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Sample records for address language barriers

  1. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution.

  2. Addressing language barriers: building response capacity for a changing nation.

    PubMed

    Partida, Yolanda

    2007-11-01

    The absence of universally available language services is a national healthcare system failure, the burden of which is suffered by patients with limited English proficiency and their healthcare providers. Conceptualizing mandatory provision of language access as an unfair, unfunded mandate ignores massive and fundamental social changes taking place. Overcoming language barriers is essential to safe, quality health care. This paper, informed by the experience of Hablamos Juntos, a national demonstration project funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, argues that national and health industry investments are needed to develop population-based approaches supported by communication and information technology, and that these investments may prove useful to improving healthcare communication for English-speaking patients as well.

  3. Addressing Language Barriers: Building Response Capacity for a Changing Nation

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The absence of universally available language services is a national healthcare system failure, the burden of which is suffered by patients with limited English proficiency and their healthcare providers. Conceptualizing mandatory provision of language access as an unfair, unfunded mandate ignores massive and fundamental social changes taking place. Overcoming language barriers is essential to safe, quality health care. This paper, informed by the experience of Hablamos Juntos, a national demonstration project funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, argues that national and health industry investments are needed to develop population-based approaches supported by communication and information technology, and that these investments may prove useful to improving healthcare communication for English-speaking patients as well. PMID:17957423

  4. Language barriers

    PubMed Central

    Ngwakongnwi, Emmanuel; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Musto, Richard; King-Shier, Kathryn M.; Quan, Hude

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess use of regular medical doctors (RMDs), as well as awareness and use of telephone health lines or telehealth services, by official language minorities (OLMs) in Canada. Design Analysis of data from the 2006 postcensal survey on the vitality of OLMs. Setting Canada. Participants In total, 7691 English speakers in Quebec and 12 376 French speakers outside Quebec, grouped into those who experienced language barriers and those with no language barriers. Main outcome measures Health services utilization (HSU) by the presence of language barriers; HSU measures included having an RMD, use of an RMD’s services, and awareness of and use of telephone health lines or telehealth services. Multivariable models examined the associations between HSU and language barriers. Results After adjusting for age and sex, English speakers residing in Quebec with limited proficiency in French were less likely to have RMDs (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.66, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.87) and to use the services of their RMDs (AOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.86), but were more likely to be aware of the existence of (AOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.93) and to use (AOR 1.43, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.11) telephone health lines or telehealth services. This pattern of having and using RMDs and telehealth services was not observed for French speakers residing outside of Quebec. Conclusion Overall we found variation in HSU among the language barrier populations, with lower use observed in Quebec. Age older than 45 years, male sex, being married or in common-law relationships, and higher income were associated with having RMDs for OLMs. PMID:23242902

  5. Overcoming Language Barriers

    PubMed Central

    De Buda, Yvonne

    1976-01-01

    Many family physicians in Canada experience language and cultural barriers between themselves and their patients. Several aspects of the ensuing problems are described and some practical suggestions for solutions are made. The importance of health education for new Canadians in the family physician's office as well as through the media and community projects is stressed. Imagesp68-ap68-bp70-a PMID:21308059

  6. Academic Language Barriers and Language Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landa, Laura Gabriela Garcia

    2006-01-01

    The ability to access a foreign language can be an issue for academics trying to publish in international journals. The barriers that non-(limited)English-speaking academics in poor countries have in accessing the academic literature pose an issue of disadvantage in a world where the current trend is to publish research work mostly in English.…

  7. Breaking the Language Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Preparation for the Apollo Soyuz mission entailed large-scale informational exchange that was accomplished by a computerized translation system. Based on this technology of commercial machine translation, a system known as SYSTRAN II was developed by LATSEC, Inc. and the World Translation Company of Canada. This system increases the output of a human translator by five to eight times, affording cost savings by allowing a large increase in document production without hiring additional people. Extra savings accrue from automatic production of camera-ready copy. Applications include translation of service manuals, proposals and tenders, planning studies, catalogs, list of parts and prices, textbooks, technical reports and education/training materials. System is operational for six language pairs. Systran users include Xerox Corporation, General Motors of Canada, Bell Northern Research of Canada, the U.S. Air Force and the European Commission. The company responsible for the production of SYSTRAN II has changed its name to SYSTRAN.

  8. The "Battle" of Managing Language Barriers in Health Care.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Emma M; Valenzuela-Araujo, Doris; Zickafoose, Joseph S; Kieffer, Edith; DeCamp, Lisa Ross

    2016-02-18

    Providing safe and high-quality health care for children whose parents have limited English proficiency (LEP) remains challenging. Reports of parent perspectives on navigating language discordance in health care are limited. We analyzed portions of 48 interviews focused on language barriers from 2 qualitative interview studies of the pediatric health care experiences of LEP Latina mothers in 2 urban US cities. We found mothers experienced frustration with health care and reported suboptimal accommodation for language barriers. Six themes emerged relevant to health care across settings: the "battle" of managing language barriers, preference for bilingual providers, negative bias toward interpreted encounters, "getting by" with limited language skills, fear of being a burden, and stigma and discrimination experienced by LEP families. Parents' insights highlight reasons why effective language accommodation in health care remains challenging. Partnering with families to address the management of language barriers is needed to improve health care quality and safety for LEP patients and families.

  9. Addressing Cultural and Native Language Interference in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allard, Daniele; Bourdeau, Jacqueline; Mizoguchi, Riichiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of cultural and native language interference in second/foreign language acquisition. More specifically, it examines issues of interference that can be traced to a student's native language and that also have a cultural component. To this effect, an understanding of what actually comprises both interference and…

  10. Effective Language Education Practices and Native Language Survival. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlebear, Dick

    The importance of Native languages to Native Americans and the effort needed to maintain them are discussed in this keynote address at the ninth Native American Language Issues Institute. It is noted that the current cultural transition has demeaned Native languages and cultures and that strategies must be devised by Native Americans to counter…

  11. Program To Address Sociocultural Barriers to Health Care in Hispanic Communities. National Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Mike; Heroux, Janet

    Many members of the Hispanic community are separated from the larger community by language barriers and different cultures and belief systems. These factors can affect Hispanic Americans' ability to seek and gain access to the health care system. The Program To Address Sociocultural Barriers to Health Care in the Hispanic Community, known as…

  12. Assessing To Address Barriers to Learning. An Introductory Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health Schools.

    Schools committed to the success of all children must have an array of activities designed to address barriers to learning. This introductory packet contains some aids to help school staff find new ways of thinking about how schools should assess barriers to learning. The following items are included in the packet: (1) a chart of "Barriers to…

  13. Language barriers and qualitative nursing research: methodological considerations

    PubMed Central

    Squires, A.

    2009-01-01

    Aim This review of the literature synthesizes methodological recommendations for the use of translators and interpreters in cross-language qualitative research. Background Cross-language qualitative research involves the use of interpreters and translators to mediate a language barrier between researchers and participants. Qualitative nurse researchers successfully address language barriers between themselves and their participants when they systematically plan for how they will use interpreters and translators throughout the research process. Experienced qualitative researchers recognize that translators can generate qualitative data through translation processes and by participating in data analysis. Failure to address language barriers and the methodological challenges they present threatens the credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability of cross-language qualitative nursing research. Through a synthesis of the cross-language qualitative methods literature, this article reviews the basics of language competence, translator and interpreter qualifications, and roles for each kind of qualitative research approach. Methodological and ethical considerations are also provided. Conclusion By systematically addressing the methodological challenges cross-language research presents, nurse researchers can produce better evidence for nursing practice and policy making when working across different language groups. Findings from qualitative studies will also accurately represent the experiences of the participants without concern that the meaning was lost in translation. PMID:19522941

  14. Addressing Barriers to Learning. Volume 11, Number 2. Spring 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter of the Center for Mental Health in Schools includes the following features and regular segments: (1) Concerns = Opportunities: Addressing Student Disengagement, Acting Out, and Dropouts by Moving in New Directions; (2) Info Sheet: Costs of Not Addressing Barriers to Learning; and (3) Current Status of Mental…

  15. Language Barriers and Immigrant Health.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew; Isphording, Ingo E

    2016-05-24

    We study the impact of language deficiency on the health status of childhood migrants to Australia. Our identification strategy relies on a quasi-experiment comparing immigrants arriving at different ages and from different linguistic origins. In the presence of considerable non-classical measurement error in self-reported language proficiency, our results provide lower and upper bounds for a strong negative effect of English deficiency on health of between one half and a full standard deviation in the health score. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Overcoming the English-language barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, Terry J.

    Astronomers from non-English-speaking countries, who form a sizeable proportion of the astronomical research community, are obliged to communicate the results of their investigations in a language that is not their own. Consequently, good science is frequently masked by poor command of English, which can create an unnecessary barrier to the communication of scientific results. A suggested method of surmounting the language barrier is the setting up of scientific editorial services in at least the major astronomical centres. It is further argued that journal editors, rather than scientific referees, should be responsible for judging the linguistic and stylistic quality of articles presented for publication. The peer-review system would then be restricted exclusively to the scientific rather than linguistic content of papers presented. The scientific Editorial Service of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, in operation since 1996, is briefly described in this context.

  17. Addressing the Need for Electronic Communication in Foreign Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeLoup, Jean W.; Ponterio, Robert

    Use of electronic communication options to access foreign language teaching resources is discussed, illustrated with examples from programs and applications found in New York State. The discussion is divided into four sections, each addressing an aspect of electronic communication for preparing for and teaching a foreign language: issues of access…

  18. Navigating language barriers under difficult circumstances.

    PubMed

    Schenker, Yael; Lo, Bernard; Ettinger, Katharine M; Fernandez, Alicia

    2008-08-19

    The proportion of the U.S. population with limited English proficiency is growing. Physicians often find themselves caring for patients with limited English proficiency in settings with limited language services. There has been little exploration of the decisions physicians face when providing care across language barriers. The authors offer a conceptual framework to aid physicians in thinking through difficult choices about language services and provide responses to common questions encountered in the care of patients with limited English proficiency. Specifically, they describe 4 factors that should inform the decision to call an interpreter (the clinical situation, degree of language gap, available resources, and patient preference), discuss who may be an appropriate interpreter, and offer strategies for when a professional interpreter is not available. The authors use a hypothetical case to illustrate how decisions about language services may evolve over the course of an interaction. This conceptual and practical approach can help clinicians to improve the quality of care provided to patients with limited English proficiency.

  19. Caring from Home: Addressing Barriers to Family Child Care Expansion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens' Committee for Children of New York, NY.

    This study involved focus groups with New York City family day care providers to determine difficulties they experienced in three areas: economic barriers, payment and regulatory barriers, and barriers to workforce development. Overall, providers had difficulty making wages that allowed them to provide for themselves and their families. They…

  20. The Need for More Prehospital Research on Language Barriers: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Ramsey C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite evidence from other healthcare settings that language barriers negatively impact patient outcomes, the literature on language barriers in emergency medical services (EMS) has not been previously summarized. The objective of this study is to systematically review existing studies of the impact of language barriers on prehospital emergency care and identify opportunities for future research. Methods A systematic review with narrative synthesis of publications with populations specific to the prehospital setting and outcome measures specific to language barriers was conducted. A four-prong search strategy of academic databases (PubMed, Academic Search Complete, and Clinical Key) through March 2015, web-based search for gray literature, search of citation lists, and review of key conference proceedings using pre-defined eligibility criteria was used. Language-related outcomes were categorized and reported as community-specific outcomes, EMS provider-specific outcomes, patient-specific outcomes, or health system-specific outcomes. Results Twenty-two studies met eligibility criteria for review. Ten publications (45%) focused on community-specific outcomes. Language barriers are perceived as a barrier by minority language speaking communities to activating EMS. Eleven publications (50%) reported outcomes specific to EMS providers, with six of these studies focused on EMS dispatch. EMS dispatchers describe less accurate and delayed dispatch of resources when confronted with language discordant callers, as well as limitations in the ability to provide medical direction to callers. There is a paucity of research on EMS treatment and transport decisions, and no studies provided patient-specific or health system-specific outcomes. Key research gaps include identifying the mechanisms by which language barriers impact care, the effect of language barriers on EMS utilization and clinically significant outcomes, and the cost implications of addressing language

  1. Promoting Physical Activity: Addressing Barriers and Moving Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Morrow, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The barriers that keep individuals from adopting and maintaining active lifestyles are very complex. Strategies for overcoming these barriers and to incentivize and assist inactive individuals to benefit from physical activity are necessary. In addition, it is important to examine the impact of public policy on active living. As youth physical…

  2. Creating Communities of Professionalism: Addressing Cultural and Structural Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this narrative synthesis is twofold. The purpose of this paper is to understand the barriers and constraints that hinder or prevent the growth of professional community. The author also want to form an empirical understanding of how educators can be successful in meeting these challenges. In both cases, the author wish to grow…

  3. The Development and Evaluation of a Measure Assessing School Nurses' Perceived Barriers to Addressing Pediatric Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yelena P.; Steele, Ric G.

    2011-01-01

    School nurses represent an important resource for addressing pediatric obesity and weight-related health. However, school nurses perceive numerous barriers that prevent them from addressing the weight-related health of students. The current study developed and tested a new, comprehensive measure of nurses' perceptions of 10 types of barriers to…

  4. Language barrier and its relationship to diabetes and diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Language barrier is an important determinant of health care access and health. We examined the associations of English proficiency with type-2 diabetes (T2DM) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Asian Indians living in Singapore, an urban city where English is the predominant language of communication. Methods This was a population-based, cross-sectional study. T2DM was defined as HbA1c ≥6.5%, use of diabetic medication or a physician diagnosis of diabetes. Retinal photographs were graded for the severity of DR including vision-threatening DR (VTDR). Presenting visual impairment (VI) was defined as LogMAR visual acuity > 0.30 in the better-seeing eye. English proficiency at the time of interview was assessed. Results The analyses included 2,289 (72.1%) English-speaking and 885 (27.9%) Tamil- speaking Indians. Tamil-speaking Indians had significantly higher prevalence of T2DM (46.2 vs. 34.7%, p < 0.001) and, among those with diabetes, higher prevalence of DR (36.0 vs. 30.6%, p < 0.001), VTDR (11.0 vs. 6.5%, p < 0.001), and VI (32.4 vs. 14.6%) than English speaking Indians. Oaxaca decomposition analyses showed that the language-related discrepancies (defined as the difference in prevalence between persons speaking different languages) in T2DM, DR, and VTDR could not be fully explained by socioeconomic measures. Conclusions In an English dominant society, Tamil-speaking Indians are more likely to have T2DM and diabetic retinopathy. Social policies and health interventions that address language-related health disparities may help reduce the public health impact of T2DM in societies with heterogeneous populations. PMID:22974298

  5. Oceanic barriers promote language diversification in the Japanese Islands.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Hasegawa, T

    2014-09-01

    Good barriers make good languages. Scholars have long speculated that geographical barriers impede linguistic contact between speech communities and promote language diversification in a manner similar to the process of allopatric speciation. This hypothesis, however, has seldom been tested systematically and quantitatively. Here, we adopt methods from evolutionary biology and attempt to quantify the influence of oceanic barriers on the degree of lexical diversity in the Japanese Islands. Measuring the degree of beta diversity from basic vocabularies, we find that geographical proximity and, more importantly, isolation by surrounding ocean, independently explains a significant proportion of lexical variation across Japonic languages. Further analyses indicate that our results are neither a by-product of using a distance matrix derived from a Bayesian language phylogeny nor an epiphenomenon of accelerated evolutionary rates in languages spoken by small communities. Moreover, we find that the effect of oceanic barriers is reproducible with the Ainu languages, indicating that our analytic approach as well as the results can be generalized beyond Japonic language family. The findings we report here are the first quantitative evidence that physical barriers formed by ocean can influence language diversification and points to an intriguing common mechanism between linguistic and biological evolution.

  6. Addressing Barriers to Learning. Volume 13, Number 2. Spring 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Concern about responding to behavior problems and promoting social and emotional learning are related and are embedded into the arenas we frame to encompass the content of student/learning supports. How these concerns are addressed is critical to the type of school and classroom climate that emerges and to student engagement and re-engagement in…

  7. Addressing Barriers to Learning. Volume 12, Number 3. Summer 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Effective practices typically evolve over a long period in high-functioning, fully engaged systems. Historically, schools have been confronted with project after project, program after program, initiative after initiative. Many of these aim at addressing learning, behavior, and emotional problems and making schools safe and drug free. This issue…

  8. Barriers to the Adoption of ICT in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language in US Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Huang, Chung-Kai; Chen, Chang-Hua

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate barriers to the adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) for teachers of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in US universities. Although the development of ICT for teaching is growing, few published studies address ICT specifically regarding CFL teaching. Therefore, this study has reviewed the…

  9. Intake Procedures as a Factor in Identifying and Addressing Barriers to Attendance of Adult Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubble, Judy Hafley

    A study explored the nature of intake procedures of Texas adult education programs. Research on barriers to attendance and strategies for retention were reviewed, and the current use of intake procedures to identify and address barriers to attendance was summarized through a survey of 374 Literacy, Even Start Family Literacy, Adult Basic Education…

  10. Teaching through Technology. Breaking the Language Barrier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Denise

    1996-01-01

    Notes that it is important to lay the foundation for building English vocabulary and language skills using realistic situations. Reviews three computer programs that enable English-as-a-Second-Language students to achieve efficiency more quickly. The software titles reviewed are "Learning English--Home and Family Life and Neighborhood Life,""Let's…

  11. Barriers to the Use of Evidence-Supported Programs to Address School Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawood, Natalie Diane

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have argued that there is a research-practice gap in the delivery of prevention and mental health services in the school setting. This national survey addresses that gap by identifying the barriers confronted by school social workers in implementing evidence-supported programs to address interpersonal violence in the school context. A…

  12. Using Inquiry to Break the Language Barrier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The more than five million English language learners (ELLs) in the United States represent over 10% of students enrolled in public schools--and this number is growing rapidly. From 1997 to 2007, growth of ELL enrollment exceeded that of overall enrollment by more than six to one. Regardless of where they teach, science educators will undoubtedly…

  13. Latino Farmworkers in Saskatchewan: Language Barriers and Health and Safety.

    PubMed

    Viveros-Guzmán, Arcadio; Gertler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    As part of a study focused on the experiences of Latino migrant farmworkers in Saskatchewan, Canada, we have attempted to understand how language barriers (LBs) broadly understood may affect farmworkers and their employers, workplace communications, and occupational health and safety (OHS). Drawing on critical ethnography and intercultural communication theory, qualitative interviews were conducted with 39 Latino migrant farmworkers, 11 farmer-employers, two OHS civil servants, and two former Canadian farmworkers. Our findings suggest that LBs interfere with the establishment of effective communications between Latino farmworkers, other farm enterprise personnel, civil servants, and health services providers. LBs impede establishment of the kinds of sustained two-way communications needed for maintaining safe and healthy working environments. All of the stakeholders involved were found to contribute in some manner to the propagation of LBs. The risks for the physical and psychological well-being of migrant farmworkers are substantial, but despite the fact that LBs are generally recognized as a challenge and as a source of risk, they are not widely seen as warranting any systematic response. It is critical that Latino migrant workers learn more English and that their Canadian employers and supervisors learn more Spanish. Beyond that, there is an urgent need for a multistakeholder coalition that moves to address LBs by training certified interpreters and liaison personnel who can facilitate better communications between migrant workers, their employers, and other stakeholders.

  14. Teaching English Language Learners: Strategies for Overcoming Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfrich, Sara R.; Bosh, Amy J.

    2011-01-01

    The number of English language learners (ELLs) in today's classrooms is increasing. In this article, the authors identify four perceived barriers beginning and veteran teachers face in teaching literacy to ELLs: the lack of understanding of the role of literacy in other cultures, the teacher's inability to differentiate instruction to meet the…

  15. Healthcare eligibility and availability and healthcare reform: Are we addressing rural women’s barriers to accessing care?

    PubMed Central

    Carnahan, Leslie; Paulsey, Ellen; Molina, Yamile

    2016-01-01

    Background Rural populations in the US face numerous barriers to healthcare access. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) was developed in part to reduce healthcare access barriers. We report rural women’s access barriers and the PPACA elements that address these barriers as well as potential gaps. Methods For this qualitative study, we analyzed two datasets using a common framework. We used content analysis to understand rural, focus group participants’ access barriers prior to PPACA implementation. Subsequently, we analyzed the PPACA text. Results Participants described healthcare access barriers in two domains: availability and eligibility. The PPACA proposes solutions within each domain, including healthcare workforce training, Medicaid expansion, and employer-based health care provisions. However, in rural settings, access barriers likely persist. Discussion While elements of the PPACA address some healthcare access barriers, additional research and policy development are needed to comprehensively and equitably address persistent access barriers for rural women. PMID:27818424

  16. Languages Are Still a Major Barrier to Global Science

    PubMed Central

    Amano, Tatsuya; González-Varo, Juan P.; Sutherland, William J.

    2016-01-01

    While it is recognized that language can pose a barrier to the transfer of scientific knowledge, the convergence on English as the global language of science may suggest that this problem has been resolved. However, our survey searching Google Scholar in 16 languages revealed that 35.6% of 75,513 scientific documents on biodiversity conservation published in 2014 were not in English. Ignoring such non-English knowledge can cause biases in our understanding of study systems. Furthermore, as publication in English has become prevalent, scientific knowledge is often unavailable in local languages. This hinders its use by field practitioners and policy makers for local environmental issues; 54% of protected area directors in Spain identified languages as a barrier. We urge scientific communities to make a more concerted effort to tackle this problem and propose potential approaches both for compiling non-English scientific knowledge effectively and for enhancing the multilingualization of new and existing knowledge available only in English for the users of such knowledge. PMID:28033326

  17. Reconceptulizing Language Discordance: Meanings and Experiences of Language Barriers in the U.S. and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Elaine

    2017-02-24

    Individuals with language barriers may face challenges unique to a host society. By examining and comparing the sociocultural conditions that can result in providers and patients not sharing the same language in the United States and in Taiwan, I argue that (a) language discordance is a social phenomenon that may entail diverging meanings and experiences in different countries; (b) language-discordant patients may not share similar experiences even if they are in the same country; and (c) disparities in language concordance may be confounded with other disparities and cultural particulars that are unique to a host society. In addition, because English is a dominant language in medicine, language-discordant patients' quality of care in Taiwan can be moderated by their fluency in English.

  18. The Need for More Research on Language Barriers in Health Care: A Proposed Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Elizabeth; Chen, Alice HM; Karliner, Leah S; Agger-Gupta, Niels; Mutha, Sunita

    2006-01-01

    Many U.S. residents who speak little English may face language barriers when seeking health care. This article describes what is currently known about language barriers in health care and outlines a research agenda based on mismatches between the current state of knowledge of language barriers and what health care stakeholders need to know. Three broad areas needing more research are discussed: the ways in which language barriers affect health and health care, the efficacy of linguistic access service interventions, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. In each of these areas, we outline specific research questions and recommendations. PMID:16529570

  19. Recognizing the Effects of Comprehension Language Barriers and Adaptability Cultural Barriers on Selected First-Generation Undergraduate Vietnamese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Christian Phuoc-Lanh

    2009-01-01

    This investigation is about recognizing the effects of comprehension language barriers and adaptability cultural barriers on selected first-generation Vietnamese undergraduate students in the Puget Sound region of Washington State. Most Vietnamese students know little or no English before immigrating to the United States; as such, language and…

  20. Native Language Experience Shapes Neural Basis of Addressed and Assembled Phonologies

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Zhang, Mingxia; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chuansheng

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of addressed and assembled phonologies in reading Chinese and alphabetic languages (e.g., English) and the modulatory role of native language in learning to read a second language. However, it is not clear whether native language experience shapes the neural mechanisms of addressed and assembled phonologies. To address this question, we trained native Chinese and native English speakers to read the same artificial language (based on Korean Hangul) either through addressed (i.e., whole-word mapping) or assembled (i.e., grapheme-to-phoneme mapping) phonology. We found that, for both native Chinese and native English speakers, addressed phonology relied on the regions in the ventral pathway, whereas assembled phonology depended on the regions in the dorsal pathway. More importantly, we found that the neural mechanisms of addressed and assembled phonologies were shaped by native language experience. Specifically, two key regions for addressed phonology (i.e., the left middle temporal gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus) showed greater activation for addressed phonology in native Chinese speakers, while one key region for assembled phonology (i.e., the left supramarginal gyrus) showed more activation for assembled phonology in native English speakers. These results provide direct neuroimaging evidence for the effect of native language experience on the neural mechanisms of phonological access in a new language and support the assimilation-accommodation hypothesis. PMID:25858447

  1. Native language experience shapes neural basis of addressed and assembled phonologies.

    PubMed

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Zhang, Mingxia; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chuansheng

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of addressed and assembled phonologies in reading Chinese and alphabetic languages (e.g., English) and the modulatory role of native language in learning to read a second language. However, it is not clear whether native language experience shapes the neural mechanisms of addressed and assembled phonologies. To address this question, we trained native Chinese and native English speakers to read the same artificial language (based on Korean Hangul) either through addressed (i.e., whole-word mapping) or assembled (i.e., grapheme-to-phoneme mapping) phonology. We found that, for both native Chinese and native English speakers, addressed phonology relied on the regions in the ventral pathway, whereas assembled phonology depended on the regions in the dorsal pathway. More importantly, we found that the neural mechanisms of addressed and assembled phonologies were shaped by native language experience. Specifically, one key region for addressed phonology (i.e., the left middle temporal gyrus) showed greater activation for addressed phonology in native Chinese speakers, while one key region for assembled phonology (i.e., the left supramarginal gyrus) showed more activation for assembled phonology in native English speakers. These results provide direct neuroimaging evidence for the effect of native language experience on the neural mechanisms of phonological access in a new language and support the assimilation-accommodation hypothesis.

  2. Knowledge into action? understanding ideological barriers to addressing health inequalities at the local level.

    PubMed

    Collins, Patricia A; Abelson, Julia; Eyles, John D

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the presence of ideological barriers to addressing local health inequalities in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. A survey of active citizens revealed low levels of awareness of the social determinants of health (SDOH) framework, and some incongruence between understanding and attitudes towards the SDOH. Support for addressing health inequalities was associated with awareness of the SDOH framework, liberal value-systems, and a cluster of socio-demographic characteristics. Liberal leaning participants were also more politically active than their conservative counterparts. Ideological barriers included lack of SDOH awareness, narrow understandings of the relative influences of the SDOH, resistance to de-prioritizing healthcare, and conservative values. Advancement of a SDOH policy agenda should incorporate wider dissemination efforts to citizens and local service providers to increase support for this framework, and utilization of existing support and political engagement from liberal-leaning demographics.

  3. Ideological Barriers to American Sign Language: Unpacking Linguistic Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reagan, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the debate about the status of American Sign Language (ASL) as an example of ideological beliefs that impact linguistic judgments and policies. It also discusses the major challenges to the status of ASL with respect to formal legislative recognition, its utility as a medium of instruction, and its status as a legitimate…

  4. Addressing the Barriers to Agile Development in the Department of Defense: Program Structure, Requirements, and Contracting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-30

    with the IT Box requirements concept, and thus cannot take advantage of its flexibilities to enable Agile development. In addition, long contracting...place. Many DoD IT acquisition programs are unfamiliar with the IT Box requirements concept, and thus cannot take advantage of its flexibilities to...requirements, and contracting. The DoD can address these barriers by utilizing a proactively tailored Agile acquisition model, implementing an IT Box

  5. Addressing Pedagogical Dilemmas in a Constructivist Language Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikitina, Larisa

    2010-01-01

    Educational constructivism has long been associated with advanced pedagogy on the basis that, it champions a learner-centered approach to teaching, advocates learning in meaningful contexts and promotes problem-based activities where learners construct their knowledge through interaction with their peers. Involving language learners in video…

  6. Randomized Trial of a Web-Based Intervention to Address Barriers to Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yu-Ning; Albrecht, Terrance; Manne, Sharon; Miller, Suzanne M.; Flamm, Anne Lederman; Benson, Al Bowen; Buzaglo, Joanne; Collins, Michael; Egleston, Brian; Fleisher, Linda; Katz, Michael; Kinzy, Tyler G.; Liu, Tasnuva M.; Margevicius, Seunghee; Miller, Dawn M.; Poole, David; Roach, Nancy; Ross, Eric; Schluchter, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Lack of knowledge and negative attitudes have been identified as barriers to participation in clinical trials by patients with cancer. We developed Preparatory Education About Clinical Trials (PRE-ACT), a theory-guided, Web-based, interactive computer program, to deliver tailored video educational content to patients in an effort to overcome barriers to considering clinical trials as a treatment option. Patients and Methods A prospective, randomized clinical trial compared PRE-ACT with a control condition that provided general clinical trials information produced by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in text format. One thousand two hundred fifty-five patients with cancer were randomly allocated before their initial visit with an oncologist to PRE-ACT (n = 623) or control (n = 632). PRE-ACT had three main components: assessment of clinical trials knowledge and attitudinal barriers, values assessment with clarification back to patients, and provision of a video library tailored to address each patient’s barriers. Outcomes included knowledge and attitudes and preparation for decision making about clinical trials. Results Both PRE-ACT and control interventions improved knowledge and attitudes (all P < .001) compared with baseline. Patients randomly allocated to PRE-ACT showed a significantly greater increase in knowledge (P < .001) and a significantly greater decrease in attitudinal barriers (P < .001) than did their control (text-only) counterparts. Participants in both arms significantly increased their preparedness to consider clinical trials (P < .001), and there was a trend favoring the PRE-ACT group (P < .09). PRE-ACT was also associated with greater patient satisfaction than was NCI text alone. Conclusion These data show that patient education before the first oncologist visit improves knowledge, attitudes, and preparation for decision making about clinical trials. Both text and tailored video were effective. The PRE-ACT interactive video program was

  7. Permeable bio-reactive barriers to address petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at subantarctic Macquarie Island.

    PubMed

    Freidman, Benjamin L; Terry, Deborah; Wilkins, Dan; Spedding, Tim; Gras, Sally L; Snape, Ian; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Mumford, Kathryn A

    2017-05-01

    A reliance on diesel generated power and a history of imperfect fuel management have created a legacy of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at subantarctic Macquarie Island. Increasing environmental awareness and advances in contaminant characterisation and remediation technology have fostered an impetus to reduce the environmental risk associated with legacy sites. A funnel and gate permeable bio-reactive barrier (PRB) was installed in 2014 to address the migration of Special Antarctic Blend diesel from a spill that occurred in 2002, as well as older spills and residual contaminants in the soil at the Main Power House. The PRB gate comprised of granular activated carbon and natural clinoptilolite zeolite. Petroleum hydrocarbons migrating in the soil water were successfully captured on the reactive materials, with concentrations at the outflow of the barrier recorded as being below reporting limits. The nutrient and iron concentrations delivered to the barrier demonstrated high temporal variability with significant iron precipitation observed across the bed. The surface of the granular activated carbon was largely free from cell attachment while natural zeolite demonstrated patchy biofilm formation after 15 months following PRB installation. This study illustrates the importance of informed material selection at field scale to ensure that adsorption and biodegradation processes are utilised to manage the environmental risk associated with petroleum hydrocarbon spills. This study reports the first installation of a permeable bio-reactive barrier in the subantarctic.

  8. Overcoming barriers to addressing education problems with research design: a panel discussion.

    PubMed

    Yarris, Lalena M; Gruppen, Larry D; Hamstra, Stanley J; Anders Ericsson, K; Cook, David A

    2012-12-01

    A plenary panel session at the 2012 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Education Research in Emergency Medicine: Opportunities, Challenges, and Strategies for Success" discussed barriers educators face in imagining, designing, and implementing studies to address educational challenges. This proceedings article presents a general approach to getting started in education research. Four examples of studies from the medical education literature that illustrate a distinct way to approach specific research questions are discussed. The study designs used are applicable to a variety of education research problems in emergency medicine (EM). Potential applications of studies are discussed, as well as effects and lessons learned.

  9. The Cross-linguistic Development of Address Form Use in Telecollaborative Language Learning: Two Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belz, Julie A.; Kinginger, Celeste

    2002-01-01

    Explores the influences of the telecollaborative learning environment on the development of second language (L2) pragmatic competence in foreign language learning from a sociocultural perspective. Focuses on "microgenesis," or development of the T/V distinction in pronouns of address as a test case representative of broader L2 pragmatic…

  10. Native-Language Education: Addressing the Interests of Special Populations within U.S. Federal Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Jane; Dunlap, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of three federal laws that address native-language education and illustrates how these federal laws produce different results when coupled with state laws and other regional circumstances. For the purposes of this brief, native-language education refers to American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians and…

  11. Addressing the Intercultural via Task-Based Language Teaching: Possibility or Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A frequent weakness of communicative approaches to foreign language teaching is a neglect of the intercultural dimension. Cultural knowledge is often treated as an addendum which focuses on learning facts about the target country. This article explores whether task-based language teaching (TBLT) can successfully address the intercultural…

  12. Using social marketing to address barriers and motivators to agricultural safety and health best practices.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Aaron M; Murphy, Dennis J

    2012-01-01

    Social marketing is an intervention development strategy that pays considerable attention to barriers to and motivators for behavioral change or adoption of recommended behaviors. Barriers are obstacles that prevent individuals from changing or adopting behaviors and are often referred to as the "cons" or "costs" of doing something. Motivators, on the other hand, are factors that encourage individuals to change or adopt behaviors and are often referred to as the "pros," "benefits," or "influencing factors" of doing something. Importantly, social marketing does not target education or knowledge change as an end point; rather, it targets behavior change. Studies across several types of desired behaviors (e.g., smoking cessation, weight control, more exercise, sunscreen use, radon testing) using the Stages of Change model have found systematic relationships between stages of change and pros and cons of changing behavior. A review of literature identifies numerous research and intervention studies that directly reference social marketing in agricultural safety and health, studies that identify reasons why parents allow their children to be exposed to hazardous situations on the farm, and reasons why youth engage in risky behaviors, but only two studies were found that show evidence of systematically researching specific behavioral change motivating factors. The authors offer several suggestions to help address issues relating to social marketing and agricultural safety and health.

  13. ESSA, Equity of Opportunity, and Addressing Barriers to Learning. Research for School Improvement and Transformation. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The "Every Student Succeeds Act" (ESSA) recognizes that significant numbers of students require supports to successfully meet challenging state academic standards. This brief (1) analyzes the act to assess how it addresses the nature and scope of supports to address barriers to learning and re-engage disconnected students and (2)…

  14. Exploring the Determinants of Language Barriers in Health Care (LBHC): Toward a Research Agenda for the Language Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segalowitz, Norman; Kehayia, Eva

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in language barriers in health care (LBHC)--interest, that is, in how the quality of health care service delivery might be compromised when patients and health care providers do not share the same first language. This article discusses LBHC as an emerging research area that provides valuable opportunities for researchers…

  15. Language Barriers and Understanding of Hospital Discharge Instructions

    PubMed Central

    Karliner, Leah S.; Auerbach, Andrew; Nápoles, Anna; Schillinger, Dean; Nickleach, Dana; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Effective communication at hospital discharge is necessary for an optimal transition and to avoid adverse events. We investigated the association of a language barrier with patient understanding of discharge instructions. Methods Spanish, Chinese and English speaking patients admitted to two urban hospitals between 2005-2008, comparing patient understanding of follow-up appointment type, and medication category and purpose between limited English proficient (LEP) and English proficient (EP) patients. Results Of the 308 patients, 203 were LEP. Rates of understanding were low overall for follow-up appointment type (56%) and the 3 medication outcomes (category 48%, purpose 55%, both 41%). In unadjusted analysis, LEP were less likely than EP patients to know appointment type (50% vs. 66%; p = .01), medication category (45% vs. 54%; p = .05), and medication category and purpose combined (38% vs. 47%; p = .04), but equally likely to know medication purpose alone. These results persisted in the adjusted models for medication outcomes: LEP patients had lower odds of understanding medication category (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.42-0.95); and category/purpose (OR 0.59; 95%CI 0.39-0.89). Conclusions Understanding of appointment type and medications post-discharge was low, with LEP patients demonstrating worse understanding of medications. System interventions to improve communication at hospital discharge for all patients, and especially those with LEP, are needed. PMID:22411441

  16. Addressing the Needs of English Language Learners in an English Education Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Oliveira, Luciana C.; Shoffner, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    This article explores one element of collaborative practice: the integration of English language learner-focused instruction and discussion in a secondary English methods course. Drawing on the authors' expertise, they examine revisions made to a secondary English methods course to better address the academic and individual needs of diverse…

  17. Breaking Down Barriers: Addressing student misconceptions in the K-12 classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhamer, B.; McCallister, J. D.; Knisely, L.

    2004-05-01

    A typical astronomy question an educator may ask their students is "What is a black hole?" Many times, students' responses sound more like an episode of Star Trek than an understanding about the universe and how it works: responses such as "Black holes are worm holes in space" or "A black hole is a huge vacuum in space, sucking everything in". These are all common astronomy misconceptions about black holes. A misconception is defined as a preconceived notion of how the world, or in the case of astronomy - the universe, works. Misconceptions may originate for a variety of reasons, from miscommunication, to oversimplification, to misrepresentation via the media or pop culture. Students who latch on to an astronomy misconception may have difficulty learning new information that is built upon the existing misconception. Additionally, educators who are not able to identify and address misconceptions can create learning barriers that may resonate throughout a students' life. This poster will introduce some of the extensive research that has gone into determining typical student misconceptions about astronomy, ways to identify them, and how students develop them. The poster will also explain why teachers need to be aware of ideas and concepts students may harbor as well as how misconceptions can be remedied.

  18. Addressing Barriers to the Development and Adoption of Rapid Diagnostic Tests in Global Health.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eric; Sikes, Hadley D

    Immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have demonstrated significant potential for use as point-of-care diagnostic tests in resource-limited settings. Most notably, RDTs for malaria have reached an unparalleled level of technological maturity and market penetration, and are now considered an important complement to standard microscopic methods of malaria diagnosis. However, the technical development of RDTs for other infectious diseases, and their uptake within the global health community as a core diagnostic modality, has been hindered by a number of extant challenges. These range from technical and biological issues, such as the need for better affinity agents and biomarkers of disease, to social, infrastructural, regulatory and economic barriers, which have all served to slow their adoption and diminish their impact. In order for the immunochromatographic RDT format to be successfully adapted to other disease targets, to see widespread distribution, and to improve clinical outcomes for patients on a global scale, these challenges must be identified and addressed, and the global health community must be engaged in championing the broader use of RDTs.

  19. Addressing Barriers to the Development and Adoption of Rapid Diagnostic Tests in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Eric; Sikes, Hadley D.

    2015-01-01

    Immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have demonstrated significant potential for use as point-of-care diagnostic tests in resource-limited settings. Most notably, RDTs for malaria have reached an unparalleled level of technological maturity and market penetration, and are now considered an important complement to standard microscopic methods of malaria diagnosis. However, the technical development of RDTs for other infectious diseases, and their uptake within the global health community as a core diagnostic modality, has been hindered by a number of extant challenges. These range from technical and biological issues, such as the need for better affinity agents and biomarkers of disease, to social, infrastructural, regulatory and economic barriers, which have all served to slow their adoption and diminish their impact. In order for the immunochromatographic RDT format to be successfully adapted to other disease targets, to see widespread distribution, and to improve clinical outcomes for patients on a global scale, these challenges must be identified and addressed, and the global health community must be engaged in championing the broader use of RDTs. PMID:26594252

  20. Addressing Barriers to Learning: Overview of the Curriculum for an Enabling (or Learning Supports) Component. A Center Quick Training Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    To reach academic goals such as reducing the achievement gap and leaving no child behind, schools must include a focus on addressing barriers to student learning to ensure all children have an equal opportunity to succeed at school. Such a focus requires a high-level policy commitment to establishing an "enabling component." Operationalizing an…

  1. Issue-Specific Barriers to Addressing Environmental Issues in the Classroom: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chankook; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    2006-01-01

    To explore issue-specific barriers to teaching environmental issues, the authors investigated secondary science teachers' perceived current and preferred teaching levels for 23 environmental issues and perceived barriers to teaching the selected issues. Subjects in this graduate project were 41 secondary science teachers self-selected to answer a…

  2. Collection Development: Breaking the Language Barrier with Audio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garofolo, Denise A.

    1992-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of audiocassette tapes for instruction in 16 foreign languages. Methods of language instruction are discussed; differences in the target audience are considered, including tourists and business people; and guidelines for developing a library collection of language tapes are suggested. (LRW)

  3. Dual Language Teachers' Stated Barriers to Implementation of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freire, Juan A.; Valdez, Verónica E.

    2017-01-01

    Culturally relevant pedagogy receives limited attention in many U.S. dual language classrooms. This article focuses on understanding the barriers eight elementary Spanish-English dual language teachers saw as preventing the implementation of culturally relevant pedagogy in their urban classrooms. Employing critical sociocultural theory and drawing…

  4. Eliminating Language Barriers Online at European Prisons (ELBEP): A Case-Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkan, M.; Toprak, E.; Kumtepe, A. T.; Kumtepe, E. Genc; Ataizi, M.; Pilanci, H.; Mutlu, M. E.; Kayabas, I.; Kayabas, B. Kip

    2011-01-01

    ELBEP (Eliminating Language Barriers in European Prisons Through Open and Distance Education Technology) is a multilateral project funded by the European Union (EU) Lifelong Learning, Grundtvig (Adult Education) Programme. It aims to overcome language/communication problems between prison staff and foreign inmates at European prisons via online…

  5. The "Language Barrier" in Private Online Tutoring: From an Innocuous Concept to a Neoliberal Marketing Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozar, Olga

    2014-01-01

    The "language barrier" is a common buzzword in Russian-English teaching discourse that has not yet been critically investigated. This study contemplates a recently emerging phenomenon of private online language tutoring in Russia through investigation of this popular phrase. The paper draws on Critical Discourse Analysis to explore…

  6. Language barriers within primary care consultations: an increasing challenge needing new solutions.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuangyu; Pearson, David; Escott, Sarah

    2010-11-01

    International migration is an increasing global phenomenon, particularly noticeable in the UK where removing barriers to travel and residence within an expanded European Union has brought a huge increase in new arrivals. Migration has increased the number of medical consultations where language barriers occur. This paper summarises findings from a review of the literature and explores the challenges posed within these medical consultations, particularly those in primary care. It highlights limitations to current consultation models and educational interventions to improve consultations across language barriers, and suggests future solutions to those problems.

  7. Using Inquiry to Break the Language Barrier in Chemistry Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Andrew; Jessup, Weston; Criswell, Brett A.; Weaver-High, Consuelo; Rushton, Gregory T.

    2015-01-01

    A guided inquiry lesson intended to support the linguistic and conceptual development of English language learners (ELLs) in a small, cotaught, high-needs secondary setting is presented. Collaborative groupings based on language and content ability coupled with an emphasis on student-student discourse and a hands-on investigation appeared to…

  8. Recognizing and addressing barriers to the effective management of ADHD in college students.

    PubMed

    Culpepper, Larry

    2013-07-01

    Several barriers can hinder the diagnosis of ADHD in college students, especially those with unrecognized symptoms, dysfunctional behavior, or psychiatric conditions. One specific barrier includes the misuse of prescription stimulants among college students, perhaps to improve academic performance or to self-treat undiagnosed ADHD symptoms. Because of the dangers, both medical and legal, that nonmedical stimulant use can cause, clinicians must recognize these undiagnosed students and initiate proper treatment. By establishing a therapeutic relationship with students, clinicians can provide education, monitoring, and treatment options that will help minimize misuse of prescriptions while giving students the support they need to successfully complete college.

  9. The School Leader's Guide to Student Learning Supports: New Directions for Addressing Barriers to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Howard S.; Taylor, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Barriers to learning and teaching interfere with students' ability to participate effectively and benefit fully from classroom instruction and other educational activities. For school improvement efforts to succeed in ways that truly improve student achievement and student test scores, systemic changes must be made in how schools provide learning…

  10. Artificial Language Training Reveals the Neural Substrates Underlying Addressed and Assembled Phonologies

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; He, Qinghua; Zhang, Mingxia; Wei, Miao; Xue, Feng; Chen, Chuansheng; Dong, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Although behavioral and neuropsychological studies have suggested two distinct routes of phonological access, their neural substrates have not been clearly elucidated. Here, we designed an artificial language (based on Korean Hangul) that can be read either through addressed (i.e., whole word mapping) or assembled (i.e., grapheme-to-phoneme mapping) phonology. Two matched groups of native English-speaking participants were trained in one of the two conditions, one hour per day for eight days. Behavioral results showed that both groups correctly named more than 90% of the trained words after training. At the neural level, we found a clear dissociation of the neural pathways for addressed and assembled phonologies: There was greater involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, right orbital frontal cortex, angular gyrus and middle temporal gyrus for addressed phonology, but stronger activation in the left precentral gyrus/inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus for assembled phonology. Furthermore, we found evidence supporting the strategy-shift hypothesis, which postulates that, with practice, reading strategy shifts from assembled to addressed phonology. Specifically, compared to untrained words, trained words in the assembled phonology group showed stronger activation in the addressed phonology network and less activation in the assembled phonology network. Our results provide clear brain-imaging evidence for the dual-route models of reading. PMID:24676060

  11. Conceptualizing the Pathways and Processes Between Language Barriers and Health Disparities: Review, Synthesis, and Extension.

    PubMed

    Terui, Sachiko

    2017-02-01

    While many may view language barriers in healthcare settings (LBHS) as a simple, practical problem, they present unique challenges to theoretical development and practice implications in healthcare delivery, especially when one considers the implications and impacts of specific contextual factors. By exploring the differences of contextual factors in the US and Japan, this review explores and highlights how such differences may entail different impacts on patients' quality of care and require different solutions. I conduct narrative review through library database, Google Scholar, and CiNii (a Japanese library database) with multiple search terms, including language barriers, healthcare, medical interpreter, and immigrant. I first present a diagram to show the pathways and process between language barriers and health disparities, using the literature reported in the US. Then, I examined the literature reported in Japan and discuss the needs for re-conceptualizing LBHS. The implications for future research will be discussed.

  12. Somali Perspectives on Physical Activity: Photovoice to Address Barriers and Resources in San Diego

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Kate; Mohamed, Amina Sheik; Dawson, Darius B.; Syme, Maggie; Abdi, Sahra; Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Background Though many immigrants enter the U.S. with a healthy body weight, this health advantage disappears the longer they reside in the U.S. To better understand the complexities of obesity change within a cultural framework, a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, Photovoice, was utilized focusing on physical activity among Muslim Somali women. Objectives The CBPR partnership was formed to identify barriers and resources to engaging in physical activity with goals of advocacy and program development. Methods Muslim Somali women (n = 8) were recruited to participate, trained and provided cameras, and engaged in group discussions about the scenes they photographed. Results Participants identified several barriers, including safety concerns, minimal culturally appropriate resources, and financial constraints. Strengths included public resources and a community support system. The CBPR process identified opportunities and challenges to collaboration and dissemination processes. Conclusions The findings laid the framework for subsequent program development and community engagement. PMID:25981428

  13. What do language barriers cost? An exploratory study among asylum seekers in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Language barriers have a major impact on both the quality and the costs of health care. While there is a growing body of evidence demonstrating the detrimental effects of language barriers on the quality of health care provision, less is known about their impact on costs. This purpose of this study was to investigate the association between language barriers and the costs of health care. Methods The data source was a representative set of asylum seekers whose health care was provided by a Swiss Health Maintenance Organisation (HMO). A cross-sectional survey was conducted: data was collected on all the asylum seekers' health care costs including consultations, diagnostic examinations, medical interventions, stays in the clinic, medication, and interpreter services. The data were analysed using path analysis. Results Asylum seekers showed higher health care costs if there were language barriers between them and the health professionals. Most of these increased costs were attributable to those patients who received interpreter services: they used more health care services and more material. However, these patients also had a lower number of visits to the HMO than patients who faced language barriers but did not receive interpreter services. Conclusion Language barriers impact health care costs. In line with the limited literature, the results of this study seem to show that interpreter services lead to more targeted health care, concentrating higher health care utilisation into a smaller number of visits. Although the initial costs are higher, it can be posited that the use of interpreter services prevents the escalation of long-term costs. A future study specially designed to examine this presumption is needed. PMID:20731818

  14. Effect of Language Barriers on Follow-up Appointments After an Emergency Department Visit

    PubMed Central

    Sarver, Joshua; Baker, David W

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether patients who encountered language barriers during an emergency department visit were less likely to be referred for a follow-up appointment and less likely to complete a recommended appointment. DESIGN Cohort study. SETTING Public hospital emergency department. PARTICIPANTS English- and Spanish-speaking patients (N =714) presenting with nonemergent medical problems. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Patients were interviewed to determine sociodemographic information, health status, whether an interpreter was used, and whether an interpreter should have been used. The dependent variables were referral for a follow-up appointment after the emergency department visit and appointment compliance, as determined by chart review and the hospital information system. The proportion of patients who received a follow-up appointment was 83% for those without language barriers, 75% for those who communicated through an interpreter, and 76% for those who said an interpreter should have been used but was not (P =.05). In multivariate analysis, the adjusted odds ratio for not receiving a follow-up appointment was 1.92 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11 to 3.33) for patients who had an interpreter and 1.79 (95% CI, 1.00 to 3.23) for patients who said an interpreter should have been used (compared with patients without language barriers). Appointment compliance rates were similar for patients who communicated through an interpreter, those who said an interpreter should have been used but was not, and those without language barriers (60%, 54%, and 64%, respectively; P =.78). CONCLUSIONS Language barriers may decrease the likelihood that a patient is given a follow-up appointment after an emergency department visit. However, patients who experienced language barriers were equally likely to comply with follow-up appointments. PMID:10760001

  15. Stress-associated poor health among adult immigrants with a language barrier in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hongliu; Hargraves, Lee

    2009-12-01

    The healthy migrant hypothesis supported by the 'Hispanic paradox' suggests that immigrants are healthier than non-immigrants. To test the generalizability of this hypothesis, we studied the stress-associated health status of adult immigrants with a language barrier in the USA. Three stress-related conditions (Unhappiness, Depression, and Anxiety) and self-reported health status were ascertained from participants of the Community Tracking Study Health Survey conducted in 2003. The associations between these conditions as well as the immigrants' length of time living in the USA and health were assessed. Our results demonstrated that the three stress-related conditions were significantly associated with a dramatically elevated poor health status (Unhappiness: OR = 5.22, 95% CI: 4.43-6.14; Depression: OR = 3.03, 95% CI: 2.31-3.98; Anxiety: OR = 5.12, 95% CI: 3.53-7.41). Compared to US citizens without a language barrier, immigrants with a language barrier were more likely to report poor health (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.66-2.78). After adjustment for stressors, the likelihood of reporting poor health among immigrants with a language barrier decreased significantly (OR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.05-2.91). In addition, these immigrants were more likely to report poor health within the first 10 years of their living in the USA (language barrier were generally more stressed, especially at the beginning of their lives as immigrants. The combined effect of stress and a language barrier led to poorer health in these immigrants. Thus, the healthy migrant hypothesis may not be generalizable to this population.

  16. NASA GSFC Science Communication Working Group: Addressing Barriers to Scientist and Engineer Participation in Education and Public Outreach Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleacher, L.; Hsu, B. C.; Campbell, B. A.; Hess, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Science Communication Working Group (SCWG) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been in existence since late 2007. The SCWG is comprised of education and public outreach (E/PO) professionals, public affairs specialists, scientists, and engineers. The goals of the SCWG are to identify barriers to scientist and engineer engagement in E/PO activities and to enable those scientists and engineers who wish to contribute to E/PO to be able to do so. SCWG members have held meetings with scientists and engineers across GSFC to determine barriers to their involvement in E/PO. During these meetings, SCWG members presented examples of successful, ongoing E/PO projects, encouraged active research scientists and engineers to talk about their own E/PO efforts and what worked for them, discussed the E/PO working environment, discussed opportunities for getting involved in E/PO (particularly in high-impact efforts that do not take much time), handed out booklets on effective E/PO, and asked scientists and engineers what they need to engage in E/PO. The identified barriers were consistent among scientists in GSFC's four science divisions (Earth science, planetary science, heliophysics, and astrophysics). Common barriers included 1) lack of time, 2) lack of funding support, 3) lack of value placed on doing E/PO by supervisors, 4) lack of training on doing appropriate/effective E/PO for different audiences, 5) lack of awareness and information about opportunities, 6) lack of understanding of what E/PO really is, and 7) level of effort required to do E/PO. Engineers reported similar issues, but the issues of time and funding support were more pronounced due to their highly structured work day and environment. Since the barriers were identified, the SCWG has taken a number of steps to address and rectify them. Steps have included holding various events to introduce scientists and engineers to E/PO staff and opportunities including an E/PO Open House, brown bag seminars on

  17. Painting the world REDD: addressing scientific barriers to monitoring emissions from tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asner, Gregory P.

    2011-06-01

    project scale to program readiness is a big step for all involved, and many are finding that it is not easy. Current barriers to national monitoring of forest carbon stocks and emissions range from technical to scientific, and from institutional to operational. In fact, a recent analysis suggested that about 3% of tropical countries currently have the capacity to monitor and report on changes in forest cover and carbon stocks (Herold 2009). But until now, the scientific and policy-development communities have had little quantitative information on exactly which aspects of national-scale monitoring are most uncertain, and how that uncertainty will affect REDD+ performance reporting. A new and remarkable study by Pelletier, Ramankutty and Potvin (2011) uses an integrated, spatially-explicit modeling technique to explore and quantify sources of uncertainty in carbon emissions mapping throughout the Republic of Panama. Their findings are sobering: deforestation rates would need to be reduced by a full 50% in Panama in order to be detectable above the statistical uncertainty caused by several current major monitoring problems. The number one uncertainty, accounting for a sum total of about 77% of the error, rests in the spatial variation of aboveground carbon stocks in primary forests, secondary forests and on fallow land. The poor quality of and insufficient time interval between land-cover maps account for the remainder of the overall uncertainty. These findings are a show-stopper for REDD+ under prevailing science and technology conditions. The Pelletier et al study highlights the pressing need to improve the accuracy of forest carbon and land cover mapping assessments in order for REDD+ to become viable, but how can the uncertainties be overcome? First, with REDD+ nations required to report their emissions, and with verification organizations wanting to check on the reported numbers, there is a clear need for shared measurement and monitoring approaches. One of the major

  18. Use of Scan Forms to Cross Language Barriers in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    One of the many problems confronting today's physician is the need to communicate with patients of many different cultural backgrounds and different languages. In psychiatry, as in many other medical specialties, the initial assessment depends on the ability of the clinician to communicate with the patient. Currently, if the doctor and the patient do not speak the same language, a sometimes clumsy translation process impedes the patient-physician relationship and frequently hampers or minimizes this crucial first evaluation. A new system to translate patient information to the clinician is being explored. Using scan forms to ask patients important clinical questions in their own language, offers a unique way to begin to gather necessary medical information.

  19. Patient-centered Care to Address Barriers for Pregnant Women with Opioid Dependence.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Mary Beth; Gopman, Sarah; Leeman, Lawrence

    2017-03-01

    Pregnant women affected by substance use often encounter barriers to treatment, including housing insecurity, poverty, mental health issues, social stigma, and access to health care. Providers may lack the resources needed to provide quality care. Clinicians offering prenatal care to women with substance use disorder are encouraged to support family-centered, multidisciplinary care to women and their infants, focusing on harm reduction. Collaboration between providers of maternity care, substance abuse treatment, case management, family primary care, and pediatric developmental care can improve outcomes during pregnancy and through the early years of parenting.

  20. Second Language Listening and Unfamiliar Proper Names: Comprehension Barrier?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobeleva, Polina P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether unfamiliar proper names affect English as a second language (ESL) learners' listening comprehension. A total of 110 intermediate to advanced ESL learners participated; comprehension of a short news text was tested under two conditions, Names Known (all proper names pre-taught in advance) and Names Unknown (all proper…

  1. The Barriers Perceived to Prevent the Successful Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice by Speech and Language Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Siobhan; Pettigrew, Catharine M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is currently a paucity of research investigating what speech and language therapists, in particular, perceive are the greatest barriers to implementing evidence-based practice. Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived barriers that are faced by speech and language therapists in southern Ireland when…

  2. Addressing career barriers for high risk adolescent girls: the PATHS curriculum intervention.

    PubMed

    Doren, Bonnie; Lombardi, Allison R; Clark, Julie; Lindstrom, Lauren

    2013-12-01

    The study evaluated a gender-specific comprehensive career development curriculum designed to target career barriers faced by high risk adolescent girls - those with disabilities and at risk for school failure. The goal of the curriculum was to promote social cognitive career and self determination outcomes associated with adaptive career development and adjustment. A pre-post control group design was used to evaluate the curriculum. Findings suggest that participation in the curriculum resulted in significant and large gains in autonomy and in disability and gender-related knowledge. Meaningful gains were noted in perceptions of social support and relevance of school. Participants in a high fidelity sample made significant and large gains in vocational skills self-efficacy and disability and gender-related knowledge. Meaningful improvements were noted in self-advocacy, autonomy, and vocational outcome expectations. The findings suggest that the curriculum can improve important indicators of positive career development and adjustment in high risk adolescent girls.

  3. Addressing barriers to health: Experiences of breastfeeding mothers after returning to work.

    PubMed

    Valizadeh, Sousan; Hosseinzadeh, Mina; Mohammadi, Eesa; Hassankhani, Hadi; M Fooladi, Marjaneh; Schmied, Virginia

    2017-03-01

    Breastfeeding mothers returning to work often feel exhausted as they must feed on demand and attend to family and employment responsibilities, leading to concerns for their personal health. This study was prompted by a desire to understand and identify barriers to mothers' health. We describe the experiences of 12 Iranian breastfeeding and employed mothers through in-depth and semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis. Two main themes emerged: (i) working and mothering alone and (ii) facing concerns about health. The findings highlight the need for a support system for breastfeeding mothers within the family and in the workplace. Family-friendly policies targeting mothers' and employers' views are needed to support working mothers and promote breastfeeding.

  4. Collaboration between Educational Psychologists and Speech and Language Therapists: Barriers and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunsmuir, Sandra; Clifford, Vivienne; Took, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a study that aimed to investigate the perspectives of educational psychologists (EPs) and speech and language therapists (SLTs) about collaborative practices across these two services, to identify any barriers to collaboration and to explore how these could be overcome. The views of EPs and SLTs in two local authorities were…

  5. 25 tips for working through language and cultural barriers in your medical practice.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura Sachs

    2009-01-01

    The language and cultural barriers facing medical patients with limited English language proficiency pose tremendous challenges and risks. Moreover, medical practices today are more likely than ever to employ individuals whose first language is not English or who do not possess native-like knowledge of American culture. Knowing how to work through the language and cultural barriers you are likely to encounter in your medical practice has become increasingly more important. This article is written by a practice management consultant who has graduate-level linguistics training and second-language teaching credentials and experience. It offers 25 practical tips to help you communicate more effectively with individuals who are outside of your native culture and language. These include easy-to-implement tips about English language pronunciation, grammar, and word choice. This article also suggests what you can do personally to bridge the cultural divide with your patients and co-workers. Finally, this article includes a case study of one Virginia practice in which cultural differences interfered with the practice's smooth operation. It explains how the practice eventually worked through and overcame this cultural obstacle.

  6. No te entiendo y tú no me entiendes: Language Barriers Among Immigrant Latino Adolescents Seeking Health Care

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Immigrant Latino adolescents experience health disparities and barriers to accessing health care. The purpose of this study is to describe barriers experienced by immigrant Latino adolescents seeking U.S. health care. Design Focused ethnography using one-to-one interviews. Results Participants identified language barriers to accessing care at all stages in the process. Discussion Immigrant Latino youth experience barriers when accessing U.S. health care, resulting in negative perceptions and likelihood of reduced health seeking. Implications for practice Health care providers can lead positive change in health care delivery resulting in minimized language barriers and improved culturally relevant care for immigrant Latino youth and their families. PMID:19824291

  7. Let's not contribute to disparities: the best methods for teaching clinicians how to overcome language barriers to health care.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Lisa C; Jacobs, Elizabeth A

    2010-05-01

    Clinicians should be educated about how language barriers contribute to disparities for patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). However, educators must avoid developing educational interventions that increase health disparities for LEP patients. For example, studies suggest that teaching "Medical Spanish" or related courses may actually contribute to health care disparities if clinicians begin using these non-English language skills inappropriately with patients. We discuss the risks and benefits of teaching specific cultural competence skills and make evidence-based recommendations for the teaching content and methods for educational interventions focused on overcoming language barriers in health care. At minimum, we suggest such interventions include: (1) the role of language barriers in health disparities, (2) means of overcoming language barriers, (3) how to work with interpreters, (4) identifying and fixing problems in interpreted encounters, and (5) appropriate and safe use of one's own limited non-English language skills.

  8. Addressing health system barriers to access to and use of skilled delivery services: perspectives from Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ganle, John Kuumuori; Fitzpatrick, Raymond; Otupiri, Easmon; Parker, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Poor access to and use of skilled delivery services have been identified as a major contributory factor to poor maternal and newborn health in sub-Saharan African countries, including Ghana. However, many previous studies that examine norms of childbirth and care-seeking behaviours have focused on identifying the norms of non-use of services, rather than factors, that can promote service use. Based on primary qualitative research with a total of 185 expectant and lactating mothers, and 20 healthcare providers in six communities in Ghana, this paper reports on strategies that can be used to overcome health system barriers to the use of skilled delivery services. The strategies identified include expansion and redistribution of existing maternal health resources and infrastructure, training of more skilled maternity caregivers, instituting special programmes to target women most in need, improving the quality of maternity care services provided, improving doctor-patient relationships in maternity wards, promotion of choice, protecting privacy and patient dignity in maternity wards and building partnerships with traditional birth attendants and other non-state actors. The findings suggest the need for structural changes to maternity clinics and routine nursing practices, including an emphasis on those doctor-patient relational practices that positively influence women's healthcare-seeking behaviours. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Addressing Structural Barriers to HIV Care among Triply Diagnosed Adults: Project Bridge Oakland.

    PubMed

    Powers, Christina; Comfort, Megan; Lopez, Andrea M; Kral, Alex H; Murdoch, Owen; Lorvick, Jennifer

    2017-03-14

    People who are "triply diagnosed" with HIV, mental health issues, and substance-related disorders face tremendous barriers connecting to and remaining in HIV care. Authors of this article implemented Project Bridge Oakland (PBO), an intervention based on harm reduction and trauma-informed care, to help maintain continuity of care for triply diagnosed adults through cycles of criminal justice involvement. From August 2011 to December 2014, a clinical social worker and an HIV physician provided intensive case management for 19 clients living in Oakland, California. By working with clients across a multitude of community, clinic, and correctional spaces while maintaining a low threshold for services, the social worker was able to engage a severely marginalized population in HIV care. This article details the PBO strategies for assisting with a wide range of services needed for community stabilization, navigating criminal justice involvement, and establishing a therapeutic relationship through mundane practices such as eating and waiting for appointments. This article illustrates how programs aimed at stabilizing triply diagnosed clients in the community and connecting them to HIV care require coordination among providers, outreach to engage clients, ample time to work with them, and flexibility to account for the complexities of their day-to-day lives and experiences.

  10. Language barriers in medical education and attitudes towards Arabization of medicine: student and staff perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sabbour, S M; Dewedar, S A; Kandil, S K

    2012-12-04

    Students and staff perspectives on language barriers in medical education in Egypt and their attitude towards Arabization of the medical curriculum were explored in a questionnaire survey of 400 medical students and 150 staff members. Many students (56.3%) did not consider learning medicine in English an obstacle, and 44.5% of staff considered it an obstacle only in the 1st year of medical school. Many other barriers to learning other than language were mentioned. However, 44.8% of students translated English terms to Arabic to facilitate studying and 70.6% of students in their clinical study years would prefer to learn patient history-taking in Arabic. While Arabization in general was strongly declined, teaching in Arabic language was suggested as appropriate in some specialties.

  11. Limited english proficiency, primary language at home, and disparities in children's health care: how language barriers are measured matters.

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Glenn; Abreu, Milagros; Tomany-Korman, Sandra C.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 3.5 million U.S. schoolchildren are limited in English proficiency (LEP). Disparities in children's health and health care are associated with both LEP and speaking a language other than English at home, but prior research has not examined which of these two measures of language barriers is most useful in examining health care disparities. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to compare primary language spoken at home vs. parental LEP and their associations with health status, access to care, and use of health services in children. METHODS: We surveyed parents at urban community sites in Boston, asking 74 questions on children's health status, access to health care, and use of health services. RESULTS: Some 98% of the 1,100 participating children and families were of non-white race/ethnicity, 72% of parents were LEP, and 13 different primary languages were spoken at home. "Dose-response" relationships were observed between parental English proficiency and several child and parental sociodemographic features, including children's insurance coverage, parental educational attainment, citizenship and employment, and family income. Similar "dose-response" relationships were noted between the primary language spoken at home and many but not all of the same sociodemographic features. In multivariate analyses, LEP parents were associated with triple the odds of a child having fair/poor health status, double the odds of the child spending at least one day in bed for illness in the past year, and significantly greater odds of children not being brought in for needed medical care for six of nine access barriers to care. None of these findings were observed in analyses of the primary language spoken at home. Individual parental LEP categories were associated with different risks of adverse health status and outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Parental LEP is superior to the primary language spoken at home as a measure of the impact of language barriers on children

  12. [Refugees, migrants, language barrier: opinion of physicians on translation aids].

    PubMed

    Graz, B; Vader, J P; Raynault, M F

    2002-03-01

    When the patient and caregiver do not share a common language, an interpreter is not always the best solution, and in any case, one cannot be present for every visit, especially in the case of an emergency. According to a questionnaire that was sent to all of the physicians who are members of a health care network for asylum seekers in the Swiss canton of Vaud (n = 169), it appears that 45% of practitioners found a telephone translation service to be a practical solution, and 58% would like medical glossaries with phonetic pronunciation and visual illustrations made available. With a response rate of 91%, it is estimated that these two types of services would be used as often as qualified interpreters, if they were made available. Other translating aids are also proposed.

  13. Optimize patient health by treating literacy and language barriers.

    PubMed

    Dreger, Vicki; Tremback, Tom

    2002-02-01

    More than 90 million Americans have limited literacy skills. Almost two million US residents cannot speak English, and millions more speak it poorly. The stigma of illiteracy or the inability to speak a country's predominant language keep patients from disclosing their limitations. Recognizing these facts is an important first step in improving health education for this vulnerable population. By adapting teaching techniques to patients' special needs, nurses can ensure that patients understand their health problems and plan of care. Statistics dramatically demonstrate the high cost of neglecting these needs. Patients who do not understand their plan of care do not comply with instructions and, therefore, suffer unnecessary complications. Health care providers who can communicate with their patients through multilingual, low literacy patient education materials and with the use of qualified interpreters markedly improve the quality of care for their patients and the resulting outcomes.

  14. Barriers to communication and cooperation in addressing community impacts of radioactive releases from research facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, Robert J.; Peterson, S. Ring

    1999-05-05

    compromise, between the environmental activist groups participating in the two cases. A degree of contentiousness existed from the start among the participants in the Berkeley case particularly between the environmental activists and the scientists/regulators that was not approached in the Livermore case, and which was and still is severe enough to stifle meaningful progress. The Berkeley activists are considerably more aggressive, we believe, in arguing their points of view, making demands about what should be done, and verbally assailing the scientists and government regulators. We offer the following comments on the barriers to communication and cooperation that distinguish the Berkeley and Livermore cases. In no particular order, they are (a) the presence of a higher degree of polarization between the Berkeley activists and the "establishment," as represented by government scientists and regulators, (b) the absence, in the Berkeley case, of an activist leader with skills and effectiveness comparable to a well-known leader in Livermore, (c) frequent displays by several of the Berkeley activists of incivility, distrust, and disrespect for the regulators and scientists, (d) extraordinary difficulties in reaching consensus in the Tritium Issues Work Group meetings, perhaps because goals diverged among the factions, (e) a considerable degree of resentment by the Berkeley activists over the imbalance in conditions of participation, pitting well-paid, tax-supported professionals against "citizen volunteers," (f) the brick wall that divides the perspectives of "no safe dose" and "levels below regulatory concern" when trying to reach conclusions about radiation dangers to the community, and (g) unwillingness to consider both sides of the risk-reward coin: benefits to the community and society at large of the tritium labeling activity, vs. the health risk from small quantities of tritium released to the environment.

  15. Language Barriers Among the Foreign-Born in Canada: Agreement of Self-Reported Measures and Persistence Over Time.

    PubMed

    Okrainec, Karen; Booth, Gillian L; Hollands, Simon; Bell, Chaim M

    2017-02-01

    Persistent language barriers are associated with poor health outcomes. The agreement between reporting a language barrier at time of immigration and in the 2007-2008 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) was calculated using kappa scores among foreign-born individuals who arrived to Ontario, Canada between 1985 and 2005. A total of 2323 immigrants were included, with a mean (± SD) time of 10.2 ± 6.4 years between immigration and completing the CCHS. Only 6 % of immigrants reported a persistent language barrier, resulting in a low agreement between the two sources (kappa = 0.06, 95 % CI 0.042-0.086). Though immigrants were less likely to report a persistent language barrier the longer they had been in Canada, only 13 % of immigrants who had arrived <2 years ago reported one. Self-reported language barriers at time of immigration are poor indicators of persistent language barriers. There is a need for a better measure of language barriers among Canadian immigrants.

  16. [Overcoming language barriers with telephone interpreters: first experiences at a German children's hospital].

    PubMed

    Langer, Thorsten; Wirth, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Language barriers in the care for patients with limited German language proficiency contribute to impaired quality of care, more frequent medical errors and decreased patient satisfaction. However, professional interpreters are not systematically used in Germany. We conducted a pilot study in a German paediatric hospital to explore the demand for an interpreter by conducting a survey among parents and to test the use of telephone interpreters. Eight percent of the respondents said they were interested in interpreter support. All physicians and parents using a telephone interpreter were very satisfied with the quality and the organisation of the service.

  17. Changes in Research on Language Barriers in Health Care Since 2003: A Cross-Sectional Review Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwei, Rebecca J.; Pozo, Sam Del; Agger-Gupta, Niels; Alvarado-Little, Wilma; Bagchi, Ann; Chen, Alice Hm; Diamond, Lisa; Gany, Francesca; Wong, Doreena; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding how to mitigate language barriers is becoming increasingly important for health care providers around the world. Language barriers adversely affect patients in their access to health services; comprehension and adherence; quality of care; and patient and provider satisfaction. In 2003, the United States (US) government made a major change in national policy guidance that significantly affected limited English proficient patients’ ability to access language services. Objective The objectives of this paper are to describe the state of the language barriers literature inside and outside the US since 2003 and to compare the research that was conducted before and after a national policy change occurred in the US. We hypothesize that language barrier research would increase inside and outside the US but that the increase in research would be larger inside the US in response to this national policy change. Methods We reviewed the research literature on language barriers in health care and conducted a cross sectional analysis by tabulating frequencies for geographic location, language group, methodology, research focus and specialty and compared the literature before and after 2003. Results Our sample included 136 studies prior to 2003 and 426 studies from 2003–2010. In the 2003–2010 time period there was a new interest in studying the providers’ perspective instead of or in addition to the patients’ perspective. The methods remained similar between periods with greater than 60% of studies being descriptive and 12% being interventions. Conclusions There was an increase in research on language barriers inside and outside the US and we believe this was larger due to the change in the national policy. We suggest that researchers worldwide should move away from simply documenting the existence of language barriers and should begin to focus their research on documenting how language concordant care influences patient outcomes, providing

  18. Adapting Semantic Natural Language Processing Technology to Address Information Overload in Influenza Epidemic Management.

    PubMed

    Keselman, Alla; Rosemblat, Graciela; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Jin, Honglan; Shin, Dongwook; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2010-12-01

    Explosion of disaster health information results in information overload among response professionals. The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying semantic natural language processing (NLP) technology to addressing this overload. The project characterizes concepts and relationships commonly used in disaster health-related documents on influenza pandemics, as the basis for adapting an existing semantic summarizer to the domain. Methods include human review and semantic NLP analysis of a set of relevant documents. This is followed by a pilot-test in which two information specialists use the adapted application for a realistic information seeking task. According to the results, the ontology of influenza epidemics management can be described via a manageable number of semantic relationships that involve concepts from a limited number of semantic types. Test users demonstrate several ways to engage with the application to obtain useful information. This suggests that existing semantic NLP algorithms can be adapted to support information summarization and visualization in influenza epidemics and other disaster health areas. However, additional research is needed in the areas of terminology development (as many relevant relationships and terms are not part of existing standardized vocabularies), NLP, and user interface design.

  19. Lost in translation: using bilingual simulated patients to improve consulting across language barriers.

    PubMed

    Escott, Sarah; Lucas, Beverley; Pearson, David

    2009-03-01

    In the light of rapid demographic change and increased globalisation of health, ways to consult effectively across language barriers are increasingly important. This article describes the development, organisation and evaluation of a UK workshop designed to develop the skills of undergraduate medical students consulting with patients with limited English proficiency, using specially recruited and trained bilingual simulated patients. The authors discuss the advantages and areas for development of the approach, before considering possible future developments.

  20. Lowering the Barriers to Programming: A Survey of Programming Environments and Languages for Novice Programmers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-12

    DARPA, NSF, NASA, or ONR. School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Lowering the Barriers to...languages, novice, Computer Science Education, learning 1. INTRODUCTION Learning to program can be very difficult for beginning students of all ages. In...designed to have rapid turn-around time and sacrifice computer time for user time (in 1963, the computer science community was arguing against high

  1. Addressing Language Teacher Professional Learning Needs: An Evaluation of the AFMLTA National Conference, Canberra 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Anne-Marie; Absalom, Matthew; Scrimgeour, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The 19th biennial AFMLTA National Languages Conference was held in Canberra in July 2013. The conference, along with other professional learning activities conduced at a local level and for individual languages, aims to provide teachers of languages with the opportunity to work toward the professional learning outcomes outlined in the AITSL…

  2. Keynote Address and Background Papers. National Assembly on Foreign Language and International Studies (Racine, Wisconsin, October 30-November 1, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC.

    The conference papers presented here discuss the need for and means of implementing changes in educational design and emphasis that will recognize the need for Americans to incorporate foreign language and international studies into their education. In addition to the opening address by Richard Berendzen, the following papers are included: (1)…

  3. Pre-Service Teachers' Uses of and Barriers from Adopting Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samani, Ebrahim; Baki, Roselan; Razali, Abu Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Success in implementation of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) programs depends on the teachers' understanding of the roles of CALL programs in education. Consequently, it is also important to understand the barriers teachers face in the use of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) programs. The current study was conducted on 14…

  4. El problema de la barrera linguistica en el desarrollo cientifico y tecnologico (The Problem of the Language Barrier in Scientific and Technological Development).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zierer, Ernesto

    This monograph discusses the problem of the language barrier in scientific and technological development in terms of several parameters describing the flow of scientific information from one language to another. The numerical values of the language barrier parameters of the model are calculated in the field of information on second language…

  5. Linking HIV-positive adolescents to care in 15 different clinics across the United States: creating solutions to address structural barriers for linkage to care.

    PubMed

    Philbin, Morgan M; Tanner, Amanda E; Duval, Anna; Ellen, Jonathan; Kapogiannis, Bill; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Linkage to care is a critical corollary to expanded HIV testing, but many adolescents are not successfully linked to care, in part due to fragmented care systems. Through a collaboration of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Adolescent Trials Network (ATN), a linkage to care outreach worker was provided to ATN clinics. Factors related to linkage were explored to better understand how to improve retention rates and health outcomes for HIV-positive adolescents. We conducted 124 interviews with staff at 15 Adolescent Trials Network clinics to better understand linkage to care processes, barriers, and facilitators. Content analysis was conducted focusing on structural barriers to care and potential solutions, specifically at the macro-, meso-, and micro-levels. Macro-level barriers included navigating health insurance policies, transportation to appointments, and ease of collecting and sharing client-level contact information between testing agencies, local health departments and clinics; meso-level barriers included lack of youth friendliness within clinic space and staff, and duplication of linkage services; micro-level barriers included adolescents' readiness for care and adolescent developmental capacity. Staff initiated solutions included providing transportation for appointments and funding clinic visits and tests with a range of grants and clinic funds while waiting for insurance approval. However, such solutions were often ad hoc and partial, using micro-level solutions to address macro-level barriers. Comprehensive initiatives to improve linkage to care are needed to address barriers to HIV-care for adolescents, whose unique developmental needs make accessing care particularly challenging. Matching the level of structural solution to the level of structural barriers (i.e., macro-level with macro-level), such as creating policy to address needed youth healthcare entitlements versus covering

  6. Language Policy in the U.S.: Questions Addressing a Sea Change in Language in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brecht, Richard D.; Rivers, William P.

    1999-01-01

    Language is important in the public life of the United States because of four factors: globalization; the global diffusion of democracy and self-determination; the wave of immigration to the United States from all corners of the world; and the unique role America plays as the sole military and economic superpower. These conditions make it…

  7. Breaking the language barrier: machine assisted diagnosis using the medical speech translator.

    PubMed

    Starlander, Marianne; Bouillon, Pierrette; Rayner, Manny; Chatzichrisafis, Nikos; Hockey, Beth Ann; Isahara, Hitoshi; Kanzaki, Kyoko; Nakao, Yukie; Santaholma, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe and evaluate an Open Source medical speech translation system (MedSLT) intended for safety-critical applications. The aim of this system is to eliminate the language barriers in emergency situation. It translates spoken questions from English into French, Japanese and Finnish in three medical subdomains (headache, chest pain and abdominal pain), using a vocabulary of about 250-400 words per sub-domain. The architecture is a compromise between fixed-phrase translation on one hand and complex linguistically-based systems on the other. Recognition is guided by a Context Free Grammar Language Model compiled from a general unification grammar, automatically specialised for the domain. We present an evaluation of this initial prototype that shows the advantages of this grammar-based approach for this particular translation task in term of both reliability and use.

  8. Feasibility of a Computer-Based Intervention Addressing Barriers to HIV Testing Among Young Patients Who Decline Tests at Triage.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Ian David; Cleland, Charles M; Perlman, David C; Rajan, Sonali; Sun, Wendy; Bania, Theodore C

    2016-09-01

    Young people face greatly increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk and high rates of undiagnosed HIV, yet are unlikely to test. Many also have limited or inconsistent access to health care, including HIV testing and prevention education, and prior research has documented that youth lack knowledge necessary to understand the HIV test process and to interpret test results. Computer-based interventions have been used to increase HIV test rates and knowledge among emergency department (ED) patients, including those who decline tests offered at triage. However, patients aged 18-24 years have been less likely to test, even after completing an intervention, compared to older patients in the same ED setting. The current pilot study sought to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a new tablet-based video intervention designed to address established barriers to testing among ED patients aged 18-24 years. In particular, we examined whether young ED patients would: agree to receive the intervention; complete it quickly enough to avoid disrupting clinical workflows; accept HIV tests offered by the intervention; demonstrate increased postintervention knowledge; and report they found the intervention acceptable. Over 4 weeks, we recruited 100 patients aged 18-24 in a high-volume urban ED; all of them declined HIV tests offered at triage. Almost all (98%) completed the intervention (mean time <9 mins), 30% accepted HIV tests offered by the tablets. Knowledge was significantly higher after than before the intervention (t = -6.67, p < .001) and patients reported generally high acceptability. Additional research appears warranted to increase postintervention HIV testing.

  9. A Compendium of Research Addressing Barriers to Student Recruitment and Retention in Vocational Education in Florida. Final Report from September 1, 1984 to December 31, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltz, Freddie C.; Beeman, Carl E.

    To address the issues of student recruitment and retention in Florida, a three-year research study was conducted. The three phases of the study sought the following: (1) to describe barriers to recruitment and retention of disadvantaged, unemployed, underemployed, out-of-school youth as perceived by students, teachers, counselors, and…

  10. Organizations with Resources Relevant to Addressing Barriers to Student Learning: A Catalogue of Clearinghouses, Technical Assistance Centers, and Other Agencies. A Resource Aid Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    This catalogue has been created as part of the UCLA Center for Mental Health in Schools' effort to compile and disseminate a set of resources useful to addressing barriers to student learning. This resource packet categorizes and provides contact information on organizations focusing on children's mental health, education and schools, school-based…

  11. Addressing barriers to achieving nursing certification: development of a certification achievement program on a medical-surgical unit.

    PubMed

    Perlstein, Lori; Hoffmann, Rosemary L; Lindberg, Judy; Petras, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Nursing certification is recognized as advanced competency and knowledge beyond basic preparation, thus empowering nurses to contribute to improved outcomes by demonstrating expertise in their specialties. It has been recognized that nurses do not seek certification because of identified barriers. Through a structured Certification Achievement Program that reduced barriers, a cohort of nurses was able to achieve certification in medical-surgical nursing.

  12. The Implementation Guide to Student Learning Supports in the Classroom and Schoolwide: New Directions for Addressing Barriers to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Howard S.; Taylor, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Every teacher knows about barriers to learning and teaching that interferes with student progress and academic achievement. These barriers to learning can hamper a student's ability to participate effectively and benefit fully from classroom instruction and other educational activities. For school improvement efforts to succeed in ways that truly…

  13. Skirting the Issue: Teachers' Experiences "Addressing Sexuality in Middle School Language Arts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puchner, Laurel; Klein, Nicole Aydt

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine perceptions, attitudes, and reported practices of a group of middle level Language Arts teachers concerning sexuality-related issues. Through interviews with 15 teachers, the study found that sexuality was in one sense pervasive, as it came up frequently in the teachers' practice. Yet at the same time the…

  14. Intervention for Co-Occurring Speech and Language Difficulties: Addressing the Relationship between the Two Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeff-Gabriel, Belinda; Chiat, Shula; Pring, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Although many children are referred with difficulties in both their speech and their language, the literature offers relatively little guidance on their therapy. Should clinicians treat these difficulties independently? Or should treatment depend on the potential impact of one domain on the other? This study aimed to investigate the relationship…

  15. Foreign Languages and Sustainability: Addressing the Connections, Communities, and Comparisons Standards in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ter Horst, Eleanor E.; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an interdisciplinary collaboration that combined the study of German language with instruction in environmental issues (sustainable development). The project, involving both an independent study and a classroom unit, allowed students to make connections between disciplines, establish contact with German-speaking communities…

  16. Addressing Language Variety in Educational Settings: Toward a Policy and Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miciak, Jeremy; Wilkinson, Cheryl; Alexander, Celeste; Reyes, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Improving minority academic achievement is a primary goal for education policy makers. Despite resource allocations, gaps in minority accomplishments persist. Emerging research suggests language variety may hinder minority students, thereby slowing academic progress. This article synthesizes suggestions from a panel composed of experts in the…

  17. Organisational Approaches to Addressing Language, Literacy and Numeracy Skills in National Training Package Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Christine; Owen, Christine

    A case study approach was used to identify organizational models developed to meet language, literacy, and numeracy (LL&N) requirements underpinning competencies in Australian training packages. Face-to-face and telephone interviews at two metropolitan and two regional technical and further education colleges and three work sites were at the…

  18. Colorectal Cancer Test Use among Californians of Mexican Origin: Influence of Language Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Johnson-Kozlow, Marilyn; Roussos, Stergios; Rovniak, Liza; Hovell, Melbourne

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Striking decreases in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence have been seen recently in non-Latino Whites but not in Latinos. The purpose of our study was to examine the influence of limited English proficiency (LEP) on differences in CRC test use rates between Mexican American and non-Latino White adults in California and reported reasons for not getting a CRC exam. Design Cross-sectional analysis of the 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). Setting Representative sample of non-institutionalized adults living in California. Participants Mexican American (n=1,529) and non-Latino White men and women aged 50 and older (n=16,775) who had not been diagnosed with CRC. Analysis Logistic regression analyzed the effect of ethnicity and limited English proficiency (LEP) on CRC test use after adjusting for sociodemographics, healthcare access, health status, and other health behaviors. Main Outcome Measures Respondents' likelihood of not receiving the CRC exam was examined as a function of ethnicity and LEP status; differences in reasons for not receiving CRC testing between ethnic groups were also examined. Results More than 40% of Californian Mexican American adults aged 50 and older have never had either fecal occult blood test or lower endoscopy CRC tests. Mexican Americans were more likely to have difficulty understanding their doctor due to language barriers (P<.01). Mexican Americans more often reported provider barriers in getting an endoscopy (ie, test was not recommended by their medical provider) than non-Latino Whites (P=.01). After adjustment for covariates, Mexican Americans were 1.32 times and those with LEP were 1.68 times more likely to have never had either CRC test. Conclusions Limited English proficiency significantly decreased the likelihood of getting tested for CRC (P<.01). Eliminating language barriers should result in improvements in CRC test use among limited English proficiency Mexican Americans. PMID:19769015

  19. [Google translate is not sufficient to overcome language barriers in neonatal medicine].

    PubMed

    Börner, N; Sponholz, S; König, K; Brodkorb, S; Bührer, C; Roehr, C C

    2013-12-01

    Language barriers hinder the interaction with patients and relatives. The use of language services increases knowledge, satisfaction and the use of medical care and thus improves patient's clinical outcome. The recommended use of professional interpreters (PI) is not always feasible. We tested an online translation tool as an alternative for PI for the transla-tion of standardized sentences from a neonatal doctor-/nurse-relative-interview.Translation of 20 sentences from a German neonatal intensive care unit parent information brochure to English, Portuguese and Arabic, using Google Translate (GT). Assessment of accuracy concerning grammar and content, in a second step simplification of all incorrect sentences, translation by GT and critical re-assessment and evaluation.An average of 42% of the sentences was correctly translated concerning grammar and content. The proportion of incorrectly translated sentences varied between 45-70%. By simpli-fication another 23% were translated correctly.Translations by GT were often incorrect in content and grammar. We suppose that the design of GT, which is a statistical translation engine, might be an explanation for this phenomenon. Presently, GT cannot guarantee unambiguous translations and cannot substitute PIs, only in particular circumstances, the use of GT or similar engines may be justified. For future use of electronic translation services, we suggest to compile a catalogue of sentences containing central information, which can be translated into defined foreign languages without misinterpretation or loss of information.

  20. Language Barriers, Location of Care and Delays in Follow-up of Abnormal Mammograms

    PubMed Central

    Karliner, LS; Ma, L; Hofmann, M; Kerlikowske, K

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is frequently diagnosed after an abnormal mammography result. Language barriers can complicate communication of those results. Objectives We evaluated the association of non-English language with delay in follow-up. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of women at three mammography facilities participating in the San Francisco Mammography Registry (SFMR) with an abnormal mammogram result from 1997-2008. We measured median time from report of abnormal result to first follow-up test. Results Of 13,014 women with 16,109 abnormal mammograms, 4,027 (31%) had a non-English patient language. Clinical facilities differed in proportion of non-English-speakers and in time to first follow-up test: facility A (38%; 25 days), facility B (18%; 14 days), facility C (51%; 41 days). Most (67%) mammography examinations had BIRADS 0 (incomplete) assessment, requiring radiographic follow-up. At 30 days of follow-up 67% of all English speakers with incomplete assessments had a follow-up exam compared with 50% of all non-English speakers (p<.0001). The facility with the least delay and the lowest proportion of non-English speakers, had the biggest difference by language; compared to English speakers and adjusting for education, non-English speakers had twice the odds of >30 day delay in follow-up (OR 2.3; 95 CI 1.4-3.9). Conclusions There are considerable differences among facilities in delays in diagnostic follow-up of abnormal mammography results. More attention must be paid to understanding mammography facility factors, such as wait time to schedule diagnostic mammography and radiology workload, in order to improve rates of timely follow-up, particularly for those facilities disproportionately serving vulnerable non-English speaking patients. PMID:21993060

  1. Using Visual Arts as a Proxy for Language: Addressing the Marginalization of Linguistic Minority Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses a school-wide implementation of an arts-based initiative to address the alienation experienced by linguistic minority parents. In order to assuage the prevalent, although unintentional, practices of marginalization, a group of students and teachers established a platform that enabled shared discourse among minority and…

  2. Policies and Practices for Addressing Barriers to Student Learning: Current Status and New Directions. A Center Policy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    This report describes the discussion and outcomes of a series of regional meetings on barriers to student learning that brought together leaders representing national, state, and local agencies. The report discusses the lack of an explicit policy framework for comprehensive integrated approaches to student learning. Factors that get in the way of…

  3. Steps and Tools to Guide Planning and Implementation of a Comprehensive System to Address Barriers to Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The data are clear: Too many students are not doing well in school. Too many are experiencing interfering barriers, most of which are not internal dysfunctions but are associated with neighborhood, family, school, and peer factors. If the situation is to change, schools must play a greater role in providing supports for students experiencing…

  4. Beating the Language Barrier in Science Education: In-Service Educators' Coping with Slow Learners in Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyparsade, Mohun; Auckloo, Pritee; Belath, Ismut; Dookhee, Helina; Hurreeram, Navin

    2013-01-01

    This study describes how in-service teachers in the pre-vocational sector in Mauritius adopted specific strategies to overcome the language barrier in the learning of science (Van Driel, Verloop & de Vos, 1998). Students of form III were taught few basic ideas related to "Earth & Space" through the use of role play and ICT. The…

  5. Overcoming language barriers in the informed consent process: regulatory and compliance issues with the use of the "short form".

    PubMed

    Lad, Pramod M; Dahl, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Language barriers in the informed consent process can be a significant impediment when recruiting non-English speaking subjects into clinical research studies. Regulatory guidelines indicate that the short form procedure be utilized in such circumstances. In this paper, we examine some of the ambiguities in the regulatory framework, the resulting need for institutional policy guidelines, and compliance issues with the short form process.

  6. All Health Plans Need CLAMS: Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Materials for Diverse Populations Can Overcome Language Barriers to Effective Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sandra; Gonzales, Virginia

    2000-01-01

    CLAMs are "Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Materials" designed for diverse populations to help them overcome language barriers to effective treatment. The demographic shift underway in the United States is making the country more linguistically diverse. Health plans need to accommodate this shift, because without information patients…

  7. What Educators in Catholic Schools Might Expect when Addressing Gay and Lesbian Issues: A Study of Needs and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Michael J.; Sever, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research indicated that Catholic high schools in the United States were not addressing the topic of homosexuality in any significant and systematic way prior to the mid-1990s, though practitioners in Catholic high schools have begun to address the topic in recent years. This study, in sampling seven Catholic schools in the greater Chicago…

  8. Let’s Not Contribute to Disparities: The Best Methods for Teaching Clinicians How to Overcome Language Barriers to Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Clinicians should be educated about how language barriers contribute to disparities for patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). However, educators must avoid developing educational interventions that increase health disparities for LEP patients. For example, studies suggest that teaching “Medical Spanish” or related courses may actually contribute to health care disparities if clinicians begin using these non-English language skills inappropriately with patients. We discuss the risks and benefits of teaching specific cultural competence skills and make evidence-based recommendations for the teaching content and methods for educational interventions focused on overcoming language barriers in health care. At minimum, we suggest such interventions include: (1) the role of language barriers in health disparities, (2) means of overcoming language barriers, (3) how to work with interpreters, (4) identifying and fixing problems in interpreted encounters, and (5) appropriate and safe use of one’s own limited non-English language skills. PMID:20352518

  9. Overcoming language and literacy barriers in safety and health training of agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas A; Estrada, Jorge M; Quandt, Sara A

    2010-07-01

    The workforce in all areas of United States agriculture and forestry is becoming increasingly diverse in language, culture, and education. Many agricultural workers are immigrants who have limited English language skills and limited educational attainment. Providing safety and health training to this large, diverse, dispersed, and often transient population of workers is challenging. This review, prepared for the 2010 Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," is divided into five sections. First, we describe the occupational and demographic characteristics of agricultural workers in the United States to highlight their safety and health training needs. Second, we summarize current research on the social and cultural attributes of agricultural workers and agricultural employers that affect the provision of safety and health training. Worker and employer attributes include language, literacy, financial limitations, work beliefs, and health beliefs. Third, we review current initiatives addressing safety and health training for agricultural workers that consider worker language and literacy. These initiatives are limited to a few specific topics (e.g., pesticides, heat stress); they do not provide general programs of safety training that would help establish a culture of workplace safety. However, several innovative approaches to health and safety training are being implemented, including the use of community-based participatory approaches and lay health promoter programs. Fourth, the limited industry response for safety training with this linguistically diverse and educationally limited workforce is summarized. Finally, gaps in knowledge and practice are summarized and recommendations to develop educationally, culturally, and linguistically appropriate safety and health training are presented.

  10. Overcoming Language and Literacy Barriers in Safety and Health Training of Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Estrada, Jorge M.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    The workforce in all areas of United States agriculture and forestry is becoming increasingly diverse in language, culture, and education. Many agricultural workers are immigrants who have limited English language skills and limited educational attainment. Providing safety and health training to this large, diverse, dispersed, and often transient population of workers is challenging. This review, prepared for the 2010 Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, “Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture,” is divided into five sections. First, we describe the occupational and demographic characteristics of agricultural workers in the US to highlight their safety and health training needs. Second, we summarize current research on the social and cultural attributes of agricultural workers and agricultural employers that affect the provision of safety and health training. Worker and employer attributes include language, literacy, financial limitations, work beliefs, and health beliefs. Third, we review current initiatives addressing safety and health training for agricultural workers that consider worker language and literacy. These initiatives are limited to a few specific topics (e.g., pesticides, heat stress); they do not provide general programs of safety training that would help establish a culture of workplace safety. However, several innovative approaches to health and safety training are being implemented, including the use of community-based participatory approaches and lay health promoter programs. Fourth, the limited industry response for safety training with this linguistically diverse and educationally limited workforce is summarized. Finally, gaps in knowledge and practice are summarized and recommendations to develop educationally, culturally, and linguistically appropriate safety and health training are presented. PMID:20665309

  11. Language Barriers, Physician-Patient Language Concordance, and Glycemic Control Among Insured Latinos with Diabetes: The Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE)

    PubMed Central

    Schillinger, Dean; Warton, E. Margaret; Adler, Nancy; Moffet, Howard H.; Schenker, Yael; Salgado, M. Victoria; Ahmed, Ameena; Karter, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND A significant proportion of US Latinos with diabetes have limited English proficiency (LEP). Whether language barriers in health care contribute to poor glycemic control is unknown. OBJECTIVE To assess the association between limited English proficiency (LEP) and glycemic control and whether this association is modified by having a language-concordant physician. DESIGN Cross-sectional, observational study using data from the 2005–2006 Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE). Patients received care in a managed care setting with interpreter services and self-reported their English language ability and the Spanish language ability of their physician. Outcome was poor glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin A1c > 9%). KEY RESULTS The unadjusted percentage of patients with poor glycemic control was similar among Latino patients with LEP (n = 510) and Latino English-speakers (n = 2,683), and higher in both groups than in whites (n = 3,545) (21% vs 18% vs. 10%, p < 0.005). This relationship differed significantly by patient-provider language concordance (p < 0.01 for interaction). LEP patients with language-discordant physicians (n = 115) were more likely than LEP patients with language-concordant physicians (n = 137) to have poor glycemic control (27.8% vs 16.1% p = 0.02). After controlling for potential demographic and clinical confounders, LEP Latinos with language-concordant physicians had similar odds of poor glycemic control as Latino English speakers (OR 0.89; CI 0.53–1.49), whereas LEP Latinos with language-discordant physicians had greater odds of poor control than Latino English speakers (OR 1.76; CI 1.04–2.97). Among LEP Latinos, having a language discordant physician was associated with significantly poorer glycemic control (OR 1.98; CI 1.03–3.80). CONCLUSIONS Language barriers contribute to health disparities among Latinos with diabetes. Limited English proficiency is an independent

  12. School‐based brief psycho‐educational intervention to raise adolescent cancer awareness and address barriers to medical help‐seeking about cancer: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Stoddart, Iona; Forbat, Liz; Neal, Richard D.; O'Carroll, Ronan E.; Haw, Sally; Rauchhaus, Petra; Kyle, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Raising cancer awareness and addressing barriers to help‐seeking may improve early diagnosis. The aim was to assess whether a psycho‐educational intervention increased adolescents' cancer awareness and addressed help‐seeking barriers. Methods This was a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 2173 adolescents in 20 schools. The intervention was a 50‐min presentation delivered by a member of Teenage Cancer Trust's (UK charity) education team. Schools were stratified by deprivation and roll size and randomly allocated to intervention/control conditions within these strata. Outcome measures were the number of cancer warning signs and cancer risk factors recognised, help‐seeking barriers endorsed and cancer communication. Communication self‐efficacy and intervention fidelity were also assessed. Results Regression models showed significant differences in the number of cancer warning signs and risk factors recognised between intervention and control groups. In intervention schools, the greatest increases in recognition of cancer warning signs at 6‐month follow‐up were for unexplained weight loss (from 44.2% to 62.0%) and change in the appearance of a mole (from 46.3% to 70.7%), up by 17.8% and 24.4%, respectively. Greatest increases in recognition of cancer risk factors were for getting sunburnt more than once as a child (from 41.0% to 57.6%) and being overweight (from 42.7% to 55.5%), up by 16.6% and 12.8%, respectively. Regression models showed that adolescents in intervention schools were 2.7 times more likely to discuss cancer at 2‐week follow‐up compared with the control group. No differences in endorsement of barriers to help‐seeking were observed. Conclusions School‐based brief psycho‐educational interventions are easy to deliver, require little resource and improve cancer awareness. © 2015 The Authors. Psycho‐Oncology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26502987

  13. Responses to language barriers in consultations with refugees and asylum seekers: a telephone survey of Irish general practitioners

    PubMed Central

    MacFarlane, Anne; Glynn, Liam G; Mosinkie, Phillip I; Murphy, Andrew W

    2008-01-01

    Background Refugees and asylum seekers experience language barriers in general practice. Qualitative studies have found that responses to language barriers in general practice are ad hoc with use of both professional interpreters and informal interpreters (patients' relatives or friends). However, the scale of the issues involved is unknown. This study quantifies the need for language assistance in general practice consultations and examines the experience of, and satisfaction with, methods of language assistance utilized. Methods Data were collected by telephone survey with general practitioners in a regional health authority in Ireland between July-August 2004. Each respondent was asked a series of questions about consulting with refugees and asylum seekers, the need for language assistance and the kind of language assistance used. Results There was a 70% (n = 56/80) response rate to the telephone survey. The majority of respondents (77%) said that they had experienced consultations with refugees and asylum seekers in which language assistance was required. Despite this, general practitioners in the majority of cases managed without an interpreter or used informal methods of interpretation. In fact, when given a choice general practitioners would more often choose informal over professional methods of interpretation despite the fact that confidentiality was a significant concern. Conclusion The need for language assistance in consultations with refugees and asylum seekers in Irish general practice is high. General practitioners rely on informal responses. It is necessary to improve knowledge about the organisational contexts that shape general practitioners responses. We also recommend dialogue between general practitioners, patients and interpreters about the relative merits of informal and professional methods of interpretation so that general practitioners' choices are responsive to the needs of patients with limited English. PMID:19102735

  14. Four barriers to the global understanding of biodiversity conservation: wealth, language, geographical location and security

    PubMed Central

    Amano, Tatsuya; Sutherland, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Global biodiversity conservation is seriously challenged by gaps and heterogeneity in the geographical coverage of existing information. Nevertheless, the key barriers to the collection and compilation of biodiversity information at a global scale have yet to be identified. We show that wealth, language, geographical location and security each play an important role in explaining spatial variations in data availability in four different types of biodiversity databases. The number of records per square kilometre is high in countries with high per capita gross domestic product (GDP), high proportion of English speakers and high security levels, and those located close to the country hosting the database; but these are not necessarily countries with high biodiversity. These factors are considered to affect data availability by impeding either the activities of scientific research or active international communications. Our results demonstrate that efforts to solve environmental problems at a global scale will gain significantly by focusing scientific education, communication, research and collaboration in low-GDP countries with fewer English speakers and located far from Western countries that host the global databases; countries that have experienced conflict may also benefit. Findings of this study may be broadly applicable to other fields that require the compilation of scientific knowledge at a global level. PMID:23390102

  15. Four barriers to the global understanding of biodiversity conservation: wealth, language, geographical location and security.

    PubMed

    Amano, Tatsuya; Sutherland, William J

    2013-04-07

    Global biodiversity conservation is seriously challenged by gaps and heterogeneity in the geographical coverage of existing information. Nevertheless, the key barriers to the collection and compilation of biodiversity information at a global scale have yet to be identified. We show that wealth, language, geographical location and security each play an important role in explaining spatial variations in data availability in four different types of biodiversity databases. The number of records per square kilometre is high in countries with high per capita gross domestic product (GDP), high proportion of English speakers and high security levels, and those located close to the country hosting the database; but these are not necessarily countries with high biodiversity. These factors are considered to affect data availability by impeding either the activities of scientific research or active international communications. Our results demonstrate that efforts to solve environmental problems at a global scale will gain significantly by focusing scientific education, communication, research and collaboration in low-GDP countries with fewer English speakers and located far from Western countries that host the global databases; countries that have experienced conflict may also benefit. Findings of this study may be broadly applicable to other fields that require the compilation of scientific knowledge at a global level.

  16. Language Barriers among Patients in Boston Emergency Departments: Use of Medical Interpreters After Passage of Interpreter Legislation

    PubMed Central

    Ginde, Adit A.; Clark, Sunday

    2012-01-01

    Background Since 2001, Massachusetts state law dictates that emergency department (ED) patients with limited English proficiency have the right to a professional interpreter. Methods one year later, for two 24-h periods, we interviewed adult patients presenting to four Boston EDs. We assessed language barriers and compared this need with the observed use and type of interpreter during the ED visit. Results We interviewed 530 patients (70% of eligible) and estimated that an interpreter was needed for 60 (11%; 95% confidence interval, 7–12%) patients. The primary interpreter for these clinical encounters was a physician (30%), friend or family member age ≥18 years (22%), hospital interpreter services (15%), younger family member (11%), or other hospital staff (17%). Conclusions We found that 11% of ED patients had significant language barriers, but use of professional medical interpreters remained low. One year after passage of legislation mandating access, use of professional medical interpreters remained inadequate. PMID:18810638

  17. Addressing the unique psychosocial barriers to breast cancer treatment experienced by African-American women through integrative navigation.

    PubMed

    Chatman, Michelle C; Green, Rodney D

    2011-12-01

    African-American women face a disproportionally high breast cancer mortality rate and a significantly low five-year survival rate after breast cancer treatment. This study investigated, through a series of focus groups, how 32 African-American women (N = 32) breast cancer patients and survivors managed their cancer-related health needs. Participants also reported important barriers to care including problematic interactions with medical professionals, challenges in intimate relations, difficulties in handling the stigma and myths about breast cancer, and the psychological challenges that they faced. A patient navigation model was implemented at an eastern urban hospital that emphasized integrative therapies such as meditation, nutritional instruction, and yoga. Follow-up telephone interviews with 37 additional African-American participants (N = 37) indicated the rating of effectiveness to be at 3.8 to 3.9 out of 4 for the integrative patient navigation program. Over half of the survivors reported using some complementary techniques after treatment was completed, thus suggesting a long-term improvement in their quality of life as a result of the integrative techniques.

  18. Rapid HIV Screening in an Urban Jail: How Testing at Exit With Linkage to Community Care Can Address Perceived Barriers.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Kari A; Shaikh, Raees A; Earley, Mary; Foxall, Mark; Boyle, Cole; Islam, K M; Younger, Heather; Sandkovsky, Uriel; Berthold, Elizabeth; Margalit, Ruth

    2015-12-01

    Despite recommendations from the CDC, only 36 % of jails offer routine HIV screening to inmates. Our purpose was to explore the feasibility of rapid HIV testing at release from an urban jail, and to identify potential barriers to this process. This project was incorporated into an established partnership between the jail, local academic medical center, and local public health department. We offered rapid HIV testing at the time of release to 507 jail inmates over a 7 week period of 2013. Three hundred and two (60 %) inmates elected testing. All participating inmates received individual test counseling, HIV prevention education, and linkage to care in the community prior to release. All tested inmates received results before release; one inmate screened positive for HIV and was linked to care. Previous HIV testing was the most frequently cited reason given (60 %) among the 205 inmates who declined at the time of the study. Utilizing the partnership between the jail, public health, and an academic medical center, we found that rapid HIV testing at exit was feasible and acceptable in this urban jail setting and could provide immediate linkage to care for those in need.

  19. Addressing barriers to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis B and C in the face of persisting fiscal constraints in Europe: report from a high level conference.

    PubMed

    Papatheodoridis, G; Thomas, H C; Golna, C; Bernardi, M; Carballo, M; Cornberg, M; Dalekos, G; Degertekin, B; Dourakis, S; Flisiak, R; Goldberg, D; Gore, C; Goulis, I; Hadziyannis, S; Kalamitsis, G; Kanavos, P; Kautz, A; Koskinas, I; Leite, B R; Malliori, M; Manolakopoulos, S; Matičič, M; Papaevangelou, V; Pirona, A; Prati, D; Raptopoulou-Gigi, M; Reic, T; Robaeys, G; Schatz, E; Souliotis, K; Tountas, Y; Wiktor, S; Wilson, D; Yfantopoulos, J; Hatzakis, A

    2016-02-01

    In the WHO-EURO region, around 28 million people are currently living with chronic viral hepatitis, and 120,000 people die every year because of it. Lack of awareness and understanding combined with the social stigma and discrimination exacerbate barriers related to access to prevention, diagnosis and treatment services for those most in need. In addition, the persisting economic crisis has impacted on public health spending, thus posing challenges on the sustainable investment in promotion, primary and secondary prevention, diagnosis and treatment of viral hepatitis across European countries. The Hepatitis B and C Public Policy Association in cooperation with the Hellenic Center for Disease Prevention and Control together with 10 partner organizations discussed at the Athens High Level Meeting held in June 2014 recent policy developments, persisting and emerging challenges related to the prevention and management of viral hepatitis and the need for a de minimis framework of urgent priorities for action, reflected in a Call to Action (Appendix S1). The discussion confirmed that persisting barriers do not allow the full realisation of the public health potential of diagnosing and preventing hepatitis B and C, treating hepatitis B and curing hepatitis C. Such barriers are related to (a) lack of evidence-based knowledge of hepatitis B and C, (b) limited access to prevention, diagnosis and treatment services with poor patient pathways, (c) declining resources and (d) the presence of social stigma and discrimination. The discussion also confirmed the emerging importance of fiscal constraints on the ability of policymakers to adequately address viral hepatitis challenges, particularly through increasing coverage of newer therapies. In Europe, it is critical that public policy bodies urgently agree on a conceptual framework for addressing the existing and emerging barriers to managing viral hepatitis. Such a framework would ensure all health systems share a common

  20. The Effect of Initiatives to Overcome Language Barriers and Improve Attendance: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Adherence in an Inner City Chronic Pain Clinic.

    PubMed

    Andreae, Michael H; White, Robert S; Chen, Kelly Yan; Nair, Singh; Hall, Charles; Shaparin, Naum

    2016-07-14

    Language barriers can prevent pain physicians and patients from forming meaningful rapport and drive health care disparities. Non-adherence with scheduled pain clinic appointments deprives patients with chronic pain of needed specialist care.

  1. The Worker Component At The World Trade Center Cleanup: Addressing Cultural And Language Differences In Emergency Operations

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, B.; Carpenter, C.; Blair. D.

    2003-02-24

    On September 11, 2001, the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) caused astronomical loss of life and property. Systems in place to manage disaster response were strained to the limit because key first responders were among the casualties when the twin towers collapsed. In addition, the evolution of events required immediate response in a rapidly changing and extremely hazardous situation. Rescue, recovery, and clean up became an overpowering and sustained effort that would utilize the resources of federal, state and local governments and agencies. One issue during the response to the WTC disaster site that did not receive much attention was that of the limited and non-English speaking worker. The Operating Engineers National HAZMAT Program (OENHP), with its history of a Hispanic Outreach Program, was acutely aware of this issue with the Hispanic worker. The Hispanic population comprises approximately 27% of the population of New York City (1). The extremely unfortunate and tragic events of that day provided an opportunity to not only provide assistance for the Hispanic workers, but also to apply lessons learned and conduct studies on worker training with language barriers in a real life environment. However, due to the circumstances surrounding this tragedy, the study of these issues was conducted primarily by observation. Through partnerships with other organizations such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the New York Health Department, the New York Department of Design and Construction (DDC), the New York Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (NYCOSH), and private companies such as 3M and MSA, OENHP was able to provide translated information on hazards, protective measures, fit testing of respirators, and site specific safety and health training. The OENHP translated materials on hazards and how to protect workers into Spanish to assist in getting the information to the limited and non- English speaking workers.

  2. The Utilisation of the Internet by Palestinian English Language Teachers Focusing on Uses, Practices and Barriers and Overall Contribution to Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabilan, Muhammad Kamarul; Rajab, Belal Mousa

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes a study designed to investigate the utilisation of the Internet by English Language teachers in Gaza focusing on uses, practices and barriers. A questionnaire was developed based on literature (Kabilan 2003; Kabilan & Mohamed Amin 2002) and was administered to 274 English language teachers in Gaza schools. Data reveal that…

  3. A model of integrated health care in a poverty-impacted community in New York City: Importance of early detection and addressing potential barriers to intervention implementation.

    PubMed

    Acri, Mary C; Bornheimer, Lindsay A; O'Brien, Kyle; Sezer, Sara; Little, Virna; Cleek, Andrew F; McKay, Mary M

    2016-04-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) are chronic, impairing, and costly behavioral health conditions that are four times more prevalent among children of color living in impoverished communities as compared to the general population. This disparity is largely due to the increased exposure to stressors related to low socioeconomic status including community violence, unstable housing, under supported schools, substance abuse, and limited support systems. However, despite high rates and greater need, there is a considerably lower rate of mental health service utilization among these youth. Accordingly, the current study aims to describe a unique model of integrated health care for ethnically diverse youth living in a New York City borough. With an emphasis on addressing possible barriers to implementation, integrated models for children have the potential to prevent ongoing mental health problems through early detection and intervention.

  4. Addressing language barriers in client-centered health promotion: lessons learned and promising practices from Texas WIC.

    PubMed

    Seth, Jennifer Greenberg; Isbell, Matthew G; Atwood, Robin Dochen; Ray, Tara C

    2015-05-01

    The growing population of nonnative English speakers in the United States challenges program planners to offer services that will effectively reach limited English proficiency (LEP) audiences. This article presents findings from evaluation research conducted with the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) to identify best practices and areas of concern for working with LEP clients. Data were collected through online surveys of 338 WIC teaching staff in 2010 and 65 WIC local agency directors in 2011 as part of an implementation evaluation of client-centered nutrition education. Data identified current practices, facilitating factors, and challenges in working with LEP clients. Facilitating factors included cultural competency, material and translation resources, linguistic competency, professional development opportunities, and rapport with clients. Challenges cited included linguistic challenges, lack of cultural competencies, issues related to the client-staff interaction, and insufficient time, materials, and staffing. Best practices inferred from the data relate to developing linguistic standards for bilingual staff, considerations for translating written materials, interpretation services, cultural competency, and staff training. Findings may help inform the development of this and other linguistically and culturally appropriate health promotion programs.

  5. The Effects of English as a Second Language Courses on Language Minority Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodara, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    English as a second language (ESL) courses seek to address a primary barrier to college success for language minority students: second language issues that can inhibit their success in college-level coursework. But, there is a limited understanding of the effects of ESL on college student outcomes. Using a rich, longitudinal data set that includes…

  6. Addressing Barriers to Ecological Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Kim; Curthoys, Lesley

    2008-01-01

    Capra defines ecological literacy as "understanding the basic principles of ecology and being able to embody them in daily life." Roth describes ecological literacy as "the capacity to perceive and interpret the relative health of environmental systems and to take appropriate action to maintain, restore, or improve the health of…

  7. Enhancing Young Hispanic Dual Language Learners' Achievement: Exploring Strategies and Addressing Challenges. Policy Information Report. ETS RR-15-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Debra J.; Tazi, Zoila

    2015-01-01

    Dual language learners, or DLLs, may have greater school readiness needs due to the key role English oral language skills play in the development of emerging literacy skills in English and their overall academic achievement. This especially can be the case if children's capacity to benefit from classroom instruction and interact with teachers and…

  8. Face Values: The Use of Sensitive Error Correction to Address Adolescents' "Face" Issues in the Modern Languages Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crichton, Hazel; Templeton, Brian; Valdera, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety about "performing" in a foreign language in front of classmates may inhibit learners' contributions in the modern languages class through fear of embarrassment over possible error production. The issue of "face", perceived social standing in the eyes of others, presents a sensitive matter for young adolescents…

  9. Culture and language differences as a barrier to provision of quality care by the health workforce in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Almutairi, Khalid M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify, synthesize, and summarize issues and challenges related to the culture and language differences of the health workforce in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A comprehensive systematic review was conducted in May 2014 to locate published articles. Two independent researchers in consultation with several experts used 4 electronic databases (ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, PubMed, and Cochrane) to scrutinize articles published from January 2000 - March 2014. Each of the studies was given a quality assessment rating of weak, moderate, or strong, and was evaluated for methodological soundness using Russell and Gregory’s criteria. Results: The online literature search identified 12 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Lack of knowledge of non-Muslim nurses or culture in Saudi Arabia, difficulties in achieving cultural competence, and culture shock were documented as cultural difference factors. Issues in language difference include the clarity of language use by health care providers in giving information and providing adequate explanation regarding their activities. Conclusion: The available information provided by this review study shows that there is a communication barrier between patients and health care workers such as healthcare workers demonstrate low cultural competency. Despite the fact that the government provides programs for expatriate healthcare workers, there is a need to further improve educational and orientation programs regarding the culture and language in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25828278

  10. Grappling with Language Barriers: Implications for the Professional Development of Immigrant Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramova, Inna

    2013-01-01

    In this narrative inquiry, I explored the role of language in the lives of six Russian-speaking immigrant teachers. Theoretical perspectives emphasized experience, context, and culture in understanding their beliefs, and language served as an interpretive lens through which the experiences were explored. The inquiry revealed the following…

  11. The language barrier?: context, identity, and support for political goals in minority ethnolinguistic groups.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Andrew G; Manstead, Antony S R; Spears, Russell; Bowen, Dafydd

    2011-12-01

    In two studies, we tested the hypothesis that not having a potentially group-defining attribute (e.g., in-group language) can affect social identification and support for group goals (e.g., national autonomy). Focusing on the Welsh minority in the UK, Study 1 provided evidence that Welsh language fluency predicted Welsh identification and support for national autonomy, and that identification accounted for the language-autonomy association. Study 2 extended this by (1) examining British and English as well as Welsh identification; and (2) quasi-manipulating the surrounding context (Welsh speaking vs. non-Welsh speaking). As predicted, low Welsh language fluency predicted stronger British and English identification, but only where language was criterial (Welsh-speaking regions). British identification, in turn, predicted lower support for national autonomy. Implications and prospects for future research are discussed.

  12. [How are Pediatric Hospitals in North-Rhine Westfalia Prepared to Overcome Language Barriers? A Pilot Study Exploring The Structural Quality of Inpatient Care].

    PubMed

    Langer, T; Zapf, T; Wirth, S; Meyer, B; Wiegand, A; Timmen, H; Gupta, S J; Schuster, S; Geraedts, M

    2016-05-04

    Background: In Germany, 35% of all children are considered to have a "migration background", and in the state of North-Rhine-Westfalia 43%. Frequently, one or both parents of a patient with a migration background have limited German language proficiency. Communication barriers due to a language difference can have a negative impact on quality of care, patient safety and costs of care. In this study, we investigate how children's hospitals are prepared to meet the challenges associated with language barriers. Methods: We surveyed all children's hospitals in the state of North-Rhine-Westfalia, Germany. The questionnaire was based on the "Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services in Health and Health Care (CLAS)" and was adapted to circumstances in Germany. Results: Thirty-eight hospitals participated (51%) in this survey. Language barriers occurred frequently (75% of respondents mentioned language difficulties in more than 10% of the patient population). 82% of respondents rated their hospital to be "less than well prepared" to overcome language barriers. In the majority of hospitals (62%), the need for an interpreter was determined on a case-to-case basis and not according to any set protocol. In most cases bilingual staff was used for interpreting. However, only 38% of respondents found a list of available bilingual staff to be a sufficient resource. 42% of respondents did not know the monthly costs for professional interpreting services. In the remaining cases, costs were less than € 500/month. Conclusion: To overcome language barriers, hospitals rely on local resources. The majority of respondents did not find them to be appropriate and sufficient. The development of quality standards and the provision of financial resources are necessary to mobilize this potential for improvement. Therefore, other disciplines and sectors of healthcare need to be analyzed in order to provide the evidence for a constructive discussion with decision

  13. Breaking the Language Barrier: Promoting Collaboration between General and Special Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, LeAnne; Buly, Marsha Riddle

    2007-01-01

    The authors of this article are two professors from a northwestern regional university. One of them works in the special education department and the other works in the elementary education department. As they began to work together on their research and teaching, they found that there were many communication barriers between their departments and…

  14. Educating Chinese Scientists to Write for International Journals: Addressing the Divide between Science and Technology Education and English Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargill, Margaret; O'Connor, Patrick; Li, Yongyan

    2012-01-01

    As is the worldwide trend, scientists in China face strong and increasing pressure to publish their research in international peer-reviewed journals written in English. There is an acute need for graduate students to develop the required language skills alongside their scientific expertise, in spite of the distinct division currently existing…

  15. Using Student Co-Regulation to Address L2 Students' Language and Pedagogical Needs in University Support Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    This article highlights student co-regulation of teaching practices as a way of exploring how L2 students' language and pedagogical needs can be met in university support classes. Integration rather than assimilation--or adapting to the needs of the students rather than leaving students to face the exigencies of the new learning environment…

  16. Investing in Our Next Generation: A Funder's Guide to Addressing the Educational Opportunities and Challenges Facing English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantmakers for Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    More than one in ten preK-12 students in the U.S. are English Language Learners (ELLs), yet a sizable achievement gap exists between these more than 5.3 million ELL students and their English-proficient peers. In June 2010, Grantmakers for Education (GFE) convened funders, researchers, policymakers and practitioners to examine the role of…

  17. Addressing the Challenges of Language Choice in the Implementation of Mother-Tongue Based Bilingual Education in South Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spronk, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Since the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in 2005, the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (South Sudan) has been working towards the implementation of a Language and Education Policy in which the mother tongue of the learner is to be used as a medium of instruction for the first three years of primary education.…

  18. Breaking Down Barriers: Certificate in Workplace Language, Literacy and Numeracy Training. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Chris, Ed.; Frank, Fiona, Ed.; Caunt, Jaine Chisholm, Ed.

    This document is the course book of an accredited 3-day professional development course for qualified basic skills tutors in the United Kingdom who are interested in working in workplace settings. The course materials are organized into 17 sections grouped into 4 units as follows: (1) general concepts of workplace language, literacy, and numeracy…

  19. Formulaic Language as a Barrier to Effective Communication with People with Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Carers recognize that the linguistic problems associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be detrimental to effective communication, but they are often not sure what they can do to help. This article examines the use of formulaic language in AD, including routines, repetitions, and fillers, through the lens of a model of how cognitive and social…

  20. Overcoming the Language Barrier. Third European Congress on Information Systems and Networks, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg).

    The papers presented here have a double objective: to give those responsible for the Action plan for the improvement of information transfer between European languages a good view of existing and developing systems and to make future users of EURONET acquainted with methods and tools that will soon be available. The papers are arranged under six…

  1. School Nursing Documentation: Knowledge, Attitude, and Barriers to Using Standardized Nursing Languages and Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yearous, Sharon Kay Guthrie

    2011-01-01

    The independent, complex role of a school nurse requires accurate documentation of assessments, interventions, and outcomes. Consistent documentation by all school nurses is crucial to study the impact of nursing interventions on children's health and success in school. While standardized nursing languages are available, the actual use of…

  2. The Impact of Language Barriers on Documentation of Informed Consent at a Hospital with On-Site Interpreter Services

    PubMed Central

    Schenker, Yael; Wang, Frances; Selig, Sarah Jane; Ng, Rita

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Informed consent is legally and ethically required before invasive non-emergent procedures. Language barriers make obtaining informed consent more complex. OBJECTIVE Determine the impact of language barriers on documentation of informed consent among patients in a teaching hospital with on-site interpreter services. DESIGN Matched retrospective chart review study. SUBJECTS Eligible Chinese- and Spanish-speaking patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) who received a thoracentesis, paracentesis, or lumbar puncture were matched with eligible English-speaking patients by procedure, hospital service, and date of procedure. MEASUREMENTS Charts were reviewed for documentation of informed consent (IC), including a procedure note documenting an IC discussion and a signed consent form. For LEP patients, full documentation of informed consent also included evidence of interpretation, or a consent form in the patient’s primary language. RESULTS Seventy-four procedures in LEP patients were matched with 74 procedures in English speakers. Charts of English-speaking patients were more likely than those of LEP patients to contain full documentation of informed consent (53% vs 28%; odds ratio (OR): 2.81; 95% CI, 1.42–5.56; p = 0.003). Upon multivariate analysis adjusting for patient and service factors, English speakers remained more likely than LEP patients to have full documentation of informed consent (Adj OR: 3.10; 95% CI, 1.49–6.47; p = 0.003). When examining the components of informed consent, charts of English-speaking and LEP patients were similar in the proportion documenting a consent discussion; however, charts of English speakers were more likely to contain a signed consent form in any language (85% vs 70%, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS Despite the availability of on-site professional interpreter services, hospitalized patients who do not speak English are less likely to have documentation of informed consent for common invasive procedures

  3. Overcoming language and cultural barriers: a graphical communication tool to perform a parasitological screening in two vulnerable populations from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Buyayisqui, María Pía; Bordoni, Noemí; Garbossa, Graciela

    2013-01-01

    This is an exploratory study of the application of a support tool for the detection of asymptomatic subjects carrying enteric parasites in two vulnerable populations in Argentina: a shantytown in the city of Buenos Aires and a rural Wichí indigenous community in the province of Chaco. The ethnic and cultural diversity, high illiteracy rate, and language barriers called for the development of an auxiliary resource to explain stool sample collection procedures. In individual interviews with each family, the authors used two instructional guidance leaflets in comic strip format depicting the procedures. They evaluated the acceptance of the graphical communication tool on the basis of the number of retrieved samples. Percentages of respondent families were 72.2% and 66.7%, respectively. Definitive validation of these instruments would allow their use in community studies, community service learning experiences, and research on aboriginal communities that would otherwise be excluded from studies on health status.

  4. Language barriers in mental health care: a survey of primary care practitioners.

    PubMed

    Brisset, Camille; Leanza, Yvan; Rosenberg, Ellen; Vissandjée, Bilkis; Kirmayer, Laurence J; Muckle, Gina; Xenocostas, Spyridoula; Laforce, Hugues

    2014-12-01

    Many migrants do not speak the official language of their host country. This linguistic gap has been found to be an important contributor to disparities in access to services and health outcomes. This study examined primary care mental health practitioners' experiences with linguistic diversity. 113 practitioners in Montreal completed a self-report survey assessing their experiences working with allophones. About 40% of practitioners frequently encountered difficulties working in mental health with allophone clients. Few resources were available, and calling on an interpreter was the most common practice. Interpreters were expected to play many roles, which went beyond basic language translation. There is a clear need for training of practitioners on how to work with different types of interpreters. Training should highlight the benefits and limitations of the different roles that interpreters can play in health care delivery and the differences in communication dynamics with each role.

  5. Ciao, Professoressa! A Study of Forms of Address in Italian and Its Implications for the Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musumeci, Diane

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the sociolinguistic features that govern contemporary use of the Italian formal ("Lei") and informal ("tu") forms of address suggests that teachers of Italian must help students become aware of the complex factors underlying the choice of form, rather than just drill them in usage. (12 references) (CB)

  6. Short and long-term lifestyle coaching approaches used to address diverse participant barriers to weight loss and physical activity adherence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Individual barriers to weight loss and physical activity goals in the Diabetes Prevention Program, a randomized trial with 3.2 years average treatment duration, have not been previously reported. Evaluating barriers and the lifestyle coaching approaches used to improve adherence in a large, diverse participant cohort can inform dissemination efforts. Methods Lifestyle coaches documented barriers and approaches after each session (mean session attendance = 50.3 ± 21.8). Subjects were 1076 intensive lifestyle participants (mean age = 50.6 years; mean BMI = 33.9 kg/m2; 68% female, 48% non-Caucasian). Barriers and approaches used to improve adherence were ranked by the percentage of the cohort for whom they applied. Barrier groupings were also analyzed in relation to baseline demographic characteristics. Results Top weight loss barriers reported were problems with self-monitoring (58%); social cues (58%); holidays (54%); low activity (48%); and internal cues (thought/mood) (44%). Top activity barriers were holidays (51%); time management (50%); internal cues (30%); illness (29%), and motivation (26%). The percentage of the cohort having any type of barrier increased over the long-term intervention period. A majority of the weight loss barriers were significantly associated with younger age, greater obesity, and non-Caucasian race/ethnicity (p-values vary). Physical activity barriers, particularly thought and mood cues, social cues and time management, physical injury or illness and access/weather, were most significantly associated with being female and obese (p < 0.001 for all). Lifestyle coaches used problem-solving with most participants (≥75% short-term; > 90% long term) and regularly reviewed self-monitoring skills. More costly approaches were used infrequently during the first 16 sessions (≤10%) but increased over 3.2 years. Conclusion Behavioral problem solving approaches have short and long term dissemination potential

  7. Language barriers and bibliographic retrieval effectiveness: use of MEDLINE by French-speaking end users.

    PubMed Central

    Mouillet, E

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A study was conducted to determine if bibliographic retrieval performed by French-speaking end users is impaired by English language interfaces. The American database MEDLINE on CD-ROM was used as a model. METHODS: A survey of self-administered questionnaires was performed at two libraries of Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2 University, during a two-month period in 1997. Three study groups were constituted: MEDLINE / Ovid end users, MEDLINE / Ovid librarian-mediated users, and Pascal, a French bibliographic database, end users. RESULTS: Among 191 respondents, only 22% thought English was an obstacle to their bibliographic retrieval. However, the research software was generally underused and the quality of the retrieval weak. The differences were statistically significant between users trained by librarians and the self-trained group, the former performing better. CONCLUSION: Special efforts need to be made to develop curriculum training programs for computerized bibliographic retrieval in medical schools, regardless of the native language of the student. PMID:10550030

  8. Addressing the Standards for Foreign Language Learning. Dimension '97. Selected Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Southern Conference on Language Teaching and the South Carolina Foreign Language Teachers' Association (Myrtle Beach, South Carolina).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Robert M., Ed.

    Seven papers from the annual conference are presented. "Developing Tomorrow's Technology-Using Foreign Language Teachers: Where We Are, Where We Are Going" (Marjorie H. DeWert, Audrey Heining-Boynton) looks at whether language teachers are being trained to take full advantage of educational technology. "Foreign Language Placement in…

  9. Attitudes and Barriers to Exercise in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes (T1DM) and How Best to Address Them: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lascar, Nadia; Kennedy, Amy; Hancock, Beverley; Jenkins, David; Andrews, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity has recognised health benefits for people with T1DM. However a significant proportion of them do not undertake the recommended levels of activity. Whilst questionnaire-based studies have examined barriers to exercise in people with T1DM, a formal qualitative analysis of these barriers has not been undertaken. Our aims were to explore attitudes, barriers and facilitators to exercise in patients with T1DM. Methodology A purposeful sample of long standing T1DM patients were invited to participate in this qualitative study. Twenty-six adults were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule to determine their level of exercise and barriers to initiation and maintenance of an exercise programme. Principal findings Six main barriers to exercise were identified: lack of time and work related factors; access to facilities; lack of motivation; embarrassment and body image; weather; and diabetes specific barriers (low levels of knowledge about managing diabetes and its complications around exercise). Four motivators to exercise were identified: physical benefits from exercise; improvements in body image; enjoyment and the social interaction of exercising at gym or in groups. Three facilitators to exercise were identified: free or reduced admission to gyms and pools, help with time management, and advice and encouragement around managing diabetes for exercise. Significance Many of the barriers to exercise in people with T1DM are shared with the non-diabetic population. The primary difference is the requirement for education about the effect of exercise on diabetes control and its complications. There was a preference for support to be given on a one to one basis rather than in a group environment. This suggests that with the addition of the above educational requirements, one to one techniques that have been successful in increasing activity in patients with other chronic disease and the general public should be successful in

  10. [If the provision of information runs into the language barrier--about the cooperation with interpreters].

    PubMed

    Sleptsova, M

    2007-10-01

    Communication between professionals and patients from different cultural origin and without knowledge of the professional's language is not possible without the help of interpreters. Their presences however, can have a differential impact upon the quality of the interaction. Non-professional translators (family members, members of hospital staff etc.) can have a negative impact upon medical treatment via false translation, most commonly by the failure to add "creative elements" from their own interpretation to what has been said. As a consequence, using professional interpreters is generally preferred. It has been shown that professional translation improves the quality of treatment and patients' satisfaction with treatment. The proper professionalisation of interpretation is a rather recent development in health care, differentiating between various roles that an interpreter might take. The prominent role of a cultural translator often referred to as "mediation" assumes that the interpreter "mediates" between two different cultures that collide during an encounter. In our experience with Turkish speaking interpreters however, their socio-demographic characteristics (foremost education and social class in Turkey) resemble those of professionals much closer than that of Turkish patients; this the interpreter's position is not in the middle between patient and health care provider but skewed to the latter. Using concrete clinical situations we will recommend a word-by-word translation largely neglecting the role of the cultural mediator.

  11. Addressing the Professional Development Awareness Needs of School Counselors regarding English Language Learners (ELLs): Using the School Cultural Capital Game to Enhance Level of Self-Efficacy with ELLs and Attitudes toward Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paredes, Maria Adele Brunelli

    2010-01-01

    Close to 4.6 million public school students receive English Language Learner (ELL) services (Kindler, 2002). In addition to educational gaps that exist between ELLs and their non-ELL peers, ELLs often experience significant barriers to academic success (Williams & Butler, 2003). The importance of school counselors in the success of ELLs has been…

  12. Foreign Languages: Workforce Planning Could Help Address Staffing and Proficiency Shortfalls. Testimony before the Subcommittee on International Security, Proliferation, and Federal Services, Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westin, Susan S.

    This statement examines the nature and impact of foreign language proficiency and personnel shortages in the Army, State Department, Central Intelligence Agency, and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), discussing strategies used to address these shortages and efforts made to address current and projected shortages. All four agencies reported…

  13. AFMLTA 19th Biennial Conference Horwood Address: Accomplished Teaching of Languages and Cultures Doesn't Happen by Chance: Reflective Journal Entries of a "Returnee" to the Learner Seat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbon, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    The following is the text of the Horwood Address delivered by Associate Professor Lesley Harbon from the University of Sydney at the AFMLTA Biennial Conference in Canberra 2013. The focus of the Address is accomplished teaching of languages and cultures, known to us all through the AFMLTA's work on Professional Standards published in 2005.…

  14. OVERCOMING CULTURAL BARRIERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARRUTIA, RICHARD

    THE RELATIONSHIP OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT TO CULTURAL BARRIERS AND THE TEACHING OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES IS DISCUSSED IN THIS ARTICLE. VARIOUS VIEWS OF THE MEANING OF CULTURE ARE MENTIONED IN ORDER TO SINGLE OUT ANTHROPOLOGICAL CULTURE AS A MAIN FOCAL POINT. INTERCULTURAL DIFFERENCES ARE SPELLED OUT WITH EXAMPLES OF LINGUISTIC BARRIERS, AND…

  15. Self-management of health care: multimethod study of using integrated health care and supportive housing to address systematic barriers for people experiencing homelessness.

    PubMed

    Parsell, Cameron; Ten Have, Charlotte; Denton, Michelle; Walter, Zoe

    2017-04-07

    Objectives The aims of the present study were to examine tenants' experiences of a model of integrated health care and supportive housing and to identify whether integrated health care and supportive housing improved self-reported health and healthcare access.Methods The present study used a mixed-method survey design (n=75) and qualitative interviews (n=20) performed between September 2015 and August 2016. Participants were tenants of permanent supportive housing in Brisbane (Qld, Australia). Qualitative data were analysed thematically.Results Integrated health care and supportive housing were resources for tenants to overcome systematic barriers to accessing mainstream health care experienced when homeless. When homeless, people did not have access to resources required to maintain their health. Homelessness meant not having a voice to influence the health care people received; healthcare practitioners treated symptoms of poverty rather than considering how homelessness makes people sick. Integrated healthcare and supportive housing enabled tenants to receive treatment for health problems that were compounded by the barriers to accessing mainstream healthcare that homelessness represented.Conclusions Extending the evidence about housing as a social determinant of health, the present study shows that integrated health care and supportive housing enabled tenants to take control to self-manage their health care. In addition to homelessness directly contributing to ill health, the present study provides evidence of how the experience of homelessness contributes to exclusions from mainstream healthcare.What is known about the topic? People who are homeless experience poor physical and mental health, have unmet health care needs and use disproportionate rates of emergency health services.What does the paper add? The experience of homelessness creates barriers to accessing adequate health care. The provision of onsite multidisciplinary integrated health care in

  16. Addressing barriers to optimal oral anticoagulation use and persistence among patients with atrial fibrillation: Proceedings, Washington, DC, December 3-4, 2012.

    PubMed

    Hess, Paul L; Mirro, Michael J; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Eikelboom, John W; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Hylek, Elaine M; Bosworth, Hayden B; Gersh, Bernard J; Singer, Daniel E; Flaker, Greg; Mega, Jessica L; Peterson, Eric D; Rumsfeld, John S; Steinberg, Benjamin A; Kakkar, Ajay K; Califf, Robert M; Granger, Christopher B

    2014-09-01

    Approximately half of patients with atrial fibrillation and with risk factors for stroke are not treated with oral anticoagulation (OAC), whether it be with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or novel OACs (NOACs); and of those treated, many discontinue treatment. Leaders from academia, government, industry, and professional societies convened in Washington, DC, on December 3-4, 2012, to identify barriers to optimal OAC use and adherence and to generate potential solutions. Participants identified a broad range of barriers, including knowledge gaps about stroke risk and the relative risks and benefits of anticoagulant therapies; lack of awareness regarding the potential use of NOAC agents for VKA-unsuitable patients; lack of recognition of expanded eligibility for OAC; lack of availability of reversal agents and the difficulty of anticoagulant effect monitoring for the NOACs; concerns with the bleeding risk of anticoagulant therapy, especially with the NOACs and particularly in the setting of dual antiplatelet therapy; suboptimal time in therapeutic range for VKA; and costs and insurance coverage. Proposed solutions were to define reasons for oral anticoagulant underuse classified in ways that can guide intervention and improve use, to increase awareness of stroke risk as well as the benefits and risks of OAC use via educational initiatives and feedback mechanisms, to better define the role of VKA in the current therapeutic era including eligibility and ineligibility for different anticoagulant therapies, to identify NOAC reversal agents and monitoring strategies and make knowledge regarding their use publicly available, to minimize the duration of dual antiplatelet therapy and concomitant OAC where possible, to improve time in therapeutic range for VKA, to leverage observational data sets to refine understanding of OAC use and outcomes in general practice, and to better align health system incentives.

  17. Understanding cultural and linguistic barriers to health literacy.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Kate; Krause, Elizabeth M S

    2010-01-01

    Nurses today are providing care, education, and case management to an increasingly diverse patient population that is challenged with a triad of cultural, linguistic, and health literacy barriers. For these patients, culture and language set the context for the acquisition and application of health literacy skills. Yet the nursing literature offers minimal help in integrating cultural and linguistic considerations into nursing efforts to address patient health literacy. Nurses are in an ideal position to facilitate the interconnections between patient culture, language, and health literacy in order to improve health outcomes for culturally diverse patients. In this article the authors begin by describing key terms that serve as background for the ensuing discussion explaining how culture and language need to be considered in any interaction designed to address health literacy for culturally diverse patients. The authors then discuss the interrelationships between health literacy, culture, and language. Next relevant cultural constructs are introduced as additional background. This is followed by a description of how literacy skills are affected by culture and language, a note about culturally diverse, native-born patients, and a presentation of case examples illustrating how culture and language barriers are seen in patients' healthcare experiences. The authors conclude by offering recommendations for promoting health literacy in the presence of cultural and language barriers and noting the need for nursing interventions that fully integrate health literacy, culture, and language.

  18. "I'm Telling You ... The Language Barrier Is the Most, the Biggest Challenge": Barriers to Education among Karen Refugee Women in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Paula G.; Razee, Husna; Richters, Juliet

    2012-01-01

    This article examines factors influencing English language education, participation and achievement among Karen refugee women in Australia. Data were drawn from ethnographic observations and interviews with 67 participants between 2009 and 2011, collected as part of a larger qualitative study exploring the well-being of Karen refugee women in…

  19. Japanese Language as an Organizational Barrier for International Students to Access to University Services: A Case of Aoyama Gakuin University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiratsuka, Hiroyoshi

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, Aoyama Gakuin University (AGU) started a government-funded degree program (taught in English) to accept international students with limited or no Japanese language proficiency. However, the students faced obstacles in accessing all of the university resources provided. In this article, I investigated Japanese language as an organizational…

  20. The Motivational Effects of Crosslinguistic Awareness: Developing Third Language Pedagogies to Address the Negative Impact of the L2 on the L3 Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Alastair

    2014-01-01

    Learning a third language (TL) brings with it particular pedagogical demands. In the pedagogy of TL learning now emerging, the development of students' metalinguistic and crosslinguistic awareness is of central importance. In particular, emphasis is placed on the benefits of cross-referencing with supporter languages. While comparisons with…

  1. Overcoming Language and Literacy Barriers: Using Student Response System Technology to Collect Quality Program Evaluation Data from Immigrant Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan K.; Mao, Dung

    2016-01-01

    Student response system technology was employed for parenting education program evaluation data collection with Karen adults. The technology, with translation and use of an interpreter, provided an efficient and secure method that respected oral language and collective learning preferences and accommodated literacy needs. The method was popular…

  2. Enabling the Full Participation of University Students with Disabilities: Seeking Best Practices for a Barrier-Free Language Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuomi, Margaret Trotta; Jauhojärvi-Koskelo, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that 3.4% of university students in Finland have a diagnosed or observed illness or disability that affects their learning at the university level. The University of Jyväskylä Language Centre embarked on an organised, ongoing research and intervention project to enable appropriate teaching practices to suit the needs of…

  3. Doing their best: strategies used by South African clinicians in working with psychiatric inpatients across a language barrier

    PubMed Central

    Kilian, Sanja; Swartz, Leslie; Chiliza, Bonginkosi

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives South Africa has 11 official languages, but most psychiatrists can speak only English and Afrikaans and there are no formal interpreter posts in the mental healthcare system. As a result clinicians communicate with patients who have limited English language proficiency (LEP) without the use of interpreters. We present case material, constituting recordings of interactions between clinicians and LEP patients in a public psychiatric institution. The aim is to have a better understanding of how these clinical encounters operated and what communicative strategies clinicians used. Design We used the Roter interaction analysis system (RIAS) to evaluate clinicians’ conversational strategies and to analyze interactions between clinicians and patients. Results Clinicians showed a high degree of tenacity in trying to engage patients in the clinical conversation, build rapport, and gather crucial diagnostic information. However, patients often responded briefly and monosyllabically, or kept quiet. In psychiatry where commonality of language cannot be assumed, it is not possible to determine the clinical significance of these responses. Discussion Clinicians went to great lengths to understand LEP patients. It is also clear that patients were often not optimally understood. Clinicians would try to gain valid information in a polite manner, but would abandon these attempts repeatedly as it became clear that proper communication was not possible. Conclusions Our findings suggest that in the absence of interpreter services, the communication between clinicians and LEP patients is sparse and yields limited clinical information. The lack of proper language services stands in the way of optimal clinical care and requires urgent attention. PMID:26507606

  4. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system.

  5. Content Addressable Memory Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    The Content Addressable M1-emory Project consists of the development of several experimental software systems on an AMT Distributed Array Processor...searching (database) compiler algorithms memory management other systems software) Linear C is an unlovely hybrid language which imports the CAM...memory from AMT’s operating system for the DAP; how- ever, other than this limitation, the memory management routines work exactly as their C counterparts

  6. Lexical and Acoustic Features of Maternal Utterances Addressing Preverbal Infants in Picture Book Reading Link to 5-Year-Old Children's Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Huei-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: I examined the long-term association between the lexical and acoustic features of maternal utterances during book reading and the language skills of infants and children. Maternal utterances were collected from 22 mother-child dyads in picture book-reading episodes when children were ages 6-12 months and 5 years. Two aspects of…

  7. Overcoming language barriers in community-based research with refugee and migrant populations: options for using bilingual workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the challenges of working with culturally and linguistically diverse groups can lead to the exclusion of some communities from research studies, cost effective strategies to encourage access and promote cross-cultural linkages between researchers and ethnic minority participants are essential to ensure their views are heard and their health needs identified. Using bilingual research assistants is one means to achieve this. In a study exploring alcohol and other drug service use by migrant women in Western Australia, bilingual workers were used to assist with participant recruitment and administration of a survey to 268 women who spoke more than 40 different languages. Discussion Professional interpreters, bilingual students, bilingual overseas-trained health professionals and community sector bilingual workers were used throughout the research project. For the initial qualitative phase, professional interpreters were used to conduct interviews and focus group sessions, however scheduling conflicts, inflexibility, their inability to help with recruitment and the expense prompted exploration of alternative options for interview interpreting in the quantitative component of the study. Bilingual mature-age students on work placement and overseas-trained health professionals provided good entry into their different community networks and successfully recruited and interviewed participants, often in languages with limited interpreter access. Although both groups required training and supervision, overseas-trained health professionals often had existing research skills, as well as understanding of key issues such as confidentiality and referral processes. Strategies to minimise social desirability bias and the need to set boundaries were discussed during regular debriefing sessions. Having a number of workers recruiting participants also helped minimise the potential for selection bias. The practical and educational experience gained by the bilingual

  8. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  9. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Kakodkar, A

    1999-07-01

    This convocation addressed by Dr. Anil Kakodkar focuses on the challenges faced by graduating students. In his speech, he emphasized the high level of excellence achieved by the industrial sector; however, he noted that there has been a loss of initiative in maximizing value addition, which was worsened by an increasing population pressure. In facing a stiff competition in the external and domestic markets, it is imperative to maximize value addition within the country in a competitive manner and capture the highest possible market share. To achieve this, high-quality human resources are central. Likewise, family planning programs should become more effective and direct available resources toward national advantage. To boost the domestic market, he suggests the need to search for strengths to achieve leadership position in those areas. First, an insight into the relationship between the lifestyles and the needs of our people and the natural resource endowment must be gained. Second, remodeling of the education system must be undertaken to prepare the people for adding the necessary innovative content in our value addition activities. Lastly, Dr. Kakodkar emphasizes the significance of developing a strong bond between parents and children to provide a sound foundation and allow the education system to grow upon it.

  10. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  11. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  12. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  13. English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) nursing student success: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Olson, Mary Angela

    2012-01-01

    Many English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) nursing students struggle in nursing school for a multitude of reasons. The purpose of this critical review of the literature is to identify barriers and discover bridges to ESL nursing student success. Twenty-five articles were identified for the review. Language barriers were identified as the single most significant obstacle facing the ESL nursing student. Bridges to ESL nursing student success include enhancing language development and acculturation into the American mainstream culture. A broad range of strategies to promote student success are outlined and the role of the nurse educator in ESL nursing student success is also addressed.

  14. Marketing the Maori Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Rangi

    Although the New Zealand government is spending millions of dollars to teach the Maori language in preschool language nests and immersion primary schools, its language policies are unlikely to succeed because they do not address the perceived low social status of the language. A marketing paradigm outlines how language can be viewed as a product…

  15. Language as a Barrier to Communication between the Classes in Rosario Castellanos's "La tregua" and Jose Revueltas's "El lenguaje de nadie."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Cynthia

    1991-01-01

    Examines two Spanish-language short stories that use language as a codifying system for examining false institutions, antiquated prejudices, and iron-cal hierarchies that have been erected in the name of Mexican culture. (12 references) (GLR)

  16. Addressing Identified Barriers Faced by Persons with Sensory Disabilities. Final Report of the Department for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing and the HJR 461 Task Force to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia. House Document No. 99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing, Richmond.

    This report describes a special Virginia task force study of barriers faced by persons with sensory disabilities in emergency and law enforcement situations. Surveys were conducted of three populations: deaf and hard of hearing; blind and visually disabled; and PSAPs (public safety answering points--centers which answer 911 calls). The overriding…

  17. Barriers to Accessing Services for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Marian E.; Perrigo, Judith L.; Banda, Tanya Y.; Matic, Tamara; Goldfarb, Fran D.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates barriers to accessing services for children under age 3 presenting with language delays and behavioral difficulties, including language barriers for Spanish-speaking families. Using a telephone script, researchers called 30 agencies in Los Angeles County, including regional centers (the state network of Part C agencies for…

  18. Linguistic Moments: Language, Teaching, and Teacher Education in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, LaVada; Baszile, Denise Marie Taliaferro; Berry, Theodora Regina

    2009-01-01

    Many diversity courses that prepare pre-service teachers do not address the significance or the impact of language barriers on linguistically diverse learners. Often time, new and veteran teachers construct their bilingual and/or bidialectical students as others and are unaware of how to use their students' social, cultural, and political…

  19. Diffusion barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolet, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    The choice of the metallic film for the contact to a semiconductor device is discussed. One way to try to stabilize a contact is by interposing a thin film of a material that has low diffusivity for the atoms in question. This thin film application is known as a diffusion barrier. Three types of barriers can be distinguished. The stuffed barrier derives its low atomic diffusivity to impurities that concentrate along the extended defects of a polycrystalline layer. Sacrificial barriers exploit the fact that some (elemental) thin films react in a laterally uniform and reproducible fashion. Sacrificial barriers have the advantage that the point of their failure is predictable. Passive barriers are those most closely approximating an ideal barrier. The most-studied case is that of sputtered TiN films. Stuffed barriers may be viewed as passive barriers whose low diffusivity material extends along the defects of the polycrystalline host.

  20. Consuming English: How Mexican Transmigrants form Identities and Construct Symbolic Citizenship through the English-Language Program Ingles Sin Barreras [English without Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Char

    2010-01-01

    "Ingles Sin Barreras" is an English-language program that is highly advertised on Spanish-language television in the United States, to the point that it has become a pop-culture phenomenon. In this article, I argue that few people actually use it to learn English, but instead consume it as a symbol of national belonging. This article…

  1. Language Labs: Their Impact on English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Jeanette R.

    2013-01-01

    Unacceptable use of the English language by English language learners (ELLs) at the college level has been determined to be a major deterrent to their success in academia. The problem is that ELLs who complete a language acquisition program may not necessarily perform well in core academic subjects because of persisting language barriers. It is…

  2. Sociolinguistics and Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Sandra Lee, Ed.; Hornberger, Nancy H., Ed.

    The text presents an introduction to sociolinguistics for second language teachers, focusing on social dimensions of language likely to be of interest to this group. The first group of chapters addresses the manner in which the larger social and political context affects language broadly: "Language Attitudes, Motivation, and Standards" (Mary…

  3. Barriers related to prenatal care utilization among women

    PubMed Central

    Roozbeh, Nasibeh; Nahidi, Fatemeh; Hajiyan, Sepideh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate barriers related to prenatal care utilization among women. Methods Data was collected in both English and Persian databases. English databases included: the International Medical Sciences, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar. The Persian databases included: the Iranmedex, the State Inpatient Databases (SID) with the use of related keywords, and on the basis of inclusion-exclusion criteria. The keywords included are barrier, prenatal care, women, access, and preventive factors. OR and AND were Boolean operators. After the study, articles were summarized, unrelated articles were rejected, and related articles were identified. Inclusion criteria were all published articles from 1990 to 2015, written in English and Persian languages. The titles and abstracts are related, and addressed all subjects about barriers related to prenatal care utilization. At the end, all duplicated articles were excluded. There were no restrictions for exclusion or inclusion of articles. Exclusion criteria were failure in reporting in studies, case studies, and lack of access to the full text. Results After searching various databases, 112 related articles were included. After reviewing articles’ titles, 67 unrelated articles and abstracts were rejected, 45 articles were evaluated, 20 of them were duplicated. Then, the qualities of 25 articles were analyzed. Therefore, 5 articles were excluded due to not mentioning the sample size, mismatches between method and data, or results. Total of 20 articles were selected for final analysis. Prenatal care utilization barrier can be divided into various domains such as individual barriers, financial barriers, organizational barriers, social, and cultural barriers. Conclusion To increase prenatal care coverage, it is necessary to pay attention to all domains, especially individual and financial barriers.

  4. Timing of translation in cross-language qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Santos, Hudson P O; Black, Amanda M; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2015-01-01

    Although there is increased understanding of language barriers in cross-language studies, the point at which language transformation processes are applied in research is inconsistently reported, or treated as a minor issue. Differences in translation timeframes raise methodological issues related to the material to be translated, as well as for the process of data analysis and interpretation. In this article we address methodological issues related to the timing of translation from Portuguese to English in two international cross-language collaborative research studies involving researchers from Brazil, Canada, and the United States. One study entailed late-phase translation of a research report, whereas the other study involved early phase translation of interview data. The timing of translation in interaction with the object of translation should be considered, in addition to the language, cultural, subject matter, and methodological competencies of research team members.

  5. [Vascular endothelial Barrier Function].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A N; Puchinyan, D M; Norkin, I A

    2015-01-01

    Endothelium is an important regulator of selective permeability of the vascular wall for different molecules and cells. This review summarizes current data on endothelial barrier function. Endothelial glycocalyx structure, its function and role in the molecular transport and leukocytes migration across the endothelial barrier are discussed. The mechanisms of transcellular transport of macromolecules and cell migration through endothelial cells are reviewed. Special section of this article addresses the structure and function of tight and adherens endothelial junction, as well as their importance for the regulation of paracellular transport across the endothelial barrier. Particular attention is paid to the signaling mechanism of endothelial barrier function regulation and the factors that influence on the vascular permeability.

  6. The Language Situation in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouega, Jean-Paul

    2007-01-01

    This monograph examines the language situation in Cameroon, a Central African country where fewer than 20 million people speak close to 250 languages. Specifically, the monograph addresses the issues of language use and spread, language policy and planning, and language maintenance and prospects. The study is divided into five parts. The…

  7. Tailored interventions to overcome identified barriers to change: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Richard; Camosso-Stefinovic, Janette; Gillies, Clare; Shaw, Elizabeth J; Cheater, Francine; Flottorp, Signe; Robertson, Noelle

    2014-01-01

    Background In the previous version of this review, the effectiveness of interventions tailored to barriers to change was found to be uncertain. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions tailored to address identified barriers to change on professional practice or patient outcomes. Search methods For this update, in addition to the EPOC Register and pending files, we searched the following databases without language restrictions, from inception until August 2007: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, BNI and HMIC. We searched the National Research Register to November 2007. We undertook further searches to October 2009 to identify potentially eligible published or ongoing trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions tailored to address prospectively identified barriers to change that reported objectively measured professional practice or healthcare outcomes in which at least one group received an intervention designed to address prospectively identified barriers to change. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers independently assessed quality and extracted data. We undertook quantitative and qualitative analyses. The quantitative analyses had two elements. We carried out a meta-regression to compare interventions tailored to address identified barriers to change with either no interventions or an intervention(s) not tailored to the barriers.We carried out heterogeneity analyses to investigate sources of differences in the effectiveness of interventions. These included the effects of: risk of bias, concealment of allocation, rigour of barrier analysis, use of theory, complexity of interventions, and the reported presence of administrative constraints. Main results We included 26 studies comparing an intervention tailored to address identified barriers to change to no intervention or an intervention(s) not tailored to the barriers. The effect sizes of these studies varied both across and within studies. Twelve studies provided

  8. Vehicle barrier

    DOEpatents

    Hirsh, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    A vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate member and lateral, security fixed vertical pipe posts. The security barrier of the present invention provides for the use of cable restraints across gate openings to provide necessary security while at the same time allowing for quick opening and closing of the gate areas without compromising security.

  9. "What's the Sign for 'Catch 22'?": Barriers to Professional Formation for Deaf Teachers of British Sign Language in the Further Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Lynne; Atherton, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, Qualified Teacher Learning and Skills standards (QTLS) were introduced for all teachers working in UK further education institutions, with the expressed aim of improving professional standards within the sector. British Sign Language (BSL) teaching is largely delivered by deaf native signers through evening classes at local FE colleges,…

  10. Barriers to diabetes management: patient and provider factors.

    PubMed

    Nam, Soohyun; Chesla, Catherine; Stotts, Nancy A; Kroon, Lisa; Janson, Susan L

    2011-07-01

    Despite significant advances in diagnosis and treatment, the persistence of inadequate metabolic control continues. Poor glycemic control may be reflected by both the failure of diabetes self-management by patients as well as inadequate intervention strategies by clinicians. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize existing knowledge regarding various barriers of diabetes management from the perspectives of both patients and clinicians. A search of PubMed, CINAHL, ERIC, and PsycINFO identified 1454 articles in English published between 1990 and 2009, addressing type 2 diabetes, patient's barriers, clinician's barriers, and self-management. Patients' adherence, attitude, beliefs, and knowledge about diabetes may affect diabetes self-management. Culture and language capabilities influence the patient's health beliefs, attitudes, health literacy, thereby affecting diabetes self-management. Other influential factors include the patient's financial resources, co-morbidities, and social support. Clinician's attitude, beliefs and knowledge about diabetes also influence diabetes management. Clinicians may further influence the patient's perception through effective communication skills and by having a well-integrated health care system. Identifying barriers to diabetes management is necessary to improve the quality of diabetes care, including the improvement of metabolic control, and diabetes self-management. Further research that considers these barriers is necessary for developing interventions for individuals with type 2 diabetes.

  11. Language Maintenance and Language Shift: Preservation versus Extinction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudgill, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Linguists should publicize the catastrophic rate at which languages are dying out without being replaced and attempt to stem language shift and murder through public arguments that the (1) barriers to communication can be positive, (2) bilingualism is normal, and (3) all languages are complex and adequate systems of communication. (15 references)…

  12. Languages on the Move.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Glyn

    1986-01-01

    A speech addressed to British foreign language teachers concerning the state of foreign language instruction in Great Britain stressed the importance of maintaining high quality second language instruction at all educational levels for the purpose of securing the future of the United Kingdom in commercial, social, cultural, and political domains.…

  13. Development of a language identification tool.

    PubMed

    Davies, Charlotte; Milligan, Frank

    Service improvement is an important aspect of healthcare practice. Practitioners need to identify improvements in processes to free up time and resources for patient care. The obligation to do this falls to all staff, from students to chief executives. The project described in this article was led by a nursing student at the University of Bedfordshire, Luton, as part of the final-year assessment requirement of the pre-registration nursing degree programme. The project involved the development of a language identification tool to address communication barriers in the emergency department.

  14. Native Women at Risk: Addressing Cancer Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiemann, Kay M. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses outcomes of a conference that brought together representatives from Indian tribes, state health departments, the Indian Health Service, the Mayo Clinic, and the American Cancer Society, to address the high rate of cervical cancer among American Indian women. Describes barriers to health care and plans to promote cancer screening among…

  15. Investment and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittaway, Daniel S.

    2004-01-01

    The article argues that Norton Peirce's (1995) concept of a language learner's investment should figure centrally in how instructors address the needs of adult learners in ESL classrooms. Investment is discussed in relation to second language acquisition research that addresses the role of social factors in second language acquisition. The article…

  16. American Sign Language as a Foreign Language. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Sherman; Peyton, Joy Kreeft

    This digest provides a brief overview of American Sign Language (ASL) and discusses its study as a foreign language in U.S. schools and institutions of higher education. The following questions are addressed: (1) Is ASL a language?; (2) If ASL is used in the United States, how can it be considered a "foreign" language; (3) Are ASL users…

  17. On Language Change: The Invisible Hand in Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rudi

    The nature of language change over time is examined, and an evolutionary theory of language is proposed. The text, intended for laymen, students, and experts alike, first addresses the reasons and mechanisms by which language changes, and attempts to identify a relationship between the essence of language, reasons for change, and the genesis of…

  18. Learning Language through Content: Learning Content through Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Met, Myriam

    1991-01-01

    A definition and description of elementary school content-based foreign language instruction notes how it promotes natural language learning and higher-order thinking skills, and also addresses curriculum development, language objective definition, and specific applications in mathematics, science, reading and language arts, social studies, and…

  19. Resurrecting "Old" Language Learning Methods To Reduce Anxiety for New Language Learners: Community Language Learning to the Rescue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariza, Eileen N.

    2002-01-01

    Anxiety can impede language learning. By using the Community Language Learning method, a teacher helped young Spanish-language learners in Puerto Rico break through almost impenetrable social and psycholinguistic barriers that threatened their capability of learning a new language. This method focuses on strategies that reduce anxiety as the…

  20. Value of Web-based learning activities for nursing students who speak English as a second language.

    PubMed

    Koch, Jane; Salamonson, Yenna; Du, Hui Yun; Andrew, Sharon; Frost, Steven A; Dunncliff, Kirstin; Davidson, Patricia M

    2011-07-01

    There is an increasing need to address the educational needs of students with English as a second language. The authors assessed the value of a Web-based activity to meet the needs of students with English as a second language in a bioscience subject. Using telephone contact, we interviewed 21 Chinese students, 24 non-Chinese students with English as a second language, and 7 native English-speaking students to identify the perception of the value of the intervention. Four themes emerged from the qualitative data: (1) Language is a barrier to achievement and affects self-confidence; (2) Enhancement intervention promoted autonomous learning; (3) Focusing on the spoken word increases interaction capacity and self-confidence; (4) Assessment and examination drive receptivity and sense of importance. Targeted strategies to promote language acculturation and acquisition are valued by students. Linking language acquisition skills to assessment tasks is likely to leverage improvements in competence.

  1. Addressing the Barriers to Agile Development in DoD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    acquisition development  IT programs are subject to extensive documentation, reviews, and oversight that inhibits speed and agility needed for IT  Major...Based on Program, Ops, and Technical Risk Structuring an Agile Program  Notional: 6 Month Release with 4-Week Sprints – Continual development...integration, and testing – Monthly demonstration of capabilities to users  Gov’t testers, certifiers, and users involved early and often – Minimizes

  2. Addressing Barriers to Learning. Volume 12, Number 2. Spring 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Federal policies of parental involvement and community participation continue to be more rhetorical than meaningful; more theoretical than practical; an afterthought rather than a forethought; and they take a back seat to the more bureaucratic and technical elements of public education change and reform, especially testing and assessment. This…

  3. Addressing Barriers to Learning. Volume 15, Number 3. Summer 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In May, Congresswoman Judy Chu issued a report entitled: "Strengthening Our Schools: A New Framework and Principles for Revising School Improvement Grants." Rather than the usual limited two-component blueprint framework that focuses only on instruction and management/governance, Representative Chu's report adopts a three-component framework. This…

  4. Anthropologists address health equity: recognizing barriers to care

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Systems change is necessary for improving health care in the United States, especially for populations suffering from health disparities. Theoretical and methodological contributions of anthropology to health care design and delivery can inform systems change by providing a window into provider and patient perceptions and practices. Our community-engaged research teams conduct in-depth investigations of provider perceptions of patients, often uncovering gaps between patient and provider perceptions resulting in the degradation of health equity. We present examples of projects where collaborations between anthropologists and health professionals resulted in actionable data on functioning and malfunctioning systemic momentum toward efforts to eliminate disparities and support wellness. PMID:27158189

  5. Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelto, E. V.

    1967-01-01

    Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language. This program translates symbolic codes into computer understandable instructions, assigns locations in storage for successive instructions, and computer locations from symbolic addresses.

  6. Barriers to cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Womeodu, R J; Bailey, J E

    1996-01-01

    greatest responsibility lies with medical and health care institutions and those who determine the priorities of these institutions. Patient and physician barriers to mass cancer screening can be addressed by institutional support. If the quality of care delivered by providers, group practices, managed-care organizations, and HMOs is assessed with priority given to the regularity and consistency with which basic screening procedures are performed, cancer screening will undoubtedly receive greater attention in the clinic. Medical institutions must collaborate to develop standards for cancer screening with attention to the cost-effectiveness of various screening techniques to determine how limited resources can best be spent in cancer control. Such efforts should keep in mind "that a very small change implemented over a broad population may have a greater effect in absolute numbers than a large level of change applied in a small segment of the population."

  7. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  8. Nurses' barriers to learning: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marion C

    2012-07-01

    This integrative review of the literature describes nurses' barriers to learning. Five major themes emerged: time constraints, financial constraints, workplace culture, access/relevance, and competency in accessing electronic evidence-based practice literature. The nurse educator must address these barriers for the staff to achieve learning and competency.

  9. Western Wind Strategy: Addressing Critical Issues for Wind Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Larson; Thomas Carr

    2012-03-30

    The goal of the Western Wind Strategy project was to help remove critical barriers to wind development in the Western Interconnection. The four stated objectives of this project were to: (1) identify the barriers, particularly barriers to the operational integration of renewables and barriers identified by load-serving entities (LSEs) that will be buying wind generation, (2) communicate the barriers to state officials, (3) create a collaborative process to address those barriers with the Western states, utilities and the renewable industry, and (4) provide a role model for other regions. The project has been on the forefront of identifying and informing state policy makers and utility regulators of critical issues related to wind energy and the integration of variable generation. The project has been a critical component in the efforts of states to push forward important reforms and innovations that will enable states to meet their renewable energy goals and lower the cost to consumers of integrating variable generation.

  10. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  11. Invitational Addresses, 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Arthur I.; And Others

    The full texts of invitational addresses given at the 1965 International Reading Association (IRA) Convention in Detroit, Michigan, by six recipients of IRA citation awards are presented. Gates suggests steps IRA should take to revive and redirect reading research. McCallister discusses the implications of the changing and expanding vocabulary of…

  12. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  13. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  14. Language and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jack C., Ed.; Schmidt, Richard W., Ed.

    A collection of essays addresses the connection between the study of communication and its sociocultural contexts and the approach to second language teaching based on the concept of communicative competence. Essays include: "From Communicative Competence to Communicative Language Pedagogy" (Michael Canale); "The Domain of Pragmatics" (Bruce…

  15. Language, Gesture, and Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmorey, Karen, Ed.; Reilly, Judy S., Ed.

    A collection of papers addresses a variety of issues regarding the nature and structure of sign language, gesture, and gesture systems. Articles include: "Theoretical Issues Relating Language, Gesture, and Space: An Overview" (Karen Emmorey, Judy S. Reilly); "Real, Surrogate, and Token Space: Grammatical Consequences in ASL American…

  16. Barrier Formation

    PubMed Central

    Lyaruu, D.M.; Medina, J.F.; Sarvide, S.; Bervoets, T.J.M.; Everts, V.; DenBesten, P.; Smith, C.E.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Enamel fluorosis is an irreversible structural enamel defect following exposure to supraoptimal levels of fluoride during amelogenesis. We hypothesized that fluorosis is associated with excess release of protons during formation of hypermineralized lines in the mineralizing enamel matrix. We tested this concept by analyzing fluorotic enamel defects in wild-type mice and mice deficient in anion exchanger-2a,b (Ae2a,b), a transmembrane protein in maturation ameloblasts that exchanges extracellular Cl− for bicarbonate. Defects were more pronounced in fluorotic Ae2a,b−/− mice than in fluorotic heterozygous or wild-type mice. Phenotypes included a hypermineralized surface, extensive subsurface hypomineralization, and multiple hypermineralized lines in deeper enamel. Mineral content decreased in all fluoride-exposed and Ae2a,b−/− mice and was strongly correlated with Cl−. Exposure of enamel surfaces underlying maturation-stage ameloblasts to pH indicator dyes suggested the presence of diffusion barriers in fluorotic enamel. These results support the concept that fluoride stimulates hypermineralization at the mineralization front. This causes increased release of protons, which ameloblasts respond to by secreting more bicarbonates at the expense of Cl− levels in enamel. The fluoride-induced hypermineralized lines may form barriers that impede diffusion of proteins and mineral ions into the subsurface layers, thereby delaying biomineralization and causing retention of enamel matrix proteins. PMID:24170372

  17. Third Language through First Language--Shifting the Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Aijaz; Hafeez, Muhammad Rashid

    2007-01-01

    The paper addresses a key issue in language planning of the third world countries, specifically Pakistan, a country that remained under the shackles of Colonialism till 1947. But, still the country does not have a clear cut language policy. Being richly multilingual and multicultural, it had to cope with the problem of a second language, the…

  18. Bilingual Education for All: Latino Dual Language Learners with Language Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Gutiérrez-Clellen, Vera F.

    2014-01-01

    There has been a growing concern about how best to address the needs of dual language learners with language impairments. Most dual language programmes have been evaluated with children with typical language development (TLD) and as a result, very little is known about the effect of these programmes on children with language disabilities. The…

  19. Global-Address Space Networking (GASNet) Library

    SciTech Connect

    Welcome, Michael L.; Bell, Christian S.

    2011-04-06

    GASNet (Global-Address Space Networking) is a language-independent, low-level networking layer that provides network-independent, high-performance communication primitives tailored for implementing parallel global address space SPMD languages such as UPC and Titanium. The interface is primarily intended as a compilation target and for use by runtime library writers (as opposed to end users), and the primary goals are high performance, interface portability, and expressiveness. GASNet is designed specifically to support high-performance, portable implementations of global address space languages on modern high-end communication networks. The interface provides the flexibility and extensibility required to express a wide variety of communication patterns without sacrificing performance by imposing large computational overheads in the interface. The design of the GASNet interface is partitioned into two layers to maximize porting ease without sacrificing performance: the lower level is a narrow but very general interface called the GASNet core API - the design is basedheavily on Active Messages, and is implemented directly on top of each individual network architecture. The upper level is a wider and more expressive interface called GASNet extended API, which provides high-level operations such as remote memory access and various collective operations. This release implements GASNet over MPI, the Quadrics "elan" API, the Myrinet "GM" API and the "LAPI" interface to the IBM SP switch. A template is provided for adding support for additional network interfaces.

  20. World Languages at Richland College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mittelstet, Stephen K.

    1999-01-01

    Describes how Richland College, Texas, created a division of world languages to address the contemporary language acquisition of an increasingly diverse student body, noting the importance of today's students studying languages to prepare for tomorrow's global marketplace. The paper discusses changing student markets, fiscal support and staffing…

  1. The Nature of Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UWM Magazine, 1968

    1968-01-01

    Four behavioral scientists in a colloquium at the University of Wisconsin discussed various aspects of language learning. Concerned primarily with pre-high-school pupils and addressing their remarks to language teachers, the scientists offered these proposals: (1) language teaching is more effective if taught in a natural setting, (2)…

  2. Brain Mechanisms Supporting Distinct Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simos, P. G.; Billingsley-Marshall, R. L.; Sarkari, S.; Pataraia, E.; Papanicolaou, A. C.

    2005-01-01

    This article briefly outlines key issues related to the neurological substrate of basic language and reading functions in native speakers of Indo-European and Oriental Languages, and in individuals who are competent in more than one language. Modern neuroimaging techniques have been used in order to address conflicting results produced by older,…

  3. Kaqchikel Maya Language Analysis Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy de Pappa, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to study the linguistic features of Kaqchikel, a Mayan language currently spoken in Guatemala and increasingly in the United States, in an effort to better prepare teachers of English as a second language (ESL) or English as a foreign language (EFL) to address the distinct needs of a frequently neglected and…

  4. Cross-Language Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oard, Douglas W.; Diekema, Anne R.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews research and practice in cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) that seeks to support the process of finding documents written in one natural language with automated systems that can accept queries expressed in other languages. Addresses user needs, document preprocessing, query formulation, matching strategies, sources of translation…

  5. Principles of Instructed Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    2005-01-01

    This article represents an attempt to draw together findings from a range of second language acquisition studies in order to formulate a set of general principles for language pedagogy. These principles address such issues as the nature of second language (L2) competence (as formulaic and rule-based knowledge), the contributions of both focus on…

  6. Sign Language Web Pages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fels, Deborah I.; Richards, Jan; Hardman, Jim; Lee, Daniel G.

    2006-01-01

    The World Wide Web has changed the way people interact. It has also become an important equalizer of information access for many social sectors. However, for many people, including some sign language users, Web accessing can be difficult. For some, it not only presents another barrier to overcome but has left them without cultural equality. The…

  7. What Prevents Quality Midwifery Care? A Systematic Mapping of Barriers in Low and Middle Income Countries from the Provider Perspective

    PubMed Central

    McConville, Fran; Portela, Anayda

    2016-01-01

    Background Quality of care is essential for further progress in reducing maternal and newborn deaths. The integration of educated, trained, regulated and licensed midwives into the health system is associated with improved quality of care and sustained decreases in maternal and newborn mortality. To date, research on barriers to quality of care for women and newborns has not given due attention to the care provider’s perspective. This paper addresses this gap by presenting the findings of a systematic mapping of the literature of the social, economic and professional barriers preventing midwifery personnel in low and middle income countries (LMICs) from providing quality of care. Methods and Findings A systematic search of five electronic databases for literature published between January 1990 and August 2013. Eligible items included published and unpublished items in all languages. Items were screened against inclusion and exclusion criteria, yielding 82 items from 34 countries. 44% discussed countries or regions in Africa, 38% in Asia, and 5% in the Americas. Nearly half the articles were published since 2011. Data was extracted and presented in a narrative synthesis and tables. Items were organized into three categories; social; economic and professional barriers, based on an analytical framework. Barriers connected to the socially and culturally constructed context of childbirth, although least reported, appear instrumental in preventing quality midwifery care. Conclusions Significant social and cultural, economic and professional barriers can prevent the provision of quality midwifery care in LMICs. An analytical framework is proposed to show how the overlaps between the barriers reinforce each other, and that they arise from gender inequality. Links are made between burn out and moral distress, caused by the barriers, and poor quality care. Ongoing mechanisms to improve quality care will need to address the barriers from the midwifery provider perspective

  8. Overcoming language barriers when teaching interprofessional groups.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Jeanette

    2012-10-01

    The author of this article undertook a small qualitative study of the best way to prepare unscheduled care staff for team-based delivery of patient care. The study was intended to highlight problems in interprofessional training courses so that guidelines for the delivery of such courses can be developed. The findings show that trainers cannot assume that all participants in training courses understand the terminology used. This article discusses this finding further.

  9. Bridging Language Barriers in Multilingual Care Encounters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansson, Gunilla

    2014-01-01

    The present case study demonstrates how the multilingual practices of a linguistically diverse workforce contribute to the functioning of a modern workplace. Based on ethnographic fieldwork and recordings in a residential home for elderly people with dementia in Sweden, the article explores how multilingual immigrant care workers creatively use…

  10. Address Pronouns in French: Variation within and outside the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jane

    2006-01-01

    This article examines speakers' perceptions of and attitudes towards address pronoun usage in Paris and Toulouse. The data on which this article is based come from a comparative project based at the University of Melbourne, "Address in some western European languages, and were generated in focus groups in both Paris and Toulouse, as well as…

  11. Teacher-Oriented Address Terms in Students' Reproach Turns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtimaja, Inkeri

    2011-01-01

    This article demonstrates, using conversation analysis, how students use address terms when reproaching the teacher. The data consist of videotaped lessons of Finnish as a second language in secondary school. The analyses show, first of all, that teacher-oriented address terms can be used separately as reproaches, in which case they are marked…

  12. External Barriers Experienced by Gifted and Talented Girls and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Sally M.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses current statistics about women and work and external barriers to achievement. Barriers include parental influences, media stereotypes, stereotyping in school, sexism in colleges and universities, and the burden of responsibilities females shoulder at home. Recommendations to help gifted girls address external barriers are…

  13. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  14. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  15. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  16. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  17. A knowledge-based agent prototype for Chinese address geocoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ran; Zhang, Xuehu; Ding, Linfang; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2009-10-01

    Chinese address geocoding is a difficult problem to deal with due to intrinsic complexities in Chinese address systems and a lack of standards in address assignments and usages. In order to improve existing address geocoding algorithm, a spatial knowledge-based agent prototype aimed at validating address geocoding results is built to determine the spatial accuracies as well as matching confidence. A portion of human's knowledge of judging the spatial closeness of two addresses is represented via first order logic and the corresponding algorithms are implemented with the Prolog language. Preliminary tests conducted using addresses matching result in Beijing area showed that the prototype can successfully assess the spatial closeness between the matching address and the query address with 97% accuracy.

  18. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  19. Limited English proficient Asian Americans: Threshold language policy and access to mental health treatment.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Lonnie R; Masland, Mary C; Peng, Carol J; Wei-Mien Lou, Christine; Wallace, Neal T

    2011-01-01

    The importance of providing timely, effective mental health services is increasingly recognized worldwide, and language barriers are a formidable obstacle to achieving this objective. Threshold language policy is one response implemented by California and other states within the U.S., in accordance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, and national origin in programs receiving federal funding. This policy mandates language assistance services for Medicaid enrollees whose primary language is other than English once their population size reaches a designated level. Medicaid is the federal-state-funded health insurance program for specific classifications of low-income Americans. This study evaluated the impact of threshold language policy on Vietnamese, Cantonese, Hmong, and Cambodian limited English proficiency persons' use of public mental health services in California. Using random-effects regression on 247 observations, we regressed aggregate Vietnamese, Cantonese, Hmong, and Cambodian Medicaid mental health service penetration rates on an indicator of the threshold language policy's implementation, while controlling for a linear time trend and the effects of non-threshold language assistance programming. Immediately after implementation, threshold language policy requirements were associated with a penetration rate increase among this population. The penetration rate increase became greater after accounting for the impact of concurrent language assistance. However, this increase diminished over time. The findings indicate that, at least in the short run, language assistance measures requiring reasonable accommodations once populations of LEP persons reach a specified size have detectable effects on their mental health service use. These requirements increase the number of mental health consumers, but appear to provide declining benefit over time. California's threshold language policy provides

  20. Legal and Ethical Imperatives for Using Certified Sign Language Interpreters in Health Care Settings: How to "Do No Harm" When "It's (All) Greek" (Sign Language) to You.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Angela M

    2016-09-01

    Communication obstacles in health care settings adversely impact patient-practitioner interactions by impeding service efficiency, reducing mutual trust and satisfaction, or even endangering health outcomes. When interlocutors are separated by language, interpreters are required. The efficacy of interpreting, however, is constrained not just by interpreters' competence but also by health care providers' facility working with interpreters. Deaf individuals whose preferred form of communication is a signed language often encounter communicative barriers in health care settings. In those environments, signing Deaf people are entitled to equal communicative access via sign language interpreting services according to the Americans with Disabilities Act and Executive Order 13166, the Limited English Proficiency Initiative. Yet, litigation in states across the United States suggests that individual and institutional providers remain uncertain about their legal obligations to provide equal communicative access. This article discusses the legal and ethical imperatives for using professionally certified (vs. ad hoc) sign language interpreters in health care settings. First outlining the legal terrain governing provision of sign language interpreting services, the article then describes different types of "sign language" (e.g., American Sign Language vs. manually coded English) and different forms of "sign language interpreting" (e.g., interpretation vs. transliteration vs. translation; simultaneous vs. consecutive interpreting; individual vs. team interpreting). This is followed by reviews of the formal credentialing process and of specialized forms of sign language interpreting-that is, certified deaf interpreting, trilingual interpreting, and court interpreting. After discussing practical steps for contracting professional sign language interpreters and addressing ethical issues of confidentiality, this article concludes by offering suggestions for working more effectively

  1. Language matters: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Leap, William L; Provencher, Denis M

    2011-01-01

    That language and sexuality are closely connected is one of the enduring themes in human sexuality research. The articles in this special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality explore some of these language-centered insights as they apply to same-sex related desires, identities, and practices and to other dimensions of non-normative sexual experiences. The articles address language use over a range of geographic and social locations. The linguistic practices discussed are diverse, including the language associated with Santería, comments viewers make about gay pornography, homophobic discourse, coming out stories, stories where declarations of sexual identity are tacitly withheld, sexual messages in Black hip hop culture, assessments of urban AIDS ministries, and policies that limit transgender subjects' access to urban space. Taken together, these articles demonstrate that language matters in the everyday experience of sexual sameness and they model some of the approaches that are now being explored in language and sexuality studies.

  2. Barriers to information access among county health department employees.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Jacqueline; Rockoff, Maxine; Bakken, Suzanne; Caldwell, Michael

    2007-10-11

    As part of a study to explore information use, 137 public health employees responded to the question: What are the main barriers that you face in accessing information you need to do your job? 74% of employees indicated 154 barriers. Of these 65% were related to technology or resources. Fewer barriers related to time (24%) and communication (13%). Efforts to address resource and technology barriers could improve how information is used by public health employees.

  3. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  4. Healthcare Communication Barriers and Self-Rated Health in Older Chinese American Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Tsoh, Janice Y; Sentell, Tetine; Gildengorin, Ginny; Le, Gem M; Chan, Elaine; Fung, Lei-Chun; Pasick, Rena J; Stewart, Susan; Wong, Ching; Woo, Kent; Burke, Adam; Wang, Jun; McPhee, Stephen J; Nguyen, Tung T

    2016-08-01

    Older Chinese immigrants are a growing population in the United States who experience multiple healthcare communication barriers such as limited English proficiency and low health literacy. Each of these obstacles has been associated with poor health outcomes but less is known about their effects in combination. This study examined the association between healthcare communication barriers and self-rated health among older Chinese immigrants. Cross-sectional survey data were obtained from 705 Chinese American immigrants ages 50-75 living in San Francisco, California. Communication barriers examined included spoken English proficiency, medical interpreter needs, and health literacy in written health information. The study sample (81 % females, mean age = 62) included 67 % who spoke English poorly or not at all, 34 % who reported needing a medical interpreter, and 37 % who reported "often" or "always" needing assistance to read health information. Two-thirds reported poor self-rated health; many reported having access to racial-concordant (74 %) and language-concordant (86 %) healthcare services. Both poor spoken English proficiency and low health literacy were associated with poor self-rated health, independent of other significant correlates (unemployment, chronic health conditions, and having a primary doctor who was ethnic Chinese). Results revealed that spoken English proficiency and print health literacy are independent communication barriers that are directly associated with health status among elderly Chinese American immigrants. Access to racial- or language-concordant health care services did not appear to resolve these barriers. These findings underscore the importance of addressing both spoken and written healthcare communication needs among older Chinese American immigrants.

  5. Thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, Mary Anne

    2010-06-22

    This disclosure addresses the issue of providing a metallic-ceramic overlay coating that potentially serves as an interface or bond coat layer to provide enhanced oxidation resistance to the underlying superalloy substrate via the formation of a diffusion barrier regime within the supporting base material. Furthermore, the metallic-ceramic coating is expected to limit the growth of a continuous thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer that has been primarily considered to be the principal cause for failure of existing TBC systems. Compositional compatibility of the metallic-ceramic with traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats is provided to further limit debond or spallation of the coating during operational use. A metallic-ceramic architecture is disclosed wherein enhanced oxidation resistance is imparted to the surface of nickel-based superalloy or single crystal metal substrate, with simultaneous integration of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) within the metallic-ceramic overlayer.

  6. Cultural Barriers to Multinational C2 Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    present barriers to successful coalition command and control. The challenge is compounded by distributed decision making that characterizes many...national culture differences will need to be managed. Coalition Command and Control: The Nature of the Challenge There are many barriers to effective...easiest to fixate on behavioral differences and customs. We understand the barriers created by language. We recognize that others eat different food

  7. Amenagement et politique linguistques: La politique des langues au Benin (Language Management and Language Policy: The Politics of Language in Benin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halaoui, Nazam

    2001-01-01

    Distinguishing between language management and language policy, examines the politics of language in Benin from independence to the present. Describes the politics of language in Dahomey, the early policies of Benin, and the Republican politics of language, arising from the national constitutional convention and striving to address the needs of…

  8. Sign language Web pages.

    PubMed

    Fels, Deborah I; Richards, Jan; Hardman, Jim; Lee, Daniel G

    2006-01-01

    The WORLD WIDE WEB has changed the way people interact. It has also become an important equalizer of information access for many social sectors. However, for many people, including some sign language users, Web accessing can be difficult. For some, it not only presents another barrier to overcome but has left them without cultural equality. The present article describes a system that allows sign language-only Web pages to be created and linked through a video-based technique called sign-linking. In two studies, 14 Deaf participants examined two iterations of signlinked Web pages to gauge the usability and learnability of a signing Web page interface. The first study indicated that signing Web pages were usable by sign language users but that some interface features required improvement. The second study showed increased usability for those features; users consequently couldnavigate sign language information with ease and pleasure.

  9. Barriers to Health Care for Transgender Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Safer, Joshua D.; Coleman, Eli; Feldman, Jamie; Garofalo, Robert; Hembree, Wylie; Radix, Asa; Sevelius, Jae

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review Transgender persons suffer significant health disparities and may require medical intervention as part of their care. The purpose of this manuscript is to briefly review the literature characterizing barriers to health care for transgender individuals and to propose research priorities to understand mechanisms of those barriers and interventions to overcome them. Recent Findings Current research emphasizes sexual minorities’ self report of barriers, rather than using direct methods. The biggest barrier to health care reported by transgender individuals is lack of access due to lack of providers who are sufficiently knowledgeable on the topic. Other barriers include: financial barriers, discrimination, lack of cultural competence by providers, health systems barriers and socioeconomic barriers. Summary National research priorities should include rigorous determination of the capacity of the United States health care system to provide adequate care for transgender individuals. Studies should determine knowledge and biases of the medical work force across the spectrum of medical training with regard to transgender medical care; adequacy of sufficient providers for the care required, larger social structural barriers and status of a framework to pay for appropriate care. As well, studies should propose and validate potential solutions to address identified gaps. PMID:26910276

  10. Empowering marginalized communities in water resources management: addressing inequitable practices in Participatory Model Building.

    PubMed

    Butler, Cameron; Adamowski, Jan

    2015-04-15

    Within the field of water resource management, Group Model Building (GMB) is a growing method used to engage stakeholders in the development of models that describe environmental and socioeconomic systems to create and test policy alternatives. While there is significant focus on improving stakeholder engagement, there is a lack of studies specifically looking at the experiences of marginalized communities and the barriers that prevent their fuller participation in the decision-making process. This paper explores the common issues and presents recommended improved practices, based on anti-oppression, related to the stages of problem framing, stakeholder identification and selection, workshop preparation, and workshop facilitation. For problem defining and stakeholder selection, the major recommendations are to engage diverse stakeholder communities from the earliest stages and give them control over framing the project scope. With regards to planning the model building workshops, it is recommended that the facilitation team work closely with marginalized stakeholders to highlight and address barriers that would prevent their inclusion. With the actual facilitation of the workshops, it is best to employ activities that allow stakeholders to provide knowledge and input in mediums that are most comfortable to them; additionally, the facilitation team needs to be able to challenge problematic interpersonal interactions as they manifest within conversations. This article focuses on building comfortability with political language so that the systemic oppression in which existing participatory processes occur can be understood, thus allowing GMB practitioners to engage in social justice efforts.

  11. Literature review: issues surrounding education of English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) nursing students.

    PubMed

    Choi, Liza Lai Shan

    2005-07-01

    Examined in this article are the challenges faced by English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) nursing students. Nursing faculties need to address these challenges to meet the increasing diversity of the health care system. A key concern is the ability of ESL nursing students to communicate effectively in English. The Cummins model for English language acquisition provides a template for ESL nursing students to bridge this communication barrier. The literature suggests some particular needs of ESL nursing students can be met through modification of nursing programs. Further research into factors affecting the quality of nursing education for ESL students is warranted. A quantitative analysis is required to see if there exists a positive correlation between improved English language acquisition and academic success by ESL nursing students.

  12. Language Management Theory as a Basis for the Dynamic Concept of EU Language Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovalil, Vít

    2015-01-01

    Language law is a tool used to manage problems of linguistic diversity in the EU. The paper analyzes the processes in which language law is found in the discursive practice of agents addressing the Court of Justice of the European Union with their language problems. The theoretical-methodological basis for the research is Language Management…

  13. Language Learner Strategy Research and Modern Foreign Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenfell, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses language learner strategy research in the context of second language learning and teaching in the UK. It arises from two sources: firstly, a personal background in research and writing about language learner strategy research in the context of modern foreign language learning and teaching in England and Wales; secondly, a…

  14. Family Treasures: A Dual-Language Book Project for Negotiating Language, Literacy, Culture, and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessingh, Hetty

    2011-01-01

    This article advances a framework for early language and literacy development among young English language learners (ELLs). A dual-language book project undertaken in partnership with a local elementary school provides a context within which to address children's need to negotiate language, culture, and identity as they transition and make meaning…

  15. The Role of Formulaic Language in Second Language Acquisition: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinert, Regina

    1995-01-01

    Provides a survey of the second language literature on the role of formulaic language, focusing on communicative, production, and learning strategy functions of such language. The need to address the theoretical and methodological difficulties surrounding the definition and identification of formulaic language is discussed. (105 references) (MDM)

  16. Understanding the Relationship between Language Proficiency, Language Impairment and Rehabilitation: Evidence from a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiran, Swathi; Iakupova, Regina

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to address the relationship between language proficiency, language impairment and rehabilitation in bilingual Russian-English individuals with aphasia. As a first step, we examined two Russian-English patients' pre-stroke language proficiency using a detailed and comprehensive language use and history questionnaire and…

  17. Language and Culture as a Seventh Warfighting Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    successfully, planners and operators will need to factor the cultural impact and the ability to mitigate language barriers into their planning and...process, in that Marines understand that language barriers and foreign culture are integral aspects of the planning process. This is attributed to

  18. Addressing Patient Sexual Orientation in the Undergraduate Medical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamas, Rebecca L.; Miller, Karen Hughes; Martin, Leslee J.; Greenberg, Ruth B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to estimate the number of hours dedicated to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender content in one medical school's undergraduate curriculum, compare it to the national average, and identify barriers to addressing this content. Methods: Course and clerkship directors were asked to estimate how many hours they spent on…

  19. Basic Numeracy Abilities of Xhosa Reception Year Students in South Africa: Language Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feza, Nosisi Nellie

    2016-01-01

    Language in mathematics learning and teaching has a significant role in influencing performance. Literature on language in mathematics learning has evolved from language as a barrier to language as a cultural tool, and recently more research has argued for use of home language as an instructional tool in mathematics classrooms. However, the…

  20. Barriers and Facilitators for Type-2 Diabetes Management in South Asians: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sohal, Tanveer; Sohal, Parmjit; King-Shier, Kathryn M.; Khan, Nadia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although South Asian populations have among the highest burden of type 2 diabetes in the world, their diabetes management remains poor. We systematically reviewed studies on South Asian patient’s perspectives on the barriers and facilitators to diabetes management. Methods We conducted a literature search using OVID, CINHAL and EMBASE (January, 1990 –February, 2014) evaluating the core components of diabetes management: interactions with health care providers, diet, exercise, and medication adherence. South Asian patients were self-reported as Indian, Pakistani, Malaysian-Indian or Bangladeshi origin. From 208 abstracts reviewed, 20 studies were included (19 qualitative including mixed methods studies, 1 questionnaire). Barriers and facilitators were extracted and combined using qualitative synthesis. Results All studies included barriers and few facilitators were identified. Language and communication discordance with the healthcare provider was a significant barrier to receiving and understanding diabetes education. There was inconsistent willingness to partake in self-management with preference for following their physician’s guidance. Barriers to adopting a diabetic diet were lack of specific details on South Asian tailored diabetic diet; social responsibilities to continue with a traditional diet, and misconceptions on the components of the diabetic diet. For exercise, South Asian patients were concerned with lack of gender specific exercise facilities and fear of injury or worsening health with exercise. Patients reported a lack of understanding about diabetes medication management, preference for folk and phytotherapy, and concerns about the long-term safety of diabetes medications. Facilitators included trust in care providers, use of culturally appropriate exercise and dietary advice and increasing family involvement. Overall themes for the barriers included lack of knowledge and misperceptions as well as lack of cultural adaptation to

  1. The Reach Address Database (RAD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores reach address information for each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams, lakes, etc) in the National Hydrology Database (NHD) Plus dataset.

  2. Assessment of language acquisition.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, Peter A; de Villiers, Jill G

    2010-03-01

    This review addresses questions of what should be assessed in language acquisition, and how to do it. The design of a language assessment is crucially connected to its purpose, whether for diagnosis, development of an intervention plan, or for research. Precise profiles of language strengths and weaknesses are required for clear definitions of the phenotypes of particular language and neurodevelopmental disorders. The benefits and costs of formal tests versus language sampling assessments are reviewed. Content validity, theoretically and empirically grounded in child language acquisition, is claimed to be centrally important for appropriate assessment. Without this grounding, links between phenomena can be missed, and interpretations of underlying difficulties can be compromised. Sensitivity and specificity of assessment instruments are often assessed using a gold standard of existing tests and diagnostic practices, but problems arise if that standard is biased against particular groups or dialects. The paper addresses the issues raised by the goal of unbiased assessment of children from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds, especially speakers of non-mainstream dialects or bilingual children. A variety of new approaches are discussed for language assessment, including dynamic assessment, experimental tools such as intermodal preferential looking, and training studies that assess generalization. Stress is placed on the need for measures of the process of acquisition rather than just levels of achievement. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  3. An Empirical Investigation into Programming Language Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefik, Andreas; Siebert, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in the literature have shown that syntax remains a significant barrier to novice computer science students in the field. While this syntax barrier is known to exist, whether and how it varies across programming languages has not been carefully investigated. For this article, we conducted four empirical studies on programming…

  4. Injectable barriers for waste isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Persoff, P.; Finsterle, S.; Moridis, G.J.; Apps, J.; Pruess, K.; Muller, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    In this paper the authors report laboratory work and numerical simulation done in support of development and demonstration of injectable barriers formed from either of two fluids: colloidal silica or polysiloxane. Two principal problems addressed here are control of gel time and control of plume emplacement in the vadose zone. Gel time must be controlled so that the viscosity of the barrier fluid remains low long enough to inject the barrier, but increases soon enough to gel the barrier in place. During injection, the viscosity must be low enough to avoid high injection pressures which could uplift or fracture the formation. To test the grout gel time in the soil, the injection pressure was monitored as grouts were injected into sandpacks. When grout is injected into the vadose zone, it slumps under the influence of gravity, and redistributes due to capillary forces as it gels. The authors have developed a new module for the reservoir simulator TOUGH2 to model grout injection into the vadose zone, taking into account the increase of liquid viscosity as a function of gel concentration and time. They have also developed a model to calculate soil properties after complete solidification of the grout. The numerical model has been used to design and analyze laboratory experiments and field pilot tests. The authors present the results of computer simulations of grout injection, redistribution, and solidification.

  5. Aboriginal health promotion through addressing employment discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Perry, Ryan; Kelaher, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Localities Embracing and Accepting Diversity (LEAD) program aimed to improve the mental health of Aboriginal Victorians by addressing racial discrimination and facilitating social and economic participation. As part of LEAD, Whittlesea Council adopted the Aboriginal Employment Pathways Strategy (AEPS) to increase Aboriginal employment and retention within the organisation. The Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Training Program was developed to build internal cultural competency and skills in recruiting and retaining Aboriginal staff. Analysis of surveys conducted before (pre; n=124) and after (post; n=107) the training program indicated a significant increase in participant understanding across all program objectives and in support of organisational policies to improve Aboriginal recruitment and retention. Participants ended the training with concrete ideas about intended changes, as well as how these changes could be supported by their supervisors and the wider organisation. Significant resources have since been allocated to implementing the AEPS over 5 years. In line with principles underpinning the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013-23, particularly the focus on addressing racism as a determinant of health, this paper explores the AEPS and training program as promising approaches to health promotion through addressing barriers to Aboriginal employment. Possible implications for other large organisations are also considered.

  6. The English Language Growth Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochecouste, Judith; Oliver, Rhonda; Mulligan, Denise; Davies, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The English Language Growth (ELG) Project was conducted in five Australian universities in 2008-09 to address the on-going English language development of international students from non-English speaking backgrounds. Using an online survey inviting both qualitative and quantitative responses, 798 international students provided a rich source of…

  7. Major Language Theorists influencing Learning of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Baiju K.

    2010-01-01

    Language is one attribute that sets humans apart from all other creatures and binds humans together across all geographic barriers. A word can cause a person to sink into the deepest despair or lift us to inspired action. Language can be the tool for great achievement in any discipline. Good understanding of the capabilities and needs of the…

  8. Language Endangerment and Language Revival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhlhausler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Reviews and discusses the following books: "Language Death," by David Crystal; "The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice," by Leanne Hinton; and "Vanishing Voices of the World's Languages," by David Nettle. (Author/VWL)

  9. Sign Language Versus Spoken Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokoe, William C.

    1978-01-01

    In the debate over continuities versus discontinuities in the emergence of language, sign language is not taken to be the antithesis, but is presented as the antecedent of spoken languages. (Author/HP)

  10. Puncture detecting barrier materials

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, R.E.; Ramsey, D.R.; Stampfer, J.F.; Macdonald, J.M.

    1998-03-31

    A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material. 4 figs.

  11. Puncture detecting barrier materials

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E.; Ramsey, David R.; Stampfer, Joseph F.; Macdonald, John M.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material.

  12. Traveling towards disease: transportation barriers to health care access.

    PubMed

    Syed, Samina T; Gerber, Ben S; Sharp, Lisa K

    2013-10-01

    Transportation barriers are often cited as barriers to healthcare access. Transportation barriers lead to rescheduled or missed appointments, delayed care, and missed or delayed medication use. These consequences may lead to poorer management of chronic illness and thus poorer health outcomes. However, the significance of these barriers is uncertain based on existing literature due to wide variability in both study populations and transportation barrier measures. The authors sought to synthesize the literature on the prevalence of transportation barriers to health care access. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed studies on transportation barriers to healthcare access was performed. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) study addressed access barriers for ongoing primary care or chronic disease care; (2) study included assessment of transportation barriers; and (3) study was completed in the United States. In total, 61 studies were reviewed. Overall, the evidence supports that transportation barriers are an important barrier to healthcare access, particularly for those with lower incomes or the under/uninsured. Additional research needs to (1) clarify which aspects of transportation limit health care access (2) measure the impact of transportation barriers on clinically meaningful outcomes and (3) measure the impact of transportation barrier interventions and transportation policy changes.

  13. Traveling Towards Disease: Transportation Barriers to Health Care Access

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Ben S.; Sharp, Lisa K.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation barriers are often cited as barriers to healthcare access. Transportation barriers lead to rescheduled or missed appointments, delayed care, and missed or delayed medication use. These consequences may lead to poorer management of chronic illness and thus poorer health outcomes. However, the significance of these barriers is uncertain based on existing literature due to wide variability in both study populations and transportation barrier measures. The authors sought to synthesize the literature on the prevalence of transportation barriers to health care access. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed studies on transportation barriers to healthcare access was performed. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) study addressed access barriers for ongoing primary care or chronic disease care; (2) study included assessment of transportation barriers; and (3) study was completed in the United States. In total, 61 studies were reviewed. Overall, the evidence supports that transportation barriers are an important barrier to healthcare access, particularly for those with lower incomes or the under/uninsured. Additional research needs to (1) clarify which aspects of transportation limit health care access (2) measure the impact of transportation barriers on clinically meaningful outcomes and (3) measure the impact of transportation barrier interventions and transportation policy changes. PMID:23543372

  14. The Barriers Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Confederation Coll. of Applied Arts and Technology, Thunder Bay (Ontario).

    In 1987, the Barriers Project was initiated by Confederation College of Applied Arts and Technology to engage 31 selected community colleges in Canada in an organized self-appraisal of institutional barriers to the enrollment of part-time credit students. From the outset, colleges were encouraged to limit their investigation to barriers over which…

  15. Sediment Budget: Mississippi Sound Barrier Islands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center,Coastal and...beaches, infrastructure, and navigation channels to increasing storm energy. The exchange of sediment between the barrier island littoral drift ...represent deposition (green to blue). 2375 Regional Sediment Budget Zones of erosion and accretion were identified throughout the sediment budget

  16. CONTENT-ADDRESSABLE MEMORY SYSTEMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The utility of content -addressable memories (CAM’s) within a general purpose computing system is investigated. Word cells within CAM may be...addressed by the character of all or a part of cell contents . Multimembered sets of word cells may be addressed simultaneously. The distributed logical...package is developed which allows simulation of CAM commands within job programs run on the IBM 7090 and derives tallies of execution times corresponding to a particular realization of a CAM system . (Author)

  17. Sociocultural Determinants of Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Address Forms in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sole, Yolanda R.

    1978-01-01

    Asserts that, if the aim of foreign language teaching is to be communicative competence, then some of the sociocultural determinants of usage of some forms should not be overlooked. The Spanish pronominal address forms, "tu" and "Ud.," are discussed as an example. (EJS)

  18. The Marine Language Exchange Program: an International Approach to Ocean Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowell, A.; Robigou, V.

    2004-12-01

    The ability of scientists to communicate across cultural and linguistic barriers is crucial for the global economic sustainability and protection of the world's oceans. Yet students with majors in the sciences and engineering constitute less than 2% of those who study abroad each year. And even fewer are students who study in countries where English is not the first language. The Marine Language Exchange program is a case study of an international and interdisciplinary collaboration between faculties in the languages and the sciences that address this gap. A consortium of U.S. and European institutions including University of Washington (Washington), Eckerd College (Florida), University of Hilo (Hawaii), Université de la Rochelle (France), Université de Liège (Belgium), and Universidad de Las Palmas (Spain) is developing a multilingual, marine sciences exchange program in an effort to internationalize their ocean sciences departments. The program includes a three-week, intensive "bridge" course designed to reinforce second language skills in the context of marine sciences, and prepare undergraduate students for the cultural and educational differences of their host country. Following this preparatory immersion experience students from each institution enroll in courses abroad for 6 to 12 months to study marine sciences for full academic credit. Different disciplinary approaches -Second Language Acquisition, English as a Second Language and Marine Science- prepare science students to contribute to the study and the management of the world\\'{}s oceans with an awareness of the cultural issues reflected by national marine policies.

  19. Autonomy in Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gathercole, Ian, Ed.

    Ten papers from a January 1990 conference in Britain on the meaning and implications of autonomy for school learners of second languages address theoretical and practical issues in independent study, learner-controlled instruction, cooperative learning, teacher-student relationship, learner responsibility, students with learning difficulties, and…

  20. Researching Language and Neoliberalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Hyunjung; Park, Joseph Sung-Yul

    2016-01-01

    This special issue aims to develop a research agenda that brings language to the centre of our inquiry and critique of neoliberalism. Based on empirical case studies from across diverse contexts in Europe, North America, and East Asia, contributors to this special issue address two issues: (1) What can be said about the nature of neoliberalism…

  1. Changing language, remaining pygmy.

    PubMed

    Bahuchet, Serge

    2012-02-01

    In this article I am illustrating the linguistic diversity of African Pygmy populations in order to better address their anthropological diversity and history. I am also introducing a new method, based on the analysis of specialized vocabulary, to reconstruct the substratum of some languages they speak. I show that Pygmy identity is not based on their languages, which have often been borrowed from neighboring non-Pygmy farmer communities with whom each Pygmy group is linked. Understanding the nature of this partnership, quite variable in history, is essential to addressing Pygmy languages, identity, and history. Finally, I show that only a multidisciplinary approach is likely to push forward the understanding of African Pygmy societies as genetic, archeological, anthropological, and ethnological evidence suggest.

  2. Factors Influencing Chinese Language Learners' Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Ko-Yin

    2011-01-01

    This survey study, which involved 134 language learners enrolled in first-year Chinese as a foreign language classrooms in the US universities, intended to address the research question, "Do learners' strategy use differ based on the following learner differences: (1) gender; (2) home language/culture; and (3) number of other foreign languages…

  3. Instilling Passion for Language: Strategies and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Kenneth L.

    1999-01-01

    Points out the military and linguistic necessity of including culture as part of language instruction. Maintains that addressing the cultural based Content Final Learning Objectives within the Defense Language Institute's Foreign Language Center classroom provides an invaluable, necessary foundation for enabling students to develop passion for the…

  4. Pidginization and Creolization as Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Roger W., Ed.

    Pidginization and creolization are addressed from a language acquisition perspective. The 18 collected papers are organized around four areas of inquiry: (1) simplification in input to pidginization and second language acquisition, (2) simplification in interlanguage, (3) creolization and language acquisition, and (4) decreolization and language…

  5. Languages in Elementary Schools. International Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Kurt E., Ed.

    Ten essays address aspects of second language instruction at the elementary school level: "Elementary School Foreign Languages: Perspectives, Practices, and Promises" (Carol Ann Pesola, Helena Anderson Curtain); "The Integrated Curriculum: Rethinking the Elementary School Foreign Language Program for the '90s" (Virginia…

  6. Language and Education Policies in Tajikistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagzibekova, Mehrinisso

    2008-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of the language and education policies currently functioning in the Republic of Tajikistan, the demographic and sociolinguistic situation in the country, and language use in education and the media. Particular attention is paid to the decrease in Russian-language competence and the measures undertaken to address this…

  7. Language Skills and Status Attainment in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Shu-Ling

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the importance of language underlying the stratification process in Taiwan within the context of globalization. Specifically, I ask if one's language skills may serve as a key to getting ahead. The Taiwanese government has imposed Mandarin as the official language since 1945 and introduced English courses into compulsory…

  8. Language in Schools. Monograph No. 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noss, Richard B.; Gonzalez, Andrew, Ed.; Sibayan, Bonifacio P., Ed.

    This monograph attempts to integrate experience and research findings in several related disciplines and bring them to bear on the problem of how to make language programs in schools simultaneously accommodate the needs of both the language curriculum and the general curriculum. It addresses four issues: (1) how specific languages, in all their…

  9. Extremal surface barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C.

    2014-03-01

    We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy.

  10. Selection of barrier metals for a waste package in tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, E.W.; McCright, R.D.; O`Neal, W.C.

    1983-09-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) project under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is planning a repository at Yucca Mountain at the Nevada Test Site for isolation of high-level nuclear waste. LLNL is developing designs for an engineered barrier system containing several barriers such as the waste form, a canister and/or an overpack, packing, and near field host rock. The selection of metal containment barriers is addressed. 13 references.

  11. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Language Acquisition & Language Disorders 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    The study of native language influence in Second Language Acquisition has undergone significant changes over the past few decades. This book, which includes 12 chapters by distinguished researchers in the field of second language acquisition, traces the conceptual history of language transfer from its early role within a Contrastive Analysis…

  12. Oracle Bones and Mandarin Tones: Demystifying the Chinese Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Project on East Asian Studies in Education.

    This publication will provide secondary level students with a basic understanding of the development and structure of Chinese (guo yu) language characters. The authors believe that demystifying the language helps break many cultural barriers. The written language is a good place to begin because its pictographic nature is appealing and inspires…

  13. Mimicry of Non-Distinctive Phonetic Differences between Language Varieties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flege, James Emil; Hammond, Robert M.

    1982-01-01

    Using a delayed mimicry paradigm to assess speakers' awareness of nondistinctive phonetic differences which, in part, distinguish languages, the study provides tentative evidence that such differences are detectable by language learners and do not present an impossible barrier to phonetic learning in second-language acquisition. (EKN)

  14. In Defense of Language Rights: Rethinking the Rights Orientation from a Political Economy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bale, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses language rights as a legitimate political tool for language policy scholarship and activism. The article begins by engaging several critiques of language rights. It analyzes Ruiz's language-as-right orientation to language policy, and then reviews recent scholarship challenging language rights from poststructural and…

  15. Tapping a National Resource: Heritage Languages in the United States. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brecht, Richard D.; Ingold, Catherine W.

    This digest outlines the reasons for and challenges of developing the language skills of heritage language speakers and describes one effort to carry this out, the Heritage Languages Initiative. Specific sections address the following: developing language skills of U.S. residents; the range of language proficiencies of heritage language speakers;…

  16. Coevolution of languages and genes.

    PubMed

    Pakendorf, Brigitte

    2014-12-01

    The evolution of languages shares certain characteristics with that of genes, such as the predominantly vertical line of transmission and the retention of traces of past events such as contact. Thus, studies of language phylogenies and their correlations with genetic phylogenies can enrich our understanding of human prehistory, while insights gained from genetic studies of past population contact can help shed light on the processes underlying language contact and change. As demonstrated by recent research, these evolutionary processes are more complex than simple models of gene-language coevolution predict, with linguistic boundaries only occasionally functioning as barriers to gene flow. More frequently, admixture takes place irrespective of linguistic differences, but with a detectable impact of contact-induced changes in the languages concerned.

  17. Barriers to Successful Treatment Completion in Child Sexual Abuse Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Paul; Scribano, Philip; Stevens, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) often requires psychological treatment to address the symptoms of victim trauma. Barriers to entry and completion of counseling services can compromise long-term well-being. An integrated medical and mental health evaluation and treatment model of a child advocacy center (CAC) has the potential to reduce barriers to mental…

  18. Blood cells and endothelial barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Stephen F; Granger, D Neil

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The barrier properties of endothelial cells are critical for the maintenance of water and protein balance between the intravascular and extravascular compartments. An impairment of endothelial barrier function has been implicated in the genesis and/or progression of a variety of pathological conditions, including pulmonary edema, ischemic stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, angioedema, sepsis and cancer. The altered barrier function in these conditions is often linked to the release of soluble mediators from resident cells (e.g., mast cells, macrophages) and/or recruited blood cells. The interaction of the mediators with receptors expressed on the surface of endothelial cells diminishes barrier function either by altering the expression of adhesive proteins in the inter-endothelial junctions, by altering the organization of the cytoskeleton, or both. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), proteolytic enzymes (e.g., matrix metalloproteinase, elastase), oncostatin M, and VEGF are part of a long list of mediators that have been implicated in endothelial barrier failure. In this review, we address the role of blood borne cells, including, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and platelets, in the regulation of endothelial barrier function in health and disease. Attention is also devoted to new targets for therapeutic intervention in disease states with morbidity and mortality related to endothelial barrier dysfunction. PMID:25838983

  19. The BARRIERS scale -- the barriers to research utilization scale: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A commonly recommended strategy for increasing research use in clinical practice is to identify barriers to change and then tailor interventions to overcome the identified barriers. In nursing, the BARRIERS scale has been used extensively to identify barriers to research utilization. Aim and objectives The aim of this systematic review was to examine the state of knowledge resulting from use of the BARRIERS scale and to make recommendations about future use of the scale. The following objectives were addressed: To examine how the scale has been modified, to examine its psychometric properties, to determine the main barriers (and whether they varied over time and geographic locations), and to identify associations between nurses' reported barriers and reported research use. Methods Medline (1991 to September 2009) and CINHAL (1991 to September 2009) were searched for published research, and ProQuest® digital dissertations were searched for unpublished dissertations using the BARRIERS scale. Inclusion criteria were: studies using the BARRIERS scale in its entirety and where the sample was nurses. Two authors independently assessed the study quality and extracted the data. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Results Sixty-three studies were included, with most using a cross-sectional design. Not one study used the scale for tailoring interventions to overcome identified barriers. The main barriers reported were related to the setting, and the presentation of research findings. Overall, identified barriers were consistent over time and across geographic locations, despite varying sample size, response rate, study setting, and assessment of study quality. Few studies reported associations between reported research use and perceptions of barriers to research utilization. Conclusions The BARRIERS scale is a nonspecific tool for identifying general barriers to research utilization. The scale is reliable as reflected in assessments of internal

  20. Addressing Asthma Health Disparities: A Multilevel Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Canino, Glorisa; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Rand, Cynthia S.

    2009-01-01

    Substantial research has documented pervasive disparities in the prevalence, severity, and morbidity of asthma among minority populations compared to non-Latino whites. The underlying causes of these disparities are not well understood, and as a result, the leverage points to address them remain unclear. A multilevel framework for integrating research in asthma health disparities is proposed in order to advance both future research and clinical practice. The components of the proposed model include health care policies and regulations, operation of the health care system, provider/clinician-level factors, social/environmental factors, and individual/family attitudes and behaviors. The body of research suggests that asthma disparities have multiple, complex and inter-related sources. Disparities occur when individual, environmental, health system, and provider factors interact with one another over time. Given that the causes of asthma disparities are complex and multilevel, clinical strategies to address these disparities must therefore be comparably multilevel and target many aspects of asthma care. Clinical Implications: Several strategies that could be applied in clinical settings to reduce asthma disparities are described including the need for routine assessment of the patient’s beliefs, financial barriers to disease management, and health literacy, and the provision of cultural competence training and communication skills to health care provider groups. PMID:19447484

  1. Programming chemistry in DNA-addressable bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Fellermann, Harold; Cardelli, Luca

    2014-10-06

    We present a formal calculus, termed the chemtainer calculus, able to capture the complexity of compartmentalized reaction systems such as populations of possibly nested vesicular compartments. Compartments contain molecular cargo as well as surface markers in the form of DNA single strands. These markers serve as compartment addresses and allow for their targeted transport and fusion, thereby enabling reactions of previously separated chemicals. The overall system organization allows for the set-up of programmable chemistry in microfluidic or other automated environments. We introduce a simple sequential programming language whose instructions are motivated by state-of-the-art microfluidic technology. Our approach integrates electronic control, chemical computing and material production in a unified formal framework that is able to mimic the integrated computational and constructive capabilities of the subcellular matrix. We provide a non-deterministic semantics of our programming language that enables us to analytically derive the computational and constructive power of our machinery. This semantics is used to derive the sets of all constructable chemicals and supermolecular structures that emerge from different underlying instruction sets. Because our proofs are constructive, they can be used to automatically infer control programs for the construction of target structures from a limited set of resource molecules. Finally, we present an example of our framework from the area of oligosaccharide synthesis.

  2. Programming chemistry in DNA-addressable bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Fellermann, Harold; Cardelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    We present a formal calculus, termed the chemtainer calculus, able to capture the complexity of compartmentalized reaction systems such as populations of possibly nested vesicular compartments. Compartments contain molecular cargo as well as surface markers in the form of DNA single strands. These markers serve as compartment addresses and allow for their targeted transport and fusion, thereby enabling reactions of previously separated chemicals. The overall system organization allows for the set-up of programmable chemistry in microfluidic or other automated environments. We introduce a simple sequential programming language whose instructions are motivated by state-of-the-art microfluidic technology. Our approach integrates electronic control, chemical computing and material production in a unified formal framework that is able to mimic the integrated computational and constructive capabilities of the subcellular matrix. We provide a non-deterministic semantics of our programming language that enables us to analytically derive the computational and constructive power of our machinery. This semantics is used to derive the sets of all constructable chemicals and supermolecular structures that emerge from different underlying instruction sets. Because our proofs are constructive, they can be used to automatically infer control programs for the construction of target structures from a limited set of resource molecules. Finally, we present an example of our framework from the area of oligosaccharide synthesis. PMID:25121647

  3. Facilitators and Barriers to Health-Seeking Behaviours among Filipino Migrants: Inductive Analysis to Inform Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Maneze, D.; DiGiacomo, M.; Salamonson, Y.; Descallar, J.; Davidson, P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence health-seeking behaviour of migrants is necessary to intervene for behaviour change. This paper explores Filipino migrants' perceptions of facilitators and barriers to maintaining health in Australia. Open-ended survey item responses reflecting factors that assisted and hindered health following migration to Australia were inductively analysed. Three hundred and thirty-seven of the 552 survey respondents (61%) provided open-ended responses. Responses were grouped into two major categories: individual factors, including personal resources and cultural influences, and environmental factors encompassing both the physical conditions in the host country and health service access. Awareness of practices that enhance health was a major personal facilitator of health-seeking behaviour; however, competing priorities of daily living were perceived as barriers. Cultural beliefs and practices influenced health-seeking behaviour. Despite high self-rated English language skills in this population, new migrants and the elderly cited communication difficulties as barriers to accessing health services. Insight into facilitators and barriers to health-seeking behaviour in this less researched migrant population revealed tools for enhancing engagement in health promotion programs addressing healthy lifestyle. PMID:26380277

  4. Address tracing for parallel machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stunkel, Craig B.; Janssens, Bob; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1991-01-01

    Recently implemented parallel system address-tracing methods based on several metrics are surveyed. The issues specific to collection of traces for both shared and distributed memory parallel computers are highlighted. Five general categories of address-trace collection methods are examined: hardware-captured, interrupt-based, simulation-based, altered microcode-based, and instrumented program-based traces. The problems unique to shared memory and distributed memory multiprocessors are examined separately.

  5. Multilayer moisture barrier

    DOEpatents

    Pankow, Joel W; Jorgensen, Gary J; Terwilliger, Kent M; Glick, Stephen H; Isomaki, Nora; Harkonen, Kari; Turkulainen, Tommy

    2015-04-21

    A moisture barrier, device or product having a moisture barrier or a method of fabricating a moisture barrier having at least a polymer layer, and interfacial layer, and a barrier layer. The polymer layer may be fabricated from any suitable polymer including, but not limited to, fluoropolymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), or ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). The interfacial layer may be formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In embodiments featuring an ALD interfacial layer, the deposited interfacial substance may be, but is not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, AlSiO.sub.x, TiO.sub.2, and an Al.sub.2O.sub.3/TiO.sub.2 laminate. The barrier layer associated with the interfacial layer may be deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The barrier layer may be a SiO.sub.xN.sub.y film.

  6. Barriers to screening mammography.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer (BRCA) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the USA, and mammography is an effective means for the early detection of BRCA. Identifying the barriers to screening mammography can inform research, policy and practice aiming to increase mammography adherence. A literature review was conducted to determine common barriers to screening mammography adherence. PsycINFO and PubMed databases were searched to identify studies published between 2000 and 2012 that examined barriers associated with reduced mammography adherence. Three thematic groups of barriers, based on social ecology, were identified from the literature: healthcare system-level, social and individual-level barriers. Researchers must consider screening behaviour in context and, therefore, should simultaneously consider each level of barriers when attempting to understand screening behaviour and create interventions to increase mammography adherence.

  7. Reshaping Foreign Language Programs: Implications for Department Chairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay-Crosier, Raymond

    1987-01-01

    A chair of a university's department of Romance languages and literature addresses the status of two high priorities in the teaching of foreign languages: the integration of linguistics in the "new" curriculum; the continuing development of language teaching approaches in the classroom; and the commitment of foreign language programs in the…

  8. Vocational English-as-a-Second Language Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Sara C.

    This collection of competency statements deals with the English-as-a-second-language (ESL) skills that vocational students should master before entering the world of work. Addressed in the individual sections of the volume are the following topics: specific occupational terminology, safety language, on-the-job language, job-seeking language,…

  9. The Use of Lesson Transcripts for Developing Teachers' Classroom Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Reviews various strategies for addressing language needs in teacher development courses, ranging from providing separate language provision to incorporating language development within the methodology component of the course. Discusses how transcripts can be used to develop awareness of and promote practice in the language used for various…

  10. Literacy Development in Elementary School Second-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Diane; Snow, Catherine; Carlo, Maria; Proctor, C. Patrick; Rolla de San Francisco, Andrea; Duursma, Elisabeth; Szuber, Anna

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a series of studies that examine the development of literacy in elementary school Spanish-speaking second-language learners. Findings from the research that addresses our first question-regarding cross-language relationships-indicate that first-language reading skills are related to second-language reading skills, but that…

  11. Linguistic Evolution through Language Acquisition: Formal and Computational Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Ted, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines how children acquire language and how this affects language change over the generations. It proceeds from the basis that it is important to address not only the language faculty per se within the framework of evolutionary theory, but also the origins and subsequent development of languages themselves, suggesting…

  12. Implications of Bilingual Development for Specific Language Impairments in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    The potential impact of bilingualism on children's language development has emerged as a crucial concern for Turkey, but so far it has not been addressed from the point of view of language disorders. This short review examines the potential impact of bilingual language development for language impairments in Turkey, with special emphasis on the…

  13. Barriers to Care for Antenatal Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kopelman, Robin Cook; Moel, Joy; Mertens, Carol; Stuart, Scott; Arndt, Stephan; O’Hara, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the individual-level factors impacting pregnant women’s access to mental health treatment for depression. Methods A total of 1,416 pregnant women receiving prenatal care completed measures of depressive symptomatology, willingness to seek treatment for depression or anxiety, and perceived barriers to seeking such care. Results Women with Beck Depression Inventory scores {greater than or equal to; ≥}16 (indicating possible depression) (N=183) were more likely than women with lower scores (N=1,233) to identify the following barriers: cost, lack of insurance, lack of transportation, long waits for treatment, previous bad experience with mental health care, and not knowing where to go for treatment. Lower income was correlated with increased endorsement of cost and transportation as barriers. Conclusions Results suggest that addressing financial and logistical barriers through changes in mental health services and policy will improve access to care for antenatal depression. However, attending to these issues alone will not address additional important barriers to care such as lack of trust. PMID:18378843

  14. Addressing Disparities in Low Back Pain Care by Developing Culturally Appropriate Information for Aboriginal Australians: "My Back on Track, My Future".

    PubMed

    Lin, Ivan B; Ryder, Kim; Coffin, Juli; Green, Charmaine; Dalgety, Eric; Scott, Brian; Straker, Leon M; Smith, Anne J; O'Sullivan, Peter B

    2017-01-13

    OBJECTIVES : Addressing disparities in low back pain care (LBP) is an important yet largely unaddressed issue. One avenue to addressing disparities, recommended by clinical guidelines, is to ensure that LBP information is culturally appropriate. Our objectives were, first, to develop LBP information that was culturally appropriate for Aboriginal Australians living in a rural area and, second, to compare this to traditional information. METHODS : The overall information development process was guided by a "cultural security" framework and included partnerships between Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal investigators, a synthesis of research evidence, and participation of a project steering group consisting of local Aboriginal people. LBP information (entitled My Back on Track, My Future [MBOT]) was developed as five short audio-visual scenarios, filmed using Aboriginal community actors. A qualitative randomized crossover design compared MBOT with an evidence-based standard (the Back Book [BB]). Twenty Aboriginal adults participated. Qualitatively we ascertained which information participants' preferred and why, perceptions about each resource, and LBP management. RESULTS : Thirteen participants preferred MBOT, four the BB, two both, and one neither. Participants valued seeing "Aboriginal faces," language that was understandable, the visual format, and seeing Aboriginal people undertaking positive changes in MBOT. In contrast, many participants found the language and format of the BB a barrier. Participants who preferred the BB were more comfortable with written information and appreciated the detailed content. CONCLUSIONS : The MBOT information was more preferred and addressed important barriers to care, providing support for use in practice. Similar processes are needed to develop pain information for other cultural groups, particularly those underserved by existing approaches to care.

  15. Ego Is a Hurdle in Second Language Learning: A Contrastive Study between Adults and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Shumaila; Akhter, Javed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research paper is to find out by comparing and contrasting between the adults and children in second language learning process how language ego of adult learners affects them to learn second language, and how it becomes a barrier for them in second language learning process. Nowadays learning English as foreign and second language…

  16. Use of Language Sample Analysis by School-Based SLPs: Results of a Nationwide Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavelko, Stacey L.; Owens, Robert E., Jr.; Ireland, Marie; Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines use of language sample analysis (LSA) by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs), including characteristics of language samples, methods of transcription and analysis, barriers to LSA use, and factors affecting LSA use, such as American Speech-Language-Hearing Association certification, number of years'…

  17. The Teaching of Reading, Writing and Language in a Clinical Speech and Language Setting: A Blended Therapy Intervention Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammons, Kerrie Allen

    2013-01-01

    With a growing body of research that supports a link between language and literacy, governing bodies in the field of speech and language pathology have recognized the need to reconsider the role of speech-language pathologists in addressing the emergent literacy needs of preschoolers who struggle with literacy and language concepts. This study…

  18. Foreign Language Teaching in Rudolf Steiner Schools. Guidelines for Class-Teachers and Language Teachers. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stott, Michael

    This book is intended for foreign language teachers interested in the approaches used in Rudolf Steiner schools, and also classroom teachers who teach foreign languages. Chapters address these issues: what the language lesson is to achieve; how the language lesson differs from other lessons; lesson design; examples of actual lessons; avoiding the…

  19. Bilingualism and Language Contact: Spanish, English, and Native American Languages. Bilingual Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkin, Florence, Ed.; And Others

    Spanish, English, and American Indian languages in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico and bilingualism and language contact in the region are addressed in a collection of articles. Approaches to research in the languages of this region are discussed in articles by Valdes, Lope Blanch, and Brandt. Cultural and sociolinguistic…

  20. Indigenous Languages and the Racial Hierarchisation of Language Policy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haque, Eve; Patrick, Donna

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses language policy and policy-making in Canada as forms of discourse produced and reproduced within systems of power and racial hierarchies. The analysis of indigenous language policy to be addressed here focuses on the historical, political and legal processes stemming from the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism…

  1. Learning Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Foreign language study is finding a niche in the elementary school curriculum. Schools now offer Chinese, Russian, Arabic, Swedish, and Japanese, instead of teaching mostly German and the Romance languages. Studies agree that children pursuing foreign languages show more creativity, divergent thinking, and higher-order thinking skills and score…

  2. Instinctive Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokoe, William C.

    1994-01-01

    "Patterns of the Mind," by Ray Jackendoff, and "The Language Instinct," by Steven Pinker, are reviewed. Each are written to support the theory that language is predetermined by genetically endowed brain structure but also include discussions of studies that use sign language to confirm the standard model of linguistic theory. (Contains seven…

  3. Language Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulay, Heidi; And Others

    In this course text on second language acquisition, the latest research of Halle and Chomsky, Lenneberg, Hatch, Larsen-Freeman, Dulay and Burt, and Krashen is presented. The text covers such topics as the effects of environment, age, and personality on second language acquisition; the role of the first language; and error analysis. Enough has been…

  4. Programming Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesler, Lawrence G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of programing languages, considering the features of BASIC, LOGO, PASCAL, COBOL, FORTH, APL, and LISP. Also discusses machine/assembly codes, the operation of a compiler, and trends in the evolution of programing languages (including interest in notational systems called object-oriented languages). (JN)

  5. Breathiness in Indic languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Christina; Khan, Sameeruddowla; Hurst, Alex

    2005-04-01

    Previous work on breathiness in Indic languages has focused on the acoustic properties of breathy oral stops in languages like Hindi ([bal] hair versus [bhal] forehead) or Bengali ([baSa] house versus [bhaSa] language). However, breathiness in Indic languages often extends to nasals (e.g., Marathi ([maar] beat versus [mhaar] a caste). It is unclear if languages such as Hindi and Bengali have breathy nasals in addition to breathy oral stops. This study addresses the following questions: (1) Are breathy nasals (Nh) acoustically different from N+h sequences, both in languages where they are phonemic and ones where they are not? (2) In sequences of a breathy stop and a modal nasal (e.g., Hindi [udhmi] naughty) where is the breathiness realized, if at all? To answer these questions, audio, aerodynamic, and electroglottographic recordings will be made of Hindi, Bengali, and Marathi speakers. It is hypothesized that acoustically breathy nasals in Hindi and Bengali will not be distinct from sequences of N+ h. We believe that this will also be true for the oral stops. In addition, it is believed that in sequences of breathy oral stop followed by a modal nasal (e.g., ChN), the breathiness will be produced on the nasal.

  6. Transforming Education: Overcoming Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Jane L.; Goren, Paul D.

    Barriers to progress in educational reform exist inside and outside the education system. Some arise where new practices encounter traditional expectations and boundaries, but others go much deeper than education, such as poverty, racism, local political conflicts, and human resistance to change. The following five categories of barriers are…

  7. Penetration resistant barrier

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, William R.; Mead, Keith E.; Street, Henry K.

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a barrier for resisting penetration by such as hand tools and oxy-acetylene cutting torches. The barrier comprises a layer of firebrick, which is preferably epoxy impregnated sandwiched between inner and outer layers of steel. Between the firebrick and steel are layers of resilient rubber-like filler.

  8. Liquid metal hydrogen barriers

    DOEpatents

    Grover, George M.; Frank, Thurman G.; Keddy, Edward S.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen barriers which comprise liquid metals in which the solubility of hydrogen is low and which have good thermal conductivities at operating temperatures of interest. Such barriers are useful in nuclear fuel elements containing a metal hydride moderator which has a substantial hydrogen dissociation pressure at reactor operating temperatures.

  9. Narrowing Care Gaps for Early Language Delay: A Quality Improvement Study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Courtney M.; Beck, Andrew F.; Steuerwald, Wendy; Alexander, Elizabeth; Samaan, Zeina M.; Kahn, Robert S.; Mansour, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Poverty is a risk factor for both language delay and failure to access appropriate therapies. The objective of this study was to increase the percentage of children 0 to 3 years old referred from an urban primary care center who attended an initial appointment with speech pathology or audiology within 60 days from 40% to 60%. Methods The Model for Improvement was used to develop and test the intervention, which addressed potential logistical barriers faced by low-income families. Adherence was plotted on run charts in time series to assess overall improvement, and subgroups were analyzed to identify reduction in disparities. Results Median referral adherence improved from 40% to 60%. Families from lower income neighborhoods had lower preintervention adherence; these differences were eliminated postintervention. Conclusions System-level changes improved access to evaluation and treatment for low-income children with language delay and narrowed the gap in access between families in lower versus higher income neighborhoods. PMID:25994319

  10. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOEpatents

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  11. Barriers to Partnership Working in Public Health: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Robinson, David Carlton; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Orton, Lois; Moonan, May; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Background Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes. Methodology/Principal Findings 70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitative study involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities. Conclusions The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions. PMID:22238619

  12. The Impact of Language and Culture Diversity in Occupational Safety.

    PubMed

    De Jesus-Rivas, Mayra; Conlon, Helen Acree; Burns, Candace

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health nursing plays a critical part in improving the safety of foreign labor workers. The development and implementation of safety training programs do not always regularly take into account language barriers, low literacy levels, or cultural elements. This oversight can lead to more injuries and fatalities among this group. Despite established health and safety training programs, a significant number of non-native English speakers are injured or killed in preventable, occupation-related accidents. Introducing safety programs that use alternative teaching strategies such as pictograms, illustrations, and hands-on training opportunities will assist in addressing challenges for non-English laborers. Occupational health nursing has an opportunity to provide guidance on this subject and assist businesses in creating a safer and more productive work environment.

  13. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every…

  14. Agenda to address climate change

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This document looks at addressing climate change in the 21st century. Topics covered are: Responding to climate change; exploring new avenues in energy efficiency; energy efficiency and alternative energy; residential sector; commercial sector; industrial sector; transportation sector; communities; renewable energy; understanding forests to mitigate and adapt to climate change; the Forest Carbon budget; mitigation and adaptation.

  15. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  16. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  17. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2016-07-12

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  18. Research strategies for addressing uncertainties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busch, David E.; Brekke, Levi D.; Averyt, Kristen; Jardine, Angela; Welling, Leigh; Garfin, Gregg; Jardine, Angela; Merideth, Robert; Black, Mary; LeRoy, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Research Strategies for Addressing Uncertainties builds on descriptions of research needs presented elsewhere in the book; describes current research efforts and the challenges and opportunities to reduce the uncertainties of climate change; explores ways to improve the understanding of changes in climate and hydrology; and emphasizes the use of research to inform decision making.

  19. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  20. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Barker, Stacey G.; Wowczuk, Andrew; Vellenoweth, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture spikes for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture spikes have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture spikes removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The plurality of barrier blocks hare hingedly interconnected by complementary hinges integrally formed into the side of each barrier block which allow the strip to be rolled for easy storage and retrieval, but which prevent irregular or back bending of the strip. The shafts of adjacent barrier blocks are pivotally interconnected via a double hinged universal joint to accommodate irregularities in a roadway surface and to transmit torsional motion of the shaft from block to block. A single flexshaft cable is connected to the shaft of an end block to allow a user to selectively cause the shafts of a plurality of adjacently connected barrier blocks to rotate the tire-puncture spikes to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire, and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. The flexshaft is provided with a resiliently biased retracting mechanism, and a release latch for allowing the spikes to be quickly retracted after the intended vehicle tire is punctured.

  1. Vehicle barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper. 2 tabs.

  2. Vehicle barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment, and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper.

  3. Vehicle barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper.

  4. Addressing the hidden dimension in nursing education: promoting cultural competence.

    PubMed

    Carter, Kimberly F; Xu, Yu

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe a cultural competence quality enhancement process to address the retention challenge of students who speak English as second language and international students as part of a school of nursing's continuous program quality improvement to achieve excellence. The process, strategies, outcomes, and evaluation of the training program are detailed within the given geographical, institutional, and curriculum context. Lessons and continuing challenges are also specified.

  5. Organizational Barriers to Cultural Competence in Hospice.

    PubMed

    Reese, Dona J; Beckwith, Samira K

    2015-11-01

    This national mixed method study with directors of 207 hospices identified major barriers to cultural competence, including (1) lack of funding for additional staff for community outreach or development of culturally competent programs, (2) lack of applications from diverse professionals, and (3) lack of knowledge about diverse cultures and what cultural groups in the community are not being served. Qualitative results indicated that elements of an organizational culture, which create barriers to access included (1) failure to prioritize cultural competence, (2) failure to budget for culturally competent services, and (3) a staff that does not value awareness of cultural differences, is uncomfortable with diversity, and stereotypes diverse individuals. In phase 2, an interactive session with a 100-symposium audience provided strategies to address the barriers.

  6. Counseling for barrier methods.

    PubMed

    Guest, F

    1979-08-01

    Despite the less serious risks of barrier methods (diaphragm, condom, foam, and other vaginal spermicides) compared with other contraceptive methods, many family planning programs find that only a minority of patients accept barrier methods as primary contraceptive choices. Some misconceptions patients have about barrier methods are: 1) they are less effective compared to oral contraceptives or IUDs, 2) foam kills sperm that are still inside a man's body, and 3) you need a prescription to use a barrier method. This article provides the following information about barrier methods to use in counseling patients: 1) couples who use barriers exactly right all the time can achieve high levels of effectiveness; average effectiveness rates for longterm users are 87% for the diaphragm, 90% for condoms, and 85% for foam; 2) noncontraceptive benefits include protection against sexually transmitted infections; barrier methods are nonhormonal and nonsurgical and posters to that effect are recommended for the counselor's waiting room; 3) patients need to be encouraged to use barrier methods even though they are less convenient in certain situations; support groups could improve patients' success; 4) counselors may be able to help users by giving them permission not to use the method on certain cycle days as a tradeoff for diligent use at other times thereby relieving the contraceptive burden; 5) recurring problems that patients should be warned about include waiting too late to put on a condom, running out of foam, using too little cream with the diaphragm, and douching after intercourse; and 6) improper care and storage problems which could cause failure are storing latex near heat, separating the foam bottle from the applicator, using old condoms and diaphragms, and suppositories that fail to melt. Patients' 2 biggest complaints about vaginal suppositories are messiness and irritation and switching to condoms can help. The last page of the article is a one page handout for

  7. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  8. Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In order to reduce heat transfer between a hot gas heat source and a metallic engine component, a thermal insulating layer of material is placed between them. This thermal barrier coating is applied by plasma spray processing the thin films. The coating has been successfully employed in aerospace applications for many years. Lewis Research Center, a leader in the development engine components coating technology, has assisted Caterpillar, Inc. in applying ceramic thermal barrier coatings on engines. Because these large engines use heavy fuels containing vanadium, engine valve life is sharply decreased. The barrier coating controls temperatures, extends valve life and reduces operating cost. Additional applications are currently under development.

  9. Scaffold: Quantum Programming Language

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-24

    it in pointer and addressing errors. • C2QG: A key feature of Scaffold is a Classical code to Quantum Gates sequence (C2QG) mod- ule. C2QG modules...Scaffold: Quantum Programming Language Ali Javadi Abhari, Arvin Faruque, Mohammad Javad Dousti, Lukas Svec, Oana Catu, Amlan Chakrabati, Chen-Fu...endorsements, either expressed or implied, of IARPA, DoI/NBC, or the U.S. Government. 1 Introduction Quantum computing is of significant research

  10. Barriers to referral in patients with angina: qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Katy; Chapple, Alison

    1999-01-01

    Objectives To explore barriers to patients being referred for possible revascularisation. Design Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Participants 16 patients aged under 75 years with stable angina and their doctors. Setting General practice in Toxteth, Liverpool. Results Fear of both hospitals and medical tests was common and largely hidden from the doctors. Patients felt they were old, had low expectations of treatment, viewed angina as a chronic illness, and knew little about new developments in angina treatment. Patients and doctors had difficulty in recognising angina symptoms that were not textbook definitions amid multiple comorbidity. Patients saw doctors as busy and did not want to bother them with their condition. Cultural gaps and communication difficulties existed despite all but one patient having English as their first language. Conclusions Listening to patients is vital to address inequitable access to health services: how patients are treated by doctors today affects acceptability of referral tomorrow. Primary care groups in deprived areas should work with communities to address local fears. This will involve collaboration between primary, secondary, and tertiary care. Cultural gaps exist between patients and doctors in deprived areas, and diagnostic confusion can occur particularly in the presence of other psychological and physical morbidity. Adequate time and resources—for example, education for doctors and patients and provision of interpreters—need to be provided if inequitable access to revascularisation procedures is to be addressed. Key messages In different communities and patient groups different myths and fears operate and need to be addressed, as experiences of hospital can profoundly affect patients’ confidence Patients in deprived areas with high mortality rates perceive themselves as “old” at a young age, and expectations of treatment are limited Angina symptoms in inner city primary care may not be the same

  11. Atomic clusters with addressable complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, David J.

    2017-02-01

    A general formulation for constructing addressable atomic clusters is introduced, based on one or more reference structures. By modifying the well depths in a given interatomic potential in favour of nearest-neighbour interactions that are defined in the reference(s), the potential energy landscape can be biased to make a particular permutational isomer the global minimum. The magnitude of the bias changes the resulting potential energy landscape systematically, providing a framework to produce clusters that should self-organise efficiently into the target structure. These features are illustrated for small systems, where all the relevant local minima and transition states can be identified, and for the low-energy regions of the landscape for larger clusters. For a 55-particle cluster, it is possible to design a target structure from a transition state of the original potential and to retain this structure in a doubly addressable landscape. Disconnectivity graphs based on local minima that have no direct connections to a lower minimum provide a helpful way to visualise the larger databases. These minima correspond to the termini of monotonic sequences, which always proceed downhill in terms of potential energy, and we identify them as a class of biminimum. Multiple copies of the target cluster are treated by adding a repulsive term between particles with the same address to maintain distinguishable targets upon aggregation. By tuning the magnitude of this term, it is possible to create assemblies of the target cluster corresponding to a variety of structures, including rings and chains.

  12. Reading and Language Arts Curricula in Elementary and Secondary Education for American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gerald L.

    Native students rank far below norms in reading, language arts, and language arts related subjects. This paper reviews the literature to address strategic plans for reading and language arts curricula for Native students. An overview is presented of theories of first and second language acquisition and learning, stages of language development, and…

  13. Tapping a National Resource: Heritage Languages in the United States. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brecht, Richard D.; Ingold, Catherine W.

    This digest discusses the unprecedented U.S. need for individuals with highly developed competencies in English and one or more other languages and the untapped language resource: heritage language speakers. Sections address the range of proficiencies of heritage language speakers, the fragility of heritage languages, the limitations of current…

  14. XML: A Language To Manage the World Wide Web. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Tanous, Jennifer R.

    This digest provides an overview of XML (Extensible Markup Language), a markup language used to construct World Wide Web pages. Topics addressed include: (1) definition of a markup language, including comparison of XML with SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) and HTML (HyperText Markup Language); (2) how XML works, including sample tags,…

  15. Acoustical Barriers To Learning: Children at Risk in Every Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Peggy B.; Soli, Sig

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews relevant literature on acoustical barriers to successful learning and provides guidance for school personnel making decisions regarding classroom facilities. Effects of noisy classrooms on young listeners, second language learners, and those with hearing loss are discussed. A rationale for the classroom acoustics standards is…

  16. Concept of Operations (CONOPS) for Foreign Language and Speech Translation Technologies in a Coalition Military Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    concepts and architecture paths to reduce human language barriers experienced by the DOD Operational Community and the Intelligence Community...Specifically, the program is designed to; • Reduce the foreign language barriers across the full spectrum of transnational and joint coalition

  17. Language preference in monolingual and bilingual infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valji, Ayasha; Polka, Linda

    2001-05-01

    Previous research shows that infants being raised in single-language families have some basic language discrimination abilities at birth, that these skills improve over the first 6 months of life, and that infants are attending to the rhythmic properties of language to perform these skills. Research has also revealed that newborns and older babies from monolingual families prefer listening to their native language over an unfamiliar language. Data on language discrimination and preference in bilingual infants is very limited but is necessary to determine if the patterns and rate of bilingual language development parallel those of monolingual development, or if exposure to more than one language modifies developmental patterns. The present study addresses this issue by comparing language preference in monolingual English, monolingual French, and bilingual English-French infants between 3 and 10 months of age. Infant preference to listen to passages in three rhythmically different languages (English, French, Japanese) was assessed using a visual fixation procedure. Passages were produced by three female native speakers of each language. Findings will show how native language preference is affected by age and language experience in infants who experience monolingual and bilingual language exposure.

  18. Language preference in monolingual and bilingual infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valji, Ayasha; Polka, Linda

    2004-05-01

    Previous research shows that infants being raised in single-language families have some basic language discrimination abilities at birth, that these skills improve over the first 6 months of life, and that infants are attending to the rhythmic properties of language to perform these skills. Research has also revealed that newborns and older babies from monolingual families prefer listening to their native language over an unfamiliar language. Data on language discrimination and preference in bilingual infants is very limited but is necessary to determine if the patterns and rate of bilingual language development parallel those of monolingual development, or if exposure to more than one language modifies developmental patterns. The present study addresses this issue by comparing language preference in monolingual English, monolingual French, and bilingual English-French infants between 3 and 10 months of age. Infant preference to listen to passages in three rhythmically different languages (English, French, Japanese) was assessed using a visual fixation procedure. Passages were produced by three female native speakers of each language. Findings will show how native language preference is affected by age and language experience in infants who experience monolingual and bilingual language exposure.

  19. SIMS: addressing the problem of heterogeneity in databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arens, Yigal

    1997-02-01

    The heterogeneity of remotely accessible databases -- with respect to contents, query language, semantics, organization, etc. -- presents serious obstacles to convenient querying. The SIMS (single interface to multiple sources) system addresses this global integration problem. It does so by defining a single language for describing the domain about which information is stored in the databases and using this language as the query language. Each database to which SIMS is to provide access is modeled using this language. The model describes a database's contents, organization, and other relevant features. SIMS uses these models, together with a planning system drawing on techniques from artificial intelligence, to decompose a given user's high-level query into a series of queries against the databases and other data manipulation steps. The retrieval plan is constructed so as to minimize data movement over the network and maximize parallelism to increase execution speed. SIMS can recover from network failures during plan execution by obtaining data from alternate sources, when possible. SIMS has been demonstrated in the domains of medical informatics and logistics, using real databases.

  20. Optimistic barrier synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.

    1992-01-01

    Barrier synchronization is fundamental operation in parallel computation. In many contexts, at the point a processor enters a barrier it knows that it has already processed all the work required of it prior to synchronization. The alternative case, when a processor cannot enter a barrier with the assurance that it has already performed all the necessary pre-synchronization computation, is treated. The problem arises when the number of pre-sychronization messages to be received by a processor is unkown, for example, in a parallel discrete simulation or any other computation that is largely driven by an unpredictable exchange of messages. We describe an optimistic O(log sup 2 P) barrier algorithm for such problems, study its performance on a large-scale parallel system, and consider extensions to general associative reductions as well as associative parallel prefix computations.

  1. Great Barrier Reef

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Australia's Great Barrier Reef     View Larger Image ... reef, but a vast maze of reefs, passages, and coral cays (islands that are part of the reef). This nadir true-color image was acquired by ...

  2. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  3. Market and policy barriers to energy storage deployment :

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen B.; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie; Kirby, Brendan

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources. Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, crosscutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country. The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing. Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

  4. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF FIRE SEPARATION AND BARRIERS

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-04-17

    Fire barriers, and physical separation are key components in managing the fire risk in Nuclear Facilities. The expected performance of these features have often been predicted using rules-of-thumb or expert judgment. These approaches often lack the convincing technical bases that exist when addressing other Nuclear Facility accident events. This paper presents science-based approaches to demonstrate the effectiveness of fire separation methods.

  5. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Barker, S.G.; McQueen, M.A.

    1996-04-16

    A portable barrier strip is described having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use. 13 figs.

  6. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Barker, Stacey G.; McQueen, Miles A.

    1996-01-01

    A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests stable in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use.

  7. Reduced barrier efficiency in axillary stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Watkinson, A; Lee, R S; Moore, A E; Pudney, P D A; Paterson, S E; Rawlings, A V

    2002-06-01

    The skin of the axilla is cosmetically important with millions of consumers daily applying antiperspirant/deodorant products. Despite this, we know virtually nothing about axillary skin or how antiperspirant (AP) use impacts upon it. To characterize the axillary stratum corneum and determine whether this is a unique skin type, we have looked at stratum corneum composition and function, particularly its barrier properties, and compared it with other body sites. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneosurfametry (CSM) revealed a reduced barrier function in the axilla. HPTLC analysis of the stratum corneum lipids demonstrated statistically elevated levels of fatty acids, ceramides, and particularly cholesterol in the axilla. Both ceramide and cholesterol did not appear to change with depth, indicating that they were predominantly of stratum corneum origin. On the other hand, at least some of the fatty acid had a sebaceous origin. We hypothesized that the reduced barrier function might be owing to the changes in the crucial ceramide : cholesterol ratio. To address this, we used a combination of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) with cyanoacrylate sampling. These results demonstrated more ordered lipid-lamellae phase behaviour in the axilla, suggesting that the elevated cholesterol might form crystal microdomains within the lipid lamellae, allowing an increase in water flux. Since an exaggerated application of antiperspirant had no effect upon the axilla barrier properties, it is concluded that this region of skin physiologically has a reduced barrier function.

  8. Towards a Sociolinguistically Responsive Pedagogy: Teaching Second-Person Address Forms in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Compernolle, Remi A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a sociolinguistically responsive model of pedagogy situated within existing sociocultural and communicative approaches to language learning and teaching. The specific focus of the discussion is on the French pronouns of address, "tu" and "vous". The article reviews previous research on second-person address in educational and…

  9. Marine Language Exchange Program: A 21st Century International and Interdisciplinary Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robigou, V.; Nichols-Pecceu, M.

    2001-12-01

    The ability of scientists to communicate across cultural and linguistic barriers is crucial for the global economic sustainability and protection of the world\\'{}s oceans. Yet students with majors in the sciences and engineering constitute less than 2% of those who study abroad each year. And even rarer are students who study in countries where English is not the first language. The Marine Language Exchange program is a case study of an international and interdisciplinary collaboration between faculties in the languages and the sciences who address this gap. A consortium of U.S. and European institutions including Eckerd College (Florida), University of Washington (Washington), University of Hilo (Hawaii), Université de la Rochelle (France), Université de Liège (Belgium), and Universidad de Las Palmas (Spain) is developing a multilingual, marine sciences exchange program in an effort to internationalize their Marine Sciences departments. The program includes a three-week, intensive "bridge" course designed to reinforce second language skills in the context of marine sciences, and prepare undergraduate students for the cultural and educational differences of their host country. Following this immersion experience students from each institution enroll in courses abroad including marine sciences specialization for full academic credit. This session will review the Marine Language Exchange program activities since 2000 and will discuss the ideological and practical aspects of the program. The program successes, difficulties and future directions will also be presented. Different disciplinary approaches -Second Language Acquisition, English as a Second Language and Marine Science- prepare science students to contribute to the study and the management of the world\\'{}s oceans with an awareness of the cultural issues reflected by national marine policies. Based on this case study, other universities could initiate their own international and interdisciplinary

  10. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  11. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance.

  12. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  13. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating.

  14. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  15. Addressing concerns and achieving expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.

    1995-12-01

    Approximately 2-1/2 years ago many of us were gathered here in Prague at a similar conference with a similar name, {open_quotes}Energy and Environment: Transitions in Eastern Europe.{close_quotes} Over 300 professionals from 26 nations attended. The objective of the conference was to: Facilitate the Solution of Long and Short Term Energy and Environmental Problems in Eastern Europe by Bringing Together People, ideas and technologies which could be applied to specific problems in a logical step-by-step manner. It was conceded at the time that the long term solution would consist of thoughtfully integrated steps and that the conference was the first step. We are here in the Czech Republic again this week to continue what was started. As before, this conference continues to: (1) Provide a forum to identify and discuss cost-effective environmentally acceptable energy and environmental technology options and their associated socioeconomic issues. (2) Stimulate the Formation of business partnerships (3) Identify key barrier issues hindering technology applications and identify implementation pathways that eliminate or avoid obstacles to progress.

  16. Language Universals and Language Particulars: Implications for Second Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakada, Seiichi

    This paper explores the implications of presumed language universals and language particulars for second language teaching and learning. It is felt that an awareness of the universal features of language design builds confidence in the student who can concentrate on features which distinguish the target language from the native language. Examples…

  17. Specific Language Impairment Across Languages.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Laurence B

    2014-03-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a significant and longstanding deficit in spoken language ability that adversely affects their social and academic well-being. Studies of children with SLI in a wide variety of languages reveal diverse symptoms, most of which seem to reflect weaknesses in grammatical computation and phonological short-term memory. The symptoms of the disorder are sensitive to the type of language being acquired, with extraordinary weaknesses seen in those areas of language that are relatively challenging for younger typically developing children. Although these children's deficits warrant clinical and educational attention, their weaknesses might reflect the extreme end of a language aptitude continuum rather than a distinct, separable condition.

  18. The Open Translation MOOC: Creating Online Communities to Transcend Linguistic Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaven, Tita; Comas-Quinn, Anna; Hauck, Mirjam; de los Arcos, Beatriz; Lewis, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    One of the main barriers to the reuse of Open Educational Resources (OER) is language (OLnet, 2009). OER may be available but in a language that users cannot access, so a preliminary step to reuse is their translation or localization. One of the obvious solutions to the vast effort required to translate OER is to crowd-source the translation, as…

  19. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    DOEpatents

    Shurter, Roger P.

    1992-01-01

    A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput.

  20. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    DOEpatents

    Shurter, R.P.

    1992-09-15

    A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput. 3 figs.

  1. TEACH - A concurrent robot control language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the TEACH robot control language and its supporting operating system. It addresses concurrency, device independence, and other issues related to manipulator control, task specification, and system operation.

  2. UPC Language Specifications V1.2

    SciTech Connect

    UPC Consortium

    2005-05-31

    UPC is an explicitly parallel extension to the ISO C 99Standard. UPC follows the partitioned global address space programming model. This document is the formal specification for the UPC language syntax and semantics.

  3. Novel tunnelling barriers for spin tunnelling junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manish

    A tunnel junction consists of two metal electrodes separated by an insulating barrier thin enough for electrons to tunnel across. With ferromagnetic electrodes, a spin-dependent tunnelling (SDT) effect, electrons of one spin tunnelling preferentially over those of the other, is observed. When the electrodes are switched from a parallel to an anti-parallel alignment, the tunnelling current changes and gives rise to tunnelling magnetoresistance (TMR). Since 1995, interest in SDT junctions has increased as TMR in excess of 15% has been achieved, making viable their use in non-volatile memory and magnetic sensors applications. In this work, two key issues of SDT junctions are addressed: spin polarization of the electrode and the tunnel barrier. Spin polarization, a measure of electron states of up and down spins, is widely believed to be an intrinsic property of the electrode. In junctions with barriers formed by plasma oxidation of composite Ta/Al films, the surprising effect of the resistance being lower with the electrodes aligned antiparallel was observed. Junctions with Ta/Al barriers and those with Al/Ta barriers behave opposite to each other and exhibit an inversion only when the Ta side of the barrier is biased positive. This demonstrates the spin polarization is also influenced by the barrier material. Half-metallic materials such as magnetite (Fe3O4) have a gap in one of the spins' states at the fermi level, thus having a theoretical spin polarization of 100%. In this work, an ultrathin Fe3O 4 layer was added between the Al2O3 barrier and the NiFe electrode. The TMR increased sharply from 4% to 16% for thicknesses less than 0.5nm. As the tunnel barrier must be thinner than 2nm, choice of the barrier material becomes critical. Presently, Al2O3 is the best known barrier. In looking for alternative materials, AlN and AlON were formed by plasma nitridation and oxy-nitridation of deposited Al films. TMR results of up to 18% and resistance-area products down to 3

  4. Selling Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela-Ibarra, Jose L.

    1975-01-01

    To reverse trends toward reductions in the number of foreign language teaching positions, it is necessary to change the negative image associated with foreign languages and to try to attract more students. A four-point selling program is suggested. (Author/RM)

  5. Space languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Dan

    1987-01-01

    Applications of linguistic principles to potential problems of human and machine communication in space settings are discussed. Variations in language among speakers of different backgrounds and change in language forms resulting from new experiences or reduced contact with other groups need to be considered in the design of intelligent machine systems.

  6. Content-addressable holographic databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grawert, Felix; Kobras, Sebastian; Burr, Geoffrey W.; Coufal, Hans J.; Hanssen, Holger; Riedel, Marc; Jefferson, C. Michael; Jurich, Mark C.

    2000-11-01

    Holographic data storage allows the simultaneous search of an entire database by performing multiple optical correlations between stored data pages and a search argument. We have recently developed fuzzy encoding techniques for this fast parallel search and demonstrated a holographic data storage system that searches digital data records with high fidelity. This content-addressable retrieval is based on the ability to take the two-dimensional inner product between the search page and each stored data page. We show that this ability is lost when the correlator is defocussed to avoid material oversaturation, but can be regained by the combination of a random phase mask and beam confinement through total internal reflection. Finally, we propose an architecture in which spatially multiplexed holograms are distributed along the path of the search beam, allowing parallel search of large databases.

  7. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  8. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  9. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  10. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. BARRIERS TO DRUG ABUSE TREATMENT FOR LATINO MIGRANTS: TREATMENT PROVIDERS’ PERSPECTIVES1

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper disseminates findings from a pilot study undertaken to learn more about treatment providers’ perceptions of treatment access barriers faced by Latino migrants with substance use disorders (SUDs) in Northern California. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with treatment providers (n=11) at 7 residential treatment programs with Spanish-language services. Interviewees identified and described three primary types of treatment barriers: language, legal, and gender-based. In response to these barriers, Latino migrants with SUDs have opened their own residential recovery houses called anexos (annexes). Collaborative efforts by community clinics and public health agencies are needed to facilitate Latino migrants’ access to SUD treatment. PMID:25176120

  12. Micro heat barrier

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, Albert C.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Tigges, Chris P.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    2003-08-12

    A highly effective, micron-scale micro heat barrier structure and process for manufacturing a micro heat barrier based on semiconductor and/or MEMS fabrication techniques. The micro heat barrier has an array of non-metallic, freestanding microsupports with a height less than 100 microns, attached to a substrate. An infrared reflective membrane (e.g., 1 micron gold) can be supported by the array of microsupports to provide radiation shielding. The micro heat barrier can be evacuated to eliminate gas phase heat conduction and convection. Semi-isotropic, reactive ion plasma etching can be used to create a microspike having a cusp-like shape with a sharp, pointed tip (<0.1 micron), to minimize the tip's contact area. A heat source can be placed directly on the microspikes. The micro heat barrier can have an apparent thermal conductivity in the range of 10.sup.-6 to 10.sup.-7 W/m-K. Multiple layers of reflective membranes can be used to increase thermal resistance.

  13. Method of installing subsurface barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Richardson, John G.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Sloan, Paul A.

    2007-10-09

    Systems, components, and methods relating to subterranean containment barriers. Laterally adjacent tubular casings having male interlock structures and multiple female interlock structures defining recesses for receiving a male interlock structure are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The multiple female interlock structures enable the barriers to be varied around subsurface objects and to form barrier sidewalls. The barrier may be used for treating and monitoring a zone of interest.

  14. Language and Inequality: Global Challenges to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    This article is an abbreviated version of the BAICE Presidential Address held at the 11th UKFIET International Conference in Oxford on September 16, 2011. It discusses debates on the use of a foreign and ex-colonial language as a language of instruction (LOI) in African schools and argues that the quality of education cannot be seen as an issue…

  15. Language Teaching and Learning: Some Hard Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo Bianco, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    In addressing the needs of second languages, the principle must be to build quality at all levels, especially in the design of programs and the rigour and seriousness of teaching and to maintain a consistent effort rather than to subject language planning to continual chopping and changing of priority. Quality programs will need to be readily…

  16. Contrasting Two Approaches to Distance Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ros i Sole, Cristina; Hopkins, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    In this article we contrast two distance foreign language programs developed at two European institutions of higher education (the Modern Languages Program at the Open University, UK; and the English Program at the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Spain) as instances of two pedagogical models used to address the many challenges posed by teaching…

  17. Language: perspectives from another modality.

    PubMed

    Bellugi, U; Klima, E S

    1979-01-01

    Human languages have been forged in auditory-vocal channels throughout evolution. This paper examines the formal properties of a communication system that has developed in the absence of speech: the sign language of the deaf. The objective is to investigate to what extent the overall form and organization of language is determined by the articulatory and perceptual modality in which it has developed (its transmission system) and to what extent its form and organization represent more fundamental aspects of the human mind (intellect). Experimental and linguistic evidence is brought to bear on the analysis of the sign: studies of coding and processing of signs in memory; of slips of the hand; of historical change in signs over time; the heightened use of language in poetry and wit. American Sign Language differs dramatically from English and other spoken languages in the mechanisms by which its lexical units are modified. For the form of its morphological processes, the mode in which the language develops appears to make a crucial difference. Finally, the issue of cerebral specialization with respect to a visual-manual language is addressed.

  18. Barriers to achieving optimal glycemic control in a multi-ethnic society: a US focus.

    PubMed

    Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; Funnell, Martha M; Davidson, Jaime

    2006-08-01

    The increasing prevalence of diabetes is particularly apparent in certain ethnic groups, such as African and Hispanic Americans. These groups generally also have poorer glycemic control and outcomes. To better understand the issues surrounding these problems and possible methods to overcome them we performed a literature review from the past 15 years on barriers to glycemic control with a focus on US data. The literature reveals that barriers may be inherent (eg, genetic, cultural, and language/communication) or acquired (eg, those associated with changes in lifestyle and socioeconomic factors). Healthcare interventions that take into consideration cultural and population-specific characteristics can reduce the prevalence and severity of diabetes and its resulting complications. Implementing such strategies will require suitable education for patients and providers, the availability of culturally-sensitive, patient-centered healthcare teams, the creation of collaborative relationships between providers and patients, better use of community resources, and assistance for patients to make informed decisions about available treatment options. There is also evidence suggesting that at the same level of glucose control Hispanics and African Americans have the same degree of complications as whites; therefore, good control is essential for the future well-being of all patients. Addressing these issues may help to decrease the ethnic disparities that currently exist in diabetes care.

  19. Speech and Language Therapy Intervention in Schizophrenia: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Judy; Brumfitt, Shelagh; Parks, Randolph W.; Woodruff, Peter W. R.

    2007-01-01

    Background: There is a significant body of evidence documenting the speech and language abnormalities found in adult psychiatric disorders. These speech and language impairments can create additional social barriers for the individual and may hinder effective communication in psychiatric treatment and management. However, the role of speech and…

  20. Learning as a First Language: Creating Opportunities for Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    This article describes several community colleges across the country that provide services tailored to immigrant learners. The majority of colleges offer basic English as a second language (ESL) classes, but many programs strive to do more than simply breach the language barrier. The most successful programs teach important job skills with a focus…

  1. SignMT: An Alternative Language Learning Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditcharoen, Nadh; Naruedomkul, Kanlaya; Cercone, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Learning a second language is very difficult, especially, for the disabled; the disability may be a barrier to learn and to utilize information written in text form. We present the SignMT, Thai sign to Thai machine translation system, which is able to translate from Thai sign language into Thai text. In the translation process, SignMT takes into…

  2. "See Translation": Explicit and Implicit Language Policies on Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendus, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    The currently tested "See Translation" button can be considered an expression of Facebook's explicit language policy. It offers the users fast and easy translations of others' status updates and can therefore be seen as diminishing language barriers and reducing the need for a lingua franca in polylingual networks, thus enhancing…

  3. Intestinal Barrier and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Julio-Pieper, M; Bravo, J A

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal barrier function contributes to gut homeostasis by modulating absorption of water, electrolytes, and nutrients from the lumen into the circulation while restricting the passage of noxious luminal substances and microorganisms. Chronic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and celiac disease are associated to intestinal barrier dysfunction. Here, the hypothesis is that a leaky intestinal wall allowing for indiscriminate passage of intraluminal compounds to the vascular compartment could in turn lead to systemic inflammation. An increasing number of studies are now investigating the association between gut permeability and CNS disorders, under the premise that translocation of intestinal luminal contents could affect CNS function, either directly or indirectly. Still, it is unknown whether disruption of intestinal barrier is a causative agent or a consequence in these situations. Here, we discuss the latest evidence pointing to an association between increased gut permeability and disrupted behavioral responses.

  4. Skin barrier in rosacea.

    PubMed

    Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies about the cutaneous barrier demonstrated consistent evidence that the stratum corneum is a metabolically active structure and also has adaptive functions, may play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response with activation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis and fibroplasia, whose intensity depends primarily on the intensity the stimulus. There are few studies investigating the abnormalities of the skin barrier in rosacea, but the existing data already show that there are changes resulting from inflammation, which can generate a vicious circle caused a prolongation of flare-ups and worsening of symptoms. This article aims to gather the most relevant literature data about the characteristics and effects of the state of the skin barrier in rosacea.

  5. Skin barrier in rosacea*

    PubMed Central

    Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies about the cutaneous barrier demonstrated consistent evidence that the stratum corneum is a metabolically active structure and also has adaptive functions, may play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response with activation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis and fibroplasia, whose intensity depends primarily on the intensity the stimulus. There are few studies investigating the abnormalities of the skin barrier in rosacea, but the existing data already show that there are changes resulting from inflammation, which can generate a vicious circle caused a prolongation of flare-ups and worsening of symptoms. This article aims to gather the most relevant literature data about the characteristics and effects of the state of the skin barrier in rosacea. PMID:26982780

  6. Thermal barrier coating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A high temperature oxidation resistant, thermal barrier coating system is disclosed for a nickel cobalt, or iron base alloy substrate. An inner metal bond coating contacts the substrate, and a thermal barrier coating covers the bond coating. NiCrAlR, FeCrAlR, and CoCrAlR alloys are satisfactory as bond coating compositions where R=Y or Yb. These alloys contain, by weight, 24.9-36.7% chromium, 5.4-18.5% aluminum, and 0.05 to 1.55% yttrium or 0.05 to 0.53% ytterbium. The coatings containing ytterbium are preferred over those containing yttrium. An outer thermal barrier coating of partial stabilized zirconium oxide (zirconia) which is between 6% and 8%, by weight, of yttrium oxide (yttria) covers the bond coating. Partial stabilization provides a material with superior durability. Partially stabilized zirconia consists of mixtures of cubic, tetragonal, and monoclinic phases.

  7. Non-European nurses' perceived barriers to UK nurse registration.

    PubMed

    Allan, Helen; Westwood, Sue

    2016-05-11

    Aim To conduct a scoping project to identify perceived barriers to UK nurse registration as experienced by internationally educated nurses working as healthcare assistants in the UK. Method Eleven internationally educated nurses working as healthcare assistants in two London hospitals attended two facilitated focus groups. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings Study participants articulated frustration with UK English language testing requirements and a sense of injustice and unfairness relating to: double standards for nurses educated within and outside of the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA); and what was perceived, by some, as arbitrary English language testing with unnecessarily high standards. Differences among study participants related to issues of competency and accountability regarding English language skills and passing English language skills tests, with many feeling they were playing 'a game' where the rules kept changing. Conclusion Language testing barriers are impeding UK nurse registration for some internationally educated nurses from outside the EU and EEA who, as a result, are working as healthcare assistants. The provision of English language training by employers would improve their prospects of achieving nurse registration.

  8. An address geocoding method for improving rural spatial information infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuchun; Chen, Baisong; Lu, Zhou; Li, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhou, Yanbing

    2009-09-01

    The transition of rural and agricultural management from divisional to integrated mode has highlighted the importance of data integration and sharing. Current data are mostly collected by specific department to satisfy their own needs and lake of considering on wider potential uses. This led to great difference in data format, semantic, and precision even in same area, which is a significant barrier for constructing an integrated rural spatial information system to support integrated management and decision-making. Considering the rural cadastral management system and postal zones, the paper designs a rural address geocoding method based on rural cadastral parcel. It puts forward a geocoding standard which consists of absolute position code, relative position code and extended code. It designs a rural geocoding database model, and addresses collection and update model. Then, based on the rural address geocoding model, it proposed a data model for rural agricultural resources management. The results show that the address coding based on postal code is stable and easy to memorize, two-dimensional coding based on the direction and distance is easy to be located and memorized, while extended code can enhance the extensibility and flexibility of address geocoding.

  9. An address geocoding method for improving rural spatial information infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuchun; Chen, Baisong; Lu, Zhou; Li, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhou, YanBing

    2010-11-01

    The transition of rural and agricultural management from divisional to integrated mode has highlighted the importance of data integration and sharing. Current data are mostly collected by specific department to satisfy their own needs and lake of considering on wider potential uses. This led to great difference in data format, semantic, and precision even in same area, which is a significant barrier for constructing an integrated rural spatial information system to support integrated management and decision-making. Considering the rural cadastral management system and postal zones, the paper designs a rural address geocoding method based on rural cadastral parcel. It puts forward a geocoding standard which consists of absolute position code, relative position code and extended code. It designs a rural geocoding database model, and addresses collection and update model. Then, based on the rural address geocoding model, it proposed a data model for rural agricultural resources management. The results show that the address coding based on postal code is stable and easy to memorize, two-dimensional coding based on the direction and distance is easy to be located and memorized, while extended code can enhance the extensibility and flexibility of address geocoding.

  10. Ice barrier construction

    SciTech Connect

    Finucane, R. G.; Jahns, H. O.

    1985-06-18

    A method is provided for constructing spray ice barriers to protect offshore structures in a frigid body of water from mobile ice, waves and currents. Water is withdrawn from the body of water and is sprayed through ambient air which is below the freezing temperature of the water so that a substantial amount of the water freezes as it passes through the air. The sprayed water is directed to build up a mass of ice having a size and shape adapted to protect the offshore structure. Spray ice barriers can also be constructed for the containment of pollutant spills.

  11. Thermal Barrier Coating Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, W. J. (Compiler); Lee, W. Y. (Compiler); Goedjen, J. G. (Compiler); Dapkunas, S. J. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains the agenda and presentation abstracts for the Thermal Barrier Coating Workshop, sponsored by NASA, DOE, and NIST. The workshop covered thermal barrier coating (TBC) issues related to applications, processing, properties, and modeling. The intent of the workshop was to highlight the state of knowledge on TBC's and to identify critical gaps in knowledge that may hinder TBC use in advanced applications. The workshop goals were achieved through presentations by 22 speakers representing industry, academia, and government as well as through extensive discussion periods.

  12. Thermal barrier coating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S.; Leibert, C. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A coating system which contains a bond coating and a thermal barrier coating is applied to metal surfaces such as turbine blades and provides both low thermal conductivity and improved adherence when exposed to high temperature gases or liquids. The bond coating contains NiCrAlY and the thermal barrier coating contains a reflective oxide. The reflective oxides ZrO2-Y2O3 and ZrO2-MgO have demonstrated significant utility in high temperature turbine applications.

  13. Language acquisition is language change.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen; Goro, Takuya; Thornton, Rosalind

    2006-01-01

    According to the theory of Universal Grammar, the primary linguistic data guides children through an innately specified space of hypotheses. On this view, similarities between child-English and adult-German are as unsurprising as similarities between cousins who have never met. By contrast, experience-based approaches to language acquisition contend that child language matches the input, with nonadult forms being simply less articulated versions of the forms produced by adults. This paper reports several studies that provide support for the theory of Universal grammar, and resist explanation on experience-based accounts. Two studies investigate English-speaking children's productions, and a third examines the interpretation of sentences by Japanese speaking children. When considered against the input children are exposed to, the findings of these and other studies are consistent with the continuity hypothesis, which supposes that child language can differ from the language spoken by adults only in ways that adult languages can differ from each other.

  14. Barrier methods of contraception.

    PubMed

    Skrine, R L

    1985-05-01

    Barrier methods of contraception make up an essential part of the present contraceptive range, and doctors need to know in detail how to choose and fit them as well as how to instruct patients in their use. This discussion reviews the mode of action of the barrier method and then focuses on the vaginal diaphragm, the cervical or vault cap, the collatex (Today) sponge, condoms, emotionl problems associated with the use of barrier methods, advantages of barrier methods, and future developments. Barrier methods of contraception are only effective if used consistently and carefully. Failure rates vary greatly between studies, but in selected populations the failure rate for the diaphragm with spermicide can be as low as 1.9/100 woman years (wy) and for the condom 3.6 per 100wy (Vessey et al., 1982). If known user failures are removed, the figure for the condom can drop to as low as 0.4 per 100wy (John, 1973), which compares favorably with that of the combined oral contraceptive. Other studies quote failure rates of 10 per 100wy or more. These methods call for considerable participation by the patient at or before each act of intercourse and there is, therefore, great scope for inefficient use, either as a result of poor instruction or because couples find that they interfere with happy, relaxed sexual activity -- or fear that they may do so. Doctors need to understand the feelings of their patients before recommending them. The aim of a barrier method is to prevent live sperm from meeting the ovum. This is accomplished by the combination of a physical barrier with a spermicide. In the case of the condom, the integrity of the physical barrier is the most important factor, although some patients feel more secure with an additional spermicide. The vaginal barriers used at present do not produce a "water-tight" fit, and the principle is that the spermicide is held over the cervix by the barrier. It is also possible that the device acts partially by holding the alkaline

  15. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.

  16. Brain, Mind and Language Functional Architectures

    PubMed Central

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Fingelkurts, Alexander A; Marchetti, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between brain and language has been investigated by a vast amount of research and different approaches, which however do not offer a comprehensive and unified theoretical framework to analyze how brain functioning performs the mental processes we use in producing language and in understanding speech. This Special Issue addresses the need to develop such a general theoretical framework, by fostering an interaction among the various scientific disciplines and methodologies, which centres on investigating the functional architecture of brain, mind and language, and is articulated along the following main dimensions of research: (a) Language as a regulatory contour of brain and mental processes; (b) Language as a unique human phenomenon; (c) Language as a governor of human behaviour and brain operations; (d) Language as an organizational factor of ontogenesis of mentation and behaviour. PMID:20922047

  17. Formal Models of Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinker, Steven

    1979-01-01

    Research addressing development of mechanistic models capable of acquiring languages on the basis of exposure to linguistic data is reviewed. Research focuses on major issues in developmental psycholinguistics--in particular, nativism and empiricism, the role of semantics and pragmatics, cognitive development, and the importance of simplified…

  18. Foreign Language on the Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    The guide is designed to address concerns of North Carolina second/foreign language teachers and school administrators as they plan and implement block class scheduling. The first section outlines the rationale and special considerations for block scheduling, and offers some typical schedule options. North Carolina's instructional time…

  19. Immigration, language proficiency, and autobiographical memories: Lifespan distribution and second-language access.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Alena G; Baker-Ward, Lynne

    2016-08-01

    This investigation examined two controversies in the autobiographical literature: how cross-language immigration affects the distribution of autobiographical memories across the lifespan and under what circumstances language-dependent recall is observed. Both Spanish/English bilingual immigrants and English monolingual non-immigrants participated in a cue word study, with the bilingual sample taking part in a within-subject language manipulation. The expected bump in the number of memories from early life was observed for non-immigrants but not immigrants, who reported more memories for events surrounding immigration. Aspects of the methodology addressed possible reasons for past discrepant findings. Language-dependent recall was influenced by second-language proficiency. Results were interpreted as evidence that bilinguals with high second-language proficiency, in contrast to those with lower second-language proficiency, access a single conceptual store through either language. The final multi-level model predicting language-dependent recall, including second-language proficiency, age of immigration, internal language, and cue word language, explained ¾ of the between-person variance and (1)/5 of the within-person variance. We arrive at two conclusions. First, major life transitions influence the distribution of memories. Second, concept representation across multiple languages follows a developmental model. In addition, the results underscore the importance of considering language experience in research involving memory reports.

  20. Thought beyond language: neural dissociation of algebra and natural language.

    PubMed

    Monti, Martin M; Parsons, Lawrence M; Osherson, Daniel N

    2012-08-01

    A central question in cognitive science is whether natural language provides combinatorial operations that are essential to diverse domains of thought. In the study reported here, we addressed this issue by examining the role of linguistic mechanisms in forging the hierarchical structures of algebra. In a 3-T functional MRI experiment, we showed that processing of the syntax-like operations of algebra does not rely on the neural mechanisms of natural language. Our findings indicate that processing the syntax of language elicits the known substrate of linguistic competence, whereas algebraic operations recruit bilateral parietal brain regions previously implicated in the representation of magnitude. This double dissociation argues against the view that language provides the structure of thought across all cognitive domains.

  1. The Linguistic Similarities of Spanish Heritage and Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the situation of lower-proficiency heritage language learners of Spanish in terms of their linguistic similarities to second language learners. The analysis highlights grammatical and lexical features in the oral discourse of Spanish heritage and second language learners at intermediate and advanced levels of study,…

  2. Anxiety and Reading Comprehension in Spanish as a Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Vanisa D.

    2000-01-01

    Explored the relationship between language anxiety and reading in Spanish. Issues addressed include the following: the effect of language anxiety on reading comprehension and recall of university-level students and the effect of language anxiety on the reading process itself. Two inventories assessed two different anxiety levels: the Reading…

  3. Language Education for Intercultural Communication. Multilingual Matters 96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Dennis, Ed.; And Others

    Essays address the relationship between second language education and intercultural communication in several countries. Following an introduction are the following papers: "Second Language Learning in Belgium" (Ludo Beheydt); "Foreign Language Education in Bulgaria: Present-Day Situation and Future Tendencies" (Madeleine…

  4. The Power of Culture: Teaching across Language Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beykont, Zeynep F., Ed.

    These papers address three issues of concern to educators of language minority students: preparation of quality teachers, the effects of standardized and high-stakes testing on language learners, and specific teaching strategies that view language minority students as capable and deserving of first-class educational opportunities. After an…

  5. Elementary Teachers' Perception of Language Issues in Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seah, Lay Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Although the importance of language in science learning has been widely recognized by researchers, there is limited research on how science teachers perceive the roles that language plays in science classrooms. As part of an intervention design project that aimed to enhance teachers' capacity to address the language demands of science, interview…

  6. Language and Literacy Development in Prelingually-Deaf Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to address the issue of language development in hearing impaired children. It argues that interpreters, teachers or peers can provide deaf children with language exposure so that they can acquire their native languages more easily. It also argues that the provision of a developmentally appropriate print-rich environments is the…

  7. Under the Whole Language Umbrella: Many Cultures, Many Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flurkey, Alan D., Ed.; Meyer, Richard J., Ed.

    Originally presented at the second annual Whole Language Umbrella Conference, the 18 essays in this book address the three related themes of identity, responsibility, and practice. The essays in the book discuss how whole language is defined, and how its practitioners come to define themselves; how whole language teachers act upon their identities…

  8. Universal Reading Processes Are Modulated by Language and Writing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfetti, Charles A.; Harris, Lindsay N.

    2013-01-01

    The connections among language, writing system, and reading are part of what confronts a child in learning to read. We examine these connections in addressing how reading processes adapt to the variety of written language and how writing adapts to language. The first adaptation (reading to writing), as evidenced in behavioral and neuroscience…

  9. An Introduction to the Languages of the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyovin, Anatole V.

    The textbook is designed to introduce beginning students of linguistics to the variety of languages of the world. It assumes the reader has mastered the basic principles of linguistics, but seeks background information in the broad range of language phenomena found in the world's languages. Chapters address these topics: classification of…

  10. Teachers' and Students' Beliefs regarding Aspects of Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    The similarities and dissimilarities between teachers' and students' conceptions of language learning were addressed through a questionnaire survey concerning the nature and methods of language learning. The results indicate points of congruence between teachers' and students' beliefs about language learning in respect of eight main areas.…

  11. Bilingual Language Acquisition by Korean Schoolchildren in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sarah J.; Milroy, Lesley

    1999-01-01

    Examines bilingual language development of young Korean-American children with respect to acquisition of English grammatical morphemes and different plural marking systems of Korean and English. Addresses whether first and second language (L1, L2) learners acquire grammatical features of a given language in the same sequence and whether L2…

  12. Intelligent CAI: An Author Aid for a Natural Language Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Richard R.; Brown, John Seely

    This report addresses the problems of using natural language (English) as the communication language for advanced computer-based instructional systems. The instructional environment places requirements on a natural language understanding system that exceed the capabilities of all existing systems, including: (1) efficiency, (2) habitability, (3)…

  13. Immigration, Cultural-Linguistic Diversity, and Topics in Language Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Li-Rong Lilly

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes 4 topics contributed by the author over the last 30 years of "Topics in Language Disorders" that address the issues of immigration, migration, and refugees. The focus is on the historical perspectives on evolution of terminologies from limited English proficient to English language learner and English as a new language.…

  14. Language, Learning, and National Goals: A Native American View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demmert, William G., Jr.

    As part of a symposium on issues related to diversity and American education reform in the context of Goal 3 of the National Education Goals, this paper addresses public attitudes about languages that are different from official or national languages. It is noted that the use of a native language as the medium of instruction to rebuild historical…

  15. Multilingualism in the Workplace: Language Practices in Multilingual Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angouri, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The modern workplace is international and multilingual. Both white and blue collar employees are expected to be mobile, work increasingly in (virtual) teams (Gee et al. 1996) and to address complex organisational issues in a language that, often, is not their first language (L1). This results in a number of languages forming the ecosystem of…

  16. Hindrances for Parents in Enhancing Child Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith; Dekhinet, Rayenne; Zeedyk, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    This review explores challenges and barriers to parent-child interaction which leads to language development in the first 3 years of the child's life. Seven databases yielded 1,750 hits, reduced to 49 evidence-based studies, many of which still had methodological imperfections. Evidence was quite strong in relation to socio-economic status,…

  17. Assessing students' English language proficiency during clinical placement: A qualitative evaluation of a language framework.

    PubMed

    San Miguel, Caroline; Rogan, Fran

    2015-06-01

    The increase in nursing students for whom English is an additional language requires clinical facilitators to assess students' performance regarding clinical skills, nursing communication and English language. However, assessing language proficiency is a complex process that is often conflated with cultural norms and clinical skills, and facilitators may lack confidence in assessing English language. This paper discusses an evaluation of a set of guidelines developed in a large metropolitan Australian university to help clinical facilitators make decisions about students' English language proficiency. The study found that the guidelines were useful in helping facilitators assess English language. However, strategies to address identified language problems needed to be incorporated to enable the guidelines to also be used as a teaching tool. The study concludes that to be effective, such guidelines need embedding within a systematic approach that identifies and responds to students who may be underperforming due to a low level of English language proficiency.

  18. Development of the Tensoral Computer Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferziger, Joel; Dresselhaus, Eliot

    1996-01-01

    The research scientist or engineer wishing to perform large scale simulations or to extract useful information from existing databases is required to have expertise in the details of the particular database, the numerical methods and the computer architecture to be used. This poses a significant practical barrier to the use of simulation data. The goal of this research was to develop a high-level computer language called Tensoral, designed to remove this barrier. The Tensoral language provides a framework in which efficient generic data manipulations can be easily coded and implemented. First of all, Tensoral is general. The fundamental objects in Tensoral represent tensor fields and the operators that act on them. The numerical implementation of these tensors and operators is completely and flexibly programmable. New mathematical constructs and operators can be easily added to the Tensoral system. Tensoral is compatible with existing languages. Tensoral tensor operations co-exist in a natural way with a host language, which may be any sufficiently powerful computer language such as Fortran, C, or Vectoral. Tensoral is very-high-level. Tensor operations in Tensoral typically act on entire databases (i.e., arrays) at one time and may, therefore, correspond to many lines of code in a conventional language. Tensoral is efficient. Tensoral is a compiled language. Database manipulations are simplified optimized and scheduled by the compiler eventually resulting in efficient machine code to implement them.

  19. What "Saving" Languages Might Tell Us about "Teaching" Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo Bianco, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This paper makes a link between two activities in which the author is engaged, i.e. between work on "saving" languages and work on "teaching" languages. Since it is an invited address, the Keith Horwood Memorial Lecture, the author begins by making further, and chronologically prior, to Keith Horwood. Then he addresses three themes of the…

  20. "What I Wish You Knew": Social Barriers toward Physical Activity in Youth with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moola, Fiona; Fusco, Caroline; Kirsh, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the benefits of physical activity for youth with congenital heart disease (CHD), most patients are inactive. Although literature has addressed medical and psychological barriers to participation, little is known about the social barriers that youth encounter. This qualitative study explored sociocultural barriers to physical activity from…

  1. Thermal barrier coating

    DOEpatents

    Bowker, Jeffrey Charles; Sabol, Stephen M.; Goedjen, John G.

    2001-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

  2. The Fission Barrier Landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Phair, L.; Moretto, L. G.

    2008-04-17

    Fission excitation functions have been measured for a chain of neighboring compound nuclei from {sup 207}Po to {sup 212}Po. We present a new analysis which provides a determination of the fission barriers and ground state shell effects with nearly spectroscopic accuracy. The accuracy achieved in this analysis may lead to a future detailed exploration of the saddle mass surface and its spectroscopy.

  3. Thermal barrier coating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An oxide thermal barrier coating comprises ZrO3-Yb2O3 that is plasma sprayed onto a previously applied bond coating. The zirconia is partially stabilized with about 124 w/o ytterbia to insure cubic, monoclinic, and terragonal phases.

  4. Barriers Regarding Using Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekenoogen, John Russell

    2014-01-01

    The University of Florida (UF) used an open-source course management system (CMS) called Sakai. Sakai was the fourth CMS the university has used to help teach live, blended (or hybrid), and online courses over the past ten years. The objective of this dissertation was to identify what barriers may be preventing university personnel from using…

  5. Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A better than average view of the Great Barrier Reef was captured by SeaWiFS on a recent overpass. There is sunglint northeast of the reef and there appears to be some sort of filamentous bloom in the Capricorn Channel.

  6. The Pursuit of Language Appropriate Care: Remote Simultaneous Medical Interpretation Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Debra M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The U.S. government mandates nurses to deliver linguistically appropriate care to hospital patients. It is difficult for nurses to implement the language mandates because there are 6,912 active living languages spoken in the world. Language barriers appear to place limited English proficient (LEP) patients at increased risk for harm…

  7. Web-Based Synchronized Multimedia Lecture System Design for Teaching/Learning Chinese as Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Herng-Yow; Liu, Kuo-Yu

    2008-01-01

    In the past decade, the use of computer technology for language instruction has expanded rapidly. In Taiwan, overseas students whose native languages are not Chinese mostly get trouble in learning and communicating particularly during the first year of their study. To overcome their language barrier in National Chi Nan University (NCNU), a…

  8. Standardizing Chinese Sign Language for Use in Post-Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Christina Mien-Chun; Gerner de Garcia, Barbara; Chen-Pichler, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    There are over 100 languages in China, including Chinese Sign Language. Given the large population and geographical dispersion of the country's deaf community, sign variation is to be expected. Language barriers due to lexical variation may exist for deaf college students in China, who often live outside their home regions. In presenting an…

  9. Exploring the Further Integration of Machine Translation in English-Chinese Cross Language Information Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Dan; He, Daqing

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the further integration of machine translation technologies with cross language information access in providing web users the capabilities of accessing information beyond language barriers. Machine translation and cross language information access are related technologies, and yet they have their own unique…

  10. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Issues in Second Language Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    Essays on language transfer in language learning include: excerpts from "Linguistics across Cultures" (Robert Lado); "Language Transfer" (Larry Selinker); "Goofing: An Indication of Children's Second Language Learning Strategies" (Heidi C. Dulay, Marina K. Burt); "Language Transfer and Universal Grammatical Relations" (Susan Gass); "A Role for the…

  11. Learning How to Focus on Language While Teaching Mathematics to English Language Learners: A Case Study of Courtney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chval, Kathryn B.; Pinnow, Rachel J.; Thomas, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Research in mathematics education increasingly recognizes the role of language in the education of English language learners. However, research examining the professional growth of mathematics teachers as they learn to teach English language learners is sparse. This case study addresses this issue by examining one third grade teacher as she…

  12. Language Awareness: Progress in Language Learning and Language Education, Or Reformulation of Old Ideas?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnutzmann, Claus

    1997-01-01

    Addresses two alternative questions: (1) Are there important characteristics, similarities and parallels between the various concepts of language awareness (LA) that have been unduly overlooked by the continental followers of British LA? (2) Has the term LA and the British concept behind it added a new dimension to European language…

  13. Protection against malevolent use of vehicles at Nuclear Power Plants. Vehicle barrier system selection guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Nebuda, D.T.

    1994-08-01

    This manual provides a simplified procedure for selecting land vehicle barriers that will stop the design basis vehicle threat adopted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Proper selection and construction of vehicle barriers should prevent intrusion of the design basis vehicle. In addition, vital safety related equipment should survive a design basis vehicle bomb attack when vehicle barriers are properly selected, sited, and constructed. This manual addresses passive vehicle barriers, active vehicle barriers, and site design features that can be used to reduce vehicle impact velocity.

  14. A Metadata Action Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Clancy, Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The data management problem comprises data processing and data tracking. Data processing is the creation of new data based on existing data sources. Data tracking consists of storing metadata descriptions of available data. This paper addresses the data management problem by casting it as an AI planning problem. Actions are data-processing commands, plans are dataflow programs and goals are metadata descriptions of desired data products. Data manipulation is simply plan generation and execution, and a key component of data tracking is inferring the effects of an observed plan. We introduce a new action language for data management domains, called ADILM. We discuss the connection between data processing and information integration and show how a language for the latter must be modified to support the former. The paper also discusses information gathering within a data-processing framework, and show how ADILM metadata expressions are a generalization of Local Completeness.

  15. Addressing Disparities in Stroke Prevention for Atrial Fibrillation: Educational Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Karcher, Rachel; Berman, Adam E; Gross, Hartmut; Hess, David C; Jauch, Edward C; Viser, Paul E; Solenski, Nina J; Wolf, Andrew M D

    2016-07-01

    Disparities in atrial fibrillation (AF)-related stroke and mortality persist, especially racial disparities, within the US "Stroke Belt." This study identified barriers to optimal stroke prevention to develop a framework for clinician education. A comprehensive educational needs assessment was developed focusing on clinicians within the Stroke Belt. The mixed qualitative-quantitative approach included regional surveys and one-on-one clinician interviews. Identified contributors to disparities included implicit racial biases, lack of awareness of racial disparities in AF stroke risk, and lack of effective multicultural awareness and training. Additional barriers affecting disparities included patient medical mistrust and clinician-patient communication challenges. General barriers included lack of consistency in assessing stroke and anticoagulant-related bleeding risk, underuse of standardized risk assessment tools, discomfort with novel anticoagulants, and patient education deficiencies. Effective cultural competency training is one strategy to reduce disparities in AF-related stroke and mortality by improving implicit clinician bias, addressing medical mistrust, and improving clinician-patient communication.

  16. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  17. Stability of barrier buckets with short barrier separations

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    A barrier bucket with very short or zero rf-barrier separation (relative to the barrier widths) has its synchrotron tune decreasing from a very large value towards the bucket boundary. As a result, chaotic region may form near the bucket center and extends outward under increasing modulation of rf voltage and/or rf phase. Application is made to those barrier buckets used in momentum mining at the Fermilab Recycler Ring.

  18. Chaotic correlations in barrier billiards with arbitrary barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osbaldestin, A. H.; Adamson, L. N. C.

    2013-06-01

    We study autocorrelation functions in symmetric barrier billiards for golden mean trajectories with arbitrary barriers. Renormalization analysis reveals the presence of a chaotic invariant set and thus that, for a typical barrier, there are chaotic correlations. The chaotic renormalization set is the analogue of the so-called orchid that arises in a generalized Harper equation.

  19. A systematic review of explanatory factors of barriers and facilitators to improving asthma management in South Asian children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background South Asian children with asthma are less likely to receive prescriptions and more likely to suffer uncontrolled symptoms and acute asthma admissions compared with White British children. Understanding barriers are therefore vital in addressing health inequalities. We undertook a systematic review identifying explanatory factors for barriers and facilitators to asthma management in South Asian children. South Asians were defined as individuals of Indian, Pakistani or Bangladeshi descent. Methods Data Sources - Medline, HMIC, EMBASE, ASSIA, Web of Science, BNI, CINAHL, PsycINFO, OpenSIGLE, CRD, Scopus, NHS Evidence, Cochrane Library, Campbell Collaboration, RCPCH, ATS, ERS, Asthma UK, Google Scholar & Asthma Guidelines (BTS, GINA, ATS, Monash, NAEPP, Singapore & New Zealand) to August 2013. Inclusion Criteria – Qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods research with primary focus on identifying explanations for barriers and/or facilitators to asthma management in South Asian children aged 0–18 years with diagnosed/suspected asthma and/or carers and/or healthcare professionals. Data Extraction – Three authors independently reviewed, selected & extracted eligible articles with disagreements resolved by research team discussion. Results 15 studies encompassing 25,755 children, 18,483 parents/carers and 239 healthcare professionals were included. Barriers and explanatory factors identified were: 1. Lack of asthma knowledge in families and healthcare professionals. 2. Under-use of preventer medications. 3. Non-acceptance/denial of asthma. 4. Over-reliance on Emergency Department management. 5. Communication problems. 6. Non-adherence to medication. 7. Use of complementary therapies. Little facilitators regarding asthma management were identified. Conclusions Several key issues were identified as likely to be ethnic-specific to South Asian families, rather than a reflection of minority status: impact of parental and professional knowledge and beliefs

  20. Educating patients: understanding barriers, learning styles, and teaching techniques.

    PubMed

    Beagley, Linda

    2011-10-01

    Health care delivery and education has become a challenge for providers. Nurses and other professionals are challenged daily to assure that the patient has the necessary information to make informed decisions. Patients and their families are given a multitude of information about their health and commonly must make important decisions from these facts. Obstacles that prevent easy delivery of health care information include literacy, culture, language, and physiological barriers. It is up to the nurse to assess and evaluate the patient's learning needs and readiness to learn because everyone learns differently. This article will examine how each of these barriers impact care delivery along with teaching and learning strategies will be examined.

  1. Productive reduplication in a fundamentally monosyllabic language.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, Ronnie B

    2009-01-01

    The question to be addressed in this paper is how a language which is fundamentally monosyllabic in structure can have about a dozen different reduplication types with at least eight different linguistic functions. The language under discussion, American Sign Language (ASL), is one representative of a class of languages that makes widespread use of reduplication for lexical and morphological purposes. The goal here is to present the set of phonological features that permit the productive construction of these forms and a first approximation to the feature geometry in which they participate. Reduplication forms are dependent on the event structure of the predicate and the associated aspectual modifications.

  2. Apoplastic Diffusion Barriers in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Lukas; Franke, Rochus Benni; Geldner, Niko; Reina-Pinto, José J.; Kunst, Ljerka

    2013-01-01

    During the development of Arabidopsis and other land plants, diffusion barriers are formed in the apoplast of specialized tissues within a variety of plant organs. While the cuticle of the epidermis is the primary diffusion barrier in the shoot, the Casparian strips and suberin lamellae of the endodermis and the periderm represent the diffusion barriers in the root. Different classes of molecules contribute to the formation of extracellular diffusion barriers in an organ- and tissue-specific manner. Cutin and wax are the major components of the cuticle, lignin forms the early Casparian strip, and suberin is deposited in the stage II endodermis and the periderm. The current status of our understanding of the relationships between the chemical structure, ultrastructure and physiological functions of plant diffusion barriers is discussed. Specific aspects of the synthesis of diffusion barrier components and protocols that can be used for the assessment of barrier function and important barrier properties are also presented. PMID:24465172

  3. Native North American Language Instruction Offered at Institutions of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Patricia Cahape

    This directory lists colleges and universities in the United States and Canada that offer courses in 51 Native American languages. Entries are organized under language headings and include the name and address of the institution, contact person, telephone number, fax number, and E-mail address. Language headings are Anishinabe, Apache, Arapaho,…

  4. How do Orthopaedic Surgeons Address Psychological Aspects of Illness?

    PubMed Central

    Vranceanu, Ana Maria; Beks, Reinier B.; Guitton, Thierry G.; Janssen, Stein J.; Ring, David

    2017-01-01

    Background: Orthopaedic surgeons have a pivotal role in transitioning the care of orthopedic patients from a biomedical to a biopsychosocial model. In an effort to foster this transition, we designed a study aimed to determine surgeons’ attitudes and practice of noticing, screening, discussing psychological illness with patients, as well as making referrals to address psychosocial issues in patients in need. Additionally, we asked surgeons to rank order potential barriers to and reasons for referrals to psychosocial treatment. Methods: Orthopaedic surgeons members of the Science and Variation Group and Ankle Platform (N =350) completed demographics, and a 4-part survey assessing the degree to which surgeons notice, assess, screen and refer for psychological treatments, as well ranked ordered barriers to engaging in these processes. Results: As a group surgeons were neutral to referral for psychological treatment and formal screening of psychological factors, and somewhat likely to notice and discuss psychological factors. Surgeons were more likely to refer for psychological treatment if they engaged in research, or if they reside in South America as opposed to North America. The highest ranked barriers to screening, noticing, discussing and referring for psychological treatment were lack of time, stigma and feeling uncomfortable. Conclusion: Overall surgeons are likely to notice and discuss psychological factors, but less likely to formally screen or refer for psychological treatment. Transition to biopsychosocial models should focus on problem solving these barriers by teaching surgeons communication skills to increase comfort with discussing psychoemotional factors associated with orthopedic problems. The use of empathic communication can be very helpful in normalizing the difficulty of coping with an orthopedic condition, and may facilitate referral. PMID:28271080

  5. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOEpatents

    Vance, Steven J.; Goedjen, John G.; Sabol, Stephen M.; Sloan, Kelly M.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  6. Modeling Catastrophic Barrier Island Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitley, J. W.; McNamara, D.

    2012-12-01

    Barrier islands, thin strips of sand lying parallel to the mainland coastline, along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts appear to have maintained their form for thousands of years in the face of rising sea level. The mechanisms that allow barrier islands to remain robust are transport of sediment from the ocean side of barriers to the top and backside during storms, termed island overwash, and the growth and alongshore propagation of tidal deltas near barrier island inlets. Dynamically these processes provide the necessary feedbacks to maintain a barrier island in an attractor that withstands rising sea level within a phase space of barrier island geometrical characteristics. Current barrier island configurations along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts exist among a wide range of storm climate and underlying geologic conditions and therefore the environment that forces overwash and tidal delta dynamics varies considerably. It has been suggested that barrier islands in certain locations such as those between Avon and Buxton (losing 76% of island width since 1852) and Chandeleur islands (losing 85% of its surface area since 2005) along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, respectively, may be subject to a catastrophic shift in barrier island attractor states - more numerous inlets cutting barriers in some locations and the complete disappearance of barrier islands in other locations. In contrast to common models for barrier islands that neglect storm dynamics and often only consider cross-shore response, we use an alongshore extended model for barrier island dynamics including beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms to explore the response of barrier islands to a wide range of environmental forcing. Results will be presented that show how barrier island attractor states are altered with variations in the rate of sea level rise, storminess, and underlying geology. We will

  7. Breaking the Sound Barrier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmon, Linda

    1981-01-01

    Reviews various methods of communication for hearing-impaired individuals, including American Sign Language (ASL) and a computer system which analyzes speech and flashes appropriate symbols onto a wearer's eyeglass lenses to aid in lipreading. Illustrates how an ASL sign can be changed to create a new word. (Author/JN)

  8. Breaking the Sound Barrier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tom; Boehringer, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Students in a fourth-grade class participated in a series of dynamic sound learning centers followed by a dramatic capstone event--an exploration of the amazing Trashcan Whoosh Waves. It's a notoriously difficult subject to teach, but this hands-on, exploratory approach ignited student interest in sound, promoted language acquisition, and built…

  9. Special Operations Forces Language and Culture Needs Assessment Project: Training Emphasis: Language and Culture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-25

    DATES COVERED (From - To) February 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Special Operations Forces Language and Culture Needs Assessment: Training Emphasis...Language and Culture 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N65236-08-D-6805 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) Special Operations Forces Culture and Language Office HQ USSOCOM Attn: SOKL-J7—SOFLO 7701 Tampa Point

  10. Beyond affordability: the impact of nonfinancial barriers on access for uninsured adults in three diverse communities.

    PubMed

    Kullgren, Jeffrey T; McLaughlin, Catherine G

    2010-06-01

    Most proposals to improve access for uninsured adults focus on removing financial barriers to health care. Health services researchers have long recognized, however, that access to care is a multidimensional concept consisting of both financial and nonfinancial dimensions. While financial barriers faced by those without health insurance have been well-documented, it is not known to what degree nonfinancial barriers limit access for those without coverage. In this study we sought to identify the types and frequencies of nonfinancial access barriers faced by low-income uninsured adults, as well as determine how frequently nonfinancial barriers coexist with financial access barriers in this population. We conducted a telephone survey of 1,118 low-income uninsured adults in Alameda, California, Austin, Texas, and Southern Maine who had enrolled in local access programs funded through the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Communities in Charge initiative. Financial barriers were the most often cited barrier to access in each of the three groups, though nonfinancial barriers were often cited as well. Across all three populations, one-third to one-half of respondents with financial access barriers also cited one or more nonfinancial barriers as contributing to their problems accessing health care. Our results suggest that many uninsured adults face nonfinancial health care barriers in addition to their well-documented financial challenges. Health reform efforts must address both types of barriers in order to maximally improve access for the uninsured population.

  11. Learning how to focus on language while teaching mathematics to English language learners: a case study of Courtney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chval, Kathryn B.; Pinnow, Rachel J.; Thomas, Amanda

    2015-03-01

    Research in mathematics education increasingly recognizes the role of language in the education of English language learners. However, research examining the professional growth of mathematics teachers as they learn to teach English language learners is sparse. This case study addresses this issue by examining one third grade teacher as she learned how to focus on language as she designed and taught mathematics lessons to facilitate the participation of English language learners. Data sources consist of audio recordings of interviews, lesson planning sessions, and lesson debrief sessions as well as video recordings of mathematics lessons. The results from this study demonstrate the importance of professional development that emphasizes language in the teaching of mathematics. As the teacher began to learn about the components of the intervention, she developed specialized knowledge and competencies so that she was able to address language planning and development that was necessary to successfully teach mathematics to English language learners.

  12. Can-Filled Crash Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1983-01-01

    Crash barrier composed largely of used aluminum beverage cans protects occupants of cars in collisions with poles or trees. Lightweight, can-filled barrier very effective in softening impact of an automobile in head-on and off-angle collisions. Preliminary results indicate barrier is effective in collisions up to 40 mi/h (64 km/h).

  13. Information Barriers: Identification and Seriousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, D. E.

    The project documented in this report identified barriers researchers encounter in gaining access to--i.e., identifying, acquiring, handling, and using--published information and measured the seriousness of the more significant barriers. Fifty-one barriers were identified, and a method of measuring their seriousness was developed. Thirty of the…

  14. Underground waste barrier structure

    DOEpatents

    Saha, Anuj J.; Grant, David C.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an underground waste barrier structure that consists of waste material, a first container formed of activated carbonaceous material enclosing the waste material, a second container formed of zeolite enclosing the first container, and clay covering the second container. The underground waste barrier structure is constructed by forming a recessed area within the earth, lining the recessed area with a layer of clay, lining the clay with a layer of zeolite, lining the zeolite with a layer of activated carbonaceous material, placing the waste material within the lined recessed area, forming a ceiling over the waste material of a layer of activated carbonaceous material, a layer of zeolite, and a layer of clay, the layers in the ceiling cojoining with the respective layers forming the walls of the structure, and finally, covering the ceiling with earth.

  15. Amosphous diffusion barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolawa, E.; So, F. C. T.; Nicolet, M-A.

    1986-01-01

    Amorphous W-Zr and W-N alloys were investigated as diffusion barriers in silicon metallization schemes. Data were presented showing that amorphous W-Zr crystallizes at 900 C, which is 200 C higher than amorphous W-Ni films, and that both films react with metallic overlayers at temperatures far below the crystllization temperature. Also, W-N alloys (crystalline temperature of 600 C) were successfully incorporated as a diffusion barrier in contact structures with both Al and Ag overlayers. The thermal stability of the electrical characteristics of shallow n(+)p junctions significantly improved by incorporating W-N layers in the contact system. One important fact demonstated was the critical influence of the deposition parameters during formation of these carriers.

  16. Skin Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    Like other inflammatory dermatoses, the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) has been largely attributed to abnormalities in adaptive immunity. T helper (Th) cell types 1 and 2 cell dysregulation, IgE production, mast cell hyperactivity, and dendritic cell signaling are thought to account for the chronic, pruritic, and inflammatory dermatosis that characterizes AD. Not surprisingly, therapy has been directed toward ameliorating Th2-mediated inflammation and pruritus. Here, we review emerging evidence that inflammation in AD occurs downstream to inherited and acquired insults to the barrier. Therapy based upon this new view of pathogenesis should emphasize approaches that correct the primary abnormality in barrier function, which drives downstream inflammation and allows unrestricted antigen access. PMID:18606081

  17. Breaking barriers: addressing structural obstacles to social service provision for Asian survivors of domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mihan

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have attributed the disproportionately high rate of domestic violence in Asian communities to Asian patriarchal "cultural norms" and the psychological and behavioral traits that these norms produce in individuals. This article seeks to expand the scope of domestic violence analysis beyond these individual and cultural frameworks, arguing that Asian domestic violence is also a product of larger scale, social systems of inequality. By examining the funding criteria of the Family Violence Prevention Services Administration (FVPSA) and the Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY) standard used by Robin Hood, my research shows how state and private organizations systematically devalue and underfund minority-targeted programs.

  18. Taking-On: A Grounded Theory of Addressing Barriers in Task Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austinson, Julie Ann

    2011-01-01

    This study of taking-on was conducted using classical grounded theory methodology (Glaser, 1978, 1992, 1998, 2001, 2005; Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Classical grounded theory is inductive, empirical, and naturalistic; it does not utilize manipulation or constrained time frames. Classical grounded theory is a systemic research method used to generate…

  19. Coast Guard: Continued Improvements Needed to Address Potential Barriers to Equal Employment Opportunity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    2011 to help it assess the actions it has taken to improve its provision of EEO services, including counseling and training, to USCG personnel. The...organizational structure, and replacing part-time civil rights service providers or counseling staff with full-time staff, with the intent to improve its...civilian Civil Rights Service Providers (CRSPs) provide these services in the form of EO/EEO counseling , complaint investigation/processing, and EO

  20. Absenteeism: Beyond Reporting and beyond Another Special Initiative. Addressing Barriers to Learning Vol. 21, #2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2016

    2016-01-01

    An estimated five to seven and a half million students miss 18 or more days of school each year, or nearly an entire month or more of school, which puts them at significant risk of falling behind academically and failing to graduate from high school. Every student absence jeopardizes the ability of students to succeed at school and schools to…