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Sample records for address language barriers

  1. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution.

  2. Addressing language barriers: building response capacity for a changing nation.

    PubMed

    Partida, Yolanda

    2007-11-01

    The absence of universally available language services is a national healthcare system failure, the burden of which is suffered by patients with limited English proficiency and their healthcare providers. Conceptualizing mandatory provision of language access as an unfair, unfunded mandate ignores massive and fundamental social changes taking place. Overcoming language barriers is essential to safe, quality health care. This paper, informed by the experience of Hablamos Juntos, a national demonstration project funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, argues that national and health industry investments are needed to develop population-based approaches supported by communication and information technology, and that these investments may prove useful to improving healthcare communication for English-speaking patients as well. PMID:17957423

  3. Sprache als Barriere (Language as a Barrier)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheier, Klaus

    1974-01-01

    The concept of language barrier has its derivations in the fields of dialectology, sociology and psychology. In contemporary usage however, the concept has two meanings i.e. regional-cultural barrier and socio-cultural barrier. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  4. Addressing barriers to safe abortion.

    PubMed

    Culwell, Kelly R; Hurwitz, Manuelle

    2013-05-01

    The latest World Health Organization data estimate that the total number of unsafe abortions globally has increased to 21.6 million in 2008. There is increasing recognition by the international community of the importance of the contribution of unsafe abortion to maternal mortality. However, the barriers to delivery of safe abortion services are many. In 68 countries, home to 26% of the world's population, abortion is prohibited altogether or only permitted to save a woman's life. Even in countries with more liberal abortion legal frameworks, additional social, economic, and health systems barriers and the stigma surrounding abortion prevent adequate access to safe abortion services and postabortion care. While much has been achieved to reduce the barriers to comprehensive abortion care, much remains to be done. Only through the concerted action of public, private, and civil society partners can we ensure that women have access to services that are safe, affordable, confidential, and stigma free. PMID:23477700

  5. Addressing Transition Issues in Languages Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steigler-Peters, Susi; Moran, Wendy; Piccioli, Maria Teresa; Chesterton, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on what has been learned from the implementation and evaluation of the Australian Language and Continuity Initiative (LCI) in relation to addressing transition issues in language education. (Author/VWL)

  6. Breaking the Language Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Preparation for the Apollo Soyuz mission entailed large-scale informational exchange that was accomplished by a computerized translation system. Based on this technology of commercial machine translation, a system known as SYSTRAN II was developed by LATSEC, Inc. and the World Translation Company of Canada. This system increases the output of a human translator by five to eight times, affording cost savings by allowing a large increase in document production without hiring additional people. Extra savings accrue from automatic production of camera-ready copy. Applications include translation of service manuals, proposals and tenders, planning studies, catalogs, list of parts and prices, textbooks, technical reports and education/training materials. System is operational for six language pairs. Systran users include Xerox Corporation, General Motors of Canada, Bell Northern Research of Canada, the U.S. Air Force and the European Commission. The company responsible for the production of SYSTRAN II has changed its name to SYSTRAN.

  7. Addressing Cultural and Native Language Interference in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allard, Daniele; Bourdeau, Jacqueline; Mizoguchi, Riichiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of cultural and native language interference in second/foreign language acquisition. More specifically, it examines issues of interference that can be traced to a student's native language and that also have a cultural component. To this effect, an understanding of what actually comprises both interference and…

  8. Program To Address Sociocultural Barriers to Health Care in Hispanic Communities. National Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Mike; Heroux, Janet

    Many members of the Hispanic community are separated from the larger community by language barriers and different cultures and belief systems. These factors can affect Hispanic Americans' ability to seek and gain access to the health care system. The Program To Address Sociocultural Barriers to Health Care in the Hispanic Community, known as…

  9. Language barriers and qualitative nursing research: methodological considerations

    PubMed Central

    Squires, A.

    2009-01-01

    Aim This review of the literature synthesizes methodological recommendations for the use of translators and interpreters in cross-language qualitative research. Background Cross-language qualitative research involves the use of interpreters and translators to mediate a language barrier between researchers and participants. Qualitative nurse researchers successfully address language barriers between themselves and their participants when they systematically plan for how they will use interpreters and translators throughout the research process. Experienced qualitative researchers recognize that translators can generate qualitative data through translation processes and by participating in data analysis. Failure to address language barriers and the methodological challenges they present threatens the credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability of cross-language qualitative nursing research. Through a synthesis of the cross-language qualitative methods literature, this article reviews the basics of language competence, translator and interpreter qualifications, and roles for each kind of qualitative research approach. Methodological and ethical considerations are also provided. Conclusion By systematically addressing the methodological challenges cross-language research presents, nurse researchers can produce better evidence for nursing practice and policy making when working across different language groups. Findings from qualitative studies will also accurately represent the experiences of the participants without concern that the meaning was lost in translation. PMID:19522941

  10. Addressing Barriers to Learning. Volume 11, Number 2. Spring 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter of the Center for Mental Health in Schools includes the following features and regular segments: (1) Concerns = Opportunities: Addressing Student Disengagement, Acting Out, and Dropouts by Moving in New Directions; (2) Info Sheet: Costs of Not Addressing Barriers to Learning; and (3) Current Status of Mental…

  11. Barriers to addressing substance abuse in domestic violence court.

    PubMed

    Riger, Stephanie; Bennett, Larry W; Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig

    2014-03-01

    Substance abuse commonly co-occurs with intimate partner violence among both perpetrators and survivors. Specialized courts that focus on intimate partner violence provide a unique opportunity to address both problems simultaneously, but research has yet to identify whether this happens. In this qualitative study of a domestic violence court in a large midwestern metropolitan area, key informants were interviewed to understand how the Court treats substance abuse. Results indicate that substance abuse typically is not identified among perpetrators or survivors going through the Court unless it is mentioned in a police report. Barriers to such identification are the organization of the Court, bounded definition of actors' roles in the Court, limited resources, and negative attitudes towards survivors. These results suggest that specialized courts that attend to only one problem may overlook the possibility of addressing issues that commonly co-occur.

  12. Conversations through barriers of language and interpretation.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Jane; Cassidy, Irene; Graham, Margaret M; Tuohy, Dympna

    Ireland has become a multicultural society in just over a decade, with non-Irish nationals comprising 12% of the population. The challenge for nurses working in the Irish healthcare system is to provide culturally appropriate care to this diverse population. This paper reports on a qualitative descriptive study exploring nurses' experiences of communicating with people from diverse cultures, and focuses on language barriers and the use of interpreters. The findings indicate that communicating with people who do not share the same first language is challenging, in particular the participants (nurses) were concerned about their ability to make a comprehensive assessment that ultimately forms the basis for quality care provision. The use of interpreters can inform the assessment process, but there are challenges in accessing and utilising these services. Further continuing education is required to promote culturally appropriate care. There is a need for increased discussion between nurses and interpreters to maximise communication with patients. PMID:23901452

  13. The Need for More Prehospital Research on Language Barriers: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Ramsey C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite evidence from other healthcare settings that language barriers negatively impact patient outcomes, the literature on language barriers in emergency medical services (EMS) has not been previously summarized. The objective of this study is to systematically review existing studies of the impact of language barriers on prehospital emergency care and identify opportunities for future research. Methods A systematic review with narrative synthesis of publications with populations specific to the prehospital setting and outcome measures specific to language barriers was conducted. A four-prong search strategy of academic databases (PubMed, Academic Search Complete, and Clinical Key) through March 2015, web-based search for gray literature, search of citation lists, and review of key conference proceedings using pre-defined eligibility criteria was used. Language-related outcomes were categorized and reported as community-specific outcomes, EMS provider-specific outcomes, patient-specific outcomes, or health system-specific outcomes. Results Twenty-two studies met eligibility criteria for review. Ten publications (45%) focused on community-specific outcomes. Language barriers are perceived as a barrier by minority language speaking communities to activating EMS. Eleven publications (50%) reported outcomes specific to EMS providers, with six of these studies focused on EMS dispatch. EMS dispatchers describe less accurate and delayed dispatch of resources when confronted with language discordant callers, as well as limitations in the ability to provide medical direction to callers. There is a paucity of research on EMS treatment and transport decisions, and no studies provided patient-specific or health system-specific outcomes. Key research gaps include identifying the mechanisms by which language barriers impact care, the effect of language barriers on EMS utilization and clinically significant outcomes, and the cost implications of addressing language

  14. Effectively addressing addiction requires changing the language of addiction.

    PubMed

    Richter, Linda; Foster, Susan E

    2014-02-01

    Public knowledge and attitudes about addiction are largely inconsistent with scientific evidence. The gap between the facts and public and professional perceptions is due in part to the language used to describe the disease and those who have it. A key step in modifying public attitudes and improving how health professionals and policymakers address addiction is to better align the language of addiction with the scientific evidence. Unless we clarify the language, those with the disease will continue to experience the stigma associated with it and attempts to deliver comprehensive and effective evidence-based prevention, treatment, and disease management will be profoundly compromised. PMID:24226552

  15. Caring from Home: Addressing Barriers to Family Child Care Expansion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens' Committee for Children of New York, NY.

    This study involved focus groups with New York City family day care providers to determine difficulties they experienced in three areas: economic barriers, payment and regulatory barriers, and barriers to workforce development. Overall, providers had difficulty making wages that allowed them to provide for themselves and their families. They…

  16. Promoting Physical Activity: Addressing Barriers and Moving Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Morrow, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The barriers that keep individuals from adopting and maintaining active lifestyles are very complex. Strategies for overcoming these barriers and to incentivize and assist inactive individuals to benefit from physical activity are necessary. In addition, it is important to examine the impact of public policy on active living. As youth physical…

  17. Language barrier and its relationship to diabetes and diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Language barrier is an important determinant of health care access and health. We examined the associations of English proficiency with type-2 diabetes (T2DM) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Asian Indians living in Singapore, an urban city where English is the predominant language of communication. Methods This was a population-based, cross-sectional study. T2DM was defined as HbA1c ≥6.5%, use of diabetic medication or a physician diagnosis of diabetes. Retinal photographs were graded for the severity of DR including vision-threatening DR (VTDR). Presenting visual impairment (VI) was defined as LogMAR visual acuity > 0.30 in the better-seeing eye. English proficiency at the time of interview was assessed. Results The analyses included 2,289 (72.1%) English-speaking and 885 (27.9%) Tamil- speaking Indians. Tamil-speaking Indians had significantly higher prevalence of T2DM (46.2 vs. 34.7%, p < 0.001) and, among those with diabetes, higher prevalence of DR (36.0 vs. 30.6%, p < 0.001), VTDR (11.0 vs. 6.5%, p < 0.001), and VI (32.4 vs. 14.6%) than English speaking Indians. Oaxaca decomposition analyses showed that the language-related discrepancies (defined as the difference in prevalence between persons speaking different languages) in T2DM, DR, and VTDR could not be fully explained by socioeconomic measures. Conclusions In an English dominant society, Tamil-speaking Indians are more likely to have T2DM and diabetic retinopathy. Social policies and health interventions that address language-related health disparities may help reduce the public health impact of T2DM in societies with heterogeneous populations. PMID:22974298

  18. Oceanic barriers promote language diversification in the Japanese Islands.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Hasegawa, T

    2014-09-01

    Good barriers make good languages. Scholars have long speculated that geographical barriers impede linguistic contact between speech communities and promote language diversification in a manner similar to the process of allopatric speciation. This hypothesis, however, has seldom been tested systematically and quantitatively. Here, we adopt methods from evolutionary biology and attempt to quantify the influence of oceanic barriers on the degree of lexical diversity in the Japanese Islands. Measuring the degree of beta diversity from basic vocabularies, we find that geographical proximity and, more importantly, isolation by surrounding ocean, independently explains a significant proportion of lexical variation across Japonic languages. Further analyses indicate that our results are neither a by-product of using a distance matrix derived from a Bayesian language phylogeny nor an epiphenomenon of accelerated evolutionary rates in languages spoken by small communities. Moreover, we find that the effect of oceanic barriers is reproducible with the Ainu languages, indicating that our analytic approach as well as the results can be generalized beyond Japonic language family. The findings we report here are the first quantitative evidence that physical barriers formed by ocean can influence language diversification and points to an intriguing common mechanism between linguistic and biological evolution.

  19. Creating Communities of Professionalism: Addressing Cultural and Structural Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this narrative synthesis is twofold. The purpose of this paper is to understand the barriers and constraints that hinder or prevent the growth of professional community. The author also want to form an empirical understanding of how educators can be successful in meeting these challenges. In both cases, the author wish to grow…

  20. In the right words: addressing language and culture in providing health care.

    PubMed

    2003-08-01

    As part of its continuing mission to serve trustees, executives, and staff of health foundations and corporate giving programs, Grantmakers In Health (GIH) convened a group of experts from philanthropy, research, health care practice, and policy on April 4, 2003, to discuss the roles of language and culture in providing effective health care. During this Issue Dialogue, In the Right Words: Addressing Language and Culture in Providing Health Care, health grantmakers and experts from policy and practice participated in an open exchange of ideas and perspectives on language access and heard from fellow grantmakers who are funding innovative programs in this area. Together they explored ways to effectively support comprehensive language services, including the use of interpreters and translation of written materials. This Issue Brief synthesizes key points from the day's discussion with a background paper previously prepared for Issue Dialogue participants. It focuses on the challenges and opportunities involved with ensuring language access for the growing number of people who require it. Sections include: recent immigration trends and demographic changes; the effect of language barriers on health outcomes and health care processes; laws and policies regarding the provision of language services to patients, including an overview of public financing mechanisms; strategies for improving language access, including enhancing access in delivery settings, promoting advocacy and policy change, improving interpreter training, and advancing research; and roles for foundations in supporting improved language access, including examples of current activities. The Issue Dialogue focused mainly on activities and programs that ensure linguistic access to health care for all patients. Although language and culture are clearly inseparable, a full exploration of the field of cultural competence and initiatives that promote its application to the health care setting are beyond the scope

  1. Addressing policy barriers to paternal involvement during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Alio, Amina P; Bond, M Jermane; Padilla, Yolanda C; Heidelbaugh, Joel J; Lu, Michael; Parker, Willie J

    2011-05-01

    Efforts to reduce infant mortality in the United States have failed to incorporate paternal involvement. Research suggests that paternal involvement, which has been recognized as contributing to child development and health for many decades, is likely to affect infant mortality through the mother's well-being, primarily her access to resources and support. In spite of that, systemic barriers facing the father and the influence on his involvement in the pregnancy have received little attention. The Commission on Paternal Involvement in Pregnancy Outcomes (CPIPO) has identified the most important social barriers to paternal involvement during pregnancy and outlined a set of key policy priorities aimed at fostering paternal involvement. This article summarizes the key recommendations, including equitable paternity leave, elimination of marriage as a tax and public assistance penalty, integration of fatherhood initiatives in MCH programs, support of low-income fathers through employment training, father inclusion in family planning services, and expansion of birth data collection to include father information. PMID:21472512

  2. The Development and Evaluation of a Measure Assessing School Nurses' Perceived Barriers to Addressing Pediatric Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yelena P.; Steele, Ric G.

    2011-01-01

    School nurses represent an important resource for addressing pediatric obesity and weight-related health. However, school nurses perceive numerous barriers that prevent them from addressing the weight-related health of students. The current study developed and tested a new, comprehensive measure of nurses' perceptions of 10 types of barriers to…

  3. Teaching through Technology. Breaking the Language Barrier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Denise

    1996-01-01

    Notes that it is important to lay the foundation for building English vocabulary and language skills using realistic situations. Reviews three computer programs that enable English-as-a-Second-Language students to achieve efficiency more quickly. The software titles reviewed are "Learning English--Home and Family Life and Neighborhood Life,""Let's…

  4. Intake Procedures as a Factor in Identifying and Addressing Barriers to Attendance of Adult Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubble, Judy Hafley

    A study explored the nature of intake procedures of Texas adult education programs. Research on barriers to attendance and strategies for retention were reviewed, and the current use of intake procedures to identify and address barriers to attendance was summarized through a survey of 374 Literacy, Even Start Family Literacy, Adult Basic Education…

  5. Using Inquiry to Break the Language Barrier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The more than five million English language learners (ELLs) in the United States represent over 10% of students enrolled in public schools--and this number is growing rapidly. From 1997 to 2007, growth of ELL enrollment exceeded that of overall enrollment by more than six to one. Regardless of where they teach, science educators will undoubtedly…

  6. VNA of Boston addresses cultural barriers in home-based care.

    PubMed

    Cuthbert-Allman, C; Conti, P A

    1995-12-01

    Home care professionals know that communication is the key to successful treatment. But what if the patient speaks a different language? One home care agency addresses this problem with a culturally diverse staff and access to interpretation services. PMID:10153855

  7. Latino Farmworkers in Saskatchewan: Language Barriers and Health and Safety.

    PubMed

    Viveros-Guzmán, Arcadio; Gertler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    As part of a study focused on the experiences of Latino migrant farmworkers in Saskatchewan, Canada, we have attempted to understand how language barriers (LBs) broadly understood may affect farmworkers and their employers, workplace communications, and occupational health and safety (OHS). Drawing on critical ethnography and intercultural communication theory, qualitative interviews were conducted with 39 Latino migrant farmworkers, 11 farmer-employers, two OHS civil servants, and two former Canadian farmworkers. Our findings suggest that LBs interfere with the establishment of effective communications between Latino farmworkers, other farm enterprise personnel, civil servants, and health services providers. LBs impede establishment of the kinds of sustained two-way communications needed for maintaining safe and healthy working environments. All of the stakeholders involved were found to contribute in some manner to the propagation of LBs. The risks for the physical and psychological well-being of migrant farmworkers are substantial, but despite the fact that LBs are generally recognized as a challenge and as a source of risk, they are not widely seen as warranting any systematic response. It is critical that Latino migrant workers learn more English and that their Canadian employers and supervisors learn more Spanish. Beyond that, there is an urgent need for a multistakeholder coalition that moves to address LBs by training certified interpreters and liaison personnel who can facilitate better communications between migrant workers, their employers, and other stakeholders. PMID:26237725

  8. Barriers to the Use of Evidence-Supported Programs to Address School Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawood, Natalie Diane

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have argued that there is a research-practice gap in the delivery of prevention and mental health services in the school setting. This national survey addresses that gap by identifying the barriers confronted by school social workers in implementing evidence-supported programs to address interpersonal violence in the school context. A…

  9. Second Person Singular Address Forms in Caleno Spanish: Applying a Theory of Language Regard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newall, Gregory M.

    2012-01-01

    Language regard is defined as the opinions and norms that speakers have about language. In this dissertation, a theory of language regard is applied to variation in second-person singular address forms in Cali Colombian Spanish (["tuteo," "voseo", and "ustedeo" ]). This theory claims that language production and…

  10. Oral health during pregnancy and early childhood: barriers to care and how to address them.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Dana

    2010-09-01

    This brief supplements recommendations developed by the California Dental Association Foundation and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists that recommended practice guidelines during the perinatal period. This brief addresses the importance and safety of oral health care during pregnancy and outlines some of the multiple system-level barriers that make it difficult for many women to access oral health services, as well as offers specific strategies for mitigating these barriers.

  11. Language barriers surrounding medication use among older Latinos.

    PubMed

    Mutchler, Jan E; Bacigalupe, Gonzalo; Coppin, Antonia; Gottlieb, Alison

    2007-03-01

    Limited English language proficiency forms a significant challenge for many Latinos in clinical settings. Although medications are commonly used by older individuals as a means of maintaining good health and managing health problems, the extent to which English proficiency is related to medication use among older Latinos is not known. Focus groups were conducted with Latino, community-residing individuals aged 50 and over in eastern Massachusetts. Qualitative evaluation of the group interviews suggests that language is a barrier in dealing with medication for these individuals. Limited English proficiency appears to be related to feelings of being discriminated against in clinical and pharmacy settings. As well, communicating directly with health professionals in a common language is associated with level of trust and confidence in medical settings. Use of formal and informal interpreters, as well as seeking Spanish-speaking physicians and pharmacies with Spanish-speaking staff, are identified as strategies for overcoming health-related obstacles surrounding language. PMID:17136455

  12. Language barriers between nurses and asylum seekers: their impact on symptom reporting and referral.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Alexander; Bovier, Patrick A; Rrustemi, Isah; Gariazzo, Françoise; Eytan, Ariel; Loutan, Louis

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether language barriers during the screening interview affected the reporting of asylum seekers' health problems and their referral to further health care. Seven hundred and twenty-three standard screening questionnaires, administered by nurses to asylum-seekers at the time of entry into Geneva/Switzerland between June and December 1998, were reviewed, as well as information pertaining to language use during the interview. Language concordance between nurses and asylum seekers was assessed by considering the presence/absence of an interpreter, the type of interpreter present (trained, untrained), and the nurse's self-assessed proficiency in the language used during the medical interview. Nurses also recorded their own subjective assessment of the overall quality of communication during the interview. More than half of the asylum seekers came from Europe, mainly the Balkan regions, and a third of them from Africa. Most asylum seekers were men (72%). The median age was 26.5 years, and 50% were younger than 25 years. Severe physical and psychological symptoms were reported by 19% and traumatic events prior to migration were reported by 63%. The nurses referred 36% of all refugees to further medical care and 6% to psychological care. Professional interpreters were used in 8% of the interviews and ad hoc interpreters in 16%. Adequate, partial and inadequate language concordance was reported for 54%, 27% and 18% of the consultations respectively. Adequate language concordance was significantly associated with higher reporting of past experience of traumatic events and of severe psychological symptoms, contrasting with much fewer referrals to psychological care when language concordance was inadequate. These results suggest the importance of addressing language barriers in primary care centres in order to adequately detect and refer traumatised refugees. To address this problem, the use of professional interpreters is

  13. The Need for More Research on Language Barriers in Health Care: A Proposed Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Elizabeth; Chen, Alice HM; Karliner, Leah S; Agger-Gupta, Niels; Mutha, Sunita

    2006-01-01

    Many U.S. residents who speak little English may face language barriers when seeking health care. This article describes what is currently known about language barriers in health care and outlines a research agenda based on mismatches between the current state of knowledge of language barriers and what health care stakeholders need to know. Three broad areas needing more research are discussed: the ways in which language barriers affect health and health care, the efficacy of linguistic access service interventions, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. In each of these areas, we outline specific research questions and recommendations. PMID:16529570

  14. Addressing Barriers to Student Learning & Promoting Healthy Development: A Usable Research-Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2004

    2004-01-01

    As schools evolve improvement plans in keeping with higher standards and expectations and increased accountability, most planners recognize they must include a comprehensive focus on addressing barriers to student learning and promoting healthy development. A growing volume of research on the value of schools, families, and communities working…

  15. Introduction to a Component for Addressing Barriers to Student Learning. A Center Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    This paper discusses current school reforms and their role in addressing barriers to student learning. Providing all students an equal opportunity to succeed requires more than higher standards and greater accountability for instruction, better teaching, increased discipline, reduced school violence, and an end to social promotion. It also…

  16. Ideological Barriers to American Sign Language: Unpacking Linguistic Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reagan, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the debate about the status of American Sign Language (ASL) as an example of ideological beliefs that impact linguistic judgments and policies. It also discusses the major challenges to the status of ASL with respect to formal legislative recognition, its utility as a medium of instruction, and its status as a legitimate…

  17. Native Language Experience Shapes Neural Basis of Addressed and Assembled Phonologies

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Zhang, Mingxia; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chuansheng

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of addressed and assembled phonologies in reading Chinese and alphabetic languages (e.g., English) and the modulatory role of native language in learning to read a second language. However, it is not clear whether native language experience shapes the neural mechanisms of addressed and assembled phonologies. To address this question, we trained native Chinese and native English speakers to read the same artificial language (based on Korean Hangul) either through addressed (i.e., whole-word mapping) or assembled (i.e., grapheme-to-phoneme mapping) phonology. We found that, for both native Chinese and native English speakers, addressed phonology relied on the regions in the ventral pathway, whereas assembled phonology depended on the regions in the dorsal pathway. More importantly, we found that the neural mechanisms of addressed and assembled phonologies were shaped by native language experience. Specifically, two key regions for addressed phonology (i.e., the left middle temporal gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus) showed greater activation for addressed phonology in native Chinese speakers, while one key region for assembled phonology (i.e., the left supramarginal gyrus) showed more activation for assembled phonology in native English speakers. These results provide direct neuroimaging evidence for the effect of native language experience on the neural mechanisms of phonological access in a new language and support the assimilation-accommodation hypothesis. PMID:25858447

  18. Native language experience shapes neural basis of addressed and assembled phonologies.

    PubMed

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Zhang, Mingxia; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chuansheng

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of addressed and assembled phonologies in reading Chinese and alphabetic languages (e.g., English) and the modulatory role of native language in learning to read a second language. However, it is not clear whether native language experience shapes the neural mechanisms of addressed and assembled phonologies. To address this question, we trained native Chinese and native English speakers to read the same artificial language (based on Korean Hangul) either through addressed (i.e., whole-word mapping) or assembled (i.e., grapheme-to-phoneme mapping) phonology. We found that, for both native Chinese and native English speakers, addressed phonology relied on the regions in the ventral pathway, whereas assembled phonology depended on the regions in the dorsal pathway. More importantly, we found that the neural mechanisms of addressed and assembled phonologies were shaped by native language experience. Specifically, one key region for addressed phonology (i.e., the left middle temporal gyrus) showed greater activation for addressed phonology in native Chinese speakers, while one key region for assembled phonology (i.e., the left supramarginal gyrus) showed more activation for assembled phonology in native English speakers. These results provide direct neuroimaging evidence for the effect of native language experience on the neural mechanisms of phonological access in a new language and support the assimilation-accommodation hypothesis.

  19. Proposal for a university-community-hospice partnership to address organizational barriers to cultural competence.

    PubMed

    Reese, Dona J

    2011-02-01

    Models of culturally competent hospice services have been developed, but they are not generally being used. This article describes a participatory action research project which is addressing organizational barriers to cultural competence through a university-community-hospice partnership. The intervention plan is to develop a connection with the African American community, increasing community knowledge, and hospice staff cultural competence through a social work student field placement. It is hoped that, if successful, this model will be replicated to address the problem of African American utilization and access to hospice.

  20. Addressing the Intercultural via Task-Based Language Teaching: Possibility or Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A frequent weakness of communicative approaches to foreign language teaching is a neglect of the intercultural dimension. Cultural knowledge is often treated as an addendum which focuses on learning facts about the target country. This article explores whether task-based language teaching (TBLT) can successfully address the intercultural…

  1. Native-Language Education: Addressing the Interests of Special Populations within U.S. Federal Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Jane; Dunlap, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of three federal laws that address native-language education and illustrates how these federal laws produce different results when coupled with state laws and other regional circumstances. For the purposes of this brief, native-language education refers to American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians and…

  2. Overcoming barriers to addressing education problems with research design: a panel discussion.

    PubMed

    Yarris, Lalena M; Gruppen, Larry D; Hamstra, Stanley J; Anders Ericsson, K; Cook, David A

    2012-12-01

    A plenary panel session at the 2012 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Education Research in Emergency Medicine: Opportunities, Challenges, and Strategies for Success" discussed barriers educators face in imagining, designing, and implementing studies to address educational challenges. This proceedings article presents a general approach to getting started in education research. Four examples of studies from the medical education literature that illustrate a distinct way to approach specific research questions are discussed. The study designs used are applicable to a variety of education research problems in emergency medicine (EM). Potential applications of studies are discussed, as well as effects and lessons learned.

  3. Using social marketing to address barriers and motivators to agricultural safety and health best practices.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Aaron M; Murphy, Dennis J

    2012-01-01

    Social marketing is an intervention development strategy that pays considerable attention to barriers to and motivators for behavioral change or adoption of recommended behaviors. Barriers are obstacles that prevent individuals from changing or adopting behaviors and are often referred to as the "cons" or "costs" of doing something. Motivators, on the other hand, are factors that encourage individuals to change or adopt behaviors and are often referred to as the "pros," "benefits," or "influencing factors" of doing something. Importantly, social marketing does not target education or knowledge change as an end point; rather, it targets behavior change. Studies across several types of desired behaviors (e.g., smoking cessation, weight control, more exercise, sunscreen use, radon testing) using the Stages of Change model have found systematic relationships between stages of change and pros and cons of changing behavior. A review of literature identifies numerous research and intervention studies that directly reference social marketing in agricultural safety and health, studies that identify reasons why parents allow their children to be exposed to hazardous situations on the farm, and reasons why youth engage in risky behaviors, but only two studies were found that show evidence of systematically researching specific behavioral change motivating factors. The authors offer several suggestions to help address issues relating to social marketing and agricultural safety and health.

  4. Exploring the Determinants of Language Barriers in Health Care (LBHC): Toward a Research Agenda for the Language Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segalowitz, Norman; Kehayia, Eva

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in language barriers in health care (LBHC)--interest, that is, in how the quality of health care service delivery might be compromised when patients and health care providers do not share the same first language. This article discusses LBHC as an emerging research area that provides valuable opportunities for researchers…

  5. ESSA, Equity of Opportunity, and Addressing Barriers to Learning. Research for School Improvement and Transformation. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The "Every Student Succeeds Act" (ESSA) recognizes that significant numbers of students require supports to successfully meet challenging state academic standards. This brief (1) analyzes the act to assess how it addresses the nature and scope of supports to address barriers to learning and re-engage disconnected students and (2)…

  6. Language Socialization and Interculturality: Address Terms in Intergenerational Talk in Chinese Diasporic Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Zhu

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the current debate on "interculturality" (IC) by investigating the process of language socialization whereby different generations of diasporic families negotiate, construct, and renew their sociocultural values and identities through interaction. Focusing on the use of address terms and "talk about social,…

  7. Use of Social Software to Address Literacy and Identity Issues in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Jill

    2009-01-01

    The emerging trend of social software technology can address many different second language (L2) learner needs through authentic social interaction and a variety of scaffolding processes. Social software connects education with real-life learning and interests, and engages and motivates students. It can facilitate learning environments that are…

  8. Barriers to addressing the social determinants of health: insights from the Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis; Curry-Stevens, Ann; Bryant, Toba

    2008-12-01

    Despite Canada's reputation as a leader in health promotion and population health, implementation of public policies in support of the social determinants of health has been woefully inadequate. The continuing presence of income, housing, and food insecurity has led to Canada being the subject of a series of rebukes from the United Nations for failing to address child and family poverty, discrimination against women and Aboriginal groups, and most recently the crisis of homelessness and housing insecurity. In this article we consider some of the reasons why this might be the case. These include the epistemological dominance of positivist approaches to the health sciences, the ideology of individualism prevalent in North America, and the increasing influence on public policy of the marketplace. Various models of public policy provide pathways by which these barriers can be surmounted. Considering that the International Commission on the Social Determinants of Health will soon be releasing its findings and recommendations, such an analysis seems especially timely for understanding both the Canadian scene and developments in other nations.

  9. Breaking Down Barriers: Addressing student misconceptions in the K-12 classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhamer, B.; McCallister, J. D.; Knisely, L.

    2004-05-01

    A typical astronomy question an educator may ask their students is "What is a black hole?" Many times, students' responses sound more like an episode of Star Trek than an understanding about the universe and how it works: responses such as "Black holes are worm holes in space" or "A black hole is a huge vacuum in space, sucking everything in". These are all common astronomy misconceptions about black holes. A misconception is defined as a preconceived notion of how the world, or in the case of astronomy - the universe, works. Misconceptions may originate for a variety of reasons, from miscommunication, to oversimplification, to misrepresentation via the media or pop culture. Students who latch on to an astronomy misconception may have difficulty learning new information that is built upon the existing misconception. Additionally, educators who are not able to identify and address misconceptions can create learning barriers that may resonate throughout a students' life. This poster will introduce some of the extensive research that has gone into determining typical student misconceptions about astronomy, ways to identify them, and how students develop them. The poster will also explain why teachers need to be aware of ideas and concepts students may harbor as well as how misconceptions can be remedied.

  10. Addressing Barriers to the Development and Adoption of Rapid Diagnostic Tests in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Eric; Sikes, Hadley D.

    2015-01-01

    Immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have demonstrated significant potential for use as point-of-care diagnostic tests in resource-limited settings. Most notably, RDTs for malaria have reached an unparalleled level of technological maturity and market penetration, and are now considered an important complement to standard microscopic methods of malaria diagnosis. However, the technical development of RDTs for other infectious diseases, and their uptake within the global health community as a core diagnostic modality, has been hindered by a number of extant challenges. These range from technical and biological issues, such as the need for better affinity agents and biomarkers of disease, to social, infrastructural, regulatory and economic barriers, which have all served to slow their adoption and diminish their impact. In order for the immunochromatographic RDT format to be successfully adapted to other disease targets, to see widespread distribution, and to improve clinical outcomes for patients on a global scale, these challenges must be identified and addressed, and the global health community must be engaged in championing the broader use of RDTs. PMID:26594252

  11. Language Barriers: Teaching ESL in the Corrections System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richiusa, Gordon

    1997-01-01

    Growing numbers of students of English as a Second Language are learning while in prison, for a variety of reasons: for rehabilitation; to gain privileges; to attain citizenship. Teachers who work in that difficult environment are dealing with widely varying language backgrounds, limited equipment and facilities, specialized language needs,…

  12. The "Language Barrier" in Private Online Tutoring: From an Innocuous Concept to a Neoliberal Marketing Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozar, Olga

    2014-01-01

    The "language barrier" is a common buzzword in Russian-English teaching discourse that has not yet been critically investigated. This study contemplates a recently emerging phenomenon of private online language tutoring in Russia through investigation of this popular phrase. The paper draws on Critical Discourse Analysis to explore…

  13. Eliminating Language Barriers Online at European Prisons (ELBEP): A Case-Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkan, M.; Toprak, E.; Kumtepe, A. T.; Kumtepe, E. Genc; Ataizi, M.; Pilanci, H.; Mutlu, M. E.; Kayabas, I.; Kayabas, B. Kip

    2011-01-01

    ELBEP (Eliminating Language Barriers in European Prisons Through Open and Distance Education Technology) is a multilateral project funded by the European Union (EU) Lifelong Learning, Grundtvig (Adult Education) Programme. It aims to overcome language/communication problems between prison staff and foreign inmates at European prisons via online…

  14. Language barriers within primary care consultations: an increasing challenge needing new solutions.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuangyu; Pearson, David; Escott, Sarah

    2010-11-01

    International migration is an increasing global phenomenon, particularly noticeable in the UK where removing barriers to travel and residence within an expanded European Union has brought a huge increase in new arrivals. Migration has increased the number of medical consultations where language barriers occur. This paper summarises findings from a review of the literature and explores the challenges posed within these medical consultations, particularly those in primary care. It highlights limitations to current consultation models and educational interventions to improve consultations across language barriers, and suggests future solutions to those problems.

  15. Issue-Specific Barriers to Addressing Environmental Issues in the Classroom: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chankook; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    2006-01-01

    To explore issue-specific barriers to teaching environmental issues, the authors investigated secondary science teachers' perceived current and preferred teaching levels for 23 environmental issues and perceived barriers to teaching the selected issues. Subjects in this graduate project were 41 secondary science teachers self-selected to answer a…

  16. Breaking the Speech Barrier: Language Development through Augmented Means.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romski, Mary Ann; Sevcik, Rose A.

    Reported here is a two-year study of the use of a speech-output communication device, coupled with naturalistic language intervention, to facilitate language development of school-age children with severe mental retardation. Subjects were 13 children. The first section (chapters 1-4) outlines a conceptual framework for the project, gives an…

  17. Using Inquiry to Break the Language Barrier in Chemistry Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Andrew; Jessup, Weston; Criswell, Brett A.; Weaver-High, Consuelo; Rushton, Gregory T.

    2015-01-01

    A guided inquiry lesson intended to support the linguistic and conceptual development of English language learners (ELLs) in a small, cotaught, high-needs secondary setting is presented. Collaborative groupings based on language and content ability coupled with an emphasis on student-student discourse and a hands-on investigation appeared to…

  18. The School Leader's Guide to Student Learning Supports: New Directions for Addressing Barriers to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Howard S.; Taylor, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Barriers to learning and teaching interfere with students' ability to participate effectively and benefit fully from classroom instruction and other educational activities. For school improvement efforts to succeed in ways that truly improve student achievement and student test scores, systemic changes must be made in how schools provide learning…

  19. Second Language Listening and Unfamiliar Proper Names: Comprehension Barrier?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobeleva, Polina P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether unfamiliar proper names affect English as a second language (ESL) learners' listening comprehension. A total of 110 intermediate to advanced ESL learners participated; comprehension of a short news text was tested under two conditions, Names Known (all proper names pre-taught in advance) and Names Unknown (all proper…

  20. Qualitative Assessment across Language Barriers: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronje, Johannes C.

    2009-01-01

    If students cannot express themselves in the language of the assessor, and if the assessor is not familiar with the cultural constraints within which students operate, it is difficult for the assessor to collect evidence of adequate performance. This article describes the assessment of three digital artefacts where the assessor strove to…

  1. Somali Perspectives on Physical Activity: Photovoice to Address Barriers and Resources in San Diego

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Kate; Mohamed, Amina Sheik; Dawson, Darius B.; Syme, Maggie; Abdi, Sahra; Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Background Though many immigrants enter the U.S. with a healthy body weight, this health advantage disappears the longer they reside in the U.S. To better understand the complexities of obesity change within a cultural framework, a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, Photovoice, was utilized focusing on physical activity among Muslim Somali women. Objectives The CBPR partnership was formed to identify barriers and resources to engaging in physical activity with goals of advocacy and program development. Methods Muslim Somali women (n = 8) were recruited to participate, trained and provided cameras, and engaged in group discussions about the scenes they photographed. Results Participants identified several barriers, including safety concerns, minimal culturally appropriate resources, and financial constraints. Strengths included public resources and a community support system. The CBPR process identified opportunities and challenges to collaboration and dissemination processes. Conclusions The findings laid the framework for subsequent program development and community engagement. PMID:25981428

  2. Crashing the Language Barrier! The English Language: The Way It Is.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Dorothy S.

    Intended for adults in search of improved language skills and their leaders, this handbook provides opportunities to strengthen abilities to listen, observe, organize, solve problems, evaluate, and draw tentative conclusions about the English language. The handbook contains a proposition about the English language, suggests procedures to confirm…

  3. Harnessing the Barriers That Impact on Students' English Language Learning (ELL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liton, Hussain Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    This study strives to single out the barriers and obstacles in terms of academic, course curriculum system and socio-cultural issues that impact on students' learning English language adversely in the prep year level at Jazan University, Saudi Arabia. This paper especially focuses on the factors affecting EFL ("English as a Foreign…

  4. Painting the world REDD: addressing scientific barriers to monitoring emissions from tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asner, Gregory P.

    2011-06-01

    project scale to program readiness is a big step for all involved, and many are finding that it is not easy. Current barriers to national monitoring of forest carbon stocks and emissions range from technical to scientific, and from institutional to operational. In fact, a recent analysis suggested that about 3% of tropical countries currently have the capacity to monitor and report on changes in forest cover and carbon stocks (Herold 2009). But until now, the scientific and policy-development communities have had little quantitative information on exactly which aspects of national-scale monitoring are most uncertain, and how that uncertainty will affect REDD+ performance reporting. A new and remarkable study by Pelletier, Ramankutty and Potvin (2011) uses an integrated, spatially-explicit modeling technique to explore and quantify sources of uncertainty in carbon emissions mapping throughout the Republic of Panama. Their findings are sobering: deforestation rates would need to be reduced by a full 50% in Panama in order to be detectable above the statistical uncertainty caused by several current major monitoring problems. The number one uncertainty, accounting for a sum total of about 77% of the error, rests in the spatial variation of aboveground carbon stocks in primary forests, secondary forests and on fallow land. The poor quality of and insufficient time interval between land-cover maps account for the remainder of the overall uncertainty. These findings are a show-stopper for REDD+ under prevailing science and technology conditions. The Pelletier et al study highlights the pressing need to improve the accuracy of forest carbon and land cover mapping assessments in order for REDD+ to become viable, but how can the uncertainties be overcome? First, with REDD+ nations required to report their emissions, and with verification organizations wanting to check on the reported numbers, there is a clear need for shared measurement and monitoring approaches. One of the major

  5. NASA GSFC Science Communication Working Group: Addressing Barriers to Scientist and Engineer Participation in Education and Public Outreach Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleacher, L.; Hsu, B. C.; Campbell, B. A.; Hess, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Science Communication Working Group (SCWG) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been in existence since late 2007. The SCWG is comprised of education and public outreach (E/PO) professionals, public affairs specialists, scientists, and engineers. The goals of the SCWG are to identify barriers to scientist and engineer engagement in E/PO activities and to enable those scientists and engineers who wish to contribute to E/PO to be able to do so. SCWG members have held meetings with scientists and engineers across GSFC to determine barriers to their involvement in E/PO. During these meetings, SCWG members presented examples of successful, ongoing E/PO projects, encouraged active research scientists and engineers to talk about their own E/PO efforts and what worked for them, discussed the E/PO working environment, discussed opportunities for getting involved in E/PO (particularly in high-impact efforts that do not take much time), handed out booklets on effective E/PO, and asked scientists and engineers what they need to engage in E/PO. The identified barriers were consistent among scientists in GSFC's four science divisions (Earth science, planetary science, heliophysics, and astrophysics). Common barriers included 1) lack of time, 2) lack of funding support, 3) lack of value placed on doing E/PO by supervisors, 4) lack of training on doing appropriate/effective E/PO for different audiences, 5) lack of awareness and information about opportunities, 6) lack of understanding of what E/PO really is, and 7) level of effort required to do E/PO. Engineers reported similar issues, but the issues of time and funding support were more pronounced due to their highly structured work day and environment. Since the barriers were identified, the SCWG has taken a number of steps to address and rectify them. Steps have included holding various events to introduce scientists and engineers to E/PO staff and opportunities including an E/PO Open House, brown bag seminars on

  6. Let's not contribute to disparities: the best methods for teaching clinicians how to overcome language barriers to health care.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Lisa C; Jacobs, Elizabeth A

    2010-05-01

    Clinicians should be educated about how language barriers contribute to disparities for patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). However, educators must avoid developing educational interventions that increase health disparities for LEP patients. For example, studies suggest that teaching "Medical Spanish" or related courses may actually contribute to health care disparities if clinicians begin using these non-English language skills inappropriately with patients. We discuss the risks and benefits of teaching specific cultural competence skills and make evidence-based recommendations for the teaching content and methods for educational interventions focused on overcoming language barriers in health care. At minimum, we suggest such interventions include: (1) the role of language barriers in health disparities, (2) means of overcoming language barriers, (3) how to work with interpreters, (4) identifying and fixing problems in interpreted encounters, and (5) appropriate and safe use of one's own limited non-English language skills.

  7. Problems, solutions and actions: addressing barriers in acute hospital care for indigenous Australians and New Zealanders.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Patricia M; MacIsaac, Andrew; Cameron, James; Jeremy, Richmond; Mahar, Leo; Anderson, Ian

    2012-10-01

    The burden of cardiovascular disease for Indigenous people in Australia and New Zealand is high and reflects the failings of our health care system to meet their needs. Improving the hospital care for Indigenous people is critical in improving health outcomes. This paper provides the results from a facilitated discussion on the disparities in acute hospital care and workforce issues. The workshop was held in Alice Springs, Australia at the second Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ) Indigenous Cardiovascular Health Conference. Critical issues to be addressed include: addressing systemic racism; reconfiguring models of care to address the needs of Indigenous people; cultural competence training for all health professionals; increasing participation of Indigenous people in the health workforce; improving information systems and facilitating communication across the health care sector and with Indigenous communities.

  8. The Challenge of Foreign Language Teacher Preparation: Addressing State Teacher Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, JoAnn Hammadou

    2001-01-01

    Points out differences faced by foreign language teachers in reconciling generic state teacher standards with specific foreign language teaching needs. Uses four examples from Rhode Island's beginning teacher standards to highlight some key foreign language teaching issues. (SR)

  9. [Overcoming language barriers with telephone interpreters: first experiences at a German children's hospital].

    PubMed

    Langer, Thorsten; Wirth, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Language barriers in the care for patients with limited German language proficiency contribute to impaired quality of care, more frequent medical errors and decreased patient satisfaction. However, professional interpreters are not systematically used in Germany. We conducted a pilot study in a German paediatric hospital to explore the demand for an interpreter by conducting a survey among parents and to test the use of telephone interpreters. Eight percent of the respondents said they were interested in interpreter support. All physicians and parents using a telephone interpreter were very satisfied with the quality and the organisation of the service.

  10. Addressing the Assessment Dilemma of Additional Language Learners through Dynamic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omidire, M. F.; Bouwer, A. C.; Jordaan, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Many learners with an additional language (AL) as their language of learning and teaching (LoLT) have not acquired the level of proficiency required for them to demonstrate their knowledge and achieve the desired outcome on assessment tasks given in that language. Using instruments designed for fully fluent learners and covertly including…

  11. Lost in translation: using bilingual simulated patients to improve consulting across language barriers.

    PubMed

    Escott, Sarah; Lucas, Beverley; Pearson, David

    2009-03-01

    In the light of rapid demographic change and increased globalisation of health, ways to consult effectively across language barriers are increasingly important. This article describes the development, organisation and evaluation of a UK workshop designed to develop the skills of undergraduate medical students consulting with patients with limited English proficiency, using specially recruited and trained bilingual simulated patients. The authors discuss the advantages and areas for development of the approach, before considering possible future developments.

  12. Adapting Semantic Natural Language Processing Technology to Address Information Overload in Influenza Epidemic Management

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Rosemblat, Graciela; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Jin, Honglan; Shin, Dongwook; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Explosion of disaster health information results in information overload among response professionals. The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying semantic natural language processing (NLP) technology to addressing this overload. The project characterizes concepts and relationships commonly used in disaster health-related documents on influenza pandemics, as the basis for adapting an existing semantic summarizer to the domain. Methods include human review and semantic NLP analysis of a set of relevant documents. This is followed by a pilot-test in which two information specialists use the adapted application for a realistic information seeking task. According to the results, the ontology of influenza epidemics management can be described via a manageable number of semantic relationships that involve concepts from a limited number of semantic types. Test users demonstrate several ways to engage with the application to obtain useful information. This suggests that existing semantic NLP algorithms can be adapted to support information summarization and visualization in influenza epidemics and other disaster health areas. However, additional research is needed in the areas of terminology development (as many relevant relationships and terms are not part of existing standardized vocabularies), NLP, and user interface design. PMID:24311971

  13. Barriers to communication and cooperation in addressing community impacts of radioactive releases from research facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, Robert J.; Peterson, S. Ring

    1999-05-05

    compromise, between the environmental activist groups participating in the two cases. A degree of contentiousness existed from the start among the participants in the Berkeley case particularly between the environmental activists and the scientists/regulators that was not approached in the Livermore case, and which was and still is severe enough to stifle meaningful progress. The Berkeley activists are considerably more aggressive, we believe, in arguing their points of view, making demands about what should be done, and verbally assailing the scientists and government regulators. We offer the following comments on the barriers to communication and cooperation that distinguish the Berkeley and Livermore cases. In no particular order, they are (a) the presence of a higher degree of polarization between the Berkeley activists and the "establishment," as represented by government scientists and regulators, (b) the absence, in the Berkeley case, of an activist leader with skills and effectiveness comparable to a well-known leader in Livermore, (c) frequent displays by several of the Berkeley activists of incivility, distrust, and disrespect for the regulators and scientists, (d) extraordinary difficulties in reaching consensus in the Tritium Issues Work Group meetings, perhaps because goals diverged among the factions, (e) a considerable degree of resentment by the Berkeley activists over the imbalance in conditions of participation, pitting well-paid, tax-supported professionals against "citizen volunteers," (f) the brick wall that divides the perspectives of "no safe dose" and "levels below regulatory concern" when trying to reach conclusions about radiation dangers to the community, and (g) unwillingness to consider both sides of the risk-reward coin: benefits to the community and society at large of the tritium labeling activity, vs. the health risk from small quantities of tritium released to the environment.

  14. Painting the world REDD: addressing scientific barriers to monitoring emissions from tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asner, Gregory P.

    2011-06-01

    project scale to program readiness is a big step for all involved, and many are finding that it is not easy. Current barriers to national monitoring of forest carbon stocks and emissions range from technical to scientific, and from institutional to operational. In fact, a recent analysis suggested that about 3% of tropical countries currently have the capacity to monitor and report on changes in forest cover and carbon stocks (Herold 2009). But until now, the scientific and policy-development communities have had little quantitative information on exactly which aspects of national-scale monitoring are most uncertain, and how that uncertainty will affect REDD+ performance reporting. A new and remarkable study by Pelletier, Ramankutty and Potvin (2011) uses an integrated, spatially-explicit modeling technique to explore and quantify sources of uncertainty in carbon emissions mapping throughout the Republic of Panama. Their findings are sobering: deforestation rates would need to be reduced by a full 50% in Panama in order to be detectable above the statistical uncertainty caused by several current major monitoring problems. The number one uncertainty, accounting for a sum total of about 77% of the error, rests in the spatial variation of aboveground carbon stocks in primary forests, secondary forests and on fallow land. The poor quality of and insufficient time interval between land-cover maps account for the remainder of the overall uncertainty. These findings are a show-stopper for REDD+ under prevailing science and technology conditions. The Pelletier et al study highlights the pressing need to improve the accuracy of forest carbon and land cover mapping assessments in order for REDD+ to become viable, but how can the uncertainties be overcome? First, with REDD+ nations required to report their emissions, and with verification organizations wanting to check on the reported numbers, there is a clear need for shared measurement and monitoring approaches. One of the major

  15. Keynote Address and Background Papers. National Assembly on Foreign Language and International Studies (Racine, Wisconsin, October 30-November 1, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC.

    The conference papers presented here discuss the need for and means of implementing changes in educational design and emphasis that will recognize the need for Americans to incorporate foreign language and international studies into their education. In addition to the opening address by Richard Berendzen, the following papers are included: (1)…

  16. Barriers to Literacy for Language-Minority Learners: An Argument for Change in the Literacy Education Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Rachel A.; Wong, Shelley D.

    2003-01-01

    Argues that two barriers to literacy are the failure of teacher-education programs to adequately prepare reading specialists to work with language-minority learners and of education researchers to engage in more substantive research on English reading development for such students. Points out the barriers that exist within the literacy education…

  17. Clothing the Emperor: Addressing the Issue of English Language Proficiency in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunworth, Katie

    2010-01-01

    The English language proficiency levels of students in Australian higher education who have English as an additional language (EAL) has become an increasingly prominent issue, particularly as it relates to international students. In 2009 this resulted in the publication of a set of good practice principles for the sector. This paper argues that…

  18. El problema de la barrera linguistica en el desarrollo cientifico y tecnologico (The Problem of the Language Barrier in Scientific and Technological Development).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zierer, Ernesto

    This monograph discusses the problem of the language barrier in scientific and technological development in terms of several parameters describing the flow of scientific information from one language to another. The numerical values of the language barrier parameters of the model are calculated in the field of information on second language…

  19. Texts for Talking: Evaluation of a Mobile Health Program Addressing Speech and Language Delay.

    PubMed

    Olson, Kaitlyn B; Wilkinson, Carol L; Wilkinson, M Jackson; Harris, Jamal; Whittle, Amy

    2016-10-01

    Speech and language delays are common developmental disorders that can lead to long-term academic and psychosocial impairments. Affected families often benefit from instruction in cultivating a language-rich home environment. This study investigated the feasibility of utilizing text messaging to deliver developmental education to families. Parents of children aged 11 to 36 months with concerning language development were enrolled in a 3-month text messaging program. Pre-program and post-program telephone surveys were completed. All enrolled parents were of low socioeconomic status, and 48% were monolingual Spanish speakers. A total of 27 parents (87%) completed the program and follow-up survey. After program completion, parents reported increased awareness of language-promoting activities and local child development resources (P = .002; P = .005). Parents also reported increased engagement in language-promoting activities (P = .004). The marginal program cost was 37 cents per participant. Findings from this pilot study indicate that text messaging is a feasible, engaging, and inexpensive platform for delivering developmental education to families.

  20. Texts for Talking: Evaluation of a Mobile Health Program Addressing Speech and Language Delay.

    PubMed

    Olson, Kaitlyn B; Wilkinson, Carol L; Wilkinson, M Jackson; Harris, Jamal; Whittle, Amy

    2016-10-01

    Speech and language delays are common developmental disorders that can lead to long-term academic and psychosocial impairments. Affected families often benefit from instruction in cultivating a language-rich home environment. This study investigated the feasibility of utilizing text messaging to deliver developmental education to families. Parents of children aged 11 to 36 months with concerning language development were enrolled in a 3-month text messaging program. Pre-program and post-program telephone surveys were completed. All enrolled parents were of low socioeconomic status, and 48% were monolingual Spanish speakers. A total of 27 parents (87%) completed the program and follow-up survey. After program completion, parents reported increased awareness of language-promoting activities and local child development resources (P = .002; P = .005). Parents also reported increased engagement in language-promoting activities (P = .004). The marginal program cost was 37 cents per participant. Findings from this pilot study indicate that text messaging is a feasible, engaging, and inexpensive platform for delivering developmental education to families. PMID:27554765

  1. Foreign Languages and Sustainability: Addressing the Connections, Communities, and Comparisons Standards in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ter Horst, Eleanor E.; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an interdisciplinary collaboration that combined the study of German language with instruction in environmental issues (sustainable development). The project, involving both an independent study and a classroom unit, allowed students to make connections between disciplines, establish contact with German-speaking communities…

  2. Intervention for Co-Occurring Speech and Language Difficulties: Addressing the Relationship between the Two Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeff-Gabriel, Belinda; Chiat, Shula; Pring, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Although many children are referred with difficulties in both their speech and their language, the literature offers relatively little guidance on their therapy. Should clinicians treat these difficulties independently? Or should treatment depend on the potential impact of one domain on the other? This study aimed to investigate the relationship…

  3. Skirting the Issue: Teachers' Experiences "Addressing Sexuality in Middle School Language Arts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puchner, Laurel; Klein, Nicole Aydt

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine perceptions, attitudes, and reported practices of a group of middle level Language Arts teachers concerning sexuality-related issues. Through interviews with 15 teachers, the study found that sexuality was in one sense pervasive, as it came up frequently in the teachers' practice. Yet at the same time the…

  4. Linking HIV-positive adolescents to care in 15 different clinics across the United States: Creating solutions to address structural barriers for linkage to care

    PubMed Central

    Philbin, Morgan M.; Tanner, Amanda E.; DuVal, Anna; Ellen, Jonathan; Kapogiannis, Bill; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Linkage to care is a critical corollary to expanded HIV testing, but many adolescents are not successfully linked to care, in part due to fragmented care systems. Through a collaboration of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Adolescent Trials Network (ATN), a linkage to care outreach worker was provided to ATN clinics. Factors related to linkage were explored to better understand how to improve retention rates and health outcomes for HIV-positive adolescents. We conducted 124 interviews with staff at 15 Adolescent Trials Network clinics to better understand linkage to care processes, barriers, and facilitators. Content analysis was conducted focusing on structural barriers to care and potential solutions, specifically at the macro-, meso-, and micro-levels. Macro-level barriers included navigating health insurance policies, transportation to appointments, and ease of collecting and sharing client-level contact information between testing agencies, local health departments and clinics; meso-level barriers included lack of youth friendliness within clinic space and staff, and duplication of linkage services; micro-level barriers included adolescents’ readiness for care and adolescent developmental capacity. Staff initiated solutions included providing transportation for appointments and funding clinic visits and tests with a range of grants and clinic funds while waiting for insurance approval. However, such solutions were often ad hoc and partial, using micro-level solutions to address macro-level barriers. Comprehensive initiatives to improve linkage to care are needed to address barriers to HIV-care for adolescents, whose unique developmental needs make accessing care particularly challenging. Matching the level of structural solution to the level of structural barriers (i.e., macro-level with macro-level), such as creating policy to address needed youth healthcare entitlements versus covering

  5. Feasibility of a Computer-Based Intervention Addressing Barriers to HIV Testing Among Young Patients Who Decline Tests at Triage.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Ian David; Cleland, Charles M; Perlman, David C; Rajan, Sonali; Sun, Wendy; Bania, Theodore C

    2016-09-01

    Young people face greatly increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk and high rates of undiagnosed HIV, yet are unlikely to test. Many also have limited or inconsistent access to health care, including HIV testing and prevention education, and prior research has documented that youth lack knowledge necessary to understand the HIV test process and to interpret test results. Computer-based interventions have been used to increase HIV test rates and knowledge among emergency department (ED) patients, including those who decline tests offered at triage. However, patients aged 18-24 years have been less likely to test, even after completing an intervention, compared to older patients in the same ED setting. The current pilot study sought to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a new tablet-based video intervention designed to address established barriers to testing among ED patients aged 18-24 years. In particular, we examined whether young ED patients would: agree to receive the intervention; complete it quickly enough to avoid disrupting clinical workflows; accept HIV tests offered by the intervention; demonstrate increased postintervention knowledge; and report they found the intervention acceptable. Over 4 weeks, we recruited 100 patients aged 18-24 in a high-volume urban ED; all of them declined HIV tests offered at triage. Almost all (98%) completed the intervention (mean time <9 mins), 30% accepted HIV tests offered by the tablets. Knowledge was significantly higher after than before the intervention (t = -6.67, p < .001) and patients reported generally high acceptability. Additional research appears warranted to increase postintervention HIV testing. PMID:27565191

  6. Another Initiative? Where Does it Fit? A Unifying Framework and an Integrated Infrastructure for Schools to Address Barriers to Learning and Promote Healthy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This report was developed to highlight the current state of affairs and illustrate the value of a unifying framework and integrated infrastructure for the many initiatives, projects, programs, and services schools pursue in addressing barriers to learning and promoting healthy development. Specifically, it highlights how initiatives can be…

  7. The Implementation Guide to Student Learning Supports in the Classroom and Schoolwide: New Directions for Addressing Barriers to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Howard S.; Taylor, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Every teacher knows about barriers to learning and teaching that interferes with student progress and academic achievement. These barriers to learning can hamper a student's ability to participate effectively and benefit fully from classroom instruction and other educational activities. For school improvement efforts to succeed in ways that truly…

  8. Addressing barriers to achieving nursing certification: development of a certification achievement program on a medical-surgical unit.

    PubMed

    Perlstein, Lori; Hoffmann, Rosemary L; Lindberg, Judy; Petras, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Nursing certification is recognized as advanced competency and knowledge beyond basic preparation, thus empowering nurses to contribute to improved outcomes by demonstrating expertise in their specialties. It has been recognized that nurses do not seek certification because of identified barriers. Through a structured Certification Achievement Program that reduced barriers, a cohort of nurses was able to achieve certification in medical-surgical nursing.

  9. Using Visual Arts as a Proxy for Language: Addressing the Marginalization of Linguistic Minority Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses a school-wide implementation of an arts-based initiative to address the alienation experienced by linguistic minority parents. In order to assuage the prevalent, although unintentional, practices of marginalization, a group of students and teachers established a platform that enabled shared discourse among minority and…

  10. Towards achieving Abuja targets: identifying and addressing barriers to access and use of insecticides treated nets among the poorest populations in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    towards addressing affordability barriers through providing free ITNs to vulnerable groups, but the success of these interventions depends largely on the degree to which other barriers to access are addressed. Only if additional efforts are directed towards addressing non-financial barriers to access, will high coverage levels be achieved and sustained. PMID:20233413

  11. Beating the Language Barrier in Science Education: In-Service Educators' Coping with Slow Learners in Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyparsade, Mohun; Auckloo, Pritee; Belath, Ismut; Dookhee, Helina; Hurreeram, Navin

    2013-01-01

    This study describes how in-service teachers in the pre-vocational sector in Mauritius adopted specific strategies to overcome the language barrier in the learning of science (Van Driel, Verloop & de Vos, 1998). Students of form III were taught few basic ideas related to "Earth & Space" through the use of role play and ICT. The…

  12. All Health Plans Need CLAMS: Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Materials for Diverse Populations Can Overcome Language Barriers to Effective Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sandra; Gonzales, Virginia

    2000-01-01

    CLAMs are "Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Materials" designed for diverse populations to help them overcome language barriers to effective treatment. The demographic shift underway in the United States is making the country more linguistically diverse. Health plans need to accommodate this shift, because without information patients…

  13. Overcoming Language and Literacy Barriers in Safety and Health Training of Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Estrada, Jorge M.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    The workforce in all areas of United States agriculture and forestry is becoming increasingly diverse in language, culture, and education. Many agricultural workers are immigrants who have limited English language skills and limited educational attainment. Providing safety and health training to this large, diverse, dispersed, and often transient population of workers is challenging. This review, prepared for the 2010 Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, “Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture,” is divided into five sections. First, we describe the occupational and demographic characteristics of agricultural workers in the US to highlight their safety and health training needs. Second, we summarize current research on the social and cultural attributes of agricultural workers and agricultural employers that affect the provision of safety and health training. Worker and employer attributes include language, literacy, financial limitations, work beliefs, and health beliefs. Third, we review current initiatives addressing safety and health training for agricultural workers that consider worker language and literacy. These initiatives are limited to a few specific topics (e.g., pesticides, heat stress); they do not provide general programs of safety training that would help establish a culture of workplace safety. However, several innovative approaches to health and safety training are being implemented, including the use of community-based participatory approaches and lay health promoter programs. Fourth, the limited industry response for safety training with this linguistically diverse and educationally limited workforce is summarized. Finally, gaps in knowledge and practice are summarized and recommendations to develop educationally, culturally, and linguistically appropriate safety and health training are presented. PMID:20665309

  14. Overcoming language and literacy barriers in safety and health training of agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas A; Estrada, Jorge M; Quandt, Sara A

    2010-07-01

    The workforce in all areas of United States agriculture and forestry is becoming increasingly diverse in language, culture, and education. Many agricultural workers are immigrants who have limited English language skills and limited educational attainment. Providing safety and health training to this large, diverse, dispersed, and often transient population of workers is challenging. This review, prepared for the 2010 Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," is divided into five sections. First, we describe the occupational and demographic characteristics of agricultural workers in the United States to highlight their safety and health training needs. Second, we summarize current research on the social and cultural attributes of agricultural workers and agricultural employers that affect the provision of safety and health training. Worker and employer attributes include language, literacy, financial limitations, work beliefs, and health beliefs. Third, we review current initiatives addressing safety and health training for agricultural workers that consider worker language and literacy. These initiatives are limited to a few specific topics (e.g., pesticides, heat stress); they do not provide general programs of safety training that would help establish a culture of workplace safety. However, several innovative approaches to health and safety training are being implemented, including the use of community-based participatory approaches and lay health promoter programs. Fourth, the limited industry response for safety training with this linguistically diverse and educationally limited workforce is summarized. Finally, gaps in knowledge and practice are summarized and recommendations to develop educationally, culturally, and linguistically appropriate safety and health training are presented. PMID:20665309

  15. Steps and Tools to Guide Planning and Implementation of a Comprehensive System to Address Barriers to Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The data are clear: Too many students are not doing well in school. Too many are experiencing interfering barriers, most of which are not internal dysfunctions but are associated with neighborhood, family, school, and peer factors. If the situation is to change, schools must play a greater role in providing supports for students experiencing…

  16. What Educators in Catholic Schools Might Expect when Addressing Gay and Lesbian Issues: A Study of Needs and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Michael J.; Sever, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research indicated that Catholic high schools in the United States were not addressing the topic of homosexuality in any significant and systematic way prior to the mid-1990s, though practitioners in Catholic high schools have begun to address the topic in recent years. This study, in sampling seven Catholic schools in the greater Chicago…

  17. Four barriers to the global understanding of biodiversity conservation: wealth, language, geographical location and security.

    PubMed

    Amano, Tatsuya; Sutherland, William J

    2013-04-01

    Global biodiversity conservation is seriously challenged by gaps and heterogeneity in the geographical coverage of existing information. Nevertheless, the key barriers to the collection and compilation of biodiversity information at a global scale have yet to be identified. We show that wealth, language, geographical location and security each play an important role in explaining spatial variations in data availability in four different types of biodiversity databases. The number of records per square kilometre is high in countries with high per capita gross domestic product (GDP), high proportion of English speakers and high security levels, and those located close to the country hosting the database; but these are not necessarily countries with high biodiversity. These factors are considered to affect data availability by impeding either the activities of scientific research or active international communications. Our results demonstrate that efforts to solve environmental problems at a global scale will gain significantly by focusing scientific education, communication, research and collaboration in low-GDP countries with fewer English speakers and located far from Western countries that host the global databases; countries that have experienced conflict may also benefit. Findings of this study may be broadly applicable to other fields that require the compilation of scientific knowledge at a global level.

  18. Facilitators and Barriers for Implementing Home Visit Interventions to Address Intimate Partner Violence: Town and Gown Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Tonya; Kilburn, Erin; Chang, Chiunghsin; Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis

    2008-01-01

    Pregnant women involved in violent relationships represent a population that is vulnerable for poor pregnancy and infant outcomes on several levels. This article describes development of a ‘town and gown’ partnership to assist pregnant women in violent relationships. Barriers and facilitating factors for research and home visit nurse partnerships working with this vulnerable population were identified by home-visitor participants in a qualitative focus group session. Methods utilized to develop and maintain the reciprocal relationship between the community (town) and academic researchers (gown) are described. PMID:18674673

  19. Addressing education of speech-language pathologists in the World Report on Disability: development of a speech-language pathology program in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Kartini; Ibrahim, Hasherah; Othman, Basyariatul Fathi; Vong, Etain

    2013-02-01

    The current paper is a response to the Wiley, McAllister, Davidson, and Marshall lead article regarding the application of the World Report on Disability (WRD) to people with communication disorders. The current paper directly addresses recommendation 5 (improvement of human resource capacity) and indirectly addresses recommendations 7, 8, and 9 (related to improving local knowledge and data on communicative disabilities) indirectly. The paper describes Malaysia's initiatives in the early 1990s, in developing its local professional capacity to provide services for people with communication disorders (PWCD). It charts the history of development of a local undergraduate entry-level degree program for speech-language pathology (SLP) from the point of conceptualization to full execution. The article provides glimpses to the processes and challenges faced by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia as the pioneer university in the South East Asia region to undertake the training and education of the SLP profession and highlights relevant issues faced by newly introduced professions in a country where resources and practice traditions were previously unavailable. It underscores the important role played by government institutions and an international professional network in driving forward-looking policies to implement and sustain the program.

  20. School‐based brief psycho‐educational intervention to raise adolescent cancer awareness and address barriers to medical help‐seeking about cancer: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Stoddart, Iona; Forbat, Liz; Neal, Richard D.; O'Carroll, Ronan E.; Haw, Sally; Rauchhaus, Petra; Kyle, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Raising cancer awareness and addressing barriers to help‐seeking may improve early diagnosis. The aim was to assess whether a psycho‐educational intervention increased adolescents' cancer awareness and addressed help‐seeking barriers. Methods This was a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 2173 adolescents in 20 schools. The intervention was a 50‐min presentation delivered by a member of Teenage Cancer Trust's (UK charity) education team. Schools were stratified by deprivation and roll size and randomly allocated to intervention/control conditions within these strata. Outcome measures were the number of cancer warning signs and cancer risk factors recognised, help‐seeking barriers endorsed and cancer communication. Communication self‐efficacy and intervention fidelity were also assessed. Results Regression models showed significant differences in the number of cancer warning signs and risk factors recognised between intervention and control groups. In intervention schools, the greatest increases in recognition of cancer warning signs at 6‐month follow‐up were for unexplained weight loss (from 44.2% to 62.0%) and change in the appearance of a mole (from 46.3% to 70.7%), up by 17.8% and 24.4%, respectively. Greatest increases in recognition of cancer risk factors were for getting sunburnt more than once as a child (from 41.0% to 57.6%) and being overweight (from 42.7% to 55.5%), up by 16.6% and 12.8%, respectively. Regression models showed that adolescents in intervention schools were 2.7 times more likely to discuss cancer at 2‐week follow‐up compared with the control group. No differences in endorsement of barriers to help‐seeking were observed. Conclusions School‐based brief psycho‐educational interventions are easy to deliver, require little resource and improve cancer awareness. © 2015 The Authors. Psycho‐Oncology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26502987

  1. The Worker Component At The World Trade Center Cleanup: Addressing Cultural And Language Differences In Emergency Operations

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, B.; Carpenter, C.; Blair. D.

    2003-02-24

    On September 11, 2001, the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) caused astronomical loss of life and property. Systems in place to manage disaster response were strained to the limit because key first responders were among the casualties when the twin towers collapsed. In addition, the evolution of events required immediate response in a rapidly changing and extremely hazardous situation. Rescue, recovery, and clean up became an overpowering and sustained effort that would utilize the resources of federal, state and local governments and agencies. One issue during the response to the WTC disaster site that did not receive much attention was that of the limited and non-English speaking worker. The Operating Engineers National HAZMAT Program (OENHP), with its history of a Hispanic Outreach Program, was acutely aware of this issue with the Hispanic worker. The Hispanic population comprises approximately 27% of the population of New York City (1). The extremely unfortunate and tragic events of that day provided an opportunity to not only provide assistance for the Hispanic workers, but also to apply lessons learned and conduct studies on worker training with language barriers in a real life environment. However, due to the circumstances surrounding this tragedy, the study of these issues was conducted primarily by observation. Through partnerships with other organizations such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the New York Health Department, the New York Department of Design and Construction (DDC), the New York Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (NYCOSH), and private companies such as 3M and MSA, OENHP was able to provide translated information on hazards, protective measures, fit testing of respirators, and site specific safety and health training. The OENHP translated materials on hazards and how to protect workers into Spanish to assist in getting the information to the limited and non- English speaking workers.

  2. Rapid HIV Screening in an Urban Jail: How Testing at Exit With Linkage to Community Care Can Address Perceived Barriers.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Kari A; Shaikh, Raees A; Earley, Mary; Foxall, Mark; Boyle, Cole; Islam, K M; Younger, Heather; Sandkovsky, Uriel; Berthold, Elizabeth; Margalit, Ruth

    2015-12-01

    Despite recommendations from the CDC, only 36 % of jails offer routine HIV screening to inmates. Our purpose was to explore the feasibility of rapid HIV testing at release from an urban jail, and to identify potential barriers to this process. This project was incorporated into an established partnership between the jail, local academic medical center, and local public health department. We offered rapid HIV testing at the time of release to 507 jail inmates over a 7 week period of 2013. Three hundred and two (60 %) inmates elected testing. All participating inmates received individual test counseling, HIV prevention education, and linkage to care in the community prior to release. All tested inmates received results before release; one inmate screened positive for HIV and was linked to care. Previous HIV testing was the most frequently cited reason given (60 %) among the 205 inmates who declined at the time of the study. Utilizing the partnership between the jail, public health, and an academic medical center, we found that rapid HIV testing at exit was feasible and acceptable in this urban jail setting and could provide immediate linkage to care for those in need. PMID:26510745

  3. Rapid HIV Screening in an Urban Jail: How Testing at Exit With Linkage to Community Care Can Address Perceived Barriers.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Kari A; Shaikh, Raees A; Earley, Mary; Foxall, Mark; Boyle, Cole; Islam, K M; Younger, Heather; Sandkovsky, Uriel; Berthold, Elizabeth; Margalit, Ruth

    2015-12-01

    Despite recommendations from the CDC, only 36 % of jails offer routine HIV screening to inmates. Our purpose was to explore the feasibility of rapid HIV testing at release from an urban jail, and to identify potential barriers to this process. This project was incorporated into an established partnership between the jail, local academic medical center, and local public health department. We offered rapid HIV testing at the time of release to 507 jail inmates over a 7 week period of 2013. Three hundred and two (60 %) inmates elected testing. All participating inmates received individual test counseling, HIV prevention education, and linkage to care in the community prior to release. All tested inmates received results before release; one inmate screened positive for HIV and was linked to care. Previous HIV testing was the most frequently cited reason given (60 %) among the 205 inmates who declined at the time of the study. Utilizing the partnership between the jail, public health, and an academic medical center, we found that rapid HIV testing at exit was feasible and acceptable in this urban jail setting and could provide immediate linkage to care for those in need.

  4. Addressing barriers to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis B and C in the face of persisting fiscal constraints in Europe: report from a high level conference.

    PubMed

    Papatheodoridis, G; Thomas, H C; Golna, C; Bernardi, M; Carballo, M; Cornberg, M; Dalekos, G; Degertekin, B; Dourakis, S; Flisiak, R; Goldberg, D; Gore, C; Goulis, I; Hadziyannis, S; Kalamitsis, G; Kanavos, P; Kautz, A; Koskinas, I; Leite, B R; Malliori, M; Manolakopoulos, S; Matičič, M; Papaevangelou, V; Pirona, A; Prati, D; Raptopoulou-Gigi, M; Reic, T; Robaeys, G; Schatz, E; Souliotis, K; Tountas, Y; Wiktor, S; Wilson, D; Yfantopoulos, J; Hatzakis, A

    2016-02-01

    In the WHO-EURO region, around 28 million people are currently living with chronic viral hepatitis, and 120,000 people die every year because of it. Lack of awareness and understanding combined with the social stigma and discrimination exacerbate barriers related to access to prevention, diagnosis and treatment services for those most in need. In addition, the persisting economic crisis has impacted on public health spending, thus posing challenges on the sustainable investment in promotion, primary and secondary prevention, diagnosis and treatment of viral hepatitis across European countries. The Hepatitis B and C Public Policy Association in cooperation with the Hellenic Center for Disease Prevention and Control together with 10 partner organizations discussed at the Athens High Level Meeting held in June 2014 recent policy developments, persisting and emerging challenges related to the prevention and management of viral hepatitis and the need for a de minimis framework of urgent priorities for action, reflected in a Call to Action (Appendix S1). The discussion confirmed that persisting barriers do not allow the full realisation of the public health potential of diagnosing and preventing hepatitis B and C, treating hepatitis B and curing hepatitis C. Such barriers are related to (a) lack of evidence-based knowledge of hepatitis B and C, (b) limited access to prevention, diagnosis and treatment services with poor patient pathways, (c) declining resources and (d) the presence of social stigma and discrimination. The discussion also confirmed the emerging importance of fiscal constraints on the ability of policymakers to adequately address viral hepatitis challenges, particularly through increasing coverage of newer therapies. In Europe, it is critical that public policy bodies urgently agree on a conceptual framework for addressing the existing and emerging barriers to managing viral hepatitis. Such a framework would ensure all health systems share a common

  5. Addressing barriers to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis B and C in the face of persisting fiscal constraints in Europe: report from a high level conference.

    PubMed

    Papatheodoridis, G; Thomas, H C; Golna, C; Bernardi, M; Carballo, M; Cornberg, M; Dalekos, G; Degertekin, B; Dourakis, S; Flisiak, R; Goldberg, D; Gore, C; Goulis, I; Hadziyannis, S; Kalamitsis, G; Kanavos, P; Kautz, A; Koskinas, I; Leite, B R; Malliori, M; Manolakopoulos, S; Matičič, M; Papaevangelou, V; Pirona, A; Prati, D; Raptopoulou-Gigi, M; Reic, T; Robaeys, G; Schatz, E; Souliotis, K; Tountas, Y; Wiktor, S; Wilson, D; Yfantopoulos, J; Hatzakis, A

    2016-02-01

    In the WHO-EURO region, around 28 million people are currently living with chronic viral hepatitis, and 120,000 people die every year because of it. Lack of awareness and understanding combined with the social stigma and discrimination exacerbate barriers related to access to prevention, diagnosis and treatment services for those most in need. In addition, the persisting economic crisis has impacted on public health spending, thus posing challenges on the sustainable investment in promotion, primary and secondary prevention, diagnosis and treatment of viral hepatitis across European countries. The Hepatitis B and C Public Policy Association in cooperation with the Hellenic Center for Disease Prevention and Control together with 10 partner organizations discussed at the Athens High Level Meeting held in June 2014 recent policy developments, persisting and emerging challenges related to the prevention and management of viral hepatitis and the need for a de minimis framework of urgent priorities for action, reflected in a Call to Action (Appendix S1). The discussion confirmed that persisting barriers do not allow the full realisation of the public health potential of diagnosing and preventing hepatitis B and C, treating hepatitis B and curing hepatitis C. Such barriers are related to (a) lack of evidence-based knowledge of hepatitis B and C, (b) limited access to prevention, diagnosis and treatment services with poor patient pathways, (c) declining resources and (d) the presence of social stigma and discrimination. The discussion also confirmed the emerging importance of fiscal constraints on the ability of policymakers to adequately address viral hepatitis challenges, particularly through increasing coverage of newer therapies. In Europe, it is critical that public policy bodies urgently agree on a conceptual framework for addressing the existing and emerging barriers to managing viral hepatitis. Such a framework would ensure all health systems share a common

  6. Implementation of a Theory-based, Non-clinical Patient Navigator Program to Address Barriers in an Urban Cancer Center Setting.

    PubMed

    Fleisher, Linda; Miller, Suzanne M; Crookes, Danielle; Kandadai, Venk; Wen, Kuang Yi; Slamon, Rachel E; Chaivous, Jeanne

    2012-06-01

    Cancer patients face a myriad of psychosocial and practical issues. Especially challenging is the time from an initial diagnosis to the onset of treatment and patient navigation services are important to guide patients, especially underserved populations, through this maze of uncertainty. Here we report on the Pennsylvania Patient Navigator Demonstration Project (PaPND) designed to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and impact of a culturally and linguistically appropriate non-clinical navigator program. The development of the project, based on behavioral theory and community-based participatory research principles, is described. Forty-four cancer patients from diverse backgrounds participated, which included a baseline assessment, navigation services, and a four week and twelve week follow-up assessment. On average, participants experienced 1.8 barriers with transportation and insurance issues the most common barriers. The majority (56%) of the barriers required more than an hour of the navigator's time to address, with insurance, transportation and caregiver/support issues requiring the most time. Overall patients were fairly satisfied with the navigation services. The findings showed improvement patient's stress-related thoughts, cognition (understanding of their disease), expectancies and beliefs or values/goals, as well as self-efficacy of managing cancer related issues from the baseline to follow-up assessments. The evaluation results suggest that providing and connecting cancer patients to appropriate information to improve their understanding of their diagnosis and recommended treatments needs to be addressed, and where the integration of non-clinical and clinical navigation is essential. In addition, more attention to the assessment of psychosocial issues, such as the patients' emotional worries, and more comprehensive training in these areas would enhance navigation programs.

  7. Addressing gender inequality and intimate partner violence as critical barriers to an effective HIV response in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Charlotte; Seeley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In Africa, women and girls represent 57% of people living with HIV, with gender inequality and violence being an important structural determinant of their vulnerability. This commentary draws out lessons for a more effective combination response to the HIV epidemic from three papers recently published in JIAS. Discussion Hatcher and colleagues present qualitative data from women attending ante-natal clinics in Johannesburg, describing how HIV diagnosis during pregnancy and subsequent partner disclosure are common triggers for violence within relationships. The authors describe the challenges women face in adhering to medication or using services. Kyegombe and colleagues present a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial in Uganda of SASA! – a community violence prevention programme. Along with promising community impacts on physical partner violence, significantly lower levels of sexual concurrency, condom use and HIV testing were reported by men in intervention communities. Remme and her colleagues present a systematic review of evidence on the costs and cost-effectiveness of gender-responsive HIV interventions. The review identified an ever-growing evidence base, but a paucity of accompanying economic analyses, making it difficult to assess the costs or value for money of gender-focused programmes. Conclusions There is a need to continue to accumulate evidence on the effectiveness and costs of different approaches to addressing gender inequality and violence as part of a combination HIV response. A clearer HIV-specific and broader synergistic vision of financing and programming needs to be developed, to ensure that the potential synergies between HIV-specific and broader gender-focused development investments can be used to best effect to address vulnerability of women and girls to both violence and HIV. PMID:25499456

  8. Understanding and Addressing Socio-Cultural Barriers to Medical Male Circumcision in Traditionally Non-Circumcising Rural Communities in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; Lane, Tim; van-Rooyen, Heidi; Chingono, Alfred; Humphries, Hilton; Timbe, Andrew; Fritz, Katherine; Chirowodza, Admire; Morin, Stephen F.

    2013-01-01

    Given the success of recent clinical trials establishing the safety and efficacy of adult medical male circumcision in Africa, attention has now shifted to barriers and facilitators to programmatic implementation in traditionally non-circumcising communities. In this study, we attempted to develop a fuller understanding of the role of cultural issues in the acceptance of adult circumcision. We conducted four focus group discussions with 28 participants in Mutoko in Zimbabwe, and 33 participants in Vulindlela, in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, as well as 19 key informant interviews in both settings. We found the concept of male circumcision to be an alien practice, particularly as expressed in the context of local languages. Cultural barriers included local concepts of ethnicity, social groups, masculinity, and sexuality. On the other hand, we found that concerns about the impact of HIV on communities resulted in willingness to consider adult male circumcision as an option if it would result in lowering the local burden of the epidemic. Adult medical male circumcision promotional messages that create a synergy between understandings of both traditional and medical circumcision will be more successful in these communities. PMID:23815101

  9. Addressing language barriers in client-centered health promotion: lessons learned and promising practices from Texas WIC.

    PubMed

    Seth, Jennifer Greenberg; Isbell, Matthew G; Atwood, Robin Dochen; Ray, Tara C

    2015-05-01

    The growing population of nonnative English speakers in the United States challenges program planners to offer services that will effectively reach limited English proficiency (LEP) audiences. This article presents findings from evaluation research conducted with the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) to identify best practices and areas of concern for working with LEP clients. Data were collected through online surveys of 338 WIC teaching staff in 2010 and 65 WIC local agency directors in 2011 as part of an implementation evaluation of client-centered nutrition education. Data identified current practices, facilitating factors, and challenges in working with LEP clients. Facilitating factors included cultural competency, material and translation resources, linguistic competency, professional development opportunities, and rapport with clients. Challenges cited included linguistic challenges, lack of cultural competencies, issues related to the client-staff interaction, and insufficient time, materials, and staffing. Best practices inferred from the data relate to developing linguistic standards for bilingual staff, considerations for translating written materials, interpretation services, cultural competency, and staff training. Findings may help inform the development of this and other linguistically and culturally appropriate health promotion programs.

  10. Addressing language barriers in client-centered health promotion: lessons learned and promising practices from Texas WIC.

    PubMed

    Seth, Jennifer Greenberg; Isbell, Matthew G; Atwood, Robin Dochen; Ray, Tara C

    2015-05-01

    The growing population of nonnative English speakers in the United States challenges program planners to offer services that will effectively reach limited English proficiency (LEP) audiences. This article presents findings from evaluation research conducted with the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) to identify best practices and areas of concern for working with LEP clients. Data were collected through online surveys of 338 WIC teaching staff in 2010 and 65 WIC local agency directors in 2011 as part of an implementation evaluation of client-centered nutrition education. Data identified current practices, facilitating factors, and challenges in working with LEP clients. Facilitating factors included cultural competency, material and translation resources, linguistic competency, professional development opportunities, and rapport with clients. Challenges cited included linguistic challenges, lack of cultural competencies, issues related to the client-staff interaction, and insufficient time, materials, and staffing. Best practices inferred from the data relate to developing linguistic standards for bilingual staff, considerations for translating written materials, interpretation services, cultural competency, and staff training. Findings may help inform the development of this and other linguistically and culturally appropriate health promotion programs. PMID:25445982

  11. The Effects of English as a Second Language Courses on Language Minority Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodara, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    English as a second language (ESL) courses seek to address a primary barrier to college success for language minority students: second language issues that can inhibit their success in college-level coursework. But, there is a limited understanding of the effects of ESL on college student outcomes. Using a rich, longitudinal data set that includes…

  12. Grappling with Language Barriers: Implications for the Professional Development of Immigrant Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramova, Inna

    2013-01-01

    In this narrative inquiry, I explored the role of language in the lives of six Russian-speaking immigrant teachers. Theoretical perspectives emphasized experience, context, and culture in understanding their beliefs, and language served as an interpretive lens through which the experiences were explored. The inquiry revealed the following…

  13. Overcoming Language and Cultural Barriers in School: Helping Hispanic Students Acquire Success in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Pauline S.

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that Hispanic second language students are not as successful as their English-speaking peers in school. The problem is in part due to several factors: curriculum deliverance in a foreign language, cultural differences, and family/school disconnect. Current census reports reveal that Hispanic populations in the United States, and…

  14. Culture and language differences as a barrier to provision of quality care by the health workforce in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Almutairi, Khalid M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify, synthesize, and summarize issues and challenges related to the culture and language differences of the health workforce in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A comprehensive systematic review was conducted in May 2014 to locate published articles. Two independent researchers in consultation with several experts used 4 electronic databases (ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, PubMed, and Cochrane) to scrutinize articles published from January 2000 - March 2014. Each of the studies was given a quality assessment rating of weak, moderate, or strong, and was evaluated for methodological soundness using Russell and Gregory’s criteria. Results: The online literature search identified 12 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Lack of knowledge of non-Muslim nurses or culture in Saudi Arabia, difficulties in achieving cultural competence, and culture shock were documented as cultural difference factors. Issues in language difference include the clarity of language use by health care providers in giving information and providing adequate explanation regarding their activities. Conclusion: The available information provided by this review study shows that there is a communication barrier between patients and health care workers such as healthcare workers demonstrate low cultural competency. Despite the fact that the government provides programs for expatriate healthcare workers, there is a need to further improve educational and orientation programs regarding the culture and language in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25828278

  15. The language barrier?: context, identity, and support for political goals in minority ethnolinguistic groups.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Andrew G; Manstead, Antony S R; Spears, Russell; Bowen, Dafydd

    2011-12-01

    In two studies, we tested the hypothesis that not having a potentially group-defining attribute (e.g., in-group language) can affect social identification and support for group goals (e.g., national autonomy). Focusing on the Welsh minority in the UK, Study 1 provided evidence that Welsh language fluency predicted Welsh identification and support for national autonomy, and that identification accounted for the language-autonomy association. Study 2 extended this by (1) examining British and English as well as Welsh identification; and (2) quasi-manipulating the surrounding context (Welsh speaking vs. non-Welsh speaking). As predicted, low Welsh language fluency predicted stronger British and English identification, but only where language was criterial (Welsh-speaking regions). British identification, in turn, predicted lower support for national autonomy. Implications and prospects for future research are discussed.

  16. The language barrier?: context, identity, and support for political goals in minority ethnolinguistic groups.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Andrew G; Manstead, Antony S R; Spears, Russell; Bowen, Dafydd

    2011-12-01

    In two studies, we tested the hypothesis that not having a potentially group-defining attribute (e.g., in-group language) can affect social identification and support for group goals (e.g., national autonomy). Focusing on the Welsh minority in the UK, Study 1 provided evidence that Welsh language fluency predicted Welsh identification and support for national autonomy, and that identification accounted for the language-autonomy association. Study 2 extended this by (1) examining British and English as well as Welsh identification; and (2) quasi-manipulating the surrounding context (Welsh speaking vs. non-Welsh speaking). As predicted, low Welsh language fluency predicted stronger British and English identification, but only where language was criterial (Welsh-speaking regions). British identification, in turn, predicted lower support for national autonomy. Implications and prospects for future research are discussed. PMID:22122030

  17. Addressing the HIV-related needs of substance misusers in New York State: the benefits and barriers to implementing a "one-stop shopping" model.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Shiela M; Mino, Milton

    2011-01-01

    Substance misusers are at risk for contracting HIV/AIDS, and substance user treatment programs (SUTPs) are uniquely situated to address their HIV-related needs. In New York State, some SUTPs have implemented a centralized model of substance user treatment and HIV care. We synthesize past literature and use data from semistructured interviews with SUTP staff, analyzed with qualitative software, to describe implementation barriers. These interviews were conducted in 2003-2004 at three SUTPs in Texas and New York as part of a study funded by the National Institutes of Health. With study limitations noted, main implications include a need for a combined medical-addiction treatment philosophy to facilitate multidisciplinary care.

  18. A model of integrated health care in a poverty-impacted community in New York City: Importance of early detection and addressing potential barriers to intervention implementation.

    PubMed

    Acri, Mary C; Bornheimer, Lindsay A; O'Brien, Kyle; Sezer, Sara; Little, Virna; Cleek, Andrew F; McKay, Mary M

    2016-04-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) are chronic, impairing, and costly behavioral health conditions that are four times more prevalent among children of color living in impoverished communities as compared to the general population. This disparity is largely due to the increased exposure to stressors related to low socioeconomic status including community violence, unstable housing, under supported schools, substance abuse, and limited support systems. However, despite high rates and greater need, there is a considerably lower rate of mental health service utilization among these youth. Accordingly, the current study aims to describe a unique model of integrated health care for ethnically diverse youth living in a New York City borough. With an emphasis on addressing possible barriers to implementation, integrated models for children have the potential to prevent ongoing mental health problems through early detection and intervention. PMID:27070372

  19. Addressing Barriers to Ecological Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Kim; Curthoys, Lesley

    2008-01-01

    Capra defines ecological literacy as "understanding the basic principles of ecology and being able to embody them in daily life." Roth describes ecological literacy as "the capacity to perceive and interpret the relative health of environmental systems and to take appropriate action to maintain, restore, or improve the health of those systems." It…

  20. Breaking the Language Barrier: Promoting Collaboration between General and Special Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, LeAnne; Buly, Marsha Riddle

    2007-01-01

    The authors of this article are two professors from a northwestern regional university. One of them works in the special education department and the other works in the elementary education department. As they began to work together on their research and teaching, they found that there were many communication barriers between their departments and…

  1. School Nursing Documentation: Knowledge, Attitude, and Barriers to Using Standardized Nursing Languages and Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yearous, Sharon Kay Guthrie

    2011-01-01

    The independent, complex role of a school nurse requires accurate documentation of assessments, interventions, and outcomes. Consistent documentation by all school nurses is crucial to study the impact of nursing interventions on children's health and success in school. While standardized nursing languages are available, the actual use of…

  2. Pathways and Barriers to Indian Language Literacy-Building on the Northern Ute Reservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leap, William L.

    1991-01-01

    Describes recent efforts by members of the Ute tribe (northeastern Utah) to introduce a written form of the Ute language. Discusses several reasons for the resistance to Ute literacy among many members of the tribe and the steps that have been taken in response to these concerns. (EVL)

  3. Formulaic Language as a Barrier to Effective Communication with People with Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Carers recognize that the linguistic problems associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be detrimental to effective communication, but they are often not sure what they can do to help. This article examines the use of formulaic language in AD, including routines, repetitions, and fillers, through the lens of a model of how cognitive and social…

  4. Overcoming the Language Barrier. Third European Congress on Information Systems and Networks, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg).

    The papers presented here have a double objective: to give those responsible for the Action plan for the improvement of information transfer between European languages a good view of existing and developing systems and to make future users of EURONET acquainted with methods and tools that will soon be available. The papers are arranged under six…

  5. Educating Chinese Scientists to Write for International Journals: Addressing the Divide between Science and Technology Education and English Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargill, Margaret; O'Connor, Patrick; Li, Yongyan

    2012-01-01

    As is the worldwide trend, scientists in China face strong and increasing pressure to publish their research in international peer-reviewed journals written in English. There is an acute need for graduate students to develop the required language skills alongside their scientific expertise, in spite of the distinct division currently existing…

  6. Ten "Good Practice Principles" ...Ten Key Questions: Considerations in Addressing the English Language Needs of Higher Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Neil

    2012-01-01

    In response to social, political and educational imperatives, Australian universities are currently reviewing the way in which they provide for the growing number of students for whom English is not a first language. A document recently published by the Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations has increased the sense of urgency…

  7. Addressing the Issue of Cultural and Linguistic Diversity and Assessment: Informal Evaluation Measures for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinelli, Cathleen G.

    2008-01-01

    Existing research indicates that there is a disproportionate number of students with cultural and linguistic differences, English Language Learners (ELL), who are misidentified as learning disabled when their problems are due to cultural and/or linguistic differences. As a consequence, these students do not receive appropriate services. With the…

  8. Using Student Co-Regulation to Address L2 Students' Language and Pedagogical Needs in University Support Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    This article highlights student co-regulation of teaching practices as a way of exploring how L2 students' language and pedagogical needs can be met in university support classes. Integration rather than assimilation--or adapting to the needs of the students rather than leaving students to face the exigencies of the new learning environment…

  9. Addressing the Challenges of Language Choice in the Implementation of Mother-Tongue Based Bilingual Education in South Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spronk, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Since the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in 2005, the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (South Sudan) has been working towards the implementation of a Language and Education Policy in which the mother tongue of the learner is to be used as a medium of instruction for the first three years of primary education.…

  10. Grunt language versus accent: the perceived communication barriers between international medical graduates and patients in Central Wheatbelt catchments.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Jessica; Macdonald, William; Bulsara, Caroline; Lim, David

    2012-01-01

    Due to the chronic shortages of GPs in Australian rural and remote regions, considerable numbers of international medical graduates (IMG) have been recruited. IMG experience many difficulties when relocating to Australia with one of the most significant being effective GP-patient communication. Given that this is essential for effective consultation it can have a substantial impact on health care. A purposive sample of seven practising GPs (five IMG, two Australian-trained doctors (ATD)) was interviewed using a semistructured face-to-face interviewing technique. GPs from Nigeria, Egypt, United Kingdom, India, Singapore and Australia participated. Interviews were transcribed and then coded. The authors used qualitative thematic analysis of interview transcripts to identify common themes. IMG-patient communication barriers were considered significant in the Wheatbelt region as identified by both IMG and ATD. ATD indicated they were aware of IMG-patient communication issues resulting in subsequent consults with patients to explain results and diagnoses. Significantly, a lack of communication between ATD and IMG also emerged, creating a further barrier to effective communication. Analysis of the data generated several important findings that rural GP networks should consider when integrating new IMG into the community. Addressing the challenges related to cross-cultural differences should be a priority, in order to enable effective communication. More open communication between ATD and IMG about GP-patient communication barriers and education programs around GP-patient communication would help both GP and patient satisfaction. PMID:23069362

  11. Language barriers in mental health care: a survey of primary care practitioners.

    PubMed

    Brisset, Camille; Leanza, Yvan; Rosenberg, Ellen; Vissandjée, Bilkis; Kirmayer, Laurence J; Muckle, Gina; Xenocostas, Spyridoula; Laforce, Hugues

    2014-12-01

    Many migrants do not speak the official language of their host country. This linguistic gap has been found to be an important contributor to disparities in access to services and health outcomes. This study examined primary care mental health practitioners' experiences with linguistic diversity. 113 practitioners in Montreal completed a self-report survey assessing their experiences working with allophones. About 40% of practitioners frequently encountered difficulties working in mental health with allophone clients. Few resources were available, and calling on an interpreter was the most common practice. Interpreters were expected to play many roles, which went beyond basic language translation. There is a clear need for training of practitioners on how to work with different types of interpreters. Training should highlight the benefits and limitations of the different roles that interpreters can play in health care delivery and the differences in communication dynamics with each role.

  12. Addressing the Standards for Foreign Language Learning. Dimension '97. Selected Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Southern Conference on Language Teaching and the South Carolina Foreign Language Teachers' Association (Myrtle Beach, South Carolina).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Robert M., Ed.

    Seven papers from the annual conference are presented. "Developing Tomorrow's Technology-Using Foreign Language Teachers: Where We Are, Where We Are Going" (Marjorie H. DeWert, Audrey Heining-Boynton) looks at whether language teachers are being trained to take full advantage of educational technology. "Foreign Language Placement in Postsecondary…

  13. Breaking the language barrier: an emergentist coalition model for the origins of word learning.

    PubMed

    Hollich, G J; Hirsh-Pasek, K; Golinkoff, R M; Brand, R J; Brown, E; Chung, H L; Hennon, E; Rocroi, C

    2000-01-01

    How do children learn their first words? The field of language development has been polarized by responses to this question. Explanations range from constraints/principles accounts that emphasize the importance of cognitive heuristics in language acquisition, to social-pragmatic accounts that highlight the role of parent-child interaction, to associationistic accounts that highlight the role of "dumb attentional mechanisms" in word learning. In this Monograph, an alternative to these accounts is presented: the emergentist coalition theory. A hybrid view of word learning, this theory characterizes lexical acquisition as the emergent product of multiple factors, including cognitive constraints, social-pragmatic factors, and global attentional mechanisms. The model makes three assumptions: (a) that children cull from multiple inputs available for word learning at any given time, (b) that these inputs are differentially weighted over development, and (c) that children develop emergent principles of word learning, which guide subsequent word acquisition. With few exceptions, competing accounts of the word learning process have examined children who are already veteran word learners. By focusing on the very beginnings of word learning at around 12 months of age, however, it is possible to see how social and cognitive factors are coordinated in the process of vocabulary development. After presenting a new method for investigating word learning, the development of reference is used as a test case of the theory. In 12 experiments, with children ranging in age from 12 to 25 months of age, data are described that support the emergentist coalition model. This fundamentally developmental theory posits that children construct principles of word learning. As children's word learning principles emerge and develop, the character of word learning changes over the course of the 2nd year of life.

  14. [If the provision of information runs into the language barrier--about the cooperation with interpreters].

    PubMed

    Sleptsova, M

    2007-10-01

    Communication between professionals and patients from different cultural origin and without knowledge of the professional's language is not possible without the help of interpreters. Their presences however, can have a differential impact upon the quality of the interaction. Non-professional translators (family members, members of hospital staff etc.) can have a negative impact upon medical treatment via false translation, most commonly by the failure to add "creative elements" from their own interpretation to what has been said. As a consequence, using professional interpreters is generally preferred. It has been shown that professional translation improves the quality of treatment and patients' satisfaction with treatment. The proper professionalisation of interpretation is a rather recent development in health care, differentiating between various roles that an interpreter might take. The prominent role of a cultural translator often referred to as "mediation" assumes that the interpreter "mediates" between two different cultures that collide during an encounter. In our experience with Turkish speaking interpreters however, their socio-demographic characteristics (foremost education and social class in Turkey) resemble those of professionals much closer than that of Turkish patients; this the interpreter's position is not in the middle between patient and health care provider but skewed to the latter. Using concrete clinical situations we will recommend a word-by-word translation largely neglecting the role of the cultural mediator.

  15. Short and long-term lifestyle coaching approaches used to address diverse participant barriers to weight loss and physical activity adherence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Individual barriers to weight loss and physical activity goals in the Diabetes Prevention Program, a randomized trial with 3.2 years average treatment duration, have not been previously reported. Evaluating barriers and the lifestyle coaching approaches used to improve adherence in a large, diverse participant cohort can inform dissemination efforts. Methods Lifestyle coaches documented barriers and approaches after each session (mean session attendance = 50.3 ± 21.8). Subjects were 1076 intensive lifestyle participants (mean age = 50.6 years; mean BMI = 33.9 kg/m2; 68% female, 48% non-Caucasian). Barriers and approaches used to improve adherence were ranked by the percentage of the cohort for whom they applied. Barrier groupings were also analyzed in relation to baseline demographic characteristics. Results Top weight loss barriers reported were problems with self-monitoring (58%); social cues (58%); holidays (54%); low activity (48%); and internal cues (thought/mood) (44%). Top activity barriers were holidays (51%); time management (50%); internal cues (30%); illness (29%), and motivation (26%). The percentage of the cohort having any type of barrier increased over the long-term intervention period. A majority of the weight loss barriers were significantly associated with younger age, greater obesity, and non-Caucasian race/ethnicity (p-values vary). Physical activity barriers, particularly thought and mood cues, social cues and time management, physical injury or illness and access/weather, were most significantly associated with being female and obese (p < 0.001 for all). Lifestyle coaches used problem-solving with most participants (≥75% short-term; > 90% long term) and regularly reviewed self-monitoring skills. More costly approaches were used infrequently during the first 16 sessions (≤10%) but increased over 3.2 years. Conclusion Behavioral problem solving approaches have short and long term dissemination potential

  16. Attitudes and Barriers to Exercise in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes (T1DM) and How Best to Address Them: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lascar, Nadia; Kennedy, Amy; Hancock, Beverley; Jenkins, David; Andrews, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity has recognised health benefits for people with T1DM. However a significant proportion of them do not undertake the recommended levels of activity. Whilst questionnaire-based studies have examined barriers to exercise in people with T1DM, a formal qualitative analysis of these barriers has not been undertaken. Our aims were to explore attitudes, barriers and facilitators to exercise in patients with T1DM. Methodology A purposeful sample of long standing T1DM patients were invited to participate in this qualitative study. Twenty-six adults were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule to determine their level of exercise and barriers to initiation and maintenance of an exercise programme. Principal findings Six main barriers to exercise were identified: lack of time and work related factors; access to facilities; lack of motivation; embarrassment and body image; weather; and diabetes specific barriers (low levels of knowledge about managing diabetes and its complications around exercise). Four motivators to exercise were identified: physical benefits from exercise; improvements in body image; enjoyment and the social interaction of exercising at gym or in groups. Three facilitators to exercise were identified: free or reduced admission to gyms and pools, help with time management, and advice and encouragement around managing diabetes for exercise. Significance Many of the barriers to exercise in people with T1DM are shared with the non-diabetic population. The primary difference is the requirement for education about the effect of exercise on diabetes control and its complications. There was a preference for support to be given on a one to one basis rather than in a group environment. This suggests that with the addition of the above educational requirements, one to one techniques that have been successful in increasing activity in patients with other chronic disease and the general public should be successful in

  17. Addressing the Professional Development Awareness Needs of School Counselors regarding English Language Learners (ELLs): Using the School Cultural Capital Game to Enhance Level of Self-Efficacy with ELLs and Attitudes toward Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paredes, Maria Adele Brunelli

    2010-01-01

    Close to 4.6 million public school students receive English Language Learner (ELL) services (Kindler, 2002). In addition to educational gaps that exist between ELLs and their non-ELL peers, ELLs often experience significant barriers to academic success (Williams & Butler, 2003). The importance of school counselors in the success of ELLs has been…

  18. Empowering Language Students Through Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussex, Roland

    1996-01-01

    Reviews "Barriers and Bridges: Media Technology in Language Learning." The book's is divided into three main sections: "Back to Basics," which covers the exploitation of affordable and modest technology; "Small World," which discusses electronic mail; and "Big Bucks and Grand Plans," which addresses the expensive end of educational technology. (10…

  19. Foreign Languages: Workforce Planning Could Help Address Staffing and Proficiency Shortfalls. Testimony before the Subcommittee on International Security, Proliferation, and Federal Services, Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westin, Susan S.

    This statement examines the nature and impact of foreign language proficiency and personnel shortages in the Army, State Department, Central Intelligence Agency, and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), discussing strategies used to address these shortages and efforts made to address current and projected shortages. All four agencies reported…

  20. The New Digital [St]age: Barriers to the Adoption and Adaptation of New Technologies to Deliver Extension Programming and How to Address Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seger, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    With the rise of social media and the need for statewide program cohesiveness, The Ohio State University Extension has the opportunity to position itself as a catalyst for technology adoption and adaptation nationwide. Unfortunately, many barriers exist to the successful use and implementation of technology, including an organizational structure…

  1. Understanding and Addressing Barriers to Implementation of Environmental and Policy Interventions to Support Physical Activity and Healthy Eating in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Barnidge, Ellen K.; Radvanyi, Catherine; Duggan, Kathleen; Motton, Freda; Wiggs, Imogene; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Rural residents are at greater risk of obesity than urban and suburban residents. Failure to meet physical activity and healthy eating recommendations play a role. Emerging evidence shows the effectiveness of environmental and policy interventions to promote physical activity and healthy eating. Yet most of the evidence comes from urban and suburban communities. The objectives of this study were to 1) identify types of environmental and policy interventions being implemented in rural communities to promote physical activity or healthy eating, 2) identify barriers to the implementation of environmental or policy interventions, and 3) identify strategies rural communities have employed to overcome these barriers. METHODS Key informant interviews with public health professionals working in rural areas in the United States were conducted in 2010. A purposive sample included 15 practitioners engaged in planning, implementing, or evaluating environmental or policy interventions to promote physical activity or healthy eating. FINDINGS Our findings reveal that barriers in rural communities include cultural differences, population size, limited human capital, and difficulty demonstrating the connection between social and economic policy and health outcomes. Key informants identified a number of strategies to overcome these barriers such as developing broad-based partnerships and building on the existing infrastructure. CONCLUSON Recent evidence suggests that environmental and policy interventions have potential to promote physical activity and healthy eating at the population level. To realize positive outcomes, it is important to provide opportunities to implement these types of interventions and document their effectiveness in rural communities. PMID:23289660

  2. When Eastern Oriental Meets Western Occidental Language System: Crossing the English Vocabulary Threshold versus Breaking the Kanji Barrier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucky, John Paul

    2001-01-01

    What lessons can be learned from relevant research in vocabulary- and language-learning strategy training as well as from comparative studies on learning Oriental languages, which could have helpful applications to language learners from Kanji-background countries? Could both mnemonic and semantic field keyword approaches help these learners by…

  3. Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadlin, Barry; Nemanich, Donald

    1974-01-01

    An article and a bibliography constitute this issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin." In "Keep the Natives from Getting Restless," Barry Gadlin examines native language learning by children from infancy through high school and discusses the theories of several authors concerning the teaching of the native language. The "Bibliography of…

  4. "I'm Telling You ... The Language Barrier Is the Most, the Biggest Challenge": Barriers to Education among Karen Refugee Women in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Paula G.; Razee, Husna; Richters, Juliet

    2012-01-01

    This article examines factors influencing English language education, participation and achievement among Karen refugee women in Australia. Data were drawn from ethnographic observations and interviews with 67 participants between 2009 and 2011, collected as part of a larger qualitative study exploring the well-being of Karen refugee women in…

  5. The Language of Success: A Case Study of the Academic Achievement of ESL Students Who Thrive in Spite of Language Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvain, Martine Sabine

    2010-01-01

    There is a widening gap between the academic achievement of English as a second language (ESL) students and the rest of the school population as students reach higher levels of education. ESL students face the challenge of not only learning the language and their subjects but also adapting to the demands of different cultures. In spite of these…

  6. OVERCOMING CULTURAL BARRIERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARRUTIA, RICHARD

    THE RELATIONSHIP OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT TO CULTURAL BARRIERS AND THE TEACHING OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES IS DISCUSSED IN THIS ARTICLE. VARIOUS VIEWS OF THE MEANING OF CULTURE ARE MENTIONED IN ORDER TO SINGLE OUT ANTHROPOLOGICAL CULTURE AS A MAIN FOCAL POINT. INTERCULTURAL DIFFERENCES ARE SPELLED OUT WITH EXAMPLES OF LINGUISTIC BARRIERS, AND…

  7. For Consideration in Reauthorizing the "No Child Left Behind Act"... Promoting a Systematic Focus on Learning Supports to Address Barriers to Learning and Teaching. A Center Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Anticipating Congressional hearings related to reauthorizing NCLB, this policy analysis report focuses on how learning supports can be enhanced in the reauthorized law. The intent is to enhance effectiveness in addressing the factors that interfere with a great many students succeeding at school. The emphasis is on fully integrating the…

  8. Addressing barriers to optimal oral anticoagulation use and persistence among patients with atrial fibrillation: Proceedings, Washington, DC, December 3-4, 2012.

    PubMed

    Hess, Paul L; Mirro, Michael J; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Eikelboom, John W; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Hylek, Elaine M; Bosworth, Hayden B; Gersh, Bernard J; Singer, Daniel E; Flaker, Greg; Mega, Jessica L; Peterson, Eric D; Rumsfeld, John S; Steinberg, Benjamin A; Kakkar, Ajay K; Califf, Robert M; Granger, Christopher B

    2014-09-01

    Approximately half of patients with atrial fibrillation and with risk factors for stroke are not treated with oral anticoagulation (OAC), whether it be with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or novel OACs (NOACs); and of those treated, many discontinue treatment. Leaders from academia, government, industry, and professional societies convened in Washington, DC, on December 3-4, 2012, to identify barriers to optimal OAC use and adherence and to generate potential solutions. Participants identified a broad range of barriers, including knowledge gaps about stroke risk and the relative risks and benefits of anticoagulant therapies; lack of awareness regarding the potential use of NOAC agents for VKA-unsuitable patients; lack of recognition of expanded eligibility for OAC; lack of availability of reversal agents and the difficulty of anticoagulant effect monitoring for the NOACs; concerns with the bleeding risk of anticoagulant therapy, especially with the NOACs and particularly in the setting of dual antiplatelet therapy; suboptimal time in therapeutic range for VKA; and costs and insurance coverage. Proposed solutions were to define reasons for oral anticoagulant underuse classified in ways that can guide intervention and improve use, to increase awareness of stroke risk as well as the benefits and risks of OAC use via educational initiatives and feedback mechanisms, to better define the role of VKA in the current therapeutic era including eligibility and ineligibility for different anticoagulant therapies, to identify NOAC reversal agents and monitoring strategies and make knowledge regarding their use publicly available, to minimize the duration of dual antiplatelet therapy and concomitant OAC where possible, to improve time in therapeutic range for VKA, to leverage observational data sets to refine understanding of OAC use and outcomes in general practice, and to better align health system incentives. PMID:25173533

  9. Addressing Barriers to Optimal Oral Anticoagulation Use and Persistence Among Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: Proceedings, Washington, DC, December 3–4, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Paul L.; Mirro, Michael J.; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Eikelboom, John W.; Al-Khatib, Sana M.; Hylek, Elaine M.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Gersh, Bernard J.; Singer, Daniel E.; Flaker, Greg; Mega, Jessica L.; Peterson, Eric D.; Rumsfeld, John S.; Steinberg, Benjamin A.; Kakkar, Ajay K.; Califf, Robert M.; Granger, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately half of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and with risk factors for stroke are not treated with oral anticoagulation (OAC), whether it be with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or novel OACs (NOACs); and of those treated, many discontinue treatment. Leaders from academia, government, industry, and professional societies convened in Washington, DC, on December 3–4, 2012, to identify barriers to optimal OAC use and adherence and to generate potential solutions. Participants identified a broad range of barriers, including knowledge gaps about stroke risk and the relative risks and benefits of anticoagulant therapies; lack of awareness regarding the potential use of NOAC agents for VKA-unsuitable patients; lack of recognition of expanded eligibility for OAC; lack of availability of reversal agents and the difficulty of anticoagulant effect monitoring for the NOACs; concerns with the bleeding risk of anticoagulant therapy, especially with the NOACs and particularly in the setting of dual antiplatelet therapy; suboptimal time in therapeutic range for VKA; and costs and insurance coverage. Proposed solutions were to increase awareness of stroke risk as well as the benefits and risks of OAC use via educational initiatives and feedback mechanisms, to develop and disseminate shared decision-making tools, to better define the role of VKA in the current therapeutic era including eligibility and ineligibility for different anticoagulant therapies, to identify NOAC reversal agents and monitoring strategies and make knowledge regarding their use publicly available, to minimize the duration of dual antiplatelet therapy and concomitant OAC where possible, to improve time in therapeutic range for VKA, to leverage observational datasets to refine understanding of OAC use and outcomes in general practice, and to better align health system incentives. PMID:25173533

  10. What English Language Teachers from the Peoples' Republic of China Find Surprising about Information Technology: Thoughts on How to Address the Need for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towndrow, Phillip A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent educational reforms in China are placing increasing emphasis on the integration of new technologies in the English language curriculum. At the same time, a debate has begun concerning the effectiveness of Information Technology (IT) usage in transforming language pedagogy in the Chinese context. In response to points made in the discussions…

  11. The Motivational Effects of Crosslinguistic Awareness: Developing Third Language Pedagogies to Address the Negative Impact of the L2 on the L3 Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Alastair

    2014-01-01

    Learning a third language (TL) brings with it particular pedagogical demands. In the pedagogy of TL learning now emerging, the development of students' metalinguistic and crosslinguistic awareness is of central importance. In particular, emphasis is placed on the benefits of cross-referencing with supporter languages. While comparisons with…

  12. Language.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive focal brain stimulation by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used extensively in the past 20 years to investigate normal language functions. The picture emerging from this collection of empirical works is that of several independent modular functions mapped on left-lateralized temporofrontal circuits originating dorsally or ventrally to the auditory cortex. The identification of sounds as language (i.e., phonological transformations) is modulated by TMS applied over the posterior-superior temporal cortex and over the caudal inferior frontal gyrus/ventral premotor cortex complex. Conversely, attribution of semantics to words is modulated successfully by applying TMS to the rostral part of the inferior frontal gyrus. Speech production is typically interfered with by TMS applied to the left inferior frontal gyrus, onto the same cortical areas that also contain phonological representations. The cortical mapping of grammatical functions has been investigated with TMS mainly regarding the category of verbs, which seem to be represented in the left middle frontal gyrus. Most TMS studies have investigated the cortical processing of single words or sublexical elements. Conversely, complex elements of language such as syntax have not been investigated extensively, although a few studies have indicated a left temporal, frontal, and parietal system also involving the neocerebellar cortex. Finally, both the perception and production of nonlinguistic communicative properties of speech, such as prosody, have been mapped by TMS in the peri-Silvian region of the right hemisphere. PMID:24112933

  13. Enabling the Full Participation of University Students with Disabilities: Seeking Best Practices for a Barrier-Free Language Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuomi, Margaret Trotta; Jauhojärvi-Koskelo, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that 3.4% of university students in Finland have a diagnosed or observed illness or disability that affects their learning at the university level. The University of Jyväskylä Language Centre embarked on an organised, ongoing research and intervention project to enable appropriate teaching practices to suit the needs of…

  14. Overcoming Language and Literacy Barriers: Using Student Response System Technology to Collect Quality Program Evaluation Data from Immigrant Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan K.; Mao, Dung

    2016-01-01

    Student response system technology was employed for parenting education program evaluation data collection with Karen adults. The technology, with translation and use of an interpreter, provided an efficient and secure method that respected oral language and collective learning preferences and accommodated literacy needs. The method was popular…

  15. Doing their best: strategies used by South African clinicians in working with psychiatric inpatients across a language barrier

    PubMed Central

    Kilian, Sanja; Swartz, Leslie; Chiliza, Bonginkosi

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives South Africa has 11 official languages, but most psychiatrists can speak only English and Afrikaans and there are no formal interpreter posts in the mental healthcare system. As a result clinicians communicate with patients who have limited English language proficiency (LEP) without the use of interpreters. We present case material, constituting recordings of interactions between clinicians and LEP patients in a public psychiatric institution. The aim is to have a better understanding of how these clinical encounters operated and what communicative strategies clinicians used. Design We used the Roter interaction analysis system (RIAS) to evaluate clinicians’ conversational strategies and to analyze interactions between clinicians and patients. Results Clinicians showed a high degree of tenacity in trying to engage patients in the clinical conversation, build rapport, and gather crucial diagnostic information. However, patients often responded briefly and monosyllabically, or kept quiet. In psychiatry where commonality of language cannot be assumed, it is not possible to determine the clinical significance of these responses. Discussion Clinicians went to great lengths to understand LEP patients. It is also clear that patients were often not optimally understood. Clinicians would try to gain valid information in a polite manner, but would abandon these attempts repeatedly as it became clear that proper communication was not possible. Conclusions Our findings suggest that in the absence of interpreter services, the communication between clinicians and LEP patients is sparse and yields limited clinical information. The lack of proper language services stands in the way of optimal clinical care and requires urgent attention. PMID:26507606

  16. Barriers to Effective Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulbert, Jack E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the following barriers which interfere with listening efficiency: content, speaker, medium, distractions, mindset, language, listening speed, and feedback. Suggests ways to combat these obstacles to accurate comprehension. (MM)

  17. Lexical and Acoustic Features of Maternal Utterances Addressing Preverbal Infants in Picture Book Reading Link to 5-Year-Old Children's Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Huei-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: I examined the long-term association between the lexical and acoustic features of maternal utterances during book reading and the language skills of infants and children. Maternal utterances were collected from 22 mother-child dyads in picture book-reading episodes when children were ages 6-12 months and 5 years. Two aspects of…

  18. Addressing Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Greg; Helmig, Mary; Kaplan, Bill; Kosch, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Four camp directors discuss how the September 11 tragedy and current world events will affect their camps. They describe how they are addressing safety concerns, working with parents, cooperating with outside agencies, hiring and screening international staff, and revising emergency plans. Camps must continue to offer community and support to…

  19. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  20. Overcoming language barriers in community-based research with refugee and migrant populations: options for using bilingual workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the challenges of working with culturally and linguistically diverse groups can lead to the exclusion of some communities from research studies, cost effective strategies to encourage access and promote cross-cultural linkages between researchers and ethnic minority participants are essential to ensure their views are heard and their health needs identified. Using bilingual research assistants is one means to achieve this. In a study exploring alcohol and other drug service use by migrant women in Western Australia, bilingual workers were used to assist with participant recruitment and administration of a survey to 268 women who spoke more than 40 different languages. Discussion Professional interpreters, bilingual students, bilingual overseas-trained health professionals and community sector bilingual workers were used throughout the research project. For the initial qualitative phase, professional interpreters were used to conduct interviews and focus group sessions, however scheduling conflicts, inflexibility, their inability to help with recruitment and the expense prompted exploration of alternative options for interview interpreting in the quantitative component of the study. Bilingual mature-age students on work placement and overseas-trained health professionals provided good entry into their different community networks and successfully recruited and interviewed participants, often in languages with limited interpreter access. Although both groups required training and supervision, overseas-trained health professionals often had existing research skills, as well as understanding of key issues such as confidentiality and referral processes. Strategies to minimise social desirability bias and the need to set boundaries were discussed during regular debriefing sessions. Having a number of workers recruiting participants also helped minimise the potential for selection bias. The practical and educational experience gained by the bilingual

  1. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  2. English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) nursing student success: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Olson, Mary Angela

    2012-01-01

    Many English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) nursing students struggle in nursing school for a multitude of reasons. The purpose of this critical review of the literature is to identify barriers and discover bridges to ESL nursing student success. Twenty-five articles were identified for the review. Language barriers were identified as the single most significant obstacle facing the ESL nursing student. Bridges to ESL nursing student success include enhancing language development and acculturation into the American mainstream culture. A broad range of strategies to promote student success are outlined and the role of the nurse educator in ESL nursing student success is also addressed.

  3. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  4. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Ghatowar, P S

    1993-07-01

    The Union Deputy Minister of Health and Family Welfare in India addressed the 35th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay in 1993. Officials in developing countries have been concerned about population growth for more than 30 years and have instituted policies to reduce population growth. In the 1960s, population growth in developing countries was around 2.5%, but today it is about 2%. Despite this decline, the world will have 1 billion more individuals by the year 2001. 95% of these new people will be born in developing countries. India's population size is so great that India does not have the time to wait for development to reduce population growth. Population needs to be viewed as an integrated part of overall development, since it is linked to poverty, illiteracy, environmental damage, gender issues, and reproductive health. Despite a large population size, India has made some important advancements in health and family planning. For example, India has reduced population growth (to 2.14% annually between 1981-1991), infant mortality, and its birth rate. It has increased the contraceptive use rate and life expectancy. Its southern states have been more successful at achieving demographic goals than have the northern states. India needs to implement efforts to improve living conditions, to change attitudes and perceptions about small families and contraception, and to promote family planning acceptance earlier among young couples. Improvement of living conditions is especially important in India, since almost 33% of the people live in poverty. India needs to invest in nutrition, health, and education. The mass media and nongovernmental organizations need to create population awareness and demand for family planning services. Improvement in women's status accelerates fertility decline, as has happened in Kerala State. The government needs to facilitate generation of jobs. Community participation is needed for India to achieve

  5. Patient barriers to insulin use in multi-ethnic populations.

    PubMed

    Visram, Hasina

    2013-06-01

    Insulin administration is often required in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus for optimal glycemic control. Despite this, however, many patients are reluctant to initiate insulin treatment. In the general population, there are multiple factors leading to this reluctance including fear of hypoglycemia, needle phobia and weight gain. These barriers are also present in multi-ethnic populations. However, there are several patient barriers that are more prevalent in various ethnic backgrounds that need to be addressed. These barriers include language barriers, poor health literacy, social factors and religious implications. The awareness of these factors as well as potential strategies to help overcome them can lead to the improved management of patients with diabetes from multi-ethnic populations. PMID:24070844

  6. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  7. Language as a Barrier to Communication between the Classes in Rosario Castellanos's "La tregua" and Jose Revueltas's "El lenguaje de nadie."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Cynthia

    1991-01-01

    Examines two Spanish-language short stories that use language as a codifying system for examining false institutions, antiquated prejudices, and iron-cal hierarchies that have been erected in the name of Mexican culture. (12 references) (GLR)

  8. EBLIP: bridging the language barrier.

    PubMed

    Declève, Ghislaine

    2010-12-01

    In the Using Evidence in Practice feature for this issue we invited Ghislaine Declève, a health librarian from Belgium who is active in Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, to provide a perspective on the uptake of the paradigm in non-English speaking countries. While her survey extends beyond the health domain it will prove of particular value to the HILJ readership, given that leadership of the movement continues to reside primarily within the health information sector. PMID:21050377

  9. Hurricane Katrina: Barriers to Mental Health Services for Children Persist in Greater New Orleans, Although Federal Grants Are Helping to Address Them. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-09-563

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bascetta, Cynthia A.

    2009-01-01

    The greater New Orleans area--Jefferson, Orleans, Plaquemines, and St. Bernard parishes--has yet to fully recover from the effects of Hurricane Katrina. As a result of the hurricane and its aftermath, many children experienced psychological trauma, which can have long-lasting effects. Experts have previously identified barriers to providing and…

  10. Methodological Challenges in Cross-Language Qualitative Research: A Research Review

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Cross-language qualitative research occurs when a language barrier is present between researchers and participants. The language barrier is frequently mediated through the use of a translator or interpreter. The purpose of this critical review of cross-language qualitative research was three fold: 1) review the methods literature addressing cross language research; 2) synthesize the methodological recommendations from the literature into a list of criteria that could evaluate how researchers methodologically managed translators and interpreters in their qualitative studies; and 3) test these criteria on published cross-language qualitative studies. Data sources A group of 40 purposively selected cross-language qualitative studies found in nursing and health sciences journals. Review methods The synthesis of the cross-language methods literature produced 14 criteria to evaluate how qualitative researchers managed the language barrier between themselves and their study participants. To test the criteria, the researcher conducted a summative content analysis framed by discourse analysis techniques of the 40 cross-language studies. Results The evaluation showed that only 6 out of 40 studies met all the criteria recommended by the cross-language methods literature for the production of trustworthy results in cross-language qualitative studies. Multiple inconsistencies, reflecting disadvantageous methodological choices by cross-language researchers, appeared in the remaining 33 studies. To name a few, these included rendering the translator or interpreter as an invisible part of the research process, failure to pilot test interview questions in the participant’s language, no description of translator or interpreter credentials, failure to acknowledge translation as a limitation of the study, and inappropriate methodological frameworks for cross-language research. Conclusions The finding about researchers making the role of the translator or interpreter

  11. Language Labs: Their Impact on English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Jeanette R.

    2013-01-01

    Unacceptable use of the English language by English language learners (ELLs) at the college level has been determined to be a major deterrent to their success in academia. The problem is that ELLs who complete a language acquisition program may not necessarily perform well in core academic subjects because of persisting language barriers. It is…

  12. Consuming English: How Mexican Transmigrants form Identities and Construct Symbolic Citizenship through the English-Language Program Ingles Sin Barreras [English without Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Char

    2010-01-01

    "Ingles Sin Barreras" is an English-language program that is highly advertised on Spanish-language television in the United States, to the point that it has become a pop-culture phenomenon. In this article, I argue that few people actually use it to learn English, but instead consume it as a symbol of national belonging. This article puts…

  13. Linguistic Moments: Language, Teaching, and Teacher Education in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, LaVada; Baszile, Denise Marie Taliaferro; Berry, Theodora Regina

    2009-01-01

    Many diversity courses that prepare pre-service teachers do not address the significance or the impact of language barriers on linguistically diverse learners. Often time, new and veteran teachers construct their bilingual and/or bidialectical students as others and are unaware of how to use their students' social, cultural, and political…

  14. Barriers to Accessing Services for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Marian E.; Perrigo, Judith L.; Banda, Tanya Y.; Matic, Tamara; Goldfarb, Fran D.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates barriers to accessing services for children under age 3 presenting with language delays and behavioral difficulties, including language barriers for Spanish-speaking families. Using a telephone script, researchers called 30 agencies in Los Angeles County, including regional centers (the state network of Part C agencies for…

  15. Diffusion barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolet, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    The choice of the metallic film for the contact to a semiconductor device is discussed. One way to try to stabilize a contact is by interposing a thin film of a material that has low diffusivity for the atoms in question. This thin film application is known as a diffusion barrier. Three types of barriers can be distinguished. The stuffed barrier derives its low atomic diffusivity to impurities that concentrate along the extended defects of a polycrystalline layer. Sacrificial barriers exploit the fact that some (elemental) thin films react in a laterally uniform and reproducible fashion. Sacrificial barriers have the advantage that the point of their failure is predictable. Passive barriers are those most closely approximating an ideal barrier. The most-studied case is that of sputtered TiN films. Stuffed barriers may be viewed as passive barriers whose low diffusivity material extends along the defects of the polycrystalline host.

  16. The Language Situation in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouega, Jean-Paul

    2007-01-01

    This monograph examines the language situation in Cameroon, a Central African country where fewer than 20 million people speak close to 250 languages. Specifically, the monograph addresses the issues of language use and spread, language policy and planning, and language maintenance and prospects. The study is divided into five parts. The…

  17. "Do you expect me to receive PTSD care in a setting where most of the other patients remind me of the perpetrator?": Home-based telemedicine to address barriers to care unique to military sexual trauma and veterans affairs hospitals.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Amanda K; Davis, Margaret T; Grubaugh, Anouk; Resnick, Heidi; Birks, Anna; Denier, Carol; Muzzy, Wendy; Tuerk, Peter; Acierno, Ron

    2016-05-01

    Home-based telemedicine (HBT) is a validated method of evidence-based treatment delivery for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and justification for its use has centered on closing gaps related to provider availability and distance to treatment centers. However, another potential use of HBT may be to overcome barriers to care that are inherent to the treatment environment, such as with female veterans who have experienced military sexual trauma (MST) and who must present to VA Medical Centers where the majority of patients share features with perpetrator (e.g. gender, clothing) and may function as reminders of the trauma. Delivering evidence-based therapies to female veterans with MST-related PTSD via HBT can provide needed treatment to this population. This manuscript describes an ongoing federally funded randomized controlled trial comparing Prolonged Exposure (PE) delivered in-person to PE delivered via HBT. Outcomes include session attendance, satisfaction with services, and clinical and quality of life indices. It is hypothesized that based on intent-to-treat analyses, HBT delivery of PE will be more effective than SD at improving both clinical and quality of life outcomes at post, 3-, and 6-month follow-up. This is because 'dose received', that is fewer sessions missed, and lower attrition, will be observed in the HBT group. Although the current manuscript focuses on female veterans with MST-related PTSD, implications for other populations facing systemic barriers are discussed.

  18. Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Borns, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier.

  19. Medical language proficiency: A discussion of interprofessional language competencies and potential for patient risk.

    PubMed

    Hull, Melodie

    2016-02-01

    In increasingly multilingual healthcare environments worldwide, ensuring accurate, effective communication is requisite. Language proficiency is essential, particularly medical language proficiency. Medical language is a universal construct in healthcare, the shared language of health and allied health professions. It is highly evolved, career-specific, technical and cultural-bound-a language for specific purposes. Its function differs significantly from that of a standard language. Proficiency requires at minimum, a common understanding of discipline-specific jargon, abstracts, euphemisms, abbreviations; acronyms. An optimal medical language situation demands a level of competency beyond the superficial wherein one can convey or interpret deeper meanings, distinguish themes, voice opinion, and follow directions precisely. It necessitates the use of clarity, and the ability to understand both lay and formal language-characteristics not essential to standard language. Proficiency influences professional discourse and can have the potential to positively or negatively affect patient outcomes. While risks have been identified when there is language discordance between care provider and patient, almost nothing has been said about this within care teams themselves. This article will do so in anticipation that care providers, regulators, employers, and researchers will acknowledge potential language-based communication barriers and work towards resolutions. This is predicated on the fact that the growing interest in language and communication in healthcare today appears to be rested in globalization and increasingly linguistically diverse patient populations. Consideration of the linguistically diverse healthcare workforce is absent. An argument will be posited that if potential risks to patient safety exist and there are potentials for disengagement from care by patients when health providers do not speak their languages then logically these language-based issues can

  20. Medical language proficiency: A discussion of interprofessional language competencies and potential for patient risk.

    PubMed

    Hull, Melodie

    2016-02-01

    In increasingly multilingual healthcare environments worldwide, ensuring accurate, effective communication is requisite. Language proficiency is essential, particularly medical language proficiency. Medical language is a universal construct in healthcare, the shared language of health and allied health professions. It is highly evolved, career-specific, technical and cultural-bound-a language for specific purposes. Its function differs significantly from that of a standard language. Proficiency requires at minimum, a common understanding of discipline-specific jargon, abstracts, euphemisms, abbreviations; acronyms. An optimal medical language situation demands a level of competency beyond the superficial wherein one can convey or interpret deeper meanings, distinguish themes, voice opinion, and follow directions precisely. It necessitates the use of clarity, and the ability to understand both lay and formal language-characteristics not essential to standard language. Proficiency influences professional discourse and can have the potential to positively or negatively affect patient outcomes. While risks have been identified when there is language discordance between care provider and patient, almost nothing has been said about this within care teams themselves. This article will do so in anticipation that care providers, regulators, employers, and researchers will acknowledge potential language-based communication barriers and work towards resolutions. This is predicated on the fact that the growing interest in language and communication in healthcare today appears to be rested in globalization and increasingly linguistically diverse patient populations. Consideration of the linguistically diverse healthcare workforce is absent. An argument will be posited that if potential risks to patient safety exist and there are potentials for disengagement from care by patients when health providers do not speak their languages then logically these language-based issues can

  1. "What's the Sign for 'Catch 22'?": Barriers to Professional Formation for Deaf Teachers of British Sign Language in the Further Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Lynne; Atherton, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, Qualified Teacher Learning and Skills standards (QTLS) were introduced for all teachers working in UK further education institutions, with the expressed aim of improving professional standards within the sector. British Sign Language (BSL) teaching is largely delivered by deaf native signers through evening classes at local FE colleges,…

  2. Broken English, broken bones? Mechanisms linking language proficiency and occupational health in a Montreal garment factory.

    PubMed

    Premji, Stéphanie; Messing, Karen; Lippel, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Language barriers are often cited as a factor contributing to ethnic inequalities in occupational health; however, little information is available about the mechanisms at play. The authors describe the multiple ways in which language influences occupational health in a large garment factory employing many immigrants in Montreal. Between 2004 and 2006, individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 women and 10 men from 14 countries of birth. Interviews were conducted in French and English, Canada's official languages, as well as in non-official languages with the help of colleague-interpreters. Observation within the workplace was also carried out at various times during the project. The authors describe how proficiency in the official languages influences occupational health by affecting workers' ability to understand and communicate information, and supporting relationships that can affect work-related health. They also describe workers' strategies to address communication barriers and discuss the implications of these strategies from an occupational health standpoint. Along with the longer-term objectives of integrating immigrants into the linguistic majority and addressing structural conditions that can affect health, policies and practices need to be put in place to protect the health and well-being of those who face language barriers in the short term. PMID:18341120

  3. Broken English, broken bones? Mechanisms linking language proficiency and occupational health in a Montreal garment factory.

    PubMed

    Premji, Stéphanie; Messing, Karen; Lippel, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Language barriers are often cited as a factor contributing to ethnic inequalities in occupational health; however, little information is available about the mechanisms at play. The authors describe the multiple ways in which language influences occupational health in a large garment factory employing many immigrants in Montreal. Between 2004 and 2006, individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 women and 10 men from 14 countries of birth. Interviews were conducted in French and English, Canada's official languages, as well as in non-official languages with the help of colleague-interpreters. Observation within the workplace was also carried out at various times during the project. The authors describe how proficiency in the official languages influences occupational health by affecting workers' ability to understand and communicate information, and supporting relationships that can affect work-related health. They also describe workers' strategies to address communication barriers and discuss the implications of these strategies from an occupational health standpoint. Along with the longer-term objectives of integrating immigrants into the linguistic majority and addressing structural conditions that can affect health, policies and practices need to be put in place to protect the health and well-being of those who face language barriers in the short term.

  4. [Vascular endothelial Barrier Function].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A N; Puchinyan, D M; Norkin, I A

    2015-01-01

    Endothelium is an important regulator of selective permeability of the vascular wall for different molecules and cells. This review summarizes current data on endothelial barrier function. Endothelial glycocalyx structure, its function and role in the molecular transport and leukocytes migration across the endothelial barrier are discussed. The mechanisms of transcellular transport of macromolecules and cell migration through endothelial cells are reviewed. Special section of this article addresses the structure and function of tight and adherens endothelial junction, as well as their importance for the regulation of paracellular transport across the endothelial barrier. Particular attention is paid to the signaling mechanism of endothelial barrier function regulation and the factors that influence on the vascular permeability.

  5. Teaching Modern Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, G., Ed.

    Key areas of modern language teaching are addressed in 10 articles. In addition to a general overview of methods and aims of foreign language teaching, attention is directed to the audiolingual and audiovisual revolution, language study for the slow-learning child and for the child with above average ability, imaginative learning activities for…

  6. Language, Gesture, and Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmorey, Karen, Ed.; Reilly, Judy S., Ed.

    A collection of papers addresses a variety of issues regarding the nature and structure of sign language, gesture, and gesture systems. Articles include: "Theoretical Issues Relating Language, Gesture, and Space: An Overview" (Karen Emmorey, Judy S. Reilly); "Real, Surrogate, and Token Space: Grammatical Consequences in ASL American Sign Language"…

  7. Tailored interventions to overcome identified barriers to change: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Richard; Camosso-Stefinovic, Janette; Gillies, Clare; Shaw, Elizabeth J; Cheater, Francine; Flottorp, Signe; Robertson, Noelle

    2014-01-01

    Background In the previous version of this review, the effectiveness of interventions tailored to barriers to change was found to be uncertain. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions tailored to address identified barriers to change on professional practice or patient outcomes. Search methods For this update, in addition to the EPOC Register and pending files, we searched the following databases without language restrictions, from inception until August 2007: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, BNI and HMIC. We searched the National Research Register to November 2007. We undertook further searches to October 2009 to identify potentially eligible published or ongoing trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions tailored to address prospectively identified barriers to change that reported objectively measured professional practice or healthcare outcomes in which at least one group received an intervention designed to address prospectively identified barriers to change. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers independently assessed quality and extracted data. We undertook quantitative and qualitative analyses. The quantitative analyses had two elements. We carried out a meta-regression to compare interventions tailored to address identified barriers to change with either no interventions or an intervention(s) not tailored to the barriers.We carried out heterogeneity analyses to investigate sources of differences in the effectiveness of interventions. These included the effects of: risk of bias, concealment of allocation, rigour of barrier analysis, use of theory, complexity of interventions, and the reported presence of administrative constraints. Main results We included 26 studies comparing an intervention tailored to address identified barriers to change to no intervention or an intervention(s) not tailored to the barriers. The effect sizes of these studies varied both across and within studies. Twelve studies provided

  8. Vehicle barrier

    DOEpatents

    Hirsh, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    A vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate member and lateral, security fixed vertical pipe posts. The security barrier of the present invention provides for the use of cable restraints across gate openings to provide necessary security while at the same time allowing for quick opening and closing of the gate areas without compromising security.

  9. Barriers to diabetes management: patient and provider factors.

    PubMed

    Nam, Soohyun; Chesla, Catherine; Stotts, Nancy A; Kroon, Lisa; Janson, Susan L

    2011-07-01

    Despite significant advances in diagnosis and treatment, the persistence of inadequate metabolic control continues. Poor glycemic control may be reflected by both the failure of diabetes self-management by patients as well as inadequate intervention strategies by clinicians. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize existing knowledge regarding various barriers of diabetes management from the perspectives of both patients and clinicians. A search of PubMed, CINAHL, ERIC, and PsycINFO identified 1454 articles in English published between 1990 and 2009, addressing type 2 diabetes, patient's barriers, clinician's barriers, and self-management. Patients' adherence, attitude, beliefs, and knowledge about diabetes may affect diabetes self-management. Culture and language capabilities influence the patient's health beliefs, attitudes, health literacy, thereby affecting diabetes self-management. Other influential factors include the patient's financial resources, co-morbidities, and social support. Clinician's attitude, beliefs and knowledge about diabetes also influence diabetes management. Clinicians may further influence the patient's perception through effective communication skills and by having a well-integrated health care system. Identifying barriers to diabetes management is necessary to improve the quality of diabetes care, including the improvement of metabolic control, and diabetes self-management. Further research that considers these barriers is necessary for developing interventions for individuals with type 2 diabetes.

  10. Microbial barriers.

    PubMed

    Gutwein, Luke G; Panigrahi, Mousumee; Schultz, Gregory S; Mast, Bruce A

    2012-07-01

    Barrier wound therapy is commonplace in the health care environment and functions to limit bacterial colonization and infection in both acute wounds and recalcitrant chronic wounds. This article reviews the nature of acute and chronic wounds and their available adjunctive barrier therapies.

  11. Language Teaching=Linguistic Imperialism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhlhausler, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Linguistic imperialism is the expansion of a small number of privileged languages at the cost of a large number of others. The language teaching profession needs to address the ecological impact of language teaching and focus on the well-being of the inhabitants of a language ecology rather than on the economic benefits of the teaching…

  12. Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelto, E. V.

    1967-01-01

    Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language. This program translates symbolic codes into computer understandable instructions, assigns locations in storage for successive instructions, and computer locations from symbolic addresses.

  13. Value of Web-based learning activities for nursing students who speak English as a second language.

    PubMed

    Koch, Jane; Salamonson, Yenna; Du, Hui Yun; Andrew, Sharon; Frost, Steven A; Dunncliff, Kirstin; Davidson, Patricia M

    2011-07-01

    There is an increasing need to address the educational needs of students with English as a second language. The authors assessed the value of a Web-based activity to meet the needs of students with English as a second language in a bioscience subject. Using telephone contact, we interviewed 21 Chinese students, 24 non-Chinese students with English as a second language, and 7 native English-speaking students to identify the perception of the value of the intervention. Four themes emerged from the qualitative data: (1) Language is a barrier to achievement and affects self-confidence; (2) Enhancement intervention promoted autonomous learning; (3) Focusing on the spoken word increases interaction capacity and self-confidence; (4) Assessment and examination drive receptivity and sense of importance. Targeted strategies to promote language acculturation and acquisition are valued by students. Linking language acquisition skills to assessment tasks is likely to leverage improvements in competence.

  14. Native Women at Risk: Addressing Cancer Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiemann, Kay M. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses outcomes of a conference that brought together representatives from Indian tribes, state health departments, the Indian Health Service, the Mayo Clinic, and the American Cancer Society, to address the high rate of cervical cancer among American Indian women. Describes barriers to health care and plans to promote cancer screening among…

  15. Addressing Passive Smoking in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Sasha G.; Kuijlaars, Jennifer S.; Mesters, Ilse; Muris, Jean W. M.; van Schayck, Constant P.; Dompeling, Edward; Feron, Frans J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background A significant number of parents are unaware or unconvinced of the health consequences of passive smoking (PS) in children. Physicians could increase parental awareness by giving personal advice. Aim To evaluate the current practices of three Dutch health professions (paediatricians, youth health care physicians, and family physicians) regarding parental counselling for passive smoking (PS) in children. Methods All physicians (n = 720) representing the three health professions in Limburg, the Netherlands, received an invitation to complete a self-administered electronic questionnaire including questions on their: sex, work experience, personal smoking habits, counselling practices and education regarding PS in children. Results The response rate was 34%. One tenth (11%) of the responding physicians always addressed PS in children, 32% often, 54% occasionally and 4% reported to never attend to it. The three health professions appeared comparable regarding their frequency of parental counselling for PS in children. Addressing PS was more likely when children had respiratory problems. Lack of time was the most frequently mentioned barrier, being very and somewhat applicable for respectively 14% and 43% of the physicians. One fourth of the responders had received postgraduate education about PS. Additionally, 49% of the responders who did not have any education about PS were interested in receiving it. Conclusions Physicians working in the paediatric field in Limburg, the Netherlands, could more frequently address PS in children with parents. Lack of time appeared to be the most mentioned barrier and physicians were more likely to counsel parents for PS in children with respiratory complaints/diseases. Finally, a need for more education on parental counselling for PS was expressed. PMID:24809443

  16. Facilitators, challenges, and collaborative activities in faith and health partnerships to address health disparities.

    PubMed

    Kegler, Michelle C; Hall, Sarah M; Kiser, Mimi

    2010-10-01

    Interest in partnering with faith-based organizations (FBOs) to address health disparities has grown in recent years. Yet relatively little is known about these types of partnerships. As part of an evaluation of the Institute for Faith and Public Health Collaborations, representatives of 34 faith-health teams (n = 61) completed semi-structured interviews. Interviews were tape recorded, transcribed, and coded by two members of the evaluation team to identify themes. Major facilitators to faith-health collaborative work were passion and commitment, importance of FBOs in communities, favorable political climate, support from community and faith leaders, diversity of teams, and mutual trust and respect. Barriers unique to faith and health collaboration included discomfort with FBOs, distrust of either health agencies or FBOs, diversity within faith communities, different agendas, separation of church and state, and the lack of a common language. Findings suggest that faith-health partnerships face unique challenges but are capable of aligning resources to address health disparities.

  17. Addressing Barriers to Learning. Volume 11, Number 1. Winter 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2006

    2006-01-01

    A major focus at the Center for Mental Health in Schools is on facilitating continuous learning related to mental health and psychosocial concerns in schools, including providing technical assistance and encouraging networking among those working in and with schools. This issue of the quarterly newsletter includes the following features and…

  18. Anthropologists address health equity: recognizing barriers to care

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Systems change is necessary for improving health care in the United States, especially for populations suffering from health disparities. Theoretical and methodological contributions of anthropology to health care design and delivery can inform systems change by providing a window into provider and patient perceptions and practices. Our community-engaged research teams conduct in-depth investigations of provider perceptions of patients, often uncovering gaps between patient and provider perceptions resulting in the degradation of health equity. We present examples of projects where collaborations between anthropologists and health professionals resulted in actionable data on functioning and malfunctioning systemic momentum toward efforts to eliminate disparities and support wellness. PMID:27158189

  19. Recognizing and Addressing the Barriers to Adolescents' "Reading Like Historians"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nokes, Jeffery D.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing body of research investigating how historians read, how children and adolescents read historical materials, and how teachers attempt to help adolescents read like historians. This research suggests that historians, unlike students, are unusually skillful readers employing several heuristics to construct…

  20. Addressing Barriers to Learning. Volume 12, Number 2. Spring 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Federal policies of parental involvement and community participation continue to be more rhetorical than meaningful; more theoretical than practical; an afterthought rather than a forethought; and they take a back seat to the more bureaucratic and technical elements of public education change and reform, especially testing and assessment. This…

  1. Variable addressability imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubala, Kenneth Scott

    The use of variable addressability for creating an optimum human-machine interface is investigated. Current wide field optical systems present more information to the human visual system than it has the capacity to perceive. The axial resolution, and/or the field of view can be increased by minimizing the difference between what the eye can perceive and what the system presents. The variable addressability function was developed through the use of a human factors experiment that characterized the position of the eye during the simulated use of a binocular system. Applying the variable addressability function to a conventional optical design required the development of a new metric for evaluating the expected performance of the variable addressability system. The new metric couples psycho-visual data and traditional optical data in order to specify the required performance of the variable addressability system. A non-linear mapping of the pixels is required in order to have the system work most efficiently with the human visual system, while also compensating for eye motion. The non-linear mapping function, which is the backbone of the variable addressability technique, can be created using optical distortion. The lens and system design is demonstrated in two different spectral bands. One of the designs was fabricated, tested, and assembled into a prototype. Through a second human factors study aimed at measuring performance, the variable addressability prototype was directly compared to a uniform addressability prototype, quantifying the difference in performance for the two prototypes. The human factors results showed that the variable addressability prototype provided better resolution 13% of the time throughout the experiment, but was 15% slower in use than the uniform addressability prototype.

  2. Language Contact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  3. Language and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jack C., Ed.; Schmidt, Richard W., Ed.

    A collection of essays addresses the connection between the study of communication and its sociocultural contexts and the approach to second language teaching based on the concept of communicative competence. Essays include: "From Communicative Competence to Communicative Language Pedagogy" (Michael Canale); "The Domain of Pragmatics" (Bruce…

  4. Barrier infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyniuk, P.; Kopytko, M.; Rogalski, A.

    2014-06-01

    In 1959, Lawson and co-workers publication triggered development of variable band gap Hg1-xCdxTe (HgCdTe) alloys providing an unprecedented degree of freedom in infrared detector design. Over the five decades, this material system has successfully fought off major challenges from different material systems, but despite that it has more competitors today than ever before. It is interesting however, that none of these competitors can compete in terms of fundamental properties. They may promise to be more manufacturable, but never to provide higher performance or, with the exception of thermal detectors, to operate at higher temperatures. In the last two decades a several new concepts of photodetectors to improve their performance have been proposed including trapping detectors, barrier detectors, unipolar barrier photodiodes, and multistage detectors. This paper describes the present status of infrared barrier detectors. It is especially addressed to the group of III-V compounds including type-II superlattice materials, although HgCdTe barrier detectors are also included. It seems to be clear that certain of these solutions have merged as a real competitions of HgCdTe photodetectors.

  5. Third Language through First Language--Shifting the Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Aijaz; Hafeez, Muhammad Rashid

    2007-01-01

    The paper addresses a key issue in language planning of the third world countries, specifically Pakistan, a country that remained under the shackles of Colonialism till 1947. But, still the country does not have a clear cut language policy. Being richly multilingual and multicultural, it had to cope with the problem of a second language, the…

  6. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  7. Bilingual Education for All: Latino Dual Language Learners with Language Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Gutiérrez-Clellen, Vera F.

    2014-01-01

    There has been a growing concern about how best to address the needs of dual language learners with language impairments. Most dual language programmes have been evaluated with children with typical language development (TLD) and as a result, very little is known about the effect of these programmes on children with language disabilities. The…

  8. World Languages at Richland College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mittelstet, Stephen K.

    1999-01-01

    Describes how Richland College, Texas, created a division of world languages to address the contemporary language acquisition of an increasingly diverse student body, noting the importance of today's students studying languages to prepare for tomorrow's global marketplace. The paper discusses changing student markets, fiscal support and staffing…

  9. Kaqchikel Maya Language Analysis Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy de Pappa, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to study the linguistic features of Kaqchikel, a Mayan language currently spoken in Guatemala and increasingly in the United States, in an effort to better prepare teachers of English as a second language (ESL) or English as a foreign language (EFL) to address the distinct needs of a frequently neglected and…

  10. Sign Language Web Pages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fels, Deborah I.; Richards, Jan; Hardman, Jim; Lee, Daniel G.

    2006-01-01

    The World Wide Web has changed the way people interact. It has also become an important equalizer of information access for many social sectors. However, for many people, including some sign language users, Web accessing can be difficult. For some, it not only presents another barrier to overcome but has left them without cultural equality. The…

  11. On Discrimination in Chinese and English Indirect Addressings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Lianbing

    2013-01-01

    One of the fundamental usages of language is to address each other. As a socialized product, language is bound to transfer its users' intention, the examination of which will have to be based on the absence of either the addressor or the addressee, or even the both. In the process of social development, there exists discrimination between…

  12. Group caregiver language checklist.

    PubMed

    Pearson, M E; Shelton, D; Pearson, A A; Miller, M

    1992-01-01

    Because young children with language disabilities frequently are placed in group-care settings, there is a need to make judgments concerning the language environment of those settings. The GCLC is offered as one procedure for assessment of the language environment provided by the caregiver(s) in a group setting. The assessment provides information that may assist in matching the environment to a particular child's needs and may provide a basis for assisting caregivers in improving the language environment and addressing a child's needs. The authors welcome comments from the readers.

  13. Forum: The Language Barrier: A Hidden Prejudice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasser, Bonnie L.

    1980-01-01

    The author, a tutor and adoptive mother of non-English-speaking children, warns teachers against unconsciously talking down to non-English-speaking students or treating them as stupid. Stressing the importance of cultural respect and nonverbal communication, she gives tips for acclimatizing the foreign child to the American classroom. (SJL)

  14. Overcoming language barriers when teaching interprofessional groups.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Jeanette

    2012-10-01

    The author of this article undertook a small qualitative study of the best way to prepare unscheduled care staff for team-based delivery of patient care. The study was intended to highlight problems in interprofessional training courses so that guidelines for the delivery of such courses can be developed. The findings show that trainers cannot assume that all participants in training courses understand the terminology used. This article discusses this finding further.

  15. Bridging Language Barriers in Multilingual Care Encounters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansson, Gunilla

    2014-01-01

    The present case study demonstrates how the multilingual practices of a linguistically diverse workforce contribute to the functioning of a modern workplace. Based on ethnographic fieldwork and recordings in a residential home for elderly people with dementia in Sweden, the article explores how multilingual immigrant care workers creatively use…

  16. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  17. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  18. Western Wind Strategy: Addressing Critical Issues for Wind Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Larson; Thomas Carr

    2012-03-30

    The goal of the Western Wind Strategy project was to help remove critical barriers to wind development in the Western Interconnection. The four stated objectives of this project were to: (1) identify the barriers, particularly barriers to the operational integration of renewables and barriers identified by load-serving entities (LSEs) that will be buying wind generation, (2) communicate the barriers to state officials, (3) create a collaborative process to address those barriers with the Western states, utilities and the renewable industry, and (4) provide a role model for other regions. The project has been on the forefront of identifying and informing state policy makers and utility regulators of critical issues related to wind energy and the integration of variable generation. The project has been a critical component in the efforts of states to push forward important reforms and innovations that will enable states to meet their renewable energy goals and lower the cost to consumers of integrating variable generation.

  19. Language Revitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Leanne

    2003-01-01

    Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)

  20. Barrier Formation

    PubMed Central

    Lyaruu, D.M.; Medina, J.F.; Sarvide, S.; Bervoets, T.J.M.; Everts, V.; DenBesten, P.; Smith, C.E.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Enamel fluorosis is an irreversible structural enamel defect following exposure to supraoptimal levels of fluoride during amelogenesis. We hypothesized that fluorosis is associated with excess release of protons during formation of hypermineralized lines in the mineralizing enamel matrix. We tested this concept by analyzing fluorotic enamel defects in wild-type mice and mice deficient in anion exchanger-2a,b (Ae2a,b), a transmembrane protein in maturation ameloblasts that exchanges extracellular Cl− for bicarbonate. Defects were more pronounced in fluorotic Ae2a,b−/− mice than in fluorotic heterozygous or wild-type mice. Phenotypes included a hypermineralized surface, extensive subsurface hypomineralization, and multiple hypermineralized lines in deeper enamel. Mineral content decreased in all fluoride-exposed and Ae2a,b−/− mice and was strongly correlated with Cl−. Exposure of enamel surfaces underlying maturation-stage ameloblasts to pH indicator dyes suggested the presence of diffusion barriers in fluorotic enamel. These results support the concept that fluoride stimulates hypermineralization at the mineralization front. This causes increased release of protons, which ameloblasts respond to by secreting more bicarbonates at the expense of Cl− levels in enamel. The fluoride-induced hypermineralized lines may form barriers that impede diffusion of proteins and mineral ions into the subsurface layers, thereby delaying biomineralization and causing retention of enamel matrix proteins. PMID:24170372

  1. Language matters: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Leap, William L; Provencher, Denis M

    2011-01-01

    That language and sexuality are closely connected is one of the enduring themes in human sexuality research. The articles in this special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality explore some of these language-centered insights as they apply to same-sex related desires, identities, and practices and to other dimensions of non-normative sexual experiences. The articles address language use over a range of geographic and social locations. The linguistic practices discussed are diverse, including the language associated with Santería, comments viewers make about gay pornography, homophobic discourse, coming out stories, stories where declarations of sexual identity are tacitly withheld, sexual messages in Black hip hop culture, assessments of urban AIDS ministries, and policies that limit transgender subjects' access to urban space. Taken together, these articles demonstrate that language matters in the everyday experience of sexual sameness and they model some of the approaches that are now being explored in language and sexuality studies. PMID:21740206

  2. Language matters: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Leap, William L; Provencher, Denis M

    2011-01-01

    That language and sexuality are closely connected is one of the enduring themes in human sexuality research. The articles in this special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality explore some of these language-centered insights as they apply to same-sex related desires, identities, and practices and to other dimensions of non-normative sexual experiences. The articles address language use over a range of geographic and social locations. The linguistic practices discussed are diverse, including the language associated with Santería, comments viewers make about gay pornography, homophobic discourse, coming out stories, stories where declarations of sexual identity are tacitly withheld, sexual messages in Black hip hop culture, assessments of urban AIDS ministries, and policies that limit transgender subjects' access to urban space. Taken together, these articles demonstrate that language matters in the everyday experience of sexual sameness and they model some of the approaches that are now being explored in language and sexuality studies.

  3. Global-Address Space Networking (GASNet) Library

    2011-04-06

    GASNet (Global-Address Space Networking) is a language-independent, low-level networking layer that provides network-independent, high-performance communication primitives tailored for implementing parallel global address space SPMD languages such as UPC and Titanium. The interface is primarily intended as a compilation target and for use by runtime library writers (as opposed to end users), and the primary goals are high performance, interface portability, and expressiveness. GASNet is designed specifically to support high-performance, portable implementations of global address spacemore » languages on modern high-end communication networks. The interface provides the flexibility and extensibility required to express a wide variety of communication patterns without sacrificing performance by imposing large computational overheads in the interface. The design of the GASNet interface is partitioned into two layers to maximize porting ease without sacrificing performance: the lower level is a narrow but very general interface called the GASNet core API - the design is basedheavily on Active Messages, and is implemented directly on top of each individual network architecture. The upper level is a wider and more expressive interface called GASNet extended API, which provides high-level operations such as remote memory access and various collective operations. This release implements GASNet over MPI, the Quadrics "elan" API, the Myrinet "GM" API and the "LAPI" interface to the IBM SP switch. A template is provided for adding support for additional network interfaces.« less

  4. Social barriers to listing for adult liver transplantation: their prevalence and association with program characteristics.

    PubMed

    Flattau, Anna; Olaywi, Manhal; Gaglio, Paul J; Marcus, Paula; Meissner, Paul; L Dorfman, Emily B; Reinus, John F

    2011-10-01

    Social barriers to effective medical care are mandated to be routinely assessed as part of an evaluation for liver transplantation. This study explores how frequently liver transplant programs encounter these barriers in patients undergoing an evaluation and whether programs with higher proportions of Medicaid patients, historically disadvantaged minority patients, and rural patients encounter social barriers more frequently. A survey for assessing patient demographics and social barriers was electronically completed by representatives of 61 of 104 eligible US adult liver transplant programs (59%). Fifty-eight of the 61 programs identified themselves, and their characteristics were similar to those of all 104 US programs according to publicly available data from the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network. Social barriers were reported to be encountered sometimes (10%-30%) or frequently (>30%) by the 61 programs as follows: inadequate or unstable health insurance (68.9% of the programs), a chaotic social environment (63.9%), a lack of a care partner (60.7%), an inability to obtain transportation (49.2%), a low educational level (36.1%), inadequate housing (23.0%), a language barrier (19.7%), no reliable way of contacting the patient (16.4%), difficulty in obtaining child care (11.5%), and food insecurity (8.2%). The frequencies of perceived social barriers did not differ significantly between programs reporting higher or lower proportions of Medicaid, minority, or rural patients. Our analysis suggests that program-level operational planning for addressing social barriers to transplant listing should be considered regardless of the proportions of Medicaid-insured, racial or ethnic minority, and rural patients in the population.

  5. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  6. What Prevents Quality Midwifery Care? A Systematic Mapping of Barriers in Low and Middle Income Countries from the Provider Perspective

    PubMed Central

    McConville, Fran; Portela, Anayda

    2016-01-01

    Background Quality of care is essential for further progress in reducing maternal and newborn deaths. The integration of educated, trained, regulated and licensed midwives into the health system is associated with improved quality of care and sustained decreases in maternal and newborn mortality. To date, research on barriers to quality of care for women and newborns has not given due attention to the care provider’s perspective. This paper addresses this gap by presenting the findings of a systematic mapping of the literature of the social, economic and professional barriers preventing midwifery personnel in low and middle income countries (LMICs) from providing quality of care. Methods and Findings A systematic search of five electronic databases for literature published between January 1990 and August 2013. Eligible items included published and unpublished items in all languages. Items were screened against inclusion and exclusion criteria, yielding 82 items from 34 countries. 44% discussed countries or regions in Africa, 38% in Asia, and 5% in the Americas. Nearly half the articles were published since 2011. Data was extracted and presented in a narrative synthesis and tables. Items were organized into three categories; social; economic and professional barriers, based on an analytical framework. Barriers connected to the socially and culturally constructed context of childbirth, although least reported, appear instrumental in preventing quality midwifery care. Conclusions Significant social and cultural, economic and professional barriers can prevent the provision of quality midwifery care in LMICs. An analytical framework is proposed to show how the overlaps between the barriers reinforce each other, and that they arise from gender inequality. Links are made between burn out and moral distress, caused by the barriers, and poor quality care. Ongoing mechanisms to improve quality care will need to address the barriers from the midwifery provider perspective

  7. Language Development and Language Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Lois; Lahey, Margaret

    This book provides a synthesis of research findings in normal language development as well as a practical approach to the evaluation and treatment of children with language disorders. Its 21 chapters are divided into six topical sections: language description, normal language development, deviant language development, goals of language learning…

  8. Address Pronouns in French: Variation within and outside the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jane

    2006-01-01

    This article examines speakers' perceptions of and attitudes towards address pronoun usage in Paris and Toulouse. The data on which this article is based come from a comparative project based at the University of Melbourne, "Address in some western European languages, and were generated in focus groups in both Paris and Toulouse, as well as…

  9. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  10. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  11. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  12. Amenagement et politique linguistques: La politique des langues au Benin (Language Management and Language Policy: The Politics of Language in Benin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halaoui, Nazam

    2001-01-01

    Distinguishing between language management and language policy, examines the politics of language in Benin from independence to the present. Describes the politics of language in Dahomey, the early policies of Benin, and the Republican politics of language, arising from the national constitutional convention and striving to address the needs of…

  13. Beyond Language in Indigenous Language Immersion Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stairs, Arlene; Peters, Margaret; Perkins, Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    The Akwesasne Freedom School, on the Akwesasne Mohawk reservation (New York and Canada), is an independent immersion school that preserves not only the Mohawk language but also socialization patterns, styles of interpersonal relations, ethical principles, and aesthetic sensibilities. The curriculum is based on the Iroquoian Thanksgiving Address,…

  14. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  15. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  16. Psychology of Success: Overcoming Barriers to Pursuing Further Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goto, Stanford T.; Martin, Connie

    2009-01-01

    Of the many barriers that prevent adults from continuing their education, psychological barriers are least often addressed by educators. This is an important area of concern because psychological factors influence how prospective students respond to other barriers. This qualitative study was conducted to describe how adults negotiate…

  17. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  18. Bax: Addressed to kill.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Manon, Stéphen

    2011-09-01

    The pro-apoptototic protein Bax (Bcl-2 Associated protein X) plays a central role in the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. In healthy mammalian cells, Bax is essentially cytosolic and inactive. Following a death signal, the protein is translocated to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it promotes a permeabilization that favors the release of different apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c. The regulation of Bax translocation is associated to conformational changes that are under the control of different factors. The evidences showing the involvement of different Bax domains in its mitochondrial localization are presented. The interactions between Bax and its different partners are described in relation to their ability to promote (or prevent) Bax conformational changes leading to mitochondrial addressing and to the acquisition of the capacity to permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:21641962

  19. Language universals at birth.

    PubMed

    Gómez, David Maximiliano; Berent, Iris; Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Bion, Ricardo A H; Cattarossi, Luigi; Nespor, Marina; Mehler, Jacques

    2014-04-22

    The evolution of human languages is driven both by primitive biases present in the human sensorimotor systems and by cultural transmission among speakers. However, whether the design of the language faculty is further shaped by linguistic biological biases remains controversial. To address this question, we used near-infrared spectroscopy to examine whether the brain activity of neonates is sensitive to a putatively universal phonological constraint. Across languages, syllables like blif are preferred to both lbif and bdif. Newborn infants (2-5 d old) listening to these three types of syllables displayed distinct hemodynamic responses in temporal-perisylvian areas of their left hemisphere. Moreover, the oxyhemoglobin concentration changes elicited by a syllable type mirrored both the degree of its preference across languages and behavioral linguistic preferences documented experimentally in adulthood. These findings suggest that humans possess early, experience-independent, linguistic biases concerning syllable structure that shape language perception and acquisition.

  20. Language Management Theory as a Basis for the Dynamic Concept of EU Language Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovalil, Vít

    2015-01-01

    Language law is a tool used to manage problems of linguistic diversity in the EU. The paper analyzes the processes in which language law is found in the discursive practice of agents addressing the Court of Justice of the European Union with their language problems. The theoretical-methodological basis for the research is Language Management…

  1. Family Treasures: A Dual-Language Book Project for Negotiating Language, Literacy, Culture, and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessingh, Hetty

    2011-01-01

    This article advances a framework for early language and literacy development among young English language learners (ELLs). A dual-language book project undertaken in partnership with a local elementary school provides a context within which to address children's need to negotiate language, culture, and identity as they transition and make meaning…

  2. Language Learner Strategy Research and Modern Foreign Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenfell, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses language learner strategy research in the context of second language learning and teaching in the UK. It arises from two sources: firstly, a personal background in research and writing about language learner strategy research in the context of modern foreign language learning and teaching in England and Wales; secondly, a…

  3. Understanding the Relationship between Language Proficiency, Language Impairment and Rehabilitation: Evidence from a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiran, Swathi; Iakupova, Regina

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to address the relationship between language proficiency, language impairment and rehabilitation in bilingual Russian-English individuals with aphasia. As a first step, we examined two Russian-English patients' pre-stroke language proficiency using a detailed and comprehensive language use and history questionnaire and…

  4. Overcoming Barriers to Shared Decision Making

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Heart area Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) ... to interfere with your daily life, you may benefit from counseling, medication or both. Barrier: Difficulty understanding ...

  5. The Social and Political Consequences of Language Planning in Mozambique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passanisi, Douglas J.; Wolf, W. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of language planning focuses on a study that addressed the effects of the introduction of Portuguese as the official language by the newly independent government of Mozambique on a target audience that spoke eight various other languages. Relationships between national language policies and popular language usage are discussed. (37…

  6. Systematic Review and Meta-study Synthesis of Qualitative Studies Evaluating Facilitators and Barriers to Participation in Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Honein-AbouHaidar, Gladys N; Kastner, Monika; Vuong, Vincent; Perrier, Laure; Daly, Corinne; Rabeneck, Linda; Straus, Sharon; Baxter, Nancy N

    2016-06-01

    Screening reduces the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of colorectal cancer, yet participation tends to be low. We undertook a systematic review and meta-study synthesis of qualitative studies to identify facilitators and barriers to colorectal cancer screening participation. We searched major bibliographic databases for records published in all languages from inception to February 2015. Included primary studies that elicited views and perceptions towards colorectal cancer screening were appraised for relevance and quality. We used a two-stage synthesis to create an interpretation of colorectal cancer screening decisions grounded in primary studies; a thematic analysis to group themes and systematically compare studies and a meta-synthesis to generate an expanded theory of colorectal cancer screening participation. Ninety-four studies were included. The decision to participate in colorectal cancer screening depended on an individual's awareness of colorectal cancer screening. Awareness affected views of cancer, attitudes towards colorectal cancer screening modalities, and motivation for screening. Factors mediating awareness included public education to address misconceptions, primary care physician efforts to recommend screening, and the influence of friends and family. Specific barriers to participation in populations with lower participation rates included language barriers, logistical challenges to attending screening tests, and cultural beliefs. This study identifies key barriers, facilitators, and mediators to colorectal cancer screening participation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(6); 907-17. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197277

  7. Healthcare Communication Barriers and Self-Rated Health in Older Chinese American Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Tsoh, Janice Y; Sentell, Tetine; Gildengorin, Ginny; Le, Gem M; Chan, Elaine; Fung, Lei-Chun; Pasick, Rena J; Stewart, Susan; Wong, Ching; Woo, Kent; Burke, Adam; Wang, Jun; McPhee, Stephen J; Nguyen, Tung T

    2016-08-01

    Older Chinese immigrants are a growing population in the United States who experience multiple healthcare communication barriers such as limited English proficiency and low health literacy. Each of these obstacles has been associated with poor health outcomes but less is known about their effects in combination. This study examined the association between healthcare communication barriers and self-rated health among older Chinese immigrants. Cross-sectional survey data were obtained from 705 Chinese American immigrants ages 50-75 living in San Francisco, California. Communication barriers examined included spoken English proficiency, medical interpreter needs, and health literacy in written health information. The study sample (81 % females, mean age = 62) included 67 % who spoke English poorly or not at all, 34 % who reported needing a medical interpreter, and 37 % who reported "often" or "always" needing assistance to read health information. Two-thirds reported poor self-rated health; many reported having access to racial-concordant (74 %) and language-concordant (86 %) healthcare services. Both poor spoken English proficiency and low health literacy were associated with poor self-rated health, independent of other significant correlates (unemployment, chronic health conditions, and having a primary doctor who was ethnic Chinese). Results revealed that spoken English proficiency and print health literacy are independent communication barriers that are directly associated with health status among elderly Chinese American immigrants. Access to racial- or language-concordant health care services did not appear to resolve these barriers. These findings underscore the importance of addressing both spoken and written healthcare communication needs among older Chinese American immigrants.

  8. Issues in Designing and Implementing a Spanish-Language Multi-Site Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Suarez-Morales, Lourdes; Matthews, Julie; Martino, Steve; Ball, Samuel A.; Rosa, Carmen; Farentinos, Christine; Szapocznik, José; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    To address at least in part health disparities in Hispanic populations, the NIDA Clinical Trials Network implemented the first multi-site randomized clinical trial of substance abuse treatment conducted entirely in Spanish. This trial was intended to evaluate the effectiveness of Motivational Enhancement Therapy in a diverse population of Hispanics. In the conduct of this trial, several barriers to the successful implementation of a Spanish-language multi-site trial had to be addressed, including the appropriate translation of assessment instruments, shortage of appropriately trained Spanish-speaking clinical staff, and barriers to recruitment and retention of this population. To encourage similar research, strategies are described that were developed by the study team to meet these challenges. PMID:17612825

  9. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  10. Barriers to HIV Cure.

    PubMed

    Stein, J; Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann, M; Streeck, H

    2016-10-01

    Since the beginning of the epidemic, more than 70 million people have been infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and about 38 million have died from acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related illnesses. While the discovery of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the mid 90's has saved millions of lives, a complete eradication of HIV is still not possible as HIV can persist for decades in a small reservoir of latently infected cells. Once reactivated, these latently infected cells can actively produce viral particles. Recent studies suggest that several sanctuaries exist within infected individuals where HIV can remain undetected by the immune system. These cellular, anatomical and microanatomical viral reservoirs represent a major obstacle for the eradication of HIV. Here we review recent findings on potential sanctuaries of HIV and address potential avenues to overcome these immunological barriers. PMID:27620852

  11. Thermal barrier coatings

    DOEpatents

    Alvin, Mary Anne

    2010-06-22

    This disclosure addresses the issue of providing a metallic-ceramic overlay coating that potentially serves as an interface or bond coat layer to provide enhanced oxidation resistance to the underlying superalloy substrate via the formation of a diffusion barrier regime within the supporting base material. Furthermore, the metallic-ceramic coating is expected to limit the growth of a continuous thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer that has been primarily considered to be the principal cause for failure of existing TBC systems. Compositional compatibility of the metallic-ceramic with traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats is provided to further limit debond or spallation of the coating during operational use. A metallic-ceramic architecture is disclosed wherein enhanced oxidation resistance is imparted to the surface of nickel-based superalloy or single crystal metal substrate, with simultaneous integration of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) within the metallic-ceramic overlayer.

  12. Literature review: issues surrounding education of English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) nursing students.

    PubMed

    Choi, Liza Lai Shan

    2005-07-01

    Examined in this article are the challenges faced by English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) nursing students. Nursing faculties need to address these challenges to meet the increasing diversity of the health care system. A key concern is the ability of ESL nursing students to communicate effectively in English. The Cummins model for English language acquisition provides a template for ESL nursing students to bridge this communication barrier. The literature suggests some particular needs of ESL nursing students can be met through modification of nursing programs. Further research into factors affecting the quality of nursing education for ESL students is warranted. A quantitative analysis is required to see if there exists a positive correlation between improved English language acquisition and academic success by ESL nursing students.

  13. Teaching Language through Culture and Culture through Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somova, Svetlana

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of teaching foreign languages through culture and culture through language study. Addresses how the textbooks used to study English by Russian students must focus more on the needs of Russian students. Summarizes the findings from a survey demonstrating that Russian students' knowledge of U.S. culture originates from…

  14. Language Endangerment and Language Revival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhlhausler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Reviews and discusses the following books: "Language Death," by David Crystal; "The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice," by Leanne Hinton; and "Vanishing Voices of the World's Languages," by David Nettle. (Author/VWL)

  15. Addressing psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Woody, G E; McLellan, A T; O'Brien, C P; Luborsky, L

    1991-01-01

    Research studies indicate that addressing psychiatric comorbidity can improve treatment for selected groups of substance-abusing patients. However, the chances for implementing the necessary techniques on a large scale are compromised by the absence of professional input and guidance within programs. This is especially true in public programs, which treat some of the most disadvantaged, disturbed, and socially destructive individuals in the entire mental health system. One starting point for upgrading the level of knowledge and training of staff members who work in this large treatment system could be to develop a better and more authoritative information dissemination network. Such a system exists in medicine; physicians are expected to read appropriate journals and to guide their treatment decisions using the data contained in the journals. Standards of practice and methods for modifying current practice are within the tradition of reading new facts, studying old ones, and comparing treatment outcome under different conditions with what is actually being done. No such general system of information-gathering or -sharing exists, particularly in public treatment programs. One of the most flagrant examples of this "educational shortfall" can be found among those methadone programs that adamantly insist on prescribing no more than 30 to 35 mg/day for all patients, in spite of the overwhelming evidence that these dose levels generally are inadequate. In some cases, program directors are unaware of studies that have shown the relationship between dose and outcome. In other cases, they are aware of the studies but do not modify their practices accordingly. This example of inadequate dosing is offered as an example of one situation that could be improved by adherence to a system of authoritative and systematic information dissemination. Many issues in substance abuse treatment do not lend themselves to information dissemination as readily as that of methadone dosing

  16. An Empirical Investigation into Programming Language Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefik, Andreas; Siebert, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in the literature have shown that syntax remains a significant barrier to novice computer science students in the field. While this syntax barrier is known to exist, whether and how it varies across programming languages has not been carefully investigated. For this article, we conducted four empirical studies on programming…

  17. Thermal barrier research

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, K.G.

    1990-03-07

    The thermal barrier region in the TARA device is a complex arrangement combining ion-plugging by sloshing ions with an ECRH-generated thermal barrier plasma. An axisymmetric, high-mirror-ratio magnetic field, adjacent to the central cell, provides the confinement of the thermal barrier plasma and sloshing ions. This paper discusses research being done in this thermal barrier region.

  18. Language Attrition Research: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltens, Bert; Cohen, Andrew D.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews key issues generally addressed in studies of language attrition, including the effects of instructional methods on long-term retention, the effects of proficiency level on attrition, attrition's different effects on various language skills, typical forgetting curves, and typical attrition orders. 26 references.(CB)

  19. Language Education: A Unitary Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert A.

    This address evaluates standardized language test results of students at the College of William and Mary in terms of their class grades and continuity of enrollment in language programs. Implications of the Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT) and the College Entrance Examination Board (CEEB) test scores reflecting actual linguistic proficiency and…

  20. Evidence-Based Language Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Eric J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine evidence-based procedures in medicine and to demonstrate that the same protocols can be used in English language instruction. In the evidence-based methodology, studies are divided into those that address specific language problems. Integrated studies are presented as a systematic overview, meta-analysis,…

  1. Language Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Judy I.

    This paper discusses kinds and characteristics of language play, explores the relationship of such play to wider domains of language and play, and speculates on the possible contributions of language play for language mastery and cognitive development. Jump rope chants and ritual insults ("Off my case, potato face") and other expressive language…

  2. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Language Acquisition & Language Disorders 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    The study of native language influence in Second Language Acquisition has undergone significant changes over the past few decades. This book, which includes 12 chapters by distinguished researchers in the field of second language acquisition, traces the conceptual history of language transfer from its early role within a Contrastive Analysis…

  3. Major Language Theorists influencing Learning of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Baiju K.

    2010-01-01

    Language is one attribute that sets humans apart from all other creatures and binds humans together across all geographic barriers. A word can cause a person to sink into the deepest despair or lift us to inspired action. Language can be the tool for great achievement in any discipline. Good understanding of the capabilities and needs of the…

  4. Changing language, remaining pygmy.

    PubMed

    Bahuchet, Serge

    2012-02-01

    In this article I am illustrating the linguistic diversity of African Pygmy populations in order to better address their anthropological diversity and history. I am also introducing a new method, based on the analysis of specialized vocabulary, to reconstruct the substratum of some languages they speak. I show that Pygmy identity is not based on their languages, which have often been borrowed from neighboring non-Pygmy farmer communities with whom each Pygmy group is linked. Understanding the nature of this partnership, quite variable in history, is essential to addressing Pygmy languages, identity, and history. Finally, I show that only a multidisciplinary approach is likely to push forward the understanding of African Pygmy societies as genetic, archeological, anthropological, and ethnological evidence suggest.

  5. Barriers and Facilitators for Type-2 Diabetes Management in South Asians: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sohal, Tanveer; Sohal, Parmjit; King-Shier, Kathryn M.; Khan, Nadia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although South Asian populations have among the highest burden of type 2 diabetes in the world, their diabetes management remains poor. We systematically reviewed studies on South Asian patient’s perspectives on the barriers and facilitators to diabetes management. Methods We conducted a literature search using OVID, CINHAL and EMBASE (January, 1990 –February, 2014) evaluating the core components of diabetes management: interactions with health care providers, diet, exercise, and medication adherence. South Asian patients were self-reported as Indian, Pakistani, Malaysian-Indian or Bangladeshi origin. From 208 abstracts reviewed, 20 studies were included (19 qualitative including mixed methods studies, 1 questionnaire). Barriers and facilitators were extracted and combined using qualitative synthesis. Results All studies included barriers and few facilitators were identified. Language and communication discordance with the healthcare provider was a significant barrier to receiving and understanding diabetes education. There was inconsistent willingness to partake in self-management with preference for following their physician’s guidance. Barriers to adopting a diabetic diet were lack of specific details on South Asian tailored diabetic diet; social responsibilities to continue with a traditional diet, and misconceptions on the components of the diabetic diet. For exercise, South Asian patients were concerned with lack of gender specific exercise facilities and fear of injury or worsening health with exercise. Patients reported a lack of understanding about diabetes medication management, preference for folk and phytotherapy, and concerns about the long-term safety of diabetes medications. Facilitators included trust in care providers, use of culturally appropriate exercise and dietary advice and increasing family involvement. Overall themes for the barriers included lack of knowledge and misperceptions as well as lack of cultural adaptation to

  6. PERCEIVED BARRIERS TO OPPORTUNITY AND THEIR RELATION TO SUBSTANCE USE AMONG LATINO IMMIGRANT MEN

    PubMed Central

    Ornelas, India J.; Eng, Eugenia; Perreira, Krista M.

    2011-01-01

    Theory and empirical evidence suggest that perceived barriers to opportunity, such as discrimination, can lead to the adoption of unhealthy behaviors. The study assessed the relationship between perceived racial/ethnic, language and legal status barriers to opportunity and substance use among Latino immigrant men in North Carolina. Logistic regression was used to test for the association between perceived barriers and odds of binge drinking in the past 30 days and cigarette smoking. In both crude and adjusted models, perceived language barriers (OR = 3.05, 95% CI: 1.78 – 5.25) and legal status barriers (OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.26 – 4.01) were associated with increased odds of having engaged in binge drinking. Perceived barriers to opportunity were not significantly associated with cigarette smoking. Further research is needed to better understand the effect of language and legal status barriers on health among Latino immigrants. PMID:20865312

  7. French as a Second Language Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaruk, Walter A.; And Others

    The handbook is a service publication for teachers of French as a second language. Each of five articles addresses a specific issue. "Teaching and Learning Strategies" (Walter A. Lazaruk) reviews the four skills approach used in second language learning. A communication model of teaching, used alongside study of the language itself, is…

  8. Year 8 Attitudes to Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajdu, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Carr (2002), in her investigation of boys' alienation from languages and language learning, addressed the question of an "appropriate curriculum" for boys and boys' understanding of masculinity. Boys reported in that research that they preferred physical activities so found the written text orientation of language learning to be "hard" and…

  9. Languages in Elementary Schools. International Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Kurt E., Ed.

    Ten essays address aspects of second language instruction at the elementary school level: "Elementary School Foreign Languages: Perspectives, Practices, and Promises" (Carol Ann Pesola, Helena Anderson Curtain); "The Integrated Curriculum: Rethinking the Elementary School Foreign Language Program for the '90s" (Virginia Garibaldi Allen); "The Ages…

  10. Language Skills and Status Attainment in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Shu-Ling

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the importance of language underlying the stratification process in Taiwan within the context of globalization. Specifically, I ask if one's language skills may serve as a key to getting ahead. The Taiwanese government has imposed Mandarin as the official language since 1945 and introduced English courses into compulsory…

  11. Key Issues in Foreign Language Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichelt, Melinda; Lefkowitz, Natalie; Rinnert, Carol; Schultz, Jean Marie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, four second language writing specialists address the following significant questions related to foreign language (FL) writing instruction: (1) How is FL writing different from English as a second language writing? (2) How does the sociolin-guistic role of a given FL influence how writing is employed in the overall curriculum for…

  12. Factors Influencing Chinese Language Learners' Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Ko-Yin

    2011-01-01

    This survey study, which involved 134 language learners enrolled in first-year Chinese as a foreign language classrooms in the US universities, intended to address the research question, "Do learners' strategy use differ based on the following learner differences: (1) gender; (2) home language/culture; and (3) number of other foreign languages…

  13. Addressing Patient Sexual Orientation in the Undergraduate Medical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamas, Rebecca L.; Miller, Karen Hughes; Martin, Leslee J.; Greenberg, Ruth B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to estimate the number of hours dedicated to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender content in one medical school's undergraduate curriculum, compare it to the national average, and identify barriers to addressing this content. Methods: Course and clerkship directors were asked to estimate how many hours they spent on…

  14. The Marine Language Exchange Program: an International Approach to Ocean Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowell, A.; Robigou, V.

    2004-12-01

    The ability of scientists to communicate across cultural and linguistic barriers is crucial for the global economic sustainability and protection of the world's oceans. Yet students with majors in the sciences and engineering constitute less than 2% of those who study abroad each year. And even fewer are students who study in countries where English is not the first language. The Marine Language Exchange program is a case study of an international and interdisciplinary collaboration between faculties in the languages and the sciences that address this gap. A consortium of U.S. and European institutions including University of Washington (Washington), Eckerd College (Florida), University of Hilo (Hawaii), Université de la Rochelle (France), Université de Liège (Belgium), and Universidad de Las Palmas (Spain) is developing a multilingual, marine sciences exchange program in an effort to internationalize their ocean sciences departments. The program includes a three-week, intensive "bridge" course designed to reinforce second language skills in the context of marine sciences, and prepare undergraduate students for the cultural and educational differences of their host country. Following this preparatory immersion experience students from each institution enroll in courses abroad for 6 to 12 months to study marine sciences for full academic credit. Different disciplinary approaches -Second Language Acquisition, English as a Second Language and Marine Science- prepare science students to contribute to the study and the management of the world\\'{}s oceans with an awareness of the cultural issues reflected by national marine policies.

  15. Oracle Bones and Mandarin Tones: Demystifying the Chinese Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Project on East Asian Studies in Education.

    This publication will provide secondary level students with a basic understanding of the development and structure of Chinese (guo yu) language characters. The authors believe that demystifying the language helps break many cultural barriers. The written language is a good place to begin because its pictographic nature is appealing and inspires…

  16. Mimicry of Non-Distinctive Phonetic Differences between Language Varieties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flege, James Emil; Hammond, Robert M.

    1982-01-01

    Using a delayed mimicry paradigm to assess speakers' awareness of nondistinctive phonetic differences which, in part, distinguish languages, the study provides tentative evidence that such differences are detectable by language learners and do not present an impossible barrier to phonetic learning in second-language acquisition. (EKN)

  17. Effective Language Education Practices and Native Language Survival. Proceedings of the Annual International Native American Language Issues (NALI) Institute (9th, Billings, Montana, June 8-9, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyhner, Jon, Ed.

    This volume includes papers delivered at the Ninth Annual International Native American Language Issues (NALI) Institute. Dick Littlebear's keynote address describes the importance of maintaining Native American languages. James Crawford's "Language Freedom and Restriction: A Historical Approach to the Official Language Controversy," describes the…

  18. Complementary Reversing Language Shift Strategies in Education: The Importance of Adult Heritage Learners of Threatened Minority Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Christmas, Cassie; Armstrong, Timothy Currie

    2014-01-01

    Heritage learners of minority languages can play a lynchpin role in reversing language shift (RLS) in their families; however, in order to enact this role, they must first overcome certain barriers to re-integrate the minority language into the home domain. Using a combination of conversation and narrative analysis methods, we demonstrate how both…

  19. Aboriginal health promotion through addressing employment discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Perry, Ryan; Kelaher, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Localities Embracing and Accepting Diversity (LEAD) program aimed to improve the mental health of Aboriginal Victorians by addressing racial discrimination and facilitating social and economic participation. As part of LEAD, Whittlesea Council adopted the Aboriginal Employment Pathways Strategy (AEPS) to increase Aboriginal employment and retention within the organisation. The Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Training Program was developed to build internal cultural competency and skills in recruiting and retaining Aboriginal staff. Analysis of surveys conducted before (pre; n=124) and after (post; n=107) the training program indicated a significant increase in participant understanding across all program objectives and in support of organisational policies to improve Aboriginal recruitment and retention. Participants ended the training with concrete ideas about intended changes, as well as how these changes could be supported by their supervisors and the wider organisation. Significant resources have since been allocated to implementing the AEPS over 5 years. In line with principles underpinning the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013-23, particularly the focus on addressing racism as a determinant of health, this paper explores the AEPS and training program as promising approaches to health promotion through addressing barriers to Aboriginal employment. Possible implications for other large organisations are also considered. PMID:25155236

  20. Aboriginal health promotion through addressing employment discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Perry, Ryan; Kelaher, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Localities Embracing and Accepting Diversity (LEAD) program aimed to improve the mental health of Aboriginal Victorians by addressing racial discrimination and facilitating social and economic participation. As part of LEAD, Whittlesea Council adopted the Aboriginal Employment Pathways Strategy (AEPS) to increase Aboriginal employment and retention within the organisation. The Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Training Program was developed to build internal cultural competency and skills in recruiting and retaining Aboriginal staff. Analysis of surveys conducted before (pre; n=124) and after (post; n=107) the training program indicated a significant increase in participant understanding across all program objectives and in support of organisational policies to improve Aboriginal recruitment and retention. Participants ended the training with concrete ideas about intended changes, as well as how these changes could be supported by their supervisors and the wider organisation. Significant resources have since been allocated to implementing the AEPS over 5 years. In line with principles underpinning the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013-23, particularly the focus on addressing racism as a determinant of health, this paper explores the AEPS and training program as promising approaches to health promotion through addressing barriers to Aboriginal employment. Possible implications for other large organisations are also considered.

  1. Puncture detecting barrier materials

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E.; Ramsey, David R.; Stampfer, Joseph F.; Macdonald, John M.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material.

  2. Puncture detecting barrier materials

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, R.E.; Ramsey, D.R.; Stampfer, J.F.; Macdonald, J.M.

    1998-03-31

    A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material. 4 figs.

  3. Adult Education Periodicals; A List of Addresses. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Adult Education Div.

    Over 100 titles are listed in the revised UNESCO adult education periodicals list. Each entry includes the title, complete address, the name of the publishing organization, the editor's name, frequency of issue, and language. Based on information on hand in the UNESCO Secretariat the listings are classified by area: (1) Africa, (2) Asia and the…

  4. The Barriers Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Confederation Coll. of Applied Arts and Technology, Thunder Bay (Ontario).

    In 1987, the Barriers Project was initiated by Confederation College of Applied Arts and Technology to engage 31 selected community colleges in Canada in an organized self-appraisal of institutional barriers to the enrollment of part-time credit students. From the outset, colleges were encouraged to limit their investigation to barriers over which…

  5. Programming Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesler, Lawrence G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of programing languages, considering the features of BASIC, LOGO, PASCAL, COBOL, FORTH, APL, and LISP. Also discusses machine/assembly codes, the operation of a compiler, and trends in the evolution of programing languages (including interest in notational systems called object-oriented languages). (JN)

  6. Traveling towards disease: transportation barriers to health care access.

    PubMed

    Syed, Samina T; Gerber, Ben S; Sharp, Lisa K

    2013-10-01

    Transportation barriers are often cited as barriers to healthcare access. Transportation barriers lead to rescheduled or missed appointments, delayed care, and missed or delayed medication use. These consequences may lead to poorer management of chronic illness and thus poorer health outcomes. However, the significance of these barriers is uncertain based on existing literature due to wide variability in both study populations and transportation barrier measures. The authors sought to synthesize the literature on the prevalence of transportation barriers to health care access. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed studies on transportation barriers to healthcare access was performed. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) study addressed access barriers for ongoing primary care or chronic disease care; (2) study included assessment of transportation barriers; and (3) study was completed in the United States. In total, 61 studies were reviewed. Overall, the evidence supports that transportation barriers are an important barrier to healthcare access, particularly for those with lower incomes or the under/uninsured. Additional research needs to (1) clarify which aspects of transportation limit health care access (2) measure the impact of transportation barriers on clinically meaningful outcomes and (3) measure the impact of transportation barrier interventions and transportation policy changes.

  7. Traveling Towards Disease: Transportation Barriers to Health Care Access

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Ben S.; Sharp, Lisa K.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation barriers are often cited as barriers to healthcare access. Transportation barriers lead to rescheduled or missed appointments, delayed care, and missed or delayed medication use. These consequences may lead to poorer management of chronic illness and thus poorer health outcomes. However, the significance of these barriers is uncertain based on existing literature due to wide variability in both study populations and transportation barrier measures. The authors sought to synthesize the literature on the prevalence of transportation barriers to health care access. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed studies on transportation barriers to healthcare access was performed. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) study addressed access barriers for ongoing primary care or chronic disease care; (2) study included assessment of transportation barriers; and (3) study was completed in the United States. In total, 61 studies were reviewed. Overall, the evidence supports that transportation barriers are an important barrier to healthcare access, particularly for those with lower incomes or the under/uninsured. Additional research needs to (1) clarify which aspects of transportation limit health care access (2) measure the impact of transportation barriers on clinically meaningful outcomes and (3) measure the impact of transportation barrier interventions and transportation policy changes. PMID:23543372

  8. Addressing Chronic Disease Within Supportive Housing Programs

    PubMed Central

    Henwood, Benjamin F.; Stanhope, Victoria; Brawer, Rickie; Weinstein, Lara Carson; Lawson, James; Stwords, Edward; Crossan, Cornelius

    2015-01-01

    Background Tenants of supportive housing have a high burden of chronic health conditions. Objectives To examine the feasibility of developing a tenant-involved health promotion initiative within a “housing first” agency using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) framework. Methods Qualitative analyses of nine research capacity-building group meetings and fifteen individual pre- and post-interviews with those who completed a chronic disease self-management program, resulting in the development of several themes. Results Tenants of supportive housing successfully partnered with health care providers to implement a chronic disease self-management program, noting that “health care becomes ‘relevant’ with housing.” Conclusions Supportive housing organizations are well-situated to implement health promotion initiatives. Such publicly subsidized housing that is accompanied by comprehensive supports must also include self-management training to help people overcome both internal and external barriers to addressing chronic health needs. PMID:23543023

  9. 2015 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  10. Linguistic Evolution through Language Acquisition: Formal and Computational Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Ted, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines how children acquire language and how this affects language change over the generations. It proceeds from the basis that it is important to address not only the language faculty per se within the framework of evolutionary theory, but also the origins and subsequent development of languages themselves, suggesting…

  11. What Do You Lose When You Lose Your Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Joshua

    This paper addresses the impact of language loss on culture and the need for developing effective strategies for language restoration. Culture is expressed through language; when language is lost, those things that represent a way of life, a way of valuing, and human reality are also lost. However, if you talk to members of a particular culture…

  12. Maintaining Languages: What Works? What Doesn't? Conclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Joshua

    This paper addresses problems facing endangered languages and strategies for maintaining Native languages. The most serious case involves languages whose last fluent speakers are elderly or already gone. Speakers of severely endangered languages no longer constitute speech communities. They cannot interact with other speakers because other…

  13. Literacy Development in Elementary School Second-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Diane; Snow, Catherine; Carlo, Maria; Proctor, C. Patrick; Rolla de San Francisco, Andrea; Duursma, Elisabeth; Szuber, Anna

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a series of studies that examine the development of literacy in elementary school Spanish-speaking second-language learners. Findings from the research that addresses our first question-regarding cross-language relationships-indicate that first-language reading skills are related to second-language reading skills, but that…

  14. Implications of Bilingual Development for Specific Language Impairments in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    The potential impact of bilingualism on children's language development has emerged as a crucial concern for Turkey, but so far it has not been addressed from the point of view of language disorders. This short review examines the potential impact of bilingual language development for language impairments in Turkey, with special emphasis on the…

  15. Optically Addressable Spatial Light Modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph; Larsson, Anders G.

    1994-01-01

    Integrated multiple-quantum-well/Fabry-Perot structure provides high-contrast variation of reflection of reading beam, under control of writing beam. Periodic potential barriers separate photogenerated electrons from holes, leading to long recombination lifetimes and large concentrations of free charge carriers. Concentrations quench excitons or fill energy bands in quantum wells, altering absorption of reading beam.

  16. What sign language creation teaches us about language.

    PubMed

    Brentari, Diane; Coppola, Marie

    2013-03-01

    How do languages emerge? What are the necessary ingredients and circumstances that permit new languages to form? Various researchers within the disciplines of primatology, anthropology, psychology, and linguistics have offered different answers to this question depending on their perspective. Language acquisition, language evolution, primate communication, and the study of spoken varieties of pidgin and creoles address these issues, but in this article we describe a relatively new and important area that contributes to our understanding of language creation and emergence. Three types of communication systems that use the hands and body to communicate will be the focus of this article: gesture, homesign systems, and sign languages. The focus of this article is to explain why mapping the path from gesture to homesign to sign language has become an important research topic for understanding language emergence, not only for the field of sign languages, but also for language in general. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:201-211. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1212 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  17. Extremal surface barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C.

    2014-03-01

    We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy.

  18. Barriers to accessing surgical care in Pakistan: healthcare barrier model and quantitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Irfan, Furqan B; Irfan, Bismah B; Spiegel, David A

    2012-07-01

    Inadequate access to surgical services results in increased morbidity and mortality from a spectrum of conditions in Pakistan. We employed a modification of Andersen's model of health services utilization and developed a 'Healthcare Barrier Model,' to characterize the barriers to accessing health care in developing countries, using surgical care in Pakistan as a case study. We performed a literature search from MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SCOPUS, Global Health Database, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and selected 64 of 3113 references for analysis. Patient-related variables included age (elderly), gender (female), preferential use of alternative health providers (Hakeem, traditional healers, others), personal perceptions regarding disease and potential for treatment, poverty, personal expenses for healthcare, lack of social support, geographic constraints to accessing a health facility, and compromised general health status as it relates to the development of surgical disease. Environmental barriers include deficiencies in governance, the burden of displaced or refugee populations, and aspects of the medicolegal system, which impact treatment and referral. Barriers relating to the health system include deficiencies in capacity (infrastructure, physical resources, human resources) and organization, and inadequate monitoring. Provider-related barriers include deficiencies in knowledge and skills (and ongoing educational opportunities), delays in referral, deficient communication, and deficient numbers of female health providers for female patients. The Healthcare Barrier model addresses this broad spectrum of barriers and is designed to help formulate a framework of healthcare barriers. To overcome these barriers will require a multidisciplinary, multisectoral effort aimed at strengthening the health system. PMID:22079839

  19. The Teaching of Reading, Writing and Language in a Clinical Speech and Language Setting: A Blended Therapy Intervention Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammons, Kerrie Allen

    2013-01-01

    With a growing body of research that supports a link between language and literacy, governing bodies in the field of speech and language pathology have recognized the need to reconsider the role of speech-language pathologists in addressing the emergent literacy needs of preschoolers who struggle with literacy and language concepts. This study…

  20. Some Contact Languages and Pidgin and Creole Languages in the Siberian Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurm, Stephen A.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the role of Russian colonization of the Siberian region and the impact of demographic changes on languages in the region. Topics addressed include intercommunication through contact languages based on one-way bilingualism, pidgin and creole languages in the Siberian region, and Eskimo Pidgin. (33 references) (Author/JP)

  1. Comparing barrier algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arenstorf, Norbert S.; Jordan, Harry F.

    1987-01-01

    A barrier is a method for synchronizing a large number of concurrent computer processes. After considering some basic synchronization mechanisms, a collection of barrier algorithms with either linear or logarithmic depth are presented. A graphical model is described that profiles the execution of the barriers and other parallel programming constructs. This model shows how the interaction between the barrier algorithms and the work that they synchronize can impact their performance. One result is that logarithmic tree structured barriers show good performance when synchronizing fixed length work, while linear self-scheduled barriers show better performance when synchronizing fixed length work with an imbedded critical section. The linear barriers are better able to exploit the process skew associated with critical sections. Timing experiments, performed on an eighteen processor Flex/32 shared memory multiprocessor, that support these conclusions are detailed.

  2. Use of Language Sample Analysis by School-Based SLPs: Results of a Nationwide Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavelko, Stacey L.; Owens, Robert E., Jr.; Ireland, Marie; Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines use of language sample analysis (LSA) by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs), including characteristics of language samples, methods of transcription and analysis, barriers to LSA use, and factors affecting LSA use, such as American Speech-Language-Hearing Association certification, number of years'…

  3. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  4. Language Switching and Language Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa; Paolieri, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the asymmetrical language switching cost in a word reading task (Experiment 1) and in a categorization task (Experiment 2 and 3). In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals named words in first language (L1) and second language (L2) in a switching paradigm. They were slower to switch from their weaker L2 to their more dominant…

  5. Selection of barrier metals for a waste package in tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, E.W.; McCright, R.D.; O`Neal, W.C.

    1983-10-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is planning a repository at Yucca Mountain at the Nevada Test Site for isolation of high-level nuclear waste. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing designs for an engineered barrier system containing several barriers such as the waste form, a canister and/or an overpack, packing, and near field host rock. In this paper we address the selection of metal containment barriers. 13 references, 4 tables.

  6. Selection of barrier metals for a waste package in tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, E.W.; McCright, R.D.; O`Neal, W.C.

    1983-09-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) project under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is planning a repository at Yucca Mountain at the Nevada Test Site for isolation of high-level nuclear waste. LLNL is developing designs for an engineered barrier system containing several barriers such as the waste form, a canister and/or an overpack, packing, and near field host rock. The selection of metal containment barriers is addressed. 13 references.

  7. Indigenous Languages and the Racial Hierarchisation of Language Policy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haque, Eve; Patrick, Donna

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses language policy and policy-making in Canada as forms of discourse produced and reproduced within systems of power and racial hierarchies. The analysis of indigenous language policy to be addressed here focuses on the historical, political and legal processes stemming from the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism…

  8. Barriers to Successful Treatment Completion in Child Sexual Abuse Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Paul; Scribano, Philip; Stevens, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) often requires psychological treatment to address the symptoms of victim trauma. Barriers to entry and completion of counseling services can compromise long-term well-being. An integrated medical and mental health evaluation and treatment model of a child advocacy center (CAC) has the potential to reduce barriers to mental…

  9. Programming chemistry in DNA-addressable bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Fellermann, Harold; Cardelli, Luca

    2014-10-01

    We present a formal calculus, termed the chemtainer calculus, able to capture the complexity of compartmentalized reaction systems such as populations of possibly nested vesicular compartments. Compartments contain molecular cargo as well as surface markers in the form of DNA single strands. These markers serve as compartment addresses and allow for their targeted transport and fusion, thereby enabling reactions of previously separated chemicals. The overall system organization allows for the set-up of programmable chemistry in microfluidic or other automated environments. We introduce a simple sequential programming language whose instructions are motivated by state-of-the-art microfluidic technology. Our approach integrates electronic control, chemical computing and material production in a unified formal framework that is able to mimic the integrated computational and constructive capabilities of the subcellular matrix. We provide a non-deterministic semantics of our programming language that enables us to analytically derive the computational and constructive power of our machinery. This semantics is used to derive the sets of all constructable chemicals and supermolecular structures that emerge from different underlying instruction sets. Because our proofs are constructive, they can be used to automatically infer control programs for the construction of target structures from a limited set of resource molecules. Finally, we present an example of our framework from the area of oligosaccharide synthesis.

  10. Programming chemistry in DNA-addressable bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Fellermann, Harold; Cardelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    We present a formal calculus, termed the chemtainer calculus, able to capture the complexity of compartmentalized reaction systems such as populations of possibly nested vesicular compartments. Compartments contain molecular cargo as well as surface markers in the form of DNA single strands. These markers serve as compartment addresses and allow for their targeted transport and fusion, thereby enabling reactions of previously separated chemicals. The overall system organization allows for the set-up of programmable chemistry in microfluidic or other automated environments. We introduce a simple sequential programming language whose instructions are motivated by state-of-the-art microfluidic technology. Our approach integrates electronic control, chemical computing and material production in a unified formal framework that is able to mimic the integrated computational and constructive capabilities of the subcellular matrix. We provide a non-deterministic semantics of our programming language that enables us to analytically derive the computational and constructive power of our machinery. This semantics is used to derive the sets of all constructable chemicals and supermolecular structures that emerge from different underlying instruction sets. Because our proofs are constructive, they can be used to automatically infer control programs for the construction of target structures from a limited set of resource molecules. Finally, we present an example of our framework from the area of oligosaccharide synthesis. PMID:25121647

  11. Facilitators and Barriers to Health-Seeking Behaviours among Filipino Migrants: Inductive Analysis to Inform Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Maneze, D.; DiGiacomo, M.; Salamonson, Y.; Descallar, J.; Davidson, P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence health-seeking behaviour of migrants is necessary to intervene for behaviour change. This paper explores Filipino migrants' perceptions of facilitators and barriers to maintaining health in Australia. Open-ended survey item responses reflecting factors that assisted and hindered health following migration to Australia were inductively analysed. Three hundred and thirty-seven of the 552 survey respondents (61%) provided open-ended responses. Responses were grouped into two major categories: individual factors, including personal resources and cultural influences, and environmental factors encompassing both the physical conditions in the host country and health service access. Awareness of practices that enhance health was a major personal facilitator of health-seeking behaviour; however, competing priorities of daily living were perceived as barriers. Cultural beliefs and practices influenced health-seeking behaviour. Despite high self-rated English language skills in this population, new migrants and the elderly cited communication difficulties as barriers to accessing health services. Insight into facilitators and barriers to health-seeking behaviour in this less researched migrant population revealed tools for enhancing engagement in health promotion programs addressing healthy lifestyle. PMID:26380277

  12. Facilitators and Barriers to Health-Seeking Behaviours among Filipino Migrants: Inductive Analysis to Inform Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Maneze, D; DiGiacomo, M; Salamonson, Y; Descallar, J; Davidson, P M

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence health-seeking behaviour of migrants is necessary to intervene for behaviour change. This paper explores Filipino migrants' perceptions of facilitators and barriers to maintaining health in Australia. Open-ended survey item responses reflecting factors that assisted and hindered health following migration to Australia were inductively analysed. Three hundred and thirty-seven of the 552 survey respondents (61%) provided open-ended responses. Responses were grouped into two major categories: individual factors, including personal resources and cultural influences, and environmental factors encompassing both the physical conditions in the host country and health service access. Awareness of practices that enhance health was a major personal facilitator of health-seeking behaviour; however, competing priorities of daily living were perceived as barriers. Cultural beliefs and practices influenced health-seeking behaviour. Despite high self-rated English language skills in this population, new migrants and the elderly cited communication difficulties as barriers to accessing health services. Insight into facilitators and barriers to health-seeking behaviour in this less researched migrant population revealed tools for enhancing engagement in health promotion programs addressing healthy lifestyle. PMID:26380277

  13. Multilayer moisture barrier

    DOEpatents

    Pankow, Joel W; Jorgensen, Gary J; Terwilliger, Kent M; Glick, Stephen H; Isomaki, Nora; Harkonen, Kari; Turkulainen, Tommy

    2015-04-21

    A moisture barrier, device or product having a moisture barrier or a method of fabricating a moisture barrier having at least a polymer layer, and interfacial layer, and a barrier layer. The polymer layer may be fabricated from any suitable polymer including, but not limited to, fluoropolymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), or ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). The interfacial layer may be formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In embodiments featuring an ALD interfacial layer, the deposited interfacial substance may be, but is not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, AlSiO.sub.x, TiO.sub.2, and an Al.sub.2O.sub.3/TiO.sub.2 laminate. The barrier layer associated with the interfacial layer may be deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The barrier layer may be a SiO.sub.xN.sub.y film.

  14. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation. PMID:25145716

  15. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation.

  16. The Impact of Language and Culture Diversity in Occupational Safety.

    PubMed

    De Jesus-Rivas, Mayra; Conlon, Helen Acree; Burns, Candace

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health nursing plays a critical part in improving the safety of foreign labor workers. The development and implementation of safety training programs do not always regularly take into account language barriers, low literacy levels, or cultural elements. This oversight can lead to more injuries and fatalities among this group. Despite established health and safety training programs, a significant number of non-native English speakers are injured or killed in preventable, occupation-related accidents. Introducing safety programs that use alternative teaching strategies such as pictograms, illustrations, and hands-on training opportunities will assist in addressing challenges for non-English laborers. Occupational health nursing has an opportunity to provide guidance on this subject and assist businesses in creating a safer and more productive work environment. PMID:26800895

  17. The Impact of Language and Culture Diversity in Occupational Safety.

    PubMed

    De Jesus-Rivas, Mayra; Conlon, Helen Acree; Burns, Candace

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health nursing plays a critical part in improving the safety of foreign labor workers. The development and implementation of safety training programs do not always regularly take into account language barriers, low literacy levels, or cultural elements. This oversight can lead to more injuries and fatalities among this group. Despite established health and safety training programs, a significant number of non-native English speakers are injured or killed in preventable, occupation-related accidents. Introducing safety programs that use alternative teaching strategies such as pictograms, illustrations, and hands-on training opportunities will assist in addressing challenges for non-English laborers. Occupational health nursing has an opportunity to provide guidance on this subject and assist businesses in creating a safer and more productive work environment.

  18. Arthroscopy language.

    PubMed

    Zahiri, H; Brazina, G; Zahiri, C A

    1994-09-01

    The authors have devised an "arthroscopy language" to make orthopaedic surgeons' intraoperative communication clear, comprehensive, and concise. This language specifically eliminates surgeons' "freestyle" conversation at the most crucial moments of their procedure, when concentration and the coordinated work of two surgeons are essential. The language uses current arthroscopic terminology and new words that have been adapted by the authors to describe all the basic maneuvers that are used during any arthroscopic procedure. The authors believe the language brings the necessary scientific sophistication into arthroscopic surgeons' speech in the operating theater. PMID:7800401

  19. Language preference in monolingual and bilingual infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valji, Ayasha; Polka, Linda

    2001-05-01

    Previous research shows that infants being raised in single-language families have some basic language discrimination abilities at birth, that these skills improve over the first 6 months of life, and that infants are attending to the rhythmic properties of language to perform these skills. Research has also revealed that newborns and older babies from monolingual families prefer listening to their native language over an unfamiliar language. Data on language discrimination and preference in bilingual infants is very limited but is necessary to determine if the patterns and rate of bilingual language development parallel those of monolingual development, or if exposure to more than one language modifies developmental patterns. The present study addresses this issue by comparing language preference in monolingual English, monolingual French, and bilingual English-French infants between 3 and 10 months of age. Infant preference to listen to passages in three rhythmically different languages (English, French, Japanese) was assessed using a visual fixation procedure. Passages were produced by three female native speakers of each language. Findings will show how native language preference is affected by age and language experience in infants who experience monolingual and bilingual language exposure.

  20. Addressing violence against older women.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Domestic abuse is widespread and indiscriminate, causing health-related concerns and mental health issues in older women. Research suggests their needs are not met by existing services. This article examines physical and mental health issues faced by older women as a result of abusive relationships, and the barriers that exist to seeking help. Healthcare professionals can facilitate therapeutic engagement of older women living with domestic abuse. Refuges and related interventions are limited, but developing a stepped approach, tailored to older women's needs, could help. PMID:27369732

  1. A Practical Guide to Language Learning: A Fifteen-Week Program of Strategies for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, H. Douglas

    This guide is designed to provide beginning foreign language students with a general guide to language learning success, and to accompany second language textbooks. An introductory section is addressed to both teachers and students. The first chapter proposes that language learners can take charge of their own language learning experience. Chapter…

  2. XML: A Language To Manage the World Wide Web. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Tanous, Jennifer R.

    This digest provides an overview of XML (Extensible Markup Language), a markup language used to construct World Wide Web pages. Topics addressed include: (1) definition of a markup language, including comparison of XML with SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) and HTML (HyperText Markup Language); (2) how XML works, including sample tags,…

  3. LANGUAGE LABORATORIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUBAKER, CHARLES WILLIAM

    THE USE OF THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY HAS GIVEN MANY THOUSANDS OF INDIVIDUALS GOOD LISTENING AND SPEAKING PRACTICE AND HAS BECOME AN EFFECTIVE LEARNING TOOL. THE BASIC PIECE OF EQUIPMENT OF THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY IS THE TAPE RECORDER-AND-PLAYBACK, DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH AUDIOPASSIVE STUDY, AUDIOACTIVE STUDY, AUDIOACTIVE-COMPARATIVE STUDY, AND…

  4. Language Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugh, Marylou

    1978-01-01

    When a child uses his words and his ideas in learning to read, he also assists in the normal integration of his personality. Starting with a method of language experience developed by Sylvia Ashton-Warner, the author, a reading consultant, describes a language experience-reading program which utilizes the student's own curiosity and interests. (RK)

  5. Modern Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, London (England).

    This survey of educational practices in Great Britain is intended to allow a comparative view of the state of modern language instruction as it exists within the country and abroad. Chapters focus on general principles, language selection, grammar and secondary schools, instructional materials, foreign relations, teacher training, and teaching…

  6. Space languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Dan

    1987-01-01

    Applications of linguistic principles to potential problems of human and machine communication in space settings are discussed. Variations in language among speakers of different backgrounds and change in language forms resulting from new experiences or reduced contact with other groups need to be considered in the design of intelligent machine systems.

  7. Liquid metal hydrogen barriers

    DOEpatents

    Grover, George M.; Frank, Thurman G.; Keddy, Edward S.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen barriers which comprise liquid metals in which the solubility of hydrogen is low and which have good thermal conductivities at operating temperatures of interest. Such barriers are useful in nuclear fuel elements containing a metal hydride moderator which has a substantial hydrogen dissociation pressure at reactor operating temperatures.

  8. Penetration resistant barrier

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, William R.; Mead, Keith E.; Street, Henry K.

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a barrier for resisting penetration by such as hand tools and oxy-acetylene cutting torches. The barrier comprises a layer of firebrick, which is preferably epoxy impregnated sandwiched between inner and outer layers of steel. Between the firebrick and steel are layers of resilient rubber-like filler.

  9. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems.

  10. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOEpatents

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  11. Barriers to Partnership Working in Public Health: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Robinson, David Carlton; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Orton, Lois; Moonan, May; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Background Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes. Methodology/Principal Findings 70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitative study involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities. Conclusions The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions. PMID:22238619

  12. Predictors of Health Service Barriers for Older Chinese Immigrants in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Daniel W. L.; Chau, Shirley B. Y.

    2007-01-01

    Elderly people from ethnic minority groups often experience different barriers in accessing health services. Earlier studies on access usually focused on types and frequency but failed to address the predictors of service barriers. This study examined access barriers to health services faced by older Chinese immigrants in Canada. Factor analysis…

  13. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  14. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every Other…

  15. State of the Lab Address

    SciTech Connect

    King, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  16. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2016-07-12

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  17. Facilitators and barriers to quality of care in maternal, newborn and child health: a global situational analysis through metareview

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Manisha; Yoshida, Sachiyo; Lambrechts, Thierry; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Bose, Krishna; Mason, Elizabeth Mary; Mathai, Matthews

    2014-01-01

    Objective Conduct a global situational analysis to identify the current facilitators and barriers to improving quality of care (QoC) for pregnant women, newborns and children. Study design Metareview of published and unpublished systematic reviews and meta-analyses conducted between January 2000 and March 2013 in any language. Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) is used to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews. Settings Health systems of all countries. Study outcome: QoC measured using surrogate indicators––effective, efficient, accessible, acceptable/patient centred, equitable and safe. Analysis Conducted in two phases (1) qualitative synthesis of extracted data to identify and group the facilitators and barriers to improving QoC, for each of the three population groups, into the six domains of WHO's framework and explore new domains and (2) an analysis grid to map the common facilitators and barriers. Results We included 98 systematic reviews with 110 interventions to improve QoC from countries globally. The facilitators and barriers identified fitted the six domains of WHO's framework––information, patient–population engagement, leadership, regulations and standards, organisational capacity and models of care. Two new domains, ‘communication’ and ‘satisfaction’, were generated. Facilitators included active and regular interpersonal communication between users and providers; respect, confidentiality, comfort and support during care provision; engaging users in decision-making; continuity of care and effective audit and feedback mechanisms. Key barriers identified were language barriers in information and communication; power difference between users and providers; health systems not accounting for user satisfaction; variable standards of implementation of standard guidelines; shortage of resources in health facilities and lack of studies assessing the role of leadership in improving QoC. These were common across

  18. Marine Language Exchange Program: A 21st Century International and Interdisciplinary Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robigou, V.; Nichols-Pecceu, M.

    2001-12-01

    The ability of scientists to communicate across cultural and linguistic barriers is crucial for the global economic sustainability and protection of the world\\'{}s oceans. Yet students with majors in the sciences and engineering constitute less than 2% of those who study abroad each year. And even rarer are students who study in countries where English is not the first language. The Marine Language Exchange program is a case study of an international and interdisciplinary collaboration between faculties in the languages and the sciences who address this gap. A consortium of U.S. and European institutions including Eckerd College (Florida), University of Washington (Washington), University of Hilo (Hawaii), Université de la Rochelle (France), Université de Liège (Belgium), and Universidad de Las Palmas (Spain) is developing a multilingual, marine sciences exchange program in an effort to internationalize their Marine Sciences departments. The program includes a three-week, intensive "bridge" course designed to reinforce second language skills in the context of marine sciences, and prepare undergraduate students for the cultural and educational differences of their host country. Following this immersion experience students from each institution enroll in courses abroad including marine sciences specialization for full academic credit. This session will review the Marine Language Exchange program activities since 2000 and will discuss the ideological and practical aspects of the program. The program successes, difficulties and future directions will also be presented. Different disciplinary approaches -Second Language Acquisition, English as a Second Language and Marine Science- prepare science students to contribute to the study and the management of the world\\'{}s oceans with an awareness of the cultural issues reflected by national marine policies. Based on this case study, other universities could initiate their own international and interdisciplinary

  19. Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2009-01-01

    The complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) is designed to eliminate the major dark current sources in the superlattice infrared detector. The concept can also be applied to bulk semiconductor- based infrared detectors. CBIRD uses two different types of specially designed barriers: an electron barrier that blocks electrons but not holes, and a hole barrier that blocks holes but not electrons. The CBIRD structure consists of an n-contact, a hole barrier, an absorber, an electron barrier, and a p-contact. The barriers are placed at the contact-absorber junctions where, in a conventional p-i-n detector structure, there normally are depletion regions that produce generation-recombination (GR) dark currents due to Shockley-Read- Hall (SRH) processes. The wider-bandgap complementary barriers suppress G-R dark current. The barriers also block diffusion dark currents generated in the diffusion wings in the neutral regions. In addition, the wider gap barriers serve to reduce tunneling dark currents. In the case of a superlattice-based absorber, the superlattice itself can be designed to suppress dark currents due to Auger processes. At the same time, the barriers actually help to enhance the collection of photo-generated carriers by deflecting the photo-carriers that are diffusing in the wrong direction (i.e., away from collectors) and redirecting them toward the collecting contacts. The contact layers are made from materials with narrower bandgaps than the barriers. This allows good ohmic contacts to be made, resulting in lower contact resistances. Previously, THALES Research and Technology (France) demonstrated detectors with bulk InAsSb (specifically InAs0.91Sb0.09) absorber lattice-matched to GaSb substrates. The absorber is surrounded by two wider bandgap layers designed to minimize impedance to photocurrent flow. The wide bandgap materials also serve as contacts. The cutoff wavelength of the InAsSb absorber is fixed. CBIRD may be considered as a modified

  20. Addressing the hidden dimension in nursing education: promoting cultural competence.

    PubMed

    Carter, Kimberly F; Xu, Yu

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe a cultural competence quality enhancement process to address the retention challenge of students who speak English as second language and international students as part of a school of nursing's continuous program quality improvement to achieve excellence. The process, strategies, outcomes, and evaluation of the training program are detailed within the given geographical, institutional, and curriculum context. Lessons and continuing challenges are also specified.

  1. UPC Language Specifications V1.2

    SciTech Connect

    UPC Consortium

    2005-05-31

    UPC is an explicitly parallel extension to the ISO C 99Standard. UPC follows the partitioned global address space programming model. This document is the formal specification for the UPC language syntax and semantics.

  2. TEACH - A concurrent robot control language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the TEACH robot control language and its supporting operating system. It addresses concurrency, device independence, and other issues related to manipulator control, task specification, and system operation.

  3. Language acquisition is language change.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen; Goro, Takuya; Thornton, Rosalind

    2006-01-01

    According to the theory of Universal Grammar, the primary linguistic data guides children through an innately specified space of hypotheses. On this view, similarities between child-English and adult-German are as unsurprising as similarities between cousins who have never met. By contrast, experience-based approaches to language acquisition contend that child language matches the input, with nonadult forms being simply less articulated versions of the forms produced by adults. This paper reports several studies that provide support for the theory of Universal grammar, and resist explanation on experience-based accounts. Two studies investigate English-speaking children's productions, and a third examines the interpretation of sentences by Japanese speaking children. When considered against the input children are exposed to, the findings of these and other studies are consistent with the continuity hypothesis, which supposes that child language can differ from the language spoken by adults only in ways that adult languages can differ from each other.

  4. Vehicle barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper.

  5. Vehicle barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment, and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper.

  6. Vehicle barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper. 2 tabs.

  7. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Barker, Stacey G.; Wowczuk, Andrew; Vellenoweth, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture spikes for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture spikes have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture spikes removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The plurality of barrier blocks hare hingedly interconnected by complementary hinges integrally formed into the side of each barrier block which allow the strip to be rolled for easy storage and retrieval, but which prevent irregular or back bending of the strip. The shafts of adjacent barrier blocks are pivotally interconnected via a double hinged universal joint to accommodate irregularities in a roadway surface and to transmit torsional motion of the shaft from block to block. A single flexshaft cable is connected to the shaft of an end block to allow a user to selectively cause the shafts of a plurality of adjacently connected barrier blocks to rotate the tire-puncture spikes to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire, and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. The flexshaft is provided with a resiliently biased retracting mechanism, and a release latch for allowing the spikes to be quickly retracted after the intended vehicle tire is punctured.

  8. Addressing Global Data Sharing Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Alter, George C.

    2015-01-01

    This issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics highlights the ethical issues that arise when researchers conducting projects in low- and middle-income countries seek to share the data they produce. Although sharing data is considered a best practice, the barriers to doing so are considerable and there is a need for guidance and examples. To that end, the authors of this article reviewed the articles in this special issue to identify challenges common to the five countries and to offer some practical advice to assist researchers in navigating this “uncharted territory,” as some termed it. Concerns around informed consent, data management, data dissemination, and validation of research contributions were cited frequently as particularly challenging areas, so the authors focused on these four topics with the goal of providing specific resources to consult as well as examples of successful projects attempting to solve many of the problems raised. PMID:26297753

  9. Addressing Global Data Sharing Challenges.

    PubMed

    Alter, George C; Vardigan, Mary

    2015-07-01

    This issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics highlights the ethical issues that arise when researchers conducting projects in low- and middle-income countries seek to share the data they produce. Although sharing data is considered a best practice, the barriers to doing so are considerable and there is a need for guidance and examples. To that end, the authors of this article reviewed the articles in this special issue to identify challenges common to the five countries and to offer some practical advice to assist researchers in navigating this "uncharted territory," as some termed it. Concerns around informed consent, data management, data dissemination, and validation of research contributions were cited frequently as particularly challenging areas, so the authors focused on these four topics with the goal of providing specific resources to consult as well as examples of successful projects attempting to solve many of the problems raised. PMID:26297753

  10. Addressing Global Data Sharing Challenges.

    PubMed

    Alter, George C; Vardigan, Mary

    2015-07-01

    This issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics highlights the ethical issues that arise when researchers conducting projects in low- and middle-income countries seek to share the data they produce. Although sharing data is considered a best practice, the barriers to doing so are considerable and there is a need for guidance and examples. To that end, the authors of this article reviewed the articles in this special issue to identify challenges common to the five countries and to offer some practical advice to assist researchers in navigating this "uncharted territory," as some termed it. Concerns around informed consent, data management, data dissemination, and validation of research contributions were cited frequently as particularly challenging areas, so the authors focused on these four topics with the goal of providing specific resources to consult as well as examples of successful projects attempting to solve many of the problems raised.

  11. Preschool Language Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... not get a language disorder from learning a second language. It won't confuse your child to speak ... on child language disorders describes research supporting the benefits of speech-language pathology treatment for children with language disorders. It ...

  12. Complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An infrared detector having a hole barrier region adjacent to one side of an absorber region, an electron barrier region adjacent to the other side of the absorber region, and a semiconductor adjacent to the electron barrier.

  13. Highway noise barrier perceived benefit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, D. N.; Osman, M. M.

    1980-05-01

    A laboratory experiment was performed in which 82 subjects judged the benefit of a noise barrier by listening to tape recordings of before-barrier and after-barrier traffic noise. These perceived benefit judgments were related by regression analysis to the barrier attenuation, the before-barrier traffic sound level, and a music background level, all of which were varied over the course of the experiment. Prediction equations were developed for barrier benefit in terms of these sound levels, their purpose being to provide a model for barrier benefit that can be used in barrier site selection and design. An unexpected finding was that barrier benefit was highest when before-barrier sound levels were lowest: i.e., subjects preferred a noise barrier that solved a moderate noise problem over an equally-attenuating barrier that only partially solved a more severe noise problem.

  14. The Neurolinguistics of Second Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew D., Ed.

    These proceedings are a collection of papers by researchers in neurology, bilingualism, linguistics, and the neurolinguistics of bilingualism. Topics are addressed using neurolinguistic data for second language learning, learning models for second language acquisition, and implications for teaching and research. Summaries of the following papers…

  15. The Study of Language. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yule, George

    The textbook surveys what is known about language and of the methods used by linguists in arriving at that knowledge. Each chapter addresses an aspect of linguistics, reviewing current knowledge and providing study questions, discussion topics and projects, and a list of additional reading. Chapter topics include: the origins of language;…

  16. Language and Inequality: Global Challenges to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    This article is an abbreviated version of the BAICE Presidential Address held at the 11th UKFIET International Conference in Oxford on September 16, 2011. It discusses debates on the use of a foreign and ex-colonial language as a language of instruction (LOI) in African schools and argues that the quality of education cannot be seen as an issue…

  17. Chapter Five: Language Learning and Discursive Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter is framed by the three questions related to learning in Practice Theory posed by Johannes Wagner (2008): (1) What is learned?; (2) Who is learning?; and (3) Who is participating in the learning? These questions are addressed in two learning theories: Language Socialization and Situated Learning theory. In Language Socialization, the…

  18. English as an Additional Language: Changing Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Constant, Ed.; Cable, Carrie, Ed.

    This volume highlights the language and learning needs of pupils with English as an additional language in the United Kingdom. It includes chapters by British teachers and researchers working in this field. The book addresses a number of issues of interest to practitioners, scholars, teacher educators, and policy makers. Each chapter is prefaced…

  19. School Administrator's Guide to Implementing Language Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The "School Administrator's Guide to Implementing Language Programming" serves as a starting point to plan for and implement language programming. It provides a general overview; suggests practical strategies for working with students, parents, teachers and the surrounding community; and includes details on areas to address in selecting and…

  20. Rearticulating the Case for Minority Language Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    While advocacy of minority language rights (MLR) has become well established in sociolinguistics, language policy and planning and the wider human rights literature, it has also come under increased criticism in recent times for a number of key limitations. In this paper, I address directly three current key criticisms of the MLR movement. The…

  1. Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In order to reduce heat transfer between a hot gas heat source and a metallic engine component, a thermal insulating layer of material is placed between them. This thermal barrier coating is applied by plasma spray processing the thin films. The coating has been successfully employed in aerospace applications for many years. Lewis Research Center, a leader in the development engine components coating technology, has assisted Caterpillar, Inc. in applying ceramic thermal barrier coatings on engines. Because these large engines use heavy fuels containing vanadium, engine valve life is sharply decreased. The barrier coating controls temperatures, extends valve life and reduces operating cost. Additional applications are currently under development.

  2. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  3. Models of natural language understanding.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, M

    1995-01-01

    This paper surveys some of the fundamental problems in natural language (NL) understanding (syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and discourse) and the current approaches to solving them. Some recent developments in NL processing include increased emphasis on corpus-based rather than example- or intuition-based work, attempts to measure the coverage and effectiveness of NL systems, dealing with discourse and dialogue phenomena, and attempts to use both analytic and stochastic knowledge. Critical areas for the future include grammars that are appropriate to processing large amounts of real language; automatic (or at least semi-automatic) methods for deriving models of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics; self-adapting systems; and integration with speech processing. Of particular importance are techniques that can be tuned to such requirements as full versus partial understanding and spoken language versus text. Portability (the ease with which one can configure an NL system for a particular application) is one of the largest barriers to application of this technology. PMID:7479812

  4. Creating Language-Rich Instruction for English-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Eurydice Bouchereau; Manyak, Patrick C.

    2008-01-01

    In the previous English-Language Learner (ELL) column, we addressed the first of four complementary components aimed at highlighting quality instruction for ELLs. The first in the series focused on the role of explicit code and comprehension instruction for ELLs. In that column we reminded readers of the importance of providing code instruction…

  5. Barriers Limiting the Usefulness of Published Information in the Research Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    Identifies 14 barriers that delay or impede information flow to libraries and users: publishing delay, inferior quality of information, information congestion, information dispersal, poor use of nonprint, inconsistent publication standards, terminology, ownership, suspected existence of information barriers, searching strategy, foreign language,…

  6. Barriers to Employment for Welfare Recipients: The Role of Race/Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, John A.; Harris, Randall D.

    2001-01-01

    A study examined barriers to employment faced by 4,014 welfare recipients in Merced County, California. Ethnic groups differed in the importance of various barriers to workforce entry: educational attainment; family composition; and lack of work experience, vocational training, English language fluency, a vehicle, or driver's license. Asians,…

  7. Attitudes of Mathematics and Language Teachers towards New Educational Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmannova, Marie; Novotna, Jarmila; Hadj-Moussova, Zuzana

    2003-01-01

    The paper brings the results of research into affective barriers lying at the base of negative attitudes of mathematics and language teachers towards new educational trends, i.e. the teaching of mathematics in the English language in monolingual Czech secondary school classrooms. To find blocks to the use of new approaches the method of unfinished…

  8. Learning as a First Language: Creating Opportunities for Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    This article describes several community colleges across the country that provide services tailored to immigrant learners. The majority of colleges offer basic English as a second language (ESL) classes, but many programs strive to do more than simply breach the language barrier. The most successful programs teach important job skills with a focus…

  9. Opinion: Language Difference in Writing--Toward a Translingual Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Bruce; Lu, Min-Zhan; Royster, Jacqueline Jones; Trimbur, John

    2011-01-01

    Arguing against the emphasis of traditional U.S. composition classes on linguistically homogeneous situations, the authors contend that this focus is at odds with actual language use today. They call for a translingual approach, which they define as seeing difference in language not as a barrier to overcome or as a problem to manage, but as a…

  10. "See Translation": Explicit and Implicit Language Policies on Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendus, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    The currently tested "See Translation" button can be considered an expression of Facebook's explicit language policy. It offers the users fast and easy translations of others' status updates and can therefore be seen as diminishing language barriers and reducing the need for a lingua franca in polylingual networks, thus enhancing…

  11. Speech and Language Therapy Intervention in Schizophrenia: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Judy; Brumfitt, Shelagh; Parks, Randolph W.; Woodruff, Peter W. R.

    2007-01-01

    Background: There is a significant body of evidence documenting the speech and language abnormalities found in adult psychiatric disorders. These speech and language impairments can create additional social barriers for the individual and may hinder effective communication in psychiatric treatment and management. However, the role of speech and…

  12. SignMT: An Alternative Language Learning Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditcharoen, Nadh; Naruedomkul, Kanlaya; Cercone, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Learning a second language is very difficult, especially, for the disabled; the disability may be a barrier to learn and to utilize information written in text form. We present the SignMT, Thai sign to Thai machine translation system, which is able to translate from Thai sign language into Thai text. In the translation process, SignMT takes into…

  13. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Issues in Second Language Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    Essays on language transfer in language learning include: excerpts from "Linguistics across Cultures" (Robert Lado); "Language Transfer" (Larry Selinker); "Goofing: An Indication of Children's Second Language Learning Strategies" (Heidi C. Dulay, Marina K. Burt); "Language Transfer and Universal Grammatical Relations" (Susan Gass); "A Role for the…

  14. Overcoming Intercultural Communication Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulbert, Jack E.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an activity that helps students overcome the multicultural barriers that might be encountered in dealing with people from various cultures in a global economy. Outlines instructions, reporting procedures, principles to emphasize, and time required for the exercise. (HB)

  15. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  16. Optimistic barrier synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.

    1992-01-01

    Barrier synchronization is fundamental operation in parallel computation. In many contexts, at the point a processor enters a barrier it knows that it has already processed all the work required of it prior to synchronization. The alternative case, when a processor cannot enter a barrier with the assurance that it has already performed all the necessary pre-synchronization computation, is treated. The problem arises when the number of pre-sychronization messages to be received by a processor is unkown, for example, in a parallel discrete simulation or any other computation that is largely driven by an unpredictable exchange of messages. We describe an optimistic O(log sup 2 P) barrier algorithm for such problems, study its performance on a large-scale parallel system, and consider extensions to general associative reductions as well as associative parallel prefix computations.

  17. Immigration, language proficiency, and autobiographical memories: Lifespan distribution and second-language access.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Alena G; Baker-Ward, Lynne

    2016-08-01

    This investigation examined two controversies in the autobiographical literature: how cross-language immigration affects the distribution of autobiographical memories across the lifespan and under what circumstances language-dependent recall is observed. Both Spanish/English bilingual immigrants and English monolingual non-immigrants participated in a cue word study, with the bilingual sample taking part in a within-subject language manipulation. The expected bump in the number of memories from early life was observed for non-immigrants but not immigrants, who reported more memories for events surrounding immigration. Aspects of the methodology addressed possible reasons for past discrepant findings. Language-dependent recall was influenced by second-language proficiency. Results were interpreted as evidence that bilinguals with high second-language proficiency, in contrast to those with lower second-language proficiency, access a single conceptual store through either language. The final multi-level model predicting language-dependent recall, including second-language proficiency, age of immigration, internal language, and cue word language, explained ¾ of the between-person variance and (1)/5 of the within-person variance. We arrive at two conclusions. First, major life transitions influence the distribution of memories. Second, concept representation across multiple languages follows a developmental model. In addition, the results underscore the importance of considering language experience in research involving memory reports.

  18. Thought beyond language: neural dissociation of algebra and natural language.

    PubMed

    Monti, Martin M; Parsons, Lawrence M; Osherson, Daniel N

    2012-08-01

    A central question in cognitive science is whether natural language provides combinatorial operations that are essential to diverse domains of thought. In the study reported here, we addressed this issue by examining the role of linguistic mechanisms in forging the hierarchical structures of algebra. In a 3-T functional MRI experiment, we showed that processing of the syntax-like operations of algebra does not rely on the neural mechanisms of natural language. Our findings indicate that processing the syntax of language elicits the known substrate of linguistic competence, whereas algebraic operations recruit bilateral parietal brain regions previously implicated in the representation of magnitude. This double dissociation argues against the view that language provides the structure of thought across all cognitive domains.

  19. Towards a Sociolinguistically Responsive Pedagogy: Teaching Second-Person Address Forms in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Compernolle, Remi A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a sociolinguistically responsive model of pedagogy situated within existing sociocultural and communicative approaches to language learning and teaching. The specific focus of the discussion is on the French pronouns of address, "tu" and "vous". The article reviews previous research on second-person address in educational and…

  20. Formal Models of Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinker, Steven

    1979-01-01

    Research addressing development of mechanistic models capable of acquiring languages on the basis of exposure to linguistic data is reviewed. Research focuses on major issues in developmental psycholinguistics--in particular, nativism and empiricism, the role of semantics and pragmatics, cognitive development, and the importance of simplified…

  1. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Barker, S.G.; McQueen, M.A.

    1996-04-16

    A portable barrier strip is described having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use. 13 figs.

  2. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Barker, Stacey G.; McQueen, Miles A.

    1996-01-01

    A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests stable in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use.

  3. Market and policy barriers to energy storage deployment :

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen B.; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie; Kirby, Brendan

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources. Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, crosscutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country. The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing. Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

  4. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF FIRE SEPARATION AND BARRIERS

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-04-17

    Fire barriers, and physical separation are key components in managing the fire risk in Nuclear Facilities. The expected performance of these features have often been predicted using rules-of-thumb or expert judgment. These approaches often lack the convincing technical bases that exist when addressing other Nuclear Facility accident events. This paper presents science-based approaches to demonstrate the effectiveness of fire separation methods.

  5. Assessing students' English language proficiency during clinical placement: A qualitative evaluation of a language framework.

    PubMed

    San Miguel, Caroline; Rogan, Fran

    2015-06-01

    The increase in nursing students for whom English is an additional language requires clinical facilitators to assess students' performance regarding clinical skills, nursing communication and English language. However, assessing language proficiency is a complex process that is often conflated with cultural norms and clinical skills, and facilitators may lack confidence in assessing English language. This paper discusses an evaluation of a set of guidelines developed in a large metropolitan Australian university to help clinical facilitators make decisions about students' English language proficiency. The study found that the guidelines were useful in helping facilitators assess English language. However, strategies to address identified language problems needed to be incorporated to enable the guidelines to also be used as a teaching tool. The study concludes that to be effective, such guidelines need embedding within a systematic approach that identifies and responds to students who may be underperforming due to a low level of English language proficiency.

  6. Assessing students' English language proficiency during clinical placement: A qualitative evaluation of a language framework.

    PubMed

    San Miguel, Caroline; Rogan, Fran

    2015-06-01

    The increase in nursing students for whom English is an additional language requires clinical facilitators to assess students' performance regarding clinical skills, nursing communication and English language. However, assessing language proficiency is a complex process that is often conflated with cultural norms and clinical skills, and facilitators may lack confidence in assessing English language. This paper discusses an evaluation of a set of guidelines developed in a large metropolitan Australian university to help clinical facilitators make decisions about students' English language proficiency. The study found that the guidelines were useful in helping facilitators assess English language. However, strategies to address identified language problems needed to be incorporated to enable the guidelines to also be used as a teaching tool. The study concludes that to be effective, such guidelines need embedding within a systematic approach that identifies and responds to students who may be underperforming due to a low level of English language proficiency. PMID:25784501

  7. The Open Translation MOOC: Creating Online Communities to Transcend Linguistic Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaven, Tita; Comas-Quinn, Anna; Hauck, Mirjam; de los Arcos, Beatriz; Lewis, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    One of the main barriers to the reuse of Open Educational Resources (OER) is language (OLnet, 2009). OER may be available but in a language that users cannot access, so a preliminary step to reuse is their translation or localization. One of the obvious solutions to the vast effort required to translate OER is to crowd-source the translation, as…

  8. Understanding novel language

    SciTech Connect

    Dejong, G.F.; Waltz, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper treats in some detail the problem of designing mechanisms that will allow one to deal with two types of novel language: (1) text requiring scheme learning; and (2) the understanding of novel metaphorical use of verbs. Schema learning is addressed by four types of processes: scheme composition, secondary effect elevation, schema alteration, and volitionalization. The processing of novel metaphors depends on a decompositional analysis of verbs into event shape diagrams, along with a matching process that uses semantic marker-like information, to construct novel meaning structures. The examples described have been chosen to be types that occur commonly, so that rules that are needed to understand them can also be used to understand a much wider range of novel language. 38 references.

  9. A Metadata Action Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Clancy, Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The data management problem comprises data processing and data tracking. Data processing is the creation of new data based on existing data sources. Data tracking consists of storing metadata descriptions of available data. This paper addresses the data management problem by casting it as an AI planning problem. Actions are data-processing commands, plans are dataflow programs and goals are metadata descriptions of desired data products. Data manipulation is simply plan generation and execution, and a key component of data tracking is inferring the effects of an observed plan. We introduce a new action language for data management domains, called ADILM. We discuss the connection between data processing and information integration and show how a language for the latter must be modified to support the former. The paper also discusses information gathering within a data-processing framework, and show how ADILM metadata expressions are a generalization of Local Completeness.

  10. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating. PMID:26420812

  11. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  12. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  13. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  14. Language Education for Intercultural Communication. Multilingual Matters 96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Dennis, Ed.; And Others

    Essays address the relationship between second language education and intercultural communication in several countries. Following an introduction are the following papers: "Second Language Learning in Belgium" (Ludo Beheydt); "Foreign Language Education in Bulgaria: Present-Day Situation and Future Tendencies" (Madeleine Danova, L.…

  15. Multilingualism in the Workplace: Language Practices in Multilingual Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angouri, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The modern workplace is international and multilingual. Both white and blue collar employees are expected to be mobile, work increasingly in (virtual) teams (Gee et al. 1996) and to address complex organisational issues in a language that, often, is not their first language (L1). This results in a number of languages forming the ecosystem of…

  16. Foundations of Refugee Rights: How Legal Language Reflects Current Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Andrew

    1996-01-01

    Addresses the recent anti-immigrant sentiment in the United States and examines the forces causing it. The article examines legal language and opinion in court cases showing shifting anti-immigrant sentiment, including the language used in California's Proposition 187, and argues that this legal language in which court decisions and legislation…

  17. Intelligent CAI: An Author Aid for a Natural Language Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Richard R.; Brown, John Seely

    This report addresses the problems of using natural language (English) as the communication language for advanced computer-based instructional systems. The instructional environment places requirements on a natural language understanding system that exceed the capabilities of all existing systems, including: (1) efficiency, (2) habitability, (3)…

  18. Under the Whole Language Umbrella: Many Cultures, Many Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flurkey, Alan D., Ed.; Meyer, Richard J., Ed.

    Originally presented at the second annual Whole Language Umbrella Conference, the 18 essays in this book address the three related themes of identity, responsibility, and practice. The essays in the book discuss how whole language is defined, and how its practitioners come to define themselves; how whole language teachers act upon their identities…

  19. Elementary Teachers' Perception of Language Issues in Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seah, Lay Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Although the importance of language in science learning has been widely recognized by researchers, there is limited research on how science teachers perceive the roles that language plays in science classrooms. As part of an intervention design project that aimed to enhance teachers' capacity to address the language demands of science, interview…

  20. The Power of Culture: Teaching across Language Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beykont, Zeynep F., Ed.

    These papers address three issues of concern to educators of language minority students: preparation of quality teachers, the effects of standardized and high-stakes testing on language learners, and specific teaching strategies that view language minority students as capable and deserving of first-class educational opportunities. After an…

  1. The Linguistic Similarities of Spanish Heritage and Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the situation of lower-proficiency heritage language learners of Spanish in terms of their linguistic similarities to second language learners. The analysis highlights grammatical and lexical features in the oral discourse of Spanish heritage and second language learners at intermediate and advanced levels of study,…

  2. Universal Reading Processes Are Modulated by Language and Writing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfetti, Charles A.; Harris, Lindsay N.

    2013-01-01

    The connections among language, writing system, and reading are part of what confronts a child in learning to read. We examine these connections in addressing how reading processes adapt to the variety of written language and how writing adapts to language. The first adaptation (reading to writing), as evidenced in behavioral and neuroscience…

  3. Immigration, Cultural-Linguistic Diversity, and Topics in Language Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Li-Rong Lilly

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes 4 topics contributed by the author over the last 30 years of "Topics in Language Disorders" that address the issues of immigration, migration, and refugees. The focus is on the historical perspectives on evolution of terminologies from limited English proficient to English language learner and English as a new language.…

  4. The Relationship between Demotivation and EFL Learners' English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Rou-Jui Sophia

    2011-01-01

    To what extent does demotivation affect EFL learners' English language proficiency attainment? The present study addresses this question by investigating the relationship between technological institute EFL students' past demotivating factors and their English language proficiency. Although the role of demotivation in foreign language achievement…

  5. Reduced barrier efficiency in axillary stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Watkinson, A; Lee, R S; Moore, A E; Pudney, P D A; Paterson, S E; Rawlings, A V

    2002-06-01

    The skin of the axilla is cosmetically important with millions of consumers daily applying antiperspirant/deodorant products. Despite this, we know virtually nothing about axillary skin or how antiperspirant (AP) use impacts upon it. To characterize the axillary stratum corneum and determine whether this is a unique skin type, we have looked at stratum corneum composition and function, particularly its barrier properties, and compared it with other body sites. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneosurfametry (CSM) revealed a reduced barrier function in the axilla. HPTLC analysis of the stratum corneum lipids demonstrated statistically elevated levels of fatty acids, ceramides, and particularly cholesterol in the axilla. Both ceramide and cholesterol did not appear to change with depth, indicating that they were predominantly of stratum corneum origin. On the other hand, at least some of the fatty acid had a sebaceous origin. We hypothesized that the reduced barrier function might be owing to the changes in the crucial ceramide : cholesterol ratio. To address this, we used a combination of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) with cyanoacrylate sampling. These results demonstrated more ordered lipid-lamellae phase behaviour in the axilla, suggesting that the elevated cholesterol might form crystal microdomains within the lipid lamellae, allowing an increase in water flux. Since an exaggerated application of antiperspirant had no effect upon the axilla barrier properties, it is concluded that this region of skin physiologically has a reduced barrier function. PMID:18498507

  6. Reduced barrier efficiency in axillary stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Watkinson, A; Lee, R S; Moore, A E; Pudney, P D A; Paterson, S E; Rawlings, A V

    2002-06-01

    The skin of the axilla is cosmetically important with millions of consumers daily applying antiperspirant/deodorant products. Despite this, we know virtually nothing about axillary skin or how antiperspirant (AP) use impacts upon it. To characterize the axillary stratum corneum and determine whether this is a unique skin type, we have looked at stratum corneum composition and function, particularly its barrier properties, and compared it with other body sites. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneosurfametry (CSM) revealed a reduced barrier function in the axilla. HPTLC analysis of the stratum corneum lipids demonstrated statistically elevated levels of fatty acids, ceramides, and particularly cholesterol in the axilla. Both ceramide and cholesterol did not appear to change with depth, indicating that they were predominantly of stratum corneum origin. On the other hand, at least some of the fatty acid had a sebaceous origin. We hypothesized that the reduced barrier function might be owing to the changes in the crucial ceramide : cholesterol ratio. To address this, we used a combination of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) with cyanoacrylate sampling. These results demonstrated more ordered lipid-lamellae phase behaviour in the axilla, suggesting that the elevated cholesterol might form crystal microdomains within the lipid lamellae, allowing an increase in water flux. Since an exaggerated application of antiperspirant had no effect upon the axilla barrier properties, it is concluded that this region of skin physiologically has a reduced barrier function.

  7. Development of the Tensoral Computer Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferziger, Joel; Dresselhaus, Eliot

    1996-01-01

    The research scientist or engineer wishing to perform large scale simulations or to extract useful information from existing databases is required to have expertise in the details of the particular database, the numerical methods and the computer architecture to be used. This poses a significant practical barrier to the use of simulation data. The goal of this research was to develop a high-level computer language called Tensoral, designed to remove this barrier. The Tensoral language provides a framework in which efficient generic data manipulations can be easily coded and implemented. First of all, Tensoral is general. The fundamental objects in Tensoral represent tensor fields and the operators that act on them. The numerical implementation of these tensors and operators is completely and flexibly programmable. New mathematical constructs and operators can be easily added to the Tensoral system. Tensoral is compatible with existing languages. Tensoral tensor operations co-exist in a natural way with a host language, which may be any sufficiently powerful computer language such as Fortran, C, or Vectoral. Tensoral is very-high-level. Tensor operations in Tensoral typically act on entire databases (i.e., arrays) at one time and may, therefore, correspond to many lines of code in a conventional language. Tensoral is efficient. Tensoral is a compiled language. Database manipulations are simplified optimized and scheduled by the compiler eventually resulting in efficient machine code to implement them.

  8. Addressing concerns and achieving expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.

    1995-12-01

    Approximately 2-1/2 years ago many of us were gathered here in Prague at a similar conference with a similar name, {open_quotes}Energy and Environment: Transitions in Eastern Europe.{close_quotes} Over 300 professionals from 26 nations attended. The objective of the conference was to: Facilitate the Solution of Long and Short Term Energy and Environmental Problems in Eastern Europe by Bringing Together People, ideas and technologies which could be applied to specific problems in a logical step-by-step manner. It was conceded at the time that the long term solution would consist of thoughtfully integrated steps and that the conference was the first step. We are here in the Czech Republic again this week to continue what was started. As before, this conference continues to: (1) Provide a forum to identify and discuss cost-effective environmentally acceptable energy and environmental technology options and their associated socioeconomic issues. (2) Stimulate the Formation of business partnerships (3) Identify key barrier issues hindering technology applications and identify implementation pathways that eliminate or avoid obstacles to progress.

  9. Dogs' Languages or People's Languages? The Return of Bantu Languages to Primary Schools in Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitoko-Nsiku, Edouard

    2007-01-01

    Following Mozambique's independence from Portugal in 1975, and a prolonged civil war which ended in 1992, the ruling party FRELIMO has striven since 1993 to implement a bilingual educational system in the country. This paper addresses the reasons underlying the leaders' choice of this system and considers the problems involved in language planning…

  10. Creativity and Language Dynamics: I--Creativity and Foreign Language Teaching. Proceedings of an AIMAV Seminar (11th, Brussels, Belgium, May 7-13, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosseel, Eddy, Ed.; Young Silva, Catherine, Ed.

    Papers in English, French, and Portuguese address topics of creativity and its relationship to: native language instruction by television; conditions of language production at the moment of the emergence of creativity; comparison teaching; foreign language teachers; modern language instruction; psychological, pedagogical, and cultural…

  11. Spoken language can have its impact on the respiratory passage.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Jyothi M P; D'Souza, Deepak Herald

    2010-07-01

    Spoken language, due its chronic impact, could be looked upon as one of the factors for its role, either in prevention or causation of respiratory illnesses. There will be variations in articulatory-aerodynamics and respiratory system dynamics among the spoken languages. Geographic variation of disease patterns and uncertain etiologies of some respiratory illnesses, which occur due to insult to the mucosal barrier or the defense mechanism of the respiratory passage, may be explained by the hypothesis of unhealthy language. Habituation to a particular spoken language could mask the symptoms of phonotrauma. Other respiratory illnesses could initiate from the phonotrauma by spoken language. There exist lacunae in the research of languages. Finding out the healthy language could mean relative freedom from respiratory illnesses. Healthy spoken language could relieve the stress on vocal cords and improve the defense mechanism of the respiratory passage.

  12. Learning How to Focus on Language While Teaching Mathematics to English Language Learners: A Case Study of Courtney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chval, Kathryn B.; Pinnow, Rachel J.; Thomas, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Research in mathematics education increasingly recognizes the role of language in the education of English language learners. However, research examining the professional growth of mathematics teachers as they learn to teach English language learners is sparse. This case study addresses this issue by examining one third grade teacher as she…

  13. Overcoming the Illiteracy Barrier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Rosemarie J.

    1984-01-01

    This article asks "How literate do workers need to be?" and suggests such measures as the widespread use of technical materials written in "plain language" and employers' offering job-related reading programs. (JB)

  14. Exploring the Further Integration of Machine Translation in English-Chinese Cross Language Information Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Dan; He, Daqing

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the further integration of machine translation technologies with cross language information access in providing web users the capabilities of accessing information beyond language barriers. Machine translation and cross language information access are related technologies, and yet they have their own unique…

  15. Standardizing Chinese Sign Language for Use in Post-Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Christina Mien-Chun; Gerner de Garcia, Barbara; Chen-Pichler, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    There are over 100 languages in China, including Chinese Sign Language. Given the large population and geographical dispersion of the country's deaf community, sign variation is to be expected. Language barriers due to lexical variation may exist for deaf college students in China, who often live outside their home regions. In presenting an…

  16. The Pursuit of Language Appropriate Care: Remote Simultaneous Medical Interpretation Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Debra M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The U.S. government mandates nurses to deliver linguistically appropriate care to hospital patients. It is difficult for nurses to implement the language mandates because there are 6,912 active living languages spoken in the world. Language barriers appear to place limited English proficient (LEP) patients at increased risk for harm…

  17. Barriers and facilitators to antiretroviral medication adherence among patients with HIV in Chennai, India: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kumarasamy, N; Safren, Steven A; Raminani, Sudha R; Pickard, Robert; James, Romola; Krishnan, A K Sri; Solomon, Suniti; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2005-08-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV is increasingly being introduced and utilized in diverse areas of the world. However, little research exists on adherence to ART in different cultural settings, particularly in developing countries such as India. This formative qualitative study examined barriers and facilitators of ART adherence among 60 (49 men, 11 women; 33 taking ART, 27 not currently taking ART) patients receiving HIV primary care at YRG CARE, a nongovernmental organization, in Chennai, India. The average participant reported becoming HIV infected through heterosexual transmission, was between 31 and 40 years old, had over ninth class standard education, was married, and generally had access to medical care; however, we obtained some qualitative data from various other risk categories. Trained ethnographers at the study site conducted in-depth interviews in the local language. These interviews were analyzed for content and ethnographic data. Almost all of the participants discussed the cost of ART as a barrier, with many reporting extended drug holidays, turning to family and/or friends, or taking drastic measures (i.e., selling family jewels, property) for financial assistance. Other barriers centered on privacy and stigma issues, such as disclosure of HIV inhibiting pill-taking and social support. Frequently discussed facilitators of adherence included perceived benefits of ART and proper adherence, perceptions about the consequences of nonadherence, and social support, if available. These data highlight the importance of reducing the cost of antiretroviral medications, involving family members in HIV care, and addressing privacy issues and stigma in counseling interventions in this setting.

  18. BARRIERS TO DRUG ABUSE TREATMENT FOR LATINO MIGRANTS: TREATMENT PROVIDERS’ PERSPECTIVES1

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper disseminates findings from a pilot study undertaken to learn more about treatment providers’ perceptions of treatment access barriers faced by Latino migrants with substance use disorders (SUDs) in Northern California. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with treatment providers (n=11) at 7 residential treatment programs with Spanish-language services. Interviewees identified and described three primary types of treatment barriers: language, legal, and gender-based. In response to these barriers, Latino migrants with SUDs have opened their own residential recovery houses called anexos (annexes). Collaborative efforts by community clinics and public health agencies are needed to facilitate Latino migrants’ access to SUD treatment. PMID:25176120

  19. A Typology of Career Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Hee; Yu, Kumlan; Lee, Sang Min

    2008-01-01

    While most studies have focused primarily on the correlates of career barriers, research examining specific career barrier typology experienced among college students remains limited. Employing cluster analysis, this study explored the career barrier typology of 318 college students using the Korean college students' Career Barrier Inventory…

  20. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    DOEpatents

    Shurter, R.P.

    1992-09-15

    A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput. 3 figs.

  1. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    DOEpatents

    Shurter, Roger P.

    1992-01-01

    A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput.

  2. Endangered Languages: Language Loss and Community Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenoble, Lenore A., Ed.; Whaley, Lindsay J., Ed.

    This edited volume provides an overview of issues surrounding language loss from sociological, economic, and linguistic perspectives. Four parts cover general issues in language loss; language-community responses, including native language instruction in school, community, and home; the value of language diversity and what is lost when a language…

  3. Literacy and children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Schuele, C Melanie; Spencer, Elizabeth J; Barako-Arndt, Karen; Guillot, Kathryn M

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize the literacy outcomes for children with specific language impairment and to consider principles and approaches for literacy intervention with preschool and early school-age children with language impairments. Initially, specific language impairment is defined and differentiated from nonspecific language impairment. In addressing intervention considerations, we first consider the application of best practice principles and then specifically focus on intervention with preschool children and intervention with early school-age children. Consideration of evidence-based treatment approaches is guided by the developmental literature and by the intervention literature. PMID:17340381

  4. Non-European nurses' perceived barriers to UK nurse registration.

    PubMed

    Allan, Helen; Westwood, Sue

    2016-05-11

    Aim To conduct a scoping project to identify perceived barriers to UK nurse registration as experienced by internationally educated nurses working as healthcare assistants in the UK. Method Eleven internationally educated nurses working as healthcare assistants in two London hospitals attended two facilitated focus groups. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings Study participants articulated frustration with UK English language testing requirements and a sense of injustice and unfairness relating to: double standards for nurses educated within and outside of the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA); and what was perceived, by some, as arbitrary English language testing with unnecessarily high standards. Differences among study participants related to issues of competency and accountability regarding English language skills and passing English language skills tests, with many feeling they were playing 'a game' where the rules kept changing. Conclusion Language testing barriers are impeding UK nurse registration for some internationally educated nurses from outside the EU and EEA who, as a result, are working as healthcare assistants. The provision of English language training by employers would improve their prospects of achieving nurse registration.

  5. Micro heat barrier

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, Albert C.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Tigges, Chris P.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    2003-08-12

    A highly effective, micron-scale micro heat barrier structure and process for manufacturing a micro heat barrier based on semiconductor and/or MEMS fabrication techniques. The micro heat barrier has an array of non-metallic, freestanding microsupports with a height less than 100 microns, attached to a substrate. An infrared reflective membrane (e.g., 1 micron gold) can be supported by the array of microsupports to provide radiation shielding. The micro heat barrier can be evacuated to eliminate gas phase heat conduction and convection. Semi-isotropic, reactive ion plasma etching can be used to create a microspike having a cusp-like shape with a sharp, pointed tip (<0.1 micron), to minimize the tip's contact area. A heat source can be placed directly on the microspikes. The micro heat barrier can have an apparent thermal conductivity in the range of 10.sup.-6 to 10.sup.-7 W/m-K. Multiple layers of reflective membranes can be used to increase thermal resistance.

  6. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  7. Changing concepts: the presidential address.

    PubMed

    Weed, J C

    1974-09-01

    A discussion of conceptual change in areas related to fertility and medicine is presented in an address by the president of the American Fertility Society. Advances in technological research and medicine, particularly in steroids and reporductive physiology, have been the most readily acceptable changes. Cesarean section and surgical sterilization have also become increasingly accepted. Newer developments such as sperm banks, artificial insemination, and ovum transfer have created profound ethical, moral, and medical issued in human engineering research and evolutionary theory. The legalization of abortion has brought moral, ethical, and legal problems for many members of the medical profession. It is urged that the Society promote education of the people in reproductive function, sexual activity, and parental obligation while being acutely aware of the problems in influencing or altering human reproduction.

  8. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  9. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  10. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. How do hospitalised patients with Turkish migration background estimate their language skills and their comprehension of medical information – a prospective cross-sectional study and comparison to native patients in Germany to assess the language barrier and the need for translation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Today more than two million people with Turkish migration background live in Germany making them the largest ethnic minority in the country. Data concerning language skills and the perception of medical information in hospitalised patients with Turkish migration background (T) are scarce. Our study is the first to gather quantitative information on this important subject. Methods T and hospitalised German patients without migration background (G) of our university hospital were prospectively included into a cross-sectional study and completed a questionnaire - each group in the appropriate language (T: Turkish, G: German). Results 121 T and 121 G were included. Groups significantly differed in age (T: 44.9 ± 17.8, G: 56.9 ± 16.7y) and proportion of males (T: 37.2, G: 54.5%) but not regarding the proportion of college graduates (T: 19.3, G: 15.7%). The majority of T was born in Turkey (71%) and is of Turkish nationality (66%). 74% of T speak mainly Turkish at home; however, 73% speak German at work. 74.4% of T self-rated their German linguistic proficiency as “average” or better while 25.6% reported it as “very bad” or “bad”. 10.7% of T need translation in order to pursue everyday activities. T were significantly less satisfied with the physician’s information on disease and estimated to understand significantly less of what the physician told them: 46.3% of T estimated their reception of the physician’s information to be “average” or worse. 43.3% of T had the impression that it would have helped them “much” or “very much” to be aided by an interpreter at the hospital. The information transmitted while giving informed consent to invasive medical procedure was judged to be “mostly” or “completely” sufficient by the majority of T (76%) and G (89.8%). In this setting 37 of 96 T (38.5%) reported being helped by an interpreter – in most cases (64.9%) a family member. Conclusion Although the majority of

  12. Isolation by language and distance in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Barrai, I; Rodriguez-Larralde, A; Manni, F; Ruggiero, V; Tartari, D; Scapoli, C

    2004-01-01

    The isonymy structure of trilingual Belgium was studied using the surname distributions for 1,118,004 private telephone users. The users were distributed in 77 Flemish, 76 French, and 3 German speaking towns, selected on a geographic basis to form an approximately regular grid over Belgium. Lasker's distance was found to be considerably higher between languages than within languages. For the whole of Belgium, irrespective of language, it was highly correlated with linear geographic distance, with r = 0.721+/-0.014, which is the highest correlation observed in European countries to date. Within Belgium and within languages, the correlation was highest among the Flemish (r = 0.878 +/- 0.007), and lowest among the French (r = 0.631+/-0.020). Isolation by distance in Belgium is the highest we have found in Europe, and as high as in Switzerland where the different languages are separated by geographical barriers. This is not the case in Belgium, so that the considerable isolating power of languages emerges clearly from the present analysis. From the comparison of Lasker's distance between (9.48) and within (8.16) languages, and from its regression over geographic distance (b = 0.01206), it was possible to establish a quantitative relationship between the isolating power of languages and that of geographic distance as (9.48-8.16)/0.01206 = 109 kilometres. This transformation of language distance into an equivalent geographic distance, given here for Belgium, can be applied to any similar geo-linguistic situation. PMID:14748826

  13. Method of installing subsurface barrier

    DOEpatents

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Richardson, John G.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Sloan, Paul A.

    2007-10-09

    Systems, components, and methods relating to subterranean containment barriers. Laterally adjacent tubular casings having male interlock structures and multiple female interlock structures defining recesses for receiving a male interlock structure are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The multiple female interlock structures enable the barriers to be varied around subsurface objects and to form barrier sidewalls. The barrier may be used for treating and monitoring a zone of interest.

  14. Including Language Access into Medicaid ACO Design.

    PubMed

    Gershon, Rachel; Morris, Lisa; Ferguson, Warren

    2016-09-01

    Quality health care relies upon communication in a patient's preferred language. Language access in health care occurs when individuals are: (1) Welcomed by providers regardless of language ability; and (2) Offered quality language services as part of their care. Federal law generally requires access to health care and quality language services for deaf and Limited English Proficient (LEP) patients in health care settings, but these patients still find it hard to access health care and quality language services.Meanwhile, several states are implementing Medicaid Accountable Care Organization (ACO) initiatives to reduce health care costs and improve health care quality. Alternative payment methods used in these initiatives can give Accountable Care Organizations more flexibility to design linguistically accessible care, but they can also put ACOs at increased financial risk for the cost of care. If these new payment methods do not account for differences in patient language needs, ACO initiatives could have the unintended consequence of rewarding ACOs who do not reach out to deaf and LEP communities or offer quality language services.We reviewed public documents related to Medicaid ACO initiatives in six states. Some of these documents address language access. More could be done, however, to pay for language access efforts. This article describes Medicaid ACO initiatives and explores how different payment tools could be leveraged to reward ACOs for increased access to care and quality language services. We find that a combination of payment tools might be helpful to encourage both access and quality. PMID:27587453

  15. Skin barrier in rosacea*

    PubMed Central

    Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies about the cutaneous barrier demonstrated consistent evidence that the stratum corneum is a metabolically active structure and also has adaptive functions, may play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response with activation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis and fibroplasia, whose intensity depends primarily on the intensity the stimulus. There are few studies investigating the abnormalities of the skin barrier in rosacea, but the existing data already show that there are changes resulting from inflammation, which can generate a vicious circle caused a prolongation of flare-ups and worsening of symptoms. This article aims to gather the most relevant literature data about the characteristics and effects of the state of the skin barrier in rosacea. PMID:26982780

  16. Skin barrier in rosacea.

    PubMed

    Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies about the cutaneous barrier demonstrated consistent evidence that the stratum corneum is a metabolically active structure and also has adaptive functions, may play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response with activation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis and fibroplasia, whose intensity depends primarily on the intensity the stimulus. There are few studies investigating the abnormalities of the skin barrier in rosacea, but the existing data already show that there are changes resulting from inflammation, which can generate a vicious circle caused a prolongation of flare-ups and worsening of symptoms. This article aims to gather the most relevant literature data about the characteristics and effects of the state of the skin barrier in rosacea. PMID:26982780

  17. Thermal barrier coating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A high temperature oxidation resistant, thermal barrier coating system is disclosed for a nickel cobalt, or iron base alloy substrate. An inner metal bond coating contacts the substrate, and a thermal barrier coating covers the bond coating. NiCrAlR, FeCrAlR, and CoCrAlR alloys are satisfactory as bond coating compositions where R=Y or Yb. These alloys contain, by weight, 24.9-36.7% chromium, 5.4-18.5% aluminum, and 0.05 to 1.55% yttrium or 0.05 to 0.53% ytterbium. The coatings containing ytterbium are preferred over those containing yttrium. An outer thermal barrier coating of partial stabilized zirconium oxide (zirconia) which is between 6% and 8%, by weight, of yttrium oxide (yttria) covers the bond coating. Partial stabilization provides a material with superior durability. Partially stabilized zirconia consists of mixtures of cubic, tetragonal, and monoclinic phases.

  18. Learning how to focus on language while teaching mathematics to English language learners: a case study of Courtney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chval, Kathryn B.; Pinnow, Rachel J.; Thomas, Amanda

    2015-03-01

    Research in mathematics education increasingly recognizes the role of language in the education of English language learners. However, research examining the professional growth of mathematics teachers as they learn to teach English language learners is sparse. This case study addresses this issue by examining one third grade teacher as she learned how to focus on language as she designed and taught mathematics lessons to facilitate the participation of English language learners. Data sources consist of audio recordings of interviews, lesson planning sessions, and lesson debrief sessions as well as video recordings of mathematics lessons. The results from this study demonstrate the importance of professional development that emphasizes language in the teaching of mathematics. As the teacher began to learn about the components of the intervention, she developed specialized knowledge and competencies so that she was able to address language planning and development that was necessary to successfully teach mathematics to English language learners.

  19. The cognitive neuroscience of signed language.

    PubMed

    Rönnberg, J; Söderfeldt, B; Risberg, J

    2000-12-01

    The present article is an assessment of the current state of knowledge in the field of cognitive neuroscience of signed language. Reviewed lesion data show that the left hemisphere is dominant for perception and production of signed language in aphasics, in a fashion similar to spoken language aphasia. Several neuropsychological dissociations support this claim: Non-linguistic visuospatial functions can be dissociated from spatial functions and general motor deficits can be dissociated from execution of signs. Reviewed imaging data corroborate the lesion data in that the importance of the left hemisphere is re-confirmed. The data also establish the role of the right hemisphere in signed language processing. Alternative hypotheses regarding what aspects of signed language processing are handled by the right hemisphere are currently tested. The second section of the paper starts by addressing the role that early acquisition of signed and spoken language play for the neurofunctional activation patterns in the brain. Compensatory cognitive and communicative enhancements have also been documented as a function of early sign language use, suggesting an interesting interaction between language and cognition. Recent behavioural data on sign processing in working memory--a cognitive system important for language perception and production suggest e.g. phonological loop effects analogous to those obtained for speech processing. Neuroimaging studies will have to address this potential communality. PMID:11194414

  20. Curriculum, Competence, and the Foreign Language Teacher. The ACTFL Foreign Language Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Theodore V., Ed.

    The articles in this book address some of the major issues facing foreign language teachers in the next decade. These issues grow out of the concepts that received most attention in the 1970s: communicative competence, alternatives to traditional instruction, articulation of the curriculum in view of realities in U.S. foreign language departments,…

  1. Natural Language Processing Techniques in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Status and Instructional Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, V. Melissa; Kaplan, Jonathan D.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the role of natural language processing (NLP) techniques, such as parsing and semantic analysis, within current language tutoring systems. Examines trends, design issues and tradeoffs, and potential contributions of NLP techniques with respect to instructional theory and educational practice. Addresses limitations and problems in using…

  2. Parent and Teacher Rating of Bilingual Language Proficiency and Language Development Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Joyner, Debbie; Macken, Candace

    2011-01-01

    Educators of young children, including speech-language pathologists, are often uncertain as to how to effectively work with children from diverse backgrounds because they do not know enough about cultural and linguistic diversity and its impact on language development. The current study helps to address this gap by examining the validity of parent…

  3. The Role of Language Learning Progressions in Improved Instruction and Assessment of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Alison L.; Heritage, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses theoretical and empirical issues relevant for the development and evaluation of language learning progressions. The authors explore how learning progressions aligned with new content standards can form a central basis of efforts to describe the English language needed in school contexts for learning, instruction, and…

  4. Culture, Language, Pedagogy: The Place of Culture in Language Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, Richard; MacDonald, Malcolm N.

    2007-01-01

    The principles of many international language teacher education programmes are grounded in a relatively homogenous set of "Western" cultural values, even though their participants come from a wide range of different cultural backgrounds. This paper addresses some of the issues surrounding the role of culture in language teacher education and…

  5. Native North American Language Instruction Offered at Institutions of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Patricia Cahape

    This directory lists colleges and universities in the United States and Canada that offer courses in 51 Native American languages. Entries are organized under language headings and include the name and address of the institution, contact person, telephone number, fax number, and E-mail address. Language headings are Anishinabe, Apache, Arapaho,…

  6. Thermal Barrier Coating Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, W. J. (Compiler); Lee, W. Y. (Compiler); Goedjen, J. G. (Compiler); Dapkunas, S. J. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains the agenda and presentation abstracts for the Thermal Barrier Coating Workshop, sponsored by NASA, DOE, and NIST. The workshop covered thermal barrier coating (TBC) issues related to applications, processing, properties, and modeling. The intent of the workshop was to highlight the state of knowledge on TBC's and to identify critical gaps in knowledge that may hinder TBC use in advanced applications. The workshop goals were achieved through presentations by 22 speakers representing industry, academia, and government as well as through extensive discussion periods.

  7. Barrier RF stacking

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou and Akira Takagi

    2003-02-24

    This paper introduces a new method for stacking beams in the longitudinal phase space. It uses RF barriers to confine and compress beams in an accelerator, provided that the machine momentum acceptance is a few times larger than the momentum spread of the injected beam. This is the case for the Fermilab Main Injector. A barrier RF system employing Finemet cores and high-voltage solid-state switches is under construction. The goal is to double the number of protons per cycle on the production target for Run2 and NuMI experiments.

  8. Ice barrier construction

    SciTech Connect

    Finucane, R. G.; Jahns, H. O.

    1985-06-18

    A method is provided for constructing spray ice barriers to protect offshore structures in a frigid body of water from mobile ice, waves and currents. Water is withdrawn from the body of water and is sprayed through ambient air which is below the freezing temperature of the water so that a substantial amount of the water freezes as it passes through the air. The sprayed water is directed to build up a mass of ice having a size and shape adapted to protect the offshore structure. Spray ice barriers can also be constructed for the containment of pollutant spills.

  9. An address geocoding method for improving rural spatial information infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuchun; Chen, Baisong; Lu, Zhou; Li, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhou, YanBing

    2010-11-01

    The transition of rural and agricultural management from divisional to integrated mode has highlighted the importance of data integration and sharing. Current data are mostly collected by specific department to satisfy their own needs and lake of considering on wider potential uses. This led to great difference in data format, semantic, and precision even in same area, which is a significant barrier for constructing an integrated rural spatial information system to support integrated management and decision-making. Considering the rural cadastral management system and postal zones, the paper designs a rural address geocoding method based on rural cadastral parcel. It puts forward a geocoding standard which consists of absolute position code, relative position code and extended code. It designs a rural geocoding database model, and addresses collection and update model. Then, based on the rural address geocoding model, it proposed a data model for rural agricultural resources management. The results show that the address coding based on postal code is stable and easy to memorize, two-dimensional coding based on the direction and distance is easy to be located and memorized, while extended code can enhance the extensibility and flexibility of address geocoding.

  10. An address geocoding method for improving rural spatial information infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuchun; Chen, Baisong; Lu, Zhou; Li, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhou, Yanbing

    2009-09-01

    The transition of rural and agricultural management from divisional to integrated mode has highlighted the importance of data integration and sharing. Current data are mostly collected by specific department to satisfy their own needs and lake of considering on wider potential uses. This led to great difference in data format, semantic, and precision even in same area, which is a significant barrier for constructing an integrated rural spatial information system to support integrated management and decision-making. Considering the rural cadastral management system and postal zones, the paper designs a rural address geocoding method based on rural cadastral parcel. It puts forward a geocoding standard which consists of absolute position code, relative position code and extended code. It designs a rural geocoding database model, and addresses collection and update model. Then, based on the rural address geocoding model, it proposed a data model for rural agricultural resources management. The results show that the address coding based on postal code is stable and easy to memorize, two-dimensional coding based on the direction and distance is easy to be located and memorized, while extended code can enhance the extensibility and flexibility of address geocoding.

  11. Conceptual barriers to understanding physical barriers

    PubMed Central

    Lingaraju, Amulya; Long, Tiha M.; Wang, Yitang; Austin, Jotham R.; Turner, Jerrold R.

    2015-01-01

    The members of the large family of claudin proteins regulate ion and water flux across the tight junction. Many claudins, e.g. claudins 2 and 15, accomplish this by forming size- and charge-selective paracellular channels. Claudins also appear to be essential for genesis of tight junction strands and recruitment of other proteins to these sites. What is less clear is whether claudins also form the paracellular seal. While this seal is defective when claudins are disrupted, some results, including ultrastructural and biochemical data, suggest that lipid structures are an important component of tight junction strands and may be responsible for the paracellular seal. This review highlights the current knowledge of claudins to barrier function and tight junction structure and suggests a model by which claudins and other tight junction proteins can drive assembly and stabilization of a lipid-based strand structure. PMID:26003050

  12. Age and Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collard, Lucien

    1977-01-01

    An investigation of the differences between first and second language acquisition and the relationship between age and second language learning. The stages in native language acquisition and the advantages of an early start in second language learning are discussed. (AMH)

  13. Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    The language arts course content guides presented in this manual cover English, oral communications, and journalism in grades 9-12 and provide a framework from which a curriculum can be built. Within each subject area and at each grade level, skills are identified at three instructional levels: basic, developmental, and extension. The basic skills…

  14. Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keener, Paul L.

    Capitalizing on the resources available in an urban city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) presents a resource list and objectives and activities relative to teaching language arts (reading, English, listening, speaking, and writing). The resource list is comprised of approximately 150 physical facilities (e.g.,…

  15. Language Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the role of linguistics in the investigation of language disorders, focusing on the application of phonetics, descriptive grammatic frameworks, grammatical theory, and concepts from semantics and pragmatics to a variety of disorders and their remediation. Some trends and examples from the field of clinical linguistics are discussed. (GLR)

  16. Language Policy, Language Use and English Language Teaching in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parasher, S. V.

    This paper evaluates the language policy of India and its implementation with a special focus on English language teaching (ELT). In the first part of the paper, India's language policy is chronicled from the pre-independence period through the nationalist movement and post-independence era, with attention to the language policies of the…

  17. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications. PMID:21193369

  18. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development. PMID:12032502

  19. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications.

  20. Gender: addressing a critical focus.

    PubMed

    Thornton, L; Wegner, M N

    1995-01-01

    The definition of gender was addressed at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China). After extensive debate, the definition developed by the UN Population Fund in 1995 was adopted: "a set of qualities and behaviors expected from a female or male by society." The sustainability of family planning (FP) programs depends on acknowledgment of the role gender plays in contraceptive decision-making and use. For example, programs must consider the fact that women in many cultures do not make FP decisions without the consent of their spouse. AVSC is examining providers' gender-based ideas about clients and the effects of these views on the quality of reproductive health services. Questions such as how service providers can encourage joint responsibility for contraception without requiring spousal consent or how they can make men feel comfortable about using a male method in a society where FP is considered a woman's issue are being discussed. Also relevant is how service providers can discuss sexual matters openly with female clients in cultures that do not allow women to enjoy their sexuality. Another concern is the potential for physical violence to a client as a result of the provision of FP services. PMID:12294397

  1. Le Francais parle. Etudes sociolinguistiques (Spoken French. Sociolinguistic Studies). Current Inquiry into Languages and Linguistics 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibault, Pierrette

    This volume contains twelve articles dealing with the French language as spoken in Quebec. The following topics are addressed: (1) language change and variation; (2) coordinating expressions in the French spoken in Montreal; (3) expressive language as source of language change; (4) the role of correction in conversation; (5) social change and…

  2. Effects of Feedback Intervention on Team-Teaching in English Language Classrooms in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anani, Oluwabunmi Ahoefa; Badaki, Jude Valentine; Kamai, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The typical Nigerian English language classroom has a large class size and lacks qualified language teachers. These factors reflect in the quality and quantity of teaching in the English as a Second Language classroom. Team teaching or co-teaching is an intervention strategy which language teachers can use to address these issues. Not only does…

  3. Status of Tamil Language in Singapore: An Analysis of Family Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadakara, Shanmugam

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the phenomenon of Language Maintenance and Language Shift through a qualitative study of Tamil language in the family domain in Singapore. The influence of Singapore's bilingual policy and the institutional support offered for maintenance of Tamil language provide the context in which the central research problem of the status…

  4. The Fission Barrier Landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Phair, L.; Moretto, L. G.

    2008-04-17

    Fission excitation functions have been measured for a chain of neighboring compound nuclei from {sup 207}Po to {sup 212}Po. We present a new analysis which provides a determination of the fission barriers and ground state shell effects with nearly spectroscopic accuracy. The accuracy achieved in this analysis may lead to a future detailed exploration of the saddle mass surface and its spectroscopy.

  5. Thermal barrier coating

    DOEpatents

    Bowker, Jeffrey Charles; Sabol, Stephen M.; Goedjen, John G.

    2001-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

  6. Research barriers in psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Cole, J O

    1977-08-01

    The author discusses barriers to psychopahrmacological research, including attacks by vocal human rights groups, regulation by local review boards, and Department of Health, Education, and Welfare restrictions. He suggests that those patients least able to give informed consent are most in need of the benefits of research on new drugs.

  7. Thermal barrier coating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An oxide thermal barrier coating comprises ZrO3-Yb2O3 that is plasma sprayed onto a previously applied bond coating. The zirconia is partially stabilized with about 124 w/o ytterbia to insure cubic, monoclinic, and terragonal phases.

  8. Barrier Free Site Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Richard K., Ed.

    The booklet provides information for the design and evaluation of a barrier free outdoor environment for handicapped individuals. Section 1 discusses the scope of the study, defines terms, cites pertinent laws and legislation, describes cost/benefit factors, and surveys population statistics. Section 2 considers recommended design details in the…

  9. Breaking Down Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Beverly T.

    1994-01-01

    Faculty at 11 higher education institutions in California, New Mexico, Texas, and northern Mexico have been experimenting with computer conferencing on the BESTNET (Bilingual English-Spanish Telecommunications Network). The growing system is credited with creating an international student-faculty community that crosses cultural barriers for…

  10. Barriers Regarding Using Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekenoogen, John Russell

    2014-01-01

    The University of Florida (UF) used an open-source course management system (CMS) called Sakai. Sakai was the fourth CMS the university has used to help teach live, blended (or hybrid), and online courses over the past ten years. The objective of this dissertation was to identify what barriers may be preventing university personnel from using…

  11. Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A better than average view of the Great Barrier Reef was captured by SeaWiFS on a recent overpass. There is sunglint northeast of the reef and there appears to be some sort of filamentous bloom in the Capricorn Channel.

  12. The Dynamics of Second Language Emergence: Cycles of Language Use, Language Change, and Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick C.

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines an emergentist account whereby the limited end-state typical of adult second language learners results from dynamic cycles of language use, language change, language perception, and language learning in the interactions of members of language communities. In summary, the major processes are: 1. "Usage leads to change": High…

  13. Spatial Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Zhengling

    2016-01-01

    Spatial language constitutes part of the basic fabric of language. Although languages may have the same number of terms to cover a set of spatial relations, they do not always do so in the same way. Spatial languages differ across languages quite radically, thus providing a real semantic challenge for second language learners. The essay first…

  14. Language and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…

  15. Major lessons learned from a nationally-based community-academic partnership: addressing sibling adjustment to childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Long, Kristin A; Goldish, Melanie; Lown, E Anne; Ostrowski, Nancy L; Alderfer, Melissa A; Marsland, Anna L; Ring, Sandra; Skala, Suzanne; Ewing, Linda J

    2015-03-01

    Prolonged, intensive treatment protocols for childhood cancer disrupt family routines and daily functioning, with effects extending to all family members. Despite their unique needs, siblings of children with cancer receive limited attention from community organizations and researchers. Community-academic partnerships may foster research that effectively assesses and addresses siblings' unmet needs. In this article, "community" refers to siblings of children with cancer who participate in SuperSibs!, a national nonprofit organization for siblings of children with cancer. This article (a) describes a replicable model for successful community-academic partnerships: the Sibling Research Advisory Board (SRAB) and (b) articulates "lessons learned" from this partnership, including documenting the ability to recruit a representative sample through a community organization. Lessons emerged from an iterative process of discussion and revision that involved all SRAB members. This case study describes approaches to overcoming practical obstacles in community-partnered research planning and implementation. To meet the common goals of identifying and addressing unmet sibling needs, SRAB partners learned to establish a common language, identify each team member's unique expertise, and acknowledge differences in approach (e.g., methodology, pace of accomplishment) between research and community service. SRAB's ability to recruit a representative sample was achieved through close collaboration with SuperSibs! and implementation of active recruitment strategies to overcome barriers to research participation. Protection of community member privacy was emphasized alongside methodological rigor. Community-academic partnerships enable research with high-need, hard-to-access populations. Proactively identifying and addressing common pitfalls of community-academic partnerships promotes community engagement and acceptability and facilitates high-quality research.

  16. Language Acquisition Is Language Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Stephen; Goro, Takuya; Thornton, Rosalind

    2006-01-01

    According to the theory of Universal Grammar, the primary linguistic data guides children through an innately specified space of hypotheses. On this view, similarities between child-English and adult-German are as unsurprising as similarities between cousins who have never met. By contrast, experience-based approaches to language acquisition…

  17. "What I Wish You Knew": Social Barriers toward Physical Activity in Youth with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moola, Fiona; Fusco, Caroline; Kirsh, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the benefits of physical activity for youth with congenital heart disease (CHD), most patients are inactive. Although literature has addressed medical and psychological barriers to participation, little is known about the social barriers that youth encounter. This qualitative study explored sociocultural barriers to physical activity from…

  18. Stability of barrier buckets with short barrier separations

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    A barrier bucket with very short or zero rf-barrier separation (relative to the barrier widths) has its synchrotron tune decreasing from a very large value towards the bucket boundary. As a result, chaotic region may form near the bucket center and extends outward under increasing modulation of rf voltage and/or rf phase. Application is made to those barrier buckets used in momentum mining at the Fermilab Recycler Ring.

  19. Consumer-Involved Participatory Research to Address General Medical Health and Wellness in a Community Mental Health Setting.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Sharat P; Pancake, Laura S; Dandino, Elizabeth S; Wells, Kenneth B

    2015-12-01

    Barriers to sustainably implementing general medical interventions in community mental health (CMH) settings include role uncertainty, consumer engagement, workforce limitations, and sustainable reimbursement. To address these barriers, this project used a community-partnered participatory research framework to create a stakeholder-based general medical and wellness intervention in a large CMH organization, with consumers involved in all decision-making processes. Consumers faced practical barriers to participating in organizational decision making, but their narratives were critical in establishing priorities and ensuring sustainability. Addressing baseline knowledge and readiness of stakeholders and functional challenges to consumer involvement can aid stakeholder-based approaches to implementing general medical interventions in CMH settings.

  20. Healthcare barriers of refugees post-resettlement.

    PubMed

    Morris, Meghan D; Popper, Steve T; Rodwell, Timothy C; Brodine, Stephanie K; Brouwer, Kimberly C

    2009-12-01

    The majority of refugees spend the greater part of their lives in refugee camps before repatriation or resettlement to a host country. Limited resources and stress during residence in refugee camps can lead to a variety of acute and chronic diseases which often persist upon resettlement. However, for most resettled refugees little is known about their health needs beyond a health assessment completed upon entry. We conducted a qualitative pilot-study in San Diego County, the third largest area in California, USA for resettling refugees, to explore health care access issues of refugees after governmental assistance has ended. A total of 40 guided in-depth interviews were conducted with a targeted sample of informants (health care practitioners, employees of refugee serving organizations, and recent refugee arrivals) familiar with the health needs of refugees. Interviews revealed that the majority of refugees do not regularly access health services. Beyond individual issues, emerging themes indicated that language and communication affect all stages of health care access--from making an appointment to filling out a prescription. Acculturation presented increased stress, isolation, and new responsibilities. Additionally, cultural beliefs about health care directly affected refugees' expectation of care. These barriers contribute to delayed care and may directly influence refugee short- and long-term health. Our findings suggest the need for additional research into contextual factors surrounding health care access barriers, and the best avenues to reduce such barriers and facilitate access to existing services.

  1. Educating patients: understanding barriers, learning styles, and teaching techniques.

    PubMed

    Beagley, Linda

    2011-10-01

    Health care delivery and education has become a challenge for providers. Nurses and other professionals are challenged daily to assure that the patient has the necessary information to make informed decisions. Patients and their families are given a multitude of information about their health and commonly must make important decisions from these facts. Obstacles that prevent easy delivery of health care information include literacy, culture, language, and physiological barriers. It is up to the nurse to assess and evaluate the patient's learning needs and readiness to learn because everyone learns differently. This article will examine how each of these barriers impact care delivery along with teaching and learning strategies will be examined.

  2. Addressing Disparities in Stroke Prevention for Atrial Fibrillation: Educational Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Karcher, Rachel; Berman, Adam E; Gross, Hartmut; Hess, David C; Jauch, Edward C; Viser, Paul E; Solenski, Nina J; Wolf, Andrew M D

    2016-07-01

    Disparities in atrial fibrillation (AF)-related stroke and mortality persist, especially racial disparities, within the US "Stroke Belt." This study identified barriers to optimal stroke prevention to develop a framework for clinician education. A comprehensive educational needs assessment was developed focusing on clinicians within the Stroke Belt. The mixed qualitative-quantitative approach included regional surveys and one-on-one clinician interviews. Identified contributors to disparities included implicit racial biases, lack of awareness of racial disparities in AF stroke risk, and lack of effective multicultural awareness and training. Additional barriers affecting disparities included patient medical mistrust and clinician-patient communication challenges. General barriers included lack of consistency in assessing stroke and anticoagulant-related bleeding risk, underuse of standardized risk assessment tools, discomfort with novel anticoagulants, and patient education deficiencies. Effective cultural competency training is one strategy to reduce disparities in AF-related stroke and mortality by improving implicit clinician bias, addressing medical mistrust, and improving clinician-patient communication. PMID:25788477

  3. Addressing Disparities in Stroke Prevention for Atrial Fibrillation: Educational Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Karcher, Rachel; Berman, Adam E; Gross, Hartmut; Hess, David C; Jauch, Edward C; Viser, Paul E; Solenski, Nina J; Wolf, Andrew M D

    2016-07-01

    Disparities in atrial fibrillation (AF)-related stroke and mortality persist, especially racial disparities, within the US "Stroke Belt." This study identified barriers to optimal stroke prevention to develop a framework for clinician education. A comprehensive educational needs assessment was developed focusing on clinicians within the Stroke Belt. The mixed qualitative-quantitative approach included regional surveys and one-on-one clinician interviews. Identified contributors to disparities included implicit racial biases, lack of awareness of racial disparities in AF stroke risk, and lack of effective multicultural awareness and training. Additional barriers affecting disparities included patient medical mistrust and clinician-patient communication challenges. General barriers included lack of consistency in assessing stroke and anticoagulant-related bleeding risk, underuse of standardized risk assessment tools, discomfort with novel anticoagulants, and patient education deficiencies. Effective cultural competency training is one strategy to reduce disparities in AF-related stroke and mortality by improving implicit clinician bias, addressing medical mistrust, and improving clinician-patient communication.

  4. Protection against malevolent use of vehicles at Nuclear Power Plants. Vehicle barrier system selection guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Nebuda, D.T.

    1994-08-01

    This manual provides a simplified procedure for selecting land vehicle barriers that will stop the design basis vehicle threat adopted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Proper selection and construction of vehicle barriers should prevent intrusion of the design basis vehicle. In addition, vital safety related equipment should survive a design basis vehicle bomb attack when vehicle barriers are properly selected, sited, and constructed. This manual addresses passive vehicle barriers, active vehicle barriers, and site design features that can be used to reduce vehicle impact velocity.

  5. Chaotic correlations in barrier billiards with arbitrary barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osbaldestin, A. H.; Adamson, L. N. C.

    2013-06-01

    We study autocorrelation functions in symmetric barrier billiards for golden mean trajectories with arbitrary barriers. Renormalization analysis reveals the presence of a chaotic invariant set and thus that, for a typical barrier, there are chaotic correlations. The chaotic renormalization set is the analogue of the so-called orchid that arises in a generalized Harper equation.

  6. Restaurant employees' perceptions of barriers to three food safety practices.

    PubMed

    Howells, Amber D; Roberts, Kevin R; Shanklin, Carol W; Pilling, Valerie K; Brannon, Laura A; Barrett, Betsy B

    2008-08-01

    Limited research has been conducted to assess employees' perceptions of barriers to implementing food safety practices. Focus groups were conducted with two groups of restaurant employees to identify perceived barriers to implementing three food safety practices: handwashing, using thermometers, and cleaning work surfaces. Ten focus groups were conducted with 34 employees who did not receive training (Group A). Twenty focus groups were conducted with 125 employees after they had participated in a formal ServSafe training program (Group B). The following barriers were identified in at least one focus group in both Group A and Group B for all three practices: time constraints, inconvenience, inadequate training, and inadequate resources. In Group A, additional barriers identified most often were a lack of space and other tasks competing with cleaning work surfaces; inconvenient location of sinks and dry skin from handwashing; and lack of working thermometers and thermometers in inconvenient locations. Additional barriers identified most often by Group B were no incentive to do it and the manager not monitoring whether employees cleaned work surfaces; inconvenient location of sinks and dry skin from handwashing; and lack of working thermometers and manager not monitoring the use of thermometers. Results will be used to develop and implement interventions to overcome perceived barriers that training appears not to address. Knowledge of perceived barriers among employees can assist food and nutrition professionals in facilitating employees in overcoming these barriers and ultimately improve compliance with food safety practices.

  7. Restaurant employees' perceptions of barriers to three food safety practices.

    PubMed

    Howells, Amber D; Roberts, Kevin R; Shanklin, Carol W; Pilling, Valerie K; Brannon, Laura A; Barrett, Betsy B

    2008-08-01

    Limited research has been conducted to assess employees' perceptions of barriers to implementing food safety practices. Focus groups were conducted with two groups of restaurant employees to identify perceived barriers to implementing three food safety practices: handwashing, using thermometers, and cleaning work surfaces. Ten focus groups were conducted with 34 employees who did not receive training (Group A). Twenty focus groups were conducted with 125 employees after they had participated in a formal ServSafe training program (Group B). The following barriers were identified in at least one focus group in both Group A and Group B for all three practices: time constraints, inconvenience, inadequate training, and inadequate resources. In Group A, additional barriers identified most often were a lack of space and other tasks competing with cleaning work surfaces; inconvenient location of sinks and dry skin from handwashing; and lack of working thermometers and thermometers in inconvenient locations. Additional barriers identified most often by Group B were no incentive to do it and the manager not monitoring whether employees cleaned work surfaces; inconvenient location of sinks and dry skin from handwashing; and lack of working thermometers and manager not monitoring the use of thermometers. Results will be used to develop and implement interventions to overcome perceived barriers that training appears not to address. Knowledge of perceived barriers among employees can assist food and nutrition professionals in facilitating employees in overcoming these barriers and ultimately improve compliance with food safety practices. PMID:18656574

  8. A systematic review of explanatory factors of barriers and facilitators to improving asthma management in South Asian children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background South Asian children with asthma are less likely to receive prescriptions and more likely to suffer uncontrolled symptoms and acute asthma admissions compared with White British children. Understanding barriers are therefore vital in addressing health inequalities. We undertook a systematic review identifying explanatory factors for barriers and facilitators to asthma management in South Asian children. South Asians were defined as individuals of Indian, Pakistani or Bangladeshi descent. Methods Data Sources - Medline, HMIC, EMBASE, ASSIA, Web of Science, BNI, CINAHL, PsycINFO, OpenSIGLE, CRD, Scopus, NHS Evidence, Cochrane Library, Campbell Collaboration, RCPCH, ATS, ERS, Asthma UK, Google Scholar & Asthma Guidelines (BTS, GINA, ATS, Monash, NAEPP, Singapore & New Zealand) to August 2013. Inclusion Criteria – Qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods research with primary focus on identifying explanations for barriers and/or facilitators to asthma management in South Asian children aged 0–18 years with diagnosed/suspected asthma and/or carers and/or healthcare professionals. Data Extraction – Three authors independently reviewed, selected & extracted eligible articles with disagreements resolved by research team discussion. Results 15 studies encompassing 25,755 children, 18,483 parents/carers and 239 healthcare professionals were included. Barriers and explanatory factors identified were: 1. Lack of asthma knowledge in families and healthcare professionals. 2. Under-use of preventer medications. 3. Non-acceptance/denial of asthma. 4. Over-reliance on Emergency Department management. 5. Communication problems. 6. Non-adherence to medication. 7. Use of complementary therapies. Little facilitators regarding asthma management were identified. Conclusions Several key issues were identified as likely to be ethnic-specific to South Asian families, rather than a reflection of minority status: impact of parental and professional knowledge and beliefs

  9. Breaking the Sound Barrier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tom; Boehringer, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Students in a fourth-grade class participated in a series of dynamic sound learning centers followed by a dramatic capstone event--an exploration of the amazing Trashcan Whoosh Waves. It's a notoriously difficult subject to teach, but this hands-on, exploratory approach ignited student interest in sound, promoted language acquisition, and built…

  10. Social Barriers to Voting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Pauline A.

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the many factors pertaining to low voter turnout. Lack of education, poverty, and apathy contribute strongly to diminished voter participation. Language difficulties, a highly mobile society, and the discouraging effects of polls also contribute. Notes the positive correlation between voter registration and participation. (MJP)

  11. "We communicated that way for a reason": language practices and language ideologies among hearing adults whose parents are deaf.

    PubMed

    Pizer, Ginger; Walters, Keith; Meier, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    Families with deaf parents and hearing children are often bilingual and bimodal, with both a spoken language and a signed one in regular use among family members. When interviewed, 13 American hearing adults with deaf parents reported widely varying language practices, sign language abilities, and social affiliations with Deaf and Hearing communities. Despite this variation, the interviewees' moral judgments of their own and others' communicative behavior suggest that these adults share a language ideology concerning the obligation of all family members to expend effort to overcome potential communication barriers. To our knowledge, such a language ideology is not similarly pervasive among spoken-language bilingual families, raising the question of whether there is something unique about family bimodal bilingualism that imposes different rights and responsibilities on family members than spoken-language family bilingualism does. This ideology unites an otherwise diverse group of interviewees, where each one preemptively denied being a "typical CODA [children of deaf adult]."

  12. Apoplastic diffusion barriers in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Nawrath, Christiane; Schreiber, Lukas; Franke, Rochus Benni; Geldner, Niko; Reina-Pinto, José J; Kunst, Ljerka

    2013-12-27

    During the development of Arabidopsis and other land plants, diffusion barriers are formed in the apoplast of specialized tissues within a variety of plant organs. While the cuticle of the epidermis is the primary diffusion barrier in the shoot, the Casparian strips and suberin lamellae of the endodermis and the periderm represent the diffusion barriers in the root. Different classes of molecules contribute to the formation of extracellular diffusion barriers in an organ- and tissue-specific manner. Cutin and wax are the major components of the cuticle, lignin forms the early Casparian strip, and suberin is deposited in the stage II endodermis and the periderm. The current status of our understanding of the relationships between the chemical structure, ultrastructure and physiological functions of plant diffusion barriers is discussed. Specific aspects of the synthesis of diffusion barrier components and protocols that can be used for the assessment of barrier function and important barrier properties are also presented.

  13. Apoplastic Diffusion Barriers in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Lukas; Franke, Rochus Benni; Geldner, Niko; Reina-Pinto, José J.; Kunst, Ljerka

    2013-01-01

    During the development of Arabidopsis and other land plants, diffusion barriers are formed in the apoplast of specialized tissues within a variety of plant organs. While the cuticle of the epidermis is the primary diffusion barrier in the shoot, the Casparian strips and suberin lamellae of the endodermis and the periderm represent the diffusion barriers in the root. Different classes of molecules contribute to the formation of extracellular diffusion barriers in an organ- and tissue-specific manner. Cutin and wax are the major components of the cuticle, lignin forms the early Casparian strip, and suberin is deposited in the stage II endodermis and the periderm. The current status of our understanding of the relationships between the chemical structure, ultrastructure and physiological functions of plant diffusion barriers is discussed. Specific aspects of the synthesis of diffusion barrier components and protocols that can be used for the assessment of barrier function and important barrier properties are also presented. PMID:24465172

  14. Community Language Resources in Dual Language Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Patrick, H.

    2001-01-01

    A study examined minority-language use at a Tucson (Arizona) dual-language school and shifting patterns of language dominance in the surrounding Mexican American neighborhood. The minority-language resources most immediately available--held by fluent bilingual elders and recent Mexican immigrants--were less used than those of majority-language…

  15. Language Planning and Language Policy in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    A five-year period of particular activity in Australian language policy and language planning culminated with the 1991 publication of the White Paper called Australia's Language, which outlines proposed government programs in languages until 1994. Many of the papers in this theme issue of the journal of the Applied Linguistics Association of…

  16. Mathematics for Language, Language for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochazkova, Lenka Tejkalova

    2013-01-01

    The author discusses the balance and mutual influence of the language of instruction and mathematics in the context of CLIL, Content and Language Integrated Learning. Different aspects of the relationship of language and Mathematics teaching and learning are discussed: the benefits of using a foreign language of instruction, as well as the…

  17. Breaking the Language Barrier: The Right to Bilingual Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, Erica Black

    1974-01-01

    This article advances the view that constitutional doctrine now requires schools to provide instruction in the native tongue of non-English-speaking children until they have learned English. It will be argued that equality of educational opportunity, and hence equal protection, does not exist when the instruction provided by the state is…

  18. Exercising at work: barriers to women's participation.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, M J; Hamm, R D; Love, E J

    1993-06-01

    Only a minority of women in an urban random sample have the opportunity to exercise at work, and even fewer women use these opportunities. Lack of time and inconvenient times are the major reasons for not participating in exercise programs at work. Exercise programs at work are used by women who are already physically active, suggesting that workplace exercise programs do not serve the needs of women who may need exercise programs most. Multivariate analysis shows that age, having children, lack of energy, and lack of support are significant barriers to women's exercise participation at work. The results of this study suggest a leadership opportunity for on site occupational health nurses in addressing these barriers to workplace exercise. PMID:8512611

  19. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOEpatents

    Vance, Steven J.; Goedjen, John G.; Sabol, Stephen M.; Sloan, Kelly M.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  20. Breaking through barriers: using technology to address executive function weaknesses and improve student achievement.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, David M

    2014-01-01

    Assistive technologies provide significant capabilities for improving student achievement. Improved accessibility, cost, and diversity of applications make integration of technology a powerful tool to compensate for executive function weaknesses and deficits and their impact on student performance, learning, and achievement. These tools can be used to compensate for decreased working memory, poor time management, poor planning and organization, poor initiation, and decreased memory. Assistive technology provides mechanisms to assist students with diverse strengths and weaknesses in mastering core curricular concepts. PMID:25010083