25

    New functional materials can in principle be created using colloids that self-assemble into a desired structure by means of a programmable recognition and binding scheme. This idea has been explored by attaching 'programmed' DNA strands to nanometre- and micrometre- sized particles and then using DNA hybridization to direct the placement of the particles in the final assembly. Here we demonstrate an alternative recognition mechanism for directing the assembly of composite structures, based on particles with complementary shapes. Our system, which uses Fischer's lock-and-key principle, employs colloidal spheres as keys and monodisperse colloidal particles with a spherical cavity as locks that bind spontaneously and reversibly via the depletion interaction. The lock-and-key binding is specific because it is controlled by how closely the size of a spherical colloidal key particle matches the radius of the spherical cavity of the lock particle. The strength of the binding can be further tuned by adjusting the solution composition or temperature. The composite assemblies have the unique feature of having flexible bonds, allowing us to produce flexible dimeric, trimeric and tetrameric colloidal molecules as well as more complex colloidal polymers. We expect that this lock-and-key recognition mechanism will find wider use as a means of programming and directing colloidal self-assembly.

  2. Writing a Scientific Research ("Testable") Question: The First Step in Using Online Data Sets for Guided Inquiry Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Chiron; Rutherford, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Educational research focused on questioning techniques used in classroom settings is quite extensive. However, research regarding a teacher's ability to generate research questions is virtually nonexistent. Posing research or "testable" questions is a key component of inquiry-based instruction, and teachers must be able to both generate…

  3. KeySlinger and StarSlinger: Secure Key Exchange and Encrypted File Transfer on Smartphones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    being detected . Details of attacks against the exchange protocol itself are described in [2]. They include deleting, modifying, or inserting data...using KeySlinger. It is assumed that signature forgery or file decryption is infeasible without possession of the corresponding RSA private key...signature forgery is infeasible. Potential attacks then are limited to denial of service or spamming. These issues are addressed in Section 6. 3

  4. Questions for assessing higher-order cognitive skills: it's not just Bloom's.

    PubMed

    Lemons, Paula P; Lemons, J Derrick

    2013-01-01

    We present an exploratory study of biologists' ideas about higher-order cognition questions. We documented the conversations of biologists who were writing and reviewing a set of higher-order cognition questions. Using a qualitative approach, we identified the themes of these conversations. Biologists in our study used Bloom's Taxonomy to logically analyze questions. However, biologists were also concerned with question difficulty, the length of time required for students to address questions, and students' experience with questions. Finally, some biologists demonstrated an assumption that questions should have one correct answer, not multiple reasonable solutions; this assumption undermined their comfort with some higher-order cognition questions. We generated a framework for further research that provides an interpretation of participants' ideas about higher-order questions and a model of the relationships among these ideas. Two hypotheses emerge from this framework. First, we propose that biologists look for ways to measure difficulty when writing higher-order questions. Second, we propose that biologists' assumptions about the role of questions in student learning strongly influence the types of higher-order questions they write.

  5. Mediated semiquantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawec, Walter O.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we design a quantum key distribution protocol, allowing two limited semiquantum or "classical" users to establish a shared secret key with the help of a fully quantum server. A semiquantum user can prepare and measure qubits only in the computational basis and so must rely on this quantum server to produce qubits in alternative bases and also to perform alternative measurements. However, we assume that the server is untrusted and we prove the unconditional security of our protocol even in the worst case: when this quantum server is an all-powerful adversary. We also compute a lower bound of the key rate of our protocol, in the asymptotic scenario, as a function of the observed error rate in the channel, allowing us to compute the maximally tolerated error of our protocol. Our results show that a semiquantum protocol may hold similar security to a fully quantum one.

  6. 150 Student Questions on Solar Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, R. E.; Gross, N. A.; Knipp, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) holds a two-week Space Weather Summer School for introductory graduate students and space weather professionals to gain a system level understanding of the space environment and the effects of space weather. A typical day in the summer school consists of three morning lectures followed by an afternoon lab session. After the morning lectures, the participants are each asked to submit a question about the mornings topics on a question card. The lecturers then take the time to answer these questions prior to afternoon sessions. In the last 5 years over 1000 such question cards have been collected and cataloged. Despite detailed lectures by experts similar questions appear every year. We have analyzed over 150 questions related to the introductory lectures on solar physics and solar activity. Questions content was categorized using the AGU Index, and question sophistication was categorized using Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Specific analysis results along with lists of questions will be presented. We hope that these results can be used to improve the lecture and classroom content and allow students to move beyond low level education objectives and ask more sophisticated questions.

  7. Seaworthy Quantum Key Distribution Design and Validation (SEAKEY)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-10

    Contractor Address: 10 Moulton Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 Title of the Project: Seaworthy Quantum Key Distribution Design and Validation (SEAKEY...Technologies Kathryn Carson Program Manager Quantum Information Processing 2 | P a g e Approved for public release; distribution is

  8. Zika Virus and Complications: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread of vector-borne diseases Mosquito surveillance and control What role does mosquito surveillance play in addressing ... in Aedes mosquito populations What role does mosquito control play in addressing Zika virus? Mosquito control is ...

  9. Multi Sensor Approach to Address Sustainable Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2007-01-01

    The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates, can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. However, the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. This requires continuous, and detailed observations from many sources in situ, airborne and space. By and large, the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. This requires a multiple sensors, look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality, multi hazard disasters, public health, hydrology and more. Therefore, there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation, data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population, some sound observations, scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants, endangered species and the ecology. Needless to say, there is no single sensor, which can answer all such questions effectively. Due to multi sensor approach, it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information, knowledge, budget, technology readiness and computational power. And, more importantly, the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. So far, each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing

  10. Five Keys to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peddy, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    The first year as a principal is filled with self-doubt. As one already knows, there is no book or guide that can fully prepare someone for what the principal's position entails. All first-year principals have to learn by doing. In this article, the author discusses five keys to success that will guide and help first-year principals with the…

  11. Cryptographic Key Management System

    SciTech Connect

    No, author

    2014-02-21

    This report summarizes the outcome of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-OE0000543, requesting the design of a Cryptographic Key Management System (CKMS) for the secure management of cryptographic keys for the energy sector infrastructure. Prime contractor Sypris Electronics, in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Valicore Technologies, and Purdue University's Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security (CERIAS) and Smart Meter Integration Laboratory (SMIL), has designed, developed and evaluated the CKMS solution. We provide an overview of the project in Section 3, review the core contributions of all contractors in Section 4, and discuss bene ts to the DOE in Section 5. In Section 6 we describe the technical construction of the CKMS solution, and review its key contributions in Section 6.9. Section 7 describes the evaluation and demonstration of the CKMS solution in different environments. We summarize the key project objectives in Section 8, list publications resulting from the project in Section 9, and conclude with a discussion on commercialization in Section 10 and future work in Section 11.

  12. [Key issues in researching spirituality and religiosity in the light of the ASPIRES instrument (Assessment of Spirituality and Religious Sentiments) Developed by Ralph Piedmont].

    PubMed

    Tomcsányi, Teodóra; Ittzés, András; Horváth-Szabó, Katalin; Martos, Tamás; Szabó, Tünde

    2010-01-01

    Our article reviews the major questions raised by the psychological research of spirituality and religion, as well as the historical background of this research area. In our view the scientific exploration of spirituality and religion constitutes a process that allows for both empirical and hermeneutical approaches and as such it is open for a dialogue with other branches of social sciences. The most important topics addressed by the article include: 1. possible conceptualizations of the terms spirituality and religion; the connection between the two; similarities and differences; 2. the interpretation of spirituality as a dimension of the personality; 3. the question of measurement of spirituality and tools of its measurement; 4. the effects of spirituality; and 5. the culture relatedness of research data. Finally we demonstrate how the ASPIRES scale recently developed by R. Piedmont, its theoretical approach, development process, and empirical results try to answer these key questions.

  13. Question Classification Taxonomies as Guides to Formulating Questions for Use in Chemistry Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Festo, Kayima

    2016-01-01

    Teacher questions play an important role in facilitating classroom discourse. Using appropriate question types and proper questioning techniques help to create reflective-active learners. Teacher questions can elicit students' explanations, elaboration of their ideas and thinking, and they can be used to disclose students' misconceptions. Despite…

  14. Correlation between Question Intonation and Focus of Interrogation--Evidence from French Dislocated Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Xiao-nan

    This study explores the relationship between question intonation patterns in French using dislocated questions and question-focus (Q- focus). A dislocated question is defined as an interrogative sentence whose sequence is interrupted by the topicalization of a constituent at the left ("Toi, tu viens?"), at the right (Tu viens,…

  15. Is There a Relationship between Chemistry Performance and Question Type, Question Content and Gender?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Ross D.

    2012-01-01

    This research inquires into the effectiveness of the two predominant forms of questions--multiple-choice questions and short-answer questions--used in the State University Entrance Examination for Chemistry including the relationship between performance and gender. It examines not only the style of question but also the content type examined…

  16. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-20

    Order Code RL33537 Military Medical Care : Questions and Answers Updated May 20, 2008 Richard A. Best Jr. Specialist in National Defense Foreign...control number. 1. REPORT DATE 20 MAY 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Medical Care : Questions and...8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Military Medical Care : Questions and Answers Summary The primary mission of the military health system, which

  17. Discourse Integration Guided by the ‘Question under Discussion’

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Charles; Frazier, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    What makes a discourse coherent? One potential factor has been discussed in the linguistic literature in terms of a Question under Discussion (QUD). This approach claims that discourse proceeds by continually raising explicit or implicit questions, viewed as sets of alternatives, or competing descriptions of the world. If the interlocutor accepts the question, it becomes the QUD, a narrowed set of alternatives to be addressed (Roberts, 1996/To appear). Three eye movement recording studies are reported that investigated the effect of a preceding explicit QUD (Experiment 1) or implicit QUD (Experiments 2 and 3) on the processing of following text. Experiment 1 revealed an effect of whether the question queried alternative propositions or alternative entities. Reading times in the answer were faster when the answer it provided was of the same semantic type as was queried. Experiment 2 tested QUDs implied by the alternative description of reality introduced by a non-actuality implicature trigger such as should X or want to X. The results, when combined with the results of Experiment 3 (which ruled out a possible alternative interpretation) showed disrupted reading of a following verb phrase that failed to resolve the implicit QUD (Did the discourse participant actually X?), compared to reading the same material in the absence of a clear QUD. The findings support an online role for QUDs in guiding readers’ structuring and interpretation of discourse. PMID:22683609

  18. Clostridium difficile Infection in Children: Current State and Unanswered Questions

    PubMed Central

    Tamma, Pranita D.; Sandora, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in children has increased over the past decade. In recent years, new and intriguing data on pediatric CDI have emerged. Community-onset infections are increasingly recognized, even in children who have not previously received antibiotics. A hypervirulent strain is responsible for up to 20% of pediatric CDI cases. Unique risk factors for CDI in children have been identified. Advances in diagnostic testing strategies, including the use of nucleic acid amplification tests, have raised new questions about the optimal approach to diagnosing CDI in children. Novel therapeutic options are available for adult patients with CDI, raising questions about the use of these agents in children. Updated recommendations about infection prevention and control measures are now available. We summarize these recent developments in pediatric CDI in this review and also highlight remaining knowledge gaps that should be addressed in future research efforts. PMID:23687578

  19. No signaling and quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Jonathan; Hardy, Lucien; Kent, Adrian

    2005-07-01

    Standard quantum key distribution protocols are provably secure against eavesdropping attacks, if quantum theory is correct. It is theoretically interesting to know if we need to assume the validity of quantum theory to prove the security of quantum key distribution, or whether its security can be based on other physical principles. The question would also be of practical interest if quantum mechanics were ever to fail in some regime, because a scientifically and technologically advanced eavesdropper could perhaps use postquantum physics to extract information from quantum communications without necessarily causing the quantum state disturbances on which existing security proofs rely. Here we describe a key distribution scheme provably secure against general attacks by a postquantum eavesdropper limited only by the impossibility of superluminal signaling. Its security stems from violation of a Bell inequality.

  20. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function

    PubMed Central

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the “Hash_64” field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901