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Sample records for address multiple levels

  1. Activities for Differentiated Instruction Addressing All Levels of Bloom's Taxonomy and Eight Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C., Ed.; Lord, Linda Hurley, Ed.

    This manuscript contains 13 curriculum units designed to enhance differentiated instruction for learners with special needs from grades 1-12, including gifted students. It integrates Benjamin S. Bloom's levels of cognitive understanding with Howard Gardner's eight domains of intelligence to provide a framework for individualized instruction. Each…

  2. Marine and Human Systems: Addressing Multiple Scales and Multiple Stressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, E. E.; Bundy, A.; Chuenpagdee, R.; Maddison, L.; Svendsen, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research (IMBER) project aims to develop a comprehensive understanding of, and predictive capacity of ocean responses to accelerating global change and the consequent effects on the Earth System and human society. Understanding the changing ecology and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems and their sensitivity and resilience to multiple drivers, pressures and stressors is critical to developing responses that will help reduce the vulnerability of marine-dependent human communities. The cumulative pressure of anthropogenic activities on marine systems is already apparent and is projected to increase in the next decades. Policy- and decision-makers need assessments of the status and trends of marine habitats, species, and ecosystems to promote sustainable human activities in the marine environment, particularly in light of global environmental change and changing social systems and human pressures. The IMBER community recently undertook a synthesis and evaluation of approaches for ecosystem-based marine governance, integrated modeling of marine social-ecological systems, and the social and ecological consequences of changing marine ecosystems. The outcomes of this activity provide assessments of current understanding, indicate approaches needed to predict the effects of multiple stressors, at multiple scales, on marine ecosystems and dependent human populations, and highlight approaches for developing innovative societal responses to changing marine ecosystems.

  3. A single fluorophore to address multiple logic gates.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Saugata; Sil, Timir Baran; Das, Minati; Krishnamoorthy, G

    2015-09-01

    Logic gates with different radixes have been constructed using a biologically active molecule, 2-(4'-N,N-dimethylaminophenyl)imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (DMAPIP-b). Taking advantage of the multiple binding sites of the fluorophore, a series of different molecular logic gates are developed using fluorescence intensities at different wavelengths. The high emission of the molecule is drastically quenched in the presence of Fe(3+). It is regained by the addition of an equivalent amount of F(-). The fluorescence On-Off nature has been used to construct molecular full subtractor and molecular keypad lock system with Boolean logic. A ternary system is generated by considering three defined fluorescence intensities at particular wavelengths. The smooth dependency of emission intensities with analyte concentration is utilized to construct an infinite-valued fuzzy logic system. The fuzzy logic system is further coupled with a neuro-adaptation method to predict more accurately the dependency of molecular intensity on external inputs. PMID:26215476

  4. An Approach for Addressing the Multiple Testing Problem in Social Policy Impact Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.

    2009-01-01

    In social policy evaluations, the multiple testing problem occurs due to the many hypothesis tests that are typically conducted across multiple outcomes and subgroups, which can lead to spurious impact findings. This article discusses a framework for addressing this problem that balances Types I and II errors. The framework involves specifying…

  5. Addressing multiple relationships between clients and therapists in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender communities.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Laura E; Waehler, Charles A

    2005-02-01

    Therapists working in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities are likely to experience the potential to engage in multiple relationships with their clients. Currently, the American Psychological Association's (2002) ethics code and the related literature base offer minimal direct guidance to therapists practicing in LGBT communities. In this article, the authors review current literature regarding multiple relationships in psychotherapy, considering how this literature addresses issues specific to practitioners working within LGBT communities, present a case study highlighting the negotiation of a multiple relationship between a client and therapist who both identify as lesbian, and offer recommendations for practitioners working within LGBT communities. PMID:17073035

  6. Addressing the Multiplication Makes Bigger and Division Makes Smaller Misconceptions via Prediction and Clickers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Kien H.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a lesson that uses prediction items, clickers and visuals via PowerPoint slides to help prospective middle-school teachers address two common misconceptions: multiplication makes bigger and division makes smaller (MMB-DMS). Classroom research was conducted to explore the viability of such a lesson. Results show that the…

  7. Addressing the multiplication makes bigger and division makes smaller misconceptions via prediction and clickers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kien H.

    2011-12-01

    This article presents a lesson that uses prediction items, clickers and visuals via PowerPoint slides to help prospective middle-school teachers address two common misconceptions: multiplication makes bigger and division makes smaller (MMB-DMS). Classroom research was conducted to explore the viability of such a lesson. Results show that the lesson was effective in creating awareness that multiplication does not always make bigger and division does not always makes smaller, uncovering students' misconceptions, and providing opportunities for students to learn from mistakes. Students liked the activity for various reasons, such as getting to learn certain mathematical ideas, to think about the problems, to work in groups and to have fun. The lesson was implemented slightly differently in two classes. The class with an additional phase involving prediction and voting via clickers in the PowerPoint lesson showed a gain of 36 points (an effect size of 1.3 standard deviations, SDs) from the pre-test to the exit-test whereas, the comparison class showed a gain of 25 points (an effect size of 0.87 SDs). In terms of students' written responses with regards to addressing the MMB-DMS misconceptions, there was however not much difference between the two classes.

  8. Multiple views to address diversity issues: an initial dialog to advance the chiropractic profession

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Claire; Killinger, Lisa Zaynab; Christensen, Mark G.; Hyland, John K.; Mrozek, John P.; Zuker, R. Fred; Kizhakkeveettil, Anupama; Perle, Stephen M.; Oyelowo, Tolu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide expert viewpoints on the topic of diversity in the chiropractic profession, including cultural competency, diversity in the profession, educational and clinical practice strategies for addressing diversity, and workforce issues. Over the next decades, changing demographics in North America will alter how the chiropractic profession functions on many levels. As the population increases in diversity, we will need to prepare our workforce to meet the needs of future patients and society. PMID:23966884

  9. 42 CFR 82.19 - How will NIOSH address uncertainty about dose levels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... calculating probability of causation estimates at 42 CFR 81. In this way, claimants will receive the benefit... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will NIOSH address uncertainty about dose... § 82.19 How will NIOSH address uncertainty about dose levels? The estimate of each annual dose will...

  10. Addressing the Multiple Drivers of Wetland Ecosystems Degradation in Lagos, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agboola, J.; Ndimele, P. E.; Odunuga, S.; Akanni, A.; Kosemani, B.; Ahove, M.

    2015-12-01

    Several body of knowledge have noted the importance of wetland ecosystems in climate moderation, resource supply and flood risk reduction amongst others. Relevant as it may, rapidly increasing population and uncontrolled urban development poses a challenge in some regions and require understanding of the ecosystem components and drivers of change over a long period of time. Thus, the main thrust of this paper is to analyse multiple drivers of wetland ecosystems degradation in the last 30 years in the Lagos megacity using field study, desktop review, satellite data and laboratory analysis. Key drivers identified includes: conversion of wetlands to settlements and waste sink, land use planning that neglects wetland conservation and restoration, ineffective legal status for wetlands, over exploitation leading to degradation and fragmentation of wetland ecosystems governance. In stemming further loss of this vital ecosystem, this study adopted and proposed respectively, the Drivers, Pressure, State, Impact and Response (DPSIR) and Integrated Planning Approach (IPA) frameworks in analysing policy and governance issues in wetland development. These analyses figured out amongst others, strict conservation and sustainable use of wetland resources, habitat restoration, climate adaptation measures, legal protection and wetland management institution as major responses to current multiple pressures facing wetland ecosystems in Lagos. For these frameworks to be made meaningful, weak coordination among government agencies and institutional capacity in implementation and law enforcement, unsustainable resource extraction by private/business organization and issues on alternative sources of income on the part of the local communities amongst others needs to be addressed.

  11. Addressing two-level systems variably coupled to an oscillating field.

    PubMed

    Navon, Nir; Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Almog, Ido; Ozeri, Roee

    2013-08-16

    We propose a simple method to spectrally resolve an array of identical two-level systems coupled to an inhomogeneous oscillating field. The addressing protocol uses a dressing field with a spatially dependent coupling to the atoms. We validate this scheme experimentally by realizing single-spin addressing of a linear chain of trapped ions that are separated by ~3 μm, dressed by a laser field that is resonant with the micromotion sideband of a narrow optical transition. PMID:23992060

  12. Addressing Two-Level Systems Variably Coupled to an Oscillating Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navon, Nir; Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Almog, Ido; Ozeri, Roee

    2013-08-01

    We propose a simple method to spectrally resolve an array of identical two-level systems coupled to an inhomogeneous oscillating field. The addressing protocol uses a dressing field with a spatially dependent coupling to the atoms. We validate this scheme experimentally by realizing single-spin addressing of a linear chain of trapped ions that are separated by ˜3μm, dressed by a laser field that is resonant with the micromotion sideband of a narrow optical transition.

  13. Multiple Intelligence Levels of Physical Education and Sports School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekici, Summani

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the multiple intelligence levels of academies of physical education and sports students according to some demographic factors. To obtain data about multiple intelligence levels in the research, the multiple intelligence inventory, developed by Ozden (2003), was applied to a total of 1.199 students, of…

  14. Addressable single-spin control in multiple quantum dots coupled in series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    Electron spin in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) is promising building block of quantum computers for its controllability and potential scalability. Recent experiments on GaAs QDs have demonstrated necessary ingredients of universal quantum gate operations: single-spin rotations by electron spin resonance (ESR) which is virtually free from the effect of nuclear spin fluctuation, and pulsed control of two-spin entanglement. The scalability of this architecture, however, has remained to be demonstrated in the real world. In this talk, we will present our recent results on implementing single-spin-based qubits in triple, quadruple, and quintuple QDs based on a series coupled architecture defined by gate electrodes. Deterministic initialization of individual spin states and spin-state readout were performed by the pulse operation of detuning between two neighboring QDs. The spin state was coherently manipulated by ESR, where each spin in different QDs is addressed by the shift of the resonance frequency due to the inhomogeneous magnetic field induced by the micro magnet deposited on top of the QDs. Control of two-spin entanglement was also demonstrated. We will discuss key issues for implementing quantum algorithms based on three or more qubits, including the effect of a nuclear spin bath, single-shot readout fidelity, and tuning of multiple qubit devices. Our approaches to these issues will be also presented. This research is supported by Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology (FIRST) from JSPS, IARPA project ``Multi-Qubit Coherent Operations'' through Copenhagen University, and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from JSPS.

  15. Food-Based Interventions to Modify Diet Quality and Diversity to Address Multiple Micronutrient Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nair, Madhavan K; Augustine, Little Flower; Konapur, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Global data indicate a high prevalence of hidden hunger among population. Deficiencies of certain micronutrients such as folic acid, iodine, iron, and vitamin A have long lasting effects on growth and development and therefore have been a National priority from many decades. The strategy implemented so far limits to the use of supplemental sources or fortified foods in alleviating the burden of deficiencies. These approaches however undermine the food-based strategies involving dietary diversification as the long-term sustainable strategy. There is lack of understanding on the level of evidence needed to implement such strategies and the level of monitoring required for impact evaluation. Dietary diversity concerns how to ensure access for each individual to a quality and safe diet with adequate macro- and micronutrients. The key to success in using dietary diversity as a strategy to tackle hidden hunger is in integrating it with the principles of bioavailability, translated to efficient food synergies with due emphasis on food accessibility, affordability, and outdoor physical activity/life style modifications. Promoting enabling environment and sustainable agriculture is crucial for practicing dietary diversification with behavior change communication as an integral segment. It can be concluded that food-based strategies require careful understanding of the factors associated with it and moderate it to form an effective strategy for controlling multiple micronutrient deficiencies. PMID:26779472

  16. Food-Based Interventions to Modify Diet Quality and Diversity to Address Multiple Micronutrient Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Madhavan K.; Augustine, Little Flower; Konapur, Archana

    2016-01-01

    Global data indicate a high prevalence of hidden hunger among population. Deficiencies of certain micronutrients such as folic acid, iodine, iron, and vitamin A have long lasting effects on growth and development and therefore have been a National priority from many decades. The strategy implemented so far limits to the use of supplemental sources or fortified foods in alleviating the burden of deficiencies. These approaches however undermine the food-based strategies involving dietary diversification as the long-term sustainable strategy. There is lack of understanding on the level of evidence needed to implement such strategies and the level of monitoring required for impact evaluation. Dietary diversity concerns how to ensure access for each individual to a quality and safe diet with adequate macro- and micronutrients. The key to success in using dietary diversity as a strategy to tackle hidden hunger is in integrating it with the principles of bioavailability, translated to efficient food synergies with due emphasis on food accessibility, affordability, and outdoor physical activity/life style modifications. Promoting enabling environment and sustainable agriculture is crucial for practicing dietary diversification with behavior change communication as an integral segment. It can be concluded that food-based strategies require careful understanding of the factors associated with it and moderate it to form an effective strategy for controlling multiple micronutrient deficiencies. PMID:26779472

  17. A Graduate Level Course on Adolescent Suicide: Addressing Assessment, Intervention, and Postvention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floor, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent suicide is a growing phenomenon that is not adequately addressed in graduate education. Students and clinicians who experience a patient suicide respond negatively which in turn affects perceived competence. As a result, education in adolescent suicide is warranted. Therefore, this dissertation is a graduate level course on adolescent…

  18. Spatio-temporal patterns of dengue in Malaysia: combining address and sub-district level.

    PubMed

    Ling, Cheong Y; Gruebner, Oliver; Krämer, Alexander; Lakes, Tobia

    2014-11-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns of dengue risk in Malaysia were studied both at the address and the sub-district level in the province of Selangor and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur. We geocoded laboratory-confirmed dengue cases from the years 2008 to 2010 at the address level and further aggregated the cases in proportion to the population at risk at the sub-district level. Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic was applied for the investigation that identified changing spatial patterns of dengue cases at both levels. At the address level, spatio-temporal clusters of dengue cases were concentrated at the central and south-eastern part of the study area in the early part of the years studied. Analyses at the sub-district level revealed a consistent spatial clustering of a high number of cases proportional to the population at risk. Linking both levels assisted in the identification of differences and confirmed the presence of areas at high risk for dengue infection. Our results suggest that the observed dengue cases had both a spatial and a temporal epidemiological component, which needs to be acknowledged and addressed to develop efficient control measures, including spatially explicit vector control. Our findings highlight the importance of detailed geographical analysis of disease cases in heterogeneous environments with a focus on clustered populations at different spatial and temporal scales. We conclude that bringing together information on the spatio-temporal distribution of dengue cases with a deeper insight of linkages between dengue risk, climate factors and land use constitutes an important step towards the development of an effective risk management strategy. PMID:25545931

  19. Adaptation of a Counseling Intervention to Address Multiple Cancer Risk Factors among Overweight/Obese Latino Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Yessenia; Fernández, Maria E.; Strong, Larkin L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Krasny, Sarah; Hernandez Robles, Eden; Heredia, Natalia; Spears, Claire A.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Eakin, Elizabeth; Resnicow, Ken; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Wetter, David W.

    2015-01-01

    More than 60% of cancer-related deaths in the United States are attributable to tobacco use, poor nutrition, and physical inactivity, and these risk factors tend to cluster together. Thus, strategies for cancer risk reduction would benefit from addressing multiple health risk behaviors. We adapted an evidence-based intervention grounded in social…

  20. Addressing Gender-Based Violence at Schools for Learners with Intellectual Disability in Gauteng, South Africa: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phasha, T. N.; Nyokangi, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports part of the findings of the study which investigated sexual violence at two schools catering specifically for learners with mild intellectual disability in Gauteng Province. It looks particularly on participants' suggestions for addressing sexual violence in such school. A multiple case study within the qualitative research…

  1. Interactive actuation of multiple opto-thermocapillary flow-addressed bubble microrobots

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wenqi; Fan, Qihui; Ohta, Aaron T

    2014-01-01

    Opto-thermocapillary flow-addressed bubble (OFB) microrobots are a potential tool for the efficient transportation of micro-objects. This microrobot system uses light patterns to generate thermal gradients within a liquid medium, creating thermocapillary forces that actuate the bubble microrobots. An interactive control system that includes scanning mirrors and a touchscreen interface was developed to address up to ten OFB microrobots. Using this system, the parallel and cooperative transportation of 20-μm-diameter polystyrene beads was demonstrated. PMID:25678988

  2. Creating a three level building classification using topographic and address-based data for Manchester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, M.; Chen, D.

    2014-11-01

    Buildings, the basic unit of an urban landscape, host most of its socio-economic activities and play an important role in the creation of urban land-use patterns. The spatial arrangement of different building types creates varied urban land-use clusters which can provide an insight to understand the relationships between social, economic, and living spaces. The classification of such urban clusters can help in policy-making and resource management. In many countries including the UK no national-level cadastral database containing information on individual building types exists in public domain. In this paper, we present a framework for inferring functional types of buildings based on the analysis of their form (e.g. geometrical properties, such as area and perimeter, layout) and spatial relationship from large topographic and address-based GIS database. Machine learning algorithms along with exploratory spatial analysis techniques are used to create the classification rules. The classification is extended to two further levels based on the functions (use) of buildings derived from address-based data. The developed methodology was applied to the Manchester metropolitan area using the Ordnance Survey's MasterMap®, a large-scale topographic and address-based data available for the UK.

  3. Genetics of multiple myeloma: another heterogeneity level?

    PubMed Central

    Corre, Jill; Munshi, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Our knowledge of myeloma genetics remained limited and lagged behind many other hematologic malignancies because of the inherent difficulties in generating metaphases within the malignant plasma cell clone. With the development of molecular techniques (microarrays and next-generation sequencing), our understanding has been highly improved in the past 5 years. These studies have not only confirmed the prevalence of wide heterogeneity in myeloma at the molecular level, but has also provided a much clearer picture of the disease pathogenesis and progression. Whether these data will enable improvements in the therapeutic approach is still a matter of debate. The next improvement will come from detailed analyses of these molecular features to try to move from a treatment fitted to every patient to individualized therapies, taking into account the complexity of the chromosomal changes, the mutation spectrum, and subclonality evolution. PMID:25628468

  4. Risk newsboy: approach for addressing uncertainty in developing action levels and cleanup limits

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Roger; MacDonell, Margaret

    2007-07-01

    Site cleanup decisions involve developing action levels and residual limits for key contaminants, to assure health protection during the cleanup period and into the long term. Uncertainty is inherent in the toxicity information used to define these levels, based on incomplete scientific knowledge regarding dose-response relationships across various hazards and exposures at environmentally relevant levels. This problem can be addressed by applying principles used to manage uncertainty in operations research, as illustrated by the newsboy dilemma. Each day a newsboy must balance the risk of buying more papers than he can sell against the risk of not buying enough. Setting action levels and cleanup limits involves a similar concept of balancing and distributing risks and benefits in the face of uncertainty. The newsboy approach can be applied to develop health-based target concentrations for both radiological and chemical contaminants, with stakeholder input being crucial to assessing 'regret' levels. Associated tools include structured expert judgment elicitation to quantify uncertainty in the dose-response relationship, and mathematical techniques such as probabilistic inversion and iterative proportional fitting. (authors)

  5. Exploring Multiple Intelligences Theory at a Community College Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkemeier, Ginny Y. Hew

    Discusses multiple intelligence (a pluralized approach to understanding the intellect) teaching and learning of science at the higher education level, specifically within community colleges. The purpose of this study was four-fold. The first purpose was to investigate adult learning through Multiple Intelligence Theory (MI) at the community…

  6. An Adaptation Strategy to Address Sea Level Rise Along Coastal Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    Historic tidal records indicate that mean sea level in San Francisco Bay has risen at a rate of about 2 mm/yr over the past 100 years. Over the past 20 years, the annual rate has accelerated to about 3 mm/yr. Recent climate change studies related to greenhouse gas emissions indicate that sea levels could rise much faster than even this rate, which would have a significant effect on coastal communities. Several communities in the San Francisco Bay area, which were not mapped to be within a flood zone by FEMA, are now prone to flooding due to rising sea levels. There is a significant amount of uncertainty associated with quantifying the rate of sea level change because climate change science is still evolving and feedback loops such as temperature-ice melt, temperature-sea levels, and CO2-temperature are still under investigation. Therefore, the traditional engineering approach to solving a problem, which includes defining the problem, assessing existing conditions, analyzing data, and developing solutions is difficult when addressing climate change induced sea level change. This paper describes work completed for two major proposed communities in the City of San Francisco. Peer-reviewed literature included the body of work by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, US federal and state agencies, and scientific papers by academia. Rates of sea level rise were statistically analyzed using the end values and start or end rates specified in the studies. Probabilistic analyses of extreme values using Generalized Extreme Value Distributions (GEVD) and the Maximum Likelihood Approach were completed to develop extreme values for water levels including the effects of astronomical tides, storm events, ocean swell events, and tsunami events. These values were subsequently combined with sea level rise estimates, and various scenarios of required coastal improvements were developed for discussions with stakeholders and project developers. Based on the analysis and

  7. Multiple-scattering lidar from both sides of the clouds: Addressing internal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A. B.

    2008-07-01

    Multiple-scattering (a.k.a. "off-beam") lidar is an emerging technology in cloud remote sensing. It delivers, as in classic lidar ceilometry, cloud base altitude but also the cloud's physical thickness H as well as its optical depth τ (averaged over horizontal scales on the order of H). The value of τ in fact must lie beyond the range accessible by standard (i.e., single-scattering/on-beam) lidar profiling, namely, up to 3-4. A refined diffusion-theoretical model is presented here for signals from multiple-scattering lidar and applied, on the one hand, to retrieval algorithm development and, on the other hand, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) estimation. SNRs are computed for LANL's ground-based Wide-Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL) system and NASA's space-based Lidar-In-space Technology Experiment (LITE). The refinements are threefold and all about internal structure. First, the laser source is modeled as a collimated anisotropic exponentially distributed internal source rather than an isotropic point source at the cloud boundary; this opens the possibility of using δ-Eddington rescaling to capture the forward peaked phase function more effectively within the diffusion framework. Second, stratification of the scattering coefficient is modeled as an increasing function of distance to cloud base; this strongly differentiates the signals when observed from above or from below. Finally, Cairns' rescaling is applied to this conservative scattering problem to account for the systematic effects of random (turbulence-driven) internal variability at scales up to a few mean free paths.

  8. Investigating Rocks and Sand: Addressing Multiple Learning Styles through an Inquiry-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogu, Uchenna; Schmidt, Suzie Reynard

    2009-01-01

    The authors demonstrate how to tailor curriculum to support the varied interests, abilities, and talents of the children in a kindergarten class. Through words and photographs, they describe an in-depth study of rocks and sand, a topic of great interest to the children. The teachers posed open-ended questions that fostered high-level discussions.…

  9. Experimental demonstration of a single-carrier frequency division multiple address based PON (SCFDMA-PON) architecture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Li, Juhao; Zhang, Fan; He, Yongqi; Wu, Hequan; Chen, Zhangyuan

    2010-11-22

    We introduce a novel architecture for next generation passive optical network (PON) base on the Single-carrier Frequency Division Multiple Address (SC-FDMA) technique. Both downstream and upstream SCFDMA-PON transmissions (5 Gb/s total, 2.5 Gb/s for each user) are experimentally demonstrated over 22.2 km standard single mode fiber and an additional simulated 1:32 optical splitter. We also test the tolerance range of the synchronization error and prove it matches the cyclic prefix period in our scheme, which means the packet transmission accuracy from different optical network units can be relaxed in the upstream. PMID:21164802

  10. Describing multiple levels of abstraction in the metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Mavrovouniotis, M.L.

    1994-12-31

    We discuss some central issues that arise in the computer representation of the metabolism and its subsystems. We provide a framework for the representation of metabolites and bioreactions at multiple levels of detail. The framework is based on defining an explicit linear mapping of metabolites and reactions from one level of detail to another. A simple reaction mechanism serves as an illustration and shows the emergence of the concept of a catalyst from metabolic abstraction levels.

  11. Adaptation of a counseling intervention to address multiple cancer risk factors among overweight/obese Latino smokers.

    PubMed

    Castro, Yessenia; Fernández, Maria E; Strong, Larkin L; Stewart, Diana W; Krasny, Sarah; Hernandez Robles, Eden; Heredia, Natalia; Spears, Claire A; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Eakin, Elizabeth; Resnicow, Ken; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Wetter, David W

    2015-02-01

    More than 60% of cancer-related deaths in the United States are attributable to tobacco use, poor nutrition, and physical inactivity, and these risk factors tend to cluster together. Thus, strategies for cancer risk reduction would benefit from addressing multiple health risk behaviors. We adapted an evidence-based intervention grounded in social cognitive theory and principles of motivational interviewing originally developed for smoking cessation to also address physical activity and fruit/vegetable consumption among Latinos exhibiting multiple health risk behaviors. Literature reviews, focus groups, expert consultation, pretesting, and pilot testing were used to inform adaptation decisions. We identified common mechanisms underlying change in smoking, physical activity, and diet used as treatment targets; identified practical models of patient-centered cross-cultural service provision; and identified that family preferences and support as particularly strong concerns among the priority population. Adaptations made to the original intervention are described. The current study is a practical example of how an intervention can be adapted to maximize relevance and acceptability and also maintain the core elements of the original evidence-based intervention. The intervention has significant potential to influence cancer prevention efforts among Latinos in the United States and is being evaluated in a sample of 400 Latino overweight/obese smokers. PMID:25527143

  12. Adaptation of a Counseling Intervention to Address Multiple Cancer Risk Factors Among Overweight/Obese Latino Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Yessenia; Fernández, Maria E.; Strong, Larkin L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Krasny, Sarah; Robles, Eden Hernandez; Heredia, Natalia; Spears, Claire A.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Eakin, Elizabeth; Resnicow, Ken; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Wetter, David W.

    2015-01-01

    More than 60% of cancer-related deaths in the United States are attributable to tobacco use, poor nutrition, and physical inactivity, and these risk factors tend to cluster together. Thus, strategies for cancer risk reduction would benefit from addressing multiple health risk behaviors. We adapted an evidence-based intervention grounded in social cognitive theory and principles of motivational interviewing originally developed for smoking cessation to also address physical activity and fruit/vegetable consumption among Latinos exhibiting multiple health risk behaviors. Literature reviews, focus groups, expert consultation, pretesting, and pilot testing were used to inform adaptation decisions. We identified common mechanisms underlying change in smoking, physical activity, and diet used as treatment targets; identified practical models of patient-centered cross-cultural service provision; and identified that family preferences and support as particularly strong concerns among the priority population. Adaptations made to the original intervention are described. The current study is a practical example of how an intervention can be adapted to maximize relevance and acceptability and also maintain the core elements of the original evidence-based intervention. The intervention has significant potential to influence cancer prevention efforts among Latinos in the United States and is being evaluated in a sample of 400 Latino overweight/obese smokers. PMID:25527143

  13. A Comparison of Item-Level and Scale-Level Multiple Imputation for Questionnaire Batteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottschall, Amanda C.; West, Stephen G.; Enders, Craig K.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral science researchers routinely use scale scores that sum or average a set of questionnaire items to address their substantive questions. A researcher applying multiple imputation to incomplete questionnaire data can either impute the incomplete items prior to computing scale scores or impute the scale scores directly from other scale…

  14. Wait-Time and Multiple Representation Levels in Chemistry Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Winnie Sim Siew; Arshad, Mohammad Yusof

    2014-01-01

    Wait-time is an important aspect in a teaching and learning process, especially after the teacher has posed questions to students, as it is one of the factors in determining quality of students' responses. This article describes the practices of wait-time one after teacher's questions at multiple representation levels among twenty three chemistry…

  15. Superradiance in spin-j particles: Effects of multiple levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, G.-D.; Yelin, S. F.

    2012-03-01

    We study the superradiance dynamics in a dense system of atoms each of which can be generally a spin-j particle, with j an arbitrary half-integer. We generalize Dicke's superradiance point of view to multiple-level systems and compare the results based on a novel approach we developed previously [Lin and Yelin, Adv. Atom. Mol. Opt. Phys. 61, in press (2012)]. Using this formalism we derive an effective two-body description that shows cooperative and collective effects for spin-j particles, taking into account the coherence of transitions between different atomic levels. We find that superradiance, which is well known as a many-body phenomenon, can also be modified by multiple-level effects. We also discuss the feasibility and propose that our approach can be applied to polar molecules, for their vibrational states have a multilevel structure which is partially harmonic.

  16. Efficient bit-level, word-level, and block-level systolic arrays for matrix-matrix multiplication

    SciTech Connect

    De Groot, A.J.; Parker, S.R.; Johansson, E.M.

    1988-02-01

    This paper investigates the mapping of matrix-matrix multiplication onto bit level, word level and block level systolic arrays. Highly efficient and regular bit level, word level and block level systolic arrays are described. Efficiencies of many block level and word level systolic arrays reported in this paper approach 100/percent/, three times the efficiencies of systolic arrays reported previously. Bit level systolic arrays reported in this paper require less computation time than do bit level systolic arrays reported previously and, for special matrices, require less cells. Execution times of block level systolic algorithms on sixty-four-element multiprocessor agree with theory.

  17. Views of Physics Teachers on How to Address the Declining Enrolment in Physics at the University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oon, Pey-Tee; Subramaniam, R.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers' views are worth hearing in order to get ideas on how to address the trend of declining enrolment in physics at the university level, which is regarded as a global problem. This study explores physics teachers' views on how to encourage more students to study physics at the university level. A sample of 166 physics teachers in Singapore…

  18. Addressing Dropout Related Factors at the Local Level: Recommendations for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sandra Covington

    2008-01-01

    As educators and practitioners continue to seek effective interventions to prevent dropout, they must focus on identifying, monitoring, and addressing risk factors that are influenced by teachers (e.g., academic performance, peer and adult interactions, attendance, and behavior). As a result, teachers' roles in dropout prevention are critical.…

  19. Collective cavity quantum electrodynamics with multiple atomic levels

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Kyle J.; Baden, Markus P.; Barrett, Murray D.

    2011-09-15

    We study the transmission spectra of ultracold rubidium atoms coupled to a high-finesse optical cavity. Under weak probing with {pi}-polarized light, the linear response of the system is that of a collective spin with multiple levels coupled to a single mode of the cavity. By varying the atom number, we change the collective coupling of the system. We observe the change in transmission spectra when going from a regime where the collective coupling is much smaller than the separation of the atomic levels to a regime where both are of comparable size. The observations are in good agreement with a reduced model we developed for our system.

  20. A multiple index integrating different levels of organization.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Rui; Hughes, Samantha; Coimbra, Ana; Monteiro, Sandra; Pereira, Vítor; Lopes, Marisa; Pereira, Sandra; Pinto, Ana; Sampaio, Ana; Santos, Cátia; Carrola, João; de Jesus, Joaquim; Varandas, Simone

    2016-10-01

    Many methods in freshwater biomonitoring tend to be restricted to a few levels of biological organization, limiting the potential spectrum of measurable of cause-effect responses to different anthropogenic impacts. We combined distinct organisational levels, covering biological biomarkers (histopathological and biochemical reactions in liver and fish gills), community based bioindicators (fish guilds, invertebrate metrics/traits and chironomid pupal exuviae) and ecosystem functional indicators (decomposition rates) to assess ecological status at designated Water Framework Directive monitoring sites, covering a gradient of human impact across several rivers in northern Portugal. We used Random Forest to rank the variables that contributed more significantly to successfully predict the different classes of ecological status and also to provide specific cut levels to discriminate each WFD class based on reference condition. A total of 59 Biological Quality Elements and functional indicators were determined using this procedure and subsequently applied to develop the integrated Multiple Ecological Level Index (MELI Index), a potentially powerful bioassessment tool. PMID:27344015

  1. Scalable Microwave Addressing of Trapped Ion Qubits at Fault-tolerant Error Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado Lopes Aude Craik, Diana; Linke, Norbert; Allcock, David; Harty, Thomas; Sepiol, Martin; Stacey, Derek; Steane, Andrew; Lucas, David

    2015-05-01

    We present results obtained with a two-zone, scalable prototype surface-electrode ion trap for storing and individually addressing memory qubits. The trap has 4 integrated microwave electrodes per zone, designed to provide enough degrees of freedom for independent, parallel control of the microwave field amplitude, phase and polarization at each ion. In a demonstration experiment, we use two trap electrodes, one in each zone, to drive Rabi flops in a Calcium-43 ion trapped in the zone we wish to address, while nulling the microwave field in the neighbor zone. We measure Rabi frequency ratios between the addressed and nulled zones of up to 1400, implying that spin-flip errors of order 10-6 are achievable. We also demonstrate polarization control of the microwave field by selectively driving one of two near-degenerate transitions out of the qubit states, one of which is driven by σ+ polarization and the other by σ- polarization. We null the σ+ component of the microwave field at the ion and measure a Rabi frequency ratio of ~ 350 between the σ- and σ+ transitions. Finally, a new design concept for scalable microwave surface-electrode ion traps is presented and progress on the next-generation prototype is reported. This work is supported by the US Army Research Office, EPSRC (UK) and the UK National Quantum Technologies Programme.

  2. Use of information visualization methods eliminating cross talk in multiple sensing units investigated for a light-addressable potentiometric sensor.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, José R; Maki, Rafael M; Paulovich, Fernando V; Werner, Carl F; Poghossian, Arshak; de Oliveira, Maria C F; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Schöning, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The integration of nanostructured films containing biomolecules and silicon-based technologies is a promising direction for reaching miniaturized biosensors that exhibit high sensitivity and selectivity. A challenge, however, is to avoid cross talk among sensing units in an array with multiple sensors located on a small area. In this letter, we describe an array of 16 sensing units of a light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS), which was made with layer-by-layer (LbL) films of a poly(amidomine) dendrimer (PAMAM) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), coated with a layer of the enzyme penicillinase. A visual inspection of the data from constant-current measurements with liquid samples containing distinct concentrations of penicillin, glucose, or a buffer indicated a possible cross talk between units that contained penicillinase and those that did not. With the use of multidimensional data projection techniques, normally employed in information visualization methods, we managed to distinguish the results from the modified LAPS, even in cases where the units were adjacent to each other. Furthermore, the plots generated with the interactive document map (IDMAP) projection technique enabled the distinction of the different concentrations of penicillin, from 5 mmol L(-1) down to 0.5 mmol L(-1). Data visualization also confirmed the enhanced performance of the sensing units containing carbon nanotubes, consistent with the analysis of results for LAPS sensors. The use of visual analytics, as with projection methods, may be essential to handle a large amount of data generated in multiple sensor arrays to achieve high performance in miniaturized systems. PMID:20041720

  3. Using Design-Based Latent Growth Curve Modeling with Cluster-Level Predictor to Address Dependency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jiun-Yu; Kwok, Oi-Man; Willson, Victor L.

    2014-01-01

    The authors compared the effects of using the true Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Model (MLGCM) with single-level regular and design-based Latent Growth Curve Models (LGCM) with or without the higher-level predictor on various criterion variables for multilevel longitudinal data. They found that random effect estimates were biased when the…

  4. Multiple levels of control in the Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Bugg, Julie M; Jacoby, Larry L; Toth, Jeffrey P

    2008-12-01

    Multiple levels of control may be used in service of reducing Stroop interference. One is list-wide, whereby interference is reduced strategically in lists that include disproportionately more incongruent trials. A second, item-specific control is observed when proportion congruence is manipulated at the level of items. Item-specific control reduces interference for mostly incongruent relative to mostly congruent items. First, we show that item-specific control may drive both list-wide and item-specific proportion congruence effects (Experiment 1). We then show that item-specific control affects Stroop interference similarly when a single feature (a word) as opposed to a feature combination (a word+font type) signals proportion congruence (Experiment 2). Although this suggests that font type offers little advantage for controlling Stroop interference beyond the word, a novel, font-specific proportion congruence effect is observed in Experiment 3, indicating that font type can be used to control interference. These findings support the idea that multiple levels of control are used in reducing Stroop interference. PMID:19015507

  5. Physics of multiple level hairpin vortex structures in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, YiQian; Al-Dujaly, Hassan; Yan, YongHua; Zhao, Ning; Liu, ChaoQun

    2016-02-01

    Previous experimental and numerical studies have revealed that the hairpin vortex is a basic flow element of transitional boundary layer. The hairpin vortex is believed to have legs, necks and a ring head. Based on our DNS study, the legs and the ring head are generated separately by different mechanisms. The legs function like an engine to generate low speed zones by rotation, create shear layers with surrounding high speed neighbor fluids, and further cause vortex ring formation through shear layer instability. In addition, the ring head is Ω-shaped and separated from quasi-streamwise legs from the beginning. Contrary to the classical concept of "vortex breakdown", we believe transition from laminar flow to turbulence is a "buildup" process of multiple level vortical structures. The vortex rings of first level hairpins are mostly responsible for positive spikes, which cause new vorticity rollup, second level vortex leg formation and finally smaller second level vortex ring generation. The third and lower level vortices are generated following the same mechanism. In this paper, the physical process from Λ-vortex to multi-level hairpin vortices is described in detail.

  6. Optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels for multiple health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency has harmful effects on health and that recent vitamin D intake recommendations may be associated with better health outcomes. In this chapter, evidence is summarized from different studies that evaluate threshold levels for serum 25(OH)D levels in relation to bone mineral density (BMD), lower extremity function, dental health, risk of falls, fractures, cancer prevention, incident hypertension and mortality. For all endpoints, levels in the deficient range (< 50 nmol/l; < 20 ng/ml) are associated with no benefit or adverse effects, while the most advantageous serum levels for 25(OH)D appeared to be close to 75 nmol/l (30 ng/ml). An intake of 800 IU (20 microg) of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) per day for all adults may bring 97% of the population to level of at least 50 nmol/l and about 50% up to 75 nmol/l. Thus, higher doses of vitamin D than currently recommended are needed to bring most individuals to75 nmol/l. While estimates suggest that 1600 to 2000 IU vitamin D3 per day may successfully and safely achieve this goal, the implications of higher doses for the total adult population need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:25207384

  7. Addressing astronomy misconceptions and achieving national science standards utilizing aspects of multiple intelligences theory in the classroom and the planetarium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrazine, Angela Renee

    The purpose of this study was to incorporate multiple intelligences techniques in both a classroom and planetarium setting to create a significant increase in student learning about the moon and lunar phases. Utilizing a free-response questionnaire and a 25 item multiple choice pre-test/post-test design, this study identified middle school students' misconceptions and measured increases in student learning about the moon and lunar phases. The study spanned two semesters and contained six treatment groups which consisted of both single and multiple interventions. One group only attended the planetarium program. Two groups attended one of two classes a week prior to the planetarium program, and two groups attended one of two classes a week after the planetarium program. The most rigorous treatment group attended a class both a week before and after the planetarium program. Utilizing Rasch analysis techniques and parametric statistical tests, all six groups exhibited statistically significant gains in knowledge at the 0.05 level. There were no significant differences between students who attended only a planetarium program versus a single classroom program. Also, subjects who attended either a pre-planetarium class or a post- planetarium class did not show a statistically significant gain over the planetarium only situation. Equivalent effects on student learning were exhibited by the pre-planetarium class groups and post-planetarium class groups. Therefore, it was determined that the placement of the second intervention does not have a significant impact on student learning. However, a decrease in learning was observed with the addition of a third intervention. Further instruction and testing appeared to hinder student learning. This is perhaps an effect of subject fatigue.

  8. What Learning Environments Best Address 21st-Century Students' Perceived Needs at the Secondary Level of Instruction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemley, J. Brett; Schumacher, Gary; Vesey, Winona

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of a recent study was to determine what learning environments best address the needs of 21st-century students at the secondary level. This study concluded that the presence of a positive 21st-century learning environment is related to student satisfaction and student-teacher relationships. While the majority of the literature on…

  9. Emergy evaluation of contrasting dairy systems at multiple levels.

    PubMed

    Vigne, Mathieu; Peyraud, Jean-Louis; Lecomte, Philippe; Corson, Michael S; Wilfart, Aurélie

    2013-11-15

    Emergy accounting (EmA) was applied to a range of dairy systems, from low-input smallholder systems in South Mali (SM), to intermediate-input systems in two regions of France, Poitou-Charentes (PC) and Bretagne (BR), to high-input systems on Reunion Island (RI). These systems were studied at three different levels: whole-farm (dairy system and cropping system), dairy-system (dairy herd and forage land), and herd (animals only). Dairy farms in SM used the lowest total emergy at all levels and was the highest user of renewable resources. Despite the low quality of resources consumed (crop residues and natural pasture), efficiency of their use was similar to that of industrialised inputs by intensive systems in RI, PC and BR. In addition, among the systems studied, SM dairy farms lay closest to environmental sustainability, contradicting the usual image of high environmental impact of cattle production in developing countries. EmA also revealed characteristics of the three intensive systems. Systems from RI and PC had lower resource transformation efficiency and higher environmental impacts than those from BR, due mainly to feeding strategies that differed due to differing socio-climatic constraints. Application of EmA at multiple levels revealed the importance of a multi-level analysis. While the whole-farm level assesses the overall contribution of the system to its environment, the dairy-system level is suitable for comparison of multi-product systems. In contrast, the herd level focuses on herd management and bypasses debates about definition of system boundaries by excluding land management. Combining all levels highlights the contribution of livestock to the global agricultural system and identifies inefficiencies and influences of system components on the environment. PMID:23792889

  10. Decreased Coenzyme Q10 Levels in Multiple System Atrophy Cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Barca, Emanuele; Kleiner, Giulio; Tang, Guomei; Ziosi, Marcello; Tadesse, Saba; Masliah, Eliezer; Louis, Elan D; Faust, Phyllis; Kang, Un J; Torres, Jose; Cortes, Etty P; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul G; Kuo, Sheng-Han; Quinzii, Catarina M

    2016-07-01

    In familial and sporadic multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients, deficiency of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has been associated with mutations in COQ2, which encodes the second enzyme in the CoQ10 biosynthetic pathway. Cerebellar ataxia is the most common presentation of CoQ10 deficiency, suggesting that the cerebellum might be selectively vulnerable to low levels of CoQ10 To investigate whether CoQ10 deficiency represents a common feature in the brains of MSA patients independent of the presence of COQ2 mutations, we studied CoQ10 levels in postmortem brains of 12 MSA, 9 Parkinson disease (PD), 9 essential tremor (ET) patients, and 12 controls. We also assessed mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activities, oxidative stress, mitochondrial mass, and levels of enzymes involved in CoQ biosynthesis. Our studies revealed CoQ10 deficiency in MSA cerebellum, which was associated with impaired CoQ biosynthesis and increased oxidative stress in the absence of COQ2 mutations. The levels of CoQ10 in the cerebella of ET and PD patients were comparable or higher than in controls. These findings suggest that CoQ10 deficiency may contribute to the pathogenesis of MSA. Because no disease modifying therapies are currently available, increasing CoQ10 levels by supplementation or upregulation of its biosynthesis may represent a novel treatment strategy for MSA patients. PMID:27235405

  11. Multiple metals predict prolactin and thyrotropin (TSH) levels in men

    SciTech Connect

    Meeker, John D.; Rossano, Mary G.; Protas, Bridget; Diamond, Michael P.; Puscheck, Elizabeth; Daly, Douglas; Paneth, Nigel; Wirth, Julia J.

    2009-10-15

    Exposure to a number of metals can affect neuroendocrine and thyroid signaling, which can result in adverse effects on development, behavior, metabolism, reproduction, and other functions. The present study assessed the relationship between metal concentrations in blood and serum prolactin (PRL) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels, markers of dopaminergic, and thyroid function, respectively, among men participating in a study of environmental influences on male reproductive health. Blood samples from 219 men were analyzed for concentrations of 11 metals and serum levels of PRL and TSH. In multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, BMI and smoking, PRL was inversely associated with arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc, but positively associated with chromium. Several of these associations (Cd, Pb, Mo) are consistent with limited studies in humans or animals, and a number of the relationships (Cr, Cu, Pb, Mo) remained when additionally considering multiple metals in the model. Lead and copper were associated with non-monotonic decrease in TSH, while arsenic was associated with a dose-dependent increase in TSH. For arsenic these findings were consistent with recent experimental studies where arsenic inhibited enzymes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis and signaling. More research is needed for a better understanding of the role of metals in neuroendocrine and thyroid function and related health implications.

  12. Addressing Item-Level Missing Data: A Comparison of Proration and Full Information Maximum Likelihood Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Gina L.; Enders, Craig K.; Ruehlman, Linda S.

    2015-01-01

    Often when participants have missing scores on one or more of the items comprising a scale, researchers compute prorated scale scores by averaging the available items. Methodologists have cautioned that proration may make strict assumptions about the mean and covariance structures of the items comprising the scale (Schafer & Graham, 2002; Graham, 2009; Enders, 2010). We investigated proration empirically and found that it resulted in bias even under a missing completely at random (MCAR) mechanism. To encourage researchers to forgo proration, we describe an FIML approach to item-level missing data handling that mitigates the loss in power due to missing scale scores and utilizes the available item-level data without altering the substantive analysis. Specifically, we propose treating the scale score as missing whenever one or more of the items are missing and incorporating items as auxiliary variables. Our simulations suggest that item-level missing data handling drastically increases power relative to scale-level missing data handling. These results have important practical implications, especially when recruiting more participants is prohibitively difficult or expensive. Finally, we illustrate the proposed method with data from an online chronic pain management program. PMID:26610249

  13. Addressing Item-Level Missing Data: A Comparison of Proration and Full Information Maximum Likelihood Estimation.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Gina L; Enders, Craig K; Ruehlman, Linda S

    2015-01-01

    Often when participants have missing scores on one or more of the items comprising a scale, researchers compute prorated scale scores by averaging the available items. Methodologists have cautioned that proration may make strict assumptions about the mean and covariance structures of the items comprising the scale (Schafer & Graham, 2002 ; Graham, 2009 ; Enders, 2010 ). We investigated proration empirically and found that it resulted in bias even under a missing completely at random (MCAR) mechanism. To encourage researchers to forgo proration, we describe a full information maximum likelihood (FIML) approach to item-level missing data handling that mitigates the loss in power due to missing scale scores and utilizes the available item-level data without altering the substantive analysis. Specifically, we propose treating the scale score as missing whenever one or more of the items are missing and incorporating items as auxiliary variables. Our simulations suggest that item-level missing data handling drastically increases power relative to scale-level missing data handling. These results have important practical implications, especially when recruiting more participants is prohibitively difficult or expensive. Finally, we illustrate the proposed method with data from an online chronic pain management program. PMID:26610249

  14. Conceptual framework for indexing visual information at multiple levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaimes, Alejandro; Chang, Shih-Fu

    1999-12-01

    In this paper, we present a conceptual framework for indexing different aspects of visual information. Our framework unifies concepts from this literature in diverse fields such as cognitive psychology, library sciences, art, and the more recent content-based retrieval. We present multiple level structures for visual and non-visual and non- visual information. The ten-level visual structure presented provides a systematic way of indexing images based on syntax and semantics, and includes distinctions between general concept and visual concept. We define different types of relations at different levels of the visual structure, and also use a semantic information table to summarize important aspects related to an image. While the focus is on the development of a conceptual indexing structure, our aim is also to bring together the knowledge from various fields, unifying the issues that should be considered when building a digital image library. Our analysis stresses the limitations of state of the art content-based retrieval systems and suggests areas in which improvements are necessary.

  15. Exceptionally high levels of multiple mating in an army ant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, A. Jay; Franks, Nigel R.; Powell, Scott; Edwards, Keith J.

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, although there are notable exceptions. Competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of high levels of multiple mating, but this issue is far from resolved. Here we use microsatellites to investigate mating frequency in the army ant Eciton burchellii and show that queens mate with an exceptionally large number of males, eclipsing all but one other social insect species for which data are available. In addition we present evidence that suggests that mating is serial, continuing throughout the lifetime of the queen. This is the first demonstration of serial mating among social hymenoptera. We propose that high paternity within colonies is most likely to have evolved to increase genetic diversity and to counter high pathogen and parasite loads.

  16. Multiple Level Crowding: Crowding at the Object Parts Level and at the Object Configural level.

    PubMed

    Kimchi, Ruth; Pirkner, Yossef

    2015-01-01

    In crowding, identification of a peripheral target in the presence of nearby flankers is worse than when the target appears alone. Prevailing theories hold that crowding occurs because of integration or "pooling" of low-level features at a single, relatively early stage of visual processing. Recent studies suggest that crowding can occur also between high-level object representations. The most relevant findings come from studies with faces and may be specific to faces. We examined whether crowding can occur at the object configural level in addition to part-level crowding, using nonface objects. Target (a disconnected square or diamond made of four elements) identification was measured at varying eccentricities. The flankers were similar either to the target parts or to the target configuration. The results showed crowding in both cases: Flankers interfered with target identification such that identification accuracy decreased with an increase in eccentricity, and no interference was observed at the fovea. Crowding by object parts, however, was weaker and had smaller spatial extent than crowding by object configurations; we related this finding to the relationship between crowding and perceptual organization. These results provide strong evidence that crowding occurs not only between object parts but also between configural representations of objects. PMID:26562896

  17. Exploring multiple intelligences theory at a community college level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkemeier, Ginny Y. Hew

    The publication of "Frames of mind: The theory in practice", (Gardner, 1983) has been used by educators in a variety of ways to make teaching and learning more meaningful. However, little attention has been focused on the MI teaching and learning of science at the higher education level. Consequently, the purpose of this study was four fold. The first purpose was to investigate adult learning through Multiple Intelligence Theory (MI) at the community college level. The second purpose was to determine where there were any differences among students in their perceived MI with regard to age and gender. The third purpose was to investigate the relationship between perceived and tested MI strength with regard to science and non-science courses. The fourth purpose was to determine which MI teaching value relates best with science and non-science courses. Study participants were enrolled in science courses from a Midwestern community college, Ozarks Technical Community College (OTC). The research methodology of this research study consisted of a combination of quantitative analysis; using an inventory and qualitative analysis; through group interviews. Many positive outcomes resulted from the study in areas such as the relationships between tested MI and perceived MI, student learning in science and non-science courses, and their relationships to age and gender. This study suggested the need for a variety of education and curriculum reform that should start with students' attitudes instead of classroom instruction or methods of teaching.

  18. Opportunity, risk, and success recognizing, addressing, and balancing multiple factors crucial to the success of a project management system deployed to support multi-lateral decommissioning programs

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, Greg; Longsworth, Paul

    2007-07-01

    This paper addresses the factors involved in effectively implementing a world-class program/project management information system funded by multiple nations. Along with many other benefits, investing in and utilizing such systems improves delivery and drive accountability for major expenditures. However, there are an equally large number of impediments to developing and using such systems. To be successful, the process requires a dynamic combining of elements and strategic sequencing of initiatives. While program/project-management systems involve information technologies, software and hardware, they represent only one element of the overall system.. Technology, process, people and knowledge must all be integrated and working in concert with one another to assure a fully capable system. Major system implementations occur infrequently, and frequently miss established targets in relatively small organizations (with the risk increasing with greater complexity). The European Bank of Reconstruction (EBRD) is midway through just such an implementation. The EBRD is using funds from numerous donor countries to sponsor development of an overarching program management system. The system will provide the Russian Federation with the tools to effectively manage prioritizing, planning, and physically decommissioning assets{sub i}n northwest Russia to mitigate risks associated the Soviet era nuclear submarine program. Project-management delivery using world-class techniques supported by aligned systems has been proven to increase the probability of delivering on-time and on-budget, assuring those funding such programs optimum value for money. However, systems deployed to manage multi-laterally funded projects must be developed with appropriate levels of consideration given to unique aspects such as: accommodation of existing project management methods, consideration for differences is management structures and organizational behaviors, incorporation of unique strengths, and

  19. Visualizing Tensor Normal Distributions at Multiple Levels of Detail.

    PubMed

    Abbasloo, Amin; Wiens, Vitalis; Hermann, Max; Schultz, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Despite the widely recognized importance of symmetric second order tensor fields in medicine and engineering, the visualization of data uncertainty in tensor fields is still in its infancy. A recently proposed tensorial normal distribution, involving a fourth order covariance tensor, provides a mathematical description of how different aspects of the tensor field, such as trace, anisotropy, or orientation, vary and covary at each point. However, this wealth of information is far too rich for a human analyst to take in at a single glance, and no suitable visualization tools are available. We propose a novel approach that facilitates visual analysis of tensor covariance at multiple levels of detail. We start with a visual abstraction that uses slice views and direct volume rendering to indicate large-scale changes in the covariance structure, and locations with high overall variance. We then provide tools for interactive exploration, making it possible to drill down into different types of variability, such as in shape or orientation. Finally, we allow the analyst to focus on specific locations of the field, and provide tensor glyph animations and overlays that intuitively depict confidence intervals at those points. Our system is demonstrated by investigating the effects of measurement noise on diffusion tensor MRI, and by analyzing two ensembles of stress tensor fields from solid mechanics. PMID:26529741

  20. Insights into the Interactions between Educational Messages: Looking across Multiple Organizations Addressing Water Issues in Maricopa County, Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutts, Bethany; Saltz, Charlene; Elser, Monica

    2008-01-01

    The public receives environmental information from a variety of sources. Evaluation of a single program or one organization's effort is incomplete. Through surveys and interviews, we evaluate the cumulative impact of outreach by 20 water-related organizations in Maricopa County, Arizona. Household water conservation is a topic addressed by 18…

  1. Controlling periodontal bone levels with multiple LED irradiations.

    PubMed

    Chang, Po-Chun; Wang, Chen-Ying; Chong, Li Yen

    2015-02-01

    Because a single exposure to light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation at 660 nm only demonstrated a 3-day biostimulatory effect in recovering periodontal bone level (PBL), this study sought to evaluate whether the periodontal effect could be extended through the use of multiple LED irradiations. Experimental periodontitis was developed unilaterally in 48 Sprague-Dawley rats after the placement of a silk ligature plus Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide injections. The animals were divided into four groups (no irradiation, a single irradiation, or two or three irradiations per week) and exposed to LED light irradiation at a wavelength of 660 ± 25 nm and energy density of 10 J/cm(2) after debridement and detoxification. The animals were euthanized after 7 or 14 days, and the effect of irradiation was evaluated using micro-computed tomography and histology. By day 7, PBL was significantly reduced (p < 0.05), with significantly reduced inflammation (p < 0.05) and gingival hyperplasia (p < 0.001), in the animals receiving three irradiations per week. At day 14, the reduction in gingival hyperplasia was still significant (p < 0.05), and collagen matrix deposition and realignment appeared to be accelerated in the animals receiving three irradiations per week, despite a lack of significant difference in PBL. The treatment regimen receiving three LED light irradiations per week apparently extended the effects in reducing PBL and inflammation to 7 days. The inclusion of additional inflammation control measures or the addition of bioactive signals to mediate the repairing process is necessary to maintain long-term periodontal stability. PMID:23933707

  2. The use of content addressable memories in the level 2 trigger for the CLAS detector at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, D.C. Jr.; Hodson, R.F.; Allgood, D.; Bickley, M.; Campbell, S.; Putnam, T.; Spivak, R.; Lemon, S.; Wilson, W.C.

    1996-02-01

    The LEVEL 2 trigger in the CLAS detector will find tracks and associate a momentum and angle with each track within 2 {micro}s after the event. This is done through a hierarchical track finding design in which track segments are found in each drift chamber axial superlayer. An array of 384 custom content addressable (or associative) memories (CAMs) uses independent subfield matching to link these track segments into roads. The track parameters corresponding to each found road are then looked up in a separate memory. The authors present the overall architecture of the LEVEL 2 trigger, the details of how the CAM chip links tracks segments to find roads, and report on the performance of the prototype CAM chips.

  3. Population genetics suggest that multiple invasion processes need to be addressed in the management plan of a plant disease vector

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kylie L; Congdon, Bradley C

    2013-01-01

    The use of a multidisciplinary approach is becoming increasingly important when developing management strategies that mitigate the economic and biological costs associated with invasive pests. A framework of simulated dispersal is combined with life-history information and analyses of population genetic structure to investigate the invasion dynamics of a plant disease vector, the island sugarcane planthopper (Eumetopina flavipes), through an archipelago of significant Australian quarantine concern. Analysis of eight microsatellite loci from 648 individuals suggests that frequent, wind-assisted immigration from multiple sources in Papua New Guinea contributes significantly to repeated colonization of far northern islands. However, intermittent wind-assisted immigration better explains patterns of genetic diversity and structure in the southern islands and on the tip of mainland Australia. Significant population structuring associated with the presence of clusters of highly related individuals results from breeding in-situ following colonization, with little postestablishment movement. Results also suggest that less important secondary movements occur between islands; these appear to be human mediated and restricted by quarantine zones. Control of the planthopper may be very difficult on islands close to Papua New Guinea given the apparent propensity for multiple invasion, but may be achievable further south where local populations appear highly independent and isolated. PMID:23789032

  4. Creating a lesson that addresses gender differences in physics testing a specific instructional technique in college level physics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, James J.

    Research-based instructional methods are applied in an effort to close the persistent gender gap in physics. Creating a short text on a limited topic using some of these methods could benefit female students specifically. A literature review showed research on the gender gap in physics and updated instructional methods for females. Two female physics students were interviewed and observations were conducted at a high performing all-girls school. A physics lab dialogue between two female physics students was recorded and analyzed, which informed the style and voice of the interactive dialogue lesson. An original written lesson intended to engage female physics students was created and tested on three classes of college-level physics students. The survey data, based on multiple choice and essay responses, measured the students' opinions of the lesson and their current textbook. Results showed the interactive lesson was preferred over the current text, and some students requested similar lessons.

  5. Biodiversity at multiple trophic levels is needed for ecosystem multifunctionality.

    PubMed

    Soliveres, Santiago; van der Plas, Fons; Manning, Peter; Prati, Daniel; Gossner, Martin M; Renner, Swen C; Alt, Fabian; Arndt, Hartmut; Baumgartner, Vanessa; Binkenstein, Julia; Birkhofer, Klaus; Blaser, Stefan; Blüthgen, Nico; Boch, Steffen; Böhm, Stefan; Börschig, Carmen; Buscot, Francois; Diekötter, Tim; Heinze, Johannes; Hölzel, Norbert; Jung, Kirsten; Klaus, Valentin H; Kleinebecker, Till; Klemmer, Sandra; Krauss, Jochen; Lange, Markus; Morris, E Kathryn; Müller, Jörg; Oelmann, Yvonne; Overmann, Jörg; Pašalić, Esther; Rillig, Matthias C; Schaefer, H Martin; Schloter, Michael; Schmitt, Barbara; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Sikorski, Johannes; Socher, Stephanie A; Solly, Emily F; Sonnemann, Ilja; Sorkau, Elisabeth; Steckel, Juliane; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stempfhuber, Barbara; Tschapka, Marco; Türke, Manfred; Venter, Paul C; Weiner, Christiane N; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Werner, Michael; Westphal, Catrin; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Wolters, Volkmar; Wubet, Tesfaye; Wurst, Susanne; Fischer, Markus; Allan, Eric

    2016-08-25

    Many experiments have shown that loss of biodiversity reduces the capacity of ecosystems to provide the multiple services on which humans depend. However, experiments necessarily simplify the complexity of natural ecosystems and will normally control for other important drivers of ecosystem functioning, such as the environment or land use. In addition, existing studies typically focus on the diversity of single trophic groups, neglecting the fact that biodiversity loss occurs across many taxa and that the functional effects of any trophic group may depend on the abundance and diversity of others. Here we report analysis of the relationships between the species richness and abundance of nine trophic groups, including 4,600 above- and below-ground taxa, and 14 ecosystem services and functions and with their simultaneous provision (or multifunctionality) in 150 grasslands. We show that high species richness in multiple trophic groups (multitrophic richness) had stronger positive effects on ecosystem services than richness in any individual trophic group; this includes plant species richness, the most widely used measure of biodiversity. On average, three trophic groups influenced each ecosystem service, with each trophic group influencing at least one service. Multitrophic richness was particularly beneficial for 'regulating' and 'cultural' services, and for multifunctionality, whereas a change in the total abundance of species or biomass in multiple trophic groups (the multitrophic abundance) positively affected supporting services. Multitrophic richness and abundance drove ecosystem functioning as strongly as abiotic conditions and land-use intensity, extending previous experimental results to real-world ecosystems. Primary producers, herbivorous insects and microbial decomposers seem to be particularly important drivers of ecosystem functioning, as shown by the strong and frequent positive associations of their richness or abundance with multiple ecosystem services

  6. Climate change and freshwater ecosystems: impacts across multiple levels of organization

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Guy; Perkins, Daniel M.; Brown, Lee E.

    2010-01-01

    Fresh waters are particularly vulnerable to climate change because (i) many species within these fragmented habitats have limited abilities to disperse as the environment changes; (ii) water temperature and availability are climate-dependent; and (iii) many systems are already exposed to numerous anthropogenic stressors. Most climate change studies to date have focused on individuals or species populations, rather than the higher levels of organization (i.e. communities, food webs, ecosystems). We propose that an understanding of the connections between these different levels, which are all ultimately based on individuals, can help to develop a more coherent theoretical framework based on metabolic scaling, foraging theory and ecological stoichiometry, to predict the ecological consequences of climate change. For instance, individual basal metabolic rate scales with body size (which also constrains food web structure and dynamics) and temperature (which determines many ecosystem processes and key aspects of foraging behaviour). In addition, increasing atmospheric CO2 is predicted to alter molar CNP ratios of detrital inputs, which could lead to profound shifts in the stoichiometry of elemental fluxes between consumers and resources at the base of the food web. The different components of climate change (e.g. temperature, hydrology and atmospheric composition) not only affect multiple levels of biological organization, but they may also interact with the many other stressors to which fresh waters are exposed, and future research needs to address these potentially important synergies. PMID:20513717

  7. Measuring Science Teachers' Stress Level Triggered by Multiple Stressful Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halim, Lilia; Samsudin, Mohd Ali; Meerah, T. Subahan M.; Osman, Kamisah

    2006-01-01

    The complexity of science teaching requires science teachers to encounter a range of tasks. Some tasks are perceived as stressful while others are not. This study aims to investigate the extent to which different teaching situations lead to different stress levels. It also aims to identify the easiest and most difficult conditions to be regarded…

  8. The design, implementation and acceptability of an integrated intervention to address multiple behavioral and psychosocial risk factors among pregnant African American women

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Kathy S; Blake, Susan M; Milligan, Renee A; Sharps, Phyllis W; White, Davene B; Rodan, Margaret F; Rossi, Maryann; Murray, Kennan B

    2008-01-01

    Background African American women are at increased risk for poor pregnancy outcomes compared to other racial-ethnic groups. Single or multiple psychosocial and behavioral factors may contribute to this risk. Most interventions focus on singular risks. This paper describes the design, implementation, challenges faced, and acceptability of a behavioral counseling intervention for low income, pregnant African American women which integrated multiple targeted risks into a multi-component format. Methods Six academic institutions in Washington, DC collaborated in the development of a community-wide, primary care research study, DC-HOPE, to improve pregnancy outcomes. Cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, depression and intimate partner violence were the four risks targeted because of their adverse impact on pregnancy. Evidence-based models for addressing each risk were adapted and integrated into a multiple risk behavior intervention format. Pregnant women attending six urban prenatal clinics were screened for eligibility and risks and randomized to intervention or usual care. The 10-session intervention was delivered in conjunction with prenatal and postpartum care visits. Descriptive statistics on risk factor distributions, intervention attendance and length (i.e., with < 4 sessions considered minimal adherence) for all enrolled women (n = 1,044), and perceptions of study participation from a sub-sample of those enrolled (n = 152) are reported. Results Forty-eight percent of women screened were eligible based on presence of targeted risks, 76% of those eligible were enrolled, and 79% of those enrolled were retained postpartum. Most women reported a single risk factor (61%); 39% had multiple risks. Eighty-four percent of intervention women attended at least one session (60% attended ≥ 4 sessions) without disruption of clinic scheduling. Specific risk factor content was delivered as prescribed in 80% or more of the sessions; 78% of sessions were

  9. Melatonin in Plants - Diversity of Levels and Multiplicity of Functions.

    PubMed

    Hardeland, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin has been detected in numerous plant species. A particularly surprising finding concerns the highly divergent levels of melatonin that vary between species, organs and environmental conditions, from a few pg/g to over 20 μg/g, reportedly up to 200 μg/g. Highest values have been determined in oily seeds and in plant organs exposed to high UV radiation. The divergency of melatonin concentrations is discussed under various functional aspects and focused on several open questions. This comprises differences in precursor availability, catabolism, the relative contribution of isoenzymes of the melatonin biosynthetic pathway, and differences in rate limitation by either serotonin N-acetyltransferase or N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase. Other differences are related to the remarkable pleiotropy of melatonin, which exhibits properties as a growth regulator and morphogenetic factor, actually debated in terms of auxin-like effects, and as a signaling molecule that modulates pathways of ethylene, abscisic, jasmonic and salicylic acids and is involved in stress tolerance, pathogen defense and delay of senescence. In the context of high light/UV intensities, elevated melatonin levels exceed those required for signaling via stress-related phytohormones and may comprise direct antioxidant and photoprotectant properties, perhaps with a contribution of its oxidatively formed metabolites, such as N (1)-acetyl-N (2)-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine and its secondary products. High melatonin levels in seeds may also serve antioxidative protection and have been shown to promote seed viability and germination capacity. PMID:26925091

  10. A Framework for the Study of Multiple Realizations: The Importance of Levels of Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Overgaard, Morten; Mogensen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    The brain may undergo functional reorganizations. Selective loss of sensory input or training within a restricted part of a modality cause “shifts” within for instance somatotopic or tonotopic maps. Cross-modal plasticity occurs when input within a modality is absent – e.g., in the congenitally blind. Reorganizations are also found in functional recovery after brain injury. Focusing on such reorganizations, it may be studied whether a cognitive or conscious process can exclusively be mediated by one neural substrate – or may be associated with multiple neural representations. This is typically known as the problem of multiple realization – an essentially empirical issue with wide theoretical implications. This issue may appear to have a simple solution. When, for instance, the symptoms associated with brain injury disappear and the recovery is associated with increased activities within spared regions of the brain, it is tempting to conclude that the processes originally associated with the injured part of the brain are now mediated by an alternative neural substrate. Such a conclusion is, however, not a simple matter. Without a more thorough analysis, it cannot be concluded that a functional recovery of for instance language or attention is necessarily associated with a novel representation of the processes lost to injury. Alternatively, for instance, the recovery may reflect that apparently similar surface phenomena are obtained via dissimilar cognitive mechanisms. In this paper we propose a theoretical framework, which we believe can guide the design and interpretations of studies of post-traumatic recovery. It is essential to distinguish between a number of levels of analysis – including a differentiation between the surface phenomena and the underlying information processing – when addressing, for instance, whether a pre-traumatic and post-traumatically recovered cognitive or conscious process are actually the same. We propose a (somewhat

  11. Brain: a complex adaptive structure at multiple levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Bradley G.

    2001-10-01

    The human brain is comprised of over 100 billion neurons organized into tracts, nuclei, circuits and systems. This provides innumerable elegant abilities that rely on the nervous system to act as a complex adaptive structure (CAS). This property is apparent with respect to overall function, the function of individual neurons and the function of sensory and motor systems. At the overall functional level, the nervous system monitors the environments and can alter that environment. Alterations such as turning on a light switch or changing the diameter of neural vasculature, can improve the performance or chance for survival of the nervous system. Individual neurons can alter the activity of their electrogenic pumps, their rate of transmitter synthesis, their neurotransmitter release and their receptor density in order to maintain optimal functioning in a circuit following changes in their micro-environment. At the systems level, the visual system adjusts the orientation of the eyes or pupillary diameter to receive the highest quality visual information. In the motor system, the myotatic reflex maintains muscle position in the face of changing load, and the gain of the muscle organ responsible for the myotatic reflex can also be automatically adjusted. Internal homeostasis, essential for optimal performance of the nervous system, can be achieved through complex behavioral actions such as feeding. The hypothalamus plays an important role in such behaviors and in the type of sensorimotor integration responsible for the CAS nature of overall nervous system function. Thinking about the CAS characteristics of the nervous system may lead to development of non-biological CAS prostheses for the brain.

  12. Stochastic modeling of Lake Van water level time series with jumps and multiple trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, H.; Unal, N. E.; Eris, E.; Yuce, M. I.

    2013-06-01

    In the 1990s, water level in the closed-basin Lake Van located in the Eastern Anatolia, Turkey, has risen up about 2 m. Analysis of the hydrometeorological data shows that change in the water level is related to the water budget of the lake. In this study, stochastic models are proposed for simulating monthly water level data. Two models considering mono- and multiple-trend time series are developed. The models are derived after removal of trend and periodicity in the dataset. Trend observed in the lake water level time series is fitted by mono- and multiple-trend lines. In the so-called mono-trend model, the time series is treated as a whole under the hypothesis that the lake water level has an increasing trend. In the second model (so-called multiple-trend), the time series is divided into a number of segments to each a linear trend can be fitted separately. Application on the lake water level data shows that four segments, each fitted with a trend line, are meaningful. Both the mono- and multiple-trend models are used for simulation of synthetic lake water level time series under the hypothesis that the observed mono- and multiple-trend structure of the lake water level persist during the simulation period. The multiple-trend model is found better for planning the future infrastructural projects in surrounding areas of the lake as it generates higher maxima for the simulated lake water level.

  13. Effects of Multiple Simulation Presentation among Students of Different Anxiety Levels in the Learning of Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Soon Fook; Por, Fei Ping; Tang, Ai Ling

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of multiple simulation presentation in interactive multimedia are on the achievement of students with different levels of anxiety in the learning of Probability. The interactive multimedia courseware was developed in two different modes, which were Multiple Simulation Presentation (MSP) and…

  14. Stochastic modeling of Lake Van water level time series with jumps and multiple trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, H.; Unal, N. E.; Eris, E.; Yuce, M. I.

    2013-02-01

    In 1990s, water level in the closed-basin Lake Van located in the Eastern Anatolia, Turkey has risen up about 2 m. Analysis of the hydrometeorological shows that change in the water level is related to the water budget of the lake. In this study, a stochastic model is generated using the measured monthly water level data of the lake. The model is derived after removal of trend and periodicity in the data set. Trend observed in the lake water level time series is fitted by mono- and multiple-trend lines. For the multiple-trend, the time series is first divided into homogeneous segments by means of SEGMENTER, segmentation software. Four segments are found meaningful practically each fitted with a trend line. Two models considering mono- and multiple-trend time series are developed. The multiple-trend model is found better for planning future development in surrounding areas of the lake.

  15. Assessing Interchangeability at Cluster-Levels with Multiple-Informant Data

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhehui; Breslau, Joshua; Gardiner, Joseph C.; Chen, Qiaoling; Breslau, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Studies examining the relationship between neighborhood social disorder and health often rely on multiple informants. Such studies assume interchangeability of the latent constructs derived from multiple-informant data. Existing methods examining this assumption do not clearly delineate the uncertainty at individual levels from that at neighborhood levels. We propose a multi-level variance component factor model that allows this delineation. Data come from a survey of a representative sample of children born between 1983 and 1985 in the inner city of Detroit and nearby middle-class suburbs. Results indicate that the informant-level models tend to exaggerate the effect of places due to differences between persons. Our evaluations of different methodologies lead to the recommendation of the multi-level variance component factor model whenever multiple-informant reports can be aggregated at a neighborhood level. PMID:24038232

  16. A FORTRAN IV Program for Multiple-choice Tests with Predetermined Minimal Acceptable Performance Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noe, Michael J.

    1976-01-01

    A Fortran IV multiple choice test scoring program for an IBM 370 computer is described that computes minimally acceptable performance levels and compares student scores to these levels. The program accomodates up to 500 items with no more than nine alternatives from a group of examinees numbering less than 10,000. (Author)

  17. Acceptance and Accuracy of Multiple Choice, Confidence-Level, and Essay Question Formats for Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    The confidence level (information-referenced testing; IRT) design is an attempt to improve upon the multiple choice format by allowing students to express a level of confidence in the answers they choose. In this study, the author evaluated student perceptions of the ease of use and accuracy of and general preference for traditional multiple…

  18. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  19. A Study On The Effect Of Multiple Intelligences Theory Upon The Success Level Of Genders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oral, Imran

    2007-04-01

    In this study, the effects of Multiple Intelligences theory upon the success level of genders were investigated at three high schools in Konya. In conclusion, a significant difference has not been found between groups for multiple intelligences and groups for pre-tests. In general, the female student groups were more successful than the male student groups regarding post-test. However, this result did not cause a significant difference between the groups.

  20. Toward Addressing the Issues of Site Selection in District Effectiveness Research: A Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Growth Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: District effectiveness research (DER) is an emerging field concerned with identifying the organizational structures, administration, and leadership practices at the school district level that help districts find success with all of their students across the schools within the system. This work has mirrored much of the early school…

  1. Emergence of elevated levels of multiple infections in spatial host-virus dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Bradford; Penington, Catherine; Weitz, Joshua

    Bacteria are subject to infection and potentially to multiple simultaneous infections by viruses. Multiply infected hosts have altered life-history traits (e.g., viral burst size) and evolutionary rates (e.g., viral recombination). Yet our understanding of multiple infections of microbes is limited to lab settings where the ratio of inoculant viruses to hosts is controlled. In contrast, rates of multiple infection in natural environments are unknown. Here, we develop an individual based model to quantify rates of multiple infections by a single viral type. We explore different dispersal regimes by varying the viral adsorption rate. High dispersal regimes lead to spatial dynamics and rates of multiple infection equivalent to predictions from mean field models. Local clustering of bacterial hosts occurs for low dispersal. Comparing to mean field, the clustering leads to increased rates of multiple infection and fatter tails in the distribution of the number of internal viruses. The emergence of increased colocalization of viruses with infected hosts leads to these deviations. We show these deviations result from the wave-like spread of viruses when invading clusters of bacteria. Our work represents a key step in understanding the population-level effects of multiple infections.

  2. Multiple-Choice Exams: An Obstacle for Higher-Level Thinking in Introductory Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.

    2012-01-01

    Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not…

  3. Coh-Metrix Measures Text Characteristics at Multiple Levels of Language and Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graesser, Arthur C.; McNamara, Danielle S.; Cai, Zhiqang; Conley, Mark; Li, Haiying; Pennebaker, James

    2014-01-01

    Coh-Metrix analyzes texts on multiple measures of language and discourse that are aligned with multilevel theoretical frameworks of comprehension. Dozens of measures funnel into five major factors that systematically vary as a function of types of texts (e.g., narrative vs. informational) and grade level: narrativity, syntactic simplicity, word…

  4. Observing the Great Plains Low-Level Jet Using the Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS): A Comparison with Boundary Layer Profiler Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, P. S.; Basu, S.

    2009-12-01

    Wind resources derived from the nocturnal low-level jet of the Great Plains of the United States are a driving factor in the proliferation of wind energy facilities across the region. Accurate diagnosis and forecasting of the low-level jet is important to not only assess the wind resource but to estimate the potential for shear-induced stress generation on turbine rotors. This study will examine the utility of Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS) observations in diagnosing low-level jet events across the Texas Panhandle. ACARS observations from Lubbock International Airport (KLBB) will be compared to observations from a 915 MHZ Doppler radar vertical boundary-layer profiler with 60m vertical resolution located at the field experiment site of Texas Tech University. The ability of ACARS data to adequately observe low-level jet events during the spring and summer of 2009 will be assessed and presented.

  5. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  6. Instantiating the multiple levels of analysis perspective in a program of study on externalizing behavior

    PubMed Central

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    During the last quarter century, developmental psychopathology has become increasingly inclusive and now spans disciplines ranging from psychiatric genetics to primary prevention. As a result, developmental psychopathologists have extended traditional diathesis–stress and transactional models to include causal processes at and across all relevant levels of analysis. Such research is embodied in what is known as the multiple levels of analysis perspective. We describe how multiple levels of analysis research has informed our current thinking about antisocial and borderline personality development among trait impulsive and therefore vulnerable individuals. Our approach extends the multiple levels of analysis perspective beyond simple Biology × Environment interactions by evaluating impulsivity across physiological systems (genetic, autonomic, hormonal, neural), psychological constructs (social, affective, motivational), developmental epochs (preschool, middle childhood, adolescence, adulthood), sexes (male, female), and methods of inquiry (self-report, informant report, treatment outcome, cardiovascular, electrophysiological, neuroimaging). By conducting our research using any and all available methods across these levels of analysis, we have arrived at a developmental model of trait impulsivity that we believe confers a greater understanding of this highly heritable trait and captures at least some heterogeneity in key behavioral outcomes, including delinquency and suicide. PMID:22781868

  7. Neuroactive steroid levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of male multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Donatella; Melis, Marta; Fenu, Giuseppe; Giatti, Silvia; Romano, Simone; Grimoldi, Maria; Crippa, Donatella; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Cavaletti, Guido; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo

    2014-08-01

    Neuroactive steroid family includes molecules synthesized in peripheral glands (i.e., hormonal steroids) and directly in the nervous system (i.e., neurosteroids) which are key regulators of the nervous function. As already reported in clinical and experimental studies, neurodegenerative diseases affect the levels of neuroactive steroids. However, a careful analysis comparing the levels of these molecules in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in plasma of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is still missing. To this aim, the levels of neuroactive steroids were evaluated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in CSF and plasma of male adults affected by Relapsing-Remitting MS and compared with those collected in control patients. An increase in pregnenolone and isopregnanolone levels associated with a decrease in progesterone metabolites, dihydroprogesterone, and tetrahydroprogesterone was observed in CSF of MS patients. Moreover, an increase of 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol and of 17β-estradiol levels associated with a decrease of dihydrotestosterone also occurred. In plasma, an increase in pregnenolone, progesterone, and dihydrotestosterone and a decrease in dihydroprogesterone and tetrahydroprogesterone levels were reported. This study shows for the first time that the levels of several neuroactive steroids, and particularly those of progesterone and testosterone metabolites, are deeply affected in CSF of relapsing-remitting MS male patients. We here demonstrated that, the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma levels of several neuroactive steroids are modified in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis male patients. Interestingly, we reported for the first time that, the levels of progesterone and testosterone metabolites are deeply affected in cerebrospinal fluid. These findings may have an important relevance in therapeutic and/or diagnostic field of multiple sclerosis. PMID:24766130

  8. The initial rise method extended to multiple trapping levels in thermoluminescent materials.

    PubMed

    Furetta, C; Guzmán, S; Ruiz, B; Cruz-Zaragoza, E

    2011-02-01

    The well known Initial Rise Method (IR) is commonly used to determine the activation energy when only one glow peak is presented and analysed in the phosphor materials. However, when the glow peak is more complex, a wide peak and some holders appear in the structure. The application of the Initial Rise Method is not valid because multiple trapping levels are considered and then the thermoluminescent analysis becomes difficult to perform. This paper shows the case of a complex glow curve structure as an example and shows that the calculation is also possible using the IR method. The aim of the paper is to extend the well known Initial Rise Method (IR) to the case of multiple trapping levels. The IR method is applied to minerals extracted from Nopal cactus and Oregano spices because the thermoluminescent glow curve's shape suggests a trap distribution instead of a single trapping level. PMID:21051238

  9. Improving the Readability of ASR Results for Lectures Using Multiple Hypotheses and Sentence-Level Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yasuhisa; Yamamoto, Kazumasa; Nakagawa, Seiichi

    This paper presents a novel method for improving the readability of automatic speech recognition (ASR) results for classroom lectures. Because speech in a classroom is spontaneous and contains many ill-formed utterances with various disfluencies, the ASR result should be edited to improve the readability before presenting it to users, by applying some operations such as removing disfluencies, determining sentence boundaries, inserting punctuation marks and repairing dropped words. Owing to the presence of many kinds of domain-dependent words and casual styles, even state-of-the-art recognizers can only achieve a 30-50% word error rate for speech in classroom lectures. Therefore, a method for improving the readability of ASR results is needed to make it robust to recognition errors. We can use multiple hypotheses instead of the single-best hypothesis as a method to achieve a robust response to recognition errors. However, if the multiple hypotheses are represented by a lattice (or a confusion network), it is difficult to utilize sentence-level knowledge, such as chunking and dependency parsing, which are imperative for determining the discourse structure and therefore imperative for improving readability. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm that infers clean, readable transcripts from spontaneous multiple hypotheses represented by a confusion network while integrating sentence-level knowledge. Automatic and manual evaluations showed that using multiple hypotheses and sentence-level knowledge is effective to improve the readability of ASR results, while preserving the understandability.

  10. Topology-optimized multiple-disk resonators obtained using level set expression incorporating surface effects.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Garuda; Ueta, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Mamoru; Nakamura, Masayuki

    2015-05-01

    Topology-optimized designs of multiple-disk resonators are presented using level-set expression that incorporates surface effects. Effects from total internal reflection at the surfaces of the dielectric disks are precisely simulated by modeling clearly defined dielectric boundaries during topology optimization. The electric field intensity in optimal resonators increases to more than four and a half times the initial intensity in a resonant state, whereas in some cases the Q factor increases by three and a half times that for the initial state. Wavelength-scale link structures between neighboring disks improve the performance of the multiple-disk resonators. PMID:25969226

  11. Comparison of Single-Level and Multiple-Level Outcomes of Total Disc Arthroplasty: 24-Month Results

    PubMed Central

    Ritter-Lang, Karsten; Gössel, Lutz; Dreßler, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Background Low back pain is one of the most prevalent problems in industrialized countries, affecting as many as 80% of all adults at some time in their lives. Among the significant contributors to low back pain is degenerative disc disease (DDD). Although fusion has been well accepted for treatment of DDD, high rates of complications and stress to adjacent segments remain a concern. Lumbar total disc replacement (TDR) was developed with a goal of preserving motion and avoiding various fusion-related complications, but the relative merits of single vs. multiple level arthroplasty remain unclear. Methods This is a multi-center, single arm, prospective post-market registry of the M6-L, consisting of consecutive patients presenting with lumbar DDD who agreed to participate. This paper reports on those patients who have completed at least 24 months of followup to date. Clinical outcome measures include the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and back and leg Visual Analogue Scales (VAS). Radiographic analysis of disc angle and range of motion (ROM) was also performed. Results Results for 83 patients comprising 121 implants in two cohorts (49 single level (SL), 34 multiple levels (ML)) are reported. Both cohorts experienced significant improvement at 24 months including significant decreases in ODI and VAS. Relative to SL procedures, ML procedures demonstrated either comparable results, or results that trended favorably towards the ML procedures. Index and global ROM at 24 months were not significantly different between the two cohorts, while the disc angles were larger in the SL cohort regardless of index level. Conclusions This is the first study to report clinical and radiographic outcomes of TDR with the M6-L in SL vs ML procedures with two years of followup. The results suggest initial device safety and effectiveness when used for the treatment of lumbar degenerative disc disease at one or more levels. PMID:26056629

  12. Levels of uninvolved immunoglobulins predict clinical status and progression-free survival for multiple myeloma patients.

    PubMed

    Harutyunyan, Nika M; Vardanyan, Suzie; Ghermezi, Michael; Gottlieb, Jillian; Berenson, Ariana; Andreu-Vieyra, Claudia; Berenson, James R

    2016-07-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the enhanced production of the same monoclonal immunoglobulin (M-Ig or M protein). Techniques such as serum protein electrophoresis and nephelometry are routinely used to quantify levels of this protein in the serum of MM patients. However, these methods are not without their shortcomings and problems accurately quantifying M proteins remain. Precise quantification of the types and levels of M-Ig present is critical to monitoring patient response to therapy. In this study, we investigated the ability of the HevyLite (HLC) immunoassay to correlate with clinical status based on levels of involved and uninvolved antibodies. In our cohort of MM patients, we observed that significantly higher ratios and greater differences of involved HLC levels compared to uninvolved HLC levels correlated with a worse clinical status. Similarly, higher absolute levels of involved HLC antibodies and lower levels of uninvolved HLC antibodies also correlated with a worse clinical status and a shorter progression-free survival. These findings suggest that the HLC assay is a useful and a promising tool for determining the clinical status and survival time for patients with multiple myeloma. PMID:27017948

  13. Serum Vitamin B12 and thyroid hormone levels in Saudi patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khamis, Fahd A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the relationship between Vitamin B12 levels and thyroid hormones in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Materials and Methods: One hundred and ten patients with MS were recruited for this study after Institutional Review Board approval. All patients signed a written informed consent form and donated a single blood sample. Plasma Vitamin B12 levels, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) hormone levels were measured. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results: Analysis of Vitamin B12 levels in 110 patients with MS revealed that 65% had normal levels of Vitamin B12 (200–900 pg/ml), 30% had low levels of Vitamin B12 (<200 pg/ml), and 5% high levels of Vitamin B12 (higher than 900 pg/ml). Further analysis of patients with low levels of Vitamin B12 revealed that this cohort exhibited a significantly high number of patients with low levels of the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) (P < 0.005). Conclusion: This study suggests a relationship between Vitamin B12 levels and thyroid hormones. This opens the possibility that the use of therapies that increase triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels might be beneficial to patients with MS. PMID:27625581

  14. Formation of multiple levels of porous silicon for buried insulators and conductors in silicon device technologies

    DOEpatents

    Blewer, Robert S.; Gullinger, Terry R.; Kelly, Michael J.; Tsao, Sylvia S.

    1991-01-01

    A method of forming a multiple level porous silicon substrate for semiconductor integrated circuits including anodizing non-porous silicon layers of a multi-layer silicon substrate to form multiple levels of porous silicon. At least one porous silicon layer is then oxidized to form an insulating layer and at least one other layer of porous silicon beneath the insulating layer is metallized to form a buried conductive layer. Preferably the insulating layer and conductive layer are separated by an anodization barrier formed of non-porous silicon. By etching through the anodization barrier and subsequently forming a metallized conductive layer, a fully or partially insulated buried conductor may be fabricated under single crystal silicon.

  15. Structural invariance of multiple intelligences, based on the level of execution.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Leandro S; Prieto, María Dolores; Ferreira, Arístides; Ferrando, Mercedes; Ferrandiz, Carmen; Bermejo, Rosario; Hernández, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    The independence of multiple intelligences (MI) of Gardner's theory has been debated since its conception. This article examines whether the one- factor structure of the MI theory tested in previous studies is invariant for low and high ability students. Two hundred ninety-four children (aged 5 to 7) participated in this study. A set of Gardner's Multiple Intelligence assessment tasks based on the Spectrum Project was used. To analyze the invariance of a general dimension of intelligence, the different models of behaviours were studied in samples of participants with different performance on the Spectrum Project tasks with Multi-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MGCFA). Results suggest an absence of structural invariance in Gardner's tasks. Exploratory analyses suggest a three-factor structure for individuals with higher performance levels and a two-factor structure for individuals with lower performance levels. PMID:22047880

  16. A Graphical Framework for Specification of Clinical Guidelines at Multiple Representation Levels

    PubMed Central

    Shalom, Erez; Shahar, Yuval

    2005-01-01

    Formalization of a clinical guideline for purposes of automated application and quality assessment mainly involves conversion of its free-text representation into a machine comprehensible representation, i.e., a formal language, thus enabling automated support. The main issues involved in this process are related to the collaboration between the expert physician and the knowledge engineer. We introduce GESHER - a graphical framework for specification of clinical guidelines at multiple representation levels. The GESHER architecture facilitates incremental specification through a set of views adapted to each representation level, enabling this process to proceed smoothly and in a transparent fashion, fostering extensive collaboration among the various types of users. The GESHER framework supports specification of guidelines at multiple representation levels, in more than one specification language, and uses the DeGeL digital guideline library architecture as its knowledge base. The GESHER architecture also uses a temporal abstraction knowledge base to store its declarative knowledge, and a standard medical-vocabularies server for generic specification of key terms, thus enabling reuse of the specification at multiple sites. PMID:16779126

  17. Electromagnetically induced transparency in an inhomogeneously broadened {Lambda} transition with multiple excited levels

    SciTech Connect

    Mishina, O. S.; Scherman, M.; Lombardi, P.; Ortalo, J.; Bramati, A.; Laurat, J.; Giacobino, E.; Felinto, D.; Sheremet, A. S.; Kupriyanov, D. V.

    2011-05-15

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) has mainly been modeled for three-level systems. In particular, considerable interest has been dedicated to the {Lambda} configuration, with two ground states and one excited state. However, in the alkali-metal atoms, which are commonly used, the hyperfine interaction in the excited state introduces several levels which simultaneously participate in the scattering process. When the Doppler broadening is comparable with the hyperfine splitting in the upper state, the three-level {Lambda} model does not reproduce the experimental results. Here we theoretically investigate the EIT in a hot vapor of alkali-metal atoms and demonstrate that it can be strongly reduced by the presence of multiple excited levels. Given this model, we also show that well-designed optical pumping enables us to significantly recover the transparency.

  18. Physically feasible three-level transitionless quantum driving with multiple Schrödinger dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xue-Ke; Ai, Qing; Qiu, Jing; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-05-01

    Three-level quantum systems, which possess some unique characteristics beyond two-level ones, such as electromagnetically induced transparency, coherent trapping, and Raman scatting, play important roles in solid-state quantum information processing. Here, we introduce an approach to implement the physically feasible three-level transitionless quantum driving with multiple Schrödinger dynamics (MSDs). It can be used to control accurately population transfer and entanglement generation for three-level quantum systems in a nonadiabatic way. Moreover, we propose an experimentally realizable hybrid architecture, based on two nitrogen-vacancy-center ensembles coupled to a transmission line resonator, to realize our transitionless scheme which requires fewer physical resources and simple procedures, and it is more robust against environmental noises and control parameter variations than conventional adiabatic passage techniques. All these features inspire the further application of MSDs on robust quantum information processing in experiment.

  19. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  20. Opening addresses.

    PubMed

    Chukudebelu, W O; Lucas, A O; Ransome-kuti, O; Akinla, O; Obayi, G U

    1988-01-01

    The theme of the 3rd International Conference of the Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Nigeria (SOGON) held October 26, 1986 in Enugu was maternal morbidity and mortality in Africa. The opening addresses emphasize the high maternal mortality rate in Africa and SOGON's dedication to promoting women's health and welfare. In order to reduce maternal mortality, the scope of this problem must be made evident by gathering accurate mortality rates through maternity care monitoring and auditing. Governments, health professionals, educators, behavioral scientists, and communication specialists have a responsibility to improve maternal health services in this country. By making the population aware of this problem through education, measures can be taken to reduce the presently high maternal mortality rates. Nigerian women are physically unprepared for childbirth; therefore, balanced diets and disease prevention should be promoted. Since about 40% of deliveries are unmanaged, training for traditional birth attendants should be provided. Furthermore, family planning programs should discourage teenage pregnancies, encourage birth spacing and small families, and promote the use of family planning techniques among men. The problem of child bearing and rearing accompanied by hard work should also be investigated. For practices to change so that maternal mortality rates can be reduced, attitudes must be changed such that the current rates are viewed as unacceptable. PMID:12179275

  1. Understanding epigenetic regulation: Tracking protein levels across multiple generations of cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowat, A. C.; Weitz, D. A.

    2009-11-01

    Cells and organisms are remarkably robust: they alter the variety and levels of expressed genes and proteins in response to environmental stimuli, including temperature, chemicals, and the stiffness of their surroundings. Ultimately changes in gene and protein expression can result in a distinct phenotypic state, which in some cases is maintained over multiple generations; the ability to pass on a particular phenotypic state to progeny cells is critical for differentiation. Moreover, epigenetic regulation of phenotype is also thought to provide an evolutionary advantage for a population of cells adapting to a fluctuating environment on faster timescales than the occurrence of genetic mutations. However, simple methods to study patterns of gene and protein expression on multi-generational timescales are sparse. Here we describe a technique to study lineages of single cells over multiple generations using a microfluidic device; this reveals patterns of expression where protein levels are correlated across multiple generations. Such quantitative information of protein expression in the context of pedigree remains hidden when studying the population as an ensemble.

  2. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  3. The impact of multiple low-level BCR-ABL1 mutations on response to ponatinib.

    PubMed

    Parker, Wendy T; Yeung, David T O; Yeoman, Alexandra L; Altamura, Haley K; Jamison, Bronte A; Field, Chani R; Hodgson, J Graeme; Lustgarten, Stephanie; Rivera, Victor M; Hughes, Timothy P; Branford, Susan

    2016-04-14

    The third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) ponatinib shows activity against all common BCR-ABL1 single mutants, including the highly resistant BCR-ABL1-T315I mutant, improving outcome for patients with refractory chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, responses are variable, and causal baseline factors have not been well-studied. The type and number of low-level BCR-ABL1 mutations present after imatinib resistance has prognostic significance for subsequent treatment with nilotinib or dasatinib as second-line therapy. We therefore investigated the impact of low-level mutations detected by sensitive mass-spectrometry before ponatinib initiation (baseline) on treatment response in 363 TKI-resistant patients enrolled in the PONATINIB for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Evaluation and Ph(+)Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia trial, including 231 patients in chronic phase (CP-CML). Low-level mutations were detected in 53 patients (15%, including low-level T315I in 14 patients); most, however, did not undergo clonal expansion during ponatinib treatment and, moreover, no specific individual mutations were associated with inferior outcome. We demonstrate however, that the number of mutations detectable by mass spectrometry after TKI resistance is associated with response to ponatinib treatment and could be used to refine the therapeutic approach. Although CP-CML patients with T315I (63/231, 27%) had superior responses overall, those with multiple mutations detectable by mass spectrometry (20, 32%) had substantially inferior responses compared with those with T315I as the sole mutation detected (43, 68%). In contrast, for CP-CML patients without T315I, the inferior responses previously observed with nilotinib/dasatinib therapy for imatinib-resistant patients with multiple mutations were not seen with ponatinib treatment, suggesting that ponatinib may prove to be particularly advantageous for patients with multiple mutations detectable by mass spectrometry after TKI resistance

  4. The impact of multiple low-level BCR-ABL1 mutations on response to ponatinib

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, David T. O.; Yeoman, Alexandra L.; Altamura, Haley K.; Jamison, Bronte A.; Field, Chani R.; Hodgson, J. Graeme; Lustgarten, Stephanie; Rivera, Victor M.; Hughes, Timothy P.; Branford, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) ponatinib shows activity against all common BCR-ABL1 single mutants, including the highly resistant BCR-ABL1-T315I mutant, improving outcome for patients with refractory chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, responses are variable, and causal baseline factors have not been well-studied. The type and number of low-level BCR-ABL1 mutations present after imatinib resistance has prognostic significance for subsequent treatment with nilotinib or dasatinib as second-line therapy. We therefore investigated the impact of low-level mutations detected by sensitive mass-spectrometry before ponatinib initiation (baseline) on treatment response in 363 TKI-resistant patients enrolled in the PONATINIB for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Evaluation and Ph+ Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia trial, including 231 patients in chronic phase (CP-CML). Low-level mutations were detected in 53 patients (15%, including low-level T315I in 14 patients); most, however, did not undergo clonal expansion during ponatinib treatment and, moreover, no specific individual mutations were associated with inferior outcome. We demonstrate however, that the number of mutations detectable by mass spectrometry after TKI resistance is associated with response to ponatinib treatment and could be used to refine the therapeutic approach. Although CP-CML patients with T315I (63/231, 27%) had superior responses overall, those with multiple mutations detectable by mass spectrometry (20, 32%) had substantially inferior responses compared with those with T315I as the sole mutation detected (43, 68%). In contrast, for CP-CML patients without T315I, the inferior responses previously observed with nilotinib/dasatinib therapy for imatinib-resistant patients with multiple mutations were not seen with ponatinib treatment, suggesting that ponatinib may prove to be particularly advantageous for patients with multiple mutations detectable by mass spectrometry after TKI resistance

  5. Biologically Motivated Novel Localization Paradigm by High-Level Multiple Object Recognition in Panoramic Images

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungho; Shim, Min-Sheob

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the novel paradigm of a global localization method motivated by human visual systems (HVSs). HVSs actively use the information of the object recognition results for self-position localization and for viewing direction. The proposed localization paradigm consisted of three parts: panoramic image acquisition, multiple object recognition, and grid-based localization. Multiple object recognition information from panoramic images is utilized in the localization part. High-level object information was useful not only for global localization, but also for robot-object interactions. The metric global localization (position, viewing direction) was conducted based on the bearing information of recognized objects from just one panoramic image. The feasibility of the novel localization paradigm was validated experimentally. PMID:26457323

  6. Measuring the engagement level of children for multiple intelligence test using Kinect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dongjin; Yun, Woo han; Park, Chan kyu; Yoon, H.; Kim, Jaehong; Park, C. H.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we present an affect recognition system for measuring the engagement level of children using the Kinect while performing a multiple intelligence test on a computer. First of all, we recorded 12 children while solving the test and manually created a ground truth data for the engagement levels of each child. For a feature extraction, Kinect for Windows SDK provides support for a user segmentation and skeleton tracking so that we can get 3D joint positions of an upper-body skeleton of a child. After analyzing movement of children, the engagement level of children's responses is classified into two classes: High or Low. We present the classification results using the proposed features and identify the significant features in measuring the engagement.

  7. Genetic variants are major determinants of CSF antibody levels in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Ine; Gustavsen, Marte W.; van Son, Brechtje; Hilven, Kelly; Bos, Steffan D.; Celius, Elisabeth Gulowsen; Berg-Hansen, Pål; Aarseth, Jan; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; D’Alfonso, Sandra; Barizzone, Nadia; Leone, Maurizio A.; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo; Sorosina, Melissa; Liberatore, Giuseppe; Kockum, Ingrid; Olsson, Tomas; Hillert, Jan; Alfredsson, Lars; Bedri, Sahl Khalid; Hemmer, Bernhard; Buck, Dorothea; Berthele, Achim; Knier, Benjamin; Biberacher, Viola; van Pesch, Vincent; Sindic, Christian; Bang Oturai, Annette; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Sellebjerg, Finn; Jensen, Poul Erik H.; Comabella, Manuel; Montalban, Xavier; Pérez-Boza, Jennifer; Malhotra, Sunny; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Broadley, Simon; Slee, Mark; Taylor, Bruce; Kermode, Allan G.; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Sawcer, Stephen J.; Andreassen, Bettina Kullle; Dubois, Bénédicte; Harbo, Hanne F.

    2015-01-01

    Immunological hallmarks of multiple sclerosis include the production of antibodies in the central nervous system, expressed as presence of oligoclonal bands and/or an increased immunoglobulin G index—the level of immunoglobulin G in the cerebrospinal fluid compared to serum. However, the underlying differences between oligoclonal band-positive and -negative patients with multiple sclerosis and reasons for variability in immunoglobulin G index are not known. To identify genetic factors influencing the variation in the antibody levels in the cerebrospinal fluid in multiple sclerosis, we have performed a genome-wide association screen in patients collected from nine countries for two traits, presence or absence of oligoclonal bands (n = 3026) and immunoglobulin G index levels (n = 938), followed by a replication in 3891 additional patients. We replicate previously suggested association signals for oligoclonal band status in the major histocompatibility complex region for the rs9271640*A-rs6457617*G haplotype, correlated with HLA-DRB1*1501, and rs34083746*G, correlated with HLA-DQA1*0301 (P comparing two haplotypes = 8.88 × 10−16). Furthermore, we identify a novel association signal of rs9807334, near the ELAC1/SMAD4 genes, for oligoclonal band status (P = 8.45 × 10−7). The previously reported association of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus with immunoglobulin G index reaches strong evidence for association in this data set (P = 3.79 × 10−37). We identify two novel associations in the major histocompatibility complex region with immunoglobulin G index: the rs9271640*A-rs6457617*G haplotype (P = 1.59 × 10−22), shared with oligoclonal band status, and an additional independent effect of rs6457617*G (P = 3.68 × 10−6). Variants identified in this study account for up to 2-fold differences in the odds of being oligoclonal band positive and 7.75% of the variation in immunoglobulin G index. Both traits are associated with clinical features of disease such

  8. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  9. Simultaneous Determination of Multiple microRNA Levels Utilizing Biotinylated Dideoxynucleotides and Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sobin; Park, Jungyun; Na, Jeongkyeong; Jung, Gyoo Yeol; Hwang, Jungwook

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene translation and have been suggested as potent biomarkers in various disease states. In this study, we established an efficient method for simultaneous determination of multiple miRNA levels, employing the previously developed SPC-SBE (solid phase capture-single base extension) approach and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). In this approach, we first perform reverse transcription of miRNAs extracted using stem-loop primers. Then the cDNA is co-amplified with competitors, synthetic oligonucleotides whose sequences precisely match cDNA except for one base, and the amplicons serve as templates for a multiplexed SBE reaction. Extension products are isolated using SPC and quantitatively analyzed with MALDI-TOF MS to determine multiple miRNA levels. Here we demonstrated concurrent analysis of four miRNA levels utilizing the approach. Furthermore, we showed the presented method significantly facilitated MS analysis of peak area ratio owing to SPC. The SPC process allowed effective removal of irrelevant reaction components prior to MS and promoted MS sample purification. Data obtained in this study was verified with RT-qPCR and agreement was shown on one order of magnitude scale, suggesting the SPC-SBE and MS approach has strong potential as a viable tool for high throughput miRNA analysis. PMID:27380276

  10. Simultaneous Determination of Multiple microRNA Levels Utilizing Biotinylated Dideoxynucleotides and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sobin; Park, Jungyun; Na, Jeongkyeong; Jung, Gyoo Yeol; Hwang, Jungwook

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene translation and have been suggested as potent biomarkers in various disease states. In this study, we established an efficient method for simultaneous determination of multiple miRNA levels, employing the previously developed SPC-SBE (solid phase capture-single base extension) approach and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). In this approach, we first perform reverse transcription of miRNAs extracted using stem-loop primers. Then the cDNA is co-amplified with competitors, synthetic oligonucleotides whose sequences precisely match cDNA except for one base, and the amplicons serve as templates for a multiplexed SBE reaction. Extension products are isolated using SPC and quantitatively analyzed with MALDI-TOF MS to determine multiple miRNA levels. Here we demonstrated concurrent analysis of four miRNA levels utilizing the approach. Furthermore, we showed the presented method significantly facilitated MS analysis of peak area ratio owing to SPC. The SPC process allowed effective removal of irrelevant reaction components prior to MS and promoted MS sample purification. Data obtained in this study was verified with RT-qPCR and agreement was shown on one order of magnitude scale, suggesting the SPC-SBE and MS approach has strong potential as a viable tool for high throughput miRNA analysis. PMID:27380276

  11. Comparison of Antioxidant Status and Vitamin D Levels between Multiple Sclerosis Patients and Healthy Matched Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hejazi, Ehsan; Amani, Reza; SharafodinZadeh, Naser; Cheraghian, Bahman

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the present study was to compare the serum levels of total antioxidant status (TAS) and 25(OH) D3 and dietary intake of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with those of normal subjects. Method. Thirty-seven MS patients (31 women) and the same number of healthy matched controls were compared for their serum levels and dietary intake of 25(OH) D3 and TAS. Sun exposure and the intake of antioxidants and vitamin D rich foods were estimated through face-to-face interview and food frequency questionnaire. Results. Dietary intake of antioxidants and vitamin D rich foods, vitamin C, vitamin A, and folate was not significantly different between the two groups. There were also no significant differences in the mean levels of 25(OH) D3 and TAS between the study groups. Both groups had low serum levels of 25(OH) D3 and total antioxidants. Conclusion. No significant differences were detected in serum levels and dietary intake of vitamin D and antioxidants between MS patients and healthy controls. All subjects had low antioxidant status and vitamin D levels. PMID:24834356

  12. The Healthy African American Families' risk communications initiative: using community partnered participatory research to address preterm birth at the local level.

    PubMed

    Jones, Loretta; Wright, Kynna; Wright, Aziza; Brown, Neysa Dillon; Broussard, Marsha; Hogan, Vijaya

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant death for African Americans and is significantly associated with lifelong morbidity. Primary prevention efforts using medical strategies to reduce the rates of preterm birth have been unsuccessful. Using community partnered participatory processes, the Healthy African American Families project in Los Angeles developed a multilevel, risk communications strategy to promote awareness about preterm birth in the local community. Participants included community members, community-based organizations, local government, healthcare providers, and national-level advocates. The initiative focused on increasing social support for pregnant women, providing current information on preterm birth risks, and improving quality of health services. The initiative includes components addressing community education, mass media, provider education, and community advocacy. Products include 100 Intentional Acts of Kindness toward a Pregnant Woman, a doorknob brochure on signs and symptoms of preterm labor, and an education manual on preterm birth and other African American health issues. Cooperation, affiliation, and community self-help were key aspects of the planning process and the health promotion products. Additional community benefits included increased leadership and skills development. The process and products described here may be useful in other communities and for addressing other health outcomes in communities of color. PMID:20629244

  13. Leveling the playing field: the personal coach program as an innovative approach to assess and address the supportive care needs of underserved cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hohenadel, Joanne; Kaegi, Elizabeth; Laidlaw, Jack; Kovacik, Galina; Cortinois, Andrea; Kang, Rita; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2007-04-01

    Supportive care addresses informational, social, emotional, spiritual, physical, and practical needs that impact the lives of patients and their families. Accessing supportive care services is particularly challenging for patients facing significant financial and social barriers. This report discusses the Personal Coach Program (PCP), which provides specially trained coach navigators of supportive care for cancer patients, with special focus on those facing the above-mentioned barriers. The PCP was piloted with 63 patients treated at the Princess Margaret Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Patients faced barriers of language, poverty, culture, social isolation, and literacy. Triangulation was used to compare and contrast multiple sources of quantitative and qualitative evaluation data. Identifying appropriate patients for referral to the PCP was a major challenge. Six categories of unmet needs were identified: practical factors related to daily living, cancer information, emotional support, interaction with the healthcare team, problems with physical health,and factors related to family and friends. Many significant barriers to supportive care and unmet needs are not identified by time-pressured clinical staff in cancer clinics. The PCP helped to identify needs and to improve ability to access services. Participants were highly satisfied with the program and believed it had positive implications for both physical and emotional health. Based on these results, a demonstration model for a supportive-care program is proposed as an integral component of care for all cancer patients, including those at risk for underservice. PMID:17500506

  14. Low levels of cobalamin, epidermal growth factor, and normal prions in multiple sclerosis spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Scalabrino, G; Veber, D; De Giuseppe, R; Roncaroli, F

    2015-07-01

    We have previously demonstrated that multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the key myelin-related molecules cobalamin (Cbl), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and normal cellular prions (PrP(C)s), thus confirming that some CSF abnormalities may be co-responsible for remyelination failure. We determined the levels of these three molecules in post-mortem spinal cord (SC) samples taken from MS patients and control patients. The control SC samples, almost all of which came from non-neurological patients, did not show any microscopic lesions of any type. All of the samples were supplied by the U.K. MS Tissue Bank. The Cbl, EGF, and PrP(C) levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The SC total homocysteine level was determined using a competitive immunoenzymatic assay. CSF samples, taken from a further group of MS patients, were used for the assay of holo-transcobalamin (holo-TC) levels. The Cbl, EGF, and PrP(C) levels were significantly decreased in MS SCs in comparison with controls and, paradoxically, the decreased Cbl levels were associated with decreased SC levels of homocysteine, a biochemical marker of Cbl deficiency. The trends of EGF and PrP(C) levels paralleled those previously found in CSF, whereas that of Cbl was the opposite. There was no significant difference in CSF holo-TC levels between the MS patients and the controls. Given that we have previously demonstrated that Cbl positively regulates central nervous system EGF levels, it is conceivable that the low EGF levels in the MS SC may be causally related to a local decrease in Cbl levels. Only PrP(C) levels were invariably decreased in both the SC and CSF regardless of the clinical course of the disease. These findings suggest that the simultaneous lack of Cbl, EGF, and PrP(C)s may greatly hamper the remyelination process in MS patients, because they are key molecules of the machinery for remyelination. PMID:25888933

  15. Addressing the risk of inadequate and excessive micronutrient intakes: traditional versus new approaches to setting adequate and safe micronutrient levels in foods

    PubMed Central

    Bruins, Maaike J.; Mugambi, Gladys; Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Hoekstra, Jeljer; Kraemer, Klaus; Osendarp, Saskia; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Gallagher, Alison M.; Verhagen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Fortification of foods consumed by the general population or specific food products or supplements designed to be consumed by vulnerable target groups is amongst the strategies in developing countries to address micronutrient deficiencies. Any strategy aimed at dietary change needs careful consideration, ensuring the needs of at-risk subgroups are met whilst ensuring safety within the general population. This paper reviews the key principles of two main assessment approaches that may assist developing countries in deciding on effective and safe micronutrient levels in foods or special products designed to address micronutrient deficiencies, that is, the cut-point method and the stepwise approach to risk–benefit assessment. In the first approach, the goal is to shift population intake distributions such that intake prevalences below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) are both minimized. However, for some micronutrients like vitamin A and zinc, a narrow margin between the EAR and UL exists. Increasing their intakes through mass fortification may pose a dilemma; not permitting the UL to be exceeded provides assurance about the safety within the population but can potentially leave a proportion of the target population with unmet needs, or vice versa. Risk–benefit approaches assist in decision making at different micronutrient intake scenarios by balancing the magnitude of potential health benefits of reducing inadequate intakes against health risks of excessive intakes. Risk–benefit approaches consider different aspects of health risk including severity and number of people affected. This approach reduces the uncertainty for policy makers as compared to classic cut-point methods. PMID:25630617

  16. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Alexander, P C

    1994-07-01

    Total world population is growing at the annual rate of 2%. While this rate of growth represents a decline from the annual growth rate of 2.5% during the early 1960s, world population still continues to grow rapidly in absolute terms as a result of the already enormous population base. Experts predict world population to grow to 12-14 billion before it stabilizes. Most of this growth will be due to high fertility amid declining mortality in developing countries; 80% of world population by the year 2000 will be in developing countries. India, for example, had a population of 358 million people in 1950. That population, however, should grow to more than one billion by the year 2000. The author, governor of Maharashtra, congratulates all who have successfully completed courses at the International Institute for Population Sciences during the year and voices his expectation that graduates will use their newfound knowledge and expertise in research and teaching as well as in developing meaningful and effective population policies in their respective countries. He also describes some of India's current population-related problems and future prospects. India has thus far kept its rate of food production above the rate of population growth. Even so, the average caloric intake in India needs to be increased by at least 50% in order for the population to maintain adequate health standards. The current scarcity of additional arable land, the need to halt further deforestation, and the ongoing absolute growth in population, however, suggest that India will be unable to raise the level of caloric intake for its people. India may even become dependent upon other countries to provide food for its population. PMID:12346131

  17. Ultra-multiple and reproducible resistance levels based on intrinsic crystallization properties of Ge1Sb4Te7 film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, You; Iwashita, Shota; Hosaka, Sumio; Wang, Tao; Li, Jingze; Liu, Yang; Yu, Qi

    2016-04-01

    Ge1Sb4Te7 (GST147) was adopted as the storage media for multiple resistance levels. It was exhibited that the resistivity of GST147 gradually dropped by about 3-4 orders of magnitude due to crystallization with the annealing temperature, which is critical to realize multiple resistance levels. The ultra-multiple 27 resistance levels in TiSi3/GST147 lateral phase-change memory device were demonstrated simply by controlling the maximum sweeping currents for programming the device resistance. Furthermore, the reproducibility of the six resistance levels was demonstrated and these levels were distinguishable from each other. This study indicates that GST147 is a media suitable for stable ultra-multiple level storage, enabling low-cost ultrahigh-density nonvolatile memory.

  18. Serum matrix metalloproteinase‐3 levels correlate with disease activity in relapsing‐remitting multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kanesaka, T; Mori, M; Hattori, T; Oki, T; Kuwabara, S

    2006-01-01

    Background Adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known to be relevant to the ongoing development and disappearance of areas of demyelination in the white matter of the CNS of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. This study examined whether serum matrix metalloproteinase‐3 (MMP‐3) levels correlate with disease activity in MS. Methods Serum MMP‐3 levels in 47 consecutive patients with relapsing‐remitting MS were measured by immunoassay every 4 weeks over a 15 month period. Results During the study period, 48 clinical relapses occurred. Serum MMP‐3 levels within 1 month of relapse were significantly higher than during the remission phase. Sequential analysis showed that serum MMP‐3 levels had increased transiently at the time of clinical relapse but returned to the normal range within a month. Conclusions Circulatory MMP‐3 levels are correlated with disease activity in relapsing‐remitting MS. This may contribute to the breakdown of the blood‐brain barrier at the time of relapse. PMID:16421119

  19. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with multiple sclerosis in Iran: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Karampoor, Sajad; Zahednasab, Hamid; Ramagopalan, Sreeram; Mehrpour, Masoud; Safarnejad Tameshkel, Fahimeh; Keyvani, Hossein

    2016-01-15

    Vitamin D is being increasingly studied in multiple sclerosis (MS). A number of studies have shown that MS patients have lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D as compared to comparator populations, but previous studies in Iran have been conflicting, perhaps due to their small sample size. We performed the largest study to date investigating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in Iranian MS patients (n=700) and controls (n=1000). 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured using a quantitative chemiluminescent immunometric assay. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were lower in patients with MS. Over 24% of controls were vitamin D sufficient as compared to 3.4% of patients. Logistic regression showed that for every 1 ng/mL increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D, the odds for MS decreased (odds ratio=0.87; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85-0.88; p<0.001), after adjusting for age and sex. There was no association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and disability scores in MS patients. Iranian Patients with MS have low levels of vitamin D and, where deemed necessary, appropriate supplementation should be given. PMID:26711568

  20. Integrating gender on multiple levels: a conceptual model for teaching gender issues in family therapy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lee; McBain, Heidi

    2006-07-01

    As the field of family therapy has evolved, there has been growing recognition as to the importance of gender in family therapy. To prepare the next generation of family therapists adequately, it is important that they recognize the many and complex ways in which gender permeates their work. In this article we present an integrative model to help educators teach family therapists about gender issues. The model examines how gender influences clinical work on multiple levels, including contextual levels such as society and the marriage and family therapy field. The model also acknowledges how gender can influence individuals, including clients, therapists, and supervisors. Finally, the model attempts to capture the complexity of how gender can impact the relational dynamics between two or more individuals. PMID:16933441

  1. Decision-level fusion approach to face recognition with multiple cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Seokwon

    2014-05-01

    Face classification of multiple cameras has wide applications in surveillance. In this paper, the efficacy of a multi-frame decision-level fusion scheme for face classification based on the photon-counting linear discriminant analysis is investigated. The photon-counting linear discriminant analysis method is able to realize Fisher's criterion without preprocessing for dimensionality reduction. The decision-level fusion scheme is comprised of three stages: score normalization, score validation, and score combination. After normalization, the candidate scores are selected and combined by means of a score validation process and a fusion rule, respectively, in order to generate a final score. In the experiments, out-of-focus and motion blurs are rendered on test images simulating harsh conditions.

  2. Dynamics of quantum Fisher information in a two-level system coupled to multiple bosonic reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guo-You; Guo, You-Neng; Zeng, Ke

    2015-11-01

    We consider the optimal parameter estimation for a two-level system coupled to multiple bosonic reservoirs. By using quantum Fisher information (QFI), we investigate the effect of the Markovian reservoirs’ number N on QFI in both weak and strong coupling regimes for a two-level system surrounded by N zero-temperature reservoirs of field modes initially in the vacua. The results show that the dynamics of QFI non-monotonically decays to zero with revival oscillations at some time in the weak coupling regime depending on the reservoirs’ parameters. Furthermore, we also present the relations between the QFI flow, the flows of energy and information, and the sign of the decay rate to gain insight into the physical processes characterizing the dynamics. Project supported by the Hunan Provincial Innovation Foundation for Postgraduate, China (Grant No. CX2014B194) and the Scientific Research Foundation of Hunan Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. 13C039).

  3. Individual differences in ensemble perception reveal multiple, independent levels of ensemble representation.

    PubMed

    Haberman, Jason; Brady, Timothy F; Alvarez, George A

    2015-04-01

    Ensemble perception, including the ability to "see the average" from a group of items, operates in numerous feature domains (size, orientation, speed, facial expression, etc.). Although the ubiquity of ensemble representations is well established, the large-scale cognitive architecture of this process remains poorly defined. We address this using an individual differences approach. In a series of experiments, observers saw groups of objects and reported either a single item from the group or the average of the entire group. High-level ensemble representations (e.g., average facial expression) showed complete independence from low-level ensemble representations (e.g., average orientation). In contrast, low-level ensemble representations (e.g., orientation and color) were correlated with each other, but not with high-level ensemble representations (e.g., facial expression and person identity). These results suggest that there is not a single domain-general ensemble mechanism, and that the relationship among various ensemble representations depends on how proximal they are in representational space. PMID:25844624

  4. Two-year-olds readily learn multiple labels for the same basic-level category.

    PubMed

    Mervis, C B; Golinkoff, R M; Bertrand, J

    1994-08-01

    2 basic frameworks for lexical principles have been proposed (Golinkoff, Mervis, & Hirsh-Pasek; Markman). In many types of situations, these frameworks make the same predictions regarding 2-year-olds' interpretation of novel terms. However, the predictions diverge in some cases. 3 experiments were conducted to address 1 such situation: the case in which the child hears a novel term but already knows a label for each of the objects present. Results of all 3 studies converged on the same outcome: The new term was most likely to be treated as a second basic-level name for the category to which the object belonged. Analyses of individual patterns of responding revealed that, of the 58 subjects, 50 made more basic-level responses than part responses, 1 made equal numbers of basic-level and part responses, and 7 made more part responses than basic-level responses. Implications of these findings for models of early lexical development are discussed. PMID:7956472

  5. Multiple cell and population-level interactions with mouse embryonic stem cell heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Danielle; Corrigan, Adam M; Miermont, Agnes; McDonel, Patrick; Chubb, Jonathan R

    2015-08-15

    Much of development and disease concerns the generation of gene expression differences between related cells sharing similar niches. However, most analyses of gene expression only assess population and time-averaged levels of steady-state transcription. The mechanisms driving differentiation are buried within snapshots of the average cell, lacking dynamic information and the diverse regulatory history experienced by individual cells. Here, we use a quantitative imaging platform with large time series data sets to determine the regulation of developmental gene expression by cell cycle, lineage, motility and environment. We apply this technology to the regulation of the pluripotency gene Nanog in mouse embryonic stem cells. Our data reveal the diversity of cell and population-level interactions with Nanog dynamics and heterogeneity, and how this regulation responds to triggers of pluripotency. Cell cycles are highly heterogeneous and cycle time increases with Nanog reporter expression, with longer, more variable cycle times as cells approach ground-state pluripotency. Nanog reporter expression is highly stable over multiple cell generations, with fluctuations within cycles confined by an attractor state. Modelling reveals an environmental component to expression stability, in addition to any cell-autonomous behaviour, and we identify interactions of cell density with both cycle behaviour and Nanog. Rex1 expression dynamics showed shared and distinct regulatory effects. Overall, our observations of multiple partially overlapping dynamic heterogeneities imply complex cell and environmental regulation of pluripotent cell behaviour, and suggest simple deterministic views of stem cell states are inappropriate. PMID:26209649

  6. Multiple cell and population-level interactions with mouse embryonic stem cell heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Danielle; Corrigan, Adam M.; Miermont, Agnes; McDonel, Patrick; Chubb, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Much of development and disease concerns the generation of gene expression differences between related cells sharing similar niches. However, most analyses of gene expression only assess population and time-averaged levels of steady-state transcription. The mechanisms driving differentiation are buried within snapshots of the average cell, lacking dynamic information and the diverse regulatory history experienced by individual cells. Here, we use a quantitative imaging platform with large time series data sets to determine the regulation of developmental gene expression by cell cycle, lineage, motility and environment. We apply this technology to the regulation of the pluripotency gene Nanog in mouse embryonic stem cells. Our data reveal the diversity of cell and population-level interactions with Nanog dynamics and heterogeneity, and how this regulation responds to triggers of pluripotency. Cell cycles are highly heterogeneous and cycle time increases with Nanog reporter expression, with longer, more variable cycle times as cells approach ground-state pluripotency. Nanog reporter expression is highly stable over multiple cell generations, with fluctuations within cycles confined by an attractor state. Modelling reveals an environmental component to expression stability, in addition to any cell-autonomous behaviour, and we identify interactions of cell density with both cycle behaviour and Nanog. Rex1 expression dynamics showed shared and distinct regulatory effects. Overall, our observations of multiple partially overlapping dynamic heterogeneities imply complex cell and environmental regulation of pluripotent cell behaviour, and suggest simple deterministic views of stem cell states are inappropriate. PMID:26209649

  7. An image-set for identifying multiple regions/levels of interest in digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber, Mustafa; Bailly, Mark; Wang, Yuqiong; Saber, Eli

    2011-09-01

    In the field of identifying regions-of-interest (ROI) in digital images, several image-sets are referenced in the literature; the open-source ones typically present a single main object (usually located at or near the image center as a pop-out). In this paper, we present a comprehensive image-set (with its ground-truth) which will be made publically available. The database consists of images that demonstrate multiple-regions-of-interest (MROI) or multiple-levels-of-interest (MLOI). The former terminology signifies that the scene has a group of subjects/objects (not necessarily spatially-connected regions) that share the same level of perceptual priority to the human observer while the latter indicates that the scene is complex enough to have primary, secondary, and background objects. The methodology for developing the proposed image-set is described. A psychophysical experiment to identify MROI and MLOI was conducted, the results of which are also presented. The image-set has been developed to be used in training and evaluation of ROI detection algorithms. Applications include image compression, thumbnailing, summarization, and mobile phone imagery. fluor

  8. Possible Evidence of Multiple Sea Level Oscillations in the Seychelles During the Last Interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, A. L.; Vyverberg, K.; Webster, J.; Dechnik, B.; Zwartz, D.; Lambeck, K.

    2013-12-01

    observations ostensibly support the notion that the last interglacial period was characterized by ice sheet instability, causing multiple sea level oscillations.

  9. Rapid multiple-level coevolution in experimental populations of yeast killer and nonkiller strains.

    PubMed

    Pieczynska, Magdalena D; Wloch-Salamon, Dominika; Korona, Ryszard; de Visser, J Arjan G M

    2016-06-01

    Coevolution between different biological entities is considered an important evolutionary mechanism at all levels of biological organization. Here, we provide evidence for coevolution of a yeast killer strain (K) carrying cytoplasmic dsRNA viruses coding for anti-competitor toxins and an isogenic toxin-sensitive strain (S) during 500 generations of laboratory propagation. Signatures of coevolution developed at two levels. One of them was coadaptation of K and S. Killing ability of K first increased quickly and was followed by the rapid invasion of toxin-resistant mutants derived from S, after which killing ability declined. High killing ability was shown to be advantageous when sensitive cells were present but costly when they were absent. Toxin resistance evolved via a two-step process, presumably involving the fitness-enhancing loss of one chromosome followed by selection of a recessive resistant mutation on the haploid chromosome. The other level of coevolution occurred between cell and killer virus. By swapping the killer viruses between ancestral and evolved strains, we could demonstrate that changes observed in both host and virus were beneficial only when combined, suggesting that they involved reciprocal changes. Together, our results show that the yeast killer system shows a remarkable potential for rapid multiple-level coevolution. PMID:27168531

  10. Understanding multiple levels of norms about teen pregnancy and their relationships to teens’ sexual behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Boardman, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys’ perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls’ perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens’ likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys’ contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors. PMID:25104920

  11. Understanding multiple levels of norms about teen pregnancy and their relationships to teens' sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W; Boardman, Jason D

    2014-06-01

    Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys' perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls' perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens' likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys' contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors. PMID:25104920

  12. Serum Gelatinases Levels in Multiple Sclerosis Patients during 21 Months of Natalizumab Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bellini, Tiziana; Trentini, Alessandro; Delbue, Serena; Elia, Francesca; Gastaldi, Matteo; Franciotta, Diego; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Manfrinato, Maria Cristina; Volta, Carlo Alberto; Granieri, Enrico; Fainardi, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Background. Natalizumab is a highly effective treatment approved for multiple sclerosis (MS). The opening of the blood-brain barrier mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is considered a crucial step in MS pathogenesis. Our goal was to verify the utility of serum levels of active MMP-2 and MMP-9 as biomarkers in twenty MS patients treated with Natalizumab. Methods. Serum levels of active MMP-2 and MMP-9 and of specific tissue inhibitors TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were determined before treatment and for 21 months of therapy. Results. Serum levels of active MMP-2 and MMP-9 and of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 did not differ during the treatment. The ratio between MMP-9 and MMP-2 was increased at the 15th month compared with the 3rd, 6th, and 9th months, greater at the 18th month than at the 3rd and 6th months, and higher at the 21st than at the 3rd and 6th months. Discussion. Our data indicate that an imbalance between active MMP-9 and active MMP-2 can occur in MS patients after 15 months of Natalizumab therapy; however, they do not support the use of serum active MMP-2 and active MMP-9 and TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels as biomarkers for monitoring therapeutic response to Natalizumab. PMID:27340316

  13. Addressing barriers to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis B and C in the face of persisting fiscal constraints in Europe: report from a high level conference.

    PubMed

    Papatheodoridis, G; Thomas, H C; Golna, C; Bernardi, M; Carballo, M; Cornberg, M; Dalekos, G; Degertekin, B; Dourakis, S; Flisiak, R; Goldberg, D; Gore, C; Goulis, I; Hadziyannis, S; Kalamitsis, G; Kanavos, P; Kautz, A; Koskinas, I; Leite, B R; Malliori, M; Manolakopoulos, S; Matičič, M; Papaevangelou, V; Pirona, A; Prati, D; Raptopoulou-Gigi, M; Reic, T; Robaeys, G; Schatz, E; Souliotis, K; Tountas, Y; Wiktor, S; Wilson, D; Yfantopoulos, J; Hatzakis, A

    2016-02-01

    In the WHO-EURO region, around 28 million people are currently living with chronic viral hepatitis, and 120,000 people die every year because of it. Lack of awareness and understanding combined with the social stigma and discrimination exacerbate barriers related to access to prevention, diagnosis and treatment services for those most in need. In addition, the persisting economic crisis has impacted on public health spending, thus posing challenges on the sustainable investment in promotion, primary and secondary prevention, diagnosis and treatment of viral hepatitis across European countries. The Hepatitis B and C Public Policy Association in cooperation with the Hellenic Center for Disease Prevention and Control together with 10 partner organizations discussed at the Athens High Level Meeting held in June 2014 recent policy developments, persisting and emerging challenges related to the prevention and management of viral hepatitis and the need for a de minimis framework of urgent priorities for action, reflected in a Call to Action (Appendix S1). The discussion confirmed that persisting barriers do not allow the full realisation of the public health potential of diagnosing and preventing hepatitis B and C, treating hepatitis B and curing hepatitis C. Such barriers are related to (a) lack of evidence-based knowledge of hepatitis B and C, (b) limited access to prevention, diagnosis and treatment services with poor patient pathways, (c) declining resources and (d) the presence of social stigma and discrimination. The discussion also confirmed the emerging importance of fiscal constraints on the ability of policymakers to adequately address viral hepatitis challenges, particularly through increasing coverage of newer therapies. In Europe, it is critical that public policy bodies urgently agree on a conceptual framework for addressing the existing and emerging barriers to managing viral hepatitis. Such a framework would ensure all health systems share a common

  14. Nocturnal plasma melatonin and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone levels during exacerbation of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sandyk, R; Awerbuch, G I

    1992-01-01

    The pineal gland has been implicated recently in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate this hypothesis further, we studied nocturnal plasma melatonin levels and the presence or absence of pineal calcification (PC) on CT scan in a cohort of 25 patients (5 men, 20 women; mean age: 41.1 years; SD = 11.1; range: 27-72) who were admitted to a hospital Neurology service for exacerbation of symptoms. Plasma alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) estimations were included in the study since there is evidence for a feedback inhibition between alpha-MSH and melatonin secretion. Abnormal melatonin levels were found in 13 patients (52.0%), 11 of whom had nocturnal levels which were below the daytime values (i.e., < 25 pg/ml). Although melatonin levels were unrelated to the patient's age and sex, there was a positive correlation with age of onset of symptoms (p < .0001) and an inverse correlation with the duration of illness (p < .05). PC was noted in 24 of 25 patients (96%) underscoring the pathogenetic relationship between MS and the pineal gland. Alpha-MSH levels were undetectable in 15 patients (60.0%), low in two patients (8.0%), normal in seven patients (28.0%), and elevated in one patient (4.0%). Collectively, abnormal alpha-MSH levels were found in over 70% of patients. These findings support the hypothesis that MS may be associated with pineal failure and suggest, furthermore, that alterations in the secretion of alpha-MSH also occur during exacerbation of symptoms. The relevance of these findings to the pathogenesis of MS are discussed. PMID:1305632

  15. Changes in Serum Ceruloplasmin Levels Based on Immunomodulatory Treatments and Melatonin Supplementation in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk-Sowa, Monika; Sowa, Paweł; Mucha, Sebastian; Zostawa, Jacek; Mazur, Bogdan; Owczarek, Maciej; Pierzchała, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    Background The cause of multiple sclerosis (MS) is currently unknown, but it is thought that oxidative damage and iron metabolism mechanisms are involved. The aim of this study was to examine ceruloplasmin concentration in MS patients based on various immunomodifying therapies and to test the effect of antioxidative melatonin on ceruloplasmin levels. Material/Methods This prospective study included 102 MS patients and 15 healthy controls. Patients were divided into groups according to different immunomodifying therapies: interferons beta 1a, interferons beta 1b, glatiramer acetate, mitoxantrone, and immunomodifying pre-treatment (A, B, G, Mx, and P groups, respectively), and the relapse R group. MS patients were supplemented with melatonin for 3 months. Serum ceruloplasmin concentrations, EDSS, brain MRI, serum C-reactive protein level, and white blood cell count were examined. Results The results indicated significantly increased levels of ceruloplasmin in MS patients. No differences in ceruloplasmin concentrations between the relapse group and controls were observed. In A and G groups, ceruloplasmin levels before and after melatonin were similar to levels in controls. In group B, ceruloplasmin concentration was significantly higher vs. control and relapse groups. After melatonin administration in group B, ceruloplasmin levels decreased. Ceruloplasmin concentrations in the Mx group were significantly higher compared to controls. Conclusions We found for the first time that ceruloplasmin concentration in MS patients varies depending on different immunomodulatory treatment and decrease after 3 months of melatonin administration. Ceruloplasmin could be a valuable serum marker for the chronic demyelinating process participating in oxidative stress mechanisms, as well as a neurodegenerative marker, but not a marker of acute-phase MS. PMID:27420299

  16. Changes in Serum Ceruloplasmin Levels Based on Immunomodulatory Treatments and Melatonin Supplementation in Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk-Sowa, Monika; Sowa, Paweł; Mucha, Sebastian; Zostawa, Jacek; Mazur, Bogdan; Owczarek, Maciej; Pierzchała, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The cause of multiple sclerosis (MS) is currently unknown, but it is thought that oxidative damage and iron metabolism mechanisms are involved. The aim of this study was to examine ceruloplasmin concentration in MS patients based on various immunomodifying therapies and to test the effect of antioxidative melatonin on ceruloplasmin levels. MATERIAL AND METHODS This prospective study included 102 MS patients and 15 healthy controls. Patients were divided into groups according to different immunomodifying therapies: interferons beta 1a, interferons beta 1b, glatiramer acetate, mitoxantrone, and immunomodifying pre-treatment (A, B, G, Mx, and P groups, respectively), and the relapse R group. MS patients were supplemented with melatonin for 3 months. Serum ceruloplasmin concentrations, EDSS, brain MRI, serum C-reactive protein level, and white blood cell count were examined. RESULTS The results indicated significantly increased levels of ceruloplasmin in MS patients. No differences in ceruloplasmin concentrations between the relapse group and controls were observed. In A and G groups, ceruloplasmin levels before and after melatonin were similar to levels in controls. In group B, ceruloplasmin concentration was significantly higher vs. control and relapse groups. After melatonin administration in group B, ceruloplasmin levels decreased. Ceruloplasmin concentrations in the Mx group were significantly higher compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS We found for the first time that ceruloplasmin concentration in MS patients varies depending on different immunomodulatory treatment and decrease after 3 months of melatonin administration. Ceruloplasmin could be a valuable serum marker for the chronic demyelinating process participating in oxidative stress mechanisms, as well as a neurodegenerative marker, but not a marker of acute-phase MS. PMID:27420299

  17. Combinatorial effects of multiple enhancer variants in linkage disequilibrium dictate levels of gene expression to confer susceptibility to common traits.

    PubMed

    Corradin, Olivia; Saiakhova, Alina; Akhtar-Zaidi, Batool; Myeroff, Lois; Willis, Joseph; Cowper-Sal lari, Richard; Lupien, Mathieu; Markowitz, Sanford; Scacheri, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    DNA variants (SNPs) that predispose to common traits often localize within noncoding regulatory elements such as enhancers. Moreover, loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) often contain multiple SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (LD), any of which may be causal. Thus, determining the effect of these multiple variant SNPs on target transcript levels has been a major challenge. Here, we provide evidence that for six common autoimmune disorders (rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, celiac disease, multiple sclerosis, lupus, and ulcerative colitis), the GWAS association arises from multiple polymorphisms in LD that map to clusters of enhancer elements active in the same cell type. This finding suggests a "multiple enhancer variant" hypothesis for common traits, where several variants in LD impact multiple enhancers and cooperatively affect gene expression. Using a novel method to delineate enhancer-gene interactions, we show that multiple enhancer variants within a given locus typically target the same gene. Using available data from HapMap and B lymphoblasts as a model system, we provide evidence at numerous loci that multiple enhancer variants cooperatively contribute to altered expression of their gene targets. The effects on target transcript levels tend to be modest and can be either gain- or loss-of-function. Additionally, the genes associated with multiple enhancer variants encode proteins that are often functionally related and enriched in common pathways. Overall, the multiple enhancer variant hypothesis offers a new paradigm by which noncoding variants can confer susceptibility to common traits. PMID:24196873

  18. Altered α-synuclein, parkin, and synphilin isoform levels in multiple system atrophy brains.

    PubMed

    Brudek, Tomasz; Winge, Kristian; Rasmussen, Nadja Bredo; Bahl, Justyna Maria Czarna; Tanassi, Julia; Agander, Tina Klitmøller; Hyde, Thomas M; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Together with Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a member of a diverse group of neurodegenerative disorders termed α-synucleinopathies. Previously, it has been shown that α-synuclein, parkin, and synphilin-1 display disease-specific transcription patterns in frontal cortex in PD, dementia with Lewy bodies, and MSA, and thus may mediate the development of α-synucleinopathies. In this study, the differential expression of α-synuclein isoforms on transcriptional and translational levels was ascertained in MSA patients in comparison with PD cases and normal controls using isoform-specific primers and exon-specific antibodies in substantia nigra, striatum, cerebellar cortex, and nucleus dentatus. These regions are severely affected by α-synuclein pathology and neurodegeneration. Furthermore, we have also investigated transcript levels for parkin and synphilin-1 isoforms. In MSA brains, α-synuclein140 and α-synuclein 112 isoform levels were significantly increased, whereas levels of the α-synuclein 126 isoform were decreased in the substantia nigra, striatum, cerebellar cortex, and nucleus dentatus versus controls. Moreover, in MSA cases, we showed increased levels of parkin isoforms lacking the N-terminal ubiquitin-like domain and an aggregation-prone synphilin-1A isoform that causes neuronal toxicity in MSA. In PD brains, parkin transcript variant 3, 7, and 11 were significantly and specifically over-expressed in the striatum and cerebellar cortex, together with synphilin-1A and 1C. The changes of isoform expression profiles in neurodegenerative diseases suggest alterations in the regulation of transcription and/or splicing events, leading to regional/cellular events that may be important for the highly increased aggregation of α-synuclein in the brain. We report differential expression of α-synuclein, parkin, and synphilin-1 isoforms in multiple system atrophy (MSA) versus Parkinson's disease and normal

  19. Resonance fluorescence of strongly driven two-level system coupled to multiple dissipative reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yiying; Lü, Zhiguo; Zheng, Hang

    2016-08-01

    We present a theoretical formalism for resonance fluorescence radiating from a two-level system (TLS) driven by any periodic driving and coupled to multiple reservoirs. The formalism is derived analytically based on the combination of Floquet theory and Born-Markov master equation. The formalism allows us to calculate the spectrum when the Floquet states and quasienergies are analytically or numerically solved for simple or complicated driving fields. We can systematically explore the spectral features by implementing the present formalism. To exemplify this theory, we apply the unified formalism to comprehensively study a generic model that a harmonically driven TLS is simultaneously coupled to a radiative reservoir and a dephasing reservoir. We demonstrate that the significant features of the fluorescence spectra, the driving-induced asymmetry and the dephasing-induced asymmetry, can be attributed to the violation of detailed balance condition, and explained in terms of the driving-related transition quantities between Floquet-states and their steady populations. In addition, we find the distinguished features of the fluorescence spectra under the biharmonic and multiharmonic driving fields in contrast with that of the harmonic driving case. In the case of the biharmonic driving, we find that the spectra are significantly different from the result of the RWA under the multiple resonance conditions. By the three concrete applications, we illustrate that the present formalism provides a routine tool for comprehensively exploring the fluorescence spectrum of periodically strongly driven TLSs.

  20. Asymmetric signal amplification for simultaneous SERS detection of multiple cancer markers with significantly different levels.

    PubMed

    Ye, Sujuan; Wu, Yanying; Zhai, Xiaomo; Tang, Bo

    2015-08-18

    Simultaneous detection of cancer biomarkers holds great promise for the early diagnosis of different cancers. However, in the presence of high-concentration biomarkers, the signals of lower-expression biomarkers are overlapped. Existing techniques are not suitable for simultaneously detecting multiple biomarkers at concentrations with significantly different orders of magnitude. Here, we propose an asymmetric signal amplification method for simultaneously detecting multiple biomarkers with significantly different levels. Using the bifunctional probe, a linear amplification mode responds to high-concentration markers, and quadratic amplification mode responds to low-concentration markers. With the combined biobarcode probe and hybridization chain reaction (HCR) amplification method, the detection limits of microRNA (miRNA) and ATP via surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection are 0.15 fM and 20 nM, respectively, with a breakthrough of detection concentration difference over 11 orders of magnitude. Furthermore, successful determination of miRNA and ATP in cancer cells supports the practicability of the assay. This methodology promises to open an exciting new avenue for the detection of various types of biomolecules. PMID:26218034

  1. A Compendium of Caenorhabditis elegans RNA Binding Proteins Predicts Extensive Regulation at Multiple Levels

    PubMed Central

    Tamburino, Alex M.; Ryder, Sean P.; Walhout, Albertha J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression is regulated at multiple levels, including transcription and translation, as well as mRNA and protein stability. Although systems-level functions of transcription factors and microRNAs are rapidly being characterized, few studies have focused on the posttranscriptional gene regulation by RNA binding proteins (RBPs). RBPs are important to many aspects of gene regulation. Thus, it is essential to know which genes encode RBPs, which RBPs regulate which gene(s), and how RBP genes are themselves regulated. Here we provide a comprehensive compendium of RBPs from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (wRBP1.0). We predict that as many as 887 (4.4%) of C. elegans genes may encode RBPs ~250 of which likely function in a gene-specific manner. In addition, we find that RBPs, and most notably gene-specific RBPs, are themselves enriched for binding and modification by regulatory proteins, indicating the potential for extensive regulation of RBPs at many different levels. wRBP1.0 will provide a significant contribution toward the comprehensive delineation of posttranscriptional regulatory networks and will provide a resource for further studies regulation by RBPs. PMID:23390605

  2. Serum uric acid level in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ashtari, Fereshteh; Bahar, Mohammadali; Aghaei, Maryam; Zahed, Arash

    2013-05-01

    Uric acid (UA) is a hydrophilic antioxidant product associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). We conducted a randomized case-control study to evaluate the serum level of UA in different phases of MS in comparison with levels in a healthy control population. Serum UA was checked in 130 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (85 patients in remitting and 45 patients in relapsing phase) and 50 age-matched controls using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mean concentrations of UA in serum was 6.41(±3.18)mg/dL in patients with remitting MS, 4.76(±1.66)mg/dL in patients with relapsing MS and 6.33(±2.94)mg/dL in controls. There was a significant difference between mean UA concentration in relapsing MS and remitting MS (p<0.001), and between patients with relapsing MS and controls (p=0.002); however, the difference between levels for patients in the remitting phase of MS and the control group was not significant (p=0.87). It seems probable that UA has a role in the prevention of disease activity in MS. PMID:23528410

  3. Decreased Endothelin-1 Plasma Levels in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Possible Factor of Vascular Dysregulation?

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska-Lech, Irmina; Terelak-Borys, Barbara; Grabska-Liberek, Iwona; Palasik, Witold; Bik, Wojciech; Wolińska-Witort, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system with possible involvement of vascular dysregulation secondary to endothelial dysfunction caused by destruction of the vessel wall. Vascular dysregulation leads to excessive vasoconstriction or insufficient vasodilatation, resulting in vasospasm mediated by endothelin-1 (ET-1), the most potent and long-lasting mediator. Vascular dysregulation can play an important role in the pathogenesis of some eye disorders and it has been hypothesized that it is a vascular risk factor for glaucomatous optic neuropathy. The aim of this study was to estimate endothelin-1 (ET-1) plasma levels in patients with MS. Material/Methods The MS group consisted of 39 patients (9 males, 30 females), mean age: 38.8±10.02 years, range: 22–62. The control group consisted of 27 healthy volunteers (3 males and 24 females), mean age: 37.4±10.88 years, range: 20–62; clinically, in a non-active stage of the disease. ET-1 plasma levels were measured using the Endothelin-1 ELISA Kit (Immuno-Biological Laboratories Co., Japan). Statistical analysis was performed with the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test for independent groups. Results Endothelin-1 (ET-1) plasma levels were significantly lower in MS patients compared to healthy controls: mean value 0.55±0.44 pg/ml (146.05±118.27 fmol/ml) vs. 0.95±0.48 pg/ml (252.83±127.16 fmol/ml); P=0.012. Conclusions Significantly decreased ET-1 plasma levels in the MS patients could reflect the non-active disease at the time of ET-1 measurements or the effects of immunomodulatory treatment, but it cannot be excluded that decreased ET-1 plasma levels in these patients might result from vascular dysregulation. PMID:25864450

  4. Association of Children’s Urinary CC16 Levels with Arsenic Concentrations in Multiple Environmental Media

    PubMed Central

    Beamer, Paloma I.; Klimecki, Walter T.; Loh, Miranda; Van Horne, Yoshira Ornelas; Sugeng, Anastasia J.; Lothrop, Nathan; Billheimer, Dean; Guerra, Stefano; Lantz, Robert Clark; Canales, Robert A.; Martinez, Fernando D.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with decreased club cell secretory protein (CC16) levels in adults. Further, both arsenic exposure and decreased levels of CC16 in childhood have been associated with decreased adult lung function. Our objective was to determine if urinary CC16 levels in children are associated with arsenic concentrations in environmental media collected from their homes. Yard soil, house dust, and tap water were taken from 34 homes. Urine and toenail samples were collected from 68 children. All concentrations were natural log-transformed prior to data analysis. There were associations between urinary CC16 and arsenic concentration in soil (b = −0.43, p = 0.001, R2 = 0.08), water (b = −0.22, p = 0.07, R2 = 0.03), house dust (b = −0.37, p = 0.07, R2 = 0.04), and dust loading (b = −0.21, p = 0.04, R2 = 0.04). In multiple analyses, only the concentration of arsenic in soil was associated with urinary CC16 levels (b = −0.42, p = 0.02, R2 = 0.14 (full model)) after accounting for other factors. The association between urinary CC16 and soil arsenic may suggest that localized arsenic exposure in the lungs could damage the airway epithelium and predispose children for diminished lung function. Future work to assess this possible mechanism should examine potential associations between airborne arsenic exposures, CC16 levels, lung function, and other possible confounders in children in arsenic-impacted communities. PMID:27223295

  5. Association of Children's Urinary CC16 Levels with Arsenic Concentrations in Multiple Environmental Media.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Paloma I; Klimecki, Walter T; Loh, Miranda; Van Horne, Yoshira Ornelas; Sugeng, Anastasia J; Lothrop, Nathan; Billheimer, Dean; Guerra, Stefano; Lantz, Robert Clark; Canales, Robert A; Martinez, Fernando D

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with decreased club cell secretory protein (CC16) levels in adults. Further, both arsenic exposure and decreased levels of CC16 in childhood have been associated with decreased adult lung function. Our objective was to determine if urinary CC16 levels in children are associated with arsenic concentrations in environmental media collected from their homes. Yard soil, house dust, and tap water were taken from 34 homes. Urine and toenail samples were collected from 68 children. All concentrations were natural log-transformed prior to data analysis. There were associations between urinary CC16 and arsenic concentration in soil (b = -0.43, p = 0.001, R² = 0.08), water (b = -0.22, p = 0.07, R² = 0.03), house dust (b = -0.37, p = 0.07, R² = 0.04), and dust loading (b = -0.21, p = 0.04, R² = 0.04). In multiple analyses, only the concentration of arsenic in soil was associated with urinary CC16 levels (b = -0.42, p = 0.02, R² = 0.14 (full model)) after accounting for other factors. The association between urinary CC16 and soil arsenic may suggest that localized arsenic exposure in the lungs could damage the airway epithelium and predispose children for diminished lung function. Future work to assess this possible mechanism should examine potential associations between airborne arsenic exposures, CC16 levels, lung function, and other possible confounders in children in arsenic-impacted communities. PMID:27223295

  6. Systemic Inflammatory Response and Serum Lipopolysaccharide Levels Predict Multiple Organ Failure and Death in Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Michelena, Javier; Altamirano, José; Abraldes, Juan G.; Affò, Silvia; Morales-Ibanez, Oriol; Sancho-Bru, Pau; Dominguez, Marlene; García-Pagán, Juan Carlos; Fernández, Javier; Arroyo, Vicente; Ginès, Pere; Louvet, Alexandre; Mathurin, Philippe; Mehal, Wajahat Z.; Caballería, Juan; Bataller, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) frequently progresses to multiple organ failure (MOF) and death. However, the driving factors are largely unknown. At admission, patients with AH often show criteria of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) even in the absence of an infection. We hypothesize that the presence of SIRS may predispose to MOF and death. To test this hypothesis, we studied a cohort including 162 patients with biopsy-proven AH. The presence of SIRS and infections was assessed in all patients, and multivariate analyses identified variables independently associated with MOF and 90-day mortality. At admission, 32 (19.8%) patients were diagnosed with a bacterial infection, while 75 (46.3%) fulfilled SIRS criteria; 58 patients (35.8%) developed MOF during hospitalization. Short-term mortality was significantly higher among patients who developed MOF (62.1% versus 3.8%, P <0.001). The presence of SIRS was a major predictor of MOF (odds ratio = 2.69, P=0.025) and strongly correlated with mortality. Importantly, the course of patients with SIRS with and without infection was similar in terms of MOF development and short-term mortality. Finally, we sought to identify serum markers that differentiate SIRS with and without infection. We studied serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and lipopolysaccharide at admission. All of them predicted mortality. Procalcitonin, but not high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, serum levels identified those patients with SIRS and infection. Lipopolysaccharide serum levels predicted MOF and the response to prednisolone. Conclusion In the presence or absence of infections, SIRS is a major determinant of MOF and mortality in AH, and the mechanisms involved in the development of SIRS should be investigated; procalcitonin serum levels can help to identify patients with infection, and lipopolysaccharide levels may help to predict mortality and the response to steroids. PMID:25761863

  7. ULTRASPEC: an electron multiplication CCD camera for very low light level high speed astronomical spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ives, Derek; Bezawada, Nagaraja; Dhillon, Vik; Marsh, Tom

    2008-07-01

    We present the design, characteristics and astronomical results for ULTRASPEC, a high speed Electron Multiplication CCD (EMCCD) camera using an E2VCCD201 (1K frame transfer device), developed to prove the performance of this new optical detector technology in astronomical spectrometry, particularly in the high speed, low light level regime. We present both modelled and real data for these detectors with particular regard to avalanche gain and clock induced charge (CIC). We present first light results from the camera as used on the EFOSC-2 instrument at the ESO 3.6 metre telescope in La Silla. We also present the design for a proposed new 4Kx2K frame transfer EMCCD.

  8. Modulation of C. elegans touch sensitivity is integrated at multiple levels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyin; Chalfie, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Sensory systems can adapt to different environmental signals. Here we identify four conditions that modulate anterior touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans after several hours and demonstrate that such sensory modulation is integrated at multiple levels to produce a single output. Prolonged vibration involving integrin signaling directly sensitizes the touch receptor neurons (TRNs). In contrast, hypoxia, the dauer state, and high salt reduce touch sensitivity by preventing the release of long-range neuroregulators, including two insulin-like proteins. Integration of these latter inputs occurs at upstream neurohormonal cells and at the insulin signaling cascade within the TRNs. These signals and those from integrin signaling converge to modulate touch sensitivity by regulating AKT kinases and DAF-16/FOXO. Thus, activation of either the integrin or insulin pathways can compensate for defects in the other pathway. This modulatory system integrates conflicting signals from different modalities, and adapts touch sensitivity to both mechanical and non-mechanical conditions. PMID:24806678

  9. Sensorimotor Encoding by Synchronous Neural Ensemble Activity at Multiple Levels of the Somatosensory System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocolelis, Miguel A. L.; Baccala, Luiz A.; Lin, Rick C. S.; Chapin, John K.

    1995-06-01

    Neural ensemble processing of sensorimotor information during behavior was investigated by simultaneously recording up to 48 single neurons at multiple relays of the rat trigeminal somatosensory system. Cortical, thalamic, and brainstem neurons exhibited widespread 7- to 12-hertz synchronous oscillations, which began during attentive immobility and reliably predicted the imminent onset of rhythmic whisker twitching. Each oscillatory cycle began as a traveling wave of neural activity in the cortex that then spread to the thalamus. Just before the onset of rhythmic whisker twitching, the oscillations spread to the spinal trigeminal brainstem complex. Thereafter, the oscillations at all levels were synchronous with whisker protraction. Neural structures manifesting these rhythms also exhibited distributed spatiotemporal patterns of neuronal ensemble activity in response to tactile stimulation. Thus, multilevel synchronous activity in this system may encode not only sensory information but also the onset and temporal domain of tactile exploratory movements.

  10. Multiple-level threshold switching behavior of In2Se3 confined in a nanostructured silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Young; Sun, Ke; Li, Biyun; Xie, Ya-Hong; Wei, Xinyu; Russell, Thomas P.

    2010-08-01

    We report the experimental observation of an intriguing behavior of multiple-level threshold switching of Si-In2Se3 heterojunction devices consisting of high-density arrays of sharp points of nanometer radius of curvature. Comparison with devices of similar junction area but without the sharp points shows that the multiple-level switching behavior is unique to devices with junctions consisting of sharp points.

  11. Higher minor hemoglobin A2 levels in multiple sclerosis patients correlate with lesser disease severity

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, Muhammed Emin; Ince, Bahri; Karadeli, Hasan Huseyin; Gedikbasi, Asuman; Asil, Talip; Altinoz, Meric A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To define whether minor adult hemoglobin A2 (HbA2, α2δ2) exerts any protective activity in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods HbA2 levels were measured in 146 MS patients with high performance liquid chromatography and association with MS Severity Scores (MSSS) were determined. HbA2 associations with blood count parameters were also studied using blood counts evaluated on the same day of high performance liquid chromatography sampling. Routine biochemical parameters were also determined to rule out elusively influential factors, such as anemia and thyroid disorders. Results HbA2 levels negatively correlated with MSSS (Spearman correlation, R: −0.186, P=0.025). Exclusion of confounding factors with a generalized linear model revealed an even stronger negative correlation between HbA2 and MSSS (P<0.001). HbA2 positively correlated with red blood cells (RBCs) (R=0.350, P<0.001) and in turn, RBCs negatively correlated with MSSS (R=−0.180, P=0.031). Average HbA2 levels were highest among patients treated with interferon β1a. Conclusion RBC fragility is increased in MS, and recent data suggest that circulating free Hb contributes to neural injury in MS. HbA2 and its oxidative denaturation product hemichrome A2 enhance RBC membrane stability to a greater extent than do major HbA or hemichrome A. Reductions in ischemic cerebrovascular vascular events are reported in β-thalassemia carriers and HbA2 levels are considerably higher in this population. Episodic declines of cerebral blood flow were shown in bipolar disorder, and we have recently shown a protective role of HbA2 against postpartum episodes in females with bipolar disorder. HbA2’s erythroprotective functions may reduce free Hb and long-term neural injury in MS. PMID:27578976

  12. The nuclear receptor LXR modulates interleukin-18 levels in macrophages through multiple mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Pourcet, Benoit; Gage, Matthew C.; León, Theresa E.; Waddington, Kirsty E.; Pello, Oscar M.; Steffensen, Knut R.; Castrillo, Antonio; Valledor, Annabel F.; Pineda-Torra, Inés

    2016-01-01

    IL-18 is a member of the IL-1 family involved in innate immunity and inflammation. Deregulated levels of IL-18 are involved in the pathogenesis of multiple disorders including inflammatory and metabolic diseases, yet relatively little is known regarding its regulation. Liver X receptors or LXRs are key modulators of macrophage cholesterol homeostasis and immune responses. Here we show that LXR ligands negatively regulate LPS-induced mRNA and protein expression of IL-18 in bone marrow-derived macrophages. Consistent with this being an LXR-mediated process, inhibition is abolished in the presence of a specific LXR antagonist and in LXR-deficient macrophages. Additionally, IL-18 processing of its precursor inactive form to its bioactive state is inhibited by LXR through negative regulation of both pro-caspase 1 expression and activation. Finally, LXR ligands further modulate IL-18 levels by inducing the expression of IL-18BP, a potent endogenous inhibitor of IL-18. This regulation occurs via the transcription factor IRF8, thus identifying IL-18BP as a novel LXR and IRF8 target gene. In conclusion, LXR activation inhibits IL-18 production through regulation of its transcription and maturation into an active pro-inflammatory cytokine. This novel regulation of IL-18 by LXR could be applied to modulate the severity of IL-18 driven metabolic and inflammatory disorders. PMID:27149934

  13. Coenzyme Q10 Levels Are Decreased in the Cerebellum of Multiple-System Atrophy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schottlaender, Lucia V.; Bettencourt, Conceição; Kiely, Aoife P.; Chalasani, Annapurna; Neergheen, Viruna; Holton, Janice L.; Hargreaves, Iain; Houlden, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the levels of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in brain tissue of multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients differ from those in elderly controls and in patients with other neurodegenerative diseases. Methods Flash frozen brain tissue of a series of 20 pathologically confirmed MSA patients [9 olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) type, 6 striatonigral degeneration (SND) type, and 5 mixed type] was used for this study. Elderly controls (n = 37) as well as idiopathic Parkinson's disease (n = 7), dementia with Lewy bodies (n = 20), corticobasal degeneration (n = 15) and cerebellar ataxia (n = 18) patients were used as comparison groups. CoQ10 was measured in cerebellar and frontal cortex tissue by high performance liquid chromatography. Results We detected a statistically significant decrease (by 3–5%) in the level of CoQ10 in the cerebellum of MSA cases (P = 0.001), specifically in OPCA (P = 0.001) and mixed cases (P = 0.005), when compared to controls as well as to other neurodegenerative diseases [dementia with Lewy bodies (P<0.001), idiopathic Parkinson's disease (P<0.001), corticobasal degeneration (P<0.001), and cerebellar ataxia (P = 0.001)]. Conclusion Our results suggest that a perturbation in the CoQ10 biosynthetic pathway is associated with the pathogenesis of MSA but the mechanism behind this finding remains to be elucidated. PMID:26894433

  14. The nuclear receptor LXR modulates interleukin-18 levels in macrophages through multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pourcet, Benoit; Gage, Matthew C; León, Theresa E; Waddington, Kirsty E; Pello, Oscar M; Steffensen, Knut R; Castrillo, Antonio; Valledor, Annabel F; Pineda-Torra, Inés

    2016-01-01

    IL-18 is a member of the IL-1 family involved in innate immunity and inflammation. Deregulated levels of IL-18 are involved in the pathogenesis of multiple disorders including inflammatory and metabolic diseases, yet relatively little is known regarding its regulation. Liver X receptors or LXRs are key modulators of macrophage cholesterol homeostasis and immune responses. Here we show that LXR ligands negatively regulate LPS-induced mRNA and protein expression of IL-18 in bone marrow-derived macrophages. Consistent with this being an LXR-mediated process, inhibition is abolished in the presence of a specific LXR antagonist and in LXR-deficient macrophages. Additionally, IL-18 processing of its precursor inactive form to its bioactive state is inhibited by LXR through negative regulation of both pro-caspase 1 expression and activation. Finally, LXR ligands further modulate IL-18 levels by inducing the expression of IL-18BP, a potent endogenous inhibitor of IL-18. This regulation occurs via the transcription factor IRF8, thus identifying IL-18BP as a novel LXR and IRF8 target gene. In conclusion, LXR activation inhibits IL-18 production through regulation of its transcription and maturation into an active pro-inflammatory cytokine. This novel regulation of IL-18 by LXR could be applied to modulate the severity of IL-18 driven metabolic and inflammatory disorders. PMID:27149934

  15. Analytical characterization of high-level mixed wastes using multiple sample preparation treatments

    SciTech Connect

    King, A.G.; Baldwin, D.L.; Urie, M.W.; McKinley, S.G.

    1994-09-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in Richland, Washington, is actively involved in performing analytical characterization of high-level mixed waste from Hanford`s single shell and double shell tank characterization programs. A full suite of analyses is typically performed on homogenized tank core samples. These analytical techniques include inductively-coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, total organic carbon methods and radiochemistry methods, as well as many others, all requiring some type of remote sample-preparation treatment to solubilize the tank sludge material for analysis. Most of these analytical methods typically use a single sample-preparation treatment, inherently providing elemental information only. To better understand and interpret tank chemistry and assist in identifying chemical compounds, selected analytical methods are performed using multiple sample-preparation treatments. The sample preparation treatments used at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for this work with high-level mixed waste include caustic fusion, acid digestion, and water leach. The type of information available by comparing results from different sample-prep treatments includes evidence for the presence of refractory compounds, acid-soluble compounds, or water-soluble compounds. Problems unique to the analysis of Hanford tank wastes are discussed. Selected results from the Hanford single shell ferrocyanide tank, 241-C-109, are presented, and the resulting conclusions are discussed.

  16. CO2 and nutrient-driven changes across multiple levels of organization in Zostera noltii ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Crego, B.; Olivé, I.; Santos, R.

    2014-04-01

    Increasing evidence emphasizes that the effects of human impacts on ecosystems must be investigated using designs that incorporate the responses across levels of biological organization as well as the effects of multiple stressors. Here we implemented a mesocosm experiment to investigate how the effects of CO2 enrichment and its interaction with eutrophication, scale-up from changes in primary producers at the individual- (biochemistry) or population-level (production, reproduction, and/or abundance) to higher levels of community (macroalgae abundance, herbivory, and global metabolism) and ecosystem organization (detritus release and carbon sink capacity). The responses of Zostera noltii seagrass meadows growing in low- and high- nutrient field conditions were compared. In both meadows, the effect of elevated CO2 levels was mediated by epiphyte proliferation (mostly the cyanobacterium Microcoleus spp.), but not through changes in plant biochemistry or population-level traits. In the low-nutrient meadow, epiphyte proliferation suppressed the CO2 benefits on Z. noltii leaf production and led to increased detritus and decreased organic matter in sediment. Faster and stronger responses to nutrients than to CO2 were observed. Nutrient addition enhanced the nutritional quality of Z. noltii (high N, low C : N and phenolics) and the loss of leaves and shoots, while promoted the proliferation of pennate diatoms and purple bacteria. These changes led to a reduced sediment organic matter, but had no significant effects on herbivory nor on community metabolism. Interestingly, the interaction with CO2 attenuated eutrophication effects. In the high-nutrient meadow, a striking shoot decline caused by amphipod overgrazing was observed, with no response to CO2 and nutrient additions. Our results reveal that under future scenarios of CO2, the responses of seagrass ecosystems will be complex, being mediated by epiphyte proliferation rather than by effects on plant biochemistry. The

  17. CO2 and nutrient-driven changes across multiple levels of organization in Zostera noltii ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Crego, B.; Olivé, I.; Santos, R.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing evidence emphasizes that the effects of human impacts on ecosystems must be investigated using designs that incorporate the responses across levels of biological organization as well as the effects of multiple stressors. Here we implemented a mesocosm experiment to investigate how the individual and interactive effects of CO2 enrichment and eutrophication scale-up from changes in primary producers at the individual (biochemistry) or population level (production, reproduction, and/or abundance) to higher levels of community (macroalgae abundance, herbivory, and global metabolism), and ecosystem organization (detritus release and carbon sink capacity). The responses of Zostera noltii seagrass meadows growing in low- and high-nutrient field conditions were compared. In both meadows, the expected CO2 benefits on Z. noltii leaf production were suppressed by epiphyte overgrowth, with no direct CO2 effect on plant biochemistry or population-level traits. Multi-level meadow response to nutrients was faster and stronger than to CO2. Nutrient enrichment promoted the nutritional quality of Z. noltii (high N, low C : N and phenolics), the growth of epiphytic pennate diatoms and purple bacteria, and shoot mortality. In the low-nutrient meadow, individual effects of CO2 and nutrients separately resulted in reduced carbon storage in the sediment, probably due to enhanced microbial degradation of more labile organic matter. These changes, however, had no effect on herbivory or on community metabolism. Interestingly, individual effects of CO2 or nutrient addition on epiphytes, shoot mortality, and carbon storage were attenuated when nutrients and CO2 acted simultaneously. This suggests CO2-induced benefits on eutrophic meadows. In the high-nutrient meadow, a striking shoot decline caused by amphipod overgrazing masked the response to CO2 and nutrient additions. Our results reveal that under future scenarios of CO2, the responses of seagrass ecosystems will be complex and

  18. Molecular Evolution of Multiple-Level Control of Heme Biosynthesis Pathway in Animal Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Tzou, Wen-Shyong; Chu, Ying; Lin, Tzung-Yi; Hu, Chin-Hwa; Pai, Tun-Wen; Liu, Hsin-Fu; Lin, Han-Jia; Cases, Ildeofonso; Rojas, Ana; Sanchez, Mayka; You, Zong-Ye; Hsu, Ming-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation of enzymes in a metabolic pathway can occur not only through changes in amino acid sequences but also through variations in transcriptional activation, mRNA splicing and mRNA translation. The heme biosynthesis pathway, a linear pathway comprised of eight consecutive enzymes in animals, provides researchers with ample information for multiple types of evolutionary analyses performed with respect to the position of each enzyme in the pathway. Through bioinformatics analysis, we found that the protein-coding sequences of all enzymes in this pathway are under strong purifying selection, from cnidarians to mammals. However, loose evolutionary constraints are observed for enzymes in which self-catalysis occurs. Through comparative genomics, we found that in animals, the first intron of the enzyme-encoding genes has been co-opted for transcriptional activation of the genes in this pathway. Organisms sense the cellular content of iron, and through iron-responsive elements in the 5′ untranslated regions of mRNAs and the intron-exon boundary regions of pathway genes, translational inhibition and exon choice in enzymes may be enabled, respectively. Pathway product (heme)-mediated negative feedback control can affect the transport of pathway enzymes into the mitochondria as well as the ubiquitin-mediated stability of enzymes. Remarkably, the positions of these controls on pathway activity are not ubiquitous but are biased towards the enzymes in the upstream portion of the pathway. We revealed that multiple-level controls on the activity of the heme biosynthesis pathway depend on the linear depth of the enzymes in the pathway, indicating a new strategy for discovering the molecular constraints that shape the evolution of a metabolic pathway. PMID:24489775

  19. The Periaqueductal Gray Orchestrates Sensory and Motor Circuits at Multiple Levels of the Neuraxis

    PubMed Central

    Koutsikou, Stella; Watson, Thomas C.; Crook, Jonathan J.; Leith, J. Lianne; Lawrenson, Charlotte L.; Lumb, Bridget M.

    2015-01-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) coordinates behaviors essential to survival, including striking changes in movement and posture (e.g., escape behaviors in response to noxious stimuli vs freezing in response to fear-evoking stimuli). However, the neural circuits underlying the expression of these behaviors remain poorly understood. We demonstrate in vivo in rats that activation of the ventrolateral PAG (vlPAG) affects motor systems at multiple levels of the neuraxis through the following: (1) differential control of spinal neurons that forward sensory information to the cerebellum via spino-olivo-cerebellar pathways (nociceptive signals are reduced while proprioceptive signals are enhanced); (2) alterations in cerebellar nuclear output as revealed by changes in expression of Fos-like immunoreactivity; and (3) regulation of spinal reflex circuits, as shown by an increase in α-motoneuron excitability. The capacity to coordinate sensory and motor functions is demonstrated in awake, behaving rats, in which natural activation of the vlPAG in fear-conditioned animals reduced transmission in spino-olivo-cerebellar pathways during periods of freezing that were associated with increased muscle tone and thus motor outflow. The increase in spinal motor reflex excitability and reduction in transmission of ascending sensory signals via spino-olivo-cerebellar pathways occurred simultaneously. We suggest that the interactions revealed in the present study between the vlPAG and sensorimotor circuits could form the neural substrate for survival behaviors associated with vlPAG activation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neural circuits that coordinate survival behaviors remain poorly understood. We demonstrate in rats that the periaqueductal gray (PAG) affects motor systems at the following multiple levels of the neuraxis: (1) through altering transmission in spino-olivary pathways that forward sensory signals to the cerebellum, reducing and enhancing transmission of nociceptive and

  20. Physical modelling of granular flows at multiple-scales and stress levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Take, Andy; Bowman, Elisabeth; Bryant, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    The rheology of dry granular flows is an area of significant focus within the granular physics, geoscience, and geotechnical engineering research communities. Studies performed to better understand granular flows in manufacturing, materials processing or bulk handling applications have typically focused on the behavior of steady, continuous flows. As a result, much of the research on relating the fundamental interaction of particles to the rheological or constitutive behaviour of granular flows has been performed under (usually) steady-state conditions and low stress levels. However, landslides, which are the primary focus of the geoscience and geotechnical engineering communities, are by nature unsteady flows defined by a finite source volume and at flow depths much larger than typically possible in laboratory experiments. The objective of this paper is to report initial findings of experimental studies currently being conducted using a new large-scale landslide flume (8 m long, 2 m wide slope inclined at 30° with a 35 m long horizontal base section) and at elevated particle self-weight in a 10 m diameter geotechnical centrifuge to investigate the granular flow behavior at multiple-scales and stress levels. The transparent sidewalls of the two flumes used in the experimental investigation permit the combination of observations of particle-scale interaction (using high-speed imaging through transparent vertical sidewalls at over 1000 frames per second) with observations of the distal reach of the landslide debris. These observations are used to investigate the applicability of rheological models developed for steady state flows (e.g. the dimensionless inertial number) in landslide applications and the robustness of depth-averaged approaches to modelling dry granular flow at multiple scales. These observations indicate that the dimensionless inertial number calculated for the flow may be of limited utility except perhaps to define a general state (e.g. liquid

  1. Application of an Integrated Assessment Model with state-level resolution for examining strategies for addressing air, climate and energy goals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Global Climate Assessment Model (GCAM) is a global integrated assessment model used for exploring future scenarios and examining strategies that address air pollution, climate change, and energy goals. GCAM includes technology-rich representations of the energy, transportati...

  2. Latent Variable Regression 4-Level Hierarchical Model Using Multisite Multiple-Cohorts Longitudinal Data. CRESST Report 801

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Kilchan

    2011-01-01

    This report explores a new latent variable regression 4-level hierarchical model for monitoring school performance over time using multisite multiple-cohorts longitudinal data. This kind of data set has a 4-level hierarchical structure: time-series observation nested within students who are nested within different cohorts of students. These…

  3. Population-level effects and recovery of aquatic invertebrates after multiple applications of an insecticide.

    PubMed

    Dohmen, G Peter; Preuss, Thomas G; Hamer, Mick; Galic, Nika; Strauss, Tido; van den Brink, Paul J; De Laender, Frederik; Bopp, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Standard risk assessment of plant protection products (PPP) combines "worst-case" exposure scenarios with effect thresholds using assessment (safety) factors to account for uncertainties. If needed, risks can be addressed applying more realistic conditions at higher tiers, which refine exposure and/or effect assessments using additional data. However, it is not possible to investigate the wide range of potential scenarios experimentally. In contrast, ecotoxicological mechanistic effect models do allow for addressing a multitude of scenarios. Furthermore, they may aid the interpretation of experiments such as mesocosm studies, allowing extrapolation to conditions not covered in experiments. Here, we explore how to use mechanistic effect models in the aquatic risk assessment of a model insecticide (Modelmethrin), applied several times per season but rapidly dissipating between applications. The case study focuses on potential effects on aquatic arthropods, the most sensitive group for this substance. The models provide information on the impact of a number of short exposure pulses on sensitive and/or vulnerable populations and, when impacted, assess recovery. The species to model were selected based on their sensitivity in laboratory and field (mesocosm) studies. The general unified threshold model for survival (GUTS) model, which describes the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of chemicals in individuals, was linked to 3 individual-based models (IBM), translating individual survival of sensitive organisms into population-level effects. The impact of pulsed insecticide exposures on populations were modeled using the spatially explicit IBM metapopulation model for assessing spatial and temporal effects of pesticides (MASTEP) for Gammarus pulex, the Chaoborus IBM for populations of Chaoborus crystallinus, and the "IdamP" model for populations of Daphnia magna. The different models were able to predict the potential effects of Modelmethrin applications to key arthropod

  4. Low-level laser therapy ameliorates disease progression in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Elaine D; Souza, Priscila S; Lieberknecht, Vicente; Fidelis, Giulia S P; Barbosa, Rafael I; Silveira, Paulo C L; de Pinho, Ricardo A; Dutra, Rafael C

    2016-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating inflammatory disease characterized by recurrent episodes of T cell-mediated immune attack on central nervous system (CNS) myelin, leading to axon damage and progressive disability. The existing therapies for MS are only partially effective and are associated with undesirable side effects. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been clinically used to treat inflammation, and to induce tissue healing and repair processes. However, there are no reports about the effects and mechanisms of LLLT in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an established model of MS. Here, we report the effects and underlying mechanisms of action of LLLT (AlGaInP, 660 nm and GaAs, 904 nm) irradiated on the spinal cord during EAE development. EAE was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by immunization with MOG35-55 peptide emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant. Our results showed that LLLT consistently reduced the clinical score of EAE and delayed the disease onset, and also prevented weight loss induced by immunization. Furthermore, these beneficial effects of LLLT seem to be associated with the down-regulation of NO levels in the CNS, although the treatment with LLLT failed to inhibit lipid peroxidation and restore antioxidant defense during EAE. Finally, histological analysis showed that LLLT blocked neuroinflammation through a reduction of inflammatory cells in the CNS, especially lymphocytes, as well as preventing demyelination in the spinal cord after EAE induction. Together, our results suggest the use of LLLT as a therapeutic application during autoimmune neuroinflammatory responses, such as MS. PMID:26703077

  5. Do Pediatric Patients Who Receive Care Across Multiple Health Systems Have Higher Levels of Repeat Testing?

    PubMed

    Knighton, Andrew J; Payne, Nathaniel R; Speedie, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    Repetition by clinicians of the same tests for a given patient is common. However, not all repeat tests are necessary for optimal care and can result in unnecessary hardship. Limited evidence suggests that an electronic health record may reduce redundant laboratory testing and imaging by making previous results accessible to physicians. The purpose of this study is to establish a baseline by characterizing repeat testing in a pediatric population and to identify significant risk factors associated with repeated tests, including the impact of using multiple health systems. A population-based retrospective cross-sectional design was used to examine initial and repeat test instances, defined as a second test following an initial test of the same type for the same patient. The study population consisted of 8760 children with 1-25 test claims over a 1-year period. The study setting included all health care service organizations in Minnesota that generated these claims. In all, 17.2% of tests met the definition of repeat test instances, with several risk factors associated with per patient repeat test levels. The incidence of repeat test instances per patient was significantly higher when patients received care from more than 1 health system (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.3-1.5). Repeat test levels are significant in pediatric populations and potentially actionable. Interoperable health information technology may reduce the incidence of repeat test instances in pediatric populations by making prior test results readily accessible. (Population Health Management 2016;19:102-108). PMID:26086359

  6. Multiple Levels of Bilingual Language Control: Evidence from Language Intrusions in Reading Aloud

    PubMed Central

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Schotter, Elizabeth R.; Gomez, Joanne; Murillo, Mayra; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals rarely produce words in an unintended language. However, we induced such intrusion errors (e.g., saying el instead of he) in 32 Spanish-English bilinguals who read aloud language-selective and language-mixed paragraphs with English or Spanish word order. Bilinguals produced language intrusions almost exclusively in language-mixed paragraphs, and most often when attempting to produce dominant-language targets (accent-only errors also exhibited reversed language dominance effects). Most intrusion errors occurred for function word targets, especially when they did not match paragraph language word order. Eye movements showed that fixating a word in the non-target language increased intrusion errors only for function word targets. Together, these results imply multiple mechanisms of language control, including (a) inhibition of the dominant language at both lexical (Green, 1998) and sublexical processing levels, (b) special retrieval mechanisms for function words in mixed-language utterances (Myers-Scotton, 1993), and (c) attention’s role in monitoring target language for match with intended language. PMID:24367061

  7. Modeling Stochastic Kinetics of Molecular Machines at Multiple Levels: From Molecules to Modules

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Debashish

    2013-01-01

    A molecular machine is either a single macromolecule or a macromolecular complex. In spite of the striking superficial similarities between these natural nanomachines and their man-made macroscopic counterparts, there are crucial differences. Molecular machines in a living cell operate stochastically in an isothermal environment far from thermodynamic equilibrium. In this mini-review we present a catalog of the molecular machines and an inventory of the essential toolbox for theoretically modeling these machines. The tool kits include 1), nonequilibrium statistical-physics techniques for modeling machines and machine-driven processes; and 2), statistical-inference methods for reverse engineering a functional machine from the empirical data. The cell is often likened to a microfactory in which the machineries are organized in modular fashion; each module consists of strongly coupled multiple machines, but different modules interact weakly with each other. This microfactory has its own automated supply chain and delivery system. Buoyed by the success achieved in modeling individual molecular machines, we advocate integration of these models in the near future to develop models of functional modules. A system-level description of the cell from the perspective of molecular machinery (the mechanome) is likely to emerge from further integrations that we envisage here. PMID:23746505

  8. Levels and Rates of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Klaren, Rachel E; Sebastiao, Emerson; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W

    2016-05-01

    There is much evidence supporting the safety and benefits of physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and recent evidence of beneficial effects on physical function in older adults with MS. However, there is very little known about physical activity participation in older adults with conditions such as MS. This study compared levels of physical activity (i.e., sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) and rates of meeting public health guidelines for MVPA (i.e., ≥30 min/day) among young (i.e., ages 20-39 years), middle-aged (i.e., ages 40-59 years) and older adults (i.e., ages ≥60 years) with MS. The sample included 963 persons with MS who provided demographic and clinical information and wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period. The primary analysis involved a between-subjects ANOVA on accelerometer variables (i.e., accelerometer wear time; number of valid days; sedentary behavior in min/day; LPA in min/day; and MVPA in min/day). Collectively, our data indicated that older adults with MS engaged in less MVPA and more sedentary behavior than middle-aged and young adults with MS. Such results highlight the importance of developing physical activity interventions as an effective means for managing the progression and consequences of MS in older adults. PMID:27330842

  9. Multiple-Choice Exams: An Obstacle for Higher-Level Thinking in Introductory Science Classes

    PubMed Central

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.

    2012-01-01

    Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not see the need to modify their study strategies for critical thinking, because the MC exam format has not changed. To test the effect of exam format, I used two sections of an introductory biology class. One section was assessed with exams in the traditional MC format, the other section was assessed with both MC and constructed-response (CR) questions. The mixed exam format was correlated with significantly more cognitively active study behaviors and a significantly better performance on the cumulative final exam (after accounting for grade point average and gender). There was also less gender-bias in the CR answers. This suggests that the MC-only exam format indeed hinders critical thinking in introductory science classes. Introducing CR questions encouraged students to learn more and to be better critical thinkers and reduced gender bias. However, student resistance increased as students adjusted their perceptions of their own critical-thinking abilities. PMID:22949426

  10. Paradoxical resistance of multiple myeloma to proteasome inhibitors by decreased levels of 19S proteasomal subunits

    PubMed Central

    Acosta-Alvear, Diego; Cho, Min Y; Wild, Thomas; Buchholz, Tonia J; Lerner, Alana G; Simakova, Olga; Hahn, Jamie; Korde, Neha; Landgren, Ola; Maric, Irina; Choudhary, Chunaram; Walter, Peter; Weissman, Jonathan S; Kampmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Hallmarks of cancer, including rapid growth and aneuploidy, can result in non-oncogene addiction to the proteostasis network that can be exploited clinically. The defining example is the exquisite sensitivity of multiple myeloma (MM) to 20S proteasome inhibitors, such as carfilzomib. However, MM patients invariably acquire resistance to these drugs. Using a next-generation shRNA platform, we found that proteostasis factors, including chaperones and stress-response regulators, controlled the response to carfilzomib. Paradoxically, 19S proteasome regulator knockdown induced resistance to carfilzomib in MM and non-MM cells. 19S subunit knockdown did not affect the activity of the 20S subunits targeted by carfilzomib nor their inhibition by the drug, suggesting an alternative mechanism, such as the selective accumulation of protective factors. In MM patients, lower 19S levels predicted a diminished response to carfilzomib-based therapies. Together, our findings suggest that an understanding of network rewiring can inform development of new combination therapies to overcome drug resistance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08153.001 PMID:26327694

  11. Body Mass Index in Multiple Sclerosis: Associations with CSF Neurotransmitter Metabolite Levels

    PubMed Central

    Evangelopoulos, Maria-Eleftheria; Davaki, Panagiota; Sfagos, Constantinos

    2013-01-01

    Body weight and height of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) or clinically isolated syndrome suggesting MS (CIS) in the age range 18 to 60 years (154 males and 315 females) were compared with those of subjects (146 males and 212 females) free of any major neurological disease. In drug-free patients, CSF levels of the metabolites of noradrenaline (MHPG), serotonin (5-HIAA), and dopamine (HVA), neurotransmitters involved in eating behavior, were estimated in searching for associations with body mass index (BMI). Statistical evaluations were done separately for males and females. Lower BMI was found in female MS patients compared to female controls, more pronounced in RRMS. BMI was not associated with duration of illness, smoking, present or previous drug treatment, or disability score. Body height showed a shift towards greater values in MS patients compared to controls. Patients in the lower BMI quartile (limits defined from control subjects) had lower 5-HIAA and HVA compared to patients in the upper quartile. The results provide evidence for weight reduction during disease process in MS, possibly related to deficits in serotoninergic and dopaminergic activities that develop during disease course, resulting in impairments in food reward capacity and in motivation to eat. PMID:24205443

  12. Variants in ELL2 influencing immunoglobulin levels associate with multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Bhairavi; Thorleifsson, Guðmar; Jöud, Magnus; Ali, Mina; Johnsson, Ellinor; Ajore, Ram; Sulem, Patrick; Halvarsson, Britt-Marie; Eyjolfsson, Guðmundur; Haraldsdottir, Vilhelmina; Hultman, Christina; Ingelsson, Erik; Kristinsson, Sigurður Y.; Kähler, Anna K.; Lenhoff, Stig; Masson, Gisli; Mellqvist, Ulf-Henrik; Månsson, Robert; Nelander, Sven; Olafsson, Isleifur; Sigurðardottir, Olof; Steingrimsdóttir, Hlif; Vangsted, Annette; Vogel, Ulla; Waage, Anders; Nahi, Hareth; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Rafnar, Thorunn; Turesson, Ingemar; Gullberg, Urban; Stefánsson, Kári; Hansson, Markus; Thorsteinsdóttir, Unnur; Nilsson, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by an uninhibited, clonal growth of plasma cells. While first-degree relatives of patients with MM show an increased risk of MM, the genetic basis of inherited MM susceptibility is incompletely understood. Here we report a genome-wide association study in the Nordic region identifying a novel MM risk locus at ELL2 (rs56219066T; odds ratio (OR)=1.25; P=9.6 × 10−10). This gene encodes a stoichiometrically limiting component of the super-elongation complex that drives secretory-specific immunoglobulin mRNA production and transcriptional regulation in plasma cells. We find that the MM risk allele harbours a Thr298Ala missense variant in an ELL2 domain required for transcription elongation. Consistent with a hypomorphic effect, we find that the MM risk allele also associates with reduced levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and G (IgG) in healthy subjects (P=8.6 × 10−9 and P=6.4 × 10−3, respectively) and, potentially, with an increased risk of bacterial meningitis (OR=1.30; P=0.0024). PMID:26007630

  13. Insulin regulates milk protein synthesis at multiple levels in the bovine mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Karensa K; Lefèvre, Christophe; Macmillan, Keith L; Nicholas, Kevin R

    2009-05-01

    The role of insulin in milk protein synthesis is unresolved in the bovine mammary gland. This study examined the potential role of insulin in the presence of two lactogenic hormones, hydrocortisone and prolactin, in milk protein synthesis. Insulin was shown to stimulate milk protein gene expression, casein synthesis and (14)C-lysine uptake in mammary explants from late pregnant cows. A global assessment of changes in gene expression in mammary explants in response to insulin was undertaken using Affymetrix microarray. The resulting data provided insight into the molecular mechanisms stimulated by insulin and showed that the hormone stimulated the expression of 28 genes directly involved in protein synthesis. These genes included the milk protein transcription factor, ELF5, translation factors, the folate metabolism genes, FOLR1 and MTHFR, as well as several genes encoding enzymes involved in catabolism of essential amino acids and biosynthesis of non-essential amino acids. These data show that insulin is not only essential for milk protein gene expression, but stimulates milk protein synthesis at multiple levels within bovine mammary epithelial cells. PMID:19107532

  14. Levels and Rates of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Klaren, Rachel E.; Sebastiao, Emerson; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    There is much evidence supporting the safety and benefits of physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and recent evidence of beneficial effects on physical function in older adults with MS. However, there is very little known about physical activity participation in older adults with conditions such as MS. This study compared levels of physical activity (i.e., sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) and rates of meeting public health guidelines for MVPA (i.e., ≥30 min/day) among young (i.e., ages 20-39 years), middle-aged (i.e., ages 40-59 years) and older adults (i.e., ages ≥60 years) with MS. The sample included 963 persons with MS who provided demographic and clinical information and wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period. The primary analysis involved a between-subjects ANOVA on accelerometer variables (i.e., accelerometer wear time; number of valid days; sedentary behavior in min/day; LPA in min/day; and MVPA in min/day). Collectively, our data indicated that older adults with MS engaged in less MVPA and more sedentary behavior than middle-aged and young adults with MS. Such results highlight the importance of developing physical activity interventions as an effective means for managing the progression and consequences of MS in older adults. PMID:27330842

  15. Testing Nelder-Mead based repulsion algorithms for multiple roots of nonlinear systems via a two-level factorial design of experiments.

    PubMed

    Ramadas, Gisela C V; Rocha, Ana Maria A C; Fernandes, Edite M G P

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenging task of computing multiple roots of a system of nonlinear equations. A repulsion algorithm that invokes the Nelder-Mead (N-M) local search method and uses a penalty-type merit function based on the error function, known as 'erf', is presented. In the N-M algorithm context, different strategies are proposed to enhance the quality of the solutions and improve the overall efficiency. The main goal of this paper is to use a two-level factorial design of experiments to analyze the statistical significance of the observed differences in selected performance criteria produced when testing different strategies in the N-M based repulsion algorithm. The main goal of this paper is to use a two-level factorial design of experiments to analyze the statistical significance of the observed differences in selected performance criteria produced when testing different strategies in the N-M based repulsion algorithm. PMID:25875591

  16. Testing Nelder-Mead Based Repulsion Algorithms for Multiple Roots of Nonlinear Systems via a Two-Level Factorial Design of Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Edite M. G. P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenging task of computing multiple roots of a system of nonlinear equations. A repulsion algorithm that invokes the Nelder-Mead (N-M) local search method and uses a penalty-type merit function based on the error function, known as ‘erf’, is presented. In the N-M algorithm context, different strategies are proposed to enhance the quality of the solutions and improve the overall efficiency. The main goal of this paper is to use a two-level factorial design of experiments to analyze the statistical significance of the observed differences in selected performance criteria produced when testing different strategies in the N-M based repulsion algorithm. The main goal of this paper is to use a two-level factorial design of experiments to analyze the statistical significance of the observed differences in selected performance criteria produced when testing different strategies in the N-M based repulsion algorithm. PMID:25875591

  17. Congruent and Incongruent Corticospinal Activations at the Level of Multiple Effectors.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia; Perrone, Chiara; Castiello, Umberto

    2015-10-01

    Motor resonance is defined as the subliminal activation of the motor system while observing actions performed by others. However, resonating with another person's actions is not always an appropriate response: In real life, people do not just imitate but rather respond in a suitable fashion. A growing body of neurophysiologic studies has demonstrated that motor resonance can be overridden by complementary motor responses (such as preparing a precision grip on a small object when seeing an open hand in sign of request). In this study, we investigated the relationship between congruent and incongruent corticospinal activations at the level of multiple effectors. The modulation of motor evoked potentials evoked by single-pulse TMS over the motor cortex was assessed in upper and lower limb muscles of participants observing a soccer player performing a penalty kick straight in their direction. Study results revealed a double dissociation: Seeing the soccer player kicking the ball triggered a motor resonance in the observer's lower limb, whereas the upper limb response afforded by the object was overridden. On the other hand, seeing the ball approaching the observers elicited a complementary motor activation in upper limbs while motor resonance in lower limbs disappeared. Control conditions showing lateral kicks, mimicked kicks, and a ball in penalty area were also included to test the motor coding of object affordances. Results point to a modulation of motor responses in different limbs over the course of action and in function of their relevance in different contexts. We contend that ecologically valid paradigms are now needed to shed light on the motor system functioning in complex forms of interaction. PMID:26102231

  18. Self-Report Versus Performance Measure in Gauging Level of Function with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Stuifbergen, Alexa K.; Morris, Marian; Becker, Heather; Chen, Lynn; Lee, Hwa Young

    2014-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating, progressive disease with no known cure. Symptoms vary widely for persons with MS and measuring levels of fine motor, gross motor and cognitive function is a large part of assessing disease progression in both clinical and research settings. While self-report measures of function have advantages in cost and ease of administration, questions remain about the accuracy of such measures and the relationship of self-reports of functioning to performance measures of function. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare scores on a self-report measure of functional limitations with MS with a performance-based measure at five different time points. Methods Sixty participants in an ongoing longitudinal study completed two measures of function annually over a five-year period - the self-report Incapacity Status Scale and the MS Functional Composite (MSFC), a performance test. Pearson correlations were used to explore the association of self-report and performance scores. Results There were moderate to strong correlations among the ISS total (r= −.53 to −.63, p<.01) and subscale scores of gross (r=.79 to .87; p<.01)) and fine (r= .47 to .69; p<.01) motor function and the corresponding MSFC performance measure. The pattern of change over time in most scores on self-report and performance measures was similar. Conclusion Findings suggest that the self-report measure examined here, which has advantages in terms of feasibility of administration and patient burden, does relate to performance measurement, particularly in the area of gross motor function, but it may not adequately reflect cognitive function. PMID:25224981

  19. Redesigning Work and Compensation to Fit NCLB: A Superintendent's Proposal for Addressing Today's Pressing Site-Level Leadership and Instructional Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Jack D.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author asks, what will it take to create and support a core teacher workforce in school systems that now must be redesigned for the high-stakes assessment environment of No Child Left Behind? School systems were beginning to address this question just as high stakes and high standards were being mandated across the nation. At…

  20. Multi-floor cascading ferroelectric nanostructures: multiple data writing-based multi-level non-volatile memory devices.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Seung; Kwon, Owoong; Lee, Bom-Yi; Seol, Daehee; Park, Beomjin; Lee, Jae Yong; Lee, Ju Hyun; Kim, Yunseok; Kim, Jin Kon

    2016-01-21

    Multiple data writing-based multi-level non-volatile memory has gained strong attention for next-generation memory devices to quickly accommodate an extremely large number of data bits because it is capable of storing multiple data bits in a single memory cell at once. However, all previously reported devices have failed to store a large number of data bits due to the macroscale cell size and have not allowed fast access to the stored data due to slow single data writing. Here, we introduce a novel three-dimensional multi-floor cascading polymeric ferroelectric nanostructure, successfully operating as an individual cell. In one cell, each floor has its own piezoresponse and the piezoresponse of one floor can be modulated by the bias voltage applied to the other floor, which means simultaneously written data bits in both floors can be identified. This could achieve multi-level memory through a multiple data writing process. PMID:26695561

  1. Multi-floor cascading ferroelectric nanostructures: multiple data writing-based multi-level non-volatile memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Seung; Kwon, Owoong; Lee, Bom-Yi; Seol, Daehee; Park, Beomjin; Lee, Jae Yong; Lee, Ju Hyun; Kim, Yunseok; Kim, Jin Kon

    2016-01-01

    Multiple data writing-based multi-level non-volatile memory has gained strong attention for next-generation memory devices to quickly accommodate an extremely large number of data bits because it is capable of storing multiple data bits in a single memory cell at once. However, all previously reported devices have failed to store a large number of data bits due to the macroscale cell size and have not allowed fast access to the stored data due to slow single data writing. Here, we introduce a novel three-dimensional multi-floor cascading polymeric ferroelectric nanostructure, successfully operating as an individual cell. In one cell, each floor has its own piezoresponse and the piezoresponse of one floor can be modulated by the bias voltage applied to the other floor, which means simultaneously written data bits in both floors can be identified. This could achieve multi-level memory through a multiple data writing process.Multiple data writing-based multi-level non-volatile memory has gained strong attention for next-generation memory devices to quickly accommodate an extremely large number of data bits because it is capable of storing multiple data bits in a single memory cell at once. However, all previously reported devices have failed to store a large number of data bits due to the macroscale cell size and have not allowed fast access to the stored data due to slow single data writing. Here, we introduce a novel three-dimensional multi-floor cascading polymeric ferroelectric nanostructure, successfully operating as an individual cell. In one cell, each floor has its own piezoresponse and the piezoresponse of one floor can be modulated by the bias voltage applied to the other floor, which means simultaneously written data bits in both floors can be identified. This could achieve multi-level memory through a multiple data writing process. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07377d

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Multiple Intelligence Theory with Relationship to Gender and Grade Level in Selected Schools in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oteng, Ellen N.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the relationships between Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory and students' gender, age, grade level, and enrollment into a public or private school. The research determined students' dominant intelligences and investigated whether students' intelligences may be influenced by demographic…

  3. Modeling for Fatigue Hysteresis Loops of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic-Matrix Composites under Multiple Loading Stress Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longbiao, Li

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the fatigue hysteresis loops of fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) under multiple loading stress levels considering interface wear has been investigated using micromechanical approach. Under fatigue loading, the fiber/matrix interface shear stress decreases with the increase of cycle number due to interface wear. Upon increasing of fatigue peak stress, the interface debonded length would propagate along the fiber/matrix interface. The difference of interface shear stress existed in the new and original debonded region would affect the interface debonding and interface frictional slipping between the fiber and the matrix. Based on the fatigue damage mechanism of fiber slipping relative to matrix in the interface debonded region upon unloading and subsequent reloading, the interface slip lengths, i.e., the interface debonded length, interface counter-slip length and interface new-slip length, are determined by fracture mechanics approach. The fatigue hysteresis loops models under multiple loading stress levels have been developed. The effects of single/multiple loading stress levels and different loading sequences on fatigue hysteresis loops have been investigated. The fatigue hysteresis loops of unidirectional C/SiC composite under multiple loading stress levels have been predicted.

  4. Student Interactions with CD-ROM Storybooks: A Look at Potential Relationships between Multiple Intelligence Strengths and Levels of Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Celia A.

    2012-01-01

    This study looked at the potential relationship that may exist between students' intelligence strengths, in particular their spatial and kinesthetic strengths, and their combined cognitive and metacognitive levels of interaction with a CD-ROM storybook. The multiple intelligence strengths of a sample of students, measured via the MIDAS/My…

  5. Higher levels of multiple ecosystem services are found in forests with more tree species.

    PubMed

    Gamfeldt, Lars; Snäll, Tord; Bagchi, Robert; Jonsson, Micael; Gustafsson, Lena; Kjellander, Petter; Ruiz-Jaen, María C; Fröberg, Mats; Stendahl, Johan; Philipson, Christopher D; Mikusiński, Grzegorz; Andersson, Erik; Westerlund, Bertil; Andrén, Henrik; Moberg, Fredrik; Moen, Jon; Bengtsson, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Forests are of major importance to human society, contributing several crucial ecosystem services. Biodiversity is suggested to positively influence multiple services but evidence from natural systems at scales relevant to management is scarce. Here, across a scale of 400,000 km(2), we report that tree species richness in production forests shows positive to positively hump-shaped relationships with multiple ecosystem services. These include production of tree biomass, soil carbon storage, berry production and game production potential. For example, biomass production was approximately 50% greater with five than with one tree species. In addition, we show positive relationships between tree species richness and proxies for other biodiversity components. Importantly, no single tree species was able to promote all services, and some services were negatively correlated to each other. Management of production forests will therefore benefit from considering multiple tree species to sustain the full range of benefits that the society obtains from forests. PMID:23299890

  6. Higher levels of multiple ecosystem services are found in forests with more tree species

    PubMed Central

    Gamfeldt, Lars; Snäll, Tord; Bagchi, Robert; Jonsson, Micael; Gustafsson, Lena; Kjellander, Petter; Ruiz-Jaen, María C.; Fröberg, Mats; Stendahl, Johan; Philipson, Christopher D.; Mikusiński, Grzegorz; Andersson, Erik; Westerlund, Bertil; Andrén, Henrik; Moberg, Fredrik; Moen, Jon; Bengtsson, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Forests are of major importance to human society, contributing several crucial ecosystem services. Biodiversity is suggested to positively influence multiple services but evidence from natural systems at scales relevant to management is scarce. Here, across a scale of 400,000 km2, we report that tree species richness in production forests shows positive to positively hump-shaped relationships with multiple ecosystem services. These include production of tree biomass, soil carbon storage, berry production and game production potential. For example, biomass production was approximately 50% greater with five than with one tree species. In addition, we show positive relationships between tree species richness and proxies for other biodiversity components. Importantly, no single tree species was able to promote all services, and some services were negatively correlated to each other. Management of production forests will therefore benefit from considering multiple tree species to sustain the full range of benefits that the society obtains from forests. PMID:23299890

  7. Creating a strategy for science-based national policy: Addressing conflicting views on the health risk of low-level ionizing radiation. Final report, Wingspread Conference

    SciTech Connect

    McClellan, Roger O.; Apple, Martin A.

    1998-03-03

    Significant cancer risk for adults exposed to more than 100 millisieverts (10 REM) of ionizing radiation. More research on low-level ionizing radiation is needed in molecular and cellular mechanisms of injury and ongoing exposed populations. Implementation costs should be considered in regulating low-level ionizing radiation. Comparative risk assessment is a powerful tool for risk-based policy formation, and conflicting legal statutes should become harmonized for radiation regulation. More public dialog on low-level radiation is needed. A high level commission should evaluate radiation hazard control practices.

  8. "School" Reading and Multiple Texts: Examining the Metacognitive Development of Secondary-Level Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesley, Mellinee; Watson, Patricia; Elliot, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This practitioner-research study investigated the reading behaviors of preservice teachers from diverse content disciplines as they engaged in reading multiple texts pertaining to a historical topic. Through participant-observer field notes, reader response journals, reflective essays, and participant debriefing, the authors examined the…

  9. Weighted Hashing with Multiple Cues for Cell-Level Analysis of Histopathological Images.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaofan; Su, Hai; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Shaoting

    2015-01-01

    Recently, content-based image retrieval has been investigated for histopathological image analysis, focusing on improving the accuracy and scalability. The main motivation is to interpret a new image (i.e., query image) by searching among a potentially large-scale database of training images in real-time. Hashing methods have been employed because of their promising performance. However, most previous works apply hashing algorithms on the whole images, while the important information of histopathological images usually lies in individual cells. In addition, they usually only hash one type of features, even though it is often necessary to inspect multiple cues of cells. Therefore, we propose a probabilistic-based hashing framework to model multiple cues of cells for accurate analysis of histopathological images. Specifically, each cue of a cell is compressed as binary codes by kernelized and supervised hashing, and the importance of each hash entry is determined adaptively according to its discriminativity, which can be represented as probability scores. Given these scores, we also propose several feature fusion and selection schemes to integrate their strengths. The classification of the whole image is conducted by aggregating the results from multiple cues of all cells. We apply our algorithm on differentiating adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma, i.e., two types of lung cancers, using a large dataset containing thousands of lung microscopic tissue images. It achieves 90.3% accuracy by hashing and retrieving multiple cues of half-million cells. PMID:26221682

  10. From Common Sense Concepts to Scientifically Conditioned Concepts of Chemical Bonding: An Historical and Textbook Approach Designed to Address Learning and Teaching Issues at the Secondary School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croft, Michael; de Berg, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper selects six key alternative conceptions identified in the literature on student understandings of chemical bonding and illustrates how a historical analysis and a textbook analysis can inform these conceptions and lead to recommendations for improving the teaching and learning of chemical bonding at the secondary school level. The…

  11. Intermediate-level computer-vision-processing algorithm development for the content-addressable-array parallel processor. Quarterly status report No. 3 for period ending 29 November 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-15

    During this quarter a set of seven benchmark problems were developed and analyzed for the IUA. These included Hough Transform, Convex Hull, Voronoi Diagram, Minimal Spanning Tree, Visibility of Vertices in a projected 3-dimensional model, subgraph isomorphism, and the minimum-cost path between points in a weighted graph. These problems are commonly considered intermediate-level processing in many visions research groups parallel implementations of UMass intermediate level processing algorithms, such as Boldt's line merging and Anandan's motion analysis continued to develop. A commercial processor, the TMS320C25, was chosen as the Intermediate Communications and Associative Processor (ICAP) processing element. The TMS320C25 has the advantages that it is a five-million instruction per second signal-processing unit with a fast multiplier and software support for fast floating-point operations. It also has a built in 5 Mb/S serial port that will interface well with the intermediate-level communications network. Also being explored is a set of group-theoretic network topologies with respect to the communication needs of intermediate-level processing. This has required the analysis of the classes of communication needed in each of the algorithms implemented.

  12. Topology of Awareness: Therapeutic Implications of Logical Modalities of Multiple Levels of Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Shellie

    2000-01-01

    Describes a theory of a topology of awareness, in which higher levels organize reality through dialectical logic, whereas lower levels construct reality based on Aristotelian logic, binary oppositions, and experiencing entities as discreet and independent. Argues that metaphor, poetry, and narrative are linguistic tools that enable clients to…

  13. A new algorithm for idealizing single ion channel data containing multiple unknown conductance levels.

    PubMed Central

    VanDongen, A M

    1996-01-01

    A new algorithm is presented for idealizing single channel data containing any number of conductance levels. The number of levels and their amplitudes do not have to be known a priori. No assumption has to be made about the behavior of the channel, other than that transitions between conductance levels are fast. The algorithm is relatively insensitive to the complexity of the underlying single channel behavior. Idealization may be reliable with signal-to-noise ratios as low as 3.5. The idealization algorithm uses a slope detector to localize transitions between levels and a relative amplitude criterion to remove spurious transitions. After estimating the number of conductances and their amplitudes, conductance states can be assigned to the idealized levels. In addition to improving the quality of the idealization, this "interpretation" allows a statistical analysis of individual (sub)conductance states. PMID:8785286

  14. Tolerable Levels of Nonclinical Vehicles and Formulations Used in Studies by Multiple Routes in Multiple Species With Notes on Methods to Improve Utility.

    PubMed

    Gad, Shayne Cox; Spainhour, Charles B; Shoemake, Catherine; Pallman, Danielle R Stackhouse; Stricker-Krongrad, Alain; Downing, Philip A; Seals, Richard E; Eagle, Leslie Anne; Polhamus, Kara; Daly, Jennifer

    2016-03-01

    Formulation of nonclinical evaluations is a challenge, with the fundamental need to achieve multiples of the clinical exposure complicated by differences in species and routes of administration-specific tolerances, depending on concentrations, volumes, dosing regimen, duration of each administration, and study duration. Current practice to approach these differences is based on individual experience and scattered literature with no comprehensive data source (the most notable exception being our 2006 publication on this same subject). Lack of formulation tolerance data results in excessive animal use, unplanned delays in the evaluation and development of drugs, and vehicle-dependent results. A consulting firm, a chemical company, and 4 contract research organizations conducted a rigorous data mining operation of vehicle data from studies dating from 1991 to 2015, enhancing the data from this author's 2006 publication (3 of the six 2015 contributors were also 2006 contributors). Additional data were found in the published literature. The results identified 108 single-component vehicles (and 305 combination formulations) used in more than 1,040 studies across multiple species (dog, primate, rat, mouse, rabbit, guinea pig, minipig, pig, chick embryo, and cat) by multiple routes for a wide range of study durations. The tabulated data include maximum tolerated use levels by species, route, duration of study, dose-limiting toxicity where reported, review of the available literature on each vehicle, guidance on syringe selection, volume and pH limits by route with basic guidance on nonclinical formulation development, and guidance on factors to be considered in nonclinical route selection. PMID:26755718

  15. Multiple tests for wind turbine fault detection and score fusion using two- level multidimensional scaling (MDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xiang; Gao, Weihua; Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2010-04-01

    Wind is an important renewable energy source. The energy and economic return from building wind farms justify the expensive investments in doing so. However, without an effective monitoring system, underperforming or faulty turbines will cause a huge loss in revenue. Early detection of such failures help prevent these undesired working conditions. We develop three tests on power curve, rotor speed curve, pitch angle curve of individual turbine. In each test, multiple states are defined to distinguish different working conditions, including complete shut-downs, under-performing states, abnormally frequent default states, as well as normal working states. These three tests are combined to reach a final conclusion, which is more effective than any single test. Through extensive data mining of historical data and verification from farm operators, some state combinations are discovered to be strong indicators of spindle failures, lightning strikes, anemometer faults, etc, for fault detection. In each individual test, and in the score fusion of these tests, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) to reduce the high dimensional feature space into a 3-dimensional visualization, from which it is easier to discover turbine working information. This approach gains a qualitative understanding of turbine performance status to detect faults, and also provides explanations on what has happened for detailed diagnostics. The state-of-the-art SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system in industry can only answer the question whether there are abnormal working states, and our evaluation of multiple states in multiple tests is also promising for diagnostics. In the future, these tests can be readily incorporated in a Bayesian network for intelligent analysis and decision support.

  16. Multiple drivers of Holocene lake level changes at a lowland lake in northeastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, Elisabeth; Słowiński, Michał; Zawiska, Izabela; Veh, Georg; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    Many northeastern German lakes experienced significant water level drops in the recent past, which were attributed to global climate change, but due to the short observation period not fully understood. At lake Fürstenseer See, a groundwater-fed lake with complex basin morphology within the Müritz national park, an acoustic sub-bottom profile was analyzed together with a transect of four sediment cores to assess full Holocene water level amplitudes and the evolution of lake level changes during the Holocene. At core sites in 10 and 15 m water depth, past shifts in the sediment limit, i.e. the limit between preferential sand and mud deposition depending on absolute lake level, allowed to quantify an 8 m maximum Holocene amplitude of lake level changes (+4 m higher to -4 m lower stands), which clearly exceeded the observed fluctuations of 1.3 m between 1973 and 2013. At sites in 20 and 23 m water depth, changes in sediment facies reflected lake level changes qualitatively. During high lake stands massive organic muds were deposited in the deepest part of the lake basin, whereas during lower lake levels sub-basins became isolated causing an exceedance of the thresholds for carbonate accumulation. The highly-resolved continuous m-XRF-Calcium record of the longest core resembles these sediment facies shifts and allows to determine a relative Holocene lake level history. However, temporal interpretation of the causes and conditions that link carbonate preservation with local water level changes was rather complex and non-stationary. Apart from glaciological and climatic reasons also eco-hydrological feedbacks (i.e. vegetation composition affecting groundwater recharge) and anthropogenic triggers will be discussed in detail. This is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis (ICLEA) and the Terrestrial Environmental Observatories network (TERENO) financed by the Helmholtz Association.

  17. Awards and Addresses Summary

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Each year at the annual ASHG meeting, addresses are given in honor of the society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the next pages, we have printed the Presidential Address and the addresses for the William Allan Award. The other addresses, accompanied by pictures of the speakers, can be found at www.ashg.org.

  18. Serum BAFF levels, Methypredsinolone therapy, Epstein-Barr Virus and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in Multiple Sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Mameli, Giuseppe; Cocco, Eleonora; Frau, Jessica; Arru, Giannina; Caggiu, Elisa; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Sechi, Leonardo A.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated B lymphocyte activating factor BAFF levels have been reported in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients; moreover, disease-modifying treatments (DMT) have shown to influence blood BAFF levels in MS patients, although the significance of these changes is still controversial. In addition, BAFF levels were reported increased during infectious diseases. In our study, we wanted to investigate on the serum BAFF concentrations correlated to the antibody response against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and their human homologous epitopes in MS and in patients affected with other neurological diseases (OND), divided in Inflammatory Neurological Diseases (IND), Non Inflammatory Neurological Diseases (NIND) and Undetermined Neurological Diseases (UND), in comparison to healthy controls (HCs). Our results confirmed a statistically significant high BAFF levels in MS and IND patients in comparison to HCs but not NIND and UND patients. Interestingly, BAFF levels were inversely proportional to antibodies level against EBV and MAP peptides and the BAFF levels significantly decreased in MS patients after methylprednisolone therapy. These results implicate that lower circulating BAFF concentrations were present in MS patients with humoral response against MAP and EBV. In conclusion MS patients with no IgGs against EBV and MAP may support the hypothesis that elevated blood BAFF levels could be associated with a more stable disease. PMID:27383531

  19. Serum BAFF levels, Methypredsinolone therapy, Epstein-Barr Virus and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in Multiple Sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Mameli, Giuseppe; Cocco, Eleonora; Frau, Jessica; Arru, Giannina; Caggiu, Elisa; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Sechi, Leonardo A

    2016-01-01

    Elevated B lymphocyte activating factor BAFF levels have been reported in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients; moreover, disease-modifying treatments (DMT) have shown to influence blood BAFF levels in MS patients, although the significance of these changes is still controversial. In addition, BAFF levels were reported increased during infectious diseases. In our study, we wanted to investigate on the serum BAFF concentrations correlated to the antibody response against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and their human homologous epitopes in MS and in patients affected with other neurological diseases (OND), divided in Inflammatory Neurological Diseases (IND), Non Inflammatory Neurological Diseases (NIND) and Undetermined Neurological Diseases (UND), in comparison to healthy controls (HCs). Our results confirmed a statistically significant high BAFF levels in MS and IND patients in comparison to HCs but not NIND and UND patients. Interestingly, BAFF levels were inversely proportional to antibodies level against EBV and MAP peptides and the BAFF levels significantly decreased in MS patients after methylprednisolone therapy. These results implicate that lower circulating BAFF concentrations were present in MS patients with humoral response against MAP and EBV. In conclusion MS patients with no IgGs against EBV and MAP may support the hypothesis that elevated blood BAFF levels could be associated with a more stable disease. PMID:27383531

  20. High atmospheric NO(x) levels and multiple photochemical steady states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, J. F.; Ackerman, T. P.

    1985-01-01

    The rate of removal of atmospheric NO(x) compounds at different NO(x) levels is estimated using a one-dimensional photochemical model. NO(x) removal by wet deposition, surface deposition, and thermochemical processes is examined. NO(x) removal rates at different surface NO mixing ratios are calculated and the data are analyzed. It is revealed that at low NO(x) levels NO(x) is photochemically converted to HNO3 by either wet or dry deposition; however, at high NO(x) levels formation of HNO3 is inhibited due to the disappearance of tropospheric ozone and OH, and the NO(x) is removed by rainout of N2O4 and N2O5, surface deposition of NO and NO2, and direct dissolution of NO and NO2 in rainwater. The effects of NO(x) mixing ratios greater than 10 to the -7th on the ozone and climate are investigated.

  1. Minimizing systematic errors from atmospheric multiple scattering and satellite viewing geometry in coastal zone color scanner level IIA imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, D. L.; Perry, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    Water-leaving radiances and phytoplankton pigment concentrations are calculated from coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) radiance measurements by removing atmospheric Rayleigh and aerosol radiances from the total radiance signal measured at the satellite. The single greatest source of error in CZCS atmospheric correction algorithms in the assumption that these Rayleigh and aerosol radiances are separable. Multiple-scattering interactions between Rayleigh and aerosol components cause systematic errors in calculated aerosol radiances, and the magnitude of these errors is dependent on aerosol type and optical depth and on satellite viewing geometry. A technique was developed which extends the results of previous radiative transfer modeling by Gordon and Castano to predict the magnitude of these systematic errors for simulated CZCS orbital passes in which the ocean is viewed through a modeled, physically realistic atmosphere. The simulated image mathematically duplicates the exact satellite, Sun, and pixel locations of an actual CZCS image. Errors in the aerosol radiance at 443 nm are calculated for a range of aerosol optical depths. When pixels in the simulated image exceed an error threshhold, the corresponding pixels in the actual CZCS image are flagged and excluded from further analysis or from use in image compositing or compilation of pigment concentration databases. Studies based on time series analyses or compositing of CZCS imagery which do not address Rayleigh-aerosol multiple scattering should be interpreted cautiously, since the fundamental assumption used in their atmospheric correction algorithm is flawed.

  2. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  3. Zinc Levels Modulate Lifespan through Multiple Longevity Pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jitendra; Barhydt, Tracy; Awasthi, Anjali; Lithgow, Gordon J.; Killilea, David W.; Kapahi, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace metal that has integral roles in numerous biological processes, including enzymatic function, protein structure, and cell signaling pathways. Both excess and deficiency of zinc can lead to detrimental effects on development and metabolism, resulting in abnormalities and disease. We altered the zinc balance within Caenorhabditis elegans to examine how changes in zinc burden affect longevity and healthspan in an invertebrate animal model. We found that increasing zinc levels in vivo with excess dietary zinc supplementation decreased the mean and maximum lifespan, whereas reducing zinc levels in vivo with a zinc-selective chelator increased the mean and maximum lifespan in C. elegans. We determined that the lifespan shortening effects of excess zinc required expression of DAF-16, HSF-1 and SKN-1 proteins, whereas the lifespan lengthening effects of the reduced zinc may be partially dependent upon this set of proteins. Furthermore, reducing zinc levels led to greater nuclear localization of DAF-16 and enhanced dauer formation compared to controls, suggesting that the lifespan effects of zinc are mediated in part by the insulin/IGF-1 pathway. Additionally, zinc status correlated with several markers of healthspan in worms, including proteostasis, locomotion and thermotolerance, with reduced zinc levels always associated with improvements in function. Taken together, these data support a role for zinc in regulating both development and lifespan in C. elegans, and that suggest that regulation of zinc homeostasis in the worm may be an example of antagonistic pleiotropy. PMID:27078872

  4. Multiple Levels of Social Disadvantage and Links to Obesity in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hedwig; Harris, Kathleen M.; Lee, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Background: The rise in adolescent obesity has become a public health concern, especially because of its impact on disadvantaged youth. This article examines the role of disadvantage at the family-, peer-, school-, and neighborhood-level, to determine which contexts are related to obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. Methods: We analyzed…

  5. The Response of Spartina Alterniflora to Multiple Stressors of Eutrophication, Precipitation Changes, and Sea Level Rise

    EPA Science Inventory

    A four month experiment using greenhouse mesocosms was conducted to analyze the effects of eutrophication, sea level rise, and precipitation changes on the salt marsh plant Spartina alterniflora. Pots containing plants were placed in six 600L tanks that received seawater pumped f...

  6. An Iterative Maximum a Posteriori Estimation of Proficiency Level to Detect Multiple Local Likelihood Maxima

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magis, David; Raiche, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    In this article the authors focus on the issue of the nonuniqueness of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator of proficiency level in item response theory (with special attention to logistic models). The usual maximum a posteriori (MAP) method offers a good alternative within that framework; however, this article highlights some drawbacks of its…

  7. Accounting for Multiple Sources of Uncertainty in the Statistical Analysis of Holocene Sea Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, N.; Parnell, A. C.; Kemp, A.; Horton, B.

    2014-12-01

    We perform a Bayesian statistical analysis on historical and late Holocene rates of sea-level change. The data that form the input to the statistical model are tide-gauge measurements and proxy reconstructions from cores of coastal sediment. The aims are to estimate rates of sea-level change, to determine when modern rates of rise began and to observe how these rates have evolved over time. Many current methods for doing this use simple linear regression to estimate rates. This is often inappropriate as it is too rigid and it can ignore uncertainties that arise as part of the data collection exercise. This can lead to over-confidence in the sea-level trends being characterized. The proposed model places a Gaussian process prior on the rate process (i.e. the process that determines how rates of sea-level are changing over time). The likelihood of the observed data is the integral of this process. When dealing with proxy reconstructions, the model is set in an errors-in-variables framework so as to take account of age uncertainty. It is also necessary to account for glacio-isostatic adjustment, which introduces a covariance between individual age and sea-level observations. This method allows for the estimation of the rate process with full consideration of all sources of uncertainty. The model captures the continuous and dynamic evolution of sea-level change and results show that modern rates of rise are consistently increasing. Analysis of a global tide-gauge record (Church and White, 2011) indicated that the rate of sea-level rise increased continuously since 1880AD and is currently 1.9mm/yr (95% credible interval of 1.84 to 2.03mm/yr). Applying the model to a proxy reconstruction from North Carolina (Kemp et al., 2011) indicated that the mean rate of rise in this locality since the middle of the 19th century (current rate of 2.44 mm/yr with a 95% credible interval of 1.91 to 3.01mm/yr) is unprecedented in at least the last 2000 years.

  8. Global 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine Levels Are Profoundly Reduced in Multiple Genitourinary Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Munari, Enrico; Chaux, Alcides; Vaghasia, Ajay M.; Taheri, Diana; Karram, Sarah; Bezerra, Stephania M.; Gonzalez Roibon, Nilda; Nelson, William G.; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Netto, George J.; Haffner, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Solid tumors are characterized by a plethora of epigenetic changes. In particular, patterns methylation of cytosines at the 5-position (5mC) in the context of CpGs are frequently altered in tumors. Recent evidence suggests that 5mC can get converted to 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine (5hmC) in an enzymatic process involving ten eleven translocation (TET) protein family members, and this process appears to be important in facilitating plasticity of cytosine methylation. Here we evaluated the global levels of 5hmC using a validated immunohistochemical staining method in a large series of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (n = 111), urothelial cell carcinoma (n = 55) and testicular germ cell tumors (n = 84) and matched adjacent benign tissues. Whereas tumor-adjacent benign tissues were mostly characterized by high levels of 5hmC, renal cell carcinoma and urothelial cell carcinoma showed dramatically reduced staining for 5hmC. 5hmC levels were low in both primary tumors and metastases of clear cell renal cell carcinoma and showed no association with disease outcomes. In normal testis, robust 5hmC staining was only observed in stroma and Sertoli cells. Seminoma showed greatly reduced 5hmC immunolabeling, whereas differentiated teratoma, embryonal and yolk sack tumors exhibited high 5hmC levels. The substantial tumor specific loss of 5hmC, particularly in clear cell renal cell carcinoma and urothelial cell carcinoma, suggests that alterations in pathways involved in establishing and maintaining 5hmC levels might be very common in cancer and could potentially be exploited for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26785262

  9. A cross-cultural investigation of multiple intelligences in university-level nutrition students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Joy E.

    Effective strategies for the recruitment and retention of a diverse student body in undergraduate nutrition and dietetics programs are needed in order for graduates to effectively meet the health and nutrition needs of a diverse clientele. One way to promote diversity and improve teaching methods in dietetics education is through a framework based on Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI). The theory suggests that individuals possess varying degrees of eight different intelligences which are shaped by genetics and cultural context. Relatively little research has been conducted to investigate MI approaches in the areas of higher education, cross-cultural education, or dietetics education. Therefore, this study investigated the MI profiles of students within undergraduate nutrition programs at Universidad Iberoamericana in Mexico City, Mexico and Saint Louis University in St. Louis, Missouri, United States. Data were collected through the Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales (MIDAS). The findings provide a profile of the intellectual dispositions for the study population and suggest that dietetics students in this cross-cultural study population score highest for the MIDAS scale measuring interpersonal intelligence, with significant differences occurring between scores for the eight intelligences measured by the MIDAS. Not only were there significant differences between scale scores when analyzing the population as a whole, there were also significant differences in scale scores when comparing American and Mexican students. This phenomenon was also true when scores were grouped into five ordinal categories. In addition, the findings suggest that differences exist among the particular skills associated with the intelligences for the students at each university. Results indicate that skills related to social sensitivity and persuasion are significantly higher than many other skills for dietetics students. Further, when comparing the

  10. Variability in measures of reproductive success in laboratory-kept colonies of zebrafish and implications for studies addressing population-level effects of environmental chemicals.

    PubMed

    Paull, Gregory C; Van Look, Katrien J W; Santos, Eduarda M; Filby, Amy L; Gray, D Melati; Nash, John P; Tyler, Charles R

    2008-04-28

    Laboratory tests that quantify reproductive success using model fish species are used to investigate for population-level effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and other chemicals discharged into the environment. Even for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), however, one of the most widely used laboratory models, surprisingly little is known about the normal variability in measures of reproductive success and this information is crucial for robust test design. In this study, the dynamics of breeding and inherent variability in egg output/viability and sperm quality were characterized among individuals/colonies and over time in 34 colonies of laboratory-kept zebrafish over a 20-day study period. For this work, a '6 x 6' (six males and six females) colony size was adopted, as this is both environmentally relevant and optimal when considering egg output and animal welfare combined: an initial experiment showed egg output per female increased with decreasing colony size however, there was also a parallel increase in aggressive behavior. Both egg output and viability in '6 x 6' colonies were highly variable among colonies (with co-efficients of variation (CVs) of 30 and 11%, respectively) and over the 20-day study duration (considering egg output and viability of all the colonies combined, the CVs were 20 and 12%, respectively). The patterns of egg production also differed among the '6 x 6' colonies, and they included a cyclical output, a consistent daily output, an infrequent egg output with intermittent days of very high egg output, and an output with no obvious pattern. Sperm quality, measured as percentage motility and curvilinear velocity (VCL), was variable both among individuals within '6 x 6' colonies and across colonies, with percentage motility being the most variable parameter (mean CVs of 82% inter-individual within colonies and 49% inter-colony). Sperm quality did not, however, vary over a 24h period. A minimum number of six replicate '6 x 6' colonies

  11. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  12. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  13. Large MEMS-based programmable reflective slit mask for multi-object spectroscopy fabricated using multiple wafer-level bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canonica, Michael; Zamkotsian, Frederic; Lanzoni, Patrick; Noell, Wilfried; de Rooij, Nico

    2012-03-01

    Multi-object spectroscopy (MOS) allows measuring infrared spectra of faint astronomical objects that provides information on the evolution of the Universe. MOS requires a slit mask for object selection at the focal plane of the telescope. We are developing MEMS-based programmable reflective slit masks composed of 2048 individually addressable micromirrors. Each micromirror measures 100 × 200 μm2 and is electrostatically tilted by a precise angle of at least 20°. The main requirements for these arrays are precise and uniform tilt angle over the whole device, uniformity of the mirror electromechanical behavior, a flat mirror deformation and individual addressing capability of each mirror. This capability of our array is achieved using a line-column algorithm based on an optimized tilt angle/voltage hysteresis of the electrostatic actuator. Micromirror arrays composed of 2048 micromirrors (32 × 64) and modeled for individual addressing were fabricated using fusion and eutectic wafer-level bonding. These micromirrors without coating demonstrated a peak-to-valley deformation less than 8 nm and a tilt angle of 24° for an actuation voltage of 130 V. A first experiment of the linecolumn algorithm was demonstrated by actuating individually 2 × 2 micromirrors. In order, to avoid spoiling of the optical source by the thermal emission of the instrument, the micromirror array has to work in a cryogenic environment. Therefore, these devices were characterized in a cryogenic environment at -111°C and several lines of micromirrors were tilted successfully under these conditions.

  14. Co-seismic water level changes in response to multiple large earthquakes at the LGH well in Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Guijuan; Jiang, Changsheng; Han, Libo; Sheng, Shuzhong; Ma, Yuchuan

    2016-06-01

    We examined the water level data at the LGH well in Sichuan, China, from December 2007 to July 2015 and their responses to multiple large earthquakes with seismic energy densities greater than 10- 4 J/m3. Co-seismic water level declines were observed in response to eleven earthquakes out of twelve in the farfield, and co-seismic water level increase was observed in one nearfield case. The water level declines in the farfield showed a linear relation with the common logarithm of the seismic energy densities, whereas the water level increase in the nearfield fell away from this relation, indicating that the farfield responses and the nearfield response were produced by distinct mechanisms. We used the phase shift of tidal responses as a proxy for permeability and found that permeability enhancements were observed both in the farfield and nearfield. The co-seismic water level declines in response to the distant earthquakes could be explained by permeability enhancements caused by the passage of seismic waves through the mobilization of colloidal particles; the co-seismic water level increase in response to the nearfield case could be caused both by the compression of the static stress and by the seismic waves.

  15. Level of education and multiple sclerosis risk after adjustment for known risk factors: The EnvIMS study

    PubMed Central

    Bjørnevik, Kjetil; Riise, Trond; Cortese, Marianna; Holmøy, Trygve; Kampman, Margitta T; Magalhaes, Sandra; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Wolfson, Christina; Pugliatti, Maura

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several recent studies have found a higher risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) among people with a low level of education. This has been suggested to reflect an effect of smoking and lower vitamin D status in the social class associated with lower levels of education. Objective: The objective of this paper is to investigate the association between level of education and MS risk adjusting for the known risk factors smoking, infectious mononucleosis, indicators of vitamin D levels and body size. Methods: Within the case-control study on Environmental Factors In MS (EnvIMS), 953 MS patients and 1717 healthy controls from Norway reported educational level and history of exposure to putative environmental risk factors. Results: Higher level of education were associated with decreased MS risk (p trend = 0.001) with an OR of 0.53 (95% CI 0.41–0.68) when comparing those with the highest and lowest level of education. This association was only moderately reduced after adjusting for known risk factors (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.44–0.83). The estimates remained similar when cases with disease onset before age 28 were excluded. Conclusion: These findings suggest that factors related to lower socioeconomic status other than established risk factors are associated with MS risk. PMID:26014605

  16. Level of attitude toward complementary and alternative medicine among Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Hosseinkhani, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an unpredictable neurological disease leading to severe disability in young adults. The majority of MS patients use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as adjunct to conventional therapies. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of CAM utilization among Iranian patients with MS and their attitude toward the CAM usage. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 119 definite MS patients referred to Tehran’s Imam Khomeini and Sina hospitals. A questionnaire was used to examine the association between participants’ health-related factors and usage of CAMs interventions. P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Among the enrolled patients, 60% of the participants agreed with using CAM, 42% experienced the usage of these treatments; out of whom 41% believed its efficiency and 18% reported exacerbation of symptoms. The mean duration of disease diagnosis and mean time from symptoms onset were both longer in users of CAM (P = 0.001). Most socio-demographic factors had no significant effect on the type of used CAM. However, Yoga was significantly more applied in those with higher degree of education (P = 0.002). Conclusion Regarding the widespread use of CAM by Iranian patients with MS, further researches about the safety and efficacy of each treatment on the special outcomes is recommended. PMID:24800042

  17. Decision-making in child protective services: Influences at multiple levels of the social ecology.

    PubMed

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2015-09-01

    Decision-making in the child protection system is influenced by multiple factors; agency and geographic contexts, caseworker attributes, and families' unique circumstances all likely play a role. In this study, we use the second cohort of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being to explore how these factors are associated with two key case decisions-substantiation and removal to out-of-home care. Analyses are conducted using weighted hierarchical linear models. We find that substantiation is strongly influenced by agency factors, particularly constraints on service accessibility. Substantiation is less likely when agencies can provide services to unsubstantiated cases and when collaboration with other social institutions is high. This supports the concept that substantiation may be a gateway to services in some communities. Agency factors contributed less to the probability of removal among substantiated cases, though time resources and constraints on decision-making had some influence. For both substantiation and removal risks, county, caseworker, and child characteristics were less influential than agency characteristics and family risk factors. PMID:25726323

  18. PATTERNS OF EMOTIONAL AVAILABILITY IN MOTHER-INFANT DYADS: ASSOCIATIONS WITH MULTIPLE LEVELS OF CONTEXT.

    PubMed

    Mingo, M Verónica; Easterbrooks, M Ann

    2015-01-01

    This study explored emotional availability (EA)- an individual's emotional responsiveness and attunement to another's needs and goals (R.N. Emde, 1980)- among a high social risk group of 226 adolescent mothers and their infants (average = 12 months old). The aim was to identify dyadic patterns of EA and to examine their association with multiple indicators of the ecological context. Maternal sensitivity, maternal nonhostility, and child responsiveness were assessed with the Emotional Availability Scales, Third Edition (Z. Biringen, J. Robinson, & R.N. Emde, 1998) during free play and teaching observations at home. Four EA patterns were identified using k-means cluster analysis: (a) "low functioning," (b) "high functioning," (c) "low functioning dyads with nonhostile mothers," and (d) "inconsistently sensitive mother and responsive child." These patterns had distinct associations with (a) mothers' parenting attitudes regarding children's power and independence and parent-child role reversal, (b) mothers' strategies in conflict resolution with their partners and their children, and (c) the dyads' living arrangements. This study makes a contribution to the understanding of the mother-child relationship from a systemic and relational perspective and explores the association of EA patterns with the dyads' relational context. Implications for programs and treatment approaches aimed at supporting dyads at social risk are discussed. PMID:26331847

  19. Decision-making in Child Protective Services: Influences at multiple levels of the social ecology

    PubMed Central

    Font, Sarah A.; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making in the child protection system is influenced by multiple factors; agency and geographic contexts, caseworker attributes, and families' unique circumstances all likely play a role. In this study, we use the second cohort of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being to explore how these factors are associated with two key case decisions—substantiation and removal to out-of-home care. Analyses are conducted using weighted hierarchical linear models. We find that substantiation is strongly influenced by agency factors, particularly constraints on service accessibility. Substantiation is less likely when agencies can provide services to unsubstantiated cases and when collaboration with other social institutions is high. This supports the concept that substantiation may be a gateway to services in some communities. Agency factors contributed less to the probability of removal among substantiated cases, though time resources and constraints on decision-making had some influence. For both substantiation and removal risks, county, caseworker, and child characteristics were less influential than agency characteristics and family risk factors. PMID:25726323

  20. NICE technology appraisals: working with multiple levels of uncertainty and the potential for bias.

    PubMed

    Brown, Patrick; Calnan, Michael

    2013-05-01

    One of the key roles of the English National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) is technology appraisal. This essentially involves evaluating the cost effectiveness of pharmaceutical products and other technologies for use within the National Health Service. Based on a content analysis of key documents which shed light on the nature of appraisals, this paper draws attention to the multiple layers of uncertainty and complexity which are latent within the appraisal process, and the often socially constructed mechanisms for tackling these. Epistemic assumptions, bounded rationality and more explicitly relational forms of managing knowledge are applied to this end. These findings are discussed in the context of the literature highlighting the inherently social process of regulation. A framework is developed which posits the various forms of uncertainty, and responses to these, as potential conduits of regulatory bias-in need of further research. That NICE's authority is itself regulated by other actors within the regulatory regime, particularly the pharmaceutical industry, exposes it to the threat of regulatory capture. Following Lehoux, it is concluded that a more transparent and reflexive format for technological appraisals is necessary. This would enable a more robust, defensible form of decision-making and moreover enable NICE to preserve its legitimacy in the midst of pressures which threaten this. PMID:22198480

  1. The Relationship between Multiplication Fact Speed-Recall and Fluency and Higher Level Mathematics Learning with Eighth Grade Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Steven James

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated relationships between higher level mathematics learning and multiplication fact fluency, multiplication fact speed-recall, and reading grade equivalency of eighth grade students in Algebra I and Pre-Algebra. Higher level mathematics learning was indicated by an average score of 80% or higher on first and second…

  2. Cumulative annoyance due to multiple aircraft flyover with differing peak noise levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, K. P.

    1981-01-01

    A laboratory study in which 160 subjects judged the annoyance of 30 minute sessions of aircraft noise is described. Each session contained nine flyovers consisting of various combinations of three takeoff recordings of Boeing 727. The subjects were asked to judge their annoyance in the simulated living room environment of the laboratory and also to assess how annoyed they would be if they heard the noise in their home during the day, evening, and night periods. The standard deviation of the sound level did not improve the predictive ability of L sub eq (equivalent continuous sound level) which performed as well or better than other noise measured. Differences were found between the projected home responses for the day, evening, and nighttime periods. Time of day penalties derived from these results showed reasonable agreement with those currently used in community noise indices.

  3. Melatonin in Plants – Diversity of Levels and Multiplicity of Functions

    PubMed Central

    Hardeland, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin has been detected in numerous plant species. A particularly surprising finding concerns the highly divergent levels of melatonin that vary between species, organs and environmental conditions, from a few pg/g to over 20 μg/g, reportedly up to 200 μg/g. Highest values have been determined in oily seeds and in plant organs exposed to high UV radiation. The divergency of melatonin concentrations is discussed under various functional aspects and focused on several open questions. This comprises differences in precursor availability, catabolism, the relative contribution of isoenzymes of the melatonin biosynthetic pathway, and differences in rate limitation by either serotonin N-acetyltransferase or N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase. Other differences are related to the remarkable pleiotropy of melatonin, which exhibits properties as a growth regulator and morphogenetic factor, actually debated in terms of auxin-like effects, and as a signaling molecule that modulates pathways of ethylene, abscisic, jasmonic and salicylic acids and is involved in stress tolerance, pathogen defense and delay of senescence. In the context of high light/UV intensities, elevated melatonin levels exceed those required for signaling via stress-related phytohormones and may comprise direct antioxidant and photoprotectant properties, perhaps with a contribution of its oxidatively formed metabolites, such as N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine and its secondary products. High melatonin levels in seeds may also serve antioxidative protection and have been shown to promote seed viability and germination capacity. PMID:26925091

  4. Evolution of epithelial morphogenesis: phenotypic integration across multiple levels of biological organization

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Thorsten; Hilbrant, Maarten; Panfilio, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    Morphogenesis involves the dynamic reorganization of cell and tissue shapes to create the three-dimensional body. Intriguingly, different species have evolved different morphogenetic processes to achieve the same general outcomes during embryonic development. How are meaningful comparisons between species made, and where do the differences lie? In this Perspective, we argue that examining the evolution of embryonic morphogenesis requires the simultaneous consideration of different levels of biological organization: (1) genes, (2) cells, (3) tissues, and (4) the entire egg, or other gestational context. To illustrate the importance of integrating these levels, we use the extraembryonic epithelia of insects—a lineage-specific innovation and evolutionary hotspot—as an exemplary case study. We discuss how recent functional data, primarily from RNAi experiments targeting the Hox3/Zen and U-shaped group transcription factors, provide insights into developmental processes at all four levels. Comparisons of these data from several species both challenge and inform our understanding of homology, in assessing how the process of epithelial morphogenesis has itself evolved. PMID:26483835

  5. Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D levels is not associated with disability in multiple sclerosis patients: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Nikanfar, Masoud; Taheri-Aghdam, Ali Akbar; Yazdani, Maria; Shaafi, Sheida; Masoudian, Nooshin; Akbari, Hossein; Youhanaee, Parisa; Abbaszadeh, Hamzeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: It seems that serum vitamin D levels are one of the potential environmental factors affecting the severity of multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we aim to evaluate vitamin D levels in MS patients and healthy subjects and assess the relationship between vitamin D level and disability. Methods: In this case-control study, 168 rapid relapsing MS patients and 168 matched healthy controls were randomly included in this study. Demographic characteristics and serum vitamin D levels for patients and controls, as well as expanded disability status scale (EDSS), duration of disease and diagnostic lag for patients were evaluated. We followed up patients for 6 months and relapses were recorded. Results: The mean serum vitamin D levels were 19.16 ± 17.37 inpatients and 25.39 ± 19.67 in controls (P = 0.560). The mean serum vitamin D levels were 12.65 ± 13.3 in patients with relapses and 22.08 ± 18.22 in patients without any relapses (P < 0.001). There was no significant correlation between EDSS score and serum vitamin D levels (r = −0.08, P = 0.280). There was a significant positive correlation between EDSS score and disease duration (r = 0.52, P < 0.001). Conclusion: In conclusion, vitamin D level in patients with MS was significantly lower than the healthy subjects, but no significant relationship was found between vitamin D levels and disability. Our findings did not suggest a protective role for serum vitamin D levels against disability. PMID:25874052

  6. Multiple target tracking and classification improvement using data fusion at node level using acoustic signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damarla, T. R.; Whipps, Gene

    2005-05-01

    Target tracking and classification using passive acoustic signals is difficult at best as the signals are contaminated by wind noise, multi-path effects, road conditions, and are generally not deterministic. In addition, microphone characteristics, such as sensitivity, vary with the weather conditions. The problem is further compounded if there are multiple targets, especially if some are measured with higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) than the others and they share spectral information. At the U. S. Army Research Laboratory we have conducted several field experiments with a convoy of two, three, four and five vehicles traveling on different road surfaces, namely gravel, asphalt, and dirt roads. The largest convoy is comprised of two tracked vehicles and three wheeled vehicles. Two of the wheeled vehicles are heavy trucks and one is a light vehicle. We used a super-resolution direction-of-arrival estimator, specifically the minimum variance distortionless response, to compute the bearings of the targets. In order to classify the targets, we modeled the acoustic signals emanated from the targets as a set of coupled harmonics, which are related to the engine-firing rate, and subsequently used a multivariate Gaussian classifier. Independent of the classifier, we find tracking of wheeled vehicles to be intermittent as the signals from vehicles with high SNR dominate the much quieter wheeled vehicles. We used several fusion techniques to combine tracking and classification results to improve final tracking and classification estimates. We will present the improvements (or losses) made in tracking and classification of all targets. Although improvements in the estimates for tracked vehicles are not noteworthy, significant improvements are seen in the case of wheeled vehicles. We will present the fusion algorithm used.

  7. Magnetic content addressable memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenye

    Content Addressable Memories are designed with comparison circuits built into every bit cell. This parallel structure can increase the speed of searching from O(n) (as with Random Access Memories) to O(1), where n is the number of entries being searched. The high cost in hardware limits the application of CAM within situations where higher searching speed is extremely desired. Spintronics technology can build non-volatile Magnetic RAM with only one device for one bit cell. There are various technologies involved, like Magnetic Tunnel Junctions, off-easy-axis programming method, Synthetic Anti-Ferromagnetic tri-layers, Domain Wall displacement, Spin Transfer Torque tri-layers and etc. With them, particularly the Tunnel Magneto-Resistance variation in MTJ due to difference in magnetization polarity of the two magnets, Magnetic CAM can be developed with reduced hardware cost. And this is demonstrated by the discussion in this dissertation. Six MCAM designs are discussed. In the first design, comparand (C), local information (S) and their complements are stored into 4 MTJs connected in XOR gate pattern. The other five designs have one or two stacks for both information storage and comparison, and full TMR ratio can be taken advantage of. Two challenges for the five are specifically programming C without changing S and selectively programming a cell out of an array. The solutions to specific programming are: by confining the programming field for C in a ring structure design; by using field programming and spin polarized current programming respectively for C and S in the SAF+DW and SAF+STT tri-layer design; by making use of the difference in thresholds between direct mode and toggle mode switching in the SAF+SAF design. The problem of selective programming is addressed by off-easy-axis method and by including SAF tri-layers. Cell with STT tri-layers for both C and S can completely avoid the problems of specific and selective programming, but subject to the limit of

  8. Multiple Mechanisms Increase Levels of Resistance in Rapistrum rugosum to ALS Herbicides

    PubMed Central

    Hatami, Zahra M.; Gherekhloo, Javid; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M.; Osuna, Maria D.; Alcántara, Ricardo; Fernández, Pablo; Sadeghipour, Hamid R.; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Rapistrum rugosum (turnip weed) is a common weed of wheat fields in Iran, which is most often controlled by tribenuron-methyl (TM), a sulfonylurea (SU) belonging to the acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibiting herbicides group. Several cases of unexplained control failure of R. rugosum by TM have been seen, especially in Golestan province-Iran. Hence, there is lack of research in evaluation of the level of resistance of the R. rugosum populations to TM, using whole plant dose-response and enzyme assays, then investigating some potential resistance mechanisms Results revealed that the resistance factor (RF) for resistant (R) populations was 2.5–6.6 fold higher than susceptible (S) plant. Neither foliar retention, nor 14C-TM absorption and translocation were the mechanisms responsible for resistance in turnip weed. Metabolism of TM was the second resistant mechanism in two populations (Ag-R5 and G-1), in which three metabolites were found. The concentration of TM for 50% inhibition of ALS enzyme activity in vitro showed a high level of resistance to the herbicide (RFs were from 28 to 38) and cross-resistance to sulfonyl-aminocarbonyl-triazolinone (SCT), pyrimidinyl-thiobenzoate (PTB) and triazolopyrimidine (TP), with no cross-resistance to imidazolinone (IMI). Substitution Pro 197 to Ser 197 provided resistance to four of five ALS-inhibiting herbicides including SU, TP, PTB, and SCT with no resistance to IMI. These results documented the first case of R. rugosum resistant population worldwide and demonstrated that both RST and NRST mechanisms are involved to the resistance level to TM. PMID:26941749

  9. Maximal yields from multispecies fisheries systems: rules for systems with multiple trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Abrams, Peter A

    2006-02-01

    Increasing centralization of the control of fisheries combined with increased knowledge of food-web relationships is likely to lead to attempts to maximize economic yield from entire food webs. With the exception of predator-prey systems, we lack any analysis of the nature of such yield-maximizing strategies. We use simple food-web models to investigate the nature of yield- or profit-maximizing exploitation of communities including two types of three-species food webs and a variety of six-species systems with as many as five trophic levels. These models show that, for most webs, relatively few species are harvested at equilibrium and that a significant fraction of the species is lost from the web. These extinctions occur for two reasons: (1) indirect effects due to harvesting of species that had positive effects on the extinct species, and (2) intentional eradication of species that are not themselves valuable, but have negative effects on more valuable species. In most cases, the yield-maximizing harvest involves taking only species from one trophic level. In no case was an unharvested top predator part of the yield-maximizing strategy. Analyses reveal that the existence of direct density dependence in consumers has a large effect on the nature of the optimal harvest policy, typically resulting in harvest of a larger number of species. A constraint that all species must be retained in the system (a "constraint of biodiversity conservation") usually increases the number of species and trophic levels harvested at the yield-maximizing policy. The reduction in total yield caused by such a constraint is modest for most food webs but can be over 90% in some cases. Independent harvesting of species within the web can also cause extinctions but is less likely to do so. PMID:16705975

  10. Multiple Mechanisms Increase Levels of Resistance in Rapistrum rugosum to ALS Herbicides.

    PubMed

    Hatami, Zahra M; Gherekhloo, Javid; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M; Osuna, Maria D; Alcántara, Ricardo; Fernández, Pablo; Sadeghipour, Hamid R; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Rapistrum rugosum (turnip weed) is a common weed of wheat fields in Iran, which is most often controlled by tribenuron-methyl (TM), a sulfonylurea (SU) belonging to the acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibiting herbicides group. Several cases of unexplained control failure of R. rugosum by TM have been seen, especially in Golestan province-Iran. Hence, there is lack of research in evaluation of the level of resistance of the R. rugosum populations to TM, using whole plant dose-response and enzyme assays, then investigating some potential resistance mechanisms Results revealed that the resistance factor (RF) for resistant (R) populations was 2.5-6.6 fold higher than susceptible (S) plant. Neither foliar retention, nor (14)C-TM absorption and translocation were the mechanisms responsible for resistance in turnip weed. Metabolism of TM was the second resistant mechanism in two populations (Ag-R5 and G-1), in which three metabolites were found. The concentration of TM for 50% inhibition of ALS enzyme activity in vitro showed a high level of resistance to the herbicide (RFs were from 28 to 38) and cross-resistance to sulfonyl-aminocarbonyl-triazolinone (SCT), pyrimidinyl-thiobenzoate (PTB) and triazolopyrimidine (TP), with no cross-resistance to imidazolinone (IMI). Substitution Pro 197 to Ser 197 provided resistance to four of five ALS-inhibiting herbicides including SU, TP, PTB, and SCT with no resistance to IMI. These results documented the first case of R. rugosum resistant population worldwide and demonstrated that both RST and NRST mechanisms are involved to the resistance level to TM. PMID:26941749

  11. Multiple control levels of root system remodeling in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Gutjahr, Caroline; Paszkowski, Uta

    2013-01-01

    In nature, the root systems of most plants develop intimate symbioses with glomeromycotan fungi that assist in the acquisition of mineral nutrients and water through uptake from the soil and direct delivery into the root cortex. Root systems are endowed with a strong, environment-responsive architectural plasticity that also manifests itself during the establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses, predominantly in lateral root proliferation. In this review, we collect evidence for the idea that AM-induced root system remodeling is regulated at several levels: by AM fungal signaling molecules and by changes in plant nutrient status and distribution within the root system. PMID:23785383

  12. Effects of multiple levels of social organization on survival and abundance.

    PubMed

    Ward, Eric J; Semmens, Brice X; Holmes, Elizabeth E; Balcomb Iii, Ken C

    2011-04-01

    Identifying how social organization shapes individual behavior, survival, and fecundity of animals that live in groups can inform conservation efforts and improve forecasts of population abundance, even when the mechanism responsible for group-level differences is unknown. We constructed a hierarchical Bayesian model to quantify the relative variability in survival rates among different levels of social organization (matrilines and pods) of an endangered population of killer whales (Orcinus orca). Individual killer whales often participate in group activities such as prey sharing and cooperative hunting. The estimated age-specific survival probabilities and survivorship curves differed considerably among pods and to a lesser extent among matrilines (within pods). Across all pods, males had lower life expectancy than females. Differences in survival between pods may be caused by a combination of factors that vary across the population's range, including reduced prey availability, contaminants in prey, and human activity. Our modeling approach could be applied to demographic rates for other species and for parameters other than survival, including reproduction, prey selection, movement, and detection probabilities. PMID:21054527

  13. Assessing the Health of Puget Sound's Pelagic Food Web at Multiple Trophic Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, L. D.; Greene, C. M.; Rice, C. A.; Hall, J. E.; Baxter, A. E.; Naman, S. M.; Chamberlin, J.

    2012-12-01

    Puget Sound is an estuarine fjord in the northwestern United State surrounded by variable upland uses, ranging from industrial and urban to agricultural to forested lands. The quality of Puget Sound's ecosystem is under scrutiny because of the biological resources that depend on its function. In 2011, we undertook a study of the Sound's pelagic food web that measured water quality, microbial parameters, and abundance of higher trophic levels including gelatinous zooplankton, forage fish, and salmon. More than 75 sites spanning the latitudinal expanse of Puget Sound and the range of developed and agricultural land uses were sampled monthly from April to October. Strong relationships between water quality and microbial parameters suggest that microbes may modulate water quality indicators, such as dissolved inorganic nitrogen and pH, and that land use may be an influential factor. Basins within Puget Sound exhibit distinct biological profiles at the microbial and macrobiotic levels, emphasizing that Puget Sound is not a homogenous water body and suggesting that informative food web indicators may vary across the basins.

  14. Examining the Dynamic Structure of Daily Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior at Multiple Levels of Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G. C.; Beltz, Adriene M.; Gates, Kathleen M.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Simms, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric diagnostic covariation suggests that the underlying structure of psychopathology is not one of circumscribed disorders. Quantitative modeling of individual differences in diagnostic patterns has uncovered several broad domains of mental disorder liability, of which the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra have garnered the greatest support. These dimensions have generally been estimated from lifetime or past-year comorbidity patters, which are distal from the covariation of symptoms and maladaptive behavior that ebb and flow in daily life. In this study, structural models are applied to daily diary data (Median = 94 days) of maladaptive behaviors collected from a sample (N = 101) of individuals diagnosed with personality disorders (PDs). Using multilevel and unified structural equation modeling, between-person, within-person, and person-specific structures were estimated from 16 behaviors that are encompassed by the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra. At the between-person level (i.e., individual differences in average endorsement across days) we found support for a two-factor Internalizing–Externalizing model, which exhibits significant associations with corresponding diagnostic spectra. At the within-person level (i.e., dynamic covariation among daily behavior pooled across individuals) we found support for a more differentiated, four-factor, Negative Affect-Detachment-Hostility-Disinhibition structure. Finally, we demonstrate that the person-specific structures of associations between these four domains are highly idiosyncratic. PMID:26732546

  15. Examining the Dynamic Structure of Daily Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior at Multiple Levels of Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wright, Aidan G C; Beltz, Adriene M; Gates, Kathleen M; Molenaar, Peter C M; Simms, Leonard J

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric diagnostic covariation suggests that the underlying structure of psychopathology is not one of circumscribed disorders. Quantitative modeling of individual differences in diagnostic patterns has uncovered several broad domains of mental disorder liability, of which the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra have garnered the greatest support. These dimensions have generally been estimated from lifetime or past-year comorbidity patters, which are distal from the covariation of symptoms and maladaptive behavior that ebb and flow in daily life. In this study, structural models are applied to daily diary data (Median = 94 days) of maladaptive behaviors collected from a sample (N = 101) of individuals diagnosed with personality disorders (PDs). Using multilevel and unified structural equation modeling, between-person, within-person, and person-specific structures were estimated from 16 behaviors that are encompassed by the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra. At the between-person level (i.e., individual differences in average endorsement across days) we found support for a two-factor Internalizing-Externalizing model, which exhibits significant associations with corresponding diagnostic spectra. At the within-person level (i.e., dynamic covariation among daily behavior pooled across individuals) we found support for a more differentiated, four-factor, Negative Affect-Detachment-Hostility-Disinhibition structure. Finally, we demonstrate that the person-specific structures of associations between these four domains are highly idiosyncratic. PMID:26732546

  16. Alzheimer's as a Systems-Level Disease Involving the Interplay of Multiple Cellular Networks.

    PubMed

    Castrillo, Juan I; Oliver, Stephen G

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), and many neurodegenerative disorders, are multifactorial in nature. They involve a combination of genomic, epigenomic, interactomic and environmental factors. Progress is being made, and these complex diseases are beginning to be understood as having their origin in altered states of biological networks at the cellular level. In the case of AD, genomic susceptibility and mechanisms leading to (or accompanying) the impairment of the central Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) processing and tau networks are widely accepted as major contributors to the diseased state. The derangement of these networks may result in both the gain and loss of functions, increased generation of toxic species (e.g., toxic soluble oligomers and aggregates) and imbalances, whose effects can propagate to supra-cellular levels. Although well sustained by empirical data and widely accepted, this global perspective often overlooks the essential roles played by the main counteracting homeostatic networks (e.g., protein quality control/proteostasis, unfolded protein response, protein folding chaperone networks, disaggregases, ER-associated degradation/ubiquitin proteasome system, endolysosomal network, autophagy, and other stress-protective and clearance networks), whose relevance to AD is just beginning to be fully realized. In this chapter, an integrative perspective is presented. Alzheimer's disease is characterized to be a result of: (a) intrinsic genomic/epigenomic susceptibility and, (b) a continued dynamic interplay between the deranged networks and the central homeostatic networks of nerve cells. This interplay of networks will underlie both the onset and rate of progression of the disease in each individual. Integrative Systems Biology approaches are required to effect its elucidation. Comprehensive Systems Biology experiments at different 'omics levels in simple model organisms, engineered to recapitulate the basic features of AD may illuminate the onset and

  17. Leading bureaucracies to the tipping point: An alternative model of multiple stable equilibrium levels of corruption

    PubMed Central

    Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Feichtinger, Gustav; Grass, Dieter; Hartl, Richard F.; Kort, Peter M.; Novak, Andreas J.; Seidl, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel model of corruption dynamics in the form of a nonlinear optimal dynamic control problem. It has a tipping point, but one whose origins and character are distinct from that in the classic Schelling (1978) model. The decision maker choosing a level of corruption is the chief or some other kind of authority figure who presides over a bureaucracy whose state of corruption is influenced by the authority figure’s actions, and whose state in turn influences the pay-off for the authority figure. The policy interpretation is somewhat more optimistic than in other tipping models, and there are some surprising implications, notably that reforming the bureaucracy may be of limited value if the bureaucracy takes its cues from a corrupt leader. PMID:23565027

  18. Leading bureaucracies to the tipping point: An alternative model of multiple stable equilibrium levels of corruption.

    PubMed

    Caulkins, Jonathan P; Feichtinger, Gustav; Grass, Dieter; Hartl, Richard F; Kort, Peter M; Novak, Andreas J; Seidl, Andrea

    2013-03-16

    We present a novel model of corruption dynamics in the form of a nonlinear optimal dynamic control problem. It has a tipping point, but one whose origins and character are distinct from that in the classic Schelling (1978) model. The decision maker choosing a level of corruption is the chief or some other kind of authority figure who presides over a bureaucracy whose state of corruption is influenced by the authority figure's actions, and whose state in turn influences the pay-off for the authority figure. The policy interpretation is somewhat more optimistic than in other tipping models, and there are some surprising implications, notably that reforming the bureaucracy may be of limited value if the bureaucracy takes its cues from a corrupt leader. PMID:23565027

  19. Cullin 1 functions as a centrosomal suppressor of centriole multiplication by regulating Polo-like kinase 4 protein levels

    PubMed Central

    Korzeniewski, Nina; Zheng, Leon; Cuevas, Rolando; Parry, Joshua; Chatterjee, Payel; Anderton, Brittany; Duensing, Anette; Münger, Karl; Duensing, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Abnormal centrosome and centriole numbers are frequently detected in tumor cells where they can contribute to mitotic aberrations that cause chromosome missegregation and aneuploidy. The molecular mechanisms of centriole overduplication in malignant cells, however, are poorly characterized. Here, we show that the core SCF component CUL1 localizes to maternal centrioles and that CUL1 is critical for suppressing centriole overduplication through multiplication, a recently discovered mechanism whereby multiple daughter centrioles form concurrently at single maternal centrioles. We found that this activity of CUL1 involves the degradation of Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) at maternal centrioles. PLK4 is required for centriole duplication and strongly stimulates centriole multiplication when aberrantly expressed. We found that CUL1 is critical for the degradation of active PLK4 following deregulation of cyclin E/CDK2 activity, as is frequently observed in human cancer cells, as well as for baseline PLK4 protein stability. Collectively, our results suggest that CUL1 may function as a tumor suppressor by regulating PLK4 protein levels and thereby restraining excessive daughter centriole formation at maternal centrioles. PMID:19679553

  20. Estimation of water table level and nitrate pollution based on geostatistical and multiple mass transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matiatos, Ioannis; Varouhakis, Emmanouil A.; Papadopoulou, Maria P.

    2015-04-01

    As the sustainable use of groundwater resources is a great challenge for many countries in the world, groundwater modeling has become a very useful and well established tool for studying groundwater management problems. Based on various methods used to numerically solve algebraic equations representing groundwater flow and contaminant mass transport, numerical models are mainly divided into Finite Difference-based and Finite Element-based models. The present study aims at evaluating the performance of a finite difference-based (MODFLOW-MT3DMS), a finite element-based (FEFLOW) and a hybrid finite element and finite difference (Princeton Transport Code-PTC) groundwater numerical models simulating groundwater flow and nitrate mass transport in the alluvial aquifer of Trizina region in NE Peloponnese, Greece. The calibration of groundwater flow in all models was performed using groundwater hydraulic head data from seven stress periods and the validation was based on a series of hydraulic head data for two stress periods in sufficient numbers of observation locations. The same periods were used for the calibration of nitrate mass transport. The calibration and validation of the three models revealed that the simulated values of hydraulic heads and nitrate mass concentrations coincide well with the observed ones. The models' performance was assessed by performing a statistical analysis of these different types of numerical algorithms. A number of metrics, such as Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Bias, Nash Sutcliffe Model Efficiency (NSE) and Reliability Index (RI) were used allowing the direct comparison of models' performance. Spatiotemporal Kriging (STRK) was also applied using separable and non-separable spatiotemporal variograms to predict water table level and nitrate concentration at each sampling station for two selected hydrological stress periods. The predictions were validated using the respective measured values. Maps of water table

  1. High Levels of Multiple Infections, Recombination and Horizontal Transmission of Wolbachia in the Andricus mukaigawae (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae) Communities

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao-Hui; Zhu, Dao-Hong; Liu, Zhiwei; Zhao, Ling; Su, Cheng-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    levels of multiple Wolbachia infections observed in A. mukaigawae and S. japonicus. PMID:24250820

  2. Role of serum TRAIL level and TRAIL apoptosis gene expression in multiple sclerosis and relation to brain atrophy.

    PubMed

    Tawdy, Mohamed H; Abd El Nasser, Maged M; Abd El Shafy, Sanaa S; Nada, Mona A F; El Sirafy, Mohamed Nasr I; Magd, Amany Hussien Abol

    2014-09-01

    One of the presumed pathological mechanisms of multiple sclerosis (MS) is the failure of apoptosis of autoreactive T lymphocytes. This study aimed to determine the relationship of the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) mRNA gene expression ratio and serum TRAIL levels with MS and brain atrophy. This study was conducted on 53 relapsing-remitting Egyptian MS patients and 25 matched healthy volunteers. The expression of TRAIL in peripheral blood lymphocytes was analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, serum levels of soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and brain MRI measured "black holes" and the bicaudate ratio as a measure of brain atrophy in all patients. The serum TRAIL level was lower in MS patients compared to controls but no difference was seen in the TRAIL mRNA gene expression ratio. No significant correlation was detected between the serum TRAIL level and the TRAIL mRNA expression ratio in either group. No statistically significant correlation was found between serum TRAIL levels or the TRAIL mRNA expression ratio with the number of black holes or the bicaudate ratio on MRI. Apoptosis of T lymphocytes is decreased in MS patients, which could be useful when designing treatments. There was no difference in the TRAIL mRNA gene expression ratio between MS patients and controls. PMID:24913933

  3. Plasma Levels of Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 Are Associated with Clinical Features and Angiogenesis in Patients with Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Valković, Toni; Babarović, Emina; Lučin, Ksenija; Štifter, Sanja; Aralica, Merica; Seili-Bekafigo, Irena; Duletić-Načinović, Antica; Jonjić, Nives

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to determine the plasma levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and possible associations with angiogenesis and the main clinical features of untreated patients with multiple myeloma (MM). ELISA was used to determine plasma MCP-1 levels in 45 newly diagnosed MM patients and 24 healthy controls. The blood vessels were highlighted by immunohistochemical staining, and computer-assisted image analysis was used for more objective and accurate determination of two parameters of angiogenesis: microvessel density (MVD) and total vascular area (TVA). The plasma levels of MCP-1 were compared to these parameters and the presence of anemia, renal dysfunction, and bone lesions. A significant positive correlation was found between plasma MCP-1 concentrations and TVA (p = 0.02). The MCP-1 levels were significantly higher in MM patients with evident bone lesions (p = 0.01), renal dysfunction (p = 0.02), or anemia (p = 0.04). Therefore, our preliminary results found a positive association between plasma MCP-1 levels, angiogenesis (expressed as TVA), and clinical features in patients with MM. However, additional prospective studies with a respectable number of patients should be performed to authenticate these results and establish MCP-1 as a possible target of active treatment. PMID:26925413

  4. Application of multiple levels of fluid shear stress to endothelial cells plated on polyacrylamide gels†

    PubMed Central

    Galie, P. A.; van Oosten, A.; Chen, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of endothelial cell response to fluid shear stress have previously been performed on unphysiologically rigid substrates. We describe the design and implementation of a microfluidic device that applies discrete levels of shear stress to cells plated on hydrogel-based substrates of physiologicallyrelevant stiffness. The setup allows for measurements of cell morphology and inflammatory response to the combined stimuli, and identifies mechanisms by which vascular stiffening leads to pathological responses to blood flow. We found that the magnitude of shear stress required to affect endothelial cell morphology and inflammatory response depended on substrate stiffness. Endothelial cells on 100 Pa substrates demonstrate a greater increase in cell area and cortical stiffness and decrease in NF-κB nuclear translocation in response to TNF-α treatment compared to controls than cells plated on 10 kPa substrates. The response of endothelial cells on soft substrates to shear stress depends on the presence of hyaluronan (HA). These results emphasize the importance of substrate stiffness on endothelial function, and elucidate a means by which vascular stiffening in aging and disease can impact the endothelium. PMID:25573790

  5. Design and evaluation of multiple level data staging for Blue Gene systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Isaila, F.; Blas, J. G.; Carretero, J.; Latham, R.; Ross, R.

    2011-06-01

    Parallel applications currently suffer from a significant imbalance between computational power and available I/O bandwidth. Additionally, the hierarchical organization of current Petascale systems contributes to an increase of the I/O subsystem latency. In these hierarchies, file access involves pipelining data through several networks with incremental latencies and higher probability of congestion. Future Exascale systems are likely to share this trait. This paper presents a scalable parallel I/O software system designed to transparently hide the latency of file system accesses to applications on these platforms. Our solution takes advantage of the hierarchy of networks involved in file accesses, to maximize the degree of overlap between computation, file I/O-related communication, and file system access. We describe and evaluate a two-level hierarchy for Blue Gene systems consisting of client-side and I/O node-side caching. Our file cache management modules coordinate the data staging between application and storage through the Blue Gene networks. The experimental results demonstrate that our architecture achieves significant performance improvements through a high degree of overlap between computation, communication, and file I/O.

  6. A scalable visualization environment for the correlation of radiological and histopathological data at multiple levels of resolution.

    PubMed

    Annese, Jacopo; Weber, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Until the introduction of non-invasive imaging techniques, the representation of anatomy and pathology relied solely on gross dissection and histological staining. Computerized Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) protocols allow for the clinical evaluation of anatomical images derived from complementary modalities, thereby increasing reliability of the diagnosis and the prognosis of disease. Despite the significant improvements in image contrast and resolution of MRI, autopsy and classical histopathological analysis are still indispensable for the correct diagnosis of specific disease. It is therefore important to be able to correlate multiple images from different modalities, in vivo and postmortem, in order to validate non-invasive imaging markers of disease. To that effect, we have developed a methodological pipeline and a visualization environment that allow for the concurrent observation of both macroscopic and microscopic image data relative to the same patient. We describe these applications and sample data relative to the study of the anatomy and disease of the Central Nervous System (CNS). The brain is approached as an organ with a complex 3-dimensional (3-D) architecture that can only be effectively studied combining observation and analysis at the system level as well as at the cellular level. Our computational and visualization environment allows seamless navigation through multiple layers of neurological data that are accessible quickly and simultaneously. PMID:19377104

  7. Multiple steps in the regulation of transcription-factor level and activity.

    PubMed Central

    Calkhoven, C F; Ab, G

    1996-01-01

    This review focuses on the regulation of transcription factors, many of which are DNA-binding proteins that recognize cis-regulatory elements of target genes and are the most direct regulators of gene transcription. Transcription factors serve as integration centres of the different signal-transduction pathways affecting a given gene. It is obvious that the regulation of these regulators themselves is of crucial importance for differential gene expression during development and in terminally differentiated cells. Transcription factors can be regulated at two, principally different, levels, namely concentration and activity, each of which can be modulated in a variety of ways. The concentrations of transcription factors, as of intracellular proteins in general, may be regulated at any of the steps leading from DNA to protein, including transcription, RNA processing, mRNA degradation and translation. The activity of a transcription factor is often regulated by (de) phosphorylation, which may affect different functions, e.g. nuclear localization DNA binding and trans-activation. Ligand binding is another mode of transcription-factor activation. It is typical for the large super-family of nuclear hormone receptors. Heterodimerization between transcription factors adds another dimension to the regulatory diversity and signal integration. Finally, non-DNA-binding (accessory) factors may mediate a diverse range of functions, e.g. serving as a bridge between the transcription factor and the basal transcription machinery, stabilizing the DNA-binding complex or changing the specificity of the target sequence recognition. The present review presents an overview of different modes of transcription-factor regulation, each illustrated by typical examples. PMID:8713055

  8. Multiple-pathways screening-level assessment of a hazardous waste incineration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Holton, G.A.; Travis, C.C.; Etnier, E.L.; O'Donnell, F.R.; Hetrick, D.M.; Dixon, E.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose of this assessment was to make a preliminary determination of the relative importance of air, food, and water pathways to human exposure from hazardous materials released from incineration facilities. These results are to be used to determine where more research on food and water pathways may be warranted. Identical 150 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h rotary kiln incinerator facilities burning pesticide-related wastes were assumed to be sited in three different locations in the United States. The locations studied for air and food chain exposures were a southern California site (S-1) at 33/sup 0/ 20' latitude and 115/sup 0/ 30' longitude; a northern Midwest site (S-2) at 44/sup 0/ 55' latitude and 89/sup 0/ 50' longitude, and a central Midwest site (S-3) at 38/sup 0/ 20' latitude and 94/sup 0/ 20' longitude. These sites are in areas that lead the nation in production of leafy vegetables, milk, and beef, respectively, and were chosen to estimate possible worst-case population exposures from these foodstuffs. In the water pathways assessments, screening-level assessments were performed at sites S-1 and S-2. Major conclusions of this report are: for certain organic chemicals the food chain pathway may be an important contributor to total human exposure from incineration of hazardous wastes; for trichloroethylene, the drinking water pathway appears to be a small contributor to total human dose. The present assessment did not determine human exposure from chemicals leached into groundwater after release from a hazardous waste incinerator. 40 references, 19 tables.

  9. Farm-level feasibility of bioenergy depends on variations across multiple sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhre, Mitchell; Barford, Carol

    2013-03-01

    The potential supply of bioenergy from farm-grown biomass is uncertain due to several poorly understood or volatile factors, including land availability, yield variability, and energy prices. Although biomass production for liquid fuel has received more attention, here we present a case study of biomass production for renewable heat and power in the state of Wisconsin (US), where heating constitutes at least 30% of total energy demand. Using three bioenergy systems (50 kW, 8.8 MW and 50 MW) and Wisconsin farm-level data, we determined the net farm income effect of producing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) as a feedstock, either for on-farm use (50 kW system) or for sale to an off-farm energy system operator (8.8 and 50 MW systems). In southern counties, where switchgrass yields approach 10 Mg ha-1 yr-1, the main determinants of economic feasibility were the available land area per farm, the ability to utilize bioheat, and opportunity cost assumptions. Switchgrass yield temporal variability was less important. For the state median farm size and switchgrass yield, at least 25% (50 kW system) or 50% (8.8 MW system) bioheat utilization was required to economically offset propane or natural gas heat, respectively, and purchased electricity. Offsetting electricity only (50 MW system) did not generate enough revenue to meet switchgrass production expenses. Although the opportunity cost of small-scale (50 kW) on-farm bioenergy generation was higher, it also held greater opportunity for increasing farm net income, especially by replacing propane-based heat.

  10. Arabidopsis thaliana High-Affinity Phosphate Transporters Exhibit Multiple Levels of Posttranslational Regulation[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Bayle, Vincent; Arrighi, Jean-François; Creff, Audrey; Nespoulous, Claude; Vialaret, Jérôme; Rossignol, Michel; Gonzalez, Esperanza; Paz-Ares, Javier; Nussaume, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER1 (PHT1) family encodes the high-affinity phosphate transporters. They are transcriptionally induced by phosphate starvation and require PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER TRAFFIC FACILITATOR (PHF1) to exit the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), indicating intracellular traffic as an additional level of regulation of PHT1 activity. Our study revealed that PHF1 acts on PHT1, upstream of vesicle coat protein COPII formation, and that additional regulatory events occur during PHT1 trafficking and determine its ER exit and plasma membrane stability. Phosphoproteomic and mutagenesis analyses revealed modulation of PHT1;1 ER export by Ser-514 phosphorylation status. Confocal microscopy analysis of root tip cells showed that PHT1;1 is localized to the plasma membrane and is present in intracellular endocytic compartments. More precisely, PHT1;1 was localized to sorting endosomes associated with prevacuolar compartments. Kinetic analysis of PHT1;1 stability and targeting suggested a modulation of PHT1 internalization from the plasma membrane to the endosomes, followed by either subsequent recycling (in low Pi) or vacuolar degradation (in high Pi). For the latter condition, we identified a rapid mechanism that reduces the pool of PHT1 proteins present at the plasma membrane. This mechanism is regulated by the Pi concentration in the medium and appears to be independent of degradation mechanisms potentially regulated by the PHO2 ubiquitin conjugase. We propose a model for differential trafficking of PHT1 to the plasma membrane or vacuole as a function of phosphate concentration. PMID:21521698

  11. Multiple Levels of Affinity-Dependent DNA Discrimination in Cre-LoxP Recombination†

    PubMed Central

    Gelato, Kathy A.; Martin, Shelley S.; Wong, Scott; Baldwin, Enoch P.

    2010-01-01

    Cre recombinase residue Arg259 mediates a canonical bidentate hydrogen-bonded contact with Gua27 of its LoxP DNA substrate. Substituting Cyt8-Gua27 with the three other basepairs, to give LoxAT, LoxTA, and LoxGC, reduced Cre-mediated recombination in vitro, with the preference order of Gua27 >Ade27 ~ Thy27 ≫ Cyt27. While LoxAT and LoxTA exhibited 2.5-fold reduced affinity and 2.5-5-fold slower reaction rates, LoxGC was a barely functional substrate. Its maximum level of turnover was 6-fold reduced over other substrates, and it exhibited 8.5-fold reduced Cre binding and 6.3-fold slower turnover rate. With LoxP, the rate-limiting step for recombination occurs after protein-DNA complex assembly but before completion of the first strand exchange to form the Holliday junction (HJ) intermediate. With the mutant substrates, it occurs after HJ formation. Using an increased DNA-binding E262Q/E266Q “CreQQ” variant, all four substrates react more readily, but with much less difference between them, and maintained the earlier rate-limiting step. The data indicate that Cre discriminates substrates through differences in (i) concentration dependence of active complex assembly, (ii) turnover rate, and (iii) maximum yield of product at saturation, all of which are functions of the Cre-DNA binding interaction. CreQQ suppression of Lox mutant defects implies that coupling between binding and turnover involves a change in Cre subunit DNA affinities during the “conformational switch” that occurs prior to the second strand exchange. These results provide an example of how a DNA-binding enzyme can exert specificity via affinity modulation of conformational transitions that occur along its reaction pathway. PMID:17014075

  12. Multiple levels of affinity-dependent DNA discrimination in Cre-LoxP recombination.

    PubMed

    Gelato, Kathy A; Martin, Shelley S; Wong, Scott; Baldwin, Enoch P

    2006-10-10

    Cre recombinase residue Arg259 mediates a canonical bidentate hydrogen-bonded contact with Gua27 of its LoxP DNA substrate. Substituting Cyt8-Gua27 with the three other basepairs, to give LoxAT, LoxTA, and LoxGC, reduced Cre-mediated recombination in vitro, with the preference order of Gua27 > Ade27 approximately Thy27 > Cyt27. While LoxAT and LoxTA exhibited 2.5-fold reduced affinity and 2.5-5-fold slower reaction rates, LoxGC was a barely functional substrate. Its maximum level of turnover was 6-fold reduced over other substrates, and it exhibited 8.5-fold reduced Cre binding and 6.3-fold slower turnover rate. With LoxP, the rate-limiting step for recombination occurs after protein-DNA complex assembly but before completion of the first strand exchange to form the Holliday junction (HJ) intermediate. With the mutant substrates, it occurs after HJ formation. Using an increased DNA-binding E262Q/E266Q "CreQQ" variant, all four substrates react more readily, but with much less difference between them, and maintained the earlier rate-limiting step. The data indicate that Cre discriminates substrates through differences in (i) concentration dependence of active complex assembly, (ii) turnover rate, and (iii) maximum yield of product at saturation, all of which are functions of the Cre-DNA binding interaction. CreQQ suppression of Lox mutant defects implies that coupling between binding and turnover involves a change in Cre subunit DNA affinities during the "conformational switch" that occurs prior to the second strand exchange. These results provide an example of how a DNA-binding enzyme can exert specificity via affinity modulation of conformational transitions that occur along its reaction pathway. PMID:17014075

  13. Genetics at school level: addressing the difficulties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Yu-Chien; Reid, Norman

    2012-11-01

    Background : A wide range of studies has offered suggestions why genetics is difficult and some of their key findings are summarised. Underpinning all of this is the way the brain works when handling information. The limitations of working memory capacity offer an interpretation of these difficulties Purpose : The aim is to confirm that working memory capacity (and the related concept of field dependency) controls performance in understanding genetics and whether it is possible to improve performance by changing the teaching approach to mininise overload. Programme description : The curriculum in Taiwan in genetics is outlined briefly. A wide range of measurements were made. Using a diagnostic test of understanding of underpinning ideas, the key areas of weakness were detected before the pupils started the course. Sample : Stage 1: 141 students in Taiwan, aged 13, boys and girls, drawn from a cross-section of Taiwanese pupils at this age, following their first course in genetics. Stage 2: 361 students, drawn from a cross-section of Taiwanese pupils at the same age, and divided into two groups (experimental-control) which both encompass the same ability range. Design and methods : Stage 1: test of pre-knowledge using structural communication grids, applied before the course commenced; working memory capacity using the figural intersection test; extent of field dependency using the group embedded figure test; understanding of genetics was measured at end of course; school test data collated. Stage 2: following a completely revised approach, performance in genetics was measured using traditional school tests and a word association test. Student perspectives were measured. Results : The test of pre-knowledge revealed key areas of difficulty. In addition, it was found that working memory capacity and extent of field dependency both correlated extremely highly with all measures of performance. Given that it has been established that working memory capacity controls performance, working memory demand explains why genetics is difficult. It was found that re-structuring the teaching approach to minimise mental overload brought about a very marked improvement in performance. Conclusions : The findings suggest that it is possible to reduce difficulties in understanding genetics by means of teaching re-design to minimise potential working memory overload, with concomitant improvements in learner confidence.

  14. Genetics at School Level: Addressing the Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Yu-Chien; Reid, Norman

    2012-01-01

    Background: A wide range of studies has offered suggestions why genetics is difficult and some of their key findings are summarised. Underpinning all of this is the way the brain works when handling information. The limitations of working memory capacity offer an interpretation of these difficulties. Purpose: The aim is to confirm that working…

  15. Forest fragmentation reduces parasitism via species loss at multiple trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Fenoglio, Maria Silvina; Srivastava, Diane; Valladares, Graciela; Cagnolo, Luciano; Salvo, Adriana

    2012-11-01

    Although there is accumulating evidence from artificially assembled communities that reductions of species diversity result in diminished ecosystem functioning, it is not yet clear how real-world changes in diversity affect the flow of energy between trophic levels in multi-trophic contexts. In central Argentina, forest fragmentation has led to species loss of plants, herbivore and parasitoid insects, decline in trophic processes (herbivory and parasitism), and food web contraction. Here we examine if and how loss of parasitoid species following fragmentation causes decreased parasitism rates, by analyzing food webs of leaf miners and parasitoids from 19 forest fragments of decreasing size. We asked three questions: Do reductions in parasitoid richness following fragmentation directly or indirectly affect parasitism rate? Are changes in community parasitism rate driven by changes in the parasitism rate of individual leaf miner species, or changes in leaf miner composition, or both? Which traits of species determine the effects of food web change on parasitism rates? We found that habitat loss initiated a bottom-up cascade of extinctions from plants to leaf miners to parasitoids, with reductions in parasitoid richness ultimately driving decreases in parasitism rates. This relationship between parasitoid richness and parasitism depended on changes in the relative abundance (but not occurrence) of leaf miners such that parasitoid-rich fragments were dominated by leaf miner species that supported high rates of parasitism. Surprisingly, we found that only a small subset of species in the food web could account for much of the increase in parasitism with parasitoid richness: lepidopteran miners that attained exceptionally high densities in some fragments and their largely specialist parasitoids. How specialized a parasitoid is, and the relative abundance of leaf miners, had important effects on the diversity-parasitism rate relationship, but not other leaf miner traits

  16. Satellite estimation of ground-level particulate matters in China: methodology, uncertainties and multiple-scale applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Chen, L.; Minghui, T.; Tao, J.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing has great potentials in supplementing the routine air quality monitoring, particularly in those developing countries or regions where air pollution is worsening day by day yet the surface monitoring sites are insufficient to depict the spatial patterns and long-range transport of major pollutants. Although many investigations have used space-based aerosol optical depth (AOD) to estimate ground-level particulate matters (PM) in China, comprehensive studies that analyze the mechanism, applicability and uncertainties of PM retrieving algorithms are still limited compared to those in North America and Europe. This study develops a clear physical methodology which employs surface aerosol extinction coefficients as a connector to correlate satellite AOD with ground-level PM concentrations. Under this methodology, major uncertainties involved in PM retrievals, namely AOD accuracies, aerosol vertical distributions as well as hygroscopic growth impacts, will be discussed. Through combination of satellite data, model simulations and in-situ climatological observations, ground-level PM estimations are achieved at multiple spatial scales. Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOD of fine resolution (1km) and in-situ measurements of aerosol vertical distribution and hygrosocpicity, detailed PM distribution in Beijing urban area is retrieved. By integrating operational MODIS AOD product (10km) and the simulations from regional (CMAQ) and global (GEOS-Chem) chemical and transport models, ground-level PM are also estimated for Pearl River Delta region and the eastern China, respectively. The validation results against in-situ PM observations are also presented.

  17. Alterations in Glutathione Levels and Apoptotic Regulators Are Associated with Acquisition of Arsenic Trioxide Resistance in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Yehiayan, Lucy; Lee, Kelvin P.; Cai, Yong; Boise, Lawrence H.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been tested in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma with limited success. In order to better understand drug mechanism and resistance pathways in myeloma we generated an ATO-resistant cell line, 8226/S-ATOR05, with an IC50 that is 2–3-fold higher than control cell lines and significantly higher than clinically achievable concentrations. Interestingly we found two parallel pathways governing resistance to ATO in 8226/S-ATOR05, and the relevance of these pathways appears to be linked to the concentration of ATO used. We found changes in the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins Bfl-1 and Noxa as well as an increase in cellular glutathione (GSH) levels. At low, clinically achievable concentrations, resistance was primarily associated with an increase in expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bfl-1 and a decrease in expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Noxa. However, as the concentration of ATO increased, elevated levels of intracellular GSH in 8226/S-ATOR05 became the primary mechanism of ATO resistance. Removal of arsenic selection resulted in a loss of the resistance phenotype, with cells becoming sensitive to high concentrations of ATO within 7 days following drug removal, indicating changes associated with high level resistance (elevated GSH) are dependent upon the presence of arsenic. Conversely, not until 50 days without arsenic did cells once again become sensitive to clinically relevant doses of ATO, coinciding with a decrease in the expression of Bfl-1. In addition we found cross-resistance to melphalan and doxorubicin in 8226/S-ATOR05, suggesting ATO-resistance pathways may also be involved in resistance to other chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of multiple myeloma. PMID:23285138

  18. Evaluation of Delta-Aminolevulinic Dehydratase Activity, Oxidative Stress Biomarkers, and Vitamin D Levels in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Polachini, Carla Roberta Nunes; Spanevello, Roselia Maria; Zanini, Daniela; Baldissarelli, Jucimara; Pereira, Luciane Belmonte; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina; da Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica; Assmann, Charles Elias; Bagatini, Margarete Dulce; Morsch, Vera Maria

    2016-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neurological disorder of unknown etiology. Oxidative stress and alterations in vitamin D levels have been implicated in the pathophysiology of MS. The aim of this study was to investigate δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activity as well as the levels of vitamin D, lipid peroxidation levels, carbonyl protein content, DNA damage, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, and the vitamin C, vitamin E, and non-protein thiol (NPSH) content in samples from patients with the relapsing-remitting form of MS (RRMS). The study population consisted of 29 RRMS patients and 29 healthy subjects. Twelve milliliters of blood was obtained from each individual and used for biochemical determinations. The results showed that δ-ALA-D and CAT activities were significantly increased, while SOD activity was decreased in the whole blood of RRMS patients compared to the control group (P < 0.05). In addition, we observed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, carbonyl protein levels in serum and damaged DNA in leucocytes in RRMS patients compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Nonetheless, the levels of vitamin C, vitamin E, NPSH, and vitamin D were significantly decreased in RRMS patients in relation to the healthy individuals (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our results suggested that the increase in δ-ALA-D activity may be related to the inflammatory and immune process in MS in an attempt to maintain the cellular metabolism and reduce oxidative stress. Moreover, the alterations in the oxidant/antioxidant balance and lower vitamin D levels may contribute to the pathophysiology of MS. PMID:26690779

  19. Multiple kernel based feature and decision level fusion of iECO individuals for explosive hazard detection in FLIR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Stanton R.; Murray, Bryce; Hu, Lequn; Anderson, Derek T.; Havens, Timothy C.; Luke, Robert H.; Keller, James M.

    2016-05-01

    A serious threat to civilians and soldiers is buried and above ground explosive hazards. The automatic detection of such threats is highly desired. Many methods exist for explosive hazard detection, e.g., hand-held based sensors, downward and forward looking vehicle mounted platforms, etc. In addition, multiple sensors are used to tackle this extreme problem, such as radar and infrared (IR) imagery. In this article, we explore the utility of feature and decision level fusion of learned features for forward looking explosive hazard detection in IR imagery. Specifically, we investigate different ways to fuse learned iECO features pre and post multiple kernel (MK) support vector machine (SVM) based classification. Three MK strategies are explored; fixed rule, heuristics and optimization-based. Performance is assessed in the context of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves on data from a U.S. Army test site that contains multiple target and clutter types, burial depths and times of day. Specifically, the results reveal two interesting things. First, the different MK strategies appear to indicate that the different iECO individuals are all more-or-less important and there is not a dominant feature. This is reinforcing as our hypothesis was that iECO provides different ways to approach target detection. Last, we observe that while optimization-based MK is mathematically appealing, i.e., it connects the learning of the fusion to the underlying classification problem we are trying to solve, it appears to be highly susceptible to over fitting and simpler, e.g., fixed rule and heuristics approaches help us realize more generalizable iECO solutions.

  20. High-speed train control based on multiple-model adaptive control with second-level adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yonghua; Zhang, Zhenlin

    2014-05-01

    Speed uplift has become the leading trend for the development of current railway traffic. Ideally, under the high-speed transportation infrastructure, trains run at specified positions with designated speeds at appointed times. In view of the faster adaptation ability of multiple-model adaptive control with second-level adaptation (MMAC-SLA), we propose one type of MMAC-SLA for a class of nonlinear systems such as cascaded vehicles. By using an input decomposition technique, the corresponding stability proof is solved for the proposed MMAC-SLA, which synthesises the control signals from the weighted multiple models. The control strategy is utilised to challenge the position and speed tracking of high-speed trains with uncertain parameters. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed MMAC-SLA can achieve small tracking errors with moderate in-train forces incurred under the control of flattening input signals with practical enforceability. This study also provides a new idea for the control of in-train forces by tracking the positions and speeds of cars while considering power constraints.

  1. Evaluation of TNF-α serum level in patients with recalcitrant multiple common warts, treated by lipid garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Kenawy, Soha; Mohammed, Ghada Farouk; Younes, Soha; Elakhras, Atef Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    No universal consensus about optimal modality for treating the recalcitrant multiple common warts (RMCW). The objective of the study was to evaluate the immunological mechanisms and clinical therapeutic effect of using lipid garlic extract (LGE) in the treatment of RMCW. The study included 50 patients with RMCW. They were randomly assigned into two groups: the first group (25 patients) received LGE, and the second group (25 patients) received saline as a control group. In both groups, treatments were made to single lesions, or largest wart in case of multiple lesions, until complete clearance of lesions or for a maximum of 4 weeks. Blood serum was taken at pre-study and at the fourth week to measure tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level. A significant difference was found between the therapeutic responses of RMCW to LGE antigen and saline control group (p < 0.001). In the LGE group, complete response was achieved in 96% of patients presenting with RMCW. There was a statistically nonsignificant increase in TNF-α of LGE group versus saline group. No recurrence was observed in the LGE group. LGE as an immunotherapy is an inexpensive, effective, and safe modality with good cure rates for treatment of RMCWs, when other topical or physical therapies have failed. PMID:24910383

  2. Levels of interleukin-16 in peripheral blood of 52 patients with multiple myeloma and its clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    Long, Shi-Feng; Chen, Guo-An; Fang, Mu-Shui

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the role of serum interleukin-16 (IL-16) in the occurrence of multiple myeloma (MM) and after the success chemotherapy and its clinical significance. Methods: 52 cases of MM patients, 30 cases of AML patients and 30 healthy volunteers from Jan. 2011 to Jan. 2015 were collected in this study. There was 39 MM patients received chemotherapy. Among those, 24 patients received VAD regimen chemotherapy and 15 patients received BD regimen chemotherapy. Serum IL-16, cystatin C (Cys-C), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and levels of β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) were detected before and after the therapy of MM patients. And those results were compared to that of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and normal people respectively. Results: The levels of serum IL-16, Cys-C, LDH and β2-MG in MM group were remarkably higher than that of normal control. It was of statistical significance of this difference (P<0.05). Levels of serum IL-16, Cys-C and LDH of MM patients who received therapy were all lower than that of patients before therapy. The serum IL-16 and β2-MG of 52 patients by preliminary diagnosis were analyzed through Pearson correlation analysis before they received therapy. The results showed that there was positive correlation between levels of IL-16 and β2-MG (r=0.782, P<0.01). Conclusions: A high serum IL-16 level detected in newly diagnosed MM patients and its correlation with known factors of disease activity as well as the decrease of IL-16 after chemotherapy suggest that IL-16 may be implicated and a potential therapeutic target for MM. PMID:26885237

  3. Preoperative estimation of run off in patients with multiple level arterial obstructions as a guide to partial reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Noer, I; Tønnesen, K H; Sager, P

    1978-11-01

    Preoperative measurements of direct femoral artery systolic pressure, indirect ankle systolic pressure and direct brachial artery systolic pressure were carried out in nine patients with severe ischemia and arterial occlusions both proximal and distal to the ingvinal ligament. The pressure-rise at the ankle was estimated preoperatively by assuming that the ankle pressure would rise in proportion to the rise in femoral artery pressure. Thus it was predicted that reconstruction of the iliac obstruction with aorta-femoral pressure gradients from 44 to 96 mm Hg would result in a rise in ankle pressure of 16--54 mm Hg. The actual rise in ankle pressure one month after reconstruction of the iliac arteries ranged from 10 to 46 mm Hg and was well correlated to the preoperative estimations. In conclusion, by proper pressure measurements the run-off problem of multiple level arterial occlusions can be evaluated. Thus the result of successful partial reconstruction can be assessed preoperatively. PMID:718291

  4. An internal ribosome entry site (IRES) mutant library for tuning expression level of multiple genes in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Koh, Esther Y C; Ho, Steven C L; Mariati; Song, Zhiwei; Bi, Xuezhi; Bardor, Muriel; Yang, Yuansheng

    2013-01-01

    A set of mutated Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements with varying strengths is generated by mutating the translation initiation codons of 10(th), 11(th), and 12(th) AUG to non-AUG triplets. They are able to control the relative expression of multiple genes over a wide range in mammalian cells in both transient and stable transfections. The relative strength of each IRES mutant remains similar in different mammalian cell lines and is not gene specific. The expressed proteins have correct molecular weights. Optimization of light chain over heavy chain expression by these IRES mutants enhances monoclonal antibody expression level and quality in stable transfections. Uses of this set of IRES mutants can be extended to other applications such as synthetic biology, investigating interactions between proteins and its complexes, cell engineering, multi-subunit protein production, gene therapy, and reprogramming of somatic cells into stem cells. PMID:24349195

  5. An Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) Mutant Library for Tuning Expression Level of Multiple Genes in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Esther Y. C.; Ho, Steven C. L.; Mariati; Song, Zhiwei; Bi, Xuezhi; Bardor, Muriel; Yang, Yuansheng

    2013-01-01

    A set of mutated Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements with varying strengths is generated by mutating the translation initiation codons of 10th, 11th, and 12th AUG to non-AUG triplets. They are able to control the relative expression of multiple genes over a wide range in mammalian cells in both transient and stable transfections. The relative strength of each IRES mutant remains similar in different mammalian cell lines and is not gene specific. The expressed proteins have correct molecular weights. Optimization of light chain over heavy chain expression by these IRES mutants enhances monoclonal antibody expression level and quality in stable transfections. Uses of this set of IRES mutants can be extended to other applications such as synthetic biology, investigating interactions between proteins and its complexes, cell engineering, multi-subunit protein production, gene therapy, and reprogramming of somatic cells into stem cells. PMID:24349195

  6. The increased level of COX-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism in blood platelets from secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Morel, Agnieszka; Miller, Elzbieta; Bijak, Michal; Saluk, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Platelet activation is increasingly postulated as a possible component of the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), especially due to the increased risk of cardiovascular events in MS. Arachidonic acid cascade metabolized by cyclooxygenase (COX) is a key pathway of platelet activation. The aim of our study was to investigate the COX-dependent arachidonic acid metabolic pathway in blood platelets from secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SP MS) patients. The blood samples were obtained from 50 patients (man n = 22; female n = 28), suffering from SP MS, diagnosed according to the revised McDonald criteria. Platelet aggregation was measured in platelet-rich plasma after arachidonic acid stimulation. The level of COX activity and thromboxane B2 concentration were determined by ELISA method. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring the level of malondialdehyde. The results were compared with a control group of healthy volunteers. We found that blood platelets obtained from SP MS patients were more sensitive to arachidonic acid and their response measured as platelet aggregation was stronger (about 14 %) relative to control. We also observed a significantly increased activity of COX (about 40 %) and synthesis of thromboxane B2 (about 113 %). The generation of malondialdehyde as a marker of lipid peroxidation was about 10 % higher in SP MS than in control. Cyclooxygenase-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism is significantly increased in blood platelets of patients with SP MS. Future clinical studies are required to recommend the use of low-dose aspirin, and possibly other COX inhibitors in the prevention of cardiovascular risk in MS. PMID:27507559

  7. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  8. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  9. Altered Levels of Zinc and N-methyl-D-aspartic Acid Receptor Underlying Multiple Organ Dysfunctions After Severe Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guanghuan; Yu, Xiaojun; Wang, Dian; Xu, Xiaohu; Chen, Guang; Jiang, Xuewu

    2015-01-01

    Background Severe trauma can cause secondary multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and death. Oxidative stress and/or excitatory neurotoxicity are considered as the final common pathway in nerve cell injuries. Zinc is the cofactor of the redox enzyme, and the effect of the excitatory neurotoxicity is related to N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR). Material/Methods We investigated the levels of zinc and brainstem NMDAR in a rabbit model of severe trauma. Zinc and serum biochemical profiles were determined. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect brainstem N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 1 (NR1), N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 2A (NR2A), and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 2B (NR2B) expression. Results Brain and brainstem Zn levels increased at 12 h, but serum Zn decreased dramatically after the trauma. NR1 in the brainstem dorsal regions increased at 6 h after injury and then decreased. NR2A in the dorsal regions decreased to a plateau at 12 h after trauma. The levels of NR2B were lowest in the death group in the brainstem. Serum zinc was positively correlated with NR2A and 2B and negatively correlated with zinc in the brain. Correlations were also found between the brainstem NR2A and that of the dorsal brainstem, as well as between brainstem NR2A and changes in NR2B. There was a negative correlation between zinc and NR2A. Conclusions Severe trauma led to an acute reduction of zinc enhancing oxidative stress and the changes of NMDAR causing the neurotoxicity of the nerve cells. This may be a mechanism for the occurrence of MODS or death after trauma. PMID:26335029

  10. High levels of mercury contamination in multiple media of the Carson River drainage basin of Nevada: implications for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Gustin, M S; Taylor, G E; Leonard, T L

    1994-09-01

    Approximately 5.5 x 109 g (4.0 x 105) of mercury was discharged into the Carson River Drainage Basin of west-central Nevada during processing of the gold- and silver-rich Comstock ore in the late 1800s. For the past 13 decades, mercury has been redistributed throughout 500 km2 of the basin, and concentrations are some of the highest reported values in North America. This article documents the concentrations of mercury in the air, water, and substrate at both contaminated and noncontaminated sites within the basin and discusses the implications for risk assessment. At contaminated areas, the range of mercury concentrations are as follows: mill tailings, 3-1610 micrograms/g; unfiltered reservoir water, 53-591 ng/l; atmospheric vapor, 2-294 ng/m3. These values are three to five orders of magnitude greater than natural background. In all media at contaminated sites, concentrations are spatially variable, and air and water mercury concentrations vary temporally. The study are in situated in a natural mercuriferous belt, and regional background mercury concentrations in all environmental media are higher than values typically cited for natural background. As a mercury-contaminated site in North America, the Carson River Drainage Basin is unusual for a number of reasons, including its location in a natural mercuriferous belt, high and sustained levels of anthropogenic mercury inputs, long exposure time, aridity of the climate, and the riparian setting in an arid landscape, where biological activity is concentrated in the same areas that contain high levels of mercury in multiple media. PMID:9657709

  11. High levels of mercury contamination in multiple media of the Carson River Drainage Basin of Nevada: Implications for risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Gustin, M.S.; Taylor, G.E. Jr.; Leonard, T.L. Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV )

    1994-09-01

    Approximately 5.5 x 10[sup 9] g (4.0 x 10[sup 5] l) of mercury was discharged into the Carson River Drainage Basin of west-central Nevada during processing of the gold- and silver-rich Comstock ore in the late 1800s. For the past 13 decades, mercury has been redistributed throughout 500 km[sup 2] of the basin, and concentrations are some of the highest reported values in North America. This article documents the concentration of mercury in the air, water, and substrate at both contaminated and noncontaminated sites within the basin and discusses the implications for risk assessment. At contaminated areas, the range of mercury concentrations are as follows: mill tailings, 3-1610 [mu]g/g; unfiltered reservoir water, 53-591 ng/l; atmospheric vapor, 2-294 ng/m[sup 3]. These values are three to five orders of magnitude greater than natural background. In all media at contaminated sites, concentrations are spatially variable, and air and water mercury concentrations vary temporally. The study area is situated in a natural mercuriferous belt, and regional background mercury concentrations in all environmental media are higher than values typically cited for natural background. As a mercury-contaminated site in North America, the Carson River Drainage Basin is unusual for a number of reasons, including its location in a natural mercuriferous belt, high and sustained levels of anthropogenic mercury inputs, long exposure time, aridity of the climate, and the riparian setting in an arid landscape, where biological activity is concentrated in the same areas that contain high levels of mercury in multiple media. 37 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. High levels of mercury contamination in multiple media of the Carson River drainage basin of Nevada: implications for risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Gustin, M S; Taylor, G E; Leonard, T L

    1994-01-01

    Approximately 5.5 x 109 g (4.0 x 105) of mercury was discharged into the Carson River Drainage Basin of west-central Nevada during processing of the gold- and silver-rich Comstock ore in the late 1800s. For the past 13 decades, mercury has been redistributed throughout 500 km2 of the basin, and concentrations are some of the highest reported values in North America. This article documents the concentrations of mercury in the air, water, and substrate at both contaminated and noncontaminated sites within the basin and discusses the implications for risk assessment. At contaminated areas, the range of mercury concentrations are as follows: mill tailings, 3-1610 micrograms/g; unfiltered reservoir water, 53-591 ng/l; atmospheric vapor, 2-294 ng/m3. These values are three to five orders of magnitude greater than natural background. In all media at contaminated sites, concentrations are spatially variable, and air and water mercury concentrations vary temporally. The study are in situated in a natural mercuriferous belt, and regional background mercury concentrations in all environmental media are higher than values typically cited for natural background. As a mercury-contaminated site in North America, the Carson River Drainage Basin is unusual for a number of reasons, including its location in a natural mercuriferous belt, high and sustained levels of anthropogenic mercury inputs, long exposure time, aridity of the climate, and the riparian setting in an arid landscape, where biological activity is concentrated in the same areas that contain high levels of mercury in multiple media. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. PMID:9657709

  13. Molecular dynamics at the receptor level of immunodominant myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 epitope implicated in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yannakakis, Mary Patricia; Tzoupis, Haralambos; Michailidou, Elena; Mantzourani, Efthimia; Simal, Carmen; Tselios, Theodore

    2016-07-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a common autoimmune disease whereby myelin is destroyed by the immune system. The disease is triggered by the stimulation of encephalitogenic T-cells via the formation of a trimolecular complex between the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA), an immunodominant epitope of myelin proteins and T-cell Receptor (TCR). Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein (MOG) is located on the external surface of myelin and has been implicated in MS induction. The immunodominant 35-55 epitope of MOG is widely used for in vivo biological evaluation and immunological studies that are related with chronic Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE, animal model of MS), inflammatory diseases and MS. In this report, Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations were used to explore the interactions of MOG35-55 at the receptor level. A detailed mapping of the developed interactions during the creation of the trimolecular complex is reported. This is the first attempt to gain an understanding of the molecular recognition of the MOG35-55 epitope by the HLA and TCR receptors. During the formation of the trimolecular complex, the residues Arg(41) and Arg(46) of MOG35-55 have been confirmed to serve as TCR anchors while Tyr(40) interacts with HLA. The present structural findings indicate that the Arg at positions 41 and 46 is a key residue for the stimulation of the encephalitogenic T-cells. PMID:27388119

  14. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  15. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  16. Address of the President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Frederic W.

    1976-01-01

    The president of the Association of American Colleges addresses at the 62nd annual meeting the theme of the conference: "Looking to the Future--Liberal Education in a Radically Changing Society." Contributions to be made by AAC are examined. (LBH)

  17. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  18. Space sciences - Keynote address

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Joseph K.

    1990-01-01

    The present status and projected future developments of the NASA Space Science and Applications Program are addressed. Emphasis is given to biochemistry experiments that are planned for the Space Station. Projects for the late 1990s which will study the sun, the earth's magnetosphere, and the geosphere are briefly discussed.

  19. Excerpts from keynote address

    SciTech Connect

    Creel, G.C.

    1995-06-01

    Excerpts from the keynote principally address emissions issues in the fossil power industry as related to heat rate improvements. Stack emissions of both sulfur and nitrogen oxides are discussed, and a number of examples are given: (1) PEPCO`s Potomac River Station, and (2) Morgantown station`s NOX reduction efforts. Circulating water emissions are also briefly discussed, as are O & M costs of emission controls.

  20. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  1. The differential algebra based multiple level fast multipole algorithm for 3D space charge field calculation and photoemission simulation

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-09-28

    Coulomb interaction between charged particles inside a bunch is one of the most importance collective effects in beam dynamics, becoming even more significant as the energy of the particle beam is lowered to accommodate analytical and low-Z material imaging purposes such as in the time resolved Ultrafast Electron Microscope (UEM) development currently underway at Michigan State University. In addition, space charge effects are the key limiting factor in the development of ultrafast atomic resolution electron imaging and diffraction technologies and are also correlated with an irreversible growth in rms beam emittance due to fluctuating components of the nonlinear electron dynamics. In the short pulse regime used in the UEM, space charge effects also lead to virtual cathode formation in which the negative charge of the electrons emitted at earlier times, combined with the attractive surface field, hinders further emission of particles and causes a degradation of the pulse properties. Space charge and virtual cathode effects and their remediation are core issues for the development of the next generation of high-brightness UEMs. Since the analytical models are only applicable for special cases, numerical simulations, in addition to experiments, are usually necessary to accurately understand the space charge effect. In this paper we will introduce a grid-free differential algebra based multiple level fast multipole algorithm, which calculates the 3D space charge field for n charged particles in arbitrary distribution with an efficiency of O(n), and the implementation of the algorithm to a simulation code for space charge dominated photoemission processes.

  2. The differential algebra based multiple level fast multipole algorithm for 3D space charge field calculation and photoemission simulation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    None, None

    2015-09-28

    Coulomb interaction between charged particles inside a bunch is one of the most importance collective effects in beam dynamics, becoming even more significant as the energy of the particle beam is lowered to accommodate analytical and low-Z material imaging purposes such as in the time resolved Ultrafast Electron Microscope (UEM) development currently underway at Michigan State University. In addition, space charge effects are the key limiting factor in the development of ultrafast atomic resolution electron imaging and diffraction technologies and are also correlated with an irreversible growth in rms beam emittance due to fluctuating components of the nonlinear electron dynamics.more » In the short pulse regime used in the UEM, space charge effects also lead to virtual cathode formation in which the negative charge of the electrons emitted at earlier times, combined with the attractive surface field, hinders further emission of particles and causes a degradation of the pulse properties. Space charge and virtual cathode effects and their remediation are core issues for the development of the next generation of high-brightness UEMs. Since the analytical models are only applicable for special cases, numerical simulations, in addition to experiments, are usually necessary to accurately understand the space charge effect. In this paper we will introduce a grid-free differential algebra based multiple level fast multipole algorithm, which calculates the 3D space charge field for n charged particles in arbitrary distribution with an efficiency of O(n), and the implementation of the algorithm to a simulation code for space charge dominated photoemission processes.« less

  3. Higher Level Phylogeny and the First Divergence Time Estimation of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) Based on Multiple Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying; Bu, Wenjun

    2012-01-01

    Heteroptera, or true bugs, are the largest, morphologically diverse and economically important group of insects with incomplete metamorphosis. However, the phylogenetic relationships within Heteroptera are still in dispute and most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters or with single gene (partial or whole 18S rDNA). Besides, so far, divergence time estimates for Heteroptera totally rely on the fossil record, while no studies have been performed on molecular divergence rates. Here, for the first time, we used maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) with multiple genes (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, 16S rDNA and COI) to estimate phylogenetic relationships among the infraorders, and meanwhile, the Penalized Likelihood (r8s) and Bayesian (BEAST) molecular dating methods were employed to estimate divergence time of higher taxa of this suborder. Major results of the present study included: Nepomorpha was placed as the most basal clade in all six trees (MP trees, ML trees and Bayesian trees of nuclear gene data and four-gene combined data, respectively) with full support values. The sister-group relationship of Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha was also strongly supported. Nepomorpha originated in early Triassic and the other six infraorders originated in a very short period of time in middle Triassic. Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha underwent a radiation at family level in Cretaceous, paralleling the proliferation of the flowering plants. Our results indicated that the higher-group radiations within hemimetabolous Heteroptera were simultaneously with those of holometabolous Coleoptera and Diptera which took place in the Triassic. While the aquatic habitat was colonized by Nepomorpha already in the Triassic, the Gerromorpha independently adapted to the semi-aquatic habitat in the Early Jurassic. PMID:22384163

  4. Higher level phylogeny and the first divergence time estimation of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) based on multiple genes.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Tian, Ying; Zhao, Ying; Bu, Wenjun

    2012-01-01

    Heteroptera, or true bugs, are the largest, morphologically diverse and economically important group of insects with incomplete metamorphosis. However, the phylogenetic relationships within Heteroptera are still in dispute and most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters or with single gene (partial or whole 18S rDNA). Besides, so far, divergence time estimates for Heteroptera totally rely on the fossil record, while no studies have been performed on molecular divergence rates. Here, for the first time, we used maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) with multiple genes (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, 16S rDNA and COI) to estimate phylogenetic relationships among the infraorders, and meanwhile, the Penalized Likelihood (r8s) and Bayesian (BEAST) molecular dating methods were employed to estimate divergence time of higher taxa of this suborder. Major results of the present study included: Nepomorpha was placed as the most basal clade in all six trees (MP trees, ML trees and Bayesian trees of nuclear gene data and four-gene combined data, respectively) with full support values. The sister-group relationship of Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha was also strongly supported. Nepomorpha originated in early Triassic and the other six infraorders originated in a very short period of time in middle Triassic. Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha underwent a radiation at family level in Cretaceous, paralleling the proliferation of the flowering plants. Our results indicated that the higher-group radiations within hemimetabolous Heteroptera were simultaneously with those of holometabolous Coleoptera and Diptera which took place in the Triassic. While the aquatic habitat was colonized by Nepomorpha already in the Triassic, the Gerromorpha independently adapted to the semi-aquatic habitat in the Early Jurassic. PMID:22384163

  5. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  6. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  7. Mapping virtual addresses to different physical addresses for value disambiguation for thread memory access requests

    DOEpatents

    Gala, Alan; Ohmacht, Martin

    2014-09-02

    A multiprocessor system includes nodes. Each node includes a data path that includes a core, a TLB, and a first level cache implementing disambiguation. The system also includes at least one second level cache and a main memory. For thread memory access requests, the core uses an address associated with an instruction format of the core. The first level cache uses an address format related to the size of the main memory plus an offset corresponding to hardware thread meta data. The second level cache uses a physical main memory address plus software thread meta data to store the memory access request. The second level cache accesses the main memory using the physical address with neither the offset nor the thread meta data after resolving speculation. In short, this system includes mapping of a virtual address to a different physical addresses for value disambiguation for different threads.

  8. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  9. The Impact of Item Position in Multiple-Choice Test on Student Performance at the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollennu, Sam Nii Nmai; Etsey, Y. K. A.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the impact of item position in multiple-choice test on student performance at the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) level in Ghana. The sample consisted of 810 Junior Secondary School (JSS) Form 3 students selected from 12 different schools. A quasi-experimental design was used. The instrument for the project…

  10. The Effects of Multiple Intelligences Instructional Strategy on the Environmental Awareness Knowledge and Environmental Attitude Levels of Elementary Students in Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bas, Gökhan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the effects of Multiple Intelligences strategy and traditional methods of instruction on elementary students' environmental awareness knowledge levels and their attitudes towards the environment. The pre/post-test control group research model was used in this study. The research was carried out in…

  11. A geometric sequence that accurately describes allowed multiple conductance levels of ion channels: the "three-halves (3/2) rule".

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, J R; Arispe, N; Rojas, E; Pollard, H B

    1994-01-01

    Ion channels can express multiple conductance levels that are not integer multiples of some unitary conductance, and that interconvert among one another. We report here that for 26 different types of multiple conductance channels, all allowed conductance levels can be calculated accurately using the geometric sequence gn = g(o) (3/2)n, where gn is a conductance level and n is an integer > or = 0. We refer to this relationship as the "3/2 Rule," because the value of any term in the sequence of conductances (gn) can be calculated as 3/2 times the value of the preceding term (gn-1). The experimentally determined average value for "3/2" is 1.491 +/- 0.095 (sample size = 37, average +/- SD). We also verify the choice of a 3/2 ratio on the basis of error analysis over the range of ratio values between 1.1 and 2.0. In an independent analysis using Marquardt's algorithm, we further verified the 3/2 ratio and the assignment of specific conductances to specific terms in the geometric sequence. Thus, irrespective of the open time probability, the allowed conductance levels of these channels can be described accurately to within approximately 6%. We anticipate that the "3/2 Rule" will simplify description of multiple conductance channels in a wide variety of biological systems and provide an organizing principle for channel heterogeneity and differential effects of channel blockers. PMID:7524712

  12. Empowering Teachers and Schools to Play Their Key Role in Improving Education. A Keynote Address Delivered at the North Eastern Ontario Education Network 2011 Research Carousel: Evidence in the Classroom--Affecting Student Achievement at the Grassroots Level (February 24, 2011)l

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wideman, Ron

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the author's keynote address delivered at the "North Eastern Ontario Education Network 2011 Research Carousel: Evidence in the Classroom--Affecting Student Achievement at the Grassroots Level." In this address, the author first discusses teachers and learning in the literature on adult and professional learning. Next, he…

  13. Bax: Addressed to kill.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Manon, Stéphen

    2011-09-01

    The pro-apoptototic protein Bax (Bcl-2 Associated protein X) plays a central role in the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. In healthy mammalian cells, Bax is essentially cytosolic and inactive. Following a death signal, the protein is translocated to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it promotes a permeabilization that favors the release of different apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c. The regulation of Bax translocation is associated to conformational changes that are under the control of different factors. The evidences showing the involvement of different Bax domains in its mitochondrial localization are presented. The interactions between Bax and its different partners are described in relation to their ability to promote (or prevent) Bax conformational changes leading to mitochondrial addressing and to the acquisition of the capacity to permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:21641962

  14. Multiple levels paravertebral block versus morphine patient-controlled analgesia for postoperative analgesia following breast cancer surgery with unilateral lumpectomy, and axillary lymph nodes dissection

    PubMed Central

    Fallatah, Summayah; Mousa, WF

    2016-01-01

    Background: Postoperative pain after breast cancer surgery is not uncommon. Narcotic based analgesia is commonly used for postoperative pain management. However, the side-effects and complications of systemic narcotics is a significant disadvantage. Different locoregional anesthetic techniques have been tried including, single and multiple levels paravertebral block (PVB), which seems to have a significant reduction in immediate postoperative pain with fewer side-effects. The aim of this study was to compare unilateral multiple level PVB versus morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for pain relief after breast cancer surgery with unilateral lumpectomy and axillary lymph nodes dissection. Materials and Methods: Forty patients scheduled for breast cancer surgery were randomized to receive either preoperative unilateral multiple injections PVB at five thoracic dermatomes (group P, 20 patients) or postoperative intravenous PCA with morphine (group M, 20 patients) for postoperative pain control. Numerical pain scale, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, Time to first analgesic demand, 24-h morphine consumption side-effects and length of hospital stay were recorded. Results: PVB resulted in a significantly more postoperative analgesia, maintained hemodynamic, more significant reduction in nausea and vomiting, and shorter hospital stay compared with PCA patients. Conclusion: Multiple levels PVB is an effective regional anesthetic technique for postoperative pain management, it provides superior analgesia with less narcotics consumption, and fewer side-effects compared with PCA morphine for patients with breast cancer who undergo unilateral lumpectomy, with axillary lymph nodes dissection. PMID:26955304

  15. Is Motion Extrapolation Employed in Multiple Object Tracking?: Tracking as a Low-Level, Non-Predictive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Brian P.; Pylyshyn, Zenon W.

    2006-01-01

    In a series of five experiments, we investigated whether visual tracking mechanisms utilize prediction when recovering multiple reappearing objects. When all objects abruptly disappeared and reappeared mid-trajectory, it was found that (a) subjects tracked better when objects reappeared at their loci of disappearance than when they reappeared in…

  16. Effects of Multiple Intelligences Supported Project-Based Learning on Students' Achievement Levels and Attitudes towards English Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bas, Gökhan; Beyhan, Ömer

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the effects of multiple intelligences supported project-based learning and traditional foreign language-teaching environment on students' achievement and their attitude towards English lesson. The research was carried out in 2009-2010 education-instruction year in Karatli Sehit Sahin Yilmaz…

  17. Final Report on Internet Addressable Lightswitch

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Pettler, Peter

    2001-08-27

    This report describes the work performed to develop and test a new switching system and communications network that is useful for economically switching lighting circuits in existing commercial buildings. The first section of the report provides the general background of the IBECS (Integrated Building Environmental Communications System) research and development work as well as the context for the development of the new switching system. The research and development effort that went into producing the first proof-of-concept (the IBECS Addressable Power Switch or APS) and the physical prototype of that concept is detailed in the second section. In the third section of the report, we detail the refined Powerline Carrier Based IBECS Title 24 Wall Switch system that evolved from the APS prototype. The refined system provided a path for installing IBECS switching technology in existing buildings that may not be already wired for light level switching control. The final section of the report describes the performance of the IBECS Title 24 Switch system as applied to a small demonstration in two offices at LBNL's Building 90. We learned that the new Powerline Carrier control systems (A-10 technology) that have evolved from the early X-10 systems have solved most of the noise problems that dogged the successful application of X-10 technologies in commercial buildings. We found that the new A-10 powerline carrier control technology can be reliable and effective for switching lighting circuits even in electrically noisy office environments like LBNL. Thus we successfully completed the task objectives by designing, building and demonstrating a new switching system that can provide multiple levels of light which can be triggered either from specially designed wall switches or from a digital communications network. By applying commercially available powerline carrier based technologies that communicate over the in-place lighting wiring system, this type of control can be

  18. Advances in multiple analyte profiling.

    PubMed

    Salas, Virginia M; Edwards, Bruce S; Sklar, Larry A

    2008-01-01

    The advent of multiparameter technology has been driven by the need to understand the complexity in biological systems. It has spawned two main branches, one in the arena of high-content measurements, primarily in microscopy and flow cytometry where it has become commonplace to analyze multiple fluorescence signatures arising from multiple excitation sources and multiple emission wavelengths. Microscopy is augmented by topographical content that identifies the source location of the signature. The other branch involves multiplex technology. Here, the intent is to measure multiple analytes simultaneously. A key feature of multiplexing is an address system for the individual analytes. In planar arrays the address system is spatial, in which affinity reactions occur at defined locations. In suspension arrays, the address is encoded as a fluorescent signature in the particle assigned to a specific reaction or analyte. Several hybrid systems have also been developed for multiplexing. In the commercial regime, the most widespread applications of multiplexing are currently in the areas of genome and biomarker analysis. Planar chips with fixed arrays are now available to probe the entire genome at the level of message expression and large segments of the genome at the level of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). In contrast, suspension arrays provide the potential for probing segments of the genome in a customized way, using capture tags that locate specific oligonucleotide sequences to specific array elements. PMID:18429493

  19. [Relation between cytokine IL-6 levels and the occurrence of systemic complications in patients with multiple injuries and blunt abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Gregorić, Pavle D; Bajec, Djordje D; Sijacki, Ana D; Karadzić, Borivoje A

    2003-01-01

    Severe trauma is the third cause of death and the first one in the most vital and young population. In USA more children die of trauma then of all other causes. Blunt abdominal trauma takes 56% cases of multiple traumas of all etiologies. Among multiple injured patients, near to 50% have some system-complications, more of 60% in the group of critically injured (ISS > 35). Cytokines play the main role in the inflammatory reaction during the early phase response on trauma. Their secretion predicts system-complications as ARDS, SIRS, even MODS. Hypothetically, level of concentration of Interleukin-6 (IL 6) can improve methods of early diagnostic procedures for detecting SIRS and MODS, when scores are still low (preclinical level), at which stages therapy is more powerful and also cheaper. This prospective study includes 35 multiple injured persons with blunt abdominal trauma (75 > ISS > 18). We have used standard diagnostic procedures. Concentration of IL 6 was detected with ELISA-test. Levels of IL 6 were significantly higher in correlation with SIRS score groups. Correlation with MODS score was not significant for the lowest scores, but IL 6 showed significant higher levels in the second and the third MODS score group. PMID:14608873

  20. Efficacy of multiple exposure with low level He-Ne laser dose on acute wound healing: a pre-clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, Vijendra; Rao, Bola Sadashiva S.; Mahato, Krishna Kishore

    2014-02-01

    Investigations on the use of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) for wound healing especially with the red laser light have demonstrated its pro-healing potential on a variety of pre-clinical and surgical wounds. However, until now, in LLLT the effect of multiple exposure of low dose laser irradiation on acute wound healing on well-designed pre-clinical model is not much explored. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of multiple exposure of low dose Helium Neon laser on healing progression of full thickness excision wounds in Swiss albino mice. Further, the efficacy of the multiple exposure of low dose laser irradiation was compared with the single exposure of optimum dose. Full thickness excision wounds (circular) of 15 mm diameter were created, and subsequently illuminated with the multiple exposures (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 exposure/ week until healing) of He-Ne (632.8 nm, 4.02 mWcm-2) laser at 0.5 Jcm-2 along with single exposure of optimum laser dose (2 J/cm-2) and un-illuminated controls. Classical biophysical parameters such as contraction kinetics, area under the curve and the mean healing time were documented as the assessment parameters to examine the efficacy of multiple exposures with low level laser dose. Experimental findings substantiated that either single or multiple exposures of 0.5 J/cm2 failed to produce any detectable alterations on wound contraction, area under the curve and mean healing time compared to single exposure of optimum dose (2 Jcm-2) and un-illuminated controls. Single exposure of optimum, laser dose was found to be ideal for acute wound healing.

  1. Assessment of factors which affect multiple uses of water sources at household level in rural Zimbabwe - A case study of Marondera, Murehwa and Uzumba Maramba Pfungwe districts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsi, Luckson; Siwadi, Japson; Guzha, Edward; Makoni, Fungai S.; Smits, Stef

    Water with all its multiple uses plays a pivotal role in the sustenance of rural livelihoods, especially the poor. As such, the provision of water which go beyond domestic to include water for small-scale productive uses should be encouraged to enhance peoples’ livelihood options by making significant contribution to household income, food security, improved nutrition and health. All these multiple benefits, if combined can assist in the fight against hunger and poverty. This study was conducted in Mashonaland East province, covering Marondera, Murehwa and Uzumba Maramba Pfungwe districts in Zimbabwe for the period December 2005-May 2006 to assess factors which affect multiple uses of water sources at household level. Participatory Rural Appraisal tools such as discussions, observations and interviews were used for data collection. The survey found that people indeed require water for productive purposes apart from domestic uses, which are often given top priority. The study found out that multiple uses of water sources at household level can be affected by segmentation of water services into domestic and productive water supply schemes, technology and system design, water quality and quantity and distance to water sources among other factors. The study recommends that water service providers to be able to provide appropriate, efficient and sustainable services, they should understand and appreciate that people’s water needs are integrated and are part and parcel of their multifaceted livelihood strategies.

  2. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications. PMID:21193369

  3. Multiple environmental contexts and preterm birth risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human health is affected by simultaneous exposure to numerous stressors and amenities, but research often focuses on single exposure models. To address this, a United States county-level Multiple Environmental Domain Index (MEDI) was constructed with data representing five envir...

  4. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  5. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  6. Quantitative proteomics suggests decrease in the secretogranin-1 cerebrospinal fluid levels during the disease course of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kroksveen, Ann C; Jaffe, Jacob D; Aasebø, Elise; Barsnes, Harald; Bjørlykke, Yngvild; Franciotta, Diego; Keshishian, Hasmik; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Opsahl, Jill A; van Pesch, Vincent; Teunissen, Charlotte E; Torkildsen, Øivind; Ulvik, Rune J; Vethe, Heidrun; Carr, Steven A; Berven, Frode S

    2015-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS with unknown cause. Proteins with different abundance in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients and neurological controls could give novel insight to the MS pathogenesis and be used to improve diagnosis, predict prognosis and disease course, and guide in therapy decisions. We combined iTRAQ labeling and Orbitrap mass spectrometry to discover proteins with different CSF abundance between six RRMS patients and 18 neurological disease controls. From 777 quantified proteins seven were selected as biomarker candidates, namely chitinase-3-like protein 1, secretogranin-1 (Sg1), cerebellin-1, neuroserpin, cell surface glycoprotein MUC18, testican-2 and glutamate receptor 4. An independent sample set of 13 early-MS patients, 13 RRMS patients and 13 neurological controls was used in a multiple reaction monitoring verification study. We found the intracellular calcium binding protein Sg1 to be increased in early-MS patients compared to RRMS and neurological controls. Sg1 should be included in further studies to elucidate its role in the early phases of MS pathogenesis and its potential as a biomarker for this disease. PMID:26152395

  7. Signal-on electrochemical detection of antibiotics at zeptomole level based on target-aptamer binding triggered multiple recycling amplification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongzhi; Wang, Yu; Liu, Su; Yu, Jinghua; Guo, Yuna; Xu, Ying; Huang, Jiadong

    2016-06-15

    In the work, a signal-on electrochemical DNA sensor based on multiple amplification for ultrasensitive detection of antibiotics has been reported. In the presence of target, the ingeniously designed hairpin probe (HP1) is opened and the polymerase-assisted target recycling amplification is triggered, resulting in autonomous generation of secondary target. It is worth noting that the produced secondary target could not only hybridize with other HP1, but also displace the Helper from the electrode. Consequently, methylene blue labeled HP2 forms a "close" probe structure, and the increase of signal is monitored. The increasing current provides an ultrasensitive electrochemical detection for antibiotics down to 1.3 fM. To our best knowledge, such work is the first report about multiple recycling amplification combing with signal-on sensing strategy, which has been utilized for quantitative determination of antibiotics. It would be further used as a general strategy associated with more analytical techniques toward the detection of a wide spectrum of analytes. Thus, it holds great potential for the development of ultrasensitive biosensing platform for the applications in bioanalysis, disease diagnostics, and clinical biomedicine. PMID:26878484

  8. High levels of multiple metal resistance and its correlation to antibiotic resistance in environmental isolates of Acinetobacter.

    PubMed

    Dhakephalkar, P K; Chopade, B A

    1994-01-01

    Forty strains of Acinetobacter were isolated from different environmental sources. All the strains were classified into four genospecies, i.e., A. baumannii (33 isolates), A. calcoaceticus (three isolates), A. junii (three isolates) and A. genospecies3 (one isolate). Susceptibility of these 40 strains to salts of 20 heavy metals and 18 antibiotics was tested by the agar dilution method. All environmental isolates of Acinetobacter were resistant to multiple metal ions (minimum 13 metal ions) while all but one of the strains were resistant to multiple antibiotics (minimum four antibiotics). The maximum number of strains were found to be sensitive to mercury (60% strains) while all strains were resistant to copper, lead, boron and tungsten even at 10 mM concentration. Salts of these four metal ions may be added to the growth medium to facilitate selective isolation of Acinetobacter. Rifampicin and nalidixic acid were the most toxic antibiotics, inhibiting 94.5 and 89.5% of the acinetobacters, respectively. A. genospecies3 was found to be the most resistant species, tolerating high concentrations of all the 20 metal ions and also to a greater number of antibiotics than any other species of Acinetobacter tested. An inhibitory concentration (10 mM) of Ni(2+) and Zn(2+) was observed to inhibit the growth of all of the clinical isolates but allowed the growth of the environmental isolates, facilitating the differentiation between pathogenic and non-pathogenic acinetobacters. PMID:8118175

  9. Preservice Educators' Confidence in Addressing Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy Jordan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 328 preservice educators' level of confidence in addressing four sexuality education domains and 21 sexuality education topics. Significant differences in confidence levels across the four domains were found for gender, academic major, sexuality education philosophy, and sexuality education knowledge. Preservice educators…

  10. Multiple ion counting ICPMS double spike method for precise U isotopic analysis at ultra-trace levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, Jonathan E.; Friedrich, Jon M.

    2005-04-01

    Of the various methods for the measurement of the isotopic composition of U in solids and solutions, few offer both sensitivity and precision. In recent years, the use of ICPMS technology for this determination has become increasingly prevalent. Here we describe a method for the determination of the 235U/238U ratio in very small quantities (<=350 pg) with an accuracy of better than 3[per mille sign]. We measured several terrestrial standard materials and repeated analyses of the U960 isotopic composition standard. We used a 233U/236U double spike, with multiple ion counting on an unmodified Nu Instruments multicollector ICPMS and a non-standard detector configuration that allows an approximately 20-fold sensitivity gain over the best conventional techniques. This technique shows promise for the detection of isotopic tracers in the environment (for example anthropogenic 238U) at very extreme dilutions, or in cases where the total amount of analyte is necessarily limited.

  11. Angular distributions of electrons photoemitted from core levels of oriented diatomic molecules: Multiple scattering theory in non-spherical potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Diez Muino, R.; Rolles, D.; Garcia de Abajo, F.J.; Fadley, C.S.; Van Hove, M.A.

    2001-09-06

    We use multiple scattering in non-spherical potentials (MSNSP) to calculate the angular distributions of electrons photoemitted from the 1s-shells of CO and N2 gas-phase molecules with fixed-in-space orientations. For low photoelectron kinetic energies (E<50 eV), as appropriate to certain shape-resonances, the electron scattering must be represented by non-spherical scattering potentials, which are naturally included in our formalism. Our calculations accurately reproduce the experimental angular patterns recently measured by several groups, including those at the shape-resonance energies. The MSNSP theory thus enhances the sensitivity to spatial electronic distribution and dynamics, paving the way toward their determination from experiment.

  12. A multiple-method approach to flood assessment at a low-level radioactive waste site in southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.J.; Gustafson, D.L.; Schmeltzer, J.S.

    1994-12-31

    Flood hazard analysis on alluvial fans using Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) method are not limited to the FEMA Alluvial Fan Methodology (FEMA AFM). Flood hazard delineations using a combination of methods provide a more thorough assessment that using only the FEMA AFM. Other FEMA-accepted methods, such as the HEC-2 model for shallow concentrated flow and the Manning Equation for sheetflow, may be more appropriate. A flood assessment using a multiple-method approach was performed to determine the 100-year flood hazard in this arid region. Understanding the limitations and assumptions of these methods is important to determine which method is applicable and when a method can provide reasonable results.

  13. Systems Level Analyses Reveal Multiple Regulatory Activities of CodY Controlling Metabolism, Motility and Virulence in Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Lobel, Lior; Herskovits, Anat A

    2016-02-01

    Bacteria sense and respond to many environmental cues, rewiring their regulatory network to facilitate adaptation to new conditions/niches. Global transcription factors that co-regulate multiple pathways simultaneously are essential to this regulatory rewiring. CodY is one such global regulator, controlling expression of both metabolic and virulence genes in Gram-positive bacteria. Branch chained amino acids (BCAAs) serve as a ligand for CodY and modulate its activity. Classically, CodY was considered to function primarily as a repressor under rich growth conditions. However, our previous studies of the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes revealed that CodY is active also when the bacteria are starved for BCAAs. Under these conditions, CodY loses the ability to repress genes (e.g., metabolic genes) and functions as a direct activator of the master virulence regulator gene, prfA. This observation raised the possibility that CodY possesses multiple functions that allow it to coordinate gene expression across a wide spectrum of metabolic growth conditions, and thus better adapt bacteria to the mammalian niche. To gain a deeper understanding of CodY's regulatory repertoire and identify direct target genes, we performed a genome wide analysis of the CodY regulon and DNA binding under both rich and minimal growth conditions, using RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq techniques. We demonstrate here that CodY is indeed active (i.e., binds DNA) under both conditions, serving as a repressor and activator of different genes. Further, we identified new genes and pathways that are directly regulated by CodY (e.g., sigB, arg, his, actA, glpF, gadG, gdhA, poxB, glnR and fla genes), integrating metabolism, stress responses, motility and virulence in L. monocytogenes. This study establishes CodY as a multifaceted factor regulating L. monocytogenes physiology in a highly versatile manner. PMID:26895237

  14. Systems Level Analyses Reveal Multiple Regulatory Activities of CodY Controlling Metabolism, Motility and Virulence in Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Lobel, Lior; Herskovits, Anat A.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria sense and respond to many environmental cues, rewiring their regulatory network to facilitate adaptation to new conditions/niches. Global transcription factors that co-regulate multiple pathways simultaneously are essential to this regulatory rewiring. CodY is one such global regulator, controlling expression of both metabolic and virulence genes in Gram-positive bacteria. Branch chained amino acids (BCAAs) serve as a ligand for CodY and modulate its activity. Classically, CodY was considered to function primarily as a repressor under rich growth conditions. However, our previous studies of the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes revealed that CodY is active also when the bacteria are starved for BCAAs. Under these conditions, CodY loses the ability to repress genes (e.g., metabolic genes) and functions as a direct activator of the master virulence regulator gene, prfA. This observation raised the possibility that CodY possesses multiple functions that allow it to coordinate gene expression across a wide spectrum of metabolic growth conditions, and thus better adapt bacteria to the mammalian niche. To gain a deeper understanding of CodY’s regulatory repertoire and identify direct target genes, we performed a genome wide analysis of the CodY regulon and DNA binding under both rich and minimal growth conditions, using RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq techniques. We demonstrate here that CodY is indeed active (i.e., binds DNA) under both conditions, serving as a repressor and activator of different genes. Further, we identified new genes and pathways that are directly regulated by CodY (e.g., sigB, arg, his, actA, glpF, gadG, gdhA, poxB, glnR and fla genes), integrating metabolism, stress responses, motility and virulence in L. monocytogenes. This study establishes CodY as a multifaceted factor regulating L. monocytogenes physiology in a highly versatile manner. PMID:26895237

  15. Social Support and Well-Being in Contemporary Greek Society: Examination of Multiple Indicators at Different Levels of Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafetsios, Konstantinos

    2006-01-01

    An extensive and coherent body of social and psychological research has identified social ties and supportive relationships as important predictors of well-being and quality of life. This paper examines the relationships between structural and functional indicators of supportive relations and well-being in Greece at different levels of analysis…

  16. An on-line learning tracking of non-rigid target combining multiple-instance boosting and level set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mingming; Cai, Jingju

    2013-10-01

    Visual tracking algorithms based on online boosting generally use a rectangular bounding box to represent the position of the target, while actually the shape of the target is always irregular. This will cause the classifier to learn the features of the non-target parts in the rectangle region, thereby the performance of the classifier is reduced, and drift would happen. To avoid the limitations of the bounding-box, we propose a novel tracking-by-detection algorithm involving the level set segmentation, which ensures the classifier only learn the features of the real target area in the tracking box. Because the shape of the target only changes a little between two adjacent frames and the current level set algorithm can avoid the re-initialization of the signed distance function, it only takes a few iterations to converge to the position of the target contour in the next frame. We also make some improvement on the level set energy function so that the zero level set would have less possible to converge to the false contour. In addition, we use gradient boost to improve the original multi-instance learning (MIL) algorithm like the WMILtracker, which greatly speed up the tracker. Our algorithm outperforms the original MILtracker both on speed and precision. Compared with the WMILtracker, our algorithm runs at a almost same speed, but we can avoid the drift caused by background learning, so the precision is better.

  17. Viewing the School Environment through Multiple Lenses: In Search of School-Level Variables Tied to Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Nathan B.; Lawrenz, Frances; Huffman, Douglas; Schultz, Matt

    2006-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB) Act has made schools accountable for assuring adequate yearly progress of students. Therefore, it has become critical to identify school-level variables that can be controlled to affect student achievement, especially given that, thus far, most school reform efforts have failed to significantly affect student…

  18. DEVELOPING SITE-SPECIFIC DERIVED CONCENTRATION GUIDELINE LEVELS FOR MULTIPLE MEDIA AT THE CONNECTICUT YANKEE HADDAM NECK PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.W.; Smith, L.C.; Carr, R.K.; Carson, A.; Darois, E.

    2003-02-27

    As part of the license termination process, site-specific Derived Concentration Guideline Levels for the Haddam Neck Plant site are developed for soil, groundwater, concrete left standing, and concrete demolished that satisfy the radiological criteria for unrestricted use as defined in 10 CFR 20.1402. Background information on the license termination process and characteristics of the Haddam Neck Plant site are presented. The dose models and associated resident farmer and building occupancy scenarios, applicable pathways, and critical groups developed to establish the Derived Concentration Guideline Levels are described. A parameter assignment process is introduced wherein general population values are used to establish behavioral and metabolic parameters representative of an average member of the critical group, while the uncertainty associated with important physical parameters is considered. A key element of the parameter assignment process is the use of sensitivity analysis to identify the dose sensitive physical parameters and to ensure that such parameters are assigned conservative values. Structuring the parameter assignment process, completing the formal sensitivity analyses, and assigning conservative values to the sensitive physical parameters in a consistent way establishes a calculation framework that lead to Derived Concentration Guideline Levels with a uniform level of conservatism across all media and all radionuclides.

  19. ELEVATED LEVELS OF MULTIPLE CYTOCHROME P450 FORMS IN TILAPIA FROM BILLINGS RESERVOIR-SAO PAULO, BRAZIL. (R827102)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) levels in tissues of fish inhabiting polluted areas have been used extensively in biomonitoring studies in Europe and North America. However, little information is available about the extent of CYP1A expression in fish from South American waters, nor on ...

  20. Organic pollutant levels in an agricultural watershed: the importance of analyzing multiple matrices for assessing stream water pollution.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Mariana; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Grondona, Sebastían I; Silva Barni, Maria Florencia; Martinez, Daniel E; Peña, Aránzazu

    2013-04-01

    This study is aimed at analyzing the occurrence and transport of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Quequén Grande river basin, as representative of a catchment under diffuse pollution sources. Pollutant levels in soils, river bottom sediments (RBS), streamwater (Sw), suspended particle materials (SPMs), macrophytes and muscle of silverside were determined by GC-ECD. Soil K(d) values for the current-used insecticides, endosulfans and cypermethrin, were established. Total levels (ng g(-1) dry weight) in soil ranged between 0.07–0.9 for OCPs, 0.03–0.37 for PCBs and 0.01–0.05 for PBDEs. Endosulfan insecticide (α- + b- + sulfate metabolite) represented up to 72.5% of OCPs. The low soil retention for α-endosulfan (K(d): 77) and endosulfan sulfate (K(d): 100) allows their transport to Sw, SPM and RBS. Levels of endosulfan in Sw in some cases exceeded the value postulated by international guidelines for aquatic biota protection (3 ng L(-1)). PCB and PBDE pollution was related to harbour, dumping sites and pile tire burning. Tri and hexa PCB congeners predominated in all matrices and exceeded the quality guideline value of 0.04 ng L(-1) in Sw. Considering levels in silverside muscle, none of the oral reference doses were exceeded, however, PCBs accounted for 18.6% of the total daily allowed ingest for a 70 kg individual. Although the levels of PCBs and OCPs in soil and RBS were low and did not go beyond quality guidelines, these compounds could still represent a risk to aquatic biota and humanbeings, and thus actions towards preventing this situation should be undertaken. PMID:23653907

  1. Holocene sea level and climate change in the Black Sea: Multiple marine incursions related to freshwater discharge events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, R.E.; Leorri, E.; McLaughlin, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    Repeated marine invasions of the Black Sea during the Holocene have been inferred by many eastern scientists as resulting from episodes of marine inflow from the Mediterranean beneath a brackish outflow from the Black Sea. We support this scenario but a fundamental question remains: What caused the repeated marine invasions? We offer an hypothesis for the repeated marine invasions of the Black Sea based on: (1) the overall similarity of sea-level curves from both tectonically quiescent and active margins of the Black Sea and their similarity to a sequence stratigraphic record from the US mid-Atlantic coast. The similarity of the records from two widely-separated regions suggests their common response to documented Holocene climate ocean-atmosphere reorganizations (coolings); (2) the fact that in the modern Black Sea, freshwater runoff from surrounding rivers dominates over evaporation, so that excess runoff might have temporarily raised Black Sea level (although the Black Sea would have remained brackish). Following the initial invasion of the Black Sea by marine Mediterranean waters (through the Marmara Sea) in the early Holocene, repeated marine incursions were modulated, or perhaps even caused, by freshwater discharge to the Black Sea. Climatic amelioration (warming) following each documented ocean-atmosphere reorganization during the Holocene likely shifted precipitation patterns in the surrounding region and caused mountain glaciers to retreat, increasing freshwater runoff above modern values and temporarily contributing to an increase of Black Sea level. Freshwater-to-brackish water discharges into the Black Sea initially slowed marine inflow but upon mixing of runoff with more marine waters beneath them and their eventual exit through the Bosphorus, marine inflow increased again, accounting for the repeated marine invasions. The magnitude of the hydrologic and sea-level fluctuations became increasingly attenuated through the Holocene, as reflected by Black

  2. 2014 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  3. 2013 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the Presidential Address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  4. Guide to using Multiple Regression in Excel (MRCX v.1.1) for Removal of River Stage Effects from Well Water Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Mackley, Rob D.; Spane, Frank A.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Allwardt, Craig H.

    2010-09-01

    A software tool was created in Fiscal Year 2010 (FY11) that enables multiple-regression correction of well water levels for river-stage effects. This task was conducted as part of the Remediation Science and Technology project of CH2MHILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). This document contains an overview of the correction methodology and a user’s manual for Multiple Regression in Excel (MRCX) v.1.1. It also contains a step-by-step tutorial that shows users how to use MRCX to correct river effects in two different wells. This report is accompanied by an enclosed CD that contains the MRCX installer application and files used in the tutorial exercises.

  5. Development of computer program ENAUDIBL for computation of the sensation levels of multiple, complex, intrusive sounds in the presence of residual environmental masking noise

    SciTech Connect

    Liebich, R. E.; Chang, Y.-S.; Chun, K. C.

    2000-03-31

    The relative audibility of multiple sounds occurs in separate, independent channels (frequency bands) termed critical bands or equivalent rectangular (filter-response) bandwidths (ERBs) of frequency. The true nature of human hearing is a function of a complex combination of subjective factors, both auditory and nonauditory. Assessment of the probability of individual annoyance, community-complaint reaction levels, speech intelligibility, and the most cost-effective mitigation actions requires sensation-level data; these data are one of the most important auditory factors. However, sensation levels cannot be calculated by using single-number, A-weighted sound level values. This paper describes specific steps to compute sensation levels. A unique, newly developed procedure is used, which simplifies and improves the accuracy of such computations by the use of maximum sensation levels that occur, for each intrusive-sound spectrum, within each ERB. The newly developed program ENAUDIBL makes use of ERB sensation-level values generated with some computational subroutines developed for the formerly documented program SPECTRAN.

  6. Reprint of "Decision-making in child protective services: Influences at multiple levels of the social ecology".

    PubMed

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2015-11-01

    Decision-making in the child protection system is influenced by multiple factors; agency and geographic contexts, caseworker attributes, and families' unique circumstances all likely play a role. In this study, we use the second cohort of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being to explore how these factors are associated with two key case decisions-substantiation and removal to out-of-home care. Analyses are conducted using weighted hierarchical linear models. We find that substantiation is strongly influenced by agency factors, particularly constraints on service accessibility. Substantiation is less likely when agencies can provide services to unsubstantiated cases and when collaboration with other social institutions is high. This supports the concept that substantiation may be a gateway to services in some communities. Agency factors contributed less to the probability of removal among substantiated cases, though time resources and constraints on decision-making had some influence. For both substantiation and removal risks, county, caseworker, and child characteristics were less influential than agency characteristics and family risk factors. PMID:26499371

  7. sHLA-G1 and HLA-G5 levels are decreased in Tunisian women with multiple abortion.

    PubMed

    Zidi, Inès; Rizzo, Roberta; Bouaziz, Aicha; Laaribi, Ahmed Baligh; Zidi, Nour; Di Luca, Dario; Tlili, Henda; Bortolotti, Daria

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy is associated with increased levels of soluble (s) human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G molecules, while during abortion these molecules are decreased. To date, little is known about the role of sHLA-G isoforms during abortion. In this study, we investigated the levels of total sHLA-G and its isoforms: HLA-G1 (membrane shedded isoform) and alternative spliced HLA-G5 in plasma samples obtained from 55 women who had experienced spontaneous abortion, 108 pregnant healthy women and 56 non pregnant healthy women. We found that pregnant women exhibited higher amounts of sHLA-G compared to either non pregnant women or women with abortion. Among women who had experienced spontaneous abortion, women with recurrent abortions (RSA) had lower sHLA-G than women with only one abortion. In particular, RSA women were characterized by the absence of sHLA-G1 isoform, suggesting a possible implication in abortion event. PMID:26812178

  8. Lower serum levels of Th2-related chemokine CCL22 in women patients with multiple sclerosis: a comparison between patients and healthy women.

    PubMed

    Jafarzadeh, A; Ebrahimi, H A; Bagherzadeh, S; Zarkesh, F; Iranmanesh, F; Najafzadeh, A; Khosravimashizi, A; Nemati, M; Sabahi, A; Hajghani, H; Daneshvar, H; Mohammadi, M M

    2014-04-01

    Chemokines play a major role in autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Gender also affects the susceptibility and course of MS. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum levels of the macrophage-derived chemokine (CCL22) in women and men patients with MS. Blood samples were collected from 135 healthy subjects (35 men and 100 women) and 135 MS patients (29 men and 136 women; 47 newly diagnosed and 88 treated patients and have relapsing-remitting (RRMS; n = 65), secondary progressive (SPMS; n = 37), primary progressive (PPMS; n = 19), or progressive relapsing (PRMS; n = 14) patterns). The serum levels of CCL22 were measured by ELISA. The difference of the mean serum levels of CCL22 between the newly diagnosed MS men and healthy men was not significant, but in newly diagnosed MS women, the mean serum levels of CCL22 were significantly lower than those in treated MS women and healthy women (P < 0.006 and P < 0.0001, respectively). The differences of the mean CCL22 levels between men patients with different treatment programs were not significant, but the mean CCL22 levels were significantly higher in women treated with interferon-β or the combination of interferon-β plus methylprednisolone as compared to untreated women patients (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). The CCL22 levels were also significantly higher in women with RRMS and PRMS patterns in comparison to healthy women (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). These results showed lower levels of CCL22 in women patients which represents that the reduction in CCL22 levels may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease in women. In women patients, the levels of CCL22 were influenced by disease pattern and treatment. PMID:24254331

  9. The importance of systems thinking to address obesity.

    PubMed

    Finegood, Diane T

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is clearly a complex problem for both the individual and for society. Complex or 'wicked' problems have common characteristics such as heterogeneity, nonlinearity, interdependence, and self-organization. As such they require solutions appropriate for complex problems, rather than a reductionist search for the causes. 'Systems thinking' provides new ways to consider how to collectively address complex societal problems like obesity, where biology interacts with social, cultural and built environmental factors in infinite permutations and combinations. The systems that give rise to the obesity epidemic function at multiple levels, and there are important interactions between these levels. At any given level, individual actors and organizations matter and system function is optimized when individual and organizational capacity to respond is well matched to the complexity of individual tasks. Providing system supports to help networks of individuals become 'communities of practice' and 'systems of influence' may also help to accelerate the pace of effective action against obesity. Research efforts need to move away from the relentless search for the specific isolated causes of obesity and focus on solutions that have been shown to work in addressing other 'wicked' problems. PMID:23128771

  10. Total joint replacement: A multiple risk factor analysis of physical activity level 1-2 years postoperatively.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Elizabeth W; Torres, Andy; Love, Rebecca M; Barber, Thomas C; Sheth, Dhiren S; Inacio, Maria C S

    2016-07-01

    Background and purpose - The effect of total joint arthroplasty (TJA) on physical activity is not fully understood. We investigated the change in physical activity after TJA and patient factors associated with change. Patients and methods - Using a total joint replacement registry, primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients (n = 5,678) and knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients (n = 11,084) between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012 were identified. Median age at THA was 68 and median age at TKA was 67. Change in self-reported physical activity (minutes per week) from before TJA (within 1 year of surgery) to after TJA (1-2 years) was the outcome of interest. Patient demographics and comorbidities were evaluated as risk factors. Multiple linear regression was used. Results - Median physical activity before surgery was 50 min/week (IQR: 0-140) for THA patients and 58 (IQR: 3-143) for TKA patients. Median physical activity after surgery was 150 min/week (IQR: 60-280) for both THA patients and TKA patients. Following TJA, 50% of patients met CDC/WHO physical activity guideline criteria. Higher body mass index was associated with lower change in physical activity (THA: -7.1 min/week; TKA: -5.9 min/week). Females had lower change than males (THA: -11 min/week; TKA: -9.1 min/week). In TKA patients, renal failure was associated with lower change (-17 min/week), as were neurological disorders (-30 min/week). Interpretation - Self-reported minutes of physical activity increased from before to after TJA, but 50% of TJA patients did not meet recommended physical activity guideline criteria. Higher body mass index, female sex, and specific comorbidities were found to be associated with low change in physical activity. Patient education on the benefits of physical activity should concentrate on these subgroups of patients. PMID:27299567

  11. Signaling in multiple modalities in male rhesus macaques: sex skin coloration and barks in relation to androgen levels, social status, and mating behavior

    PubMed Central

    Higham, James P.; Pfefferle, Dana; Heistermann, Michael; Maestripieri, Dario; Stevens, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The past decade has seen an increasing shift in animal communication towards more studies that incorporate aspects of signaling in multiple modalities. Although nonhuman primates are an excellent group for studying the extent to which different aspects of condition may be signaled in different modalities, and how such information may be integrated during mate choice, very few studies of primate species have incorporated such analyses. Here, we present data from free-ranging male rhesus macaques on sex skin coloration (modeled to receiver perception), bark vocal signals, androgen levels, morphometric variables, dominance status, and female mate choice. We show that, consistent with data on females, most intra- and interindividual variation in sex skin appearance occurs in luminance rather than color. Sex skin luminance was significantly correlated across different skin regions. Sex skin luminance did not correlate with the majority of bark parameters, suggesting the potential for the two signals to convey different information. Sex skin appearance was not related to androgen levels although we found some evidence for links between androgen levels and bark parameters, several of which were also related to morphometric variables. We found no evidence that either signal was related to male dominance rank or used in female mate choice, though more direct measures of female proceptive behavior are needed. Overall, the function of male sex skin coloration in this species remains unclear. Our study is among the first nonhuman primate studies to incorporate measurements of multiple signals in multiple modalities, and we encourage other authors to incorporate such analyses into their work. PMID:25013266

  12. Osteolytic lesions, cytogenetic features and bone marrow levels of cytokines and chemokines in multiple myeloma patients: Role of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20.

    PubMed

    Palma, B Dalla; Guasco, D; Pedrazzoni, M; Bolzoni, M; Accardi, F; Costa, F; Sammarelli, G; Craviotto, L; De Filippo, M; Ruffini, L; Omedè, P; Ria, R; Aversa, F; Giuliani, N

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between bone marrow (BM) cytokine and chemokine levels, cytogenetic profiles and skeletal involvement in multiple myeloma (MM) patients is not yet defined. This study investigated a cohort of 455 patients including monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS), smoldering MM and symptomatic MM patients. Skeletal surveys, positron emission tomography (PET)/computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to identify myeloma bone disease. Significantly higher median BM levels of both C-C motif Ligand (CCL)3 and CCL20 were found in MM patients with radiographic evidence of osteolytic lesions as compared with those without, and in all MM patients with positive PET/CT scans. BM levels of CCL3, CCL20, Activin-A and Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) were significantly higher in patients with high bone disease as compared with patients with low bone disease. Moreover, CCL20 BM levels were significant predictors of osteolysis on X-rays by multivariate logistic analysis. On the other hand, DKK-1 levels were related to the presence of MRI lesions independently of the osteolysis at the X-rays. Our data define the relationship between bone disease and the BM cytokine and chemokine patterns highlighting the tight relationship between CCL20 BM levels and osteolysis in MM. PMID:26419509

  13. Stability of transgene expression in reduced allergen peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) across multiple generations and at different soil sulfur levels.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Manju; Chu, Ye; Maleki, Soheila J; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2015-02-18

    Transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) containing a gene designed for RNA interference (RNAi) showed stable complete silencing of Ara h 2 and partial silencing of Ara h 6, two potent peanut allergens/proteins, along with minimal collateral changes to other allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 3, across three generations (T3, T4, and T5) under field conditions. Different soil sulfur levels (0.012, 0.3, and 3.0 mM) differentially impacted sulfur-rich (Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and Ara h 6) versus sulfur-poor (Ara h 1) proteins in non-transgenic versus transgenic peanut. The sulfur level had no effect on Ara h 1, whereas low sulfur led to a significant reduction of Ara h 3 in transgenic and non-transgenic seeds and Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 in non-transgenic but not in transgenic peanuts because these proteins already were reduced by gene silencing. These results demonstrate stability of transgene expression and the potential utility of RNAi in allergen manipulation. PMID:25616282

  14. Accuracy Enhancement for Forecasting Water Levels of Reservoirs and River Streams Using a Multiple-Input-Pattern Fuzzification Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Majid; Jaafar, Othman

    2014-01-01

    Water level forecasting is an essential topic in water management affecting reservoir operations and decision making. Recently, modern methods utilizing artificial intelligence, fuzzy logic, and combinations of these techniques have been used in hydrological applications because of their considerable ability to map an input-output pattern without requiring prior knowledge of the criteria influencing the forecasting procedure. The artificial neurofuzzy interface system (ANFIS) is one of the most accurate models used in water resource management. Because the membership functions (MFs) possess the characteristics of smoothness and mathematical components, each set of input data is able to yield the best result using a certain type of MF in the ANFIS models. The objective of this study is to define the different ANFIS model by applying different types of MFs for each type of input to forecast the water level in two case studies, the Klang Gates Dam and Rantau Panjang station on the Johor river in Malaysia, to compare the traditional ANFIS model with the new introduced one in two different situations, reservoir and stream, showing the new approach outweigh rather than the traditional one in both case studies. This objective is accomplished by evaluating the model fitness and performance in daily forecasting. PMID:24790567

  15. Accuracy enhancement for forecasting water levels of reservoirs and river streams using a multiple-input-pattern fuzzification approach.

    PubMed

    Valizadeh, Nariman; El-Shafie, Ahmed; Mirzaei, Majid; Galavi, Hadi; Mukhlisin, Muhammad; Jaafar, Othman

    2014-01-01

    Water level forecasting is an essential topic in water management affecting reservoir operations and decision making. Recently, modern methods utilizing artificial intelligence, fuzzy logic, and combinations of these techniques have been used in hydrological applications because of their considerable ability to map an input-output pattern without requiring prior knowledge of the criteria influencing the forecasting procedure. The artificial neurofuzzy interface system (ANFIS) is one of the most accurate models used in water resource management. Because the membership functions (MFs) possess the characteristics of smoothness and mathematical components, each set of input data is able to yield the best result using a certain type of MF in the ANFIS models. The objective of this study is to define the different ANFIS model by applying different types of MFs for each type of input to forecast the water level in two case studies, the Klang Gates Dam and Rantau Panjang station on the Johor river in Malaysia, to compare the traditional ANFIS model with the new introduced one in two different situations, reservoir and stream, showing the new approach outweigh rather than the traditional one in both case studies. This objective is accomplished by evaluating the model fitness and performance in daily forecasting. PMID:24790567

  16. Consistent formulation of the growth process at the kinematic and constitutive level for soft tissues composed of multiple constituents.

    PubMed

    Schmid, H; Pauli, L; Paulus, A; Kuhl, E; Itskov, M

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the possibilities of modelling the change in volume and change in density of biomaterials. This can be modelled at the constitutive or the kinematic level. This work introduces a consistent formulation at the kinematic and constitutive level for growth processes. Most biomaterials consist of many constituents and can be approximated as being incompressible. These two conditions (many constituents and incompressibility) suggest a straightforward implementation in the context of the finite element (FE) method which could now be validated more easily against histological measurements. Its key characteristic variable is the normalised partial mass change. Using the concept of homeostatic equilibrium, we suggest two complementary growth laws in which the evolution of the normalised partial mass change is governed by an ordinary differential equation in terms of either the Piola-Kirchhoff stress or the Green-Lagrange strain. We combine this approach with the classical incompatibility condition and illustrate its algorithmic implementation within a fully nonlinear FE approach. This approach is first illustrated for a simple uniaxial tension and extension test for pure volume change and pure density change and is validated against previous numerical results. Finally, a physiologically based example of a two-phase model is presented which is a combination of volume and density changes. It can be concluded that the effect of hyper-restoration may be due to the systemic effect of degradation and adaptation of given constituents. PMID:21347909

  17. System-level determinants of immunization coverage disparities among health districts in Burkina Faso: a multiple case study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite rapid and tangible progress in vaccine coverage and in premature mortality rates registered in sub-Saharan Africa, inequities to access remain firmly entrenched, large pockets of low vaccination coverage persist, and coverage often varies considerably across regions, districts, and health facilities' areas of responsibility. This paper focuses on system-related factors that can explain disparities in immunization coverage among districts in Burkina Faso. Methods A multiple-case study was conducted of six districts representative of different immunization trends and overall performance. A participative process that involved local experts and key actors led to a focus on key factors that could possibly determine the efficiency and efficacy of district vaccination services: occurrence of disease outbreaks and immunization days, overall district management performance, resources available for vaccination services, and institutional elements. The methodology, geared toward reconstructing the evolution of vaccine services performance from 2000 to 2006, is based on data from documents and from individual and group interviews in each of the six health districts. The process of interpreting results brought together the field personnel and the research team. Results The districts that perform best are those that assemble a set of favourable conditions. However, the leadership of the district medical officer (DMO) appears to be the main conduit and the rallying point for these conditions. Typically, strong leadership that is recognized by the field teams ensures smooth operation of the vaccination services, promotes the emergence of new initiatives and offers some protection against risks related to outbreaks of epidemics or supplementary activities that can hinder routine functioning. The same is true for the ability of nurse managers and their teams to cope with new situations (epidemics, shortages of certain stocks). Conclusion The discourse on factors

  18. Total joint replacement: A multiple risk factor analysis of physical activity level 1–2 years postoperatively

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Andy; Love, Rebecca M; Barber, Thomas C; Sheth, Dhiren S; Inacio, Maria C S

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — The effect of total joint arthroplasty (TJA) on physical activity is not fully understood. We investigated the change in physical activity after TJA and patient factors associated with change. Patients and methods — Using a total joint replacement registry, primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients (n = 5,678) and knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients (n = 11,084) between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012 were identified. Median age at THA was 68 and median age at TKA was 67. Change in self-reported physical activity (minutes per week) from before TJA (within 1 year of surgery) to after TJA (1–2 years) was the outcome of interest. Patient demographics and comorbidities were evaluated as risk factors. Multiple linear regression was used. Results — Median physical activity before surgery was 50 min/week (IQR: 0–140) for THA patients and 58 (IQR: 3–143) for TKA patients. Median physical activity after surgery was 150 min/week (IQR: 60–280) for both THA patients and TKA patients. Following TJA, 50% of patients met CDC/WHO physical activity guideline criteria. Higher body mass index was associated with lower change in physical activity (THA: −7.1 min/week; TKA: −5.9 min/week). Females had lower change than males (THA: −11 min/week; TKA: −9.1 min/week). In TKA patients, renal failure was associated with lower change (−17 min/week), as were neurological disorders (−30 min/week). Interpretation — Self-reported minutes of physical activity increased from before to after TJA, but 50% of TJA patients did not meet recommended physical activity guideline criteria. Higher body mass index, female sex, and specific comorbidities were found to be associated with low change in physical activity. Patient education on the benefits of physical activity should concentrate on these subgroups of patients. PMID:27299567

  19. Prediagnostic immunoglobulin E levels and risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, other lymphomas and multiple myeloma-results of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Nieters, Alexandra; Łuczyńska, Anna; Becker, Susen; Becker, Nikolaus; Vermeulen, Roel; Overvad, Kim; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Krogh, Vittorio; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Jeurnink, Suzanne M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Sánchez, María-José; Sánchez, Soledad; Borgquist, Signe; Butt, Salma; Melin, Beatrice; Späth, Florentin; Rinaldi, Sabina; Brennan, Paul; Kelly, Rachel S; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2014-12-01

    Previous epidemiological studies suggest an inverse association between allergies, marked by elevated immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. The evidence, however, is inconsistent and prospective data are sparse. We examined the association between prediagnostic total (low: <20; intermediate: 20-100; high >100 kU/l) and specific IgE (negative: <0.35; positive ≥0.35 kU/I) concentrations against inhalant antigens and lymphoma risk in a study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. A total of 1021 incident cases and matched controls of NHL, multiple myeloma (MM) and Hodgkin lymphoma with a mean follow-up time of 7 years were investigated. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by conditional logistic regression. Specific IgE was not associated with the risk of MM, B-cell NHL and B-cell NHL subtypes. In contrast, total IgE levels were inversely associated with the risk of MM [high level: OR = 0.40 (95% CI = 0.21-0.79)] and B-cell NHL [intermediate level: OR = 0.68 (95% CI = 0.53-0.88); high level: OR = 0.62 (95% CI = 0.44-0.86)], largely on the basis of a strong inverse association with chronic lymphocytic leukemia [CLL; intermediate level: OR = 0.49 (95% CI = 0.30-0.80); high level: OR = 0.13 (95% CI = 0.05-0.35)] risk. The inverse relationship for CLL remained significant for those diagnosed 5 years after baseline. The findings of this large prospective study demonstrated significantly lower prediagnostic total IgE levels among CLL and MM cases compared with matched controls. This corresponds to the clinical immunodeficiency state often observed in CLL patients prior to diagnosis. No support for an inverse association between prediagnostic levels of specific IgE and NHL risk was found. PMID:25269801

  20. Addressing contrasting cognitive models in scientific collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diviacco, P.

    2012-04-01

    If the social aspects of scientific communities and their internal dynamics is starting to be recognized and acknowledged in the everyday lives of scientists, it is rather difficult for them to find tools that could support their activities consistently with this perspective. Issues span from gathering researchers to mutual awareness, from information sharing to building meaning, with the last one being particularly critical in research fields as the geo-sciences, that deal with the reconstruction of unique, often non-reproducible, and contingent processes. Reasoning here is, in fact, mainly abductive, allowing multiple and concurrent explanations for the same phenomenon to coexist. Scientists bias one hypothesis over another not only on strictly logical but also on sociological motivations. Following a vision, scientists tend to evolve and isolate themselves from other scientists creating communities characterized by different cognitive models, so that after some time these become incompatible and scientists stop understanding each other. We address these problems as a communication issue so that the classic distinction into three levels (syntactic, semantic and pragmatic) can be used. At the syntactic level, we highlight non-technical obstacles that condition interoperability and data availability and transparency. At the semantic level, possible incompatibilities of cognitive models are particularly evident, so that using ontologies, cross-domain reconciliation should be applied. This is a very difficult task to perform since the projection of knowledge by scientists, in the designated community, is political and thus can create a lot of tension. The strategy we propose to overcome these issues pertains to pragmatics, in the sense that it is intended to acknowledge the cultural and personal factors each partner brings into the collaboration and is based on the idea that meaning should remain a flexible and contingent representation of possibly divergent views

  1. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels in acute monosymptomatic optic neuritis: relation to clinical severity, paraclinical findings and risk of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pihl-Jensen, Gorm; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup

    2015-07-01

    Optic neuritis (ON) is a common first symptom of MS and only few studies have thus far investigated vitamin D at this early stage of MS. The objectives of the study were to examine total 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25HVITDL) in patients in acute (A) ON and to determine whether 25HVITD levels in AON (1) predict risk of RRMS and (2) are associated with visual tests of ON severity. A cross-sectional study was conducted of mean 25HVITDL differences between ON (n = 164) and MS (n = 948) patients and of prevalence of 25HVITDL deficiency (<50 nmol/L) in ON and MS (two-sample t test, χ (2) test). Associations between 25HVITDL and (1) clinical ON severity, (2) paraclinical findings suggestive of MS [logistic regression (LRA), Spearman correlation] and (3) hazard of MS development [Cox (C) RA] in ON patients were assessed. 25HVITDL were deseasonalized before analysis. The mean levels were 47.6 (ON) and 63.9 (MS) nmol/L (p < 0.0001), and a significantly higher prevalence of 25HVITD deficiency in ON (56 %; 35 %) (p < 0.0001), most pronounced in females, was shown. Associations were found between 25HVITDL and both CSF leukocyte count (ρ = -0.177, p = 0.028) and IgG index elevation (OR 0.980, p = 0.031). Forty-one ON patients developed MS during the study. Multivariate CRA showed no effect on hazard of MS (HR: 0.991, p 0.284). No association was found between 25HVITDL and visual tests (acuity, contrast vision) or OCT RNFL or GCL thickness. The study indicates a high prevalence of 25HVITD deficiency in AON. 25HVITDL was significantly associated with CSF leukocyte count, but not ON severity. The study indicates a possible role of vitamin D in the early stages of MS, but does not support the use of 25HVITDL as a predictor of MS development in acute ON. PMID:25929657

  2. Chemometric Analysis of Multiple Species of Bacillus Bacterial Endospores Using Infrared Spectroscopy: Discrimination to the Strain Level

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, Joel B.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Su, Yin-Fong; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2009-09-28

    Previous work using infrared spectroscopy has shown potential for rapid discrimination between bacteria in either their sporulated or vegetative states, as well as between bacteria and other common interferents. For species within one physiological state, however, distinction is far more challenging, and requires chemometrics. In the current study, we have narrowed the field of study by eliminating the confounding issues of vegetative cells as well as growth media and focused on using IR spectra to distinguish between different species all in the sporulated state. Using principal component analysis (PCA) and a classification method based upon similarity measurements, we demonstrate a successful identification rate to the species level of 85% for Bacillus spores grown and sporulated in a glucose broth medium.

  3. Cascaded two-photon nonlinearity in a one-dimensional waveguide with multiple two-level emitters

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Dibyendu

    2013-01-01

    We propose and theoretically investigate a model to realize cascaded optical nonlinearity with few atoms and photons in one-dimension (1D). The optical nonlinearity in our system is mediated by resonant interactions of photons with two-level emitters, such as atoms or quantum dots in a 1D photonic waveguide. Multi-photon transmission in the waveguide is nonreciprocal when the emitters have different transition energies. Our theory provides a clear physical understanding of the origin of nonreciprocity in the presence of cascaded nonlinearity. We show how various two-photon nonlinear effects including spatial attraction and repulsion between photons, background fluorescence can be tuned by changing the number of emitters and the coupling between emitters (controlled by the separation). PMID:23948782

  4. Salmon carcasses increase stream productivity more than inorganic fertilizer pellets: A test on multiple trophic levels in streamside experimental channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wipfli, Mark S.; Hudson, John P.; Caouette, John P.; Mitchell, N.L.; Lessard, Joanna L.; Heintz, Ron A.; Chaloner, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    Inorganic nutrient amendments to streams are viewed as possible restoration strategies for re-establishing nutrients and stream productivity throughout the western coast of North America, where salmon runs and associated marine-derived nutrient subsidies have declined. In a mesocosm experiment, we examined the short-term (6 weeks) comparative effects of artificial nutrient pellets and salmon carcasses, alone (low and high amounts) and in combination, on stream food webs. Response variables included dissolved nutrient concentrations, biofilm ash-free dry mass (AFDM) and chlorophyll-alevels, macroinvertebrate density, growth and body condition of juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and whole-body lipid content of invertebrates and juvenile coho salmon. Most of the response variables were significantly influenced by carcass treatment; the only response variable significantly influenced by fertilizer pellet treatment was soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentration. Ammonium-nitrogen concentration was the only response variable affected by both (low and high) levels of carcass treatment; all others showed no significant response to the two carcass treatment levels. Significant treatment × time interactions were observed for all responses except nitrate; for most responses, significant treatment effects were detected at certain time periods and not others. For example, significantly higher SRP concentrations were recorded earlier in the experiment, whereas significant fish responses were observed later. These results provide evidence that inorganic nutrient additions do not have the same ecological effects in streams as do salmon carcasses, potentially because inorganic nutrient additions lack carbon-based biochemicals and macromolecules that are sequestered directly or indirectly by consumers. Salmon carcasses, preferably deposited naturally during spawning migrations, appear to be far superior to inorganic nutrient amendments for sustaining and restoring

  5. Fast and Broadband Signal Integrity Analysis of Multiple Vias in Heterogeneous 3D IC and Die-Level Packaging by Using Generalized Foldy-Lax Scattering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Xin

    This dissertation proposal is concerned with the use of fast and broadband full-wave electromagnetic methods for modeling high speed interconnects (e.g, vertical vias and horizontal traces) and passive components (e.g, decoupling capacitors) for structures of PCB and packages, in 3D IC, Die-level packaging and SIW based devices, to effectively modeling the designs signal integrity (SI) and power integrity (PI) aspects. The main contributions finished in this thesis is to create a novel methodology, which hybridizes the Foldy-Lax multiple scattering equations based fast full wave method, method of moment (MoM) based 1D technology, modes decoupling based geometry decomposition and cavity modes expansions, to model and simulate the electromagnetic scattering effects for the irregular power/ground planes, multiple vias and traces, for fast and accurate analysis of link level simulation on multilayer electronic structures. For the modeling details, the interior massively-coupled multiple vias problem is modeled most-analytically by using the Foldy-Lax multiple scattering equations. The dyadic Green's functions of the magnetic field are expressed in terms of waveguide modes in the vertical direction and vector cylindrical wave expansions or cavity modes expansions in the horizontal direction, combined with 2D MoM realized by 1D technology. For the incident field of the case of vias in the arbitrarily shaped antipad in finite large cavity/waveguide, the exciting and scattering field coefficients are calculated based on the transformation which converts surface integration of magnetic surface currents in antipad into 1D line integration of surface charges on the vias and on the ground plane. Geometry decomposition method is applied to model and integrate both the vertical and horizontal interconnects/traces in arbitrarily shaped power/ground planes. Moreover, a new form of multiple scattering equations is derived for solving coupling effects among mixed metallic

  6. Relationship between 25-OH-D serum level and relapse rate in multiple sclerosis patients before and after vitamin D supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Rivaud-Péchoux, Sophie; Clerson, Pierre; de Paz, Raphaël; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D could play a protective role in multiple sclerosis. Methods: In an observational, uncontrolled study, vitamin D3 supplementation (3010 IU/day on average) was given to 156 consecutive patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis, under first-line immunomodulatory therapy and with initial 25-OH-D serum level lower than 100 nmol/l (40 ng/ml). Relapses were determined for 29.1 ± 8.4 months during vitamin D and 29.8 ± 10.1 months before supplementation. The 25-OH-D level was measured before supplementation and several times during supplementation. The incidence rate of relapses before and during supplementation was estimated using negative binomial regression models with follow-up durations as offset terms. The incidence rate and incidence rate ratio of relapses at various 25-OH-D levels were also calculated using negative binomial regression models. Results: In 76 patients, immunomodulatory therapy preceded vitamin D supplementation (by 4.2 ± 2.7 years) and in 80 patients both treatments were started simultaneously. Under supplementation, the 25-OH-D level increased from 49 ± 22 nmol/l to 110 ± 26 nmol/l on average. Pooling data collected before and during supplementation, we found a significant strong inverse relationship between the relapse incidence rate and the 25-OH-D level (p < 0.0001), suggesting that vitamin D did indeed influence the relapse rate. Results of univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were analogous: in the multivariate model adjusted for age, disease duration and previous use of immunomodulatory therapy, every 10 nmol increase in 25-OH-D level was associated with a reduction in the relapse incidence rate of 13.7%. Dividing iteratively the population made up of pooled periods into two subgroups according to the 25-OH-D levels, the relapse incidence rate ratio decreased as the 25-OH-D level increased up to 110 nmol/l, but a plateau effect was observed beyond this limit. Conclusion: Further studies are

  7. Multiple shallow level sill intrusions coupled with hydromagmatic explosive eruptions marked the initial phase of Ferrar large igneous province magmatism in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viereck-Goette, L.; Schöner, R.; Bomfleur, B.; Schneider, J.

    2007-01-01

    Field data gathered during GANOVEX IX (2005/2006) in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, indicate that volcaniclastic deposits of phreatomagmatic eruptions (so-called Exposure Hill Type events) are intercalated with fluvial deposits of Triassic-Jurassic age at two stratigraphic levels. Abundant scoriaceous spatter (locally welded) indicates a hawaiian/strombolian component. Breccia-filled diatremes, from which volcaniclastic deposits were sourced, are rooted in sills which intruded wet sediments. The deposits are thus subaerial expressions of initial Ferrar magmatism involving intrusion of multiple shallow-level sills. Due to magma-sediment interaction abundant clastic dikes are developed that intrude the sediments and sills. All igneous components in the volcaniclastic deposits are andesitic in composition, as are the chilled margins of the sills. They are more differentiated than the basaltic andesites of the younger effusive section of Kirkpatrick plateau lavas which in northern Victoria Land start with pillow lavas and small volume lava flows from volcanic necks.

  8. SigniSite: Identification of residue-level genotype-phenotype correlations in protein multiple sequence alignments.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Leon Eyrich; Hoof, Ilka; Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Morten

    2013-07-01

    Identifying which mutation(s) within a given genotype is responsible for an observable phenotype is important in many aspects of molecular biology. Here, we present SigniSite, an online application for subgroup-free residue-level genotype-phenotype correlation. In contrast to similar methods, SigniSite does not require any pre-definition of subgroups or binary classification. Input is a set of protein sequences where each sequence has an associated real number, quantifying a given phenotype. SigniSite will then identify which amino acid residues are significantly associated with the data set phenotype. As output, SigniSite displays a sequence logo, depicting the strength of the phenotype association of each residue and a heat-map identifying 'hot' or 'cold' regions. SigniSite was benchmarked against SPEER, a state-of-the-art method for the prediction of specificity determining positions (SDP) using a set of human immunodeficiency virus protease-inhibitor genotype-phenotype data and corresponding resistance mutation scores from the Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database, and a data set of protein families with experimentally annotated SDPs. For both data sets, SigniSite was found to outperform SPEER. SigniSite is available at: http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/SigniSite/. PMID:23761454

  9. Transcript Level Alterations Reflect Gene Dosage Effects Across Multiple Tissues in a Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kahlem, Pascal; Sultan, Marc; Herwig, Ralf; Steinfath, Matthias; Balzereit, Daniela; Eppens, Barbara; Saran, Nidhi G.; Pletcher, Mathew T.; South, Sarah T.; Stetten, Gail; Lehrach, Hans; Reeves, Roger H.; Yaspo, Marie-Laure

    2004-01-01

    Human trisomy 21, which results in Down syndrome (DS), is one of the most complicated congenital genetic anomalies compatible with life, yet little is known about the molecular basis of DS. It is generally accepted that chromosome 21 (Chr21) transcripts are overexpressed by about 50% in cells with an extra copy of this chromosome. However, this assumption is difficult to test in humans due to limited access to tissues, and direct support for this idea is available for only a few Chr21 genes or in a limited number of tissues. The Ts65Dn mouse is widely used as a model for studies of DS because it is at dosage imbalance for the orthologs of about half of the 284 Chr21 genes. Ts65Dn mice have several features that directly parallel developmental anomalies of DS. Here we compared the expression of 136 mouse orthologs of Chr21 genes in nine tissues of the trisomic and euploid mice. Nearly all of the 77 genes which are at dosage imbalance in Ts65Dn showed increased transcript levels in the tested tissues, providing direct support for a simple model of increased transcription proportional to the gene copy number. However, several genes escaped this rule, suggesting that they may be controlled by additional tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms revealed in the trisomic situation. PMID:15231742

  10. Ant colony optimisation-direct cover: a hybrid ant colony direct cover technique for multi-level synthesis of multiple-valued logic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-El-Barr, Mostafa

    2010-12-01

    The use of non-binary (multiple-valued) logic in the synthesis of digital systems can lead to savings in chip area. Advances in very large scale integration (VLSI) technology have enabled the successful implementation of multiple-valued logic (MVL) circuits. A number of heuristic algorithms for the synthesis of (near) minimal sum-of products (two-level) realisation of MVL functions have been reported in the literature. The direct cover (DC) technique is one such algorithm. The ant colony optimisation (ACO) algorithm is a meta-heuristic that uses constructive greediness to explore a large solution space in finding (near) optimal solutions. The ACO algorithm mimics the ant's behaviour in the real world in using the shortest path to reach food sources. We have previously introduced an ACO-based heuristic for the synthesis of two-level MVL functions. In this article, we introduce the ACO-DC hybrid technique for the synthesis of multi-level MVL functions. The basic idea is to use an ant to decompose a given MVL function into a number of levels and then synthesise each sub-function using a DC-based technique. The results obtained using the proposed approach are compared to those obtained using existing techniques reported in the literature. A benchmark set consisting of 50,000 randomly generated 2-variable 4-valued functions is used in the comparison. The results obtained using the proposed ACO-DC technique are shown to produce efficient realisation in terms of the average number of gates (as a measure of chip area) needed for the synthesis of a given MVL function.

  11. Addressing Gender Differences in Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Deborah A.; Manning, M. Lee

    The current interest in identifying gender differences in young adolescents suggests a need to focus on how gender differences affect teaching and learning situations and on how middle level school educators can address these differences. This book explains what gender differences are, how gender differences affect learning, how both girls and…

  12. Open Repair Versus Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair in Multiple-Injured Patients: Observations From a Level-1 Trauma Center

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Stephan; Breitenbach, Ingo; Bolzen, Philipp; Petri, Maximilian; Krettek, Christian; Teebken, Omke

    2015-01-01

    Background: Blunt trauma of the thoracic aorta is a rare but potentially life-threatening entity. Intimal tears are a domain of non-operative management, whereas all other types of lesions should be repaired urgently. There is now a clear trend favoring minimally invasive stent grafting over open surgical repair. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the mortality and morbidity with either treatment option. Therefore, a retrospective observational study was performed to compare two different treatment methods at two different time periods at one trauma center. Patients and Methods: Between 1977 and 2012, all severely injured patients referred to our level 1 trauma center were screened for blunt aortic injuries. We compared baseline characteristics, 30-day and overall mortality, morbidity, duration of intensive care treatment, procedure time, and transfusion of packed red blood between patients who underwent open surgical or stent repair. Results: During the observation period, 45 blunt aortic injuries were recorded. The average Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 41.8 (range 29 - 68). Twenty-five patients underwent Open Repair (OR), and another 20 patients were scheduled to emergency stent grafting. The 30-day mortality in the surgical and stent groups were 5/25 (20%) and 2/20 (10%), respectively. The average time for open surgery was 151 minutes; the mean time for stent grafting was 67 minutes (P = 0.001). Postoperative stay on the intensive care unit was between one and 59 days (median 10) in group one and between four and 50 days in group two (median 26)(P = 0.03). Patients undergoing OR required transfusion of 6.0 units of packed red cells in median; patients undergoing stent grafting required a median of 2.0 units of packed red cells (P < 0.001). In the stent grafting group, 30-day mortality was 10% (2/20). Conclusions: Due to more sophisticated diagnostic tools and surgical approaches, mortality and morbidity of blunt aortic

  13. Expansive open-door laminoplasty secured with titanium miniplates is a good surgical method for multiple-level cervical stenosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Laminoplasty is an effective procedure for treating cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Little information is available regarding the surgical outcomes of expansive open-door laminoplasty (EOLP) when securing with titanium miniplates without bone grafting. This study is aimed to elucidate the efficacy of and problems associated with EOLP secured with titanium miniplates without bone grafting, thereby enhancing future surgical outcomes. Methods This is a retrospective study. The study participants comprised 104 patients who underwent cervical EOLP secured with titanium miniplates without bone graft for CSM treatment between August 2005 and March 2011. The clinical results were evaluated based on the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) and Nurick scores. The radiographic outcomes were determined based on plain film and magnetic resonance imaging findings, which were assessed and compared. Results Lateral cervical spine X-rays exhibited improvement in the Pavlov ratio of the spinal canal at 1 day postoperation, and this ratio did not change at 1 year postoperation. The mean cervical curvature from C2 to C7 decreased 0.21° ± 10.09° and the mean cervical range of motion was deteriorated by 35% at 12 months (P < 0.05). The Nurick score improved from 3.19 ± 1.06 to 0.92 ± 1.32 (P < 0.05). The mean JOA recovery rate was 75% ± 21.1% at 1 year. The mean level of postoperative neck pain at 3 months was 3.09 ± 2.31, as determined using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Increased age, concomitant thoracolumbar stenosis, depression disorder, and preexisting myelomalacia negatively affected the JOA recovery rate (P < 0.05). A decreased preoperative Nurick score and superior sensory function in the upper extremities were powerful predictors of an enhanced JOA recovery rate. The postoperative complications involved hematoma formation 0.9%, reversible C5 nerve palsy 2.8%, and moderate to severe neck pain (VAS ≥ 4) 42%. No

  14. Variation in PAH-related DNA adduct levels among non-smokers: the role of multiple genetic polymorphisms and nucleotide excision repair phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Etemadi, Arash; Islami, Farhad; Phillips, David H.; Godschalk, Roger; Golozar, Asieh; Kamangar, Farin; Malekshah, Akbar Fazel-Tabar; Pourshams, Akram; Elahi, Seerat; Ghojaghi, Farhad; Strickland, Paul T; Taylor, Philip R; Boffetta, Paolo; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Malekzadeh, Reza; van Schooten, Frederik J.

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) likely play a role in many cancers even in never-smokers. We tried to find a model to explain the relationship between variation in PAH-related DNA adduct levels among people with similar exposures, multiple genetic polymorphisms in genes related to metabolic and repair pathways, and nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity. In 111 randomly-selected female never-smokers from the Golestan Cohort Study in Iran, we evaluated 21 SNPs in 14 genes related to xenobiotic metabolism and 12 SNPs in 8 DNA repair genes. NER capacity was evaluated by a modified comet assay, and aromatic DNA adduct levels were measured in blood by 32P-postlabelling. Multivariable regression models were compared by Akaike’s information criterion (AIC). Aromatic DNA adduct levels ranged between 1.7 and 18.6 per 108 nucleotides (mean: 5.8±3.1). DNA adduct level was significantly lower in homozygotes for NAT2 slow alleles and ERCC5 non risk-allele genotype, and was higher in the MPO homozygote risk-allele genotype. The sum of risk alleles in these genes significantly correlated with the log-adduct level (r=0.4, p<0.001). Compared with the environmental model, adding phase I SNPs and NER capacity provided the best fit, and could explain 17% more of the variation in adduct levels. NER capacity was affected by polymorphisms in the MTHFR and ERCC1 genes. Female non-smokers in this population had PAH-related DNA adduct levels 3-4 times higher than smokers and occupationally-exposed groups in previous studies, with large inter-individual variation which could best be explained by a combination of phase I genes and NER capacity. PMID:23175176

  15. Circulating interferon-α2 levels are increased in the majority of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and are associated with disease activity and multiple cytokine activation.

    PubMed

    Becker-Merok, A; Østli-Eilersten, G; Lester, S; Nossent, Jc

    2013-02-01

    Mutations in interferon (IFN) regulatory factor genes and the biological activity of type I IFN on expression of specific genes that are induced by IFN have been associated with various aspects of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Circulating levels of IFN-α in SLE has not been extensively studied because of limited sensitivity of available ELISA assays. We performed a cross-sectional case-control study where circulating levels of IFN-α2 were measured by a highly sensitive, solution phase multiplex magnetized bead assay and investigated the relation of IFN-α2 with autoantibody profiles, clinical disease activity and levels of inflammatory cytokines in SLE patients (n = 87). Cytokine levels were determined on stored sera aliquots with cut-off levels determined by the geometric mean + 2SD in healthy controls (n = 27). IFN-α2 levels were increased in 64% of SLE patients, who displayed more renal disease and higher disease activity (p = 0.06) and had a significantly higher sum of activated cytokines (median 4.5, range 7) compared to patients with normal IFN-α2 (median one, range 3; p < 0.001). Solution phase micro-bead assay thus identified increased IFN-α2 levels in two-thirds of SLE patients with longstanding disease. The association with clinical disease and activation of multiple inflammatory cytokines supports a role for IFN-α2 in disease perpetuation in a large subset of SLE patients. PMID:23213068

  16. Variation in PAH-related DNA adduct levels among non-smokers: the role of multiple genetic polymorphisms and nucleotide excision repair phenotype.

    PubMed

    Etemadi, Arash; Islami, Farhad; Phillips, David H; Godschalk, Roger; Golozar, Asieh; Kamangar, Farin; Malekshah, Akbar Fazel-Tabar; Pourshams, Akram; Elahi, Seerat; Ghojaghi, Farhad; Strickland, Paul T; Taylor, Philip R; Boffetta, Paolo; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Malekzadeh, Reza; van Schooten, Frederik J

    2013-06-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) likely play a role in many cancers even in never-smokers. We tried to find a model to explain the relationship between variation in PAH-related DNA adduct levels among people with similar exposures, multiple genetic polymorphisms in genes related to metabolic and repair pathways, and nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity. In 111 randomly selected female never-smokers from the Golestan Cohort Study in Iran, we evaluated 21 SNPs in 14 genes related to xenobiotic metabolism and 12 SNPs in eight DNA repair genes. NER capacity was evaluated by a modified comet assay, and aromatic DNA adduct levels were measured in blood by32P-postlabeling. Multivariable regression models were compared by Akaike's information criterion (AIC). Aromatic DNA adduct levels ranged between 1.7 and 18.6 per 10(8) nucleotides (mean: 5.8 ± 3.1). DNA adduct level was significantly lower in homozygotes for NAT2 slow alleles and ERCC5 non-risk-allele genotype, and was higher in the MPO homozygote risk-allele genotype. The sum of risk alleles in these genes significantly correlated with the log-adduct level (r = 0.4, p < 0.001). Compared with the environmental model, adding Phase I SNPs and NER capacity provided the best fit, and could explain 17% more of the variation in adduct levels. NER capacity was affected by polymorphisms in the MTHFR and ERCC1 genes. Female non-smokers in this population had PAH-related DNA adduct levels three to four times higher than smokers and occupationally-exposed groups in previous studies, with large inter-individual variation which could best be explained by a combination of Phase I genes and NER capacity. PMID:23175176

  17. Soluble BAFF Level Is Not Correlated to Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis Antibodies and Increases After Interferon-β Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Mameli, Giuseppe; Cossu, Davide; Caggiu, Elisa; Arru, Giannina; Niegowska, Magdalena; Cocco, Eleonora; Frau, Jessica; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Sechi, Leonardo A

    2016-09-01

    B cells are being recognized as one of the major players in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). The B cell activating factor (BAFF) system plays an essential role in B cell homeostasis and function in the periphery. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) has been previously associated to MS in Sardinia. Antibodies against a MAP surface protein, MAP_2694, have been found significantly associated to MS patients, and this response was modified by interferon-β therapy. Increased BAFF levels following IFN-β therapy have been also described in MS patients. In this study, we evaluated whether soluble BAFF levels are comparable in men and women affected by MS and performed a correlation of the reported BAFF increase in MS patients under IFN-β therapy with changes of humoral response against MAP_2694. For these reasons, we investigated 44 MS patients before and after IFN-β therapy. A significant difference of BAFF levels was found between men and women with MS; moreover, we confirmed that IFN-β therapy strongly induces BAFF serum levels, but this was not related to the modification of immunological response against MAP_2694. In conclusion, our study highlights that IFN-β therapy induces the potent B cell survival factor BAFF without alterations of the humoral immune response against MAP. PMID:27370541

  18. Plasma Levels of Osteopontin and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Association with Clinical Features and Parameters of Tumor Burden in Patients with Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Valković, Toni; Babarović, Emina; Lučin, Ksenija; Štifter, Sanja; Aralica, Merica; Pećanić, Sanja; Seili-Bekafigo, Irena; Duletić-Načinović, Antica; Nemet, Damir; Jonjić, Nives

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to determine the plasma levels of osteopontin (OPN) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and find possible association between them and main clinical features and parameters of tumor burden in patient with multiple myeloma (MM). Plasma levels of OPN and VEGF were determined in 44 newly diagnosed MM patients and 24 healthy persons by ELISA method. These values were compared with the presence of anemia, renal dysfunction, and bone lesions as myeloma related clinical manifestations and with serum beta-2 microglobulin and Durie-Salmon clinical stage as prognosticators related to tumor mass. The value of OPN was significantly higher in MM patients with evident bone lesions (P = 0.03) and there was also a positive correlation with serum beta-2 microglobulin (r = 0.366; P = 0.04). Furthermore, patients with lower Durie-Salmon stage had significantly lower OPN and VEGF levels (P = 0.05; P = 0.04, resp.). Our preliminary results found positive association between plasma level of OPN, tumor burden, and bone destruction. Further analysis should provide information about the possible use of OPN as useful clinical biomarker for monitoring bone disease and tumor mass, as well as a prognostic factor, or a possible target for pharmacological intervention. PMID:24995304

  19. Raloxifene induces cell death and inhibits proliferation through multiple signaling pathways in prostate cancer cells expressing different levels of estrogen receptor α and β.

    PubMed

    Rossi, V; Bellastella, G; De Rosa, C; Abbondanza, C; Visconti, D; Maione, L; Chieffi, P; Della Ragione, F; Prezioso, D; De Bellis, A; Bellastella, A; Sinisi, A A

    2011-05-01

    Raloxifene (RAL), a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator (SERM) seems to induce apoptosis in both androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cell (PC) lines via activation of ERβ and an antagonistic effect on ERα. In this study, we evaluated the effects of RAL on epithelial PC growth using the two following in vitro models: the androgen-dependent cell line EPN which expressed both ERs; and a stabilized epithelial cell line derived from a prostate cancer specimen (CPEC), which expressed low levels of ERβ and lacked ERα. In EPN cells, there was an increase in the pre-G1 apoptotic peak and a reduction in the S phase of the cell cycle with G0/G1 arrest after E2 or RAL treatment; bcl-2 mRNA and Bcl-2 protein levels were significantly reduced, while activated caspase-3 and Par-4 levels increased significantly after either E2 or RAL treatment; in addition, c-myc transcript was inhibited after 10(-6)  M RAL treatment. A dose-dependent increase of metallothionein II gene RNA level was also induced by RAL in EPN. In CPEC, there was only a weak apoptotic peak associated with caspase-3 activation and Par-4 increase after either E2 or RAL treatment; while c-myc transcript level increased. RAL induced a rapid but transient phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in EPN cells but generated a sustained effect in CPEC. These findings suggest that RAL effects on PC growth control in vitro are cell-specific, depending on ERβ or ERβ/ERα relative expression levels. Moreover, this study demonstrated that RAL affected both transcriptional regulation and non-genomic signals, which resulted in the modulation of multiple signaling pathways of apoptosis and of cell cycle progression. PMID:20945400

  20. Name-Based Address Mapping for Virtual Private Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surányi, Péter; Shinjo, Yasushi; Kato, Kazuhiko

    IPv4 private addresses are commonly used in local area networks (LANs). With the increasing popularity of virtual private networks (VPNs), it has become common that a user connects to multiple LANs at the same time. However, private address ranges for LANs frequently overlap. In such cases, existing systems do not allow the user to access the resources on all LANs at the same time. In this paper, we propose name-based address mapping for VPNs, a novel method that allows connecting to hosts through multiple VPNs at the same time, even when the address ranges of the VPNs overlap. In name-based address mapping, rather than using the IP addresses used on the LANs (the real addresses), we assign a unique virtual address to each remote host based on its domain name. The local host uses the virtual addresses to communicate with remote hosts. We have implemented name-based address mapping for layer 3 OpenVPN connections on Linux and measured its performance. The communication overhead of our system is less than 1.5% for throughput and less than 0.2ms for each name resolution.

  1. Higher circulating levels of chemokine CCL20 in patients with multiple sclerosis: evaluation of the influences of chemokine gene polymorphism, gender, treatment and disease pattern.

    PubMed

    Jafarzadeh, A; Bagherzadeh, S; Ebrahimi, H A; Hajghani, H; Bazrafshani, M R; Khosravimashizi, A; Nemati, M; Gadari, F; Sabahi, A; Iranmanesh, F; Mohammadi, M M; Daneshvar, H

    2014-07-01

    Chemokines play an important role in the autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of CCL20 and a polymorphism [-786C > T (rs6749704)] in the chemokine gene in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The blood samples were collected from 135 MS patients and 135 healthy subjects as a control group. The patients have relapsing-remitting (RRMS; n = 65), primary progressive (PPMS; n = 47), secondary progressive (SPMS; n = 35) or progressive relapsing (PRMS; n = 14) patterns. The serum levels of CCL20 were measured by ELISA. The DNA was analyzed for CCL20 polymorphism using PCR-RLFP. The mean serum levels of CCL20 in the MS group were significantly higher than in the healthy group (P < 0.001). In patients with a SPMS pattern, the frequency of CT genotype at rs6749704 (24.3 %) was significantly lower as compared to patients with other patterns (42.8 %; P < 0.04). No significant differences were observed between subjects with different genotypes in rs6749704 regarding the CCL20 levels. The mean serum levels of CCL20 in both newly diagnosed and previously diagnosed patients was significantly higher than in the healthy group (P < 0.05 and 0.001, respectively). The mean serum levels of CCL20 in patients with RRMS, SPMS and PPMS patterns were significantly higher than in the healthy group (P < 0.004, P < 0.04, and 0.05, respectively). The levels of CCL20 in untreated patients and in patients who received interferon-β, methylprednisolone or the combination of interferon-β plus methylprednisolone were higher as compared to the control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.03, P < 0.005, and P < 0.05, respectively). These results showed higher levels of CCL20 in patients that represent that the chemokine may play an important role in the pathogenesis of MS. The rs6749704 polymorphism was an associated SPMS pattern. The levels of CCL20 were not influenced by gender, disease pattern and treatment. PMID

  2. Exploring the Relationship Between Serum and Urinary Free Light Chain Levels During the Different Phases of Renal Damage in Multiple Myeloma Patients.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zheng Li; Wu, Chao; Teng, Wen-Hao; Wan, Kai; Jia, Wei Jing; Li, Hui Jun; Meng, Li; Zhou, Jian Feng; Tang, Yi

    2015-09-01

    The objective was to explore the relationship between the levels of serum and urinary free light chains (FLCs) during the progression of renal damage in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. We examined 91 cases of MM patients, detected levels of serum FLCs (sFLCs), urinary FLCs (uFLCs), and serum creatinine at the same time, and then compared sFLC and uFLC levels during normal and abnormal serum creatinine phases. Among the 91 MM patients, 22 patients had abnormal serum creatinine levels (no uremia), and 69 patients had normal serum creatinine levels. The levels of sFLCs and uFLCs in patients with abnormal serum creatinine were beyond normal, namely both serum and urine positive (serum+ and urine+), and the average concentrations of κFLCs and λFLCs were 516.76 and 604.67 mg/L, respectively. Of the 69 patients with normal creatinine levels, there were 39 and 30 cases of κ-type and λ-type MM, respectively. Of the κ-type patients, 11 cases were serum positive and urine negative (serum+ and urine-) with an average concentration of 55.47 mg/L, and 28 cases were serum positive and urine positive (serum+ and urine+) with an average concentration of 513.09 mg/L. Of the λ-type patients, 16 cases were serum positive and urine negative (serum+ and urine-) with an average concentration of 78.44 mg/L, and 14 cases were serum positive and urine positive (serum+ and urine+) with an average concentration of 518.08 mg/L. The levels of uFLCs did not parallel those of sFLCs. In addition to sFLC levels, renal function affected uFLC concentrations. As MM progressed, the concentration of sFLCs increased in a step-by-step manner, and the uFLCs changed from negative to positive to negative again. Therefore, the whole progression included three phases: sserum+ and urine-, serum+ and urine+, and then serum+ and urine-. PMID:26085720

  3. Combined exercise training reduces IFN-γ and IL-17 levels in the plasma and the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in women with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Golzari, Zahra; Shabkhiz, Fatemeh; Soudi, Sara; Kordi, Mohammad Reza; Hashemi, Seyed Mahmoud

    2010-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disorder in which lymphocytic infiltration mediated mainly by pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we examined the effect of combined exercise training on the levels of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-17 in the plasma and the supernatant of peripheral blood lymphocytes in women with multiple sclerosis. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), VO(2)max, muscle strength, and balance tests were obtained at baseline and post-treatment follow-up. Combined exercises training was designed for 24 sessions during 8 weeks. Each session was started with 5 min warm-up and was followed by 10 min stretch training, 20 min aerobic exercises and 20 min resistance-endurance training. The disability score was significantly decreased in test MS subjects after 8 weeks combined exercise training. Muscle strength and balance were increased significantly after the training program in test group. In this study, plasma, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) IL-17 and IFN-γ production was significantly decreased after 8 weeks combined training. Our findings suggest that combined training has useful anti-inflammatory effects by decrease in PBMC and plasma IL-17 production. PMID:20797460

  4. Ces locus embedded proteins control the non-ribosomal synthesis of the cereulide toxin in emetic Bacillus cereus on multiple levels

    PubMed Central

    Lücking, Genia; Frenzel, Elrike; Rütschle, Andrea; Marxen, Sandra; Stark, Timo D.; Hofmann, Thomas; Scherer, Siegfried; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The emetic toxin cereulide produced by Bacillus cereus is synthesized by the modular enzyme complex Ces that is encoded on a pXO1-like megaplasmid. To decipher the role of the genes adjacent to the structural genes cesA/cesB, coding for the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), gene inactivation- and overexpression mutants of the emetic strain F4810/72 were constructed and their impact on cereulide biosynthesis was assessed. The hydrolase CesH turned out to be a part of the complex regulatory network controlling cereulide synthesis on a transcriptional level, while the ABC transporter CesCD was found to be essential for post-translational control of cereulide synthesis. Using a gene inactivation approach, we show that the NRPS activating function of the phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPtase) embedded in the ces locus was complemented by a chromosomally encoded Sfp-like PPtase, representing an interesting example for the functional interaction between a plasmid encoded NRPS and a chromosomally encoded activation enzyme. In summary, our results highlight the complexity of cereulide biosynthesis and reveal multiple levels of toxin formation control. ces operon internal genes were shown to play a pivotal role by acting at different levels of toxin production, thus complementing the action of the chromosomal key transcriptional regulators AbrB and CodY. PMID:26528255

  5. A highly specific q-RT-PCR assay to address the relevance of the JAK2WT and JAK2V617F expression levels and control genes in Ph-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Francesca; Di Capua, Emma Nora; Cenfra, Natalia; Pessina, Gloria; Mecarocci, Sergio; Rago, Angela; Cotroneo, Ettore; Busanello, Anna; Equitani, Francesco; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Nervi, Clara; Cimino, Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    In Ph- myeloproliferative neoplasms, the quantification of the JAK2V617F transcripts may provide some advantages over the DNA allele burden determination. We developed a q-RT-PCR to assess the JAK2WT and JAK2V617F mRNA expression in 105 cases (23 donors, 13 secondary polycythemia, 22 polycythemia vera (PV), 38 essential thrombocythemia (ET), and 9 primary myelofibrosis (PMF)). Compared with the standard allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO)-PCR technique, our assay showed a 100 % concordance rate detecting the JAK2V617F mutation in 22/22 PV (100 %), 29/38 (76.3 %) ET, and 5/9 (55.5 %) PMF cases, respectively. The sensitivity of the assay was 0.01 %. Comparing DNA and RNA samples, we found that the JAK2V617F mutational ratios were significantly higher at the RNA level both in PV (p = 0.005) and ET (p = 0.001) samples. In PV patients, JAK2WT expression levels positively correlated with the platelets (PLTs) (p = 0.003) whereas a trend to negative correlation was observed with the Hb levels (p = 0.051). JAK2V617F-positive cases showed the lowest JAK2WT and ABL1 mRNA expression levels. In all the samples, the expression pattern of beta-glucoronidase (GUSB) was more homogeneous than that of ABL1 or β2 microglobulin (B2M). Using GUSB as normalizator gene, a significant increase of the JAK2V617F mRNA levels was seen in two ET patients at time of progression to PV. In conclusion, the proposed q-RT-PCR is a sensitive and accurate method to quantify the JAK2 mutational status that can also show clinical correlations suggesting the impact of the residual amount of the JAK2WT allele on the Ph- MPN disease phenotype. Our observations also preclude the use of ABL1 as a housekeeping gene for these neoplasms. PMID:24173087

  6. Multiple Myeloma Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... it is multiple myeloma . Stay on top of discoveries, trials, research and more. Click here to sign up for the MMRF Newsletter First name Last name E-mail address CLOSE News & Press Multiple Myeloma Knowledge Center Privacy Policy Donor Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  7. Global-Address Space Networking (GASNet) Library

    SciTech Connect

    Welcome, Michael L.; Bell, Christian S.

    2011-04-06

    GASNet (Global-Address Space Networking) is a language-independent, low-level networking layer that provides network-independent, high-performance communication primitives tailored for implementing parallel global address space SPMD languages such as UPC and Titanium. The interface is primarily intended as a compilation target and for use by runtime library writers (as opposed to end users), and the primary goals are high performance, interface portability, and expressiveness. GASNet is designed specifically to support high-performance, portable implementations of global address space languages on modern high-end communication networks. The interface provides the flexibility and extensibility required to express a wide variety of communication patterns without sacrificing performance by imposing large computational overheads in the interface. The design of the GASNet interface is partitioned into two layers to maximize porting ease without sacrificing performance: the lower level is a narrow but very general interface called the GASNet core API - the design is basedheavily on Active Messages, and is implemented directly on top of each individual network architecture. The upper level is a wider and more expressive interface called GASNet extended API, which provides high-level operations such as remote memory access and various collective operations. This release implements GASNet over MPI, the Quadrics "elan" API, the Myrinet "GM" API and the "LAPI" interface to the IBM SP switch. A template is provided for adding support for additional network interfaces.

  8. Global-Address Space Networking (GASNet) Library

    2011-04-06

    GASNet (Global-Address Space Networking) is a language-independent, low-level networking layer that provides network-independent, high-performance communication primitives tailored for implementing parallel global address space SPMD languages such as UPC and Titanium. The interface is primarily intended as a compilation target and for use by runtime library writers (as opposed to end users), and the primary goals are high performance, interface portability, and expressiveness. GASNet is designed specifically to support high-performance, portable implementations of global address spacemore » languages on modern high-end communication networks. The interface provides the flexibility and extensibility required to express a wide variety of communication patterns without sacrificing performance by imposing large computational overheads in the interface. The design of the GASNet interface is partitioned into two layers to maximize porting ease without sacrificing performance: the lower level is a narrow but very general interface called the GASNet core API - the design is basedheavily on Active Messages, and is implemented directly on top of each individual network architecture. The upper level is a wider and more expressive interface called GASNet extended API, which provides high-level operations such as remote memory access and various collective operations. This release implements GASNet over MPI, the Quadrics "elan" API, the Myrinet "GM" API and the "LAPI" interface to the IBM SP switch. A template is provided for adding support for additional network interfaces.« less

  9. The Health Literacy of Hong Kong Chinese Parents with Preschool Children in Seasonal Influenza Prevention: A Multiple Case Study at Household Level

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Health literacy influences individual and family health behaviour, health services use, and ultimately health outcomes and health care costs. In Hong Kong, people are at risk of seasonal influenza infection twice a year for three-month periods. Seasonal influenza is significantly associated with an increased number of hospitalized children. There is no research that provides an understanding of parents’ health knowledge and their access to health information concerning seasonal influenza, nor their capacity to effectively manage influenza episodes in household. Such knowledge provides valuable insight into enhancing parents’ health literacy to effectively communicate health messages to their children and support healthy behaviour development through role modelling. Methods A multiple case study was employed to gain a multifaceted understanding of parents’ health literacy regarding seasonal influenza prevention. Purposive intensity sampling was adopted to recruit twenty Hong Kong Chinese parents with a healthy three-to-five year old preschool child from three kindergartens. A content analysis was employed to categorize, tabulate and combine data to address the propositions of the study. Comprehensive comparisons were made across cases to reveal the commonalities and differences. Results Four major themes were identified: inadequate parents' knowledge and reported skills and practices related to seasonal influenza prevention; parental knowledge seeking and exchange practices through social connection; parents’ approaches to health information and limited enabling environments including shortage of health resources and uneven resource allocation for health promotion. Conclusions The findings recommend that community health professionals can play a critical role in increasing parents’ functional, interactive and critical health literacy; important elements when planning and implementing seasonal influenza health promotion. PMID:26624284

  10. Anti-JCV antibodies detection and JCV DNA levels in PBMC, serum and urine in a cohort of Spanish Multiple Sclerosis patients treated with natalizumab.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Mozo, Maria Inmaculada; Garcia-Montojo, Marta; De Las Heras, Virginia; Garcia-Martinez, Angel; Arias-Leal, Ana María; Casanova, Ignacio; Arroyo, Rafael; Alvarez-Lafuente, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    One of the most effective multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment is natalizumab. Nevertheless, it has been associated with an increased risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) caused by the JC virus (JCV). Our main objective was to assess the utility of testing JCV-DNA, apart from anti-JCV antibodies, to determine which natalizumab-treated MS patients has been previously in contact with the virus. For this purpose, 138 MS natalizumab/non-natalizumab treated patients participated in several studies. Cross-sectional study (CS): association of several epidemiological variables with anti-JCV antibodies and JCV-DNA levels in PBMC/serum/urine. First longitudinal study (A): evaluation of JCV-DNA prevalence in urine throughout the treatment. Second longitudinal study (B): simultaneous assessment of antibodies and viral DNA levels in PBMC/serum/urine at two time points. CS: The seropositivity rate for anti-JCV antibodies (62.3 %) and JCV prevalence in urine (59.4 %) were similar; although 26 % of our population was positive only using one of the two techniques. A: The viral prevalence in urine seemed to increase between the baseline visit and the others (Baseline-Visit/V18months, p = 0.006). B: Our rate of positive antibody seroconversion was 36 %. Nearly all patients with detectable JCV-DNA levels in PBMC excreted the virus intermittently in urine; while our PML case, positive in PBMC and serum samples 2 month before the PML, excreted JCV permanently. In conclusion, the determination of JCV DNA levels in urine could be complementary to anti-JCV antibodies for identifying MS patients who has been infected by the JCV. Further research would be necessary to understand the different JCV excretion profiles in urine. PMID:23979860

  11. Methylation and mRNA expression levels of P15, death-associated protein kinase, and suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 genes in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lin; Tan, Lin; He, Zhenxin

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of this study was to investigate the methylation status and mRNA expression levels of P15, death-associated protein kinase (DAPK), and suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS1) genes in multiple myeloma (MM). Materials and Methods: The bone marrow samples of 54 MM patients were collected and the methylation status of the P15, DAPK, and SOCS1 gene promoter regions was determined by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Automated sequencing technology was used to sequence the amplified products in order to analyze the base methylation sites. mRNA expression levels were determined using real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: Among the 54 MM patients, the positive methylation rates of the P15, DAPK, and SOCS1 genes were 27.78%, 18.52%, and 16.67%, respectively. The methylation results were confirmed by sequencing. The positive methylation rates of the P15, DAPK, and SOCS1 genes showed no correlation with patient gender, age, typing, staging, and grouping (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in the mRNA expression levels of the P15, DAPK, and SOCS1 genes between the MM patient group and the control group (P>0.05). Conclusions: Aberrant methylation of the P15, DAPK, and SOCS1 genes exists in MM, and these genes may play certain roles in pathogenesis of MM. There was no significant difference in mRNA expression levels between the methylated group and the non-methylated group, suggesting that these genes are regulated by other mechanisms during their transcription.

  12. The endocrine effects of dietary brominated diphenyl ether-47 exposure, measured across multiple levels of biological organization, in breeding fathead minnows.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Leah M; Path, Elise M; Venables, Barney J; Sellin Jeffries, Marlo K

    2016-08-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the reproductive function of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to brominated diphenyl ether-47 (BDE-47) at doses lower than those used in previous studies. This was accomplished by evaluating the impacts of BDE-47 exposures across multiple levels of biological organization. Breeding pairs were exposed to BDE-47 via diet for 21 d, during which reproductive success was monitored. At the conclusion of the exposure, fish were euthanized to assess the effects of BDE-47 on sex steroid-related and thyroid-related transcripts, plasma androgen levels, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and secondary sexual characteristics. Several alterations in gene expression were noted including a >2.1-fold decrease in hepatic estrogen receptor α (erα) and a 2.9-fold decrease in ovarian aromatase (arom). In addition, BDE-47-exposed males experienced increases in deiodinase 2 (dio2) expression in brain tissue (∼1.5-fold) and decreases in hepatic transthyretin (ttr) expression (∼1.4-fold). Together, these gene expression alterations suggest the potential for BDE-47 to disrupt endocrine signaling. There were no significant differences in plasma hormone levels, GSI, secondary sexual characteristics, or reproductive success. Overall, the present study demonstrates that exposure to BDE-47 is capable of altering both sex steroid-related and thyroid-related transcripts but that these observed alterations do not necessarily manifest themselves at higher levels of biological organization for the endpoints selected. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2048-2057. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26749031

  13. Influence of taxa, trophic level, and location on bioaccumulation of toxic metals in bird's feathers: a preliminary biomonitoring study using multiple bird species from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar; Jaspers, Veerle Leontina Bernard; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Ali, Sakhawat; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2015-02-01

    Increasing concentrations of heavy metals in the environment and their effects on ecosystems and biota is still an imminent threat, particularly in developing parts of the globe. The aim of the present study was to screen the heavy metal concentrations in multiple bird species across Pakistan and to preliminary evaluate the influence of taxa, trophic level, and geographical location on heavy metal accumulation in various bird species. For this purpose, we measured the concentration of 9 heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn) in feathers of 48 bird species from different localities in Pakistan. Species exhibited heterogeneous levels of heavy metals in feathers with marked inter and intra specific variations. Mean concentrations of studied metals in feathers followed the trend Fe>Zn>Cu>Pb>Mn>Cr>Ni>Co>Cd. Species belonging to closely related taxa (families) showed comparable metal concentrations in their feathers, inferring potential phylogenetic similarities in metal exposure or accumulation. In general, concentrations of metals were greatest in carnivorous species followed by omnivorous and insectivorous birds, and granivores showing minimal levels (p<0.000). Furthermore, concentrations of metals varied significantly between locations (p<0.000) exhibiting highest concentrations in Punjab province and Baluchistan, probably due to higher industrial and agricultural activity and runoff, respectively. With certain limitation, influence of trophic level, taxonomic affiliation and sampling location of birds on toxic metal accumulation was also statistically corroborated through principal component analysis (PCA). This study highlights that despite restricted emissions, heavy metals persist in the local environment and may pose elevated risks for the studied bird species in Pakistan. PMID:25303737

  14. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems. PMID:21537142

  15. Addressable parallel cavity-based quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetlugin, Anton N.; Sokolov, Ivan V.

    2014-09-01

    We elaborate theoretically a model of addressable parallel cavity-based quantum memory for light able to store multiple transverse spatial modes of the input light signal of finite duration and, at the same time, a time sequence of the signals by side illumination. Having in mind possible applications for, e.g., quantum repeaters, we reveal the addressability of our memory, that is, its handiness for the read-out on demand of a given transverse quantized signal mode and of a given signal from the time sequence. The addressability is achieved by making use of different spatial configurations of pump wave during the write-in and the readout. We also demonstrate that for the signal durations of the order of few cavity decay times, better efficiency is achieved when one excites the cavity with zero light-matter coupling and finally performs fast excitation transfer from the intracavity field to the collective spin. On the other hand, the light-matter coupling control in time, based on dynamical impedance matching, allows to store and retrieve time restricted signals of the on-demand smooth time shape.

  16. Matching Alternative Addresses: a Semantic Web Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariannamazi, S.; Karimipour, F.; Hakimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI) provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature's literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  17. Decreased level of phosphatidylcholine (16:0/20:4) in multiple myeloma cells compared to plasma cells: a single-cell MALDI-IMS approach.

    PubMed

    Hossen, Md Amir; Nagata, Yasuyuki; Waki, Michihiko; Ide, Yoshimi; Takei, Shiro; Fukano, Hana; Romero-Perez, Gustavo A; Tajima, Shogo; Yao, Ikuko; Ohnishi, Kazunori; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2015-07-01

    Lipid metabolic changes under diseased conditions, particularly in solid tumors, are attracting increased attention. However, in non-solid tumors, including most hematopoietic tumors, lipid analyses are scarce. Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell disorder arising from bone marrow, and the lipid status of MM cells has not been reported yet. In this study, we analyzed flow cytometry-sorted single MM cells and normal plasma cells (NPCs) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS), a two-dimensional label-free mass spectrometry technique for biomolecular analysis, to obtain specific lipid information. We isolated 1.31-5.77% of MM cells and 0.03-0.24% of NPCs using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Analysis of purified cells using MALDI-IMS at the single-cell level revealed that the peak intensity and ion signals of phosphatidylcholine [PC (16:0/20:4) + H](+) at m/z 782.5 were significantly decreased in MM cells compared to NPCs. By examining particular cell populations rather than cell mixtures, our method can become a suitable tool for the analysis of rare cell populations at the single-cell level and advance the understanding of MM progression. PMID:25957845

  18. Maize ABP9 enhances tolerance to multiple stresses in transgenic Arabidopsis by modulating ABA signaling and cellular levels of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Wang, Lei; Meng, Hui; Wen, Hongtao; Fan, Yunliu; Zhao, Jun

    2011-03-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play critical roles in mediating abiotic stress responses in plants. It is well known that ABA is involved in the modulation of ROS levels by regulating ROS-producing and ROS-scavenging genes, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation are poorly understood. Here we show that the expression of maize ABP9 gene, which encodes a bZIP transcription factor capable of binding to the ABRE2 motif in the maize Cat1 promoter, is induced by ABA, H(2)O(2), drought and salt. Constitutive expression of ABP9 in transgenic Arabidopsis leads to remarkably enhanced tolerance to multiple stresses including drought, high salt, freezing temperature and oxidative stresses. ABP9 expressing Arabidopsis plants also exhibit increased sensitivity to exogenously applied ABA during seed germination, root growth and stomatal closure and improved water-conserving capacity. Moreover, constitutive expression of ABP9 causes reduced cellular levels of ROS, alleviated oxidative damage and reduced cell death, accompanied by elevated expression of many stress/ABA responsive genes including those for scavenging and regulating ROS. Taken together, these results suggest that ABP9 may play a pivotal role in plant tolerance to abiotic stresses by fine tuning ABA signaling and control of ROS accumulation. PMID:21327835

  19. Nonlocal effects in double fishnet metasurfaces nanostructured at deep subwavelength level as a path toward simultaneous sensing of multiple chemical analytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanasković, Dragan; Obradov, Marko; Jakšić, Olga; Jakšić, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Nanoplasmonic devices are among the most sensitive chemical sensors, with sensitivities reaching the single-molecule level. An especially convenient class of such sensors is that based on metasurfaces with subwavelength nanoholes, examples being extraordinary optical transmission arrays and double fishnet structures. Such structures ensure operation both in transmission and reflection mode and ensure high sensitivities and excellent coupling with external readout. In this paper we consider the possibility to tailor the response of aperture-based sensor structures by modifying the geometry of nanoholes at the deep subwavelength level through ensuring controlled use of nonlocal effects. We investigate the case where nonlocality is achieved by modifying the basic metamaterial fishnet structure (a metal-dielectric-metal sandwich with rectangular openings) by superposing additional subwavelength patterns, ensuring the appearance of new optical modes. The obtained unit cell superstructure will have multiple tailorable spectral peaks that will increase the selectivity at different wavelengths. The finite elements method was used for simulations of the proposed structures. As an example, we applied our results to the case of a benzene sensor, showing that its spectral properties and selectivity can be tuned by modifying geometry at a deep subwavelength scale. The obtained custom-designed spectral selectivity is convenient for multianalyte chemical sensing using a single structure.

  20. Pattern of cytokine (IL-6 and IL-10) level as inflammation and anti-inflammation mediator of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in polytrauma

    PubMed Central

    Sapan, Heber Bombang; Paturusi, Idrus; Jusuf, Irawan; Patellongi, Ilhamjaya; Massi, Muh Nasrum; Pusponegoro, Aryono Djuned; Arief, Syafrie Kamsul; Labeda, Ibrahim; Islam, Andi Asadul; Rendy, Leo; Hatta, Mochammad

    2016-01-01

    Massive injury remains the most common cause of death for productive age group globally. The current immune, inflammatory paradigm, based on an incomplete understanding of the functional integration of the complex host response, remains a major impediment to the development of effective innovative diagnostic and therapeutic effort. This study attempt to investigate the pattern of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 and 10 (IL-6 and IL-10) and their interaction in severe injury condition with its major complication as multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and failure (MOF) after polytrauma. This is multicenter study held at 4 academic Level-1 Trauma center included 54 polytrauma participants. Inclusion criteria were age between 16-60 years old, had new acute episode of polytrauma which defined as injury in ≥2 body region with Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥16, and the presence of Systemic Inflammation Response Syndrome (SIRS). Serum level of IL-6 and IL-10 were taken on day 2, 3, and 5 after trauma. During hospitalization, samples were observed for the occurrence of MODS or MOF using Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and mortality rate were also noted. Participant were mostly male with mean of age of 35, 9 years old, endured polytrauma caused by traffic accident. Elevation of cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, and IL-6/IL-10 ratio) had directly proportional with MODS and mortality. Threshold level of compensation for severe trauma is IL-6 of 50 pg/mL and trauma load of ISS ≥30. Inflammation reaction greater than this threshold level would result in downhill level of IL-6, IL-10, or IL-6/IL-10 ratio which associated with poor outcome (MODS and death). The elevation of these cytokines level were represent as compensation/adaptive immune system and its fall represent decompensating/failure of immune system after severe trauma. The pattern of IL-6 and IL-10 after polytrauma represent immune system effort to restore homeostasis

  1. Pattern of cytokine (IL-6 and IL-10) level as inflammation and anti-inflammation mediator of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in polytrauma.

    PubMed

    Sapan, Heber Bombang; Paturusi, Idrus; Jusuf, Irawan; Patellongi, Ilhamjaya; Massi, Muh Nasrum; Pusponegoro, Aryono Djuned; Arief, Syafrie Kamsul; Labeda, Ibrahim; Islam, Andi Asadul; Rendy, Leo; Hatta, Mochammad

    2016-01-01

    Massive injury remains the most common cause of death for productive age group globally. The current immune, inflammatory paradigm, based on an incomplete understanding of the functional integration of the complex host response, remains a major impediment to the development of effective innovative diagnostic and therapeutic effort. This study attempt to investigate the pattern of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 and 10 (IL-6 and IL-10) and their interaction in severe injury condition with its major complication as multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and failure (MOF) after polytrauma. This is multicenter study held at 4 academic Level-1 Trauma center included 54 polytrauma participants. Inclusion criteria were age between 16-60 years old, had new acute episode of polytrauma which defined as injury in ≥2 body region with Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥16, and the presence of Systemic Inflammation Response Syndrome (SIRS). Serum level of IL-6 and IL-10 were taken on day 2, 3, and 5 after trauma. During hospitalization, samples were observed for the occurrence of MODS or MOF using Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and mortality rate were also noted. Participant were mostly male with mean of age of 35, 9 years old, endured polytrauma caused by traffic accident. Elevation of cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, and IL-6/IL-10 ratio) had directly proportional with MODS and mortality. Threshold level of compensation for severe trauma is IL-6 of 50 pg/mL and trauma load of ISS ≥30. Inflammation reaction greater than this threshold level would result in downhill level of IL-6, IL-10, or IL-6/IL-10 ratio which associated with poor outcome (MODS and death). The elevation of these cytokines level were represent as compensation/adaptive immune system and its fall represent decompensating/failure of immune system after severe trauma. The pattern of IL-6 and IL-10 after polytrauma represent immune system effort to restore homeostasis

  2. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  3. Communities Address Barriers to Connectivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Rural areas lag behind urban areas in access to information technologies. Public institutions play a critical role in extending the benefits of information technologies to those who would not otherwise have access. The most successful rural telecommunications plans address barriers to use, such as unawareness of the benefits, technophobia, the…

  4. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  5. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2013-03-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  6. State of the Lab Address

    SciTech Connect

    King, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  7. Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and encephalomyelitis disseminata/multiple sclerosis show remarkable levels of similarity in phenomenology and neuroimmune characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ‘Encephalomyelitis disseminata’ (multiple sclerosis) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) are both classified as diseases of the central nervous system by the World Health Organization. This review aims to compare the phenomenological and neuroimmune characteristics of MS with those of ME/CFS. Discussion There are remarkable phenomenological and neuroimmune overlaps between both disorders. Patients with ME/CFS and MS both experience severe levels of disabling fatigue and a worsening of symptoms following exercise and resort to energy conservation strategies in an attempt to meet the energy demands of day-to-day living. Debilitating autonomic symptoms, diminished cardiac responses to exercise, orthostatic intolerance and postural hypotension are experienced by patients with both illnesses. Both disorders show a relapsing-remitting or progressive course, while infections and psychosocial stress play a large part in worsening of fatigue symptoms. Activated immunoinflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative (O+NS) pathways and autoimmunity occur in both illnesses. The consequences of O+NS damage to self-epitopes is evidenced by the almost bewildering and almost identical array of autoantibodies formed against damaged epitopes seen in both illnesses. Mitochondrial dysfunctions, including lowered levels of ATP, decreased phosphocreatine synthesis and impaired oxidative phosphorylation, are heavily involved in the pathophysiology of both MS and ME/CFS. The findings produced by neuroimaging techniques are quite similar in both illnesses and show decreased cerebral blood flow, atrophy, gray matter reduction, white matter hyperintensities, increased cerebral lactate and choline signaling and lowered acetyl-aspartate levels. Summary This review shows that there are neuroimmune similarities between MS and ME/CFS. This further substantiates the view that ME/CFS is a neuroimmune illness and that patients with MS are immunologically primed to

  8. [Multiple apheresis].

    PubMed

    Coffe, C

    2007-05-01

    Multiple apheresis makes it possible to obtain at least two labile blood components from a single donor using a cell separator. It can be either multicomponent apheresis leading to the preparation of at least two different blood component types or red blood cell apheresis providing two identical red blood cell concentrates. These techniques available in addition to whole blood donation, are modifying collection strategies in many Etablissements Français du Sang and will contribute to improve stock logistics in the future. In areas with insufficient stock, these procedures will help achieve blood component self-sufficiency. The author first describes the principle underlying different--current or future--techniques as well as their advantages and drawbacks. He finally addresses the potential impact of these processes on the evolution of blood collection and the advantages to be gained. PMID:17521944

  9. Multiple Intelligences and Student Achievement: Success Stories from Six Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Linda; Campbell, Bruce

    This book examines educational programs that have used multiple intelligences (MI) theory for 5 or more years, and addresses such questions as: "How have MI programs affected student achievement?" and "Where and how were those results achieved?" Six schools (two elementary, two middle-level, and two high schools), which serve a variety of student…

  10. Quasi-Fermi level splitting evaluation based on electroluminescence analysis in multiple quantum-well solar cells for investigating cell performance under concentrated light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Tomoyuki; Toprasertpong, Kasidit; Delamarre, Amaury; Watanabe, Kentaroh; Paire, Myriam; Lombez, Laurent; Guillemoles, Jean-François; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2016-03-01

    Insertion of InGaAs/GaAsP strain-balanced multiple quantum wells (MQWs) into i-regions of GaAs p-i-n solar cells show several advantages against GaAs bulk p-i-n solar cells. Particularly under high-concentration sunlight condition, enhancement of the open-circuit voltage with increasing concentration ratio in thin-barrier MQW cells has been reported to be more apparent than that in GaAs bulk cells. However, investigation of the MQW cell mechanisms in terms of I-V characteristics under high-concentration sunlight suffers from the increase in cell temperature and series resistance. In order to investigate the mechanism of the steep enhancement of open-circuit voltage in MQW cells under high-concentration sunlight without affected by temperature, the quasi-Fermi level splitting was evaluated by analyzing electroluminescence (EL) from a cell. Since a cell under current injection with a density Jinjhas similar excess carrier density to a cell under concentrated sunlight with an equivalent short-circuit current Jsc = Jinj, EL measurement with varied Jinj can approximately evaluate a cell performance under a variety of concentration ratio. In addition to the evaluation of quasi-Fermi level splitting, the external luminescence efficiency was also investigated with the EL measurement. The MQW cells showed higher external luminescence efficiency than the GaAs reference cells especially under high-concentration condition. The results suggest that since the MQW region can trap and confine carriers, the localized excess carriers inside the cells make radiative recombination more dominant.

  11. Chlorination by-product concentration levels in seawater and fish of an industrialised bay (Gulf of Fos, France) exposed to multiple chlorinated effluents.

    PubMed

    Boudjellaba, D; Dron, J; Revenko, G; Démelas, C; Boudenne, J-L

    2016-01-15

    Chlorination is one of the most widely used techniques for biofouling control in large industrial units, leading to the formation of halogenated chlorination by-products (CBPs). This study was carried out to evaluate the distribution and the dispersion of these compounds within an industrialised bay hosting multiple chlorination discharges issued from various industrial processes. The water column was sampled at the surface and at 7 m depth (or bottom) in 24 stations for the analysis of CBPs, and muscle samples from 15 conger eel (Conger conger) were also investigated. Temperature and salinity profiles supported the identification of the chlorination releases, with potentially complex patterns. Chemical analyses showed that bromoform was the most abundant CBP, ranging from 0.5 to 2.2 μg L(-1) away from outlets (up to 10 km distance), and up to 18.6 μg L(-1) in a liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification plume. However, CBP distributions were not homogeneous, halophenols being prominent in a power station outlet and dibromoacetonitrile in more remote stations. A seasonal effect was identified as fewer stations revealed CBPs in summer, probably due to the air and water temperatures increases favouring volatilisation and reactivity. A simple risk assessment of the 11 identified CBPs showed that 7 compounds concentrations were above the potential risk levels to the local marine environment. Finally, conger eel muscles presented relatively high levels of 2,4,6-tribromophenol, traducing a generalised impregnation of the Gulf of Fos to CBPs and a global bioconcentration factor of 25 was determined for this compound. PMID:26410714

  12. Mouse hippocampal GABAB1 but not GABAB2 subunit-containing receptor complex levels are paralleling retrieval in the multiple-T-maze

    PubMed Central

    Falsafi, Soheil K.; Ghafari, Maryam; Miklósi, András G.; Engidawork, Ephrem; Gröger, Marion; Höger, Harald; Lubec, Gert

    2015-01-01

    GABAB receptors are heterodimeric G-protein coupled receptors known to be involved in learning and memory. Although a role for GABAB receptors in cognitive processes is evident, there is no information on hippocampal GABAB receptor complexes in a multiple T maze (MTM) task, a robust paradigm for evaluation of spatial learning. Trained or untrained (yoked control) C57BL/6J male mice (n = 10/group) were subjected to the MTM task and sacrificed 6 h following their performance. Hippocampi were taken, membrane proteins extracted and run on blue native PAGE followed by immunoblotting with specific antibodies against GABAB1, GABAB1a, and GABAB2. Immunoprecipitation with subsequent mass spectrometric identification of co-precipitates was carried out to show if GABAB1 and GABAB2 as well as other interacting proteins co-precipitate. An antibody shift assay (ASA) and a proximity ligation assay (PLA) were also used to see if the two GABAB subunits are present in the receptor complex. Single bands were observed on Western blots, each representing GABAB1, GABAB1a, or GABAB2 at an apparent molecular weight of approximately 100 kDa. Subsequently, densitometric analysis revealed that levels of GABAB1 and GABAB1a but not GABAB2- containing receptor complexes were significantly higher in trained than untrained groups. Immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometric studies confirmed the presence of GABAB1, GABAB2, calcium calmodulin kinases I and II, GluA1 and GluA2 as constituents of the complex. ASA and PLA also showed the presence of the two subunits of GABAB receptor within the complex. It is shown that increased levels of GABAB1 subunit-containing complexes are paralleling performance in a land maze. PMID:26539091

  13. Addressing Standards at the Program Level with Electronic Portfolios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ring, Gail L.; Foti, Sebastian L.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the electronic portfolio project at the University of Florida that uses Florida Accomplished Practices, benchmarks for teacher competency, to promote preservice students' reflections about their teaching and learning by promoting authentic tasks in authentic contexts. Explains the portfolio model that requires students to use technology…

  14. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  15. Framework for Address Cooperative Extended Transactions

    1997-12-01

    The Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET) is an object-oriented software framework for building models of complex, cooperative behaviors of agents. it can be used to implement simulation models of societal processes such as the complex interplay of participating individuals and organizations engaged in multiple concurrent transactions in pursuit of their various goals. These transactions can be patterned on, for example, clinical guidelines and procedures, business practices, government and corporate policies, etc. FACET canmore » also address other complex behaviors such as biological life cycles or manufacturing processes. FACET includes generic software objects representing the fundamental classes of agent -- Person and Organization - with mechanisms for resource management, including resolution of conflicting requests for participation and/or use of the agent's resources. The FACET infrastructure supports stochastic behavioral elements and coping mechanisms by which specified special conditions and events can cause an active cooperative process to be preempted, diverting the participants onto appropriate alternative behavioral pathways.« less

  16. Development and Validation of a Statistical Shape Modeling-Based Finite Element Model of the Cervical Spine Under Low-Level Multiple Direction Loading Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bredbenner, Todd L.; Eliason, Travis D.; Francis, W. Loren; McFarland, John M.; Merkle, Andrew C.; Nicolella, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    Cervical spinal injuries are a significant concern in all trauma injuries. Recent military conflicts have demonstrated the substantial risk of spinal injury for the modern warfighter. Finite element models used to investigate injury mechanisms often fail to examine the effects of variation in geometry or material properties on mechanical behavior. The goals of this study were to model geometric variation for a set of cervical spines, to extend this model to a parametric finite element model, and, as a first step, to validate the parametric model against experimental data for low-loading conditions. Individual finite element models were created using cervical spine (C3–T1) computed tomography data for five male cadavers. Statistical shape modeling (SSM) was used to generate a parametric finite element model incorporating variability of spine geometry, and soft-tissue material property variation was also included. The probabilistic loading response of the parametric model was determined under flexion-extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending and validated by comparison to experimental data. Based on qualitative and quantitative comparison of the experimental loading response and model simulations, we suggest that the model performs adequately under relatively low-level loading conditions in multiple loading directions. In conclusion, SSM methods coupled with finite element analyses within a probabilistic framework, along with the ability to statistically validate the overall model performance, provide innovative and important steps toward describing the differences in vertebral morphology, spinal curvature, and variation in material properties. We suggest that these methods, with additional investigation and validation under injurious loading conditions, will lead to understanding and mitigating the risks of injury in the spine and other musculoskeletal structures. PMID:25506051

  17. Stride time variability as a marker for higher level of gait control in multiple sclerosis: its association with fear of falling.

    PubMed

    Allali, Gilles; Laidet, Magali; Armand, Stéphane; Elsworth-Edelsten, Charlotte; Assal, Frédéric; Lalive, Patrice H

    2016-06-01

    Fear of falling (FOF) and gait disorders represent both prevalent symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS); however, the association between FOF and higher level of gait control (HLGC) has not been studied in MS. This study aims to assess the association between FOF and HLGC in patients with MS. HLGC was assessed by stride time variability (STV) during single and dual-tasks (forward counting, backward counting, categorical verbal fluency and literal verbal fluency) and FOF was quantified by the falls efficacy scale-international (FES-I). Seventy-one patients (age: 39.27 ± 9.77 years; 63 % female) were included in this cross-sectional study (Expanded Disability Status Scale (median): 2.00) with a low prevalence of FOF (FES-I: 21.52 ± 8.37). The mean gait speed was 1.19 ± 0.23 m/s with a STV of 2.35 ± 1.68 % during single walking task. STV during single task and the dual tasks of forward counting and backward counting were associated with the FES-I in the univariable linear regression models (p ≤ 0.001), but only STV while backward counting (β: 0.42, [0.18;0.66]) was associated with FOF in the multivariable model (adjusted for age, gender, previous fall, Expanded Disability Status Scale and gait speed). These findings indicate that FOF is associated with STV while backward counting, a marker of HLGC in relationship with working memory in a MS population including a majority of low disabled patients. PMID:27106906

  18. Presidential address: imagination trumps knowledge.

    PubMed

    Moore, Frederick A

    2010-12-01

    Multiple organ failure (MOF) emerged 30 years ago and became our research focus. Over the years, we have proposed a series of cartoons that rallied multidisciplinary translational research teams around common themes to generate "win-win" hypotheses that when tested (right or wrong) have advanced our understanding of MOF. MOF has a bimodal trajectory, and the gut plays a role in both trajectories. Early MOF occurs because of excessive proinflammation (ie, systemic inflammatory response syndrome [SIRS]), and early gut ischemia-reperfusion can amplify SIRS and contribute to the early fulminant SIRS-MOF trajectory. Fortunately, most patients survive early SIRS, but some develop excessive anti-inflammation (ie, compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome). The gut also plays a role in this late indolent compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome-MOF trajectory. Multiple factors cause progressive gut dysfunction such that the gut (an important immunologic organ) worsens compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome and becomes the reservoir for pathogens and toxins that cause late sepsis. PMID:21146000

  19. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  20. Addressing Common Student Errors with Classroom Voting in Multivariable Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Kelly; Parker, Mark; Zullo, Holly; Stewart, Ann

    2012-01-01

    One technique for identifying and addressing common student errors is the method of classroom voting, in which the instructor presents a multiple-choice question to the class, and after a few minutes for consideration and small group discussion, each student votes on the correct answer, often using a hand-held electronic clicker. If a large number…

  1. Addressing the Needs of Students with Rett Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ellenburg, Jennifer S.; Acton, Olivia M.; Torrey, Gregory

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses symptoms of students with Rett Syndrome, a disability in females characterized by the development of multiple specific deficits following a period of normal functioning after birth. Specific interventions for students with Rett syndrome are provided and address communication, stereotypic movements, self-injurious behaviors,…

  2. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  3. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Evaluating local indirect addressing in SIMD proc essors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David; Tomboulian, Sherryl

    1989-01-01

    In the design of parallel computers, there exists a tradeoff between the number and power of individual processors. The single instruction stream, multiple data stream (SIMD) model of parallel computers lies at one extreme of the resulting spectrum. The available hardware resources are devoted to creating the largest possible number of processors, and consequently each individual processor must use the fewest possible resources. Disagreement exists as to whether SIMD processors should be able to generate addresses individually into their local data memory, or all processors should access the same address. The tradeoff is examined between the increased capability and the reduced number of processors that occurs in this single instruction stream, multiple, locally addressed, data (SIMLAD) model. Factors are assembled that affect this design choice, and the SIMLAD model is compared with the bare SIMD and the MIMD models.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF TOOLS TO ASSESS THE EFFECTS OF INDIVIDUAL, POPULATION, AND SPATIAL LEVELS: INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT OF MULTIPLE STRESSORS ON PISCIVOROUS BIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Health and Environmental Research Laboratory's Wildlife Risk Assessment program is to develop scientifically valid methods to assess risks to wildlife and aquatic organisms from multiple stressors. To this end, the Loo...

  6. Gender: addressing a critical focus.

    PubMed

    Thornton, L; Wegner, M N

    1995-01-01

    The definition of gender was addressed at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China). After extensive debate, the definition developed by the UN Population Fund in 1995 was adopted: "a set of qualities and behaviors expected from a female or male by society." The sustainability of family planning (FP) programs depends on acknowledgment of the role gender plays in contraceptive decision-making and use. For example, programs must consider the fact that women in many cultures do not make FP decisions without the consent of their spouse. AVSC is examining providers' gender-based ideas about clients and the effects of these views on the quality of reproductive health services. Questions such as how service providers can encourage joint responsibility for contraception without requiring spousal consent or how they can make men feel comfortable about using a male method in a society where FP is considered a woman's issue are being discussed. Also relevant is how service providers can discuss sexual matters openly with female clients in cultures that do not allow women to enjoy their sexuality. Another concern is the potential for physical violence to a client as a result of the provision of FP services. PMID:12294397

  7. Electronic addressing reflective cholesteric LCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, Viktor M.; Sorokin, A.; Rybalochka, A.; Valyukh, S.

    2001-06-01

    Some new simple two level electronic driving circuits for the Cholesteric Reflective Displays are shown. The electronic module that consists of drivers, controller and special thermo-compensation units is described. The prototypes of ChLCD with electronic driving circuits are demonstrated.

  8. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  9. Addressing Risks to Advance Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Iltis, Ana S.; Misra, Sahana; Dunn, Laura B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Campbell, Amy; Earll, Sarah A.; Glowinski, Anne; Hadley, Whitney B.; Pies, Ronald; DuBois, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk communication and management are essential to the ethical conduct of research, yet addressing risks may be time consuming for investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) may reject study designs that appear too risky. This can discourage needed research, particularly in higher risk protocols or those enrolling potentially vulnerable individuals, such as those with some level of suicidality. Improved mechanisms for addressing research risks may facilitate much needed psychiatric research. This article provides mental health researchers with practical approaches to: 1) identify and define various intrinsic research risks; 2) communicate these risks to others (e.g., potential participants, regulatory bodies, society); 3) manage these risks during the course of a study; and 4) justify the risks. Methods As part of a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded scientific meeting series, a public conference and a closed-session expert panel meeting were held on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. The expert panel reviewed the literature with a focus on empirical studies and developed recommendations for best practices and further research on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. IRB review was not required because there were no human subjects. The NIMH played no role in developing or reviewing the manuscript. Results Challenges, current data, practical strategies, and topics for future research are addressed for each of four key areas pertaining to management and disclosure of risks in clinical trials: identifying and defining risks, communicating risks, managing risks during studies, and justifying research risks. Conclusions Empirical data on risk communication, managing risks, and the benefits of research can support the ethical conduct of mental health research and may help investigators better conceptualize and confront risks and to gain IRB approval. PMID:24173618

  10. Addressing the vaccine confidence gap.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J; Cooper, Louis Z; Eskola, Juhani; Katz, Samuel L; Ratzan, Scott

    2011-08-01

    Vaccines--often lauded as one of the greatest public health interventions--are losing public confidence. Some vaccine experts have referred to this decline in confidence as a crisis. We discuss some of the characteristics of the changing global environment that are contributing to increased public questioning of vaccines, and outline some of the specific determinants of public trust. Public decision making related to vaccine acceptance is neither driven by scientific nor economic evidence alone, but is also driven by a mix of psychological, sociocultural, and political factors, all of which need to be understood and taken into account by policy and other decision makers. Public trust in vaccines is highly variable and building trust depends on understanding perceptions of vaccines and vaccine risks, historical experiences, religious or political affiliations, and socioeconomic status. Although provision of accurate, scientifically based evidence on the risk-benefit ratios of vaccines is crucial, it is not enough to redress the gap between current levels of public confidence in vaccines and levels of trust needed to ensure adequate and sustained vaccine coverage. We call for more research not just on individual determinants of public trust, but on what mix of factors are most likely to sustain public trust. The vaccine community demands rigorous evidence on vaccine efficacy and safety and technical and operational feasibility when introducing a new vaccine, but has been negligent in demanding equally rigorous research to understand the psychological, social, and political factors that affect public trust in vaccines. PMID:21664679

  11. Prediction of Learning and Comprehension when Adolescents Read Multiple Texts: The Roles of Word-Level Processing, Strategic Approach, and Reading Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braten, Ivar; Ferguson, Leila E.; Anmarkrud, Oistein; Stromso, Helge I.

    2013-01-01

    Sixty-five Norwegian 10th graders used the software Read&Answer 2.0 (Vidal-Abarca et al., 2011) to read five different texts presenting conflicting views on the controversial scientific issue of sun exposure and health. Participants were administered a multiple-choice topic-knowledge measure before and after reading, a word recognition task, and a…

  12. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 4a: Multiplicacion de Fracciones (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 4a: Multiplication of Fractions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include equivalent fractions, mixed numbers, and multiplication of fractions and mixed numbers. (MK)

  13. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Nivel 2b: Multiplicacion y Division de Numeros Enteros (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Level 2b: Multiplication and Division of Whole Numbers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include multiplication and division. (MK)

  14. How Are the Form and Magnitude of DIF Effects in Multiple-Choice Items Determined by Distractor-Level Invariance Effects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall D.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how the magnitude and form of differential item functioning (DIF) effects in multiple-choice items are determined by the underlying differential distractor functioning (DDF) effects, as modeled under the nominal response model. The results of a numerical investigation indicated that (a) the presence of one or more nonzero DDF…

  15. Analysis of Environmental Data and Landscape Characterization on Multiple WetlandTypes Using Water Level Loggers and GIS Techniques in Tampa, FL

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better characterize the relationships between both adjacent hydrology/ precipitation and nutrient processing with groundwater level fluctuations, continuous water level data are being collected across three dominant wetland types, each with varied landscape characteristics. Th...

  16. Remediation tradeoffs addressed with simulated annealing optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, L. L., LLNL

    1998-02-01

    Escalation of groundwater remediation costs has encouraged both advances in optimization techniques to balance remediation objectives and economics and development of innovative technologies to expedite source region clean-ups. We present an optimization application building on a pump-and-treat model, yet assuming a prior removal of different portions of the source area to address the evolving management issue of more aggressive source remediation. Separate economic estimates of in-situ thermal remediation are combined with the economic estimates of the subsequent optimal pump-and-treat remediation to observe tradeoff relationships of cost vs. highest remaining contamination levels (hot spot). The simulated annealing algorithm calls the flow and transport model to evaluate the success of a proposed remediation scenario at a U.S.A. Superfund site contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

  17. Substance misuse prevention: addressing anhedonia.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Steve; Leventhal, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Anhedonia refers to the inability of experiencing pleasure in positive life events. It has been conceptualized as a stable yet malleable characteristic and is associated with hypoactivity in the mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic systems. Very recently, it has been posited as an etiologic factor associated with drug addiction onset, escalation, and relapse. Prevention programming could be developed to counteract the harmful impact of anhedonia, so as to minimize its impact on drug misuse. Remedial efforts are those that either (1) permit the individual to tolerate low levels of pleasure without resorting to drug misuse or other maladaptive behaviors that may unhealthily besot pleasure (for example, through normalization, structuring time, or meditation) or (2) counteract anhedonia by enhancing ones capability to experience pleasure (for example, behavioral activation, positive psychology, pharmacotherapy, or pursuit of positive addictions). School-based activities could be developed that can be completed by individuals, small workgroups, or the whole classroom. The concept of anhedonia is described in this chapter, and possible prevention strategies that might be utilized in schools as well as other contexts are discussed. PMID:24753277

  18. Native American Program Initiatives at the College and University Level. Hearing before the Committee on Indian Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session on Addressing the Needs in Indian Country Pertaining to Native American Program Initiatives at the College and University Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.

    A Senate committee hearing received testimony to showcase Native American program initiatives at the college and university level. Program representatives presented information on the characteristics and accomplishments of their programs. The Institute of Tribal Government at Portland State University (Oregon) provides intensive 3-day training…

  19. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the ... attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins ...

  20. Multiple Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called multiple pregnancy . If more than one egg is released during the menstrual cycle and each ... fraternal twins (or more). When a single fertilized egg splits, it results in multiple identical embryos. This ...

  1. Multiple myeloma

    MedlinePlus

    Plasma cell dyscrasia; Plasma cell myeloma; Malignant plasmacytoma; Plasmacytoma of bone; Myeloma - multiple ... Multiple myeloma most commonly causes: Low red blood cell count ( anemia ), which can lead to fatigue and ...

  2. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  3. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  4. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  5. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  6. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  7. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  8. 47 CFR 13.10 - Licensee address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee address. 13.10 Section 13.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.10 Licensee address. In accordance with § 1.923 of this chapter all applications must specify an address where...

  9. CCCC Chair's Address: Representing Ourselves, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the text of the author's address at the fifty-ninth annual convention of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) in March 2008. In her address, the author picks up strands of previous Chairs' addresses and weaves them through the fabric of her remarks. What she hopes will give sheen to the fabric is her…

  10. 75 FR 49813 - Change of Address

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... COMMISSION 11 CFR Parts 9405, 9407, 9409, 9410, 9420, and 9428 Change of Address AGENCY: United States... Assistance Commission (EAC) is amending its regulations to reflect a change of address for its headquarters. This technical amendment is a nomenclature change that updates and corrects the address for...

  11. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  12. Finger Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simanihuruk, Mudin

    2011-01-01

    Multiplication facts are difficult to teach. Therefore many researchers have put a great deal of effort into finding multiplication strategies. Sherin and Fuson (2005) provided a good survey paper on the multiplication strategies research area. Kolpas (2002), Rendtorff (1908), Dabell (2001), Musser (1966) and Markarian (2009) proposed the finger…

  13. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multiple Sclerosis Information Page Condensed from Multiple Sclerosis: Hope Through ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Multiple Sclerosis? An unpredictable disease of the central nervous system, ...

  14. Multiple mutations in hepatitis C virus NS5A domain II are required to confer a significant level of resistance to alisporivir.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rivera, Jose A; Bobardt, Michael; Chatterji, Udayan; Hopkins, Sam; Gregory, Matthew A; Wilkinson, Barrie; Lin, Kai; Gallay, Philippe A

    2012-10-01

    Alisporivir is the most advanced host-targeting antiviral cyclophilin (Cyp) inhibitor in phase III studies and has demonstrated a great deal of promise in decreasing hepatitis C virus (HCV) viremia in infected patients. In an attempt to further elucidate the mechanism of action of alisporivir, HCV replicons resistant to the drug were selected. Interestingly, mutations constantly arose in domain II of NS5A. To demonstrate that these mutations are responsible for drug resistance, they were reintroduced into the parental HCV genome, and the resulting mutant viruses were tested for replication in the presence of alisporivir or in the absence of the alisporivir target, CypA. We also examined the effect of the mutations on NS5A binding to itself (oligomerization), CypA, RNA, and NS5B. Importantly, the mutations did not affect any of these interactions. Moreover, the mutations did not preserve NS5A-CypA interactions from alisporivir rupture. NS5A mutations alone render HCV only slightly resistant to alisporivir. In sharp contrast, when multiple NS5A mutations are combined, significant resistance was observed. The introduction of multiple mutations in NS5A significantly restored viral replication in CypA knockdown cells. Interestingly, the combination of NS5A mutations renders HCV resistant to all classes of Cyp inhibitors. This study suggests that a combination of multiple mutations in domain II of NS5A rather than a single mutation is required to render HCV significantly and universally resistant to Cyp inhibitors. This in accordance with in vivo data that suggest that alisporivir is associated with a low potential for development of viral resistance. PMID:22802259

  15. Complete remission achieved in a multiple myeloma patient with elevated serum KL-6 level by a combination regimen with bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Yutaka; Nishimura, Nao; Nosaka, Kisato; Hata, Hiroyuki; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2014-04-01

    A 79-year-old woman suffering from double vision after a 4-year history of MGUS was referred to our hospital. MRI revealed that she had three intracranial plasmacytoma masses and one spinal plasmacytoma mass. Bone marrow aspirates showed 52.4% plasma cell infiltration and immunoelectrophoresis identified serum IgG-M protein, leading to a diagnosis of IgG-type multiple myeloma. IgG was elevated to 3,355 mg/dl and urine type Bence-Jones protein was positive. KL-6, a membrane-bound glycoprotein encoded by Mucin 1 and a marker of interstitial pneumonia, was also elevated to 1,409 mg/dl, but computed tomography of the lungs revealed no obvious pulmonary lesions. Previously reported studies showing that myeloma patients with elevated KL-6 might have a poor prognosis prompted us to treat this patient with a three-drug (bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone: VCD) combination regimen. When 6 cycles of the regimen had been completed, no M-protein was detectable in her serum. Furthermore, κ free light chain had significantly decreased from 12,700 to 24.8 mg/l. In addition, (18)F-FDG PET/CT revealed reduced mass sizes and no (18)F-FDG uptakes by plasmacytomas. Thus, she was defined as having achieved a stringent complete remission (sCR). We therefore concluded that the VCD combination regimen was highly effective in this multiple myeloma patient with KL-6 elevation. PMID:24850459

  16. A Tumor Growth Inhibition Model Based on M-Protein Levels in Subjects With Relapsed/Refractory Multiple Myeloma Following Single-Agent Carfilzomib Use.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, F; Ou, Y; Claret, L; Siegel, D; Jagannath, S; Vij, R; Badros, A; Aggarwal, S; Bruno, R

    2015-12-01

    Change in tumor size estimated using longitudinal tumor growth inhibition (TGI) modeling is an early predictive biomarker of clinical outcomes for multiple cancer types. We present the application of TGI modeling for subjects with multiple myeloma (MM). Longitudinal time course changes in M-protein data from relapsed and/or refractory MM subjects who received single-agent carfilzomib in phase II studies (n = 456) were fit to a TGI model. The tumor growth rate estimate was similar to that of other anti-myeloma agents, indicating that the model is robust and treatment-independent. An overall survival model was subsequently developed, which showed that early change in tumor size (ECTS) at week 4, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS), hemoglobin, sex, percent bone marrow cell involvement, and number of prior regimens were significant independent predictors for overall survival (P < 0.001). ECTS based on M-protein modeling could be an early biomarker for survival in MM following exposure to single-agent carfilzomib. PMID:26904385

  17. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  18. Mantle viscosity, sea-level history and the uniqueness of global models of the GIA process: new insights based upon the comparison of multiple data sets to multiple model predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, K.; Peltier, W. R.

    2012-12-01

    Models of the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) process, which is dominated by the influence of the Late Pleistocene cycle of glaciation and deglaciation, require two fundamental inputs: a history of ice-sheet loading and a model of the radial variation of mantle viscosity. These models may be tested and refined by comparing relative sea-level history predictions to geological inferences of such histories based upon appropriate sea level indicators from the same regions. Datasets of high-quality relative sea-level history reconstructions are available for many globally distributed regions, many of which have already proven to be crucial in the development of the existing spherically symmetric visco-elastic models of the internal structure of the Earth's mantle. These datasets and the information derived from them have also been critical to the development of the existing models of Late Quaternary continental glaciation history. Two such regions have proven to be especially important, namely the dominant ice-laded and peripheral regions of North America as well as Northwestern Europe. Of primary importance insofar as upper mantle structure is concerned are the eastern seaboard of the continental United States and Northwestern Europe in its entirety, including both Fennoscandia and the British Isles. In this paper, we employ relative sea level histories from these regions to explore the nature of the non-uniqueness in the radial viscosity structure that is allowed by the totality of the available observations from these regions, in which the most highly resolved ICE-6G model of the ice-loading history is assumed to be fixed. We test the ability of a wide range of such models to reproduce relative sea level histories from the critical regions, using the newly available high-quality Holocene database for the United States Atlantic coast, recently discussed in Engelhart et al. (2011, Geology, 39, 751-754), and data of similarly high quality from the British Isles. We

  19. Integrated Approaches to Address the Social Determinants of Health for Reducing Health Inequity

    PubMed Central

    Mitlin, Diana; Mulholland, Catherine; Hardoy, Ana; Stern, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    The social and physical environments have long since been recognized as important determinants of health. People in urban settings are exposed to a variety of health hazards that are interconnected with their health effects. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have underlined the multidimensional nature of poverty and the connections between health and social conditions and present an opportunity to move beyond narrow sectoral interventions and to develop comprehensive social responses and participatory processes that address the root causes of health inequity. Considering the complexity and magnitude of health, poverty, and environmental issues in cities, it is clear that improvements in health and health equity demand not only changes in the physical and social environment of cities, but also an integrated approach that takes into account the wider socioeconomic and contextual factors affecting health. Integrated or multilevel approaches should address not only the immediate, but also the underlying and particularly the fundamental causes at societal level of related health issues. The political and legal organization of the policy-making process has been identified as a major determinant of urban and global health, as a result of the role it plays in creating possibilities for participation, empowerment, and its influence on the content of public policies and the distribution of scarce resources. This paper argues that it is essential to adopt a long-term multisectoral approach to address the social determinants of health in urban settings. For comprehensive approaches to address the social determinants of health effectively and at multiple levels, they need explicitly to tackle issues of participation, governance, and the politics of power, decision making, and empowerment. PMID:17393340

  20. An addressable cell array for a platform of biosensor chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Seungkyoung; Choi, Soo-hee; Jung, Moon Youn; Song, Kibong; Park, Jeong Won

    2013-05-01

    In order to detect interested matters in fields, various lab-on-a-chips where chemical, physical, or biological sensors are loaded have been developed. eNOSE can be a representative example among them. Because animals can sense 300~1000 different chemicals by olfactory system - smell -, the olfactory system has been spotlighted as new materials in the field of sensing. Those investigations, however, are usually focused on how to detect signals from the olfactory neurons or receptors loaded on chips and enhance sensing efficacy of chips. Therefore, almost of those chips are designed for only one material sensing. Multi-sensing using multi-channels will be needed when the olfactory systems are adopted well on chips. For multiple sensing, we developed an addressable cell array. The chip has 38 cell-chambers arranged in a circle shape and different cell types of thirty eight can be allocated with specific addresses on the chip without any complex valve system. In order to confirm the cell addressing, we loaded EGFP-transfected and empty vector-transfected HEK293a cells into inlets of the cell array in a planned address and those cells were positioned into each chamber by brief aspiration. The arrayed cells were confirmed as a specific pattern through EGFP and nuclei staining. This cell array which can generate address of sensor materials like cells with their own specification is expected to be applied to a platform for a biosensor chip at various sensing fields.

  1. Understanding How Evaluators Deal with Multiple Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Michelle Elyce

    2009-01-01

    Although many leaders in evaluation advise evaluators to address the diverse needs of stakeholders, very little is known about how or if practicing evaluators address this injunction. Understanding how practicing evaluators address the needs of multiple stakeholders could inform evaluator training. The purpose of this qualitative study was to…

  2. Teachers' Views about Multiple Strategies in Middle and High School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Kathleen; Star, Jon R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive scholarship about the importance of teaching mathematics with multiple strategies in the elementary grades, there has been relatively little discussion of this practice in the middle and high school levels or in the context of introductory algebra. This article begins our exploration of this practice by addressing the following…

  3. An Evaluation of a Teaching Intervention to Promote Students' Ability to Use Multiple Levels of Representation when Describing and Explaining Chemical Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Treagust, David F.; Mocerino, Mauro

    2008-01-01

    Students are generally known to memorise and regurgitate chemical equations without sufficient understanding of the changes that occur at the particulate level. In addition, they often fail to recognise the significance of the symbols and formulas that are used to represent chemical reactions. This article describes an evaluation of the ability of…

  4. Identification of multiple ear-colonizing insect and disease resistance in CIMMYT maize inbred lines with varying levels of silk maysin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ninety four corn inbred lines selected from International Center for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat (CIMMYT) in Mexico were evaluated for levels of silk maysin in 2001 and 2002. Damage by major ear-feeding insects [i.e., the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the m...

  5. Increasing High School Students' Chemistry Performance and Reducing Cognitive Load through an Instructional Strategy Based on the Interaction of Multiple Levels of Knowledge Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milenkovic´, Dus?ica D.; Segedinac, Mirjana D.; Hrin, Tamara N.

    2014-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to examine the extent to which a teaching approach focused on the interaction between macroscopic, submicroscopic, and symbolic levels of chemistry representations could affect high school students' performance in the field of inorganic reactions, as well as to examine how the applied instruction influences…

  6. A Hierarchical Multiple-Level Approach to the Assessment of Interpersonal Relatedness and Self-Definition: Implications for Research, Clinical Practice, and DSM Planning.

    PubMed

    Luyten, Patrick; Blatt, Sidney J

    2016-01-01

    Extant research suggests there is considerable overlap between so-called 2-polarities models of personality development; that is, models that propose that personality development evolves through a dialectic synergistic interaction between 2 key developmental tasks across the life span-the development of self-definition on the one hand and of relatedness on the other. These models have attracted considerable research attention and play a central role in DSM planning. This article provides a researcher- and clinician-friendly guide to the assessment of these personality theories. We argue that current theoretical models focus on issues of relatedness and self-definition at different hierarchically organized levels of analysis; that is (a) at the level of broad personality features, (b) at the motivational level (i.e., the motivational processes underlying the development of these dimensions), and (c) at the level of underlying internal working models or cognitive affective schemas, and the specific interpersonal features and problems in which they are expressed. Implications for further research and DSM planning are outlined. PMID:26538327

  7. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    PubMed

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  8. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function

    PubMed Central

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the “Hash_64” field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  9. A European framework to address psychosocial hazards.

    PubMed

    Leka, Stavroula; Kortum, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decades, emphasis has been placed on the changing nature of work and new forms of risk that could negatively affect employee health and safety. These are mainly associated with new types of occupational hazards that have been termed psychosocial. Issues such as work-related stress, bullying and harassment are now receiving attention on a global basis and efforts have been made to address them at the workplace level. However, it has been acknowledged that despite developments of policy in this area, there still appear to be a broad science-policy gap and an even broader one between policy and practice. The WHO Network of Collaborating Centers in Occupational Health has, since the late 1990s, been supporting a dedicated program of work on psychosocial factors and work-related stress. Part of the Network's work is currently focusing on the translation of existing knowledge into practice in the area of psychosocial risk management. This program has identified that the optimum way forward lies in the development of a European framework for psychosocial risk management. This framework will serve as the basis for coordination of research activities and preventive action with an emphasis on evidence based interventions and best practice on an international basis. PMID:18408344

  10. Addressing HIV stigma in protected medical settings

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Lin, Chunqing; Wu, Zunyou

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that the implementation of universal precaution (UP) plays a role in reducing HIV stigma. In this study we investigate the efficacy of a stigma reduction intervention on UP compliance and explore whether UP compliance could potentially influence HIV stigma reduction in medical settings. A randomized controlled intervention trial was conducted in two provinces of China with 1760 healthcare service providers recruited from 40 county-level hospitals. Longitudinal analyses included data collection at baseline, 6-, and 12-month follow-up assessments. Using a hierarchical modeling approach, we estimated the intervention effect for each provider’s UP compliance and its potential mediating role on HIV stigma with the bootstrapping method. A significant intervention effect on UP compliance was observed at both the 6- and 12-month follow-up assessments. The intervention effect on provider avoidance intent was partially mediated by the provider’s own UP compliance at the two follow-up points. This study provides evidence that UP compliance should be part of HIV stigma reduction programs, especially in resource-restrained countries. Findings suggest that a protected work environment may be necessary but not sufficient to address HIV stigma in medical settings. PMID:26608559

  11. Addressing HIV stigma in protected medical settings.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Lin, Chunqing; Wu, Zunyou

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that the implementation of universal precaution (UP) plays a role in reducing HIV stigma. In this study we investigate the efficacy of a stigma reduction intervention on UP compliance and explore whether UP compliance could potentially influence HIV stigma reduction in medical settings. A randomized controlled intervention trial was conducted in two provinces of China with 1760 healthcare service providers recruited from 40 county-level hospitals. Longitudinal analyses included data collection at baseline, 6-, and 12-month follow-up assessments. Using a hierarchical modeling approach, we estimated the intervention effect for each provider's UP compliance and its potential mediating role on HIV stigma with the bootstrapping method. A significant intervention effect on UP compliance was observed at both the 6- and 12-month follow-up assessments. The intervention effect on provider avoidance intent was partially mediated by the provider's own UP compliance at the two follow-up points. This study provides evidence that UP compliance should be part of HIV stigma reduction programs, especially in resource-restrained countries. Findings suggest that a protected work environment may be necessary but not sufficient to address HIV stigma in medical settings. PMID:26608559

  12. Vaccine hesitancy: understanding better to address better.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dewesh; Chandra, Rahul; Mathur, Medha; Samdariya, Saurabh; Kapoor, Neelesh

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine hesitancy is an emerging term in the socio-medical literature which describes an approach to vaccine decision making. It recognizes that there is a continuum between full acceptance and outright refusal of some or all vaccines and challenges the previous understanding of individuals or groups, as being either anti-vaccine or pro-vaccine. The behaviours responsible for vaccine hesitancy can be related to confidence, convenience and complacency. The causes of vaccine hesitancy can be described by the epidemiological triad i.e. the complex interaction of environmental- (i.e. external), agent- (i.e. vaccine) and host (or parent)- specific factors. Vaccine hesitancy is a complex and dynamic issue; future vaccination programs need to reflect and address these context-specific factors in both their design and evaluation. Many experts are of the view that it is best to counter vaccine hesitancy at the population level. They believe that it can be done by introducing more transparency into policy decision-making before immunization programs, providing up-to-date information to the public and health providers about the rigorous procedures undertaken before introduction of new vaccines, and through diversified post-marketing surveillance of vaccine-related events. PMID:26839681

  13. Picosecond laser with 11 W output power at 1342 nm based on composite multiple doping level Nd:YVO4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodin, Aleksej M.; Grishin, Mikhail; Michailovas, Andrejus

    2016-01-01

    We report results of design and optimization of high average output power picosecond and nanosecond laser operating at 1342 nm wavelength. Developed for selective micromachining, this DPSS laser is comprised of master oscillator, regenerative amplifier and output pulse control module. Passively mode-locked by means of semiconductor saturable absorber mirror and pumped with 808 nm wavelength Nd:YVO4 master oscillator emits 12.5 ps pulses at repetition rate of 55 MHz with average output power of ∼100 mW. The four-pass confocal delay line forms a longest part of the oscillator cavity in order to suppress thermo-mechanical misalignment. Picked from the train seed pulses were injected to the cavity of regenerative amplifier based on composite Nd:YVO4 crystal with diffusion-bonded segments of multiple Nd doping concentration end-pumped at 880 nm wavelength. Laser produces pulses of ∼13 ps duration at 300 kHz repetition rate with average output power of 11 W and nearly diffraction limited beam quality of M2∼1.03. Attained high peak power ∼2.8 MW facilitates conversion to the 2nd, 3rd and 6th harmonics at 671 nm, 447 nm and 224 nm wavelengths with 80%, 50% and 15% efficiency respectively. Without seeding the regenerative amplifier transforms to electro-optically cavity-dumped Q-switched laser providing 10 ns output pulses at high repetition rates with beam propagation factor of M2∼1.06.

  14. Relationship between the Increased Haemostatic Properties of Blood Platelets and Oxidative Stress Level in Multiple Sclerosis Patients with the Secondary Progressive Stage

    PubMed Central

    Bijak, Michał; Miller, Elżbieta; Miller, Sergiusz

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the autoimmune disease of the central nervous system with complex pathogenesis, different clinical courses and recurrent neurological relapses and/or progression. Despite various scientific papers that focused on early stage of MS, our study targets selective group of late stage secondary progressive MS patients. The presented work is concerned with the reactivity of blood platelets in primary hemostasis in SP MS patients. 50 SP MS patients and 50 healthy volunteers (never diagnosed with MS or other chronic diseases) were examined to evaluate the biological activity of blood platelets (adhesion, aggregation), especially their response to the most important physiological agonists (thrombin, ADP, and collagen) and the effect of oxidative stress on platelet activity. We found that the blood platelets from SP MS patients were significantly more sensitive to all used agonists in comparison with control group. Moreover, the platelet hemostatic function was advanced in patients suffering from SP MS and positively correlated with increased production of O2−∙ in these cells, as well as with Expanded Disability Status Scale. We postulate that the increased oxidative stress in blood platelets in SP MS may be primarily responsible for the altered haemostatic properties of blood platelets. PMID:26064417

  15. Sink limitation induces the expression of multiple soybean vegetative lipoxygenase mRNAs while the endogenous jasmonic acid level remains low.

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, T W; Koetje, D S; Stephenson, L C; Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E; Grimes, H D

    1995-01-01

    The response of individual members of the lipoxygenase multigene family in soybeans to sink deprivation was analyzed. RNase protection assays indicated that a novel vegetative lipoxygenase gene, vlxC, and three other vegetative lipoxygenase mRNAs accumulated in mature leaves in response to a variety of sink limitations. These data suggest that several members of the lipoxygenase multigene family are involved in assimilate partitioning. The possible involvement of jasmonic acid as a signaling molecule regulating assimilate partitioning into the vegetative storage proteins and lipoxygenases was directly assessed by determining the endogenous level of jasmonic acid in leaves from plants with their pods removed. There was no rise in the level of endogenous jasmonic acid coincident with the strong increase in both vlxC and vegetative storage protein VspB transcripts in response to sink limitation. Thus, expression of the vegetative lipoxygenases and vegetative storage proteins is not regulated by jasmonic acid in sink-limited leaves. PMID:7549487

  16. Fossil Shorelines Record Multiple Sea Level Highstands and Surface Deformation on Million Year Timescales at Cape Range National Park, Northwestern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandstrom, R. M.; O'Leary, M.; Barham, M.; Cai, Y.; Jacome, A. P.; Raymo, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Correcting fossil shorelines for vertical displacement subsequent to deposition is a vital consideration in estimating sea level and ice volume during past warm periods. Field observations of paleo-sea level indicators must be adjusted for local tectonic deformation, subsequent sediment loading, dynamic topography (DT), and glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Dynamic topography is often the most difficult of these corrections to determine, especially on million year timescales, but is essential when providing constraints on sea level and ice volume changes. GIA effects from high latitude ice sheets minimally impact northwestern Australia, making this region well suited for observing surface displacement due to mantle and tectonic processes. This study presents centimeter accuracy paleo-shoreline data from four distinct marine terraces in the Cape Range National Park, Australia, which document vertical displacement history along 100 kilometers of coastline. The mapped region has an anticlinal structure in the center that has been slowly uplifting the three older reef complexes over the Neogene, constraining the timing of deformation. These neotectonics are probably caused by reactivation of ancient fault zones normal to the principal horizontal compressive stress, resulting in the warping of overlaying units. The elevation data also suggests minimal vertical displacement since the last interglacial highstand. Well-preserved fossil coral were collected from each terrace and will be geochemically dated using Sr isotope and U-series dating methods. This dataset provides a better understanding of DT and neotectonic deformation in this region (useful for improving mantle viscosity models), and offers a means for improving past sea level reconstructions in northwestern Australia.

  17. Neutron capture studies: 1, Multiple capture reactions and implications for calculated beta-delayed fission rates: 2, The nuclear level structure of 238Np

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.

    1988-02-19

    Astrophysical r-process calculations of transbismuth elements are of interest because certain actinide pairs can be treated as chronometers in determining the duration of nucleosynthesis. For one such calculation where a particularly long galactic age was derived, 21 + 2 - 4 Gyr, we present evidence that the effect of beta-delayed fission appears to be seriously overestimated in uranium decay chains with A = 252 to 257. With this conclusion, it follows that this estimate of the galactic age must be considered more uncertain than if the calculated rates of beta-delayed fission were found to be acceptable. The nuclear level structure of 238Np has been investigated using the 237Np(n,..gamma..)238Np reaction and the alpha decay of 242mAm as experimental probes. Having established a level scheme for 238Np that includes 47 excited levels and 93 secondary transitions, we find a high degree of correspondence between the experimental band structure and that of a semi-empirical model developed to predict excitations in odd-odd deformed nuclei. 35 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Multiple-Level Regulation of 2,4-Diacetylphloroglucinol Production by the Sigma Regulator PsrA in Pseudomonas fluorescens 2P24

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaogang; Liu, Jiucheng; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun

    2012-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas fluorescens 2P24 is a rhizospheric bacterium that aggressively colonizes the plant roots. It produces the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphoroglucinol (2,4-DAPG), which contributes to the protection of various crop plants against soil borne diseases caused by bacterial and fungal pathogens. The biosynthesis of 2,4-DAPG is regulated at the transcriptional level in the expression of the phlACBD operon as well as at the posttranscriptional level by the Gac/Rsm signal transduction pathway. However, the detailed mechanism of such regulation is not clear. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we identified a binding site for the sigma regulator PsrA in the promoter region of the phlA gene. Electrophoretic mobility shift experiments revealed direct and specific binding of PsrA to the phlA promoter region. Consistent with the fact that its binding site locates within the promoter region of phlA, PsrA negatively regulates phlA expression, and its inactivation led to significant increase in 2,4-DAPG production. Interestingly, PsrA also activates the expression of the sigma factor RpoS, which negatively regulates 2,4-DAPG production by inducing the expression of the RNA-binding protein RsmA. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that PsrA is an important regulator that modulates 2,4-DAPG biosynthesis at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. PMID:23209661

  19. Couplerlib: a metadata-driven library for the integration of multiple models of higher and lower trophic level marine systems with inexact functional group matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beecham, Jonathan; Bruggeman, Jorn; Aldridge, John; Mackinson, Steven

    2016-03-01

    End-to-end modelling is a rapidly developing strategy for modelling in marine systems science and management. However, problems remain in the area of data matching and sub-model compatibility. A mechanism and novel interfacing system (Couplerlib) is presented whereby a physical-biogeochemical model (General Ocean Turbulence Model-European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model, GOTM-ERSEM) that predicts dynamics of the lower trophic level (LTL) organisms in marine ecosystems is coupled to a dynamic ecosystem model (Ecosim), which predicts food-web interactions among higher trophic level (HTL) organisms. Coupling is achieved by means of a bespoke interface, which handles the system incompatibilities between the models and a more generic Couplerlib library, which uses metadata descriptions in extensible mark-up language (XML) to marshal data between groups, paying attention to functional group mappings and compatibility of units between models. In addition, within Couplerlib, models can be coupled across networks by means of socket mechanisms. As a demonstration of this approach, a food-web model (Ecopath with Ecosim, EwE) and a physical-biogeochemical model (GOTM-ERSEM) representing the North Sea ecosystem were joined with Couplerlib. The output from GOTM-ERSEM varies between years, depending on oceanographic and meteorological conditions. Although inter-annual variability was clearly present, there was always the tendency for an annual cycle consisting of a peak of diatoms in spring, followed by (less nutritious) flagellates and dinoflagellates through the summer, resulting in an early summer peak in the mesozooplankton biomass. Pelagic productivity, predicted by the LTL model, was highly seasonal with little winter food for the higher trophic levels. The Ecosim model was originally based on the assumption of constant annual inputs of energy and, consequently, when coupled, pelagic species suffered population losses over the winter months. By contrast, benthic populations

  20. Implementation of preventive strength training in residential geriatric care: a multi-centre study protocol with one year of interventions on multiple levels

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background There is scientific evidence that preventive physical exercise is effective even in high age. In contrast, there are few opportunities of preventive exercise for highly aged people endangered by or actually in need of care. For example, they would not be able to easily go to training facilities; standard exercises may be too intensive and therefore be harmful to them; orientation disorders like dementia would exacerbate individuals and groups in following instructions and keeping exercises going. In order to develop appropriate interventions, these and other issues were assigned to different levels: the individual-social level (ISL), the organisational-institutional level (OIL) and the political-cultural level (PCL). Consequently, this conceptional framework was utilised for development, implementation and evaluation of a new strength and balance exercise programme for old people endangered by or actually in need of daily care. The present paper contains the development of this programme labeled "fit for 100", and a study protocol of an interventional single-arm multi-centre trial. Methods The intervention consisted of (a) two group training sessions every week over one year, mainly resistance exercises, accompanied by sensorimotor and communicative group exercises and games (ISL), (b) a sustainable implementation concept, starting new groups by instructors belonging to the project, followed by training and supervision of local staff, who stepwise take over the group (OIL), (c) informing and convincing activities in professional, administrative and governmental contexts, public relation activities, and establishing an advisory council with renowned experts and public figures (PCL). Participating institutions of geriatric care were selected through several steps of quality criteria assessment. Primary outcome measures were continuous documentation of individual participation (ISL), number of groups continued without external financial support (at the end

  1. MHC2TA mRNA levels and human herpesvirus 6 in multiple sclerosis patients treated with interferon beta along two-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In previous studies we found that MHC2TA +1614 genotype frequency was very different when MS patients with and without human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) in serum samples were compared; a different clinical behavior was also described. The purpose of the study was: 1. To evaluate if MHC2TA expression in MS patients was influenced by interferon beta (IFN-beta) treatment. 2. To study MHC2TA expression in MS patients with and without minor allele C. 3. To analyze the relation between MHC2TA mRNA levels and HHV-6 active infection in MS patients. Methods Blood and serum samples of 154 MS patients were collected in five programmed visits: basal (prior to beginning IFN-beta treatment), six, twelve, eighteen and twenty-four months later. HHV-6 in serum and MHC2TA mRNA levels were evaluated by PCR and RT-PCR, respectively. Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against IFN-beta were analyzed by the cytopathic effect assay. Results We found that MHC2TA mRNA levels were significantly lower among MS patients with HHV-6 active infection at the basal visit (without treatment) than in those MS patients without HHV-6 active infection at the basal visit (p = 0.012); in all the positive samples we only found variant A. Furthermore, 58/99 (58.6%) MS patients without HHV-6 along the five programmed visits and an increase of MHC2TA expression after two-years of IFN-beta treatment were clinical responders vs. 5/21 (23.8%) among those MS patients with HHV-6 and a decrease of MHC2TA mRNA levels along the two-years with IFN-beta treatment (p = 0.004); no differences were found between patients with and without NAbs. Conclusions MHC2TA mRNA levels could be decreased by the active replication of HHV-6; the absence of HHV-6 in serum and the increase of MHC2TA expression could be further studied as markers of good clinical response to IFN-beta treatment. PMID:23009575

  2. Multiple Access Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    The Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) strawman design uses a hybrid Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)/Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) implementation. TDMA is used for the forward direction (from Suppliers to Users), and FDMA for the return direction (from Users to Suppliers). An alternative architecture is proposed that will require minimal real time coordination and yet provide a fast access method by using random access Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The CDMA system issues are addressed such as connecting suppliers and users, both of whom may be located anywhere in the CONUS, when the user terminals are constrained in size and weight; and providing efficient traffic routing under highly variable traffic requirements. It is assumed that bandwidth efficiency is not of paramount importance. CDMA or Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA) communication is a method in which a group of carriers operate at the same nominal center frequency but are separable from each other by the low cross correlation of the spreading codes used. Interference and multipath rejection capability, ease of selective addressing and message screening, low density power spectra for signal hiding and security, and high resolution ranging are among the benefits of spread spectrum communications.

  3. Multi Sensor Approach to Address Sustainable Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2007-01-01

    The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates, can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. However, the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. This requires continuous, and detailed observations from many sources in situ, airborne and space. By and large, the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. This requires a multiple sensors, look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality, multi hazard disasters, public health, hydrology and more. Therefore, there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation, data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population, some sound observations, scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants, endangered species and the ecology. Needless to say, there is no single sensor, which can answer all such questions effectively. Due to multi sensor approach, it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information, knowledge, budget, technology readiness and computational power. And, more importantly, the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. So far, each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing

  4. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to...

  5. 40 CFR 374.6 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Addresses. 374.6 Section 374.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS § 374.6 Addresses. Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200...

  6. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2... 20580, unless otherwise specifically directed. The Commission's Web site address is www.ftc.gov....

  7. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2... 20580, unless otherwise specifically directed. The Commission's Web site address is www.ftc.gov....

  8. 10 CFR 218.34 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Addresses. 218.34 Section 218.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Procedures § 218.34 Addresses. All..., Economic Regulatory Administration, Department of Energy, 2000 M Street, NW., Washington, DC 20461, and...

  9. History Forum Addresses Creation/Evolution Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinsberg, John

    1997-01-01

    A series of programs entitled Creationism and Evolution: The History of a Controversy was presented at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The controversy was addressed from an historical and sociological, rather than a scientific perspective. Speakers addressed the evolution of scientific creationism, ancient texts versus sedimentary rocks…

  10. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  11. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addresses. 80.174 Section 80.174... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample required under § 80.161(b)(2) shall be sent to: Manager, Fuels and Technical Analysis Group,...

  12. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false RUS addresses. 1730.3 Section 1730.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain forms referred to in this part...

  13. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding verb conjugations (Lipski…

  14. 40 CFR 374.6 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Addresses. 374.6 Section 374.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS § 374.6 Addresses. Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200...

  15. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  16. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  17. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  18. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  19. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  20. Image compression using address-vector quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu

    1990-12-01

    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  1. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  2. Tradition and Change in Swedish Address Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Stephen A.

    In most European languages, choice of address form classifies the relation between speakers. The first theoretical framework for analyzing address form usage was established by Brown and Gilman (1960) in their investigation of the semantics of pronoun use in a wide variety of Indo-European languages, which concluded that Europeans use the informal…

  3. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  4. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  5. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  6. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  7. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  8. 25 CFR 2.14 - Record address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record address. 2.14 Section 2.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPEALS FROM ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS § 2.14 Record address. (a) Every interested party who files a document in connection with an...

  9. 25 CFR 2.14 - Record address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record address. 2.14 Section 2.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPEALS FROM ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS § 2.14 Record address. (a) Every interested party who files a document in connection with an...

  10. Identifying the Multiple Intelligences of Your Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Joyce A.; Conti, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    One way of addressing individual differences among adult learners is to identify the Multiple Intelligences of the learner. Multiple Intelligences refers to the concept developed by Howard Gardner that challenges the traditional view of intelligence and explains the presence of nine different Multiple Intelligences. The purpose of this study was…

  11. Addressing the Mathematics-Specific Needs of Beginning Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Beginning mathematics teachers at the secondary level (middle and high school grades) have mathematics-specific needs that induction programs should address more substantially. However, a number of issues in how programs can accomplish this are more complex than often framed in discussions occurring in the induction programs and the field of…

  12. Effective Organizational Structures and Processes: Addressing Issues of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes organizational structures and processes at the institutional and project levels for the development and support of distance learning initiatives. It addresses environmental and stakeholder issues and explores principles and strategies of effective leadership for change creation and management.

  13. Using Short Stories to Address Eating Disturbances in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Lone, Jeffrey S.; Kalodner, Cynthia R.; Coughlin, Janelle W.

    2002-01-01

    Short stories can be an effective group-level intervention for addressing disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. This technique may be used in eating-disorder themed groups or in any group in which members present with eating problems. The authors provide specific guidelines for the use of short stories in group work. An example is provided to…

  14. Teacher Education's Responsibility to Address Diversity Issues: Enhancing Institutional Capacity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnick, Susan L.; Zeichner, Kenneth M.

    1998-01-01

    Preservice teachers must be prepared to address substantial student diversity and to educate all students to higher levels of understanding and competence. Many teacher educators are not competent to prepare new teachers in this area. Several approaches to handling institutional aspects of teacher education for diversity are discussed, noting…

  15. Expression of gibberellin 20-oxidase1 (AtGA20ox1) in Arabidopsis seedlings with altered auxin status is regulated at multiple levels.

    PubMed

    Desgagné-Penix, Isabel; Sponsel, Valerie M

    2008-01-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) affect many biological processes including germination, stem growth, transition to flowering, and fruit development. The location, timing, and level of bioactive GA are finely tuned to ensure that optimal growth and development occur. The balance between GA biosynthesis and deactivation is controlled by external factors such as light and by internal factors that include auxin. The role of auxin transport inhibitors (ATIs) and auxins on GA homeostasis in intact light-grown Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. seedlings was investigated. Two ATIs, 1-N-naphthylthalamic acid (NPA) and 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (NOA) caused elevated expression of the GA biosynthetic enzyme AtGA20-oxidase1 (AtGA20ox1) in shoot but not in root tissues, and only at certain developmental stages. It was investigated whether enhanced AtGA20ox1 gene expression was a consequence of altered flow through the GA biosynthetic pathway, or was due to impaired GA signalling that can lead to enhanced AtGA20ox1 expression and accumulation of a DELLA protein, Repressor of ga1-3 (RGA). Both ATIs promoted accumulation of GFP-fused RGA in shoots and roots, and this increase was counteracted by the application of GA(4). These results suggest that in ATI-treated seedlings the impediment to DELLA protein degradation may be a deficiency of bioactive GA at sites of GA response. It is proposed that the four different levels of AtGA20ox1 regulation observed here are imposed in a strict hierarchy: spatial (organ-, tissue-, cell-specific) > developmental > metabolic > auxin regulation. Thus results show that, in intact auxin- and auxin transport inhibitor-treated light-grown Arabidopsis seedlings, three other levels of regulation supersede the effects of auxin on AtGA20ox1. PMID:18440929

  16. Expression of gibberellin 20-oxidase1 (AtGA20ox1) in Arabidopsis seedlings with altered auxin status is regulated at multiple levels

    PubMed Central

    Desgagné-Penix, Isabel; Sponsel, Valerie M.

    2008-01-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) affect many biological processes including germination, stem growth, transition to flowering, and fruit development. The location, timing, and level of bioactive GA are finely tuned to ensure that optimal growth and development occur. The balance between GA biosynthesis and deactivation is controlled by external factors such as light and by internal factors that include auxin. The role of auxin transport inhibitors (ATIs) and auxins on GA homeostasis in intact light-grown Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. seedlings was investigated. Two ATIs, 1-N-naphthylthalamic acid (NPA) and 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (NOA) caused elevated expression of the GA biosynthetic enzyme AtGA20-oxidase1 (AtGA20ox1) in shoot but not in root tissues, and only at certain developmental stages. It was investigated whether enhanced AtGA20ox1 gene expression was a consequence of altered flow through the GA biosynthetic pathway, or was due to impaired GA signalling that can lead to enhanced AtGA20ox1 expression and accumulation of a DELLA protein, Repressor of ga1-3 (RGA). Both ATIs promoted accumulation of GFP-fused RGA in shoots and roots, and this increase was counteracted by the application of GA4. These results suggest that in ATI-treated seedlings the impediment to DELLA protein degradation may be a deficiency of bioactive GA at sites of GA response. It is proposed that the four different levels of AtGA20ox1 regulation observed here are imposed in a strict hierarchy: spatial (organ-, tissue-, cell-specific) > developmental > metabolic > auxin regulation. Thus results show that, in intact auxin- and auxin transport inhibitor-treated light-grown Arabidopsis seedlings, three other levels of regulation supersede the effects of auxin on AtGA20ox1. PMID:18440929

  17. High-level SUMO-mediated fusion expression of ABP-dHC-cecropin A from multiple joined genes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Movahedi, Ali; Wei, Zhiheng; Sang, Ming; Wu, Xiaolong; Wang, Mengyang; Wei, Hui; Pan, Huixin; Yin, Tongming; Zhuge, Qiang

    2016-09-15

    The antimicrobial peptide ABP-dHC-cecropin A is a small cationic peptide with potent activity against a wide range of bacterial species. Evidence of antifungal activity has also been suggested; however, evaluation of this peptide has been limited due to the low expression of cecropin proteins in Escherichia coli. To improve the expression level of ABP-dHC-cecropin A in E. coli, tandem repeats of the ABP-dHC-cecropin A gene were constructed and expressed as fusion proteins (SUMO-nABP-dHC-cecropin, n = 1, 2, 3, 4) via pSUMO-nABP-dHC-cecropin A vectors (n = 1, 2, 3, 4). Comparison of the expression levels of soluble SUMO-nABP-dHC-cecropin A fusion proteins (n = 1, 2, 3, 4) suggested that BL21 (DE3)/pSUMO-3ABP-dHC-cecropin A is an ideal recombinant strain for ABP-dHC-cecropin A production. Under the selected conditions of cultivation and isopropylthiogalactoside (IPTG) induction, the expression level of ABP-dHC-cecropin A was as high as 65 mg/L, with ∼21.3% of the fusion protein in soluble form. By large-scale fermentation, protein production reached nearly 300 mg/L, which is the highest yield of ABP-dHC-cecropin A reported to date. In antibacterial experiments, the efficacy was approximately the same as that of synthetic ABP-dHC-cecropin A. This method provides a novel and effective means of producing large amounts of ABP-dHC-cecropin A. PMID:27377968

  18. Assessments at multiple levels of biological organization allow for an integrative determination of physiological tolerances to turbidity in an endangered fish species

    PubMed Central

    Hasenbein, Matthias; Fangue, Nann A.; Geist, Juergen; Komoroske, Lisa M.; Truong, Jennifer; McPherson, Rina; Connon, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Turbidity can influence trophic levels by altering species composition and can potentially affect fish feeding strategies and predator–prey interactions. The estuarine turbidity maximum, described as an area of increased suspended particles, phytoplankton and zooplankton, generally represents a zone with higher turbidity and enhanced food sources important for successful feeding and growth in many fish species. The delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) is an endangered, pelagic fish species endemic to the San Francisco Estuary and Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, USA, where it is associated with turbid waters. Turbidity is known to play an important role for the completion of the species' life cycle; however, turbidity ranges in the Delta are broad, and specific requirements for this fish species are still unknown. To evaluate turbidity requirements for early life stages, late-larval delta smelt were maintained at environmentally relevant turbidity levels ranging from 5 to 250 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) for 24 h, after which a combination of physiological endpoints (molecular biomarkers and cortisol), behavioural indices (feeding) and whole-organism measures (survival) were determined. All endpoints delivered consistent results and identified turbidities between 25 and 80 NTU as preferential. Delta smelt survival rates were highest between 12 and 80 NTU and feeding rates were highest between 25 and 80 NTU. Cortisol levels indicated minimal stress between 35 and 80 NTU and were elevated at low turbidities (5, 12 and 25 NTU). Expression of stress-related genes indicated significant responses for gst, hsp70 and glut2 in high turbidities (250 NTU), and principal component analysis on all measured genes revealed a clustering of 25, 35, 50 and 80 NTU separating the medium-turbidity treatments from low- and high-turbidity treatments. Taken together, these data demonstrate that turbidity levels that are either too low or too high affect

  19. Effects of Mine Waste Contamination on Fish and Wildlife Habitat at Multiple Levels of Biological Organization in the Methow River, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Peplow, Dan; Edmonds, Robert.

    2002-06-01

    A three-year multidisciplinary study was conducted on the relationship between mine waste contamination and the effects on aquatic and terrestrial habitats in the Methow River below abandoned mines near Twisp in Okanogan County, Washington (U.S.A.). Ore deposits in the area were mined for gold, silver, copper and zinc until the early 1950's. An above-and-below-mine approach was used to study potentially impacted sites. Although the dissolved metal content of water in the Methow River was below the limits of detection, eleven chemicals of potential environmental concern were identified in the tailings, mine effluents, groundwater, streamwater and sediments (Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se and Zn). The potential for ecosystem level impacts was reflected in the risk of contamination in the mine waste to communities and populations that are valued for their functional properties related to energy storage and nutrient cycling. Dissolved and sediment metal contamination changed the benthic insect community structure in a tributary of the Methow River below Alder Mine, and at the population level, caddisfly larval development in the Methow River was delayed. Arsenic accumulation in bear hair and Cd in fish liver suggest top predators are effected. In situ exposure of juvenile triploid trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to conditions at the downstream site resulted in reduced growth and increased mortality among exposed individuals. Histopathological studies of their tissues revealed extensive glycogen inclusions suggesting food is being converted into glycogen and stored in the liver but the glycogen is not being converted back normally into glucose for distribution to other tissues in the body. Subcellular observations revealed mitochondrial changes including a decrease in the number and increase in the size of electron-dense metrical granules, the presence of glycogen bodies in the cytoplasm, and glycogen nuclei in exposed trout hepatocytes, which are signs that Type IV

  20. Assessments at multiple levels of biological organization allow for an integrative determination of physiological tolerances to turbidity in an endangered fish species.

    PubMed

    Hasenbein, Matthias; Fangue, Nann A; Geist, Juergen; Komoroske, Lisa M; Truong, Jennifer; McPherson, Rina; Connon, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Turbidity can influence trophic levels by altering species composition and can potentially affect fish feeding strategies and predator-prey interactions. The estuarine turbidity maximum, described as an area of increased suspended particles, phytoplankton and zooplankton, generally represents a zone with higher turbidity and enhanced food sources important for successful feeding and growth in many fish species. The delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) is an endangered, pelagic fish species endemic to the San Francisco Estuary and Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, USA, where it is associated with turbid waters. Turbidity is known to play an important role for the completion of the species' life cycle; however, turbidity ranges in the Delta are broad, and specific requirements for this fish species are still unknown. To evaluate turbidity requirements for early life stages, late-larval delta smelt were maintained at environmentally relevant turbidity levels ranging from 5 to 250 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) for 24 h, after which a combination of physiological endpoints (molecular biomarkers and cortisol), behavioural indices (feeding) and whole-organism measures (survival) were determined. All endpoints delivered consistent results and identified turbidities between 25 and 80 NTU as preferential. Delta smelt survival rates were highest between 12 and 80 NTU and feeding rates were highest between 25 and 80 NTU. Cortisol levels indicated minimal stress between 35 and 80 NTU and were elevated at low turbidities (5, 12 and 25 NTU). Expression of stress-related genes indicated significant responses for gst, hsp70 and glut2 in high turbidities (250 NTU), and principal component analysis on all measured genes revealed a clustering of 25, 35, 50 and 80 NTU separating the medium-turbidity treatments from low- and high-turbidity treatments. Taken together, these data demonstrate that turbidity levels that are either too low or too high affect delta