Science.gov

Sample records for address multiple objectives

  1. Stock enhancement to address multiple recreational fisheries objectives: an integrated model applied to red drum Sciaenops ocellatus in Florida.

    PubMed

    Camp, E V; Lorenzen, K; Ahrens, R N M; Allen, M S

    2014-12-01

    An integrated socioecological model was developed to evaluate the potential for stock enhancement with hatchery fishes to achieve socioeconomic and conservation objectives in recreational fisheries. As a case study, this model was applied to the red drum Sciaenops ocellatus recreational fishery in the Tampa Bay estuary, Florida, U.S.A. The results suggest that stocking of juvenile fish larger than the size at which the strongest density dependence in mortality occurs can help increase angler satisfaction and total fishing effort (socioeconomic objectives) but are likely to result in decreases to the abundance of wild fishes (a conservation objective). Stocking of small juveniles that are susceptible to density-dependent mortality after release does not achieve socioeconomic objectives (or only at excessive cost) but still leads to a reduction of wild fish abundance. The intensity and type of socioeconomic gains depended on assumptions of dynamic angler-effort responses and importance of catch-related satisfaction, with greatest gains possible if aggregate effort is responsive to increases in abundance and satisfaction that are greatly related to catch rates. These results emphasize the view of stock enhancement, not as a panacea but rather as a management tool with inherent costs that is best applied to recreational fisheries under certain conditions. PMID:25469950

  2. Stock enhancement to address multiple recreational fisheries objectives: an integrated model applied to red drum Sciaenops ocellatus in Florida.

    PubMed

    Camp, E V; Lorenzen, K; Ahrens, R N M; Allen, M S

    2014-12-01

    An integrated socioecological model was developed to evaluate the potential for stock enhancement with hatchery fishes to achieve socioeconomic and conservation objectives in recreational fisheries. As a case study, this model was applied to the red drum Sciaenops ocellatus recreational fishery in the Tampa Bay estuary, Florida, U.S.A. The results suggest that stocking of juvenile fish larger than the size at which the strongest density dependence in mortality occurs can help increase angler satisfaction and total fishing effort (socioeconomic objectives) but are likely to result in decreases to the abundance of wild fishes (a conservation objective). Stocking of small juveniles that are susceptible to density-dependent mortality after release does not achieve socioeconomic objectives (or only at excessive cost) but still leads to a reduction of wild fish abundance. The intensity and type of socioeconomic gains depended on assumptions of dynamic angler-effort responses and importance of catch-related satisfaction, with greatest gains possible if aggregate effort is responsive to increases in abundance and satisfaction that are greatly related to catch rates. These results emphasize the view of stock enhancement, not as a panacea but rather as a management tool with inherent costs that is best applied to recreational fisheries under certain conditions.

  3. Optical multiple object tracking techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1989-01-01

    Two multichannel multiple-object tracking techniques are reviewed. In the diffraction grating technique, the input scene is picked up by a TV camera and imaged onto a liquid-crystal light valve (LCLV), and the output side of the light valve is illuminated with a suitably polarized and collimated coherent laser beam to yield a reflected beam with polarization modulated according to the intensity of the incoherent input. This reflected beam passes through a beam splitter cube and an analyzer, resulting in an intensity modulated coherent image. An array of spectrum islands containing the information of the input appears after crossing a contact screen/lens combination. In the multiple-focus hololens technique, the scene of moving objects is sent into the LCTVSLM through a camera; a collimated laser beam is incident upon the LCTV screen; a low-pass filter is inserted between the LCTVSLM and the hololens for the removal of the high order diffractions due to the grid structure of the LCTV. The feasibility of the LCTVSLM and multiple-focus hololens technique is demonstrated.

  4. A Multiple Objective Decision Support Tool (MODS)

    2003-12-14

    The Multiple Objective Decision Support (MODS) tool is an automated tool used to assist decision makers and policy analysts with multiple-objective decision problems. The classes of problems that this decision support tool addresses have both multiple objectives and multiple stakeholders. Decision problems, which have multiple objectives that in general cannot be maximized simultaneously, and multiple stakeholders, who have different perspectives about the relative importance of the objectives, require analytic approaches and tools that can providemore » flexible support to decision makers. This tool provides capabilities for the management, analysis, and graphical display for these types of decision problems drawn from diverse problem domains. The MODS tool is a unique integration of analysis algorithms, an information database, and a graphical user interface. This collection of algorithms, the combination of an information database with the analysis into a single tool, and the graphical user interface provides a technically advanced tool to decision makers and policy analysts. There are two main issues when addressing problems of this type: what set of attributes should be used to characterize the tokens in the domain of interest, and how should the values of these attributes and their weights be determined and combined to provide a relative ordering to the tokens. This tool addresses both of these issues. This decision support tool provides a flexible way to derive and use a chosen set of attributes. For example, the tool could be used to first perform a paired comparison of a large set of attributes and from this evaluation select those attributes that have the highest weights. The flexibility of the tool allows experimentation with various attribute sets and this capability, along with domain expertise, addresses the first issue. To address the second issue, several algorithms have been implemented. For example, two algorithms that have been implemented are

  5. Marine and Human Systems: Addressing Multiple Scales and Multiple Stressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, E. E.; Bundy, A.; Chuenpagdee, R.; Maddison, L.; Svendsen, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research (IMBER) project aims to develop a comprehensive understanding of, and predictive capacity of ocean responses to accelerating global change and the consequent effects on the Earth System and human society. Understanding the changing ecology and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems and their sensitivity and resilience to multiple drivers, pressures and stressors is critical to developing responses that will help reduce the vulnerability of marine-dependent human communities. The cumulative pressure of anthropogenic activities on marine systems is already apparent and is projected to increase in the next decades. Policy- and decision-makers need assessments of the status and trends of marine habitats, species, and ecosystems to promote sustainable human activities in the marine environment, particularly in light of global environmental change and changing social systems and human pressures. The IMBER community recently undertook a synthesis and evaluation of approaches for ecosystem-based marine governance, integrated modeling of marine social-ecological systems, and the social and ecological consequences of changing marine ecosystems. The outcomes of this activity provide assessments of current understanding, indicate approaches needed to predict the effects of multiple stressors, at multiple scales, on marine ecosystems and dependent human populations, and highlight approaches for developing innovative societal responses to changing marine ecosystems.

  6. Multiple objective optimization for active sensor management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Scott F.; Dolia, Alexander N.; Harris, Chris J.; White, Neil M.

    2005-03-01

    The performance of a multi-sensor data fusion system is inherently constrained by the configuration of the given sensor suite. Intelligent or adaptive control of sensor resources has been shown to offer improved fusion performance in many applications. Common approaches to sensor management select sensor observation tasks that are optimal in terms of a measure of information. However, optimising for information alone is inherently sub-optimal as it does not take account of any other system requirements such as stealth or sensor power conservation. We discuss the issues relating to developing a suite of performance metrics for optimising multi-sensor systems and propose some candidate metrics. In addition it may not always be necessary to maximize information gain, in some cases small increases in information gain may take place at the cost of large sensor resource requirements. Additionally, the problems of sensor tasking and placement are usually treated separately, leading to a lack of coherency between sensor management frameworks. We propose a novel approach based on a high level decentralized information-theoretic sensor management architecture that unifies the processes of sensor tasking and sensor placement into a single framework. Sensors are controlled using a minimax multiple objective optimisation approach in order to address probability of target detection, sensor power consumption, and sensor survivability whilst maintaining a target estimation covariance threshold. We demonstrate the potential of the approach through simulation of a multi-sensor, target tracking scenario and compare the results with a single objective information based approach.

  7. Multiple-object tracking under occlusion conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Young-Kee; Ho, Yo-Sung

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for multiple object tracking that takes a new occlusion reasoning approach. In order to track individual objects under occlusion conditions, we design a 2D token-based tracking system using Kalman filtering. The proposed tracking system consists of two parts: object detection and tracking, and occlusion reasoning using feature matching. The object detection and tracking part finds moving objects from their background. For object detection, we develop an adaptive background update technique. By tracking individual objects with segmentation information, we generate motion trajectories. Computer simulation of the proposed scheme demonstrates its robustness to various occlusion conditions for several test sequences.

  8. Multiple Object Tracking in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koldewyn, Kami; Weigelt, Sarah; Kanwisher, Nancy; Jiang, Yuhong

    2013-01-01

    Difficulties in visual attention are often implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but it remains unclear which aspects of attention are affected. Here, we used a multiple object tracking (MOT) task to quantitatively characterize dynamic attentional function in children with ASD aged 5-12. While the ASD group performed significantly worse…

  9. Interactive Multiple Object Tracking (iMOT)

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Ian M.; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Horowitz, Todd S.; Rynning, Aksel; Lee, Seong-Whan

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new task for exploring the relationship between action and attention. In this interactive multiple object tracking (iMOT) task, implemented as an iPad app, participants were presented with a display of multiple, visually identical disks which moved independently. The task was to prevent any collisions during a fixed duration. Participants could perturb object trajectories via the touchscreen. In Experiment 1, we used a staircase procedure to measure the ability to control moving objects. Object speed was set to 1°/s. On average participants could control 8.4 items without collision. Individual control strategies were quite variable, but did not predict overall performance. In Experiment 2, we compared iMOT with standard MOT performance using identical displays. Object speed was set to 2°/s. Participants could reliably control more objects (M = 6.6) than they could track (M = 4.0), but performance in the two tasks was positively correlated. In Experiment 3, we used a dual-task design. Compared to single-task baseline, iMOT performance decreased and MOT performance increased when the two tasks had to be completed together. Overall, these findings suggest: 1) There is a clear limit to the number of items that can be simultaneously controlled, for a given speed and display density; 2) participants can control more items than they can track; 3) task-relevant action appears not to disrupt MOT performance in the current experimental context. PMID:24498288

  10. Motion planning for multiple moving objects

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.K.

    1995-05-01

    We present a motion planner for multiple moving objects in two dimensions. The search for collision-free paths is performed in the composite configuration space of all the moving objects to guarantee a solution, and the efficiency of our planner is demonstrated with examples. Our motion planner can be characterized with a hierarchical, multi-resolution search of the configuration space along with a generate-and-test paradigm for solution paths. Because of the high dimensionality of the composite configuration space, our planner is most useful for cases with a small number of moving objects. Some of the potential applications are navigation of several mobile robots, and planning part motions for a multi-handed assembly operation.

  11. Spatial reference in multiple object tracking.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Georg; Papenmeier, Frank; Meyerhoff, Hauke S; Huff, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Spatial reference in multiple object tracking is available from configurations of dynamic objects and static reference objects. In three experiments, we studied the use of spatial reference in tracking and in relocating targets after abrupt scene rotations. Observers tracked 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 targets in 3D scenes, in which white balls moved on a square floor plane. The floor plane was either visible thus providing static spatial reference or it was invisible. Without scene rotations, the configuration of dynamic objects provided sufficient spatial reference and static spatial reference was not advantageous. In contrast, with abrupt scene rotations of 20°, static spatial reference supported in relocating targets. A wireframe floor plane lacking local visual detail was as effective as a checkerboard. Individually colored geometric forms as static reference objects provided no additional benefit either, even if targets were centered on these forms at the abrupt scene rotation. Individualizing the dynamic objects themselves by color for a brief interval around the abrupt scene rotation, however, did improve performance. We conclude that attentional tracking of moving targets proceeds within dynamic configurations but detached from static local background.

  12. Conservation planning with multiple organizations and objectives.

    PubMed

    Bode, Michael; Probert, Will; Turner, Will R; Wilson, Kerrie A; Venter, Oscar

    2011-04-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the number of conservation organizations worldwide. It is now common for multiple organizations to operate in the same landscape in pursuit of different conservation goals. New objectives, such as maintenance of ecosystem services, will attract additional funding and new organizations to conservation. Systematic conservation planning helps in the design of spatially explicit management actions that optimally conserve multiple landscape features (e.g., species, ecosystems, or ecosystem services). But the methods used in its application implicitly assume that a single actor implements the optimal plan. We investigated how organizational behavior and conservation outcomes are affected by the presence of autonomous implementing organizations with different objectives. We used simulation models and game theory to explore how alternative behaviors (e.g., organizations acting independently or explicitly cooperating) affected an organization's ability to protect their feature of interest, and investigated how the distribution of features in the landscape influenced organizations' attitudes toward cooperation. Features with highly correlated spatial distributions, although typically considered an opportunity for mutually beneficial conservation planning, can lead to organizational interactions that result in lower levels of protection. These detrimental outcomes can be avoided by organizations that cooperate when acquiring land. Nevertheless, for cooperative purchases to benefit both organizations' objectives, each must forgo the protection of land parcels that they would consider to be of high conservation value. Transaction costs incurred during cooperation and the sources of conservation funding could facilitate or hinder cooperative behavior.

  13. Multiple-Objective Stepwise Calibration Using Luca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hay, Lauren E.; Umemoto, Makiko

    2007-01-01

    This report documents Luca (Let us calibrate), a multiple-objective, stepwise, automated procedure for hydrologic model calibration and the associated graphical user interface (GUI). Luca is a wizard-style user-friendly GUI that provides an easy systematic way of building and executing a calibration procedure. The calibration procedure uses the Shuffled Complex Evolution global search algorithm to calibrate any model compiled with the U.S. Geological Survey's Modular Modeling System. This process assures that intermediate and final states of the model are simulated consistently with measured values.

  14. A multiple-objective optimal exploration strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christakos, G.; Olea, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Exploration for natural resources is accomplished through partial sampling of extensive domains. Such imperfect knowledge is subject to sampling error. Complex systems of equations resulting from modelling based on the theory of correlated random fields are reduced to simple analytical expressions providing global indices of estimation variance. The indices are utilized by multiple objective decision criteria to find the best sampling strategies. The approach is not limited by geometric nature of the sampling, covers a wide range in spatial continuity and leads to a step-by-step procedure. ?? 1988.

  15. Detecting abandoned objects using interacting multiple models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Stefan; Münch, David; Kieritz, Hilke; Hübner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the wide use of video surveillance systems has caused an enormous increase in the amount of data that has to be stored, monitored, and processed. As a consequence, it is crucial to support human operators with automated surveillance applications. Towards this end an intelligent video analysis module for real-time alerting in case of abandoned objects in public spaces is proposed. The overall processing pipeline consists of two major parts. First, person motion is modeled using an Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) filter. The IMM filter estimates the state of a person according to a finite-state, discrete-time Markov chain. Second, the location of persons that stay at a fixed position defines a region of interest, in which a nonparametric background model with dynamic per-pixel state variables identifies abandoned objects. In case of a detected abandoned object, an alarm event is triggered. The effectiveness of the proposed system is evaluated on the PETS 2006 dataset and the i-Lids dataset, both reflecting prototypical surveillance scenarios.

  16. Low Cost Multiple Near Earth Object Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. B.; Klaus, K.; Kaplan, M.

    2009-12-01

    Commercial spacecraft are available with efficient high power solar arrays and hybrid propulsion systems (Chemical and Solar Electric) that make possible multiple Near Earth Object Missions within Discovery budget limits. Our analysis is based on the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit Capability (GTOC-3) solution. GTOC-3 assumptions: - Escape from Earth, rendezvous with 3 asteroids, then rendezvous with Earth - Departure velocity below 0.5 km/s - Launch between 2016 and 2025 - Total trip time less than 10 years - Minimum stay time of 60 days at each asteroid - Initial spacecraft mass of 2,000 kg - Thrust of 0.15 N and Isp of 3,000 s - Only Earth GAMs allowed (Rmin = 6,871 km) Preliminary results indicate that for mission objectives we can visit Apophis and any other 2 asteroids on this list or any other 3 asteroids listed. We have considered two spacecraft approaches to accomplish mission objectives: - Case 1: Chemical engine burn to the 1st target, and then solar electric to the 2nd and 3rd targets, or - Case 2: Solar electric propulsion to all 3 targets For both Cases, we assumed an instrument mass of up to 100 kg, power up to 100 W, and s/c bus pointing as good as 12 arc sec.Multi-NEO Mission Candidates

  17. Processing of Extrafoveal Objects During Multiple-Object Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jane L.; Meyer, Antje S.

    2005-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors investigated the extent to which objects that are about to be named are processed prior to fixation. Participants named pairs or triplets of objects. One of the objects, initially seen extrafoveally (the interloper), was replaced by a different object (the target) during the saccade toward it. The interloper-target…

  18. Processing of extrafoveal objects during multiple-object naming.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Jane L; Meyer, Antje S

    2005-05-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors investigated the extent to which objects that are about to be named are processed prior to fixation. Participants named pairs or triplets of objects. One of the objects, initially seen extrafoveally (the interloper), was replaced by a different object (the target) during the saccade toward it. The interloper-target pairs were identical or unrelated objects or visually and conceptually unrelated objects with homophonous names (e.g., animal- baseball bat). The mean latencies and gaze durations for the targets were shorter in the identity and homophone conditions than in the unrelated condition. This was true when participants viewed a fixation mark until the interloper appeared and when they fixated on another object and prepared to name it while viewing the interloper. These results imply that objects that are about to be named may undergo far-reaching processing, including access to their names, prior to fixation.

  19. Integrating regional conservation priorities for multiple objectives into national policy.

    PubMed

    Beger, Maria; McGowan, Jennifer; Treml, Eric A; Green, Alison L; White, Alan T; Wolff, Nicholas H; Klein, Carissa J; Mumby, Peter J; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-01-01

    Multinational conservation initiatives that prioritize investment across a region invariably navigate trade-offs among multiple objectives. It seems logical to focus where several objectives can be achieved efficiently, but such multi-objective hotspots may be ecologically inappropriate, or politically inequitable. Here we devise a framework to facilitate a regionally cohesive set of marine-protected areas driven by national preferences and supported by quantitative conservation prioritization analyses, and illustrate it using the Coral Triangle Initiative. We identify areas important for achieving six objectives to address ecosystem representation, threatened fauna, connectivity and climate change. We expose trade-offs between areas that contribute substantially to several objectives and those meeting one or two objectives extremely well. Hence there are two strategies to guide countries choosing to implement regional goals nationally: multi-objective hotspots and complementary sets of single-objective priorities. This novel framework is applicable to any multilateral or global initiative seeking to apply quantitative information in decision making. PMID:26364769

  20. Integrating regional conservation priorities for multiple objectives into national policy

    PubMed Central

    Beger, Maria; McGowan, Jennifer; Treml, Eric A.; Green, Alison L.; White, Alan T.; Wolff, Nicholas H.; Klein, Carissa J.; Mumby, Peter J.; Possingham, Hugh P.

    2015-01-01

    Multinational conservation initiatives that prioritize investment across a region invariably navigate trade-offs among multiple objectives. It seems logical to focus where several objectives can be achieved efficiently, but such multi-objective hotspots may be ecologically inappropriate, or politically inequitable. Here we devise a framework to facilitate a regionally cohesive set of marine-protected areas driven by national preferences and supported by quantitative conservation prioritization analyses, and illustrate it using the Coral Triangle Initiative. We identify areas important for achieving six objectives to address ecosystem representation, threatened fauna, connectivity and climate change. We expose trade-offs between areas that contribute substantially to several objectives and those meeting one or two objectives extremely well. Hence there are two strategies to guide countries choosing to implement regional goals nationally: multi-objective hotspots and complementary sets of single-objective priorities. This novel framework is applicable to any multilateral or global initiative seeking to apply quantitative information in decision making. PMID:26364769

  1. Multiple-object tracking while driving: the multiple-vehicle tracking task.

    PubMed

    Lochner, Martin J; Trick, Lana M

    2014-11-01

    Many contend that driving an automobile involves multiple-object tracking. At this point, no one has tested this idea, and it is unclear how multiple-object tracking would coordinate with the other activities involved in driving. To address some of the initial and most basic questions about multiple-object tracking while driving, we modified the tracking task for use in a driving simulator, creating the multiple-vehicle tracking task. In Experiment 1, we employed a dual-task methodology to determine whether there was interference between tracking and driving. Findings suggest that although it is possible to track multiple vehicles while driving, driving reduces tracking performance, and tracking compromises headway and lane position maintenance while driving. Modified change-detection paradigms were used to assess whether there were change localization advantages for tracked targets in multiple-vehicle tracking. When changes occurred during a blanking interval, drivers were more accurate (Experiment 2a) and ~250 ms faster (Experiment 2b) at locating the vehicle that changed when it was a target rather than a distractor in tracking. In a more realistic driving task where drivers had to brake in response to the sudden onset of brake lights in one of the lead vehicles, drivers were more accurate at localizing the vehicle that braked if it was a tracking target, although there was no advantage in terms of braking response time. Overall, results suggest that multiple-object tracking is possible while driving and perhaps even advantageous in some situations, but further research is required to determine whether multiple-object tracking is actually used in day-to-day driving.

  2. Multiple-object tracking while driving: the multiple-vehicle tracking task.

    PubMed

    Lochner, Martin J; Trick, Lana M

    2014-11-01

    Many contend that driving an automobile involves multiple-object tracking. At this point, no one has tested this idea, and it is unclear how multiple-object tracking would coordinate with the other activities involved in driving. To address some of the initial and most basic questions about multiple-object tracking while driving, we modified the tracking task for use in a driving simulator, creating the multiple-vehicle tracking task. In Experiment 1, we employed a dual-task methodology to determine whether there was interference between tracking and driving. Findings suggest that although it is possible to track multiple vehicles while driving, driving reduces tracking performance, and tracking compromises headway and lane position maintenance while driving. Modified change-detection paradigms were used to assess whether there were change localization advantages for tracked targets in multiple-vehicle tracking. When changes occurred during a blanking interval, drivers were more accurate (Experiment 2a) and ~250 ms faster (Experiment 2b) at locating the vehicle that changed when it was a target rather than a distractor in tracking. In a more realistic driving task where drivers had to brake in response to the sudden onset of brake lights in one of the lead vehicles, drivers were more accurate at localizing the vehicle that braked if it was a tracking target, although there was no advantage in terms of braking response time. Overall, results suggest that multiple-object tracking is possible while driving and perhaps even advantageous in some situations, but further research is required to determine whether multiple-object tracking is actually used in day-to-day driving. PMID:24946866

  3. Multiple object spectroscopy - The Medusa spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. M.; Angel, J. R. P.; Scott, J. S.; Lindley, D.; Hintzen, P.

    1980-01-01

    An instrument has been built to obtain simultaneous spectra of many objects in the field of view of the Steward 90 inch (2.29 m) telescope. Short lengths of fused silica fiber 300 microns in diameter are used to bring the light from galaxy images at the Cassegrain focus into a line along the spectrograph slit. From a single exposure of the cluster Abell 1904, which has a redshift of 20,000 km/s, the redshifts of 26 individual galaxies were determined, each with a precision of 100 km/s. The present device, while already giving a sixfold reduction in the mean telescope time per galaxy, has significant light losses because it is not ideally matched to the telescope. An instrument being designed for the prime focus will transmit light from each object as efficiently as a conventional spectrograph.

  4. Using multiple objective programming in a dairy cow breeding program.

    PubMed

    Tozer, P R; Stokes, J R

    2001-12-01

    Multiple-objective programming was used to examine the effects various objectives had on the optimal portfolio of sires chosen for a given breeding problem in a Jersey cow dairy herd. It was assumed that the dairy producer had the following three objectives in the breeding decision: to maximize Net Merit, to minimize inbreeding, and to minimize total expenditure on semen. Integer programming models of these three single objectives were estimated to provide the ideal and anti-ideal values for use in several multiple-objective programming models. The integer multiple-objective models examined the interactions and costs of tradeoffs between the three single objectives in a model framework designed to minimize the maximum deviations from the single-objective optima. A model with equal weights on each objective resulted in a decrease of 3% in average inbreeding but also reduced average Net Merit by $170 from the single-objective optima. A second model, where the weight on Net Merit was twice that of inbreeding and semen cost, decreased Net Merit by $100 and reduced inbreeding by 2% from the single objective optima. The results of the multiple-objective programming models show that reducing the inbreeding coefficient for a group of sires purchased will decrease the Net Merit. However, the results generated also demonstrate that the weights placed on each objective by the dairy producer substantially affect the optimal levels of each objective within the multiple-objective model.

  5. Compositional mining of multiple object API protocols through state abstraction.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ziying; Mao, Xiaoguang; Lei, Yan; Qi, Yuhua; Wang, Rui; Gu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    API protocols specify correct sequences of method invocations. Despite their usefulness, API protocols are often unavailable in practice because writing them is cumbersome and error prone. Multiple object API protocols are more expressive than single object API protocols. However, the huge number of objects of typical object-oriented programs poses a major challenge to the automatic mining of multiple object API protocols: besides maintaining scalability, it is important to capture various object interactions. Current approaches utilize various heuristics to focus on small sets of methods. In this paper, we present a general, scalable, multiple object API protocols mining approach that can capture all object interactions. Our approach uses abstract field values to label object states during the mining process. We first mine single object typestates as finite state automata whose transitions are annotated with states of interacting objects before and after the execution of the corresponding method and then construct multiple object API protocols by composing these annotated single object typestates. We implement our approach for Java and evaluate it through a series of experiments. PMID:23844378

  6. A multiple objective optimization approach to quality control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seaman, Christopher Michael

    1991-01-01

    The use of product quality as the performance criteria for manufacturing system control is explored. The goal in manufacturing, for economic reasons, is to optimize product quality. The problem is that since quality is a rather nebulous product characteristic, there is seldom an analytic function that can be used as a measure. Therefore standard control approaches, such as optimal control, cannot readily be applied. A second problem with optimizing product quality is that it is typically measured along many dimensions: there are many apsects of quality which must be optimized simultaneously. Very often these different aspects are incommensurate and competing. The concept of optimality must now include accepting tradeoffs among the different quality characteristics. These problems are addressed using multiple objective optimization. It is shown that the quality control problem can be defined as a multiple objective optimization problem. A controller structure is defined using this as the basis. Then, an algorithm is presented which can be used by an operator to interactively find the best operating point. Essentially, the algorithm uses process data to provide the operator with two pieces of information: (1) if it is possible to simultaneously improve all quality criteria, then determine what changes to the process input or controller parameters should be made to do this; and (2) if it is not possible to improve all criteria, and the current operating point is not a desirable one, select a criteria in which a tradeoff should be made, and make input changes to improve all other criteria. The process is not operating at an optimal point in any sense if no tradeoff has to be made to move to a new operating point. This algorithm ensures that operating points are optimal in some sense and provides the operator with information about tradeoffs when seeking the best operating point. The multiobjective algorithm was implemented in two different injection molding scenarios

  7. SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of multiple objectives is very important in designing environmentally benign processes. It requires a systematic procedure for solving multiobjective decision-making problems, due to the complex nature of the problems, the need for complex assessments, and complicated ...

  8. Multiple Object Retrieval in Image Databases Using Hierarchical Segmentation Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wei-Bang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a new visual information analysis, representation, and retrieval framework for automatic discovery of salient objects of user's interest in large-scale image databases. In particular, this dissertation describes a content-based image retrieval framework which supports multiple-object retrieval. The…

  9. Assessing Multiple Object Tracking in Young Children Using a Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryokai, Kimiko; Farzin, Faraz; Kaltman, Eric; Niemeyer, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Visual tracking of multiple objects in a complex scene is a critical survival skill. When we attempt to safely cross a busy street, follow a ball's position during a sporting event, or monitor children in a busy playground, we rely on our brain's capacity to selectively attend to and track the position of specific objects in a dynamic scene. This…

  10. A SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation and analysis of multiple objectives are very important in designing environmentally benign processes. They require a systematic procedure for solving multi-objective decision-making problems due to the complex nature of the problems and the need for complex assessment....

  11. Optimal relative view angles for an object viewed multiple times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilani, Syed U.; Shende, Apoorva; Nguyen, Bao; Stilwell, Daniel J.

    2015-05-01

    Typically, the detection of an object of interest improves as we view the object from multiple angles. For cases where viewing angle matters, object detection can be improved further by optimally selecting the relative angles of multiple views. This motivates the search for viewing angles that maximize the expected probability of detection. Although our work is motivated by applications in subsea sensing, our fundamental analysis is easily adapted for other classes of applications. The specific challenge that motivates our work is the selection of optimal viewing angles for subsea sensing in which sonar is used for bathymetric imaging.

  12. A PDP model of the simultaneous perception of multiple objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Cynthia M.; McClelland, James L.

    2011-06-01

    Illusory conjunctions in normal and simultanagnosic subjects are two instances where the visual features of multiple objects are incorrectly 'bound' together. A connectionist model explores how multiple objects could be perceived correctly in normal subjects given sufficient time, but could give rise to illusory conjunctions with damage or time pressure. In this model, perception of two objects benefits from lateral connections between hidden layers modelling aspects of the ventral and dorsal visual pathways. As with simultanagnosia, simulations of dorsal lesions impair multi-object recognition. In contrast, a large ventral lesion has minimal effect on dorsal functioning, akin to dissociations between simple object manipulation (retained in visual form agnosia and semantic dementia) and object discrimination (impaired in these disorders) [Hodges, J.R., Bozeat, S., Lambon Ralph, M.A., Patterson, K., and Spatt, J. (2000), 'The Role of Conceptual Knowledge: Evidence from Semantic Dementia', Brain, 123, 1913-1925; Milner, A.D., and Goodale, M.A. (2006), The Visual Brain in Action (2nd ed.), New York: Oxford]. It is hoped that the functioning of this model might suggest potential processes underlying dorsal and ventral contributions to the correct perception of multiple objects.

  13. An Approach for Addressing the Multiple Testing Problem in Social Policy Impact Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.

    2009-01-01

    In social policy evaluations, the multiple testing problem occurs due to the many hypothesis tests that are typically conducted across multiple outcomes and subgroups, which can lead to spurious impact findings. This article discusses a framework for addressing this problem that balances Types I and II errors. The framework involves specifying…

  14. Controlling the motion of multiple objects on a Chladni plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Quan; Sariola, Veikko; Latifi, Kourosh; Liimatainen, Ville

    2016-09-01

    The origin of the idea of moving objects by acoustic vibration can be traced back to 1787, when Ernst Chladni reported the first detailed studies on the aggregation of sand onto nodal lines of a vibrating plate. Since then and to this date, the prevailing view has been that the particle motion out of nodal lines is random, implying uncontrollability. But how random really is the out-of-nodal-lines motion on a Chladni plate? Here we show that the motion is sufficiently regular to be statistically modelled, predicted and controlled. By playing carefully selected musical notes, we can control the position of multiple objects simultaneously and independently using a single acoustic actuator. Our method allows independent trajectory following, pattern transformation and sorting of multiple miniature objects in a wide range of materials, including electronic components, water droplets loaded on solid carriers, plant seeds, candy balls and metal parts.

  15. Controlling the motion of multiple objects on a Chladni plate

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Quan; Sariola, Veikko; Latifi, Kourosh; Liimatainen, Ville

    2016-01-01

    The origin of the idea of moving objects by acoustic vibration can be traced back to 1787, when Ernst Chladni reported the first detailed studies on the aggregation of sand onto nodal lines of a vibrating plate. Since then and to this date, the prevailing view has been that the particle motion out of nodal lines is random, implying uncontrollability. But how random really is the out-of-nodal-lines motion on a Chladni plate? Here we show that the motion is sufficiently regular to be statistically modelled, predicted and controlled. By playing carefully selected musical notes, we can control the position of multiple objects simultaneously and independently using a single acoustic actuator. Our method allows independent trajectory following, pattern transformation and sorting of multiple miniature objects in a wide range of materials, including electronic components, water droplets loaded on solid carriers, plant seeds, candy balls and metal parts. PMID:27611347

  16. Controlling the motion of multiple objects on a Chladni plate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Quan; Sariola, Veikko; Latifi, Kourosh; Liimatainen, Ville

    2016-01-01

    The origin of the idea of moving objects by acoustic vibration can be traced back to 1787, when Ernst Chladni reported the first detailed studies on the aggregation of sand onto nodal lines of a vibrating plate. Since then and to this date, the prevailing view has been that the particle motion out of nodal lines is random, implying uncontrollability. But how random really is the out-of-nodal-lines motion on a Chladni plate? Here we show that the motion is sufficiently regular to be statistically modelled, predicted and controlled. By playing carefully selected musical notes, we can control the position of multiple objects simultaneously and independently using a single acoustic actuator. Our method allows independent trajectory following, pattern transformation and sorting of multiple miniature objects in a wide range of materials, including electronic components, water droplets loaded on solid carriers, plant seeds, candy balls and metal parts. PMID:27611347

  17. Multiple object tracking: anticipatory attention doesn't "bounce".

    PubMed

    Atsma, Jeroen; Koning, Arno; van Lier, Rob

    2012-01-01

    We investigated motion extrapolation in object tracking in two experiments. In Experiment 1, we used a multiple-object-tracking task (MOT; three targets, three distractors) combined with a probe detection task to investigate the distribution of attention around a target object. We found anisotropic probe detection rates with increased probe detection at locations where a target is heading. In Experiment 2, we introduced a black line (wall) in the center of the screen and block-wise manipulated the object's motion: either objects bounced realistically against the wall or objects went through the wall. Just before a target coincided with the wall, a probe could appear either along the bounce path or along the straight path. In addition to MOT, we included a single-object-tracking task (SOT; one target, five distractors) to control for attentional load. We found that linear extrapolation is dominant (better probe detection along the straight path than bounce path) regardless of attentional load and the motion condition. Anticipation of bouncing behavior did occur but only when attentional load was low. We conclude that attention is not tightly bound to moving target objects but encompasses the object's current position and the area in front of it. Furthermore, under the present experimental conditions, the visuo-attentional system does not seem to anticipate object bounces in the MOT task. PMID:23211268

  18. Towards Robust Designs Via Multiple-Objective Optimization Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Man Mohan, Rai

    2006-01-01

    Fabricating and operating complex systems involves dealing with uncertainty in the relevant variables. In the case of aircraft, flow conditions are subject to change during operation. Efficiency and engine noise may be different from the expected values because of manufacturing tolerances and normal wear and tear. Engine components may have a shorter life than expected because of manufacturing tolerances. In spite of the important effect of operating- and manufacturing-uncertainty on the performance and expected life of the component or system, traditional aerodynamic shape optimization has focused on obtaining the best design given a set of deterministic flow conditions. Clearly it is important to both maintain near-optimal performance levels at off-design operating conditions, and, ensure that performance does not degrade appreciably when the component shape differs from the optimal shape due to manufacturing tolerances and normal wear and tear. These requirements naturally lead to the idea of robust optimal design wherein the concept of robustness to various perturbations is built into the design optimization procedure. The basic ideas involved in robust optimal design will be included in this lecture. The imposition of the additional requirement of robustness results in a multiple-objective optimization problem requiring appropriate solution procedures. Typically the costs associated with multiple-objective optimization are substantial. Therefore efficient multiple-objective optimization procedures are crucial to the rapid deployment of the principles of robust design in industry. Hence the companion set of lecture notes (Single- and Multiple-Objective Optimization with Differential Evolution and Neural Networks ) deals with methodology for solving multiple-objective Optimization problems efficiently, reliably and with little user intervention. Applications of the methodologies presented in the companion lecture to robust design will be included here. The

  19. Multiple-View Object Recognition in Smart Camera Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Allen Y.; Maji, Subhransu; Christoudias, C. Mario; Darrell, Trevor; Malik, Jitendra; Sastry, S. Shankar

    We study object recognition in low-power, low-bandwidth smart camera networks. The ability to perform robust object recognition is crucial for applications such as visual surveillance to track and identify objects of interest, and overcome visual nuisances such as occlusion and pose variations between multiple camera views. To accommodate limited bandwidth between the cameras and the base-station computer, the method utilizes the available computational power on the smart sensors to locally extract SIFT-type image features to represent individual camera views. We show that between a network of cameras, high-dimensional SIFT histograms exhibit a joint sparse pattern corresponding to a set of shared features in 3-D. Such joint sparse patterns can be explicitly exploited to encode the distributed signal via random projections. At the network station, multiple decoding schemes are studied to simultaneously recover the multiple-view object features based on a distributed compressive sensing theory. The system has been implemented on the Berkeley CITRIC smart camera platform. The efficacy of the algorithm is validated through extensive simulation and experiment.

  20. A matter of tradeoffs: reintroduction as a multiple objective decision

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, Sarah J.; Moore, Clinton T.; Folk, Martin J.; Runge, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Decision making in guidance of reintroduction efforts is made challenging by the substantial scientific uncertainty typically involved. However, a less recognized challenge is that the management objectives are often numerous and complex. Decision makers managing reintroduction efforts are often concerned with more than just how to maximize the probability of reintroduction success from a population perspective. Decision makers are also weighing other concerns such as budget limitations, public support and/or opposition, impacts on the ecosystem, and the need to consider not just a single reintroduction effort, but conservation of the entire species. Multiple objective decision analysis is a powerful tool for formal analysis of such complex decisions. We demonstrate the use of multiple objective decision analysis in the case of the Florida non-migratory whooping crane reintroduction effort. In this case, the State of Florida was considering whether to resume releases of captive-reared crane chicks into the non-migratory whooping crane population in that state. Management objectives under consideration included maximizing the probability of successful population establishment, minimizing costs, maximizing public relations benefits, maximizing the number of birds available for alternative reintroduction efforts, and maximizing learning about the demographic patterns of reintroduced whooping cranes. The State of Florida engaged in a collaborative process with their management partners, first, to evaluate and characterize important uncertainties about system behavior, and next, to formally evaluate the tradeoffs between objectives using the Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique (SMART). The recommendation resulting from this process, to continue releases of cranes at a moderate intensity, was adopted by the State of Florida in late 2008. Although continued releases did not receive support from the International Whooping Crane Recovery Team, this approach does provide

  1. Multiple object tracking using the shortest path faster association algorithm.

    PubMed

    Xi, Zhenghao; Liu, Heping; Liu, Huaping; Yang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    To solve the persistently multiple object tracking in cluttered environments, this paper presents a novel tracking association approach based on the shortest path faster algorithm. First, the multiple object tracking is formulated as an integer programming problem of the flow network. Then we relax the integer programming to a standard linear programming problem. Therefore, the global optimum can be quickly obtained using the shortest path faster algorithm. The proposed method avoids the difficulties of integer programming, and it has a lower worst-case complexity than competing methods but better robustness and tracking accuracy in complex environments. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm takes less time than other state-of-the-art methods and can operate in real time.

  2. Electrophysiological Advances on Multiple Object Processing in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Veronica; Brignani, Debora

    2016-01-01

    EEG research conducted in the past 5 years on multiple object processing has begun to define how the aging brain tracks the numerosity of the objects presented in the visual field for different goals. We review the recent EEG findings in healthy older individuals (age range: 65–75 years approximately) on perceptual, attentional and memory mechanisms-reflected in the N1, N2pc and contralateral delayed activity (CDA) components of the EEG, respectively-during the execution of a variety of cognitive tasks requiring simultaneous processing of multiple elements. The findings point to multiple loci of neural changes in multi-object analysis, and suggest the involvement of early perceptual mechanisms, attentive individuation and working memory (WM) operations in the neural and cognitive modification due to aging. However, the findings do not simply reflect early impairments with a cascade effect over subsequent stages of stimulus processing, but in fact highlight interesting dissociations between the effects occurring at the various stages of stimulus processing. Finally, the results on older adults indicate the occurrence of neural overactivation in association to good levels of performance in easy perceptual contexts, thus providing some hints on the existence of compensatory phenomena that are associated with the functioning of early perceptual mechanisms. PMID:26973520

  3. Electrophysiological Advances on Multiple Object Processing in Aging.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Veronica; Brignani, Debora

    2016-01-01

    EEG research conducted in the past 5 years on multiple object processing has begun to define how the aging brain tracks the numerosity of the objects presented in the visual field for different goals. We review the recent EEG findings in healthy older individuals (age range: 65-75 years approximately) on perceptual, attentional and memory mechanisms-reflected in the N1, N2pc and contralateral delayed activity (CDA) components of the EEG, respectively-during the execution of a variety of cognitive tasks requiring simultaneous processing of multiple elements. The findings point to multiple loci of neural changes in multi-object analysis, and suggest the involvement of early perceptual mechanisms, attentive individuation and working memory (WM) operations in the neural and cognitive modification due to aging. However, the findings do not simply reflect early impairments with a cascade effect over subsequent stages of stimulus processing, but in fact highlight interesting dissociations between the effects occurring at the various stages of stimulus processing. Finally, the results on older adults indicate the occurrence of neural overactivation in association to good levels of performance in easy perceptual contexts, thus providing some hints on the existence of compensatory phenomena that are associated with the functioning of early perceptual mechanisms. PMID:26973520

  4. Multiple objects tracking with HOGs matching in circular windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miramontes-Jaramillo, Daniel; Kober, Vitaly; Díaz-Ramírez, Víctor H.

    2014-09-01

    In recent years tracking applications with development of new technologies like smart TVs, Kinect, Google Glass and Oculus Rift become very important. When tracking uses a matching algorithm, a good prediction algorithm is required to reduce the search area for each object to be tracked as well as processing time. In this work, we analyze the performance of different tracking algorithms based on prediction and matching for a real-time tracking multiple objects. The used matching algorithm utilizes histograms of oriented gradients. It carries out matching in circular windows, and possesses rotation invariance and tolerance to viewpoint and scale changes. The proposed algorithm is implemented in a personal computer with GPU, and its performance is analyzed in terms of processing time in real scenarios. Such implementation takes advantage of current technologies and helps to process video sequences in real-time for tracking several objects at the same time.

  5. Disability and Fatigue Can Be Objectively Measured in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Caterina; Palermo, Eduardo; Studer, Valeria; Germanotta, Marco; Germani, Giorgio; Centonze, Diego; Cappa, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Background The available clinical outcome measures of disability in multiple sclerosis are not adequately responsive or sensitive. Objective To investigate the feasibility of inertial sensor-based gait analysis in multiple sclerosis. Methods A cross-sectional study of 80 multiple sclerosis patients and 50 healthy controls was performed. Lower-limb kinematics was evaluated by using a commercially available magnetic inertial measurement unit system. Mean and standard deviation of range of motion (mROM, sROM) for each joint of lower limbs were calculated in one minute walking test. A motor performance index (E) defined as the sum of sROMs was proposed. Results We established two novel observer-independent measures of disability. Hip mROM was extremely sensitive in measuring lower limb motor impairment, being correlated with muscle strength and also altered in patients without clinically detectable disability. On the other hand, E index discriminated patients according to disability, being altered only in patients with moderate and severe disability, regardless of walking speed. It was strongly correlated with fatigue and patient-perceived health status. Conclusions Inertial sensor-based gait analysis is feasible and can detect clinical and subclinical disability in multiple sclerosis. PMID:26863109

  6. Focusing attention on objects of interest using multiple matched filters.

    PubMed

    Stough, T M; Brodley, C E

    2001-01-01

    In order to be of use to scientists, large image databases need to be analyzed to create a catalog of the objects of interest. One approach is to apply a multiple tiered search algorithm that uses reduction techniques of increasing computational complexity to select the desired objects from the database. The first tier of this type of algorithm, often called a focus of attention (FOA) algorithm, selects candidate regions from the image data and passes them to the next tier of the algorithm. In this paper we present a new approach to FOA that employs multiple matched filters (MMF), one for each object prototype, to detect the regions of interest. The MMFs are formed using k-means clustering on a set of image patches identified by domain experts as positive examples of objects of interest. An innovation of the approach is to radically reduce the dimensionality of the feature space, used by the k-means algorithm, by taking block averages (spoiling) the sample image patches. The process of spoiling is analyzed and its applicability to other domains is discussed. The combination of the output of the MMFs is achieved through the projection of the detections back into an empty image and then thresholding. This research was motivated by the need to detect small volcanos in the Magellan probe data from Venus. An empirical evaluation of the approach illustrates that a combination of the MMF plus the average filter results in a higher likelihood of 100% detection of the objects of interest at a lower false positive rate than a single matched filter alone. PMID:18249631

  7. A scalable parallel algorithm for multiple objective linear programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiecek, Malgorzata M.; Zhang, Hong

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an ADBASE-based parallel algorithm for solving multiple objective linear programs (MOLP's). Job balance, speedup and scalability are of primary interest in evaluating efficiency of the new algorithm. Implementation results on Intel iPSC/2 and Paragon multiprocessors show that the algorithm significantly speeds up the process of solving MOLP's, which is understood as generating all or some efficient extreme points and unbounded efficient edges. The algorithm gives specially good results for large and very large problems. Motivation and justification for solving such large MOLP's are also included.

  8. System and method for inventorying multiple remote objects

    DOEpatents

    Carrender, Curtis L.; Gilbert, Ronald W.

    2009-12-29

    A system and method of inventorying multiple objects utilizing a multi-level or a chained radio frequency identification system. The system includes a master tag and a plurality of upper level tags and lower level tags associated with respective objects. The upper and lower level tags communicate with each other and the master tag so that reading of the master tag reveals the presence and absence of upper and lower level tags. In the chained RF system, the upper and lower level tags communicate locally with each other in a manner so that more remote tags that are out of range of some of the upper and lower level tags have their information relayed through adjacent tags to the master tag and thence to a controller.

  9. System and method for inventorying multiple remote objects

    DOEpatents

    Carrender, Curtis L.; Gilbert, Ronald W.

    2007-10-23

    A system and method of inventorying multiple objects utilizing a multi-level or a chained radio frequency identification system. The system includes a master tag and a plurality of upper level tags and lower level tags associated with respective objects. The upper and lower level tags communicate with each other and the master tag so that reading of the master tag reveals the presence and absence of upper and lower level tags. In the chained RF system, the upper and lower level tags communicate locally with each other in a manner so that more remote tags that are out of range of some of the upper and lower level tags have their information relayed through adjacent tags to the master tag and thence to a controller.

  10. Investigating the Status of Biological Stimuli as Objects of Attention in Multiple Object Tracking

    PubMed Central

    de-Wit, Lee H.; Lefevre, Carmen E.; Kentridge, Robert W.; Rees, Geraint; Saygin, Ayse P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Humans are able to track multiple simultaneously moving objects. A number of factors have been identified that can influence the ease with which objects can be attended and tracked. Here, we explored the possibility that object tracking abilities may be specialized for tracking biological targets such as people. Methodology/Principal Findings We used the Multiple Object Tracking (MOT) paradigm to explore whether the high-level biological status of the targets affects the efficiency of attentional selection and tracking. In Experiment 1, we assessed the tracking of point-light biological motion figures. As controls, we used either the same stimuli or point-light letters, presented in upright, inverted or scrambled configurations. While scrambling significantly affected performance for both letters and point-light figures, there was an effect of inversion restricted to biological motion, inverted figures being harder to track. In Experiment 2, we found that tracking performance was equivalent for natural point-light walkers and ‘moon-walkers’, whose implied direction was incongruent with their actual direction of motion. In Experiment 3, we found higher tracking accuracy for inverted faces compared with upright faces. Thus, there was a double dissociation between inversion effects for biological motion and faces, with no inversion effect for our non-biological stimuli (letters, houses). Conclusions/Significance MOT is sensitive to some, but not all naturalistic aspects of biological stimuli. There does not appear to be a highly specialized role for tracking people. However, MOT appears constrained by principles of object segmentation and grouping, where effectively grouped, coherent objects, but not necessarily biological objects, are tracked most successfully. PMID:21483844

  11. Multiple Object Tracking Using K-Shortest Paths Optimization.

    PubMed

    Berclaz, Jérôme; Fleuret, François; Türetken, Engin; Fua, Pascal

    2011-09-01

    Multi-object tracking can be achieved by detecting objects in individual frames and then linking detections across frames. Such an approach can be made very robust to the occasional detection failure: If an object is not detected in a frame but is in previous and following ones, a correct trajectory will nevertheless be produced. By contrast, a false-positive detection in a few frames will be ignored. However, when dealing with a multiple target problem, the linking step results in a difficult optimization problem in the space of all possible families of trajectories. This is usually dealt with by sampling or greedy search based on variants of Dynamic Programming which can easily miss the global optimum. In this paper, we show that reformulating that step as a constrained flow optimization results in a convex problem. We take advantage of its particular structure to solve it using the k-shortest paths algorithm, which is very fast. This new approach is far simpler formally and algorithmically than existing techniques and lets us demonstrate excellent performance in two very different contexts.

  12. Multiple instance dictionary learning for subsurface object detection using handheld EMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Alina; Cook, Matthew; Alvey, Brendan; Ho, Dominic K.

    2015-05-01

    A dictionary learning approach for subsurface object detection using handheld electromagnetic induction (EMI) data is presented. A large number of unsupervised and supervised dictionary learning methods have been developed in the literature. However, the majority of these methods require data point-specific labels during training. In the application to subsurface object detection, often the specific training data samples that correspond to target and non-target are not known and difficult to determine manually. In this paper, a dictionary learning method that addresses this issue using the multiple instance learning techniques is presented. Results are shown on real EMI data sets.

  13. Interactive actuation of multiple opto-thermocapillary flow-addressed bubble microrobots

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wenqi; Fan, Qihui; Ohta, Aaron T

    2014-01-01

    Opto-thermocapillary flow-addressed bubble (OFB) microrobots are a potential tool for the efficient transportation of micro-objects. This microrobot system uses light patterns to generate thermal gradients within a liquid medium, creating thermocapillary forces that actuate the bubble microrobots. An interactive control system that includes scanning mirrors and a touchscreen interface was developed to address up to ten OFB microrobots. Using this system, the parallel and cooperative transportation of 20-μm-diameter polystyrene beads was demonstrated. PMID:25678988

  14. Stereo vision tracking of multiple objects in complex indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Marrón-Romera, Marta; García, Juan C; Sotelo, Miguel A; Pizarro, Daniel; Mazo, Manuel; Cañas, José M; Losada, Cristina; Marcos, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel system capable of solving the problem of tracking multiple targets in a crowded, complex and dynamic indoor environment, like those typical of mobile robot applications. The proposed solution is based on a stereo vision set in the acquisition step and a probabilistic algorithm in the obstacles position estimation process. The system obtains 3D position and speed information related to each object in the robot's environment; then it achieves a classification between building elements (ceiling, walls, columns and so on) and the rest of items in robot surroundings. All objects in robot surroundings, both dynamic and static, are considered to be obstacles but the structure of the environment itself. A combination of a Bayesian algorithm and a deterministic clustering process is used in order to obtain a multimodal representation of speed and position of detected obstacles. Performance of the final system has been tested against state of the art proposals; test results validate the authors' proposal. The designed algorithms and procedures provide a solution to those applications where similar multimodal data structures are found.

  15. Design of Spacecraft Missions to Remove Multiple Orbital Debris Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent W.; Alfano, Salvatore; Pinon, Elfego; Gold, Kenn; Gaylor, David

    2012-01-01

    The amount of hazardous debris in Earth orbit has been increasing, posing an evergreater danger to space assets and human missions. In January of 2007, a Chinese ASAT test produced approximately 2600 pieces of orbital debris. In February of 2009, Iridium 33 collided with an inactive Russian satellite, yielding approximately 1300 pieces of debris. These recent disastrous events and the sheer size of the Earth orbiting population make clear the necessity of removing orbital debris. In fact, experts from both NASA and ESA have stated that 10 to 20 pieces of orbital debris need to be removed per year to stabilize the orbital debris environment. However, no spacecraft trajectories have yet been designed for removing multiple debris objects and the size of the debris population makes the design of such trajectories a daunting task. Designing an efficient spacecraft trajectory to rendezvous with each of a large number of orbital debris pieces is akin to the famous Traveling Salesman problem, an NP-complete combinatorial optimization problem in which a number of cities are to be visited in turn. The goal is to choose the order in which the cities are visited so as to minimize the total path distance traveled. In the case of orbital debris, the pieces of debris to be visited must be selected and ordered such that spacecraft propellant consumption is minimized or at least kept low enough to be feasible. Emergent Space Technologies, Inc. has developed specialized algorithms for designing efficient tour missions for near-Earth asteroids that may be applied to the design of efficient spacecraft missions capable of visiting large numbers of orbital debris pieces. The first step is to identify a list of high priority debris targets using the Analytical Graphics, Inc. SOCRATES website and then obtain their state information from Celestrak. The tour trajectory design algorithms will then be used to determine the itinerary of objects and v requirements. These results will shed light

  16. Optimizing multiple dam removals under multiple objectives: Linking tributary habitat and the Lake Erie ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Pearl Q.; Hobbs, Benjamin F.; Koonce, Joseph F.

    2009-12-01

    A model is proposed for optimizing the net benefits of removing multiple dams in U.S. watersheds of Lake Erie by quantifying impacts upon social, ecological, and economic objectives of importance to managers and stakeholders. Explicit consideration is given to the linkages between newly accessible tributary habitat and the lake's ecosystem. The model is a mixed integer linear program (MILP) that selects a portfolio of potential dam removals that could achieve the best possible value of a weighted sum of the objective(s), while still satisfying the constraints. Using response functions extracted from the Lake Erie Ecological Model and an empirical cost model, the MILP accounts for ecological and economic effects of habitat changes for both desirable native walleye and undesirable sea lamprey. The solutions show the effect on removal decisions of alternative prioritizations among cost and environmental objectives and the resulting trade-offs among those objectives. The MILP can be used as a screening model to identify portfolios of dam removals that are potentially cost-effective enhancements of habitat and the Lake Erie ecosystem; subsequent site-specific studies would be needed prior to actually removing dams.

  17. Addressing the Multiple Drivers of Wetland Ecosystems Degradation in Lagos, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agboola, J.; Ndimele, P. E.; Odunuga, S.; Akanni, A.; Kosemani, B.; Ahove, M.

    2015-12-01

    Several body of knowledge have noted the importance of wetland ecosystems in climate moderation, resource supply and flood risk reduction amongst others. Relevant as it may, rapidly increasing population and uncontrolled urban development poses a challenge in some regions and require understanding of the ecosystem components and drivers of change over a long period of time. Thus, the main thrust of this paper is to analyse multiple drivers of wetland ecosystems degradation in the last 30 years in the Lagos megacity using field study, desktop review, satellite data and laboratory analysis. Key drivers identified includes: conversion of wetlands to settlements and waste sink, land use planning that neglects wetland conservation and restoration, ineffective legal status for wetlands, over exploitation leading to degradation and fragmentation of wetland ecosystems governance. In stemming further loss of this vital ecosystem, this study adopted and proposed respectively, the Drivers, Pressure, State, Impact and Response (DPSIR) and Integrated Planning Approach (IPA) frameworks in analysing policy and governance issues in wetland development. These analyses figured out amongst others, strict conservation and sustainable use of wetland resources, habitat restoration, climate adaptation measures, legal protection and wetland management institution as major responses to current multiple pressures facing wetland ecosystems in Lagos. For these frameworks to be made meaningful, weak coordination among government agencies and institutional capacity in implementation and law enforcement, unsustainable resource extraction by private/business organization and issues on alternative sources of income on the part of the local communities amongst others needs to be addressed.

  18. The Transfer of Object Learning after Training with Multiple Exemplars

    PubMed Central

    Baeck, Annelies; Maes, Karen; Meel, Chayenne Van; Op de Beeck, Hans P.

    2016-01-01

    Object recognition improves with training. This training effect only partially generalizes to untrained images of the trained objects (new exemplars, orientation,…). The aim of this study is to investigate whether and to what extent the learning transfer improves when participants are trained with more exemplars of an object. Participants were trained to recognize two sets of stimuli using a backward masking paradigm. During training with the first set, only one exemplar of each object was presented. The second set was trained using four exemplars of each object. After 3 days of training, participants were tested on all the trained exemplars and a completely new exemplar of the same objects. In addition, recognition performance was compared to a set of completely new objects. For the objects of which four exemplars were used during training, participants showed more generalization toward new exemplars compared to when they were only trained with one exemplar. Part of the generalization effect extended to completely new objects. In conclusion, more variation during training leads to more generalization toward new visual stimuli. PMID:27708596

  19. Managing and learning with multiple models: Objectives and optimization algorithms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Probert, William J. M.; Hauser, C.E.; McDonald-Madden, E.; Runge, M.C.; Baxter, P.W.J.; Possingham, H.P.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of environmental decisions should be gauged according to managers' objectives. Management objectives generally seek to maximize quantifiable measures of system benefit, for instance population growth rate. Reaching these goals often requires a certain degree of learning about the system. Learning can occur by using management action in combination with a monitoring system. Furthermore, actions can be chosen strategically to obtain specific kinds of information. Formal decision making tools can choose actions to favor such learning in two ways: implicitly via the optimization algorithm that is used when there is a management objective (for instance, when using adaptive management), or explicitly by quantifying knowledge and using it as the fundamental project objective, an approach new to conservation.This paper outlines three conservation project objectives - a pure management objective, a pure learning objective, and an objective that is a weighted mixture of these two. We use eight optimization algorithms to choose actions that meet project objectives and illustrate them in a simulated conservation project. The algorithms provide a taxonomy of decision making tools in conservation management when there is uncertainty surrounding competing models of system function. The algorithms build upon each other such that their differences are highlighted and practitioners may see where their decision making tools can be improved. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Object Location Memory: Integration and Competition between Multiple Context Objects but Not between Observers' Body and Context Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mou, Weimin; Spetch, Marcia L.

    2013-01-01

    Five experiments examined the integration and competition between body and context objects in locating an object. Participants briefly viewed a target object in a virtual environment and detected whether the target object was moved or not after a 10 s interval. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that performance when both the observer body and the context…

  1. Abandonment and reconciliation: addressing political and common law objections to fetal homicide laws.

    PubMed

    Curran, Douglas S

    2009-03-01

    Fetal homicide laws criminalize killing a fetus largely to the same extent as killing any other human being. Historically, the common law did not generally recognize feticide as a crime, but this was because of the evidentiary "born-alive" rule, not because of the substantive understanding of the term "human being." As medicine and science have advanced, states have become increasingly willing to abandon this evidentiary rule and to criminalize feticide as homicide. Although most states have recognized the crime of fetal homicide, fourteen have not. This is largely the result of two independent obstacles: (judicial) adherence to the born-alive rule and (legislative) concern that fetal homicide laws could erode constitutionally protected reproductive rights. This Note explores a variety of fetal homicide laws that states have adopted, demonstrating that popular opinion has shifted toward recognizing this crime. It then directly confronts the objections that have prevented other states from adopting such laws: it first reviews the literature suggesting that the born-alive rule should be abandoned, as it is an obsolete evidentiary standard; it then argues that constitutionally protected reproductive liberties can be reconciled with, and in fact augmented by, punishing the killing of a fetus as a homicide. PMID:19353836

  2. A multiple objective optimization approach to aircraft control systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabak, D.; Schy, A. A.; Johnson, K. G.; Giesy, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    The design of an aircraft lateral control system, subject to several performance criteria and constraints, is considered. While in the previous studies of the same model a single criterion optimization, with other performance requirements expressed as constraints, has been pursued, the current approach involves a multiple criteria optimization. In particular, a Pareto optimal solution is sought.

  3. Object representations at multiple scales from digital elevation models

    PubMed Central

    Drăguţ, Lucian; Eisank, Clemens

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade landform classification and mapping has developed as one of the most active areas of geomorphometry. However, translation from continuous models of elevation and its derivatives (slope, aspect, and curvatures) to landform divisions (landforms and landform elements) is filtered by two important concepts: scale and object ontology. Although acknowledged as being important, these two issues have received surprisingly little attention. This contribution provides an overview and prospects of object representation from DEMs as a function of scale. Relationships between object delineation and classification or regionalization are explored, in the context of differences between general and specific geomorphometry. A review of scales issues in geomorphometry—ranging from scale effects to scale optimization techniques—is followed by an analysis of pros and cons of using cells and objects in DEM analysis. Prospects for coupling multi-scale analysis and object delineation are then discussed. Within this context, we propose discrete geomorphometry as a possible approach between general and specific geomorphometry. Discrete geomorphometry would apply to and describe land-surface divisions defined solely by the criteria of homogeneity in respect to a given land-surface parameter or a combination of several parameters. Homogeneity, in its turn, should always be relative to scale. PMID:21760655

  4. Object representations at multiple scales from digital elevation models.

    PubMed

    Drăguţ, Lucian; Eisank, Clemens

    2011-06-15

    In the last decade landform classification and mapping has developed as one of the most active areas of geomorphometry. However, translation from continuous models of elevation and its derivatives (slope, aspect, and curvatures) to landform divisions (landforms and landform elements) is filtered by two important concepts: scale and object ontology. Although acknowledged as being important, these two issues have received surprisingly little attention.This contribution provides an overview and prospects of object representation from DEMs as a function of scale. Relationships between object delineation and classification or regionalization are explored, in the context of differences between general and specific geomorphometry. A review of scales issues in geomorphometry-ranging from scale effects to scale optimization techniques-is followed by an analysis of pros and cons of using cells and objects in DEM analysis. Prospects for coupling multi-scale analysis and object delineation are then discussed. Within this context, we propose discrete geomorphometry as a possible approach between general and specific geomorphometry. Discrete geomorphometry would apply to and describe land-surface divisions defined solely by the criteria of homogeneity in respect to a given land-surface parameter or a combination of several parameters. Homogeneity, in its turn, should always be relative to scale. PMID:21760655

  5. Attention to Multiple Cues during Spontaneous Object Labeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Rachel; Mareschal, Denis; Rakison, David H.

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that 2-year-olds attribute a novel label to an object's global shape rather than local features (i.e., parts). Although recent studies have found that younger infants also attend to global rather than local features when given a label, the test stimuli in these experiments confounded parts and shape by varying both or…

  6. Academic Administration: Planning, Budgeting, and Decision Making with Multiple Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang M.; Van Horn, James C.

    A systematic approach to the management of higher education institutions is described. The methodology combines administration by objectives (ABO), a management technique that helps academic administrators structure decisions in a systematic manner, with goal programming (GP), a decision-science tool that is ideally suited to the analysis of…

  7. Addressing multiple breast cancer risk factors in African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Stolley, Melinda R.; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Wells, Anita; Martinovich, Zoran

    2004-01-01

    This pilot study explored the acceptability and feasibility of and estimated the effectiveness of a weight loss/breast health intervention designed to reduce breast cancer risk in African-American women ages 35-65. The study had a one-group repeated-measures design and took place in a community setting. Forty-four African-American women were recruited, 35 completed the program, and 30 returned for the one-year follow-up. The pilot intervention was three weeks in duration and included twice-weekly exercise classes and weekly active learning seminars that addressed weight loss, breast health, healthy eating, and leading an active life. Measures included those of behavior related to diet, physical activity, and breast health. Satisfaction questionnaires and focus groups were also used to assess acceptability and cultural competency. Statistical analyses included Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed ranks tests. Significant results postintervention showed improved physical activity, dietary, and breast health behaviors. Results suggest the acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness of this comprehensive weight/loss breast health program in reducing multiple breast cancer risk factors among African-American women. PMID:14746356

  8. Transit telescope designs optimized for multiple object spectroscopy with fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.

    1982-01-01

    Instruments to simultaneously study the spectra of many objects in the field of view of a telescope can be made using fused silica fibers. The spectrograph at the 2.3m telescope of the University of Arizona has been modified for such operation, and is used routinely to study the dynamics of galaxy clusters. Consideration has been given to how the multifiber technique can best be used to obtain spectra of the many faint objects identified by deep transit survey instruments and new space and radio telescopes. A transit survey such as that planned by McGraw et al. (1980), with CCDs at the focus of a 2m transit telescope, will identify objects down to 24th magnitude, and down to 22nd magnitude will give very complete data on variability and optical energy distribution. A telescope with much larger aperture is required for spectroscopic follow up. It is suggested that large telescopes dedicated to this type of work can be made and operated for only a fraction of the cost of a general-purpose telescope.

  9. Multiple Level Crowding: Crowding at the Object Parts Level and at the Object Configural level.

    PubMed

    Kimchi, Ruth; Pirkner, Yossef

    2015-01-01

    In crowding, identification of a peripheral target in the presence of nearby flankers is worse than when the target appears alone. Prevailing theories hold that crowding occurs because of integration or "pooling" of low-level features at a single, relatively early stage of visual processing. Recent studies suggest that crowding can occur also between high-level object representations. The most relevant findings come from studies with faces and may be specific to faces. We examined whether crowding can occur at the object configural level in addition to part-level crowding, using nonface objects. Target (a disconnected square or diamond made of four elements) identification was measured at varying eccentricities. The flankers were similar either to the target parts or to the target configuration. The results showed crowding in both cases: Flankers interfered with target identification such that identification accuracy decreased with an increase in eccentricity, and no interference was observed at the fovea. Crowding by object parts, however, was weaker and had smaller spatial extent than crowding by object configurations; we related this finding to the relationship between crowding and perceptual organization. These results provide strong evidence that crowding occurs not only between object parts but also between configural representations of objects.

  10. Real-time optical holographic tracking of multiple objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1989-01-01

    A coherent optical correlation technique for real-time simultaneous tracking of several different objects making independent movements is described, and experimental results are presented. An evaluation of this system compared with digital computing systems is made. The real-time processing capability is obtained through the use of a liquid crystal television spatial light modulator and a dichromated gelatin multifocus hololens. A coded reference beam is utilized in the separation of the output correlation plane associated with each input target so that independent tracking can be achieved.

  11. Additivity of Feature-Based and Symmetry-Based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chundi; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Yongna; Lyu, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the “laws of perceptual organization” proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape) among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. “Additive effect” refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The “where” and “what” pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect. PMID:27199875

  12. Additivity of Feature-Based and Symmetry-Based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chundi; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Yongna; Lyu, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the "laws of perceptual organization" proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape) among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. "Additive effect" refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The "where" and "what" pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect.

  13. Efficient Multiple Object Tracking Using Mutually Repulsive Active Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yi; Coen, Philip; Sun, Mingzhai; Shaevitz, Joshua W.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of social and group behavior in interacting organisms require high-throughput analysis of the motion of a large number of individual subjects. Computer vision techniques offer solutions to specific tracking problems, and allow automated and efficient tracking with minimal human intervention. In this work, we adopt the open active contour model to track the trajectories of moving objects at high density. We add repulsive interactions between open contours to the original model, treat the trajectories as an extrusion in the temporal dimension, and show applications to two tracking problems. The walking behavior of Drosophila is studied at different population density and gender composition. We demonstrate that individual male flies have distinct walking signatures, and that the social interaction between flies in a mixed gender arena is gender specific. We also apply our model to studies of trajectories of gliding Myxococcus xanthus bacteria at high density. We examine the individual gliding behavioral statistics in terms of the gliding speed distribution. Using these two examples at very distinctive spatial scales, we illustrate the use of our algorithm on tracking both short rigid bodies (Drosophila) and long flexible objects (Myxococcus xanthus). Our repulsive active membrane model reaches error rates better than per fly per second for Drosophila tracking and comparable results for Myxococcus xanthus. PMID:23799046

  14. The Effect of Visual Distinctiveness on Multiple Object Tracking Performance

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Piers D. L.; Holcombe, Alex O.

    2012-01-01

    Observers often need to attentively track moving objects. In everyday life, such objects are often visually distinctive. Previous studies have shown that tracking accuracy is increased when the targets contain a visual feature (e.g., a color) not possessed by the distractors. Conversely, a gain in tracking accuracy was not observed when the targets differed from the distractors by only a conjunction of features (Makovski and Jiang, 2009a). In this study we confirm that some conjunction targets have relatively little effect on tracking accuracy, but show that other conjunction targets can significantly aid tracking. For example, tracking accuracy is relatively high when the targets are small red squares and half the distractors are large red squares while the remaining distractors are small green squares. This seems to occur because the targets have a set of features (small and red) not shared by any one distractor. Attending to these features directs attention more to the targets than the distractors, thereby making the targets easier to track. Existing theories of attentive tracking cannot explain these results. PMID:22969738

  15. A data reduction package for multiple object spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. M.; Eisenhamer, J. D.; Silva, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    Experience with fiber-optic spectrometers has demonstrated improvements in observing efficiency for clusters of 30 or more objects that must in turn be matched by data reduction capability increases. The Medusa Automatic Reduction System reduces data generated by multiobject spectrometers in the form of two-dimensional images containing 44 to 66 individual spectra, using both software and hardware improvements to efficiently extract the one-dimensional spectra. Attention is given to the ridge-finding algorithm for automatic location of the spectra in the CCD frame. A simultaneous extraction of calibration frames allows an automatic wavelength calibration routine to determine dispersion curves, and both line measurements and cross-correlation techniques are used to determine galaxy redshifts.

  16. Addressable single-spin control in multiple quantum dots coupled in series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    Electron spin in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) is promising building block of quantum computers for its controllability and potential scalability. Recent experiments on GaAs QDs have demonstrated necessary ingredients of universal quantum gate operations: single-spin rotations by electron spin resonance (ESR) which is virtually free from the effect of nuclear spin fluctuation, and pulsed control of two-spin entanglement. The scalability of this architecture, however, has remained to be demonstrated in the real world. In this talk, we will present our recent results on implementing single-spin-based qubits in triple, quadruple, and quintuple QDs based on a series coupled architecture defined by gate electrodes. Deterministic initialization of individual spin states and spin-state readout were performed by the pulse operation of detuning between two neighboring QDs. The spin state was coherently manipulated by ESR, where each spin in different QDs is addressed by the shift of the resonance frequency due to the inhomogeneous magnetic field induced by the micro magnet deposited on top of the QDs. Control of two-spin entanglement was also demonstrated. We will discuss key issues for implementing quantum algorithms based on three or more qubits, including the effect of a nuclear spin bath, single-shot readout fidelity, and tuning of multiple qubit devices. Our approaches to these issues will be also presented. This research is supported by Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology (FIRST) from JSPS, IARPA project ``Multi-Qubit Coherent Operations'' through Copenhagen University, and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from JSPS.

  17. Semantic relatedness among objects promotes the activation of multiple phonological codes during object naming.

    PubMed

    Oppermann, Frank; Jescheniak, Jorg D; Schriefers, Herbert; Gorges, Frauke

    2010-02-01

    In a picture-word interference experiment the authors demonstrate that a semantic-categorical relation between a to-be-named target picture and a context picture promotes the phonological activation of the to-be-ignored context picture. No such phonological activation is observed if the objects are semantically unrelated. This finding gives further insight into the mechanisms that modulate the activation flow in the conceptual-lexical system during speech planning. In contrast to recent picture-picture interference studies, the results provide direct evidence that the phonological activation of a context object is dependent on its semantic processing. PMID:19557668

  18. A Mobile Service Oriented Multiple Object Tracking Augmented Reality Architecture for Education and Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rattanarungrot, Sasithorn; White, Martin; Newbury, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design of our service-oriented architecture to support mobile multiple object tracking augmented reality applications applied to education and learning scenarios. The architecture is composed of a mobile multiple object tracking augmented reality client, a web service framework, and dynamic content providers. Tracking of…

  19. Young Children's Understanding of Multiple Object Identity: Appearance, Pretense and Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelev, Maxim; Markman, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    Evidence from theory-of-mind tasks suggests that young children have substantial difficulty thinking about multiple object identity and multiple versions of reality. On the other hand, evidence from children's understanding of pretense indicates that children have little trouble understanding dual object identity and counterfactual scenarios that…

  20. A Novel Multiple Objective Optimization Framework for Constraining Conductance-Based Neuron Models by Experimental Data

    PubMed Central

    Druckmann, Shaul; Banitt, Yoav; Gidon, Albert; Schürmann, Felix; Markram, Henry; Segev, Idan

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel framework for automatically constraining parameters of compartmental models of neurons, given a large set of experimentally measured responses of these neurons. In experiments, intrinsic noise gives rise to a large variability (e.g., in firing pattern) in the voltage responses to repetitions of the exact same input. Thus, the common approach of fitting models by attempting to perfectly replicate, point by point, a single chosen trace out of the spectrum of variable responses does not seem to do justice to the data. In addition, finding a single error function that faithfully characterizes the distance between two spiking traces is not a trivial pursuit. To address these issues, one can adopt a multiple objective optimization approach that allows the use of several error functions jointly. When more than one error function is available, the comparison between experimental voltage traces and model response can be performed on the basis of individual features of interest (e.g., spike rate, spike width). Each feature can be compared between model and experimental mean, in units of its experimental variability, thereby incorporating into the fitting this variability. We demonstrate the success of this approach, when used in conjunction with genetic algorithm optimization, in generating an excellent fit between model behavior and the firing pattern of two distinct electrical classes of cortical interneurons, accommodating and fast-spiking. We argue that the multiple, diverse models generated by this method could serve as the building blocks for the realistic simulation of large neuronal networks. PMID:18982116

  1. Adaptation of a Counseling Intervention to Address Multiple Cancer Risk Factors among Overweight/Obese Latino Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Yessenia; Fernández, Maria E.; Strong, Larkin L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Krasny, Sarah; Hernandez Robles, Eden; Heredia, Natalia; Spears, Claire A.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Eakin, Elizabeth; Resnicow, Ken; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Wetter, David W.

    2015-01-01

    More than 60% of cancer-related deaths in the United States are attributable to tobacco use, poor nutrition, and physical inactivity, and these risk factors tend to cluster together. Thus, strategies for cancer risk reduction would benefit from addressing multiple health risk behaviors. We adapted an evidence-based intervention grounded in social…

  2. Addressing Gender-Based Violence at Schools for Learners with Intellectual Disability in Gauteng, South Africa: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phasha, T. N.; Nyokangi, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports part of the findings of the study which investigated sexual violence at two schools catering specifically for learners with mild intellectual disability in Gauteng Province. It looks particularly on participants' suggestions for addressing sexual violence in such school. A multiple case study within the qualitative research…

  3. Can attention be confined to just part of a moving object? Revisiting target-distractor merging in multiple object tracking.

    PubMed

    Howe, Piers D; Incledon, Natalie C; Little, Daniel R

    2012-01-01

    While it was initially thought that attention was space-based, more recent work has shown that attention can also be object-based, in that observers find it easier to attend to different parts of the same object than to different parts of different objects. Such studies have shown that attention more easily spreads throughout an object than between objects. However, it is not known to what extent attention can be confined to just part of an object and to what extent attending to part of an object necessarily causes the entire object to be attended. We have investigated this question in the context of the multiple object tracking paradigm in which subjects are shown a scene containing a number of identical moving objects and asked to mentally track a subset of them, the targets, while not tracking the remainder, the distractors. Previous work has shown that joining each target to a distractor by a solid connector so that each target-distractor pair forms a single physical object, a technique known as target-distractor merging, makes it hard to track the targets, suggesting that attention cannot be restricted to just parts of objects. However, in that study the target-distractor pairs continuously changed length, which in itself would have made tracking difficult. Here we show that it remains difficult to track the targets even when the target-distractor pairs do not change length and even when the targets can be differentiated from the connectors that join them to the distractors. Our experiments suggest that it is hard to confine attention to just parts of objects, at least in the case of moving objects.

  4. Can Attention Be Confined to Just Part of a Moving Object? Revisiting Target-Distractor Merging in Multiple Object Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Piers D.; Incledon, Natalie C.; Little, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    While it was initially thought that attention was space-based, more recent work has shown that attention can also be object-based, in that observers find it easier to attend to different parts of the same object than to different parts of different objects. Such studies have shown that attention more easily spreads throughout an object than between objects. However, it is not known to what extent attention can be confined to just part of an object and to what extent attending to part of an object necessarily causes the entire object to be attended. We have investigated this question in the context of the multiple object tracking paradigm in which subjects are shown a scene containing a number of identical moving objects and asked to mentally track a subset of them, the targets, while not tracking the remainder, the distractors. Previous work has shown that joining each target to a distractor by a solid connector so that each target-distractor pair forms a single physical object, a technique known as target-distractor merging, makes it hard to track the targets, suggesting that attention cannot be restricted to just parts of objects. However, in that study the target-distractor pairs continuously changed length, which in itself would have made tracking difficult. Here we show that it remains difficult to track the targets even when the target-distractor pairs do not change length and even when the targets can be differentiated from the connectors that join them to the distractors. Our experiments suggest that it is hard to confine attention to just parts of objects, at least in the case of moving objects. PMID:22859990

  5. Comic Relief: Graduate Students Address Multiple Meanings for Technology Integration with Digital Comic Creation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockman, Beth Rajan; Sutton, Rhonda; Herrmann, Michele

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the usefulness of digital comic creation with 77 graduate students in a teacher technology course. Students completed an assigned reading and created digital comics that addressed technology integration concerns in the schools and society. Using practical action research, 77 student-created comics were analyzed. The findings…

  6. Multiple views to address diversity issues: an initial dialog to advance the chiropractic profession

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Claire; Killinger, Lisa Zaynab; Christensen, Mark G.; Hyland, John K.; Mrozek, John P.; Zuker, R. Fred; Kizhakkeveettil, Anupama; Perle, Stephen M.; Oyelowo, Tolu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide expert viewpoints on the topic of diversity in the chiropractic profession, including cultural competency, diversity in the profession, educational and clinical practice strategies for addressing diversity, and workforce issues. Over the next decades, changing demographics in North America will alter how the chiropractic profession functions on many levels. As the population increases in diversity, we will need to prepare our workforce to meet the needs of future patients and society. PMID:23966884

  7. Attentional Signatures of Perception: Multiple Object Tracking Reveals the Automaticity of Contour Interpolation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Brian P.; Mettler, Everett; Tsoi, Vicky; Kellman, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is an attentional task wherein observers attempt to track multiple targets among moving distractors. Contour interpolation is a perceptual process that fills-in nonvisible edges on the basis of how surrounding edges (inducers) are spatiotemporally related. In five experiments, we explored the automaticity of…

  8. Attending to multiple objects relies on both feature- and dimension-based control mechanisms: Evidence from human electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Töllner, Thomas; Conci, Markus; Müller, Hermann J; Mazza, Veronica

    2016-10-01

    Numerous everyday search tasks require humans to attentionally select and temporally store more than one object present in the visual environment. Recently, several enumeration studies sought to isolate the mechanisms underlying multiple object processing by means of electrophysiological measures, which led to a more fine-grained picture as to which processing stages are modulated by object numerosity. One critical limitation that most of these studies share is that they used stimulus designs in which multiple targets were exclusively defined by the same feature value. Accordingly, it remains an open issue whether these findings generalize to search scenarios in which multiple targets are physically not identical. To systematically address this issue, we introduced three target context conditions in which multiple targets were defined randomly by (1) the same feature (sF), (2) different features within the same dimension (dFsD), or (3) different features across dimensions (dD). Our findings revealed that participants' ability to enumerate multiple targets was remarkably influenced by inter-target relationships, with fastest responses for sF trials, slowest responses for dD trials, and responses of intermediate speed for dFsD trials. Our electrophysiological analyses disclosed that one source of this response slowing was feature-based and originated from the stage of attentional selection (as indexed by PCN waves), whereas another source was dimension-based and associated with working memory processes (as indexed by P3b waves). Overall, our results point to a significant role of physical inter-target relationships in multiple object processing-a factor that has been largely neglected in most studies on enumeration.

  9. Attending to multiple objects relies on both feature- and dimension-based control mechanisms: Evidence from human electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Töllner, Thomas; Conci, Markus; Müller, Hermann J; Mazza, Veronica

    2016-10-01

    Numerous everyday search tasks require humans to attentionally select and temporally store more than one object present in the visual environment. Recently, several enumeration studies sought to isolate the mechanisms underlying multiple object processing by means of electrophysiological measures, which led to a more fine-grained picture as to which processing stages are modulated by object numerosity. One critical limitation that most of these studies share is that they used stimulus designs in which multiple targets were exclusively defined by the same feature value. Accordingly, it remains an open issue whether these findings generalize to search scenarios in which multiple targets are physically not identical. To systematically address this issue, we introduced three target context conditions in which multiple targets were defined randomly by (1) the same feature (sF), (2) different features within the same dimension (dFsD), or (3) different features across dimensions (dD). Our findings revealed that participants' ability to enumerate multiple targets was remarkably influenced by inter-target relationships, with fastest responses for sF trials, slowest responses for dD trials, and responses of intermediate speed for dFsD trials. Our electrophysiological analyses disclosed that one source of this response slowing was feature-based and originated from the stage of attentional selection (as indexed by PCN waves), whereas another source was dimension-based and associated with working memory processes (as indexed by P3b waves). Overall, our results point to a significant role of physical inter-target relationships in multiple object processing-a factor that has been largely neglected in most studies on enumeration. PMID:27299342

  10. Developing objectives with multiple stakeholders: adaptive management of horseshoe crabs and Red Knots in the Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, Conor P.; Lyons, James E.; Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    Structured decision making (SDM) is an increasingly utilized approach and set of tools for addressing complex decisions in environmental management. SDM is a value-focused thinking approach that places paramount importance on first establishing clear management objectives that reflect core values of stakeholders. To be useful for management, objectives must be transparently stated in unambiguous and measurable terms. We used these concepts to develop consensus objectives for the multiple stakeholders of horseshoe crab harvest in Delaware Bay. Participating stakeholders first agreed on a qualitative statement of fundamental objectives, and then worked to convert those objectives to specific and measurable quantities, so that management decisions could be assessed. We used a constraint-based approach where the conservation objectives for Red Knots, a species of migratory shorebird that relies on horseshoe crab eggs as a food resource during migration, constrained the utility of crab harvest. Developing utility functions to effectively reflect the management objectives allowed us to incorporate stakeholder risk aversion even though different stakeholder groups were averse to different or competing risks. While measurable objectives and quantitative utility functions seem scientific, developing these objectives was fundamentally driven by the values of the participating stakeholders.

  11. Developing objectives with multiple stakeholders: adaptive management of horseshoe crabs and Red Knots in the Delaware Bay.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Conor P; Lyons, James E; Smith, David R

    2015-04-01

    Structured decision making (SDM) is an increasingly utilized approach and set of tools for addressing complex decisions in environmental management. SDM is a value-focused thinking approach that places paramount importance on first establishing clear management objectives that reflect core values of stakeholders. To be useful for management, objectives must be transparently stated in unambiguous and measurable terms. We used these concepts to develop consensus objectives for the multiple stakeholders of horseshoe crab harvest in Delaware Bay. Participating stakeholders first agreed on a qualitative statement of fundamental objectives, and then worked to convert those objectives to specific and measurable quantities, so that management decisions could be assessed. We used a constraint-based approach where the conservation objectives for Red Knots, a species of migratory shorebird that relies on horseshoe crab eggs as a food resource during migration, constrained the utility of crab harvest. Developing utility functions to effectively reflect the management objectives allowed us to incorporate stakeholder risk aversion even though different stakeholder groups were averse to different or competing risks. While measurable objectives and quantitative utility functions seem scientific, developing these objectives was fundamentally driven by the values of the participating stakeholders. PMID:25537153

  12. Developing Objectives with Multiple Stakeholders: Adaptive Management of Horseshoe Crabs and Red Knots in the Delaware Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Lyons, James E.; Smith, David R.

    2015-04-01

    Structured decision making (SDM) is an increasingly utilized approach and set of tools for addressing complex decisions in environmental management. SDM is a value-focused thinking approach that places paramount importance on first establishing clear management objectives that reflect core values of stakeholders. To be useful for management, objectives must be transparently stated in unambiguous and measurable terms. We used these concepts to develop consensus objectives for the multiple stakeholders of horseshoe crab harvest in Delaware Bay. Participating stakeholders first agreed on a qualitative statement of fundamental objectives, and then worked to convert those objectives to specific and measurable quantities, so that management decisions could be assessed. We used a constraint-based approach where the conservation objectives for Red Knots, a species of migratory shorebird that relies on horseshoe crab eggs as a food resource during migration, constrained the utility of crab harvest. Developing utility functions to effectively reflect the management objectives allowed us to incorporate stakeholder risk aversion even though different stakeholder groups were averse to different or competing risks. While measurable objectives and quantitative utility functions seem scientific, developing these objectives was fundamentally driven by the values of the participating stakeholders.

  13. Developing objectives with multiple stakeholders: adaptive management of horseshoe crabs and Red Knots in the Delaware Bay.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Conor P; Lyons, James E; Smith, David R

    2015-04-01

    Structured decision making (SDM) is an increasingly utilized approach and set of tools for addressing complex decisions in environmental management. SDM is a value-focused thinking approach that places paramount importance on first establishing clear management objectives that reflect core values of stakeholders. To be useful for management, objectives must be transparently stated in unambiguous and measurable terms. We used these concepts to develop consensus objectives for the multiple stakeholders of horseshoe crab harvest in Delaware Bay. Participating stakeholders first agreed on a qualitative statement of fundamental objectives, and then worked to convert those objectives to specific and measurable quantities, so that management decisions could be assessed. We used a constraint-based approach where the conservation objectives for Red Knots, a species of migratory shorebird that relies on horseshoe crab eggs as a food resource during migration, constrained the utility of crab harvest. Developing utility functions to effectively reflect the management objectives allowed us to incorporate stakeholder risk aversion even though different stakeholder groups were averse to different or competing risks. While measurable objectives and quantitative utility functions seem scientific, developing these objectives was fundamentally driven by the values of the participating stakeholders.

  14. Addressing parents' concerns: do multiple vaccines overwhelm or weaken the infant's immune system?

    PubMed

    Offit, Paul A; Quarles, Jessica; Gerber, Michael A; Hackett, Charles J; Marcuse, Edgar K; Kollman, Tobias R; Gellin, Bruce G; Landry, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Recent surveys found that an increasing number of parents are concerned that infants receive too many vaccines. Implicit in this concern is that the infant's immune system is inadequately developed to handle vaccines safely or that multiple vaccines may overwhelm the immune system. In this review, we will examine the following: 1) the ontogeny of the active immune response and the ability of neonates and young infants to respond to vaccines; 2) the theoretic capacity of an infant's immune system; 3) data that demonstrate that mild or moderate illness does not interfere with an infant's ability to generate protective immune responses to vaccines; 4) how infants respond to vaccines given in combination compared with the same vaccines given separately; 5) data showing that vaccinated children are not more likely to develop infections with other pathogens than unvaccinated children; and 6) the fact that infants actually encounter fewer antigens in vaccines today than they did 40 or 100 years ago.

  15. Effects of target enhancement and distractor suppression on multiple object tracking capacity.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt, Katherine C; Somers, David C

    2009-07-14

    Mounting evidence suggests that visual attention may be simultaneously deployed to multiple distinct object locations, but the constraints upon this multi-object attentional system are still debated. Results from multiple object tracking (MOT) experiments have been interpreted as revealing a fixed attentional capacity limit of 4 objects, while other evidence has suggested that attentional capacity may be more fluid. Here, we investigated the influence of target stimulus factors, such as speed and size, and of distractor filtering factors, such as number of distractors and screen density, on MOT performance. Each factor had significant effects on capacity, producing values that ranged from above 6 objects down to one object, depending on the task demands. Although our results support the view that crowding effects modulate the effective capacity of attention, we also find evidence that central processes related to distractor suppression and target enhancement modulate capacity.

  16. Biologically Motivated Novel Localization Paradigm by High-Level Multiple Object Recognition in Panoramic Images

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungho; Shim, Min-Sheob

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the novel paradigm of a global localization method motivated by human visual systems (HVSs). HVSs actively use the information of the object recognition results for self-position localization and for viewing direction. The proposed localization paradigm consisted of three parts: panoramic image acquisition, multiple object recognition, and grid-based localization. Multiple object recognition information from panoramic images is utilized in the localization part. High-level object information was useful not only for global localization, but also for robot-object interactions. The metric global localization (position, viewing direction) was conducted based on the bearing information of recognized objects from just one panoramic image. The feasibility of the novel localization paradigm was validated experimentally. PMID:26457323

  17. Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Research (COPTR): interventions addressing multiple influences in childhood and adolescent obesity.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Charlotte A; Boyington, Josephine; Esposito, Layla; Pemberton, Victoria L; Bonds, Denise; Kelley, Melinda; Yang, Song; Murray, David; Stevens, June

    2013-11-01

    This paper is the first of five papers in this issue that describes a new research consortium funded by the National Institutes of Health. It describes the design characteristics of the Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Research (COPTR) trials and common measurements across the trials. The COPTR Consortium is conducting interventions to prevent obesity in pre-schoolers and treat overweight or obese 7-13 year olds. Four randomized controlled trials will enroll a total of 1700 children and adolescents (~50% female, 70% minorities), and will test innovative multi-level and multi-component interventions in multiple settings involving primary care physicians, parks and recreational centers, family advocates, and schools. For all the studies, the primary outcome measure is body mass index; secondary outcomes, moderators and mediators of intervention include diet, physical activity, home and neighborhood influences, and psychosocial factors. COPTR is being conducted collaboratively among four participating field centers, a coordinating center, and NIH project offices. Outcomes from COPTR have the potential to enhance our knowledge of interventions to prevent and treat childhood obesity.

  18. Food-Based Interventions to Modify Diet Quality and Diversity to Address Multiple Micronutrient Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nair, Madhavan K; Augustine, Little Flower; Konapur, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Global data indicate a high prevalence of hidden hunger among population. Deficiencies of certain micronutrients such as folic acid, iodine, iron, and vitamin A have long lasting effects on growth and development and therefore have been a National priority from many decades. The strategy implemented so far limits to the use of supplemental sources or fortified foods in alleviating the burden of deficiencies. These approaches however undermine the food-based strategies involving dietary diversification as the long-term sustainable strategy. There is lack of understanding on the level of evidence needed to implement such strategies and the level of monitoring required for impact evaluation. Dietary diversity concerns how to ensure access for each individual to a quality and safe diet with adequate macro- and micronutrients. The key to success in using dietary diversity as a strategy to tackle hidden hunger is in integrating it with the principles of bioavailability, translated to efficient food synergies with due emphasis on food accessibility, affordability, and outdoor physical activity/life style modifications. Promoting enabling environment and sustainable agriculture is crucial for practicing dietary diversification with behavior change communication as an integral segment. It can be concluded that food-based strategies require careful understanding of the factors associated with it and moderate it to form an effective strategy for controlling multiple micronutrient deficiencies.

  19. Food-Based Interventions to Modify Diet Quality and Diversity to Address Multiple Micronutrient Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Madhavan K.; Augustine, Little Flower; Konapur, Archana

    2016-01-01

    Global data indicate a high prevalence of hidden hunger among population. Deficiencies of certain micronutrients such as folic acid, iodine, iron, and vitamin A have long lasting effects on growth and development and therefore have been a National priority from many decades. The strategy implemented so far limits to the use of supplemental sources or fortified foods in alleviating the burden of deficiencies. These approaches however undermine the food-based strategies involving dietary diversification as the long-term sustainable strategy. There is lack of understanding on the level of evidence needed to implement such strategies and the level of monitoring required for impact evaluation. Dietary diversity concerns how to ensure access for each individual to a quality and safe diet with adequate macro- and micronutrients. The key to success in using dietary diversity as a strategy to tackle hidden hunger is in integrating it with the principles of bioavailability, translated to efficient food synergies with due emphasis on food accessibility, affordability, and outdoor physical activity/life style modifications. Promoting enabling environment and sustainable agriculture is crucial for practicing dietary diversification with behavior change communication as an integral segment. It can be concluded that food-based strategies require careful understanding of the factors associated with it and moderate it to form an effective strategy for controlling multiple micronutrient deficiencies. PMID:26779472

  20. Spatial separation between targets constrains maintenance of attention on multiple objects.

    PubMed

    Shim, Won Mok; Alvarez, George A; Jiang, Yuhong V

    2008-04-01

    Humans are limited in their ability to maintain multiple attentional foci. In attentive tracking of moving objects, performance declines as the number of tracked targets increases. Previous studies have interpreted such reduction in terms of a limit in the number of attentional foci. However, increasing the number of targets usually reduces spatial separation among different targets. In this study, we examine the role of target spatial separation in maintaining multiple attentional foci. Results from a multiple-object tracking task show that tracking accuracy deteriorates as the spatial separation between targets decreases. We propose that local interaction between nearby attentional foci modulates the resolution of attention, and that capacity limitation from attentive tracking originates in part from limitations in maintaining critical spacing among multiple attentional foci. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that tracking performance is limited not primarily by a number of locations, but by factors such as the spacing and speed of the targets and distractors.

  1. Addressing Stability Robustness, Period Uncertainties, and Startup of Multiple-Period Repetitive Control for Spacecraft Jitter Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Edwin S.

    Repetitive Control (RC) is a relatively new form of control that seeks to converge to zero tracking error when executing a periodic command, or when executing a constant command in the presence of a periodic disturbance. The design makes use of knowledge of the period of the disturbance or command, and makes use of the error observed in the previous period to update the command in the present period. The usual RC approaches address one period, and this means that potentially they can simultaneously address DC or constant error, the fundamental frequency for that period, and all harmonics up to Nyquist frequency. Spacecraft often have multiple sources of periodic excitation. Slight imbalance in reaction wheels used for attitude control creates three disturbance periods. A special RC structure was developed to allow one to address multiple unrelated periods which is referred to as Multiple-Period Repetitive Control (MPRC). MPRC in practice faces three main challenges for hardware implementation. One is instability due to model errors or parasitic high frequency modes, the second is degradation of the final error level due to period uncertainties or fluctuations, and the third is bad transients due to issues in startup. Regarding these three challenges, the thesis develops a series of methods to enhance the performance of MPRC or to assist in analyzing its performance for mitigating optical jitter induced by mechanical vibration within the structure of a spacecraft testbed. Experimental analysis of MPRC shows contrasting advantages over existing adaptive control algorithms, such as Filtered-X LMS, Adaptive Model Predictive Control, and Adaptive Basis Method, for mitigating jitter within the transmitting beam of Laser Communication (LaserCom) satellites.

  2. Experimental demonstration of a single-carrier frequency division multiple address based PON (SCFDMA-PON) architecture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Li, Juhao; Zhang, Fan; He, Yongqi; Wu, Hequan; Chen, Zhangyuan

    2010-11-22

    We introduce a novel architecture for next generation passive optical network (PON) base on the Single-carrier Frequency Division Multiple Address (SC-FDMA) technique. Both downstream and upstream SCFDMA-PON transmissions (5 Gb/s total, 2.5 Gb/s for each user) are experimentally demonstrated over 22.2 km standard single mode fiber and an additional simulated 1:32 optical splitter. We also test the tolerance range of the synchronization error and prove it matches the cyclic prefix period in our scheme, which means the packet transmission accuracy from different optical network units can be relaxed in the upstream. PMID:21164802

  3. MICROPIK: A Multiple-Alternatives, Criterion-Referenced Decisioning Model for Evaluating CAI Software and Microcomputer Hardware Against Selected Curriculum Instructional Objectives. Paper and Report Series No. 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wholeben, Brent Edward

    This report describing the use of operations research techniques to determine which courseware packages or what microcomputer systems best address varied instructional objectives focuses on the MICROPIK model, a highly structured evaluation technique for making such complex instructional decisions. MICROPIK is a multiple alternatives model (MAA)…

  4. A Study on Software-based Sensing Technology for Multiple Object Control in AR Video

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sungmo; Song, Jae-gu; Hwang, Dae-Joon; Ahn, Jae Young; Kim, Seoksoo

    2010-01-01

    Researches on Augmented Reality (AR) have recently received attention. With these, the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) market has started to be active and there are numerous efforts to apply this to real life in all sectors of society. To date, the M2M market has applied the existing marker-based AR technology in entertainment, business and other industries. With the existing marker-based AR technology, a designated object can only be loaded on the screen from one marker and a marker has to be added to load on the screen the same object again. This situation creates a problem where the relevant marker’should be extracted and printed in screen so that loading of the multiple objects is enabled. However, since the distance between markers will not be measured in the process of detecting and copying markers, the markers can be overlapped and thus the objects would not be augmented. To solve this problem, a circle having the longest radius needs to be created from a focal point of a marker to be copied, so that no object is copied within the confines of the circle. In this paper, software-based sensing technology for multiple object detection and loading using PPHT has been developed and overlapping marker control according to multiple object control has been studied using the Bresenham and Mean Shift algorithms. PMID:22163444

  5. A study on software-based sensing technology for multiple object control in AR video.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungmo; Song, Jae-Gu; Hwang, Dae-Joon; Ahn, Jae Young; Kim, Seoksoo

    2010-01-01

    Researches on Augmented Reality (AR) have recently received attention. With these, the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) market has started to be active and there are numerous efforts to apply this to real life in all sectors of society. To date, the M2M market has applied the existing marker-based AR technology in entertainment, business and other industries. With the existing marker-based AR technology, a designated object can only be loaded on the screen from one marker and a marker has to be added to load on the screen the same object again. This situation creates a problem where the relevant marker'should be extracted and printed in screen so that loading of the multiple objects is enabled. However, since the distance between markers will not be measured in the process of detecting and copying markers, the markers can be overlapped and thus the objects would not be augmented. To solve this problem, a circle having the longest radius needs to be created from a focal point of a marker to be copied, so that no object is copied within the confines of the circle. In this paper, software-based sensing technology for multiple object detection and loading using PPHT has been developed and overlapping marker control according to multiple object control has been studied using the Bresenham and Mean Shift algorithms.

  6. High-quality slab-based intermixing method for fusion rendering of multiple medical objects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Joon; Kim, Bohyoung; Lee, Jeongjin; Shin, Juneseuk; Kim, Kyoung Won; Shin, Yeong-Gil

    2016-01-01

    The visualization of multiple 3D objects has been increasingly required for recent applications in medical fields. Due to the heterogeneity in data representation or data configuration, it is difficult to efficiently render multiple medical objects in high quality. In this paper, we present a novel intermixing scheme for fusion rendering of multiple medical objects while preserving the real-time performance. First, we present an in-slab visibility interpolation method for the representation of subdivided slabs. Second, we introduce virtual zSlab, which extends an infinitely thin boundary (such as polygonal objects) into a slab with a finite thickness. Finally, based on virtual zSlab and in-slab visibility interpolation, we propose a slab-based visibility intermixing method with the newly proposed rendering pipeline. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method delivers more effective multiple-object renderings in terms of rendering quality, compared to conventional approaches. And proposed intermixing scheme provides high-quality intermixing results for the visualization of intersecting and overlapping surfaces by resolving aliasing and z-fighting problems. Moreover, two case studies are presented that apply the proposed method to the real clinical applications. These case studies manifest that the proposed method has the outstanding advantages of the rendering independency and reusability.

  7. Limited capacity for memory tasks with multiple features within a single object.

    PubMed

    Palmer, John; Boston, Britt; Moore, Cathleen M

    2015-07-01

    Memory for multiple features might be limited by the number of features, the number of objects, or both. To focus on the role of features, we tested memory for a variable number of features within a single object. Subjects studied a single ellipse that varied in four features: size, orientation, contrast, and position. We conducted two experiments that differed in how memory was tested. If performance is limited only by the number of objects to be remembered, there should be no effect of the number of relevant features within a single object. Instead, for both experiments, the proportion correct was lower when four features had to be remembered rather than one. The magnitude of these effects varied with the details of the two experiments. Although similar results have been reported for experiments using multiple objects, the present experiments are some of the first to have demonstrated such an effect for a single object. This result is inconsistent with theories in which visual memory has a discrete limit on the number of stored objects, and no limit on the stored features within an object. Instead, it seems likely that objects and features both play roles in limiting performance in memory tasks. PMID:25939700

  8. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Multiple-Flyby Interplanetary Mission Design Using Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob; Vavrina, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The customer (scientist or project manager) most often does not want just one point solution to the mission design problem Instead, an exploration of a multi-objective trade space is required. For a typical main-belt asteroid mission the customer might wish to see the trade-space of: Launch date vs. Flight time vs. Deliverable mass, while varying the destination asteroid, planetary flybys, launch year, etcetera. To address this question we use a multi-objective discrete outer-loop which defines many single objective real-valued inner-loop problems.

  9. Adaptation of a Counseling Intervention to Address Multiple Cancer Risk Factors Among Overweight/Obese Latino Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Yessenia; Fernández, Maria E.; Strong, Larkin L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Krasny, Sarah; Robles, Eden Hernandez; Heredia, Natalia; Spears, Claire A.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Eakin, Elizabeth; Resnicow, Ken; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Wetter, David W.

    2015-01-01

    More than 60% of cancer-related deaths in the United States are attributable to tobacco use, poor nutrition, and physical inactivity, and these risk factors tend to cluster together. Thus, strategies for cancer risk reduction would benefit from addressing multiple health risk behaviors. We adapted an evidence-based intervention grounded in social cognitive theory and principles of motivational interviewing originally developed for smoking cessation to also address physical activity and fruit/vegetable consumption among Latinos exhibiting multiple health risk behaviors. Literature reviews, focus groups, expert consultation, pretesting, and pilot testing were used to inform adaptation decisions. We identified common mechanisms underlying change in smoking, physical activity, and diet used as treatment targets; identified practical models of patient-centered cross-cultural service provision; and identified that family preferences and support as particularly strong concerns among the priority population. Adaptations made to the original intervention are described. The current study is a practical example of how an intervention can be adapted to maximize relevance and acceptability and also maintain the core elements of the original evidence-based intervention. The intervention has significant potential to influence cancer prevention efforts among Latinos in the United States and is being evaluated in a sample of 400 Latino overweight/obese smokers. PMID:25527143

  10. A Multiple Objective Test Assembly Approach for Exposure Control Problems in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Verschoor, Angela J.; Eggen, Theo J. H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Overexposure and underexposure of items in the bank are serious problems in operational computerized adaptive testing (CAT) systems. These exposure problems might result in item compromise, or point at a waste of investments. The exposure control problem can be viewed as a test assembly problem with multiple objectives. Information in the test has…

  11. Multiple-Object Tracking in Children: The "Catch the Spies" Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trick, L.M.; Jaspers-Fayer, F.; Sethi, N.

    2005-01-01

    Multiple-object tracking involves simultaneously tracking positions of a number of target-items as they move among distractors. The standard version of the task poses special challenges for children, demanding extended concentration and the ability to distinguish targets from identical-looking distractors, and may thus underestimate children's…

  12. Classifying four-category visual objects using multiple ERP components in single-trial ERP.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yu; Zhan, Yu; Wang, Changming; Zhang, Jiacai; Yao, Li; Guo, Xiaojuan; Wu, Xia; Hu, Bin

    2016-08-01

    Object categorization using single-trial electroencephalography (EEG) data measured while participants view images has been studied intensively. In previous studies, multiple event-related potential (ERP) components (e.g., P1, N1, P2, and P3) were used to improve the performance of object categorization of visual stimuli. In this study, we introduce a novel method that uses multiple-kernel support vector machine to fuse multiple ERP component features. We investigate whether fusing the potential complementary information of different ERP components (e.g., P1, N1, P2a, and P2b) can improve the performance of four-category visual object classification in single-trial EEGs. We also compare the classification accuracy of different ERP component fusion methods. Our experimental results indicate that the classification accuracy increases through multiple ERP fusion. Additional comparative analyses indicate that the multiple-kernel fusion method can achieve a mean classification accuracy higher than 72 %, which is substantially better than that achieved with any single ERP component feature (55.07 % for the best single ERP component, N1). We compare the classification results with those of other fusion methods and determine that the accuracy of the multiple-kernel fusion method is 5.47, 4.06, and 16.90 % higher than those of feature concatenation, feature extraction, and decision fusion, respectively. Our study shows that our multiple-kernel fusion method outperforms other fusion methods and thus provides a means to improve the classification performance of single-trial ERPs in brain-computer interface research. PMID:27468316

  13. Classifying four-category visual objects using multiple ERP components in single-trial ERP.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yu; Zhan, Yu; Wang, Changming; Zhang, Jiacai; Yao, Li; Guo, Xiaojuan; Wu, Xia; Hu, Bin

    2016-08-01

    Object categorization using single-trial electroencephalography (EEG) data measured while participants view images has been studied intensively. In previous studies, multiple event-related potential (ERP) components (e.g., P1, N1, P2, and P3) were used to improve the performance of object categorization of visual stimuli. In this study, we introduce a novel method that uses multiple-kernel support vector machine to fuse multiple ERP component features. We investigate whether fusing the potential complementary information of different ERP components (e.g., P1, N1, P2a, and P2b) can improve the performance of four-category visual object classification in single-trial EEGs. We also compare the classification accuracy of different ERP component fusion methods. Our experimental results indicate that the classification accuracy increases through multiple ERP fusion. Additional comparative analyses indicate that the multiple-kernel fusion method can achieve a mean classification accuracy higher than 72 %, which is substantially better than that achieved with any single ERP component feature (55.07 % for the best single ERP component, N1). We compare the classification results with those of other fusion methods and determine that the accuracy of the multiple-kernel fusion method is 5.47, 4.06, and 16.90 % higher than those of feature concatenation, feature extraction, and decision fusion, respectively. Our study shows that our multiple-kernel fusion method outperforms other fusion methods and thus provides a means to improve the classification performance of single-trial ERPs in brain-computer interface research.

  14. Buried object detection using handheld WEMI with task-driven extended functions of multiple instances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Matthew; Zare, Alina; Ho, Dominic K. C.

    2016-05-01

    Many effective supervised discriminative dictionary learning methods have been developed in the literature. However, when training these algorithms, precise ground-truth of the training data is required to provide very accurate point-wise labels. Yet, in many applications, accurate labels are not always feasible. This is especially true in the case of buried object detection in which the size of the objects are not consistent. In this paper, a new multiple instance dictionary learning algorithm for detecting buried objects using a handheld WEMI sensor is detailed. The new algorithm, Task Driven Extended Functions of Multiple Instances, can overcome data that does not have very precise point-wise labels and still learn a highly discriminative dictionary. Results are presented and discussed on measured WEMI data.

  15. Bilevel formulation of a policy design problem considering multiple objectives and incomplete preferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawthorne, Bryant; Panchal, Jitesh H.

    2014-07-01

    A bilevel optimization formulation of policy design problems considering multiple objectives and incomplete preferences of the stakeholders is presented. The formulation is presented for Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) policy design for decentralized energy infrastructure. The upper-level problem is the policy designer's problem and the lower-level problem is a Nash equilibrium problem resulting from market interactions. The policy designer has two objectives: maximizing the quantity of energy generated and minimizing policy cost. The stakeholders decide on quantities while maximizing net present value and minimizing capital investment. The Nash equilibrium problem in the presence of incomplete preferences is formulated as a stochastic linear complementarity problem and solved using expected value formulation, expected residual minimization formulation, and the Monte Carlo technique. The primary contributions in this article are the mathematical formulation of the FIT policy, the extension of computational policy design problems to multiple objectives, and the consideration of incomplete preferences of stakeholders for policy design problems.

  16. Multiple degree of freedom object recognition using optical relational graph decision nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, David P.; Lee, Andrew J.

    1988-01-01

    Multiple-degree-of-freedom object recognition concerns objects with no stable rest position with all scale, rotation, and aspect distortions possible. It is assumed that the objects are in a fairly benign background, so that feature extractors are usable. In-plane distortion invariance is provided by use of a polar-log coordinate transform feature space, and out-of-plane distortion invariance is provided by linear discriminant function design. Relational graph decision nets are considered for multiple-degree-of-freedom pattern recognition. The design of Fisher (1936) linear discriminant functions and synthetic discriminant function for use at the nodes of binary and multidecision nets is discussed. Case studies are detailed for two-class and multiclass problems. Simulation results demonstrate the robustness of the processors to quantization of the filter coefficients and to noise.

  17. Autonomous Trans-Antartic expeditions: an initiative for advancing planetary mobility system technology while addressing Earth science objectives in Antartica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, F.; Schenker, P.; Blamont, J.

    2001-01-01

    A workshop on Antartic Autonomous Scientific Vehicles and Traverses met at the National Geographic Society in February to discuss scientific objectives and benefits of the use of rovers such as are being developed for use in planetary exploration.

  18. Real object-based 360-degree integral-floating display using multiple depth camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdenebat, Munkh-Uchral; Dashdavaa, Erkhembaatar; Kwon, Ki-Chul; Wu, Hui-Ying; Yoo, Kwan-Hee; Kim, Young-Seok; Kim, Nam

    2015-03-01

    A novel 360-degree integral-floating display based on the real object is proposed. The general procedure of the display system is similar with conventional 360-degree integral-floating displays. Unlike previously presented 360-degree displays, the proposed system displays the 3D image generated from the real object in 360-degree viewing zone. In order to display real object in 360-degree viewing zone, multiple depth camera have been utilized to acquire the depth information around the object. Then, the 3D point cloud representations of the real object are reconstructed according to the acquired depth information. By using a special point cloud registration method, the multiple virtual 3D point cloud representations captured by each depth camera are combined as single synthetic 3D point cloud model, and the elemental image arrays are generated for the newly synthesized 3D point cloud model from the given anamorphic optic system's angular step. The theory has been verified experimentally, and it shows that the proposed 360-degree integral-floating display can be an excellent way to display real object in the 360-degree viewing zone.

  19. Why do people appear not to extrapolate trajectories during multiple object tracking? A computational investigation

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Sheng-hua; Ma, Zheng; Wilson, Colin; Liu, Yan; Flombaum, Jonathan I

    2014-01-01

    Intuitively, extrapolating object trajectories should make visual tracking more accurate. This has proven to be true in many contexts that involve tracking a single item. But surprisingly, when tracking multiple identical items in what is known as “multiple object tracking,” observers often appear to ignore direction of motion, relying instead on basic spatial memory. We investigated potential reasons for this behavior through probabilistic models that were endowed with perceptual limitations in the range of typical human observers, including noisy spatial perception. When we compared a model that weights its extrapolations relative to other sources of information about object position, and one that does not extrapolate at all, we found no reliable difference in performance, belying the intuition that extrapolation always benefits tracking. In follow-up experiments we found this to be true for a variety of models that weight observations and predictions in different ways; in some cases we even observed worse performance for models that use extrapolations compared to a model that does not at all. Ultimately, the best performing models either did not extrapolate, or extrapolated very conservatively, relying heavily on observations. These results illustrate the difficulty and attendant hazards of using noisy inputs to extrapolate the trajectories of multiple objects simultaneously in situations with targets and featurally confusable nontargets. PMID:25311300

  20. Why do people appear not to extrapolate trajectories during multiple object tracking? A computational investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Sheng-Hua; Ma, Zheng; Wilson, Colin; Liu, Yan; Flombaum, Jonathan I

    2014-01-01

    Intuitively, extrapolating object trajectories should make visual tracking more accurate. This has proven to be true in many contexts that involve tracking a single item. But surprisingly, when tracking multiple identical items in what is known as "multiple object tracking," observers often appear to ignore direction of motion, relying instead on basic spatial memory. We investigated potential reasons for this behavior through probabilistic models that were endowed with perceptual limitations in the range of typical human observers, including noisy spatial perception. When we compared a model that weights its extrapolations relative to other sources of information about object position, and one that does not extrapolate at all, we found no reliable difference in performance, belying the intuition that extrapolation always benefits tracking. In follow-up experiments we found this to be true for a variety of models that weight observations and predictions in different ways; in some cases we even observed worse performance for models that use extrapolations compared to a model that does not at all. Ultimately, the best performing models either did not extrapolate, or extrapolated very conservatively, relying heavily on observations. These results illustrate the difficulty and attendant hazards of using noisy inputs to extrapolate the trajectories of multiple objects simultaneously in situations with targets and featurally confusable nontargets. PMID:25311300

  1. Uncertainty and multiple objective calibration in regional water balance modelling: case study in 320 Austrian catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parajka, J.; Merz, R.; Blöschl, G.

    2007-02-01

    We examine the value of additional information in multiple objective calibration in terms of model performance and parameter uncertainty. We calibrate and validate a semi-distributed conceptual catchment model for two 11-year periods in 320 Austrian catchments and test three approaches of parameter calibration: (a) traditional single objective calibration (SINGLE) on daily runoff; (b) multiple objective calibration (MULTI) using daily runoff and snow cover data; (c) multiple objective calibration (APRIORI) that incorporates an a priori expert guess about the parameter distribution as additional information to runoff and snow cover data. Results indicate that the MULTI approach performs slightly poorer than the SINGLE approach in terms of runoff simulations, but significantly better in terms of snow cover simulations. The APRIORI approach is essentially as good as the SINGLE approach in terms of runoff simulations but is slightly poorer than the MULTI approach in terms of snow cover simulations. An analysis of the parameter uncertainty indicates that the MULTI approach significantly decreases the uncertainty of the model parameters related to snow processes but does not decrease the uncertainty of other model parameters as compared to the SINGLE case. The APRIORI approach tends to decrease the uncertainty of all model parameters as compared to the SINGLE case. Copyright

  2. A multiple-point spatially weighted k-NN method for object-based classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yunwei; Jing, Linhai; Li, Hui; Atkinson, Peter M.

    2016-10-01

    Object-based classification, commonly referred to as object-based image analysis (OBIA), is now commonly regarded as able to produce more appealing classification maps, often of greater accuracy, than pixel-based classification and its application is now widespread. Therefore, improvement of OBIA using spatial techniques is of great interest. In this paper, multiple-point statistics (MPS) is proposed for object-based classification enhancement in the form of a new multiple-point k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) classification method (MPk-NN). The proposed method first utilises a training image derived from a pre-classified map to characterise the spatial correlation between multiple points of land cover classes. The MPS borrows spatial structures from other parts of the training image, and then incorporates this spatial information, in the form of multiple-point probabilities, into the k-NN classifier. Two satellite sensor images with a fine spatial resolution were selected to evaluate the new method. One is an IKONOS image of the Beijing urban area and the other is a WorldView-2 image of the Wolong mountainous area, in China. The images were object-based classified using the MPk-NN method and several alternatives, including the k-NN, the geostatistically weighted k-NN, the Bayesian method, the decision tree classifier (DTC), and the support vector machine classifier (SVM). It was demonstrated that the new spatial weighting based on MPS can achieve greater classification accuracy relative to the alternatives and it is, thus, recommended as appropriate for object-based classification.

  3. Confronting Decision Cliffs: Diagnostic Assessment of Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms' Performance for Addressing Uncertain Environmental Thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, V. L.; Singh, R.; Reed, P. M.; Keller, K.

    2014-12-01

    As water resources problems typically involve several stakeholders with conflicting objectives, multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) are now key tools for understanding management tradeoffs. Given the growing complexity of water planning problems, it is important to establish if an algorithm can consistently perform well on a given class of problems. This knowledge allows the decision analyst to focus on eliciting and evaluating appropriate problem formulations. This study proposes a multi-objective adaptation of the classic environmental economics "Lake Problem" as a computationally simple but mathematically challenging MOEA benchmarking problem. The lake problem abstracts a fictional town on a lake which hopes to maximize its economic benefit without degrading the lake's water quality to a eutrophic (polluted) state through excessive phosphorus loading. The problem poses the challenge of maintaining economic activity while confronting the uncertainty of potentially crossing a nonlinear and potentially irreversible pollution threshold beyond which the lake is eutrophic. Objectives for optimization are maximizing economic benefit from lake pollution, maximizing water quality, maximizing the reliability of remaining below the environmental threshold, and minimizing the probability that the town will have to drastically change pollution policies in any given year. The multi-objective formulation incorporates uncertainty with a stochastic phosphorus inflow abstracting non-point source pollution. We performed comprehensive diagnostics using 6 algorithms: Borg, MOEAD, eMOEA, eNSGAII, GDE3, and NSGAII to ascertain their controllability, reliability, efficiency, and effectiveness. The lake problem abstracts elements of many current water resources and climate related management applications where there is the potential for crossing irreversible, nonlinear thresholds. We show that many modern MOEAs can fail on this test problem, indicating its suitability as a

  4. An improved version of the multiple trajectory search for real value multi-objective optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun; Tseng, Lin-Yu

    2014-10-01

    Multi-objective optimization is widely used in science, engineering and business. In this article, an improved version of the multiple trajectory search (MTS) called MTS2 is presented and successfully applied to real-value multi-objective optimization problems. In the first step, MTS2 generates M initial solutions distributed over the solution space. These solutions are called seeds. Some seeds with good objective values are selected as foreground seeds. Then, MTS2 chooses a suitable region search method for each foreground seed according to the landscape of the neighbourhood of the seed. During the search, MTS2 focuses its search on some promising areas specified by the foreground seeds. The performance of MTS2 was examined by applying it to solve the benchmark problems provided by the Competition of Performance Assessment of Constrained/Bound Constrained Multi-Objective Optimization Algorithms held at the 2009 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation.

  5. Dynamic shortest path association for multiple object tracking in video sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Zhenghao; Liu, Heping; Liu, Huaping; Zheng, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Persistently tracking multiple objects in cluttered environments is very challenging. We present a tracking association approach based on the shortest path faster algorithm. We first formulate the multiple object tracking as an integer programming problem of the flow network. Under this framework, the integer assumption is relaxed to a standard linear programming problem. Therefore, the global optimal solution can quickly be obtained using the fast dynamic shortest path algorithm, which highlights the dynamic programming characteristic of the shortest path, thus faster, algorithm. The proposed method avoids the difficulties of integer programming; more importantly, it has a lower worst-case complexity than competing methods but a better tracking accuracy and robustness in complex environments. Simulation results show that our proposed algorithm takes less time than other methods and can operate in real time.

  6. Beyond the basics: preschool children label objects flexibly at multiple hierarchical levels.

    PubMed

    Waxman, S R; Hatch, T

    1992-02-01

    Although preschoolers typically accept the basic level label for an object (e.g. dog) and tend to resist all others (e.g. collie, animal), this tendency is not inviolable. Under certain circumstances, children accept more than one label per object. In this experiment, with 20 three- and 20 four-year-old children, we extended this body of research in three ways. We examined (I) children's production of multiple, hierarchically related labels; (2) the pragmatic consequences of the inherent asymmetry of inclusion relations; and (3) the influence of morphology (modifier+noun constructions vs. simple lexemes) at the subordinate level. Children labelled objects most frequently at the basic level, but also readily produced many non-basic level terms. Children, like adults, may prefer to label objects at the basic level, but they exhibit no general prohibition against also labelling at other, non-basic levels. Their performance challenges the notion that the ability to label objects flexibly at multiple levels is beyond the young child's capacity.

  7. Object reconstruction in scattering medium using multiple elliptical polarized speckle contrast projections and optical clearing agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshe, Tomer; Firer, Michael A.; Abookasis, David

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we present a hybrid method for improving the imaging quality of objects obscured within a scattering environment by combining multiple elliptical polarized speckle contrast projections with the use of optical clearing agents (OCAs). Elliptically polarized light enables the probing of subsurface volumes, where OCAs decrease light scattering while increasing photons' penetration depth through the medium. Experiments were conducted on object sample and prostate cancer cells embedded within ex vivo biological samples (chicken breasts) in reflection configuration. After immersion with OCAs, the medium was irradiated with an elliptically polarized laser beam and multiple polarized speckled images obtained from a lens array were first converted to speckled contrast images and then processed using a self-deconvolution shift-and-add algorithm. The conversion to contrast images and multiple perspectives acquisition was found to emphasize contrast. Analysis of image quality indicated improvement in object visualization by the combination of elliptical polarization and OCAs. This enhanced imaging strategy may advance the development of improved methods in biomedicine field, specifically biomedical tomography.

  8. Defining ecological and economical hydropoweroperations: a framework for managing dam releasesto meet multiple conflicting objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, Elise R.

    2014-01-01

    Hydroelectric dams are a flexible source of power, provide flood control, and contribute to the economic growth of local communities through real-estate and recreation. Yet the impoundment of rivers can alter and fragment miles of critical riverine habitat needed for other competing needs such as downstream consumptive water use, fish and wildlife population viability, or other forms of recreation. Multiple conflicting interests can compromise progressive management especially with recognized uncertainties related to whether management actions will fulfill the objectives of policy makers, resource managers and/or facility owners. Decision analytic tools were used in a stakeholder-driven process to develop and implement a template for evaluation and prediction of the effects of water resource management of multiple-use systems under the context provided by R.L. Harris Dam on the Tallapoosa River, Alabama, USA. The approach provided a transparent and structured framework for decision-making and incorporated both existing and new data to meet multiple management objectives. Success of the template has been evaluated by the stakeholder governing body in an adaptive resource management framework since 2005 and is ongoing. Consequences of management of discharge at the dam were evaluated annually relative to stakeholder satisfaction to allow for adjustment of both management scenarios and objectives. This template can be applied to attempt to resolve conflict inherent in many dam-regulated systems where management decisions impact diverse values of stakeholders.

  9. Detecting and Analyzing Multiple Moving Objects in Crowded Environments with Coherent Motion Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M.

    2013-01-04

    Understanding the world around us from large-scale video data requires vision systems that can perform automatic interpretation. While human eyes can unconsciously perceive independent objects in crowded scenes and other challenging operating environments, automated systems have difficulty detecting, counting, and understanding their behavior in similar scenes. Computer scientists at ORNL have a developed a technology termed as "Coherent Motion Region Detection" that invloves identifying multiple indepedent moving objects in crowded scenes by aggregating low-level motion cues extracted from moving objects. Humans and other species exploit such low-level motion cues seamlessely to perform perceptual grouping for visual understanding. The algorithm detects and tracks feature points on moving objects resulting in partial trajectories that span coherent 3D region in the space-time volume defined by the video. In the case of multi-object motion, many possible coherent motion regions can be constructed around the set of trajectories. The unique approach in the algorithm is to identify all possible coherent motion regions, then extract a subset of motion regions based on an innovative measure to automatically locate moving objects in crowded environments.The software reports snapshot of the object, count, and derived statistics ( count over time) from input video streams. The software can directly process videos streamed over the internet or directly from a hardware device (camera).

  10. Detecting and Analyzing Multiple Moving Objects in Crowded Environments with Coherent Motion Regions

    2013-01-04

    Understanding the world around us from large-scale video data requires vision systems that can perform automatic interpretation. While human eyes can unconsciously perceive independent objects in crowded scenes and other challenging operating environments, automated systems have difficulty detecting, counting, and understanding their behavior in similar scenes. Computer scientists at ORNL have a developed a technology termed as "Coherent Motion Region Detection" that invloves identifying multiple indepedent moving objects in crowded scenes by aggregating low-level motionmore » cues extracted from moving objects. Humans and other species exploit such low-level motion cues seamlessely to perform perceptual grouping for visual understanding. The algorithm detects and tracks feature points on moving objects resulting in partial trajectories that span coherent 3D region in the space-time volume defined by the video. In the case of multi-object motion, many possible coherent motion regions can be constructed around the set of trajectories. The unique approach in the algorithm is to identify all possible coherent motion regions, then extract a subset of motion regions based on an innovative measure to automatically locate moving objects in crowded environments.The software reports snapshot of the object, count, and derived statistics ( count over time) from input video streams. The software can directly process videos streamed over the internet or directly from a hardware device (camera).« less

  11. Balancing multiple objectives using a classification-based forest management system in Changbai Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fuqiang; Yang, Jian; Liu, Zhihua; Dai, Limin; He, Hong S

    2011-12-01

    Contemporary forest management often consists of multiple objectives, including restoration of human-impacted forested landscapes toward their range of natural variability (RNV) and sustainable levels of timber production. Balancing multiple management objectives is often challenging due to intrinsic conflicts between these objectives and a lack of reference conditions for evaluating the effectiveness of forest restoration efforts. We used a spatially explicit forest landscape model to assess how well a classification-based forest management (CFM) system could achieve multiple objectives in a Korean pine broadleaf mixed forest ecosystem at Changbai Mountain in Northeast China. The CFM system divided the forest landscape into three management areas (Commercial Forest, Special Ecological Welfare Forest, and General Ecological Welfare Forest), each with its own management objectives and prescriptions, but with an overall goal of increasing the ecological and economic sustainability of the entire landscape. The zoning approach adopted in the Chinese CFM system is very similar to the TRIAD approach that is being advocated for managing public forests in Canada. In this study, a natural disturbance scenario and seven harvest scenarios (one identical to the current harvest regime and six alternative scenarios) were simulated to examine how tree species composition, age structure, and timber production at the landscape level can be affected by different strategies under the CFM system. The results indicated that the current forest management regime would not only fail to reach the designated timber production level but also move the forest landscape far away from its RNV. In order to return the currently altered forest landscape to approach its RNV while providing a stable level of timber production over time, harvest intensities should be reduced to a level that is equivalent to the amount of timber removals that would occur under the natural disturbances; and the

  12. Balancing Multiple Objectives Using a Classification-Based Forest Management System in Changbai Mountains, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fuqiang; Yang, Jian; Liu, Zhihua; Dai, Limin; He, Hong S.

    2011-12-01

    Contemporary forest management often consists of multiple objectives, including restoration of human-impacted forested landscapes toward their range of natural variability (RNV) and sustainable levels of timber production. Balancing multiple management objectives is often challenging due to intrinsic conflicts between these objectives and a lack of reference conditions for evaluating the effectiveness of forest restoration efforts. We used a spatially explicit forest landscape model to assess how well a classification-based forest management (CFM) system could achieve multiple objectives in a Korean pine broadleaf mixed forest ecosystem at Changbai Mountain in Northeast China. The CFM system divided the forest landscape into three management areas (Commercial Forest, Special Ecological Welfare Forest, and General Ecological Welfare Forest), each with its own management objectives and prescriptions, but with an overall goal of increasing the ecological and economic sustainability of the entire landscape. The zoning approach adopted in the Chinese CFM system is very similar to the TRIAD approach that is being advocated for managing public forests in Canada. In this study, a natural disturbance scenario and seven harvest scenarios (one identical to the current harvest regime and six alternative scenarios) were simulated to examine how tree species composition, age structure, and timber production at the landscape level can be affected by different strategies under the CFM system. The results indicated that the current forest management regime would not only fail to reach the designated timber production level but also move the forest landscape far away from its RNV. In order to return the currently altered forest landscape to approach its RNV while providing a stable level of timber production over time, harvest intensities should be reduced to a level that is equivalent to the amount of timber removals that would occur under the natural disturbances; and the

  13. Cortical mechanisms for trans-saccadic memory and integration of multiple object features

    PubMed Central

    Prime, Steven L.; Vesia, Michael; Crawford, J. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Constructing an internal representation of the world from successive visual fixations, i.e. separated by saccadic eye movements, is known as trans-saccadic perception. Research on trans-saccadic perception (TSP) has been traditionally aimed at resolving the problems of memory capacity and visual integration across saccades. In this paper, we review this literature on TSP with a focus on research showing that egocentric measures of the saccadic eye movement can be used to integrate simple object features across saccades, and that the memory capacity for items retained across saccades, like visual working memory, is restricted to about three to four items. We also review recent transcranial magnetic stimulation experiments which suggest that the right parietal eye field and frontal eye fields play a key functional role in spatial updating of objects in TSP. We conclude by speculating on possible cortical mechanisms for governing egocentric spatial updating of multiple objects in TSP. PMID:21242142

  14. Investigation of late time response analysis for detection of multiple concealed objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Simon; Fernando, Michael; Andrews, David; Harmer, Stuart; Bowring, Nicholas

    2013-10-01

    This paper investigates the use of Late Time Response (LTR) analysis for detecting multiple objects in concealed object detection. When a conductive object is illuminated by an ultra-wide band (UWB) frequency radar signal, the surface currents induced upon the object give rise to LTR signals. The LTR results from a number of different targets are presented. The distance between the targets within the same radar beam has been adjusted in increments of 5cm to determine the point at which the individual objects can be distinguished from each other. The experiment was performed using double ridged horn antennas in a pseudo-monostatic arrangement. Vector network analysers (VNA) are used to provide the UWB stepped frequency continuous wave radar signal. The distance between the transmitting antenna and the target object is kept at 50cm for all the experiments performed and the power level at the VNA was set to 2dBm. The targets in the experimental setup are suspended in isolation in a non-anechoic environment. To allow for the de-convolution of the signal and the removal of background clutter Matlab was used in post processing. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) are used to process the return signals and extract the LTR features from the noise clutter. A Generalized Pencil-of-Function (GPOF) method was then used to extract the complex poles of the signal. In the case of a single needle these poles can be found around 1.9GHz.

  15. Use of information visualization methods eliminating cross talk in multiple sensing units investigated for a light-addressable potentiometric sensor.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, José R; Maki, Rafael M; Paulovich, Fernando V; Werner, Carl F; Poghossian, Arshak; de Oliveira, Maria C F; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Schöning, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The integration of nanostructured films containing biomolecules and silicon-based technologies is a promising direction for reaching miniaturized biosensors that exhibit high sensitivity and selectivity. A challenge, however, is to avoid cross talk among sensing units in an array with multiple sensors located on a small area. In this letter, we describe an array of 16 sensing units of a light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS), which was made with layer-by-layer (LbL) films of a poly(amidomine) dendrimer (PAMAM) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), coated with a layer of the enzyme penicillinase. A visual inspection of the data from constant-current measurements with liquid samples containing distinct concentrations of penicillin, glucose, or a buffer indicated a possible cross talk between units that contained penicillinase and those that did not. With the use of multidimensional data projection techniques, normally employed in information visualization methods, we managed to distinguish the results from the modified LAPS, even in cases where the units were adjacent to each other. Furthermore, the plots generated with the interactive document map (IDMAP) projection technique enabled the distinction of the different concentrations of penicillin, from 5 mmol L(-1) down to 0.5 mmol L(-1). Data visualization also confirmed the enhanced performance of the sensing units containing carbon nanotubes, consistent with the analysis of results for LAPS sensors. The use of visual analytics, as with projection methods, may be essential to handle a large amount of data generated in multiple sensor arrays to achieve high performance in miniaturized systems.

  16. Binding and segmentation of multiple objects through neural oscillators inhibited by contour information.

    PubMed

    Ursino, Mauro; La Cara, Giuseppe-Emiliano; Sarti, Alessandro

    2003-07-01

    Temporal correlation of neuronal activity has been suggested as a criterion for multiple object recognition. In this work, a two-dimensional network of simplified Wilson-Cowan oscillators is used to manage the binding and segmentation problem of a visual scene according to the connectedness Gestalt criterion. Binding is achieved via original coupling terms that link excitatory units to both excitatory and inhibitory units of adjacent neurons. These local coupling terms are time independent, i.e., they do not require Hebbian learning during the simulations. Segmentation is realized by a two-layer processing of the visual image. The first layer extracts all object contours from the image by means of "retinal cells" with an "on-center" receptive field. Information on contour is used to selectively inhibit Wilson-Cowan oscillators in the second layer, thus realizing a strong separation among neurons in different objects. Accidental synchronism between oscillations in different objects is prevented with the use of a global inhibitor, i.e., a global neuron that computes the overall activity in the Wilson-Cowan network and sends back an inhibitory signal. Simulations performed in a 50 x 50 neural grid with 21 different visual scenes (containing up to eight objects + background) with random initial conditions demonstrate that the network can correctly segment objects in almost 100% of cases using a single set of parameters, i.e., without the need to adjust parameters from one visual scene to the next. The network is robust with reference to dynamical noise superimposed on oscillatory neurons. Moreover, the network can segment both black objects on white background and vice versa and is able to deal with the problem of "fragmentation."The main limitation of the network is its sensitivity to static noise superimposed on the objects. Overcoming this problem requires implementation of more robust mechanisms for contour enhancement in the first layer in agreement with

  17. Patterns of Objective and Subjective Burden of Informal Caregivers in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bayen, E.; Papeix, C.; Pradat-Diehl, P.; Lubetzki, C.; Joël, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Home care for patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) relies largely on informal caregivers (ICs). Methods. We assessed ICs objective burden (Resource Utilization in Dementia measuring informal care time (ICT)) and ICs subjective burden (Zarit Burden Inventory (ZBI)). Results. ICs (N = 99) were spouses (70%), mean age 52 years, assisting disabled patients with a mean EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale) of 5.5, with executive dysfunction (mean DEX (Dysexecutive questionnaire) of 25) and a duration of MS ranging from 1 to 44 years. Objective burden was high (mean ICT = 6.5 hours/day), mostly consisting of supervision time. Subjective burden was moderate (mean ZBI = 27.3). Multivariate analyses showed that both burdens were positively correlated with higher levels of EDSS and DEX, whereas coresidency and IC's female gender correlated with objective burden only and IC's poor mental health status with subjective burden only. When considering MS aggressiveness, it appeared that both burdens were not correlated with a higher duration of MS but rather increased for patients with severe and early dysexecutive function and for patients classified as fast progressors according to the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score. Conclusion. Evaluation of MS disability course and IC's personal situation is crucial to understand the burden process and to implement adequate interventions in MS. PMID:26078487

  18. Enumeration versus multiple object tracking: the case of action video game players

    PubMed Central

    Green, C.S.; Bavelier, D.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that action video game play enhances subjects’ ability in two tasks thought to indicate the number of items that can be apprehended. Using an enumeration task, in which participants have to determine the number of quickly flashed squares, accuracy measures showed a near ceiling performance for low numerosities and a sharp drop in performance once a critical number of squares was reached. Importantly, this critical number was higher by about two items in video game players (VGPs) than in non-video game players (NVGPs). A following control study indicated that this improvement was not due to an enhanced ability to instantly apprehend the numerosity of the display, a process known as subitizing, but rather due to an enhancement in the slower more serial process of counting. To confirm that video game play facilitates the processing of multiple objects at once, we compared VGPs and NVGPs on the multiple object tracking task (MOT), which requires the allocation of attention to several items over time. VGPs were able to successfully track approximately two more items than NVGPs. Furthermore, NVGPs trained on an action video game established the causal effect of game playing in the enhanced performance on the two tasks. Together, these studies confirm the view that playing action video games enhances the number of objects that can be apprehended and suggest that this enhancement is mediated by changes in visual short-term memory skills. PMID:16359652

  19. Detecting single-target changes in multiple object tracking: The case of peripheral vision.

    PubMed

    Vater, Christian; Kredel, Ralf; Hossner, Ernst-Joachim

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether peripheral vision can be used to monitor multiple moving objects and to detect single-target changes. For this purpose, in Experiment 1, a modified multiple object tracking (MOT) setup with a large projection screen and a constant-position centroid phase had to be checked first. Classical findings regarding the use of a virtual centroid to track multiple objects and the dependency of tracking accuracy on target speed could be successfully replicated. Thereafter, the main experimental variations regarding the manipulation of to-be-detected target changes could be introduced in Experiment 2. In addition to a button press used for the detection task, gaze behavior was assessed using an integrated eyetracking system. The analysis of saccadic reaction times in relation to the motor response showed that peripheral vision is naturally used to detect motion and form changes in MOT, because saccades to the target often occurred after target-change offset. Furthermore, for changes of comparable task difficulties, motion changes are detected better by peripheral vision than are form changes. These findings indicate that the capabilities of the visual system (e.g., visual acuity) affect change detection rates and that covert-attention processes may be affected by vision-related aspects such as spatial uncertainty. Moreover, we argue that a centroid-MOT strategy might reduce saccade-related costs and that eyetracking seems to be generally valuable to test the predictions derived from theories of MOT. Finally, we propose implications for testing covert attention in applied settings. PMID:26942770

  20. How Lateral Connections and Spiking Dynamics May Separate Multiple Objects Moving Together

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Benjamin D.; Stringer, Simon M.

    2013-01-01

    Over successive stages, the ventral visual system of the primate brain develops neurons that respond selectively to particular objects or faces with translation, size and view invariance. The powerful neural representations found in Inferotemporal cortex form a remarkably rapid and robust basis for object recognition which belies the difficulties faced by the system when learning in natural visual environments. A central issue in understanding the process of biological object recognition is how these neurons learn to form separate representations of objects from complex visual scenes composed of multiple objects. We show how a one-layer competitive network comprised of ‘spiking’ neurons is able to learn separate transformation-invariant representations (exemplified by one-dimensional translations) of visual objects that are always seen together moving in lock-step, but separated in space. This is achieved by combining ‘Mexican hat’ functional lateral connectivity with cell firing-rate adaptation to temporally segment input representations of competing stimuli through anti-phase oscillations (perceptual cycles). These spiking dynamics are quickly and reliably generated, enabling selective modification of the feed-forward connections to neurons in the next layer through Spike-Time-Dependent Plasticity (STDP), resulting in separate translation-invariant representations of each stimulus. Variations in key properties of the model are investigated with respect to the network’s ability to develop appropriate input representations and subsequently output representations through STDP. Contrary to earlier rate-coded models of this learning process, this work shows how spiking neural networks may learn about more than one stimulus together without suffering from the ‘superposition catastrophe’. We take these results to suggest that spiking dynamics are key to understanding biological visual object recognition. PMID:23936362

  1. Application of multi-resolution modality independent elastography for detection of multiple anomalous objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Jao J.; Barnes, Stephanie L.; Miga, Michael I.

    2006-03-01

    This work extends a recently realized inverse problem technique of extracting soft tissue elasticity information via non-rigid model-based image registration. The algorithm uses the elastic properties of the tissue in a biomechanical model to achieve maximal similarity between image data acquired under different states of loading. A new multi-resolution, non-linear optimization framework has been employed which allows for improved performance and object detection. Prior studies have demonstrated successful reconstructions from images of a tissue-like thin membrane phantom with a single embedded inclusion that was significantly stiffer than its surroundings. For this investigation, a similar phantom was fabricated with two stiff inclusions to test the effectiveness of this method in discriminating multiple smaller objects. Elasticity values generated from both simulation and real data testing scenarios provided sufficient contrast for detection and good quantitative localization of the inclusion areas.

  2. Swarming visual sensor network for real-time multiple object tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Yuri P.; Yarishev, Sergey N.; Medvedev, Roman V.

    2016-04-01

    Position control of multiple objects is one of the most actual problems in various technology areas. For example, in construction area this problem is represented as multi-point deformation control of bearing constructions in order to prevent collapse, in mining - deformation control of lining constructions, in rescue operations - potential victims and sources of ignition location, in transport - traffic control and traffic violations detection, in robotics -traffic control for organized group of robots and many other problems in different areas. Usage of stationary devices for solving these problems is inappropriately due to complex and variable geometry of control areas. In these cases self-organized systems of moving visual sensors is the best solution. This paper presents a concept of scalable visual sensor network with swarm architecture for multiple object pose estimation and real-time tracking. In this article recent developments of distributed measuring systems were reviewed with consequent investigation of advantages and disadvantages of existing systems, whereupon theoretical principles of design of swarming visual sensor network (SVSN) were declared. To measure object coordinates in the world coordinate system using TV-camera intrinsic (focal length, pixel size, principal point position, distortion) and extrinsic (rotation matrix, translation vector) calibration parameters were needed to be determined. Robust camera calibration was a too resource-intensive task for using moving camera. In this situation position of the camera is usually estimated using a visual mark with known parameters. All measurements were performed in markcentered coordinate systems. In this article a general adaptive algorithm of coordinate conversion of devices with various intrinsic parameters was developed. Various network topologies were reviewed. Minimum error in objet tracking was realized by finding the shortest path between object of tracking and bearing sensor, which set

  3. STakeholder-Objective Risk Model (STORM): Determining the aggregated risk of multiple contaminant hazards in groundwater well catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enzenhoefer, R.; Binning, P. J.; Nowak, W.

    2015-09-01

    Risk is often defined as the product of probability, vulnerability and value. Drinking water supply from groundwater abstraction is often at risk due to multiple hazardous land use activities in the well catchment. Each hazard might or might not introduce contaminants into the subsurface at any point in time, which then affects the pumped quality upon transport through the aquifer. In such situations, estimating the overall risk is not trivial, and three key questions emerge: (1) How to aggregate the impacts from different contaminants and spill locations to an overall, cumulative impact on the value at risk? (2) How to properly account for the stochastic nature of spill events when converting the aggregated impact to a risk estimate? (3) How will the overall risk and subsequent decision making depend on stakeholder objectives, where stakeholder objectives refer to the values at risk, risk attitudes and risk metrics that can vary between stakeholders. In this study, we provide a STakeholder-Objective Risk Model (STORM) for assessing the total aggregated risk. Or concept is a quantitative, probabilistic and modular framework for simulation-based risk estimation. It rests on the source-pathway-receptor concept, mass-discharge-based aggregation of stochastically occuring spill events, accounts for uncertainties in the involved flow and transport models through Monte Carlo simulation, and can address different stakeholder objectives. We illustrate the application of STORM in a numerical test case inspired by a German drinking water catchment. As one may expect, the results depend strongly on the chosen stakeholder objectives, but they are equally sensitive to different approaches for risk aggregation across different hazards, contaminant types, and over time.

  4. Single and multiple objective biomass-to-biofuel supply chain optimization considering environmental impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valles Sosa, Claudia Evangelina

    Bioenergy has become an important alternative source of energy to alleviate the reliance on petroleum energy. Bioenergy offers diminishing climate change by reducing Green House Gas Emissions, as well as providing energy security and enhancing rural development. The Energy Independence and Security Act mandate the use of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels including 16 billion gallons of cellulosic biofuels by the year 2022. It is clear that Biomass can make a substantial contribution to supply future energy demand in a sustainable way. However, the supply of sustainable energy is one of the main challenges that mankind will face over the coming decades. For instance, many logistical challenges will be faced in order to provide an efficient and reliable supply of quality feedstock to biorefineries. 700 million tons of biomass will be required to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually to meet the projected use of biofuels by the year of 2022. Approaching this complex logistic problem as a multi-commodity network flow structure, the present work proposes the use of a genetic algorithm as a single objective optimization problem that considers the maximization of profit and the present work also proposes the use of a Multiple Objective Evolutionary Algorithm to simultaneously maximize profit while minimizing global warming potential. Most transportation optimization problems available in the literature have mostly considered the maximization of profit or the minimization of total travel time as potential objectives to be optimized. However, on this research work, we take a more conscious and sustainable approach for this logistic problem. Planners are increasingly expected to adopt a multi-disciplinary approach, especially due to the rising importance of environmental stewardship. The role of a transportation planner and designer is shifting from simple economic analysis to promoting sustainability through the integration of environmental objectives. To

  5. A parallel approach of COFFEE objective function to multiple sequence alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafalon, G. F. D.; Visotaky, J. M. V.; Amorim, A. R.; Valêncio, C. R.; Neves, L. A.; de Souza, R. C. G.; Machado, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    The computational tools to assist genomic analyzes show even more necessary due to fast increasing of data amount available. With high computational costs of deterministic algorithms for sequence alignments, many works concentrate their efforts in the development of heuristic approaches to multiple sequence alignments. However, the selection of an approach, which offers solutions with good biological significance and feasible execution time, is a great challenge. Thus, this work aims to show the parallelization of the processing steps of MSA-GA tool using multithread paradigm in the execution of COFFEE objective function. The standard objective function implemented in the tool is the Weighted Sum of Pairs (WSP), which produces some distortions in the final alignments when sequences sets with low similarity are aligned. Then, in studies previously performed we implemented the COFFEE objective function in the tool to smooth these distortions. Although the nature of COFFEE objective function implies in the increasing of execution time, this approach presents points, which can be executed in parallel. With the improvements implemented in this work, we can verify the execution time of new approach is 24% faster than the sequential approach with COFFEE. Moreover, the COFFEE multithreaded approach is more efficient than WSP, because besides it is slightly fast, its biological results are better.

  6. Fast Quantitative Analysis Of Museum Objects Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy And Multiple Regression Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzetti, G.; Foresta, A.; Palleschi, V.; Legnaioli, S.

    2009-09-01

    The recent development of mobile instrumentation, specifically devoted to in situ analysis and study of museum objects, allows the acquisition of many LIBS spectra in very short time. However, such large amount of data calls for new analytical approaches which would guarantee a prompt analysis of the results obtained. In this communication, we will present and discuss the advantages of statistical analytical methods, such as Partial Least Squares Multiple Regression algorithms vs. the classical calibration curve approach. PLS algorithms allows to obtain in real time the information on the composition of the objects under study; this feature of the method, compared to the traditional off-line analysis of the data, is extremely useful for the optimization of the measurement times and number of points associated with the analysis. In fact, the real time availability of the compositional information gives the possibility of concentrating the attention on the most `interesting' parts of the object, without over-sampling the zones which would not provide useful information for the scholars or the conservators. Some example on the applications of this method will be presented, including the studies recently performed by the researcher of the Applied Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory on museum bronze objects.

  7. Transfer of Learning between Hemifields in Multiple Object Tracking: Memory Reduces Constraints of Attention

    PubMed Central

    Lapierre, Mark; Howe, Piers D. L.; Cropper, Simon J.

    2013-01-01

    Many tasks involve tracking multiple moving objects, or stimuli. Some require that individuals adapt to changing or unfamiliar conditions to be able to track well. This study explores processes involved in such adaptation through an investigation of the interaction of attention and memory during tracking. Previous research has shown that during tracking, attention operates independently to some degree in the left and right visual hemifields, due to putative anatomical constraints. It has been suggested that the degree of independence is related to the relative dominance of processes of attention versus processes of memory. Here we show that when individuals are trained to track a unique pattern of movement in one hemifield, that learning can be transferred to the opposite hemifield, without any evidence of hemifield independence. However, learning is not influenced by an explicit strategy of memorisation of brief periods of recognisable movement. The findings lend support to a role for implicit memory in overcoming putative anatomical constraints on the dynamic, distributed spatial allocation of attention involved in tracking multiple objects. PMID:24349555

  8. A split-optimization approach for obtaining multiple solutions in single-objective process parameter optimization.

    PubMed

    Rajora, Manik; Zou, Pan; Yang, Yao Guang; Fan, Zhi Wen; Chen, Hung Yi; Wu, Wen Chieh; Li, Beizhi; Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    It can be observed from the experimental data of different processes that different process parameter combinations can lead to the same performance indicators, but during the optimization of process parameters, using current techniques, only one of these combinations can be found when a given objective function is specified. The combination of process parameters obtained after optimization may not always be applicable in actual production or may lead to undesired experimental conditions. In this paper, a split-optimization approach is proposed for obtaining multiple solutions in a single-objective process parameter optimization problem. This is accomplished by splitting the original search space into smaller sub-search spaces and using GA in each sub-search space to optimize the process parameters. Two different methods, i.e., cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategy, were used to split the original search space, and their efficiency was measured against a method in which the original search space is split into equal smaller sub-search spaces. The proposed approach was used to obtain multiple optimal process parameter combinations for electrochemical micro-machining. The result obtained from the case study showed that the cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategies were more efficient in splitting the original search space than the method in which the original search space is divided into smaller equal sub-search spaces.

  9. A split-optimization approach for obtaining multiple solutions in single-objective process parameter optimization.

    PubMed

    Rajora, Manik; Zou, Pan; Yang, Yao Guang; Fan, Zhi Wen; Chen, Hung Yi; Wu, Wen Chieh; Li, Beizhi; Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    It can be observed from the experimental data of different processes that different process parameter combinations can lead to the same performance indicators, but during the optimization of process parameters, using current techniques, only one of these combinations can be found when a given objective function is specified. The combination of process parameters obtained after optimization may not always be applicable in actual production or may lead to undesired experimental conditions. In this paper, a split-optimization approach is proposed for obtaining multiple solutions in a single-objective process parameter optimization problem. This is accomplished by splitting the original search space into smaller sub-search spaces and using GA in each sub-search space to optimize the process parameters. Two different methods, i.e., cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategy, were used to split the original search space, and their efficiency was measured against a method in which the original search space is split into equal smaller sub-search spaces. The proposed approach was used to obtain multiple optimal process parameter combinations for electrochemical micro-machining. The result obtained from the case study showed that the cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategies were more efficient in splitting the original search space than the method in which the original search space is divided into smaller equal sub-search spaces. PMID:27625978

  10. Probabilistic 3D object recognition and pose estimation using multiple interpretations generation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhaojin; Lee, Sukhan

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a probabilistic object recognition and pose estimation method using multiple interpretation generation in cluttered indoor environments. How to handle pose ambiguity and uncertainty is the main challenge in most recognition systems. In order to solve this problem, we approach it in a probabilistic manner. First, given a three-dimensional (3D) polyhedral object model, the parallel and perpendicular line pairs, which are detected from stereo images and 3D point clouds, generate pose hypotheses as multiple interpretations, with ambiguity from partial occlusion and fragmentation of 3D lines especially taken into account. Different from the previous methods, each pose interpretation is represented as a region instead of a point in pose space reflecting the measurement uncertainty. Then, for each pose interpretation, more features around the estimated pose are further utilized as additional evidence for computing the probability using the Bayesian principle in terms of likelihood and unlikelihood. Finally, fusion strategy is applied to the top ranked interpretations with high probabilities, which are further verified and refined to give a more accurate pose estimation in real time. The experimental results show the performance and potential of the proposed approach in real cluttered domestic environments.

  11. Visuospatial Attention to Single and Multiple Objects Is Independently Impaired in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Norton, Daniel J; Nguyen, Victoria A; Lewis, Michaela F; Reynolds, Gretchen O; Somers, David C; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with deficits in visuospatial attention. It is as yet unknown whether these attentional deficits begin at a perceptual level or instead reflect disruptions in oculomotor or higher-order processes. In the present study, non-demented individuals with PD and matched normal control adults (NC) participated in two tasks requiring sustained visuospatial attention, both based on a multiple object tracking paradigm. Eye tracking was used to ensure central fixation. In Experiment 1 (26 PD, 21 NC), a pair of identical red dots (one target, one distractor) rotated randomly for three seconds at varied speeds. The task was to maintain the identity of the sole target, which was labeled prior to each trial. PD were less accurate than NC overall (p = .049). When considering only trials where fixation was maintained, however, there was no significant group difference, suggesting that the deficit's origin is closely related to oculomotor processing. To determine whether PD had additional impairment in multifocal attention, in Experiment 2 (25 PD, 15 NC), two targets were presented along with distractors at a moderate speed, along with a control condition in which dots remained stationary. PD were less accurate than NC for moving (p = 0.02) but not stationary targets. This group difference remained significant when considering only trials where fixation was maintained, suggesting the source of the PD deficit was independent from oculomotor processing. Taken together, the results implicate separate mechanisms for single vs. multiple object tracking deficits in PD. PMID:26963388

  12. Visuospatial Attention to Single and Multiple Objects Is Independently Impaired in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Daniel J.; Nguyen, Victoria A.; Lewis, Michaela F.; Reynolds, Gretchen O.; Somers, David C.; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with deficits in visuospatial attention. It is as yet unknown whether these attentional deficits begin at a perceptual level or instead reflect disruptions in oculomotor or higher-order processes. In the present study, non-demented individuals with PD and matched normal control adults (NC) participated in two tasks requiring sustained visuospatial attention, both based on a multiple object tracking paradigm. Eye tracking was used to ensure central fixation. In Experiment 1 (26 PD, 21 NC), a pair of identical red dots (one target, one distractor) rotated randomly for three seconds at varied speeds. The task was to maintain the identity of the sole target, which was labeled prior to each trial. PD were less accurate than NC overall (p = .049). When considering only trials where fixation was maintained, however, there was no significant group difference, suggesting that the deficit’s origin is closely related to oculomotor processing. To determine whether PD had additional impairment in multifocal attention, in Experiment 2 (25 PD, 15 NC), two targets were presented along with distractors at a moderate speed, along with a control condition in which dots remained stationary. PD were less accurate than NC for moving (p = 0.02) but not stationary targets. This group difference remained significant when considering only trials where fixation was maintained, suggesting the source of the PD deficit was independent from oculomotor processing. Taken together, the results implicate separate mechanisms for single vs. multiple object tracking deficits in PD. PMID:26963388

  13. An object-based interaction framework for the operation of multiple field robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Henry Lee, II

    Today's field robots, such as the Sojourner Mars rover or the Predator unmanned aerial vehicle, work alone to accomplish dirty, dull, or dangerous missions. Plans for the next generation of robotic systems call for multiple field robots to conduct these missions cooperatively under the direction of a single operator. This research examines the role of the operator in multiple-robot missions and creates a human-robot interaction framework that supports this role---a vital step toward the successful deployment of these future robots. In a typical user-centered approach to the development of a human-robot interaction framework, the work practices of the robot operator would be observed, characterized, and integrated into the design. Unfortunately, there are no settings where one can study the operator of multiple robots at work because no such systems have been deployed. As an alternative, this research incorporated a surrogate setting that could be used to inform the early interaction design of multiple-robot systems. Police Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams were chosen as this setting, and an ethnographic study of SWAT commanders was conducted. Concepts from the interdisciplinary study of geographically distributed work, including common ground, shared mental models, and information sharing, were used to understand and characterize the ethnographic observations. Using lessons learned from the surrogate setting, an implementation of a new human-robot interaction framework was demonstrated on the Micro Autonomous Rovers (MAR) platform in the Aerospace Robotics Laboratory at Stanford University. This interaction framework, which is based on the sensing and manipulation of physical objects by the robots, was derived from the finding that references to physical objects serve as an essential communication and coordination tool for SWAT commanders. A human-computer interface that utilizes direct manipulation techniques and three-dimensional computer graphics was

  14. The importance of multiple assessments of object knowledge in semantic dementia: the case of the familiar objects task.

    PubMed

    Chrysikou, Evangelia G; Giovannetti, Tania; Wambach, Denene M; Lyon, Abigail C; Grossman, Murray; Libon, David J

    2011-02-01

    Semantic dementia (SD) is characterized by a dramatic loss of conceptual knowledge about the meaning of words and the identity of objects. Previous research has suggested that SD patients' knowledge is differentially influenced by the disease and may decline at different degrees depending on a patient's everyday familiarity with certain items. However, no study has examined (a) semantic knowledge deterioration and (b) the potential significance of autobiographical experience for the maintenance of object concepts in the same cohort of SD patients by using comprehensive assessments of different aspects of object knowledge across an experience-based, distributed semantic memory network. Here, we tested four SD patients and three Alzheimer's disease (AD) control patients using a range of tasks - including naming, gesture generation, and autobiographical knowledge - with personally familiar objects or perceptually similar or different object analogs. Our results showed dissociations between performance on naming relative to other assessments of object knowledge between SD and AD patients, though we did not observe a reliable familiar objects advantage. We discuss different factors that may account for these findings, as well as their implications for research on SD.

  15. Single- and Multiple-Objective Optimization with Differential Evolution and Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2006-01-01

    Genetic and evolutionary algorithms have been applied to solve numerous problems in engineering design where they have been used primarily as optimization procedures. These methods have an advantage over conventional gradient-based search procedures became they are capable of finding global optima of multi-modal functions and searching design spaces with disjoint feasible regions. They are also robust in the presence of noisy data. Another desirable feature of these methods is that they can efficiently use distributed and parallel computing resources since multiple function evaluations (flow simulations in aerodynamics design) can be performed simultaneously and independently on ultiple processors. For these reasons genetic and evolutionary algorithms are being used more frequently in design optimization. Examples include airfoil and wing design and compressor and turbine airfoil design. They are also finding increasing use in multiple-objective and multidisciplinary optimization. This lecture will focus on an evolutionary method that is a relatively new member to the general class of evolutionary methods called differential evolution (DE). This method is easy to use and program and it requires relatively few user-specified constants. These constants are easily determined for a wide class of problems. Fine-tuning the constants will off course yield the solution to the optimization problem at hand more rapidly. DE can be efficiently implemented on parallel computers and can be used for continuous, discrete and mixed discrete/continuous optimization problems. It does not require the objective function to be continuous and is noise tolerant. DE and applications to single and multiple-objective optimization will be included in the presentation and lecture notes. A method for aerodynamic design optimization that is based on neural networks will also be included as a part of this lecture. The method offers advantages over traditional optimization methods. It is more

  16. Estimation of the discharges of the multiple water level stations by multi-objective optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Miyamoto, Mamoru; Yamakage, Yuzuru; Tsuda, Morimasa; Yanami, Hitoshi; Anai, Hirokazu; Iwami, Yoichi

    2016-04-01

    This presentation shows two aspects of the parameter identification to estimate the discharges of the multiple water level stations by multi-objective optimization. One is how to adjust the parameters to estimate the discharges accurately. The other is which optimization algorithms are suitable for the parameter identification. Regarding the previous studies, there is a study that minimizes the weighted error of the discharges of the multiple water level stations by single-objective optimization. On the other hand, there are some studies that minimize the multiple error assessment functions of the discharge of a single water level station by multi-objective optimization. This presentation features to simultaneously minimize the errors of the discharges of the multiple water level stations by multi-objective optimization. Abe River basin in Japan is targeted. The basin area is 567.0km2. There are thirteen rainfall stations and three water level stations. Nine flood events are investigated. They occurred from 2005 to 2012 and the maximum discharges exceed 1,000m3/s. The discharges are calculated with PWRI distributed hydrological model. The basin is partitioned into the meshes of 500m x 500m. Two-layer tanks are placed on each mesh. Fourteen parameters are adjusted to estimate the discharges accurately. Twelve of them are the hydrological parameters and two of them are the parameters of the initial water levels of the tanks. Three objective functions are the mean squared errors between the observed and calculated discharges at the water level stations. Latin Hypercube sampling is one of the uniformly sampling algorithms. The discharges are calculated with respect to the parameter values sampled by a simplified version of Latin Hypercube sampling. The observed discharge is surrounded by the calculated discharges. It suggests that it might be possible to estimate the discharge accurately by adjusting the parameters. In a sense, it is true that the discharge of a water

  17. Investigation of the CLEAN deconvolution method for use with Late Time Response analysis of multiple objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Simon; Taylor, Christopher T.; Fernando, Michael; Andrews, David; Bowring, Nicholas

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the application of the CLEAN non-linear deconvolution method to Late Time Response (LTR) analysis for detecting multiple objects in Concealed Threat Detection (CTD). When an Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) frequency radar signal is used to illuminate a conductive target, surface currents are induced upon the object which in turn give rise to LTR signals. These signals are re-radiated from the target and the results from a number of targets are presented. The experiment was performed using double ridged horn antenna in a pseudo-monostatic arrangement. A Vector network analyser (VNA) has been used to provide the UWB Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar signal. The distance between the transmitting antenna and the target objects has been kept at 1 metre for all the experiments performed and the power level at the VNA was set to 0dBm. The targets in the experimental setup are suspended in air in a laboratory environment. Matlab has been used in post processing to perform linear and non-linear deconvolution of the signal. The Wiener filter, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) are used to process the return signals and extract the LTR features from the noise clutter. A Generalized Pencil-of-Function (GPOF) method was then used to extract the complex poles of the signal. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) have been used to classify the data.

  18. A New Object-Oriented MODFLOW Framework for Coupling Multiple Hydrologic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, C.; Hughes, J. D.; Panday, S. M.; Banta, E. R.; Niswonger, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    MODFLOW is a popular open-source groundwater flow model distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey. For 30 years, the MODFLOW program has been widely used by academic researchers, private consultants, and government scientists to accurately, reliably, and efficiently simulate groundwater flow. With time, growing interest in surface and groundwater interactions, local refinement with nested and unstructured grids, karst groundwater flow, solute transport, and saltwater intrusion, has led to the development of numerous MODFLOW versions. Although these MODFLOW versions are often based on the core version (presently MODFLOW-2005), there are often incompatibilities that restrict their use with one another. In many cases, development of these alternative versions has been challenging due to the underlying MODFLOW structure, which was designed for simulation with a single groundwater flow model using a rectilinear grid. A new object-oriented framework is being developed for MODFLOW to provide a platform for supporting multiple models and multiple types of models within the same simulation. In the new design, any number of numerical models can be tightly coupled at the matrix level by adding them to the same numerical solution, or they can be iteratively coupled until there is convergence between them. Transfer of information between models is isolated to exchange objects, which allow models to be developed and used independently. For existing MODFLOW users, this means that the program can function in the same way it always has for a single groundwater flow model. Within this new framework, a regional-scale groundwater model may be coupled with multiple local-scale groundwater models. Or, a surface water flow model can be coupled to multiple groundwater flow models. The framework naturally allows for the simulation of solute transport. Presently, unstructured control-volume finite-difference models have been implemented in the framework for three-dimensional groundwater

  19. Brief report: Reduced grouping interference in children with ASD: evidence from a Multiple Object Tracking Task.

    PubMed

    Evers, Kris; de-Wit, Lee; Van der Hallen, Ruth; Haesen, Birgitt; Steyaert, Jean; Noens, Ilse; Wagemans, Johan

    2014-07-01

    This study was inspired by the more locally oriented processing style in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A modified multiple object tracking (MOT) task was administered to a group of children with and without ASD. Participants not only had to distinguish moving targets from distracters, but they also had to track targets when they were visually grouped to distracters, a manipulation which has a detrimental effect on tracking performance in adults. MOT performance in the ASD group was also affected by grouping, but this effect was significantly reduced. This result highlights how the reduced bias towards more global processing in ASD could influence further stages of cognition by altering the way in which attention selects information for further processing.

  20. Step wise, multiple objective calibration of a hydrologic model for a snowmelt dominated basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hay, L.E.; Leavesley, G.H.; Clark, M.P.; Markstrom, S.L.; Viger, R.J.; Umemoto, M.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to apply a hydrologic model to large numbers of basins for forecasting purposes requires a quick and effective calibration strategy. This paper presents a step wise, multiple objective, automated procedure for hydrologic model calibration. This procedure includes the sequential calibration of a model's simulation of solar radiation (SR), potential evapotranspiration (PET), water balance, and daily runoff. The procedure uses the Shuffled Complex Evolution global search algorithm to calibrate the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation Runoff Modeling System in the Yampa River basin of Colorado. This process assures that intermediate states of the model (SR and PET on a monthly mean basis), as well as the water balance and components of the daily hydrograph are simulated, consistently with measured values.

  1. The Role of Visual Attention in Multiple Object Tracking: Evidence from ERPs

    PubMed Central

    Doran, Matthew M.; Hoffman, James E.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the role of visual attention in the multiple object tracking (MOT) task by measuring the amplitude of the N1 component of the event-related potential (ERP) to probe flashes presented on targets, distractors, or empty background areas. We found evidence that visual attention enhances targets and suppresses distractors (Experiment 1 & 3). However, we also found that when tracking load was light (two targets and two distractors), accurate tracking could be carried out without any apparent contribution from the visual attention system (Experiment 2). Our results suggest that attentional selection during MOT is flexibly determined by task demands as well as tracking load and that visual attention may not always be necessary for accurate tracking. PMID:20802834

  2. Differential performance of Chinese volleyball athletes and nonathletes on a multiple-object tracking task.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuemin; Yan, Ming; Yangang, Liao

    2009-12-01

    The difference between athletes and nonathletes on the performance of a multiple-object tracking (MOT) task was examined. Participants were 17 national professional volleyball athletes and 20 age-matched nonathletes who were university students and attended basic volleyball training classes. Across trials, the number of distractors and the color and form of the targets were manipulated. A negative correlation was observed between the number of distractors and participants' reaction time. Further, all participants responded faster when the target color changed during a trial than when it remained consistent. Athletes had faster reaction time than nonathletes independent of the number of distractors or target manipulation. Male athletes also had faster overall reaction time than female athletes. The implications of these findings for athletic training are discussed. PMID:20178275

  3. Calculation of Pareto-optimal solutions to multiple-objective problems using threshold-of-acceptability constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giesy, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    A technique is presented for the calculation of Pareto-optimal solutions to a multiple-objective constrained optimization problem by solving a series of single-objective problems. Threshold-of-acceptability constraints are placed on the objective functions at each stage to both limit the area of search and to mathematically guarantee convergence to a Pareto optimum.

  4. Objective assessment of motor fatigue in multiple sclerosis: the Fatigue index Kliniken Schmieder (FKS).

    PubMed

    Sehle, Aida; Vieten, Manfred; Sailer, Simon; Mündermann, Annegret; Dettmers, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Fatigue is a common and frequently disabling symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to develop the Fatigue index Kliniken Schmieder (FKS) for detecting motor fatigue in patients with MS using kinematic gait analysis. The FKS relies on the chaos theoretical term "attractor", which, if unchanged, is a necessary and sufficient indicator of a stable dynamical system. We measured the acceleration of the feet at the beginning of and shortly before stopping a treadmill walking task in 20 healthy subjects and 40 patients with multiple sclerosis. The attractor and movement variability were calculated. In the absence of muscular exhaustion a significant difference in the attractor and movement variability between the two time points demonstrates altered motor control indicating fatigue. Subjects were classified using the FKS. All healthy subjects had normal FKS and thus no fatigue. 29 patients with MS were classified into a fatigue group and 11 patients into a non-fatigue group. This classification agreed with the physician's observation and video analyses in up to 97 % of cases. The FKS did not correlate significantly with the overall and motor dimensions of the fatigue questionnaire scores in patients with MS and motor fatigue. The common concept of fatigue as overall subjective sensation of exhaustion can be affected by conditions including depression, sleep disorder and others. FKS constitutes a robust and objective measure of changes in motor performance. Therefore, the FKS allows correct identification of motor fatigue even in cases where common comorbidities mask motor fatigue. PMID:24952620

  5. Prediction processes during multiple object tracking (MOT): involvement of dorsal and ventral premotor cortices

    PubMed Central

    Atmaca, Silke; Stadler, Waltraud; Keitel, Anne; Ott, Derek V M; Lepsien, Jöran; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Background The multiple object tracking (MOT) paradigm is a cognitive task that requires parallel tracking of several identical, moving objects following nongoal-directed, arbitrary motion trajectories. Aims The current study aimed to investigate the employment of prediction processes during MOT. As an indicator for the involvement of prediction processes, we targeted the human premotor cortex (PM). The PM has been repeatedly implicated to serve the internal modeling of future actions and action effects, as well as purely perceptual events, by means of predictive feedforward functions. Materials and methods Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), BOLD activations recorded during MOT were contrasted with those recorded during the execution of a cognitive control task that used an identical stimulus display and demanded similar attentional load. A particular effort was made to identify and exclude previously found activation in the PM-adjacent frontal eye fields (FEF). Results We replicated prior results, revealing occipitotemporal, parietal, and frontal areas to be engaged in MOT. Discussion The activation in frontal areas is interpreted to originate from dorsal and ventral premotor cortices. The results are discussed in light of our assumption that MOT engages prediction processes. Conclusion We propose that our results provide first clues that MOT does not only involve visuospatial perception and attention processes, but prediction processes as well. PMID:24363971

  6. Multi-objective, multiple participant decision support for water management in the Andarax catchment, Almeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Cauwenbergh, N.; Pinte, D.; Tilmant, A.; Frances, I.; Pulido-Bosch, A.; Vanclooster, M.

    2008-04-01

    Water management in the Andarax river basin (Almeria, Spain) is a multi-objective, multi-participant, long-term decision-making problem that faces several challenges. Adequate water allocation needs informed decisions to meet increasing socio-economic demands while respecting the environmental integrity of this basin. Key players in the Andarax water sector include the municipality of Almeria, the irrigators involved in the intensive greenhouse agricultural sector, and booming second residences. A decision support system (DSS) is developed to rank different sustainable planning and management alternatives according to their socio-economic and environmental performance. The DSS is intimately linked to sustainability indicators and is designed through a public participation process. Indicators are linked to criteria reflecting stakeholders concerns in the 2005 field survey, such as fulfilling water demand, water price, technical and economical efficiency, social and environmental impacts. Indicators can be partly quantified after simulating the operation of the groundwater reservoir over a 20-year planning period and partly through a parallel expert evaluation process. To predict the impact of future water demand in the catchment, several development scenarios are designed to be evaluated in the DSS. The successive multi-criteria analysis of the performance indicators permits the ranking of the different management alternatives according to the multiple objectives formulated by the different sectors/participants. This allows more informed and transparent decision-making processes for the Andarax river basin, recognizing both the socio-economic and environmental dimensions of water resources management.

  7. A New Standard-Based Polynomial Interpolation (SBPIn) Method to Address Gel-to-Gel Variability for the Comparison of Multiple Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Profile Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Valentín-Vargas, Alexis; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Standard-Based Polynomial Interpolation (SBPIn) method is a new simple three-step protocol proposed to address common gel-to-gel variations for the comparison of sample profiles across multiple DGGE gels. The advantages of this method include no requirement for additional software or modification of the standard DGGE protocol. PMID:23234884

  8. Helping a Man with Multiple Disabilities Increase Object-Contact Responses and Reduce Hand Stereotypy via a Microswitch Cluster Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Didden, Robert; Smaldone, Angela; Oliva, Doretta

    2008-01-01

    Background: People with profound and multiple disabilities often display aberrant behaviours (such as stereotypical movements) which can inhibit learning and lead to social stigmatisation. This study was designed to help a man with multiple disabilities increase his object-contact responses and reduce hand stereotypy (in this case, hand/wrist…

  9. The effects of TMS over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on trans-saccadic memory of multiple objects.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, L L; Dessing, J C; Malik, P; Prime, S L; Crawford, J D

    2014-10-01

    Humans typically make several rapid eye movements (saccades) per second. It is thought that visual working memory can retain and spatially integrate three to four objects or features across each saccade but little is known about this neural mechanism. Previously we showed that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the posterior parietal cortex and frontal eye fields degrade trans-saccadic memory of multiple object features (Prime, Vesia, & Crawford, 2008, Journal of Neuroscience, 28(27), 6938-6949; Prime, Vesia, & Crawford, 2010, Cerebral Cortex, 20(4), 759-772.). Here, we used a similar protocol to investigate whether dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), an area involved in spatial working memory, is also involved in trans-saccadic memory. Subjects were required to report changes in stimulus orientation with (saccade task) or without (fixation task) an eye movement in the intervening memory interval. We applied single-pulse TMS to left and right DLPFC during the memory delay, timed at three intervals to arrive approximately 100 ms before, 100 ms after, or at saccade onset. In the fixation task, left DLPFC TMS produced inconsistent results, whereas right DLPFC TMS disrupted performance at all three intervals (significantly for presaccadic TMS). In contrast, in the saccade task, TMS consistently facilitated performance (significantly for left DLPFC/perisaccadic TMS and right DLPFC/postsaccadic TMS) suggesting a dis-inhibition of trans-saccadic processing. These results are consistent with a neural circuit of trans-saccadic memory that overlaps and interacts with, but is partially separate from the circuit for visual working memory during sustained fixation.

  10. Insights into the Interactions between Educational Messages: Looking across Multiple Organizations Addressing Water Issues in Maricopa County, Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutts, Bethany; Saltz, Charlene; Elser, Monica

    2008-01-01

    The public receives environmental information from a variety of sources. Evaluation of a single program or one organization's effort is incomplete. Through surveys and interviews, we evaluate the cumulative impact of outreach by 20 water-related organizations in Maricopa County, Arizona. Household water conservation is a topic addressed by 18…

  11. A landscape lake flow pattern design approach based on automated CFD simulation and parallel multiple objective optimization.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hao; Tian, Yimei; Shen, Hailiang; Wang, Yi; Kang, Mengxin

    2016-01-01

    A design approach for determining the optimal flow pattern in a landscape lake is proposed based on FLUENT simulation, multiple objective optimization, and parallel computing. This paper formulates the design into a multi-objective optimization problem, with lake circulation effects and operation cost as two objectives, and solves the optimization problem with non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II. The lake flow pattern is modelled in FLUENT. The parallelization aims at multiple FLUENT instance runs, which is different from the FLUENT internal parallel solver. This approach: (1) proposes lake flow pattern metrics, i.e. weighted average water flow velocity, water volume percentage of low flow velocity, and variance of flow velocity, (2) defines user defined functions for boundary setting, objective and constraints calculation, and (3) parallels the execution of multiple FLUENT instances runs to significantly reduce the optimization wall-clock time. The proposed approach is demonstrated through a case study for Meijiang Lake in Tianjin, China.

  12. A landscape lake flow pattern design approach based on automated CFD simulation and parallel multiple objective optimization.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hao; Tian, Yimei; Shen, Hailiang; Wang, Yi; Kang, Mengxin

    2016-01-01

    A design approach for determining the optimal flow pattern in a landscape lake is proposed based on FLUENT simulation, multiple objective optimization, and parallel computing. This paper formulates the design into a multi-objective optimization problem, with lake circulation effects and operation cost as two objectives, and solves the optimization problem with non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II. The lake flow pattern is modelled in FLUENT. The parallelization aims at multiple FLUENT instance runs, which is different from the FLUENT internal parallel solver. This approach: (1) proposes lake flow pattern metrics, i.e. weighted average water flow velocity, water volume percentage of low flow velocity, and variance of flow velocity, (2) defines user defined functions for boundary setting, objective and constraints calculation, and (3) parallels the execution of multiple FLUENT instances runs to significantly reduce the optimization wall-clock time. The proposed approach is demonstrated through a case study for Meijiang Lake in Tianjin, China. PMID:27642835

  13. Addressable micropatterning of multiple proteins and cells by microscope projection photolithography based on a protein friendly photoresist.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miju; Choi, Jong-Cheol; Jung, Hong-Ryul; Katz, Joshua S; Kim, Min-Gon; Doh, Junsang

    2010-07-20

    We report a new method for the micropatterning of multiple proteins and cells with micrometer-scale precision. Microscope projection photolithography based on a new protein-friendly photoresist, poly(2,2-dimethoxy nitrobenzyl methacrylate-r-methyl methacrylate-r-poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (PDMP), was used for the fabrication of multicomponent protein/cell arrays. Microscope projection lithography allows precise registration between multiple patterns as well as facile fabrication of microscale features. Thin films of PDMP became soluble in near-neutral physiological buffer solutions upon UV exposure and exhibited excellent resistance to protein adsorption and cell adhesion. By harnessing advantages in microscope projection photolithography and properties of PDMP thin films, we could successfully fabricate protein arrays composed of multiple proteins. Furthermore, we could extend this method for the patterning of two different types of immune cells for the potential study of immune cell interactions. This technique will in general be useful for protein chip fabrication and high-throughput cell-cell communication study.

  14. A Study on Marker Overlapping Control for M2M-Based Augmented Reality Multiple Object Loading Using Bresenham Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sungmo; Song, Jae-Gu; Kim, Seoksoo

    The problem of one marker one object loading only available in marker-based augmented reality technology can be solved by PPHT-based augmented reality multiple objects loading technology which detects the same marker in the image and copies at a desirable location. However, since the distance between markers will not be measured in the process of detecting and copying markers, markers can be overlapped and thus the objects would not be augmented. To solve this problem, a circle having the longest radius needs to be created from a focal point of a marker to be copied, so that no object is copied within the confines of the circle. Therefore, a marker overlapping control for M2M-based augmented reality multiple object loading has been studied using Bresenham algorithm.

  15. Addressing astronomy misconceptions and achieving national science standards utilizing aspects of multiple intelligences theory in the classroom and the planetarium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrazine, Angela Renee

    The purpose of this study was to incorporate multiple intelligences techniques in both a classroom and planetarium setting to create a significant increase in student learning about the moon and lunar phases. Utilizing a free-response questionnaire and a 25 item multiple choice pre-test/post-test design, this study identified middle school students' misconceptions and measured increases in student learning about the moon and lunar phases. The study spanned two semesters and contained six treatment groups which consisted of both single and multiple interventions. One group only attended the planetarium program. Two groups attended one of two classes a week prior to the planetarium program, and two groups attended one of two classes a week after the planetarium program. The most rigorous treatment group attended a class both a week before and after the planetarium program. Utilizing Rasch analysis techniques and parametric statistical tests, all six groups exhibited statistically significant gains in knowledge at the 0.05 level. There were no significant differences between students who attended only a planetarium program versus a single classroom program. Also, subjects who attended either a pre-planetarium class or a post- planetarium class did not show a statistically significant gain over the planetarium only situation. Equivalent effects on student learning were exhibited by the pre-planetarium class groups and post-planetarium class groups. Therefore, it was determined that the placement of the second intervention does not have a significant impact on student learning. However, a decrease in learning was observed with the addition of a third intervention. Further instruction and testing appeared to hinder student learning. This is perhaps an effect of subject fatigue.

  16. Bi-objective optimization of a multiple-target active debris removal mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérend, Nicolas; Olive, Xavier

    2016-05-01

    The increasing number of space debris in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) raises the question of future Active Debris Removal (ADR) operations. Typical ADR scenarios rely on an Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) using one of the two following disposal strategies: the first one consists in attaching a deorbiting kit, such as a solid rocket booster, to the debris after rendezvous; with the second one, the OTV captures the debris and moves it to a low-perigee disposal orbit. For multiple-target ADR scenarios, the design of such a mission is very complex, as it involves two optimization levels: one for the space debris sequence, and a second one for the "elementary" orbit transfer strategy from a released debris to the next one in the sequence. This problem can be seen as a Time-Dependant Traveling Salesman Problem (TDTSP) with two objective functions to minimize: the total mission duration and the total propellant consumption. In order to efficiently solve this problem, ONERA has designed, under CNES contract, TOPAS (Tool for Optimal Planning of ADR Sequence), a tool that implements a Branch & Bound method developed in previous work together with a dedicated algorithm for optimizing the "elementary" orbit transfer. A single run of this tool yields an estimation of the Pareto front of the problem, which exhibits the trade-off between mission duration and propellant consumption. We first detail our solution to cope with the combinatorial explosion of complex ADR scenarios with 10 debris. The key point of this approach is to define the orbit transfer strategy through a small set of parameters, allowing an acceptable compromise between the quality of the optimum solution and the calculation cost. Then we present optimization results obtained for various 10 debris removal scenarios involving a 15-ton OTV, using either the deorbiting kit or the disposal orbit strategy. We show that the advantage of one strategy upon the other depends on the propellant margin, the maximum duration allowed

  17. Population genetics suggest that multiple invasion processes need to be addressed in the management plan of a plant disease vector

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kylie L; Congdon, Bradley C

    2013-01-01

    The use of a multidisciplinary approach is becoming increasingly important when developing management strategies that mitigate the economic and biological costs associated with invasive pests. A framework of simulated dispersal is combined with life-history information and analyses of population genetic structure to investigate the invasion dynamics of a plant disease vector, the island sugarcane planthopper (Eumetopina flavipes), through an archipelago of significant Australian quarantine concern. Analysis of eight microsatellite loci from 648 individuals suggests that frequent, wind-assisted immigration from multiple sources in Papua New Guinea contributes significantly to repeated colonization of far northern islands. However, intermittent wind-assisted immigration better explains patterns of genetic diversity and structure in the southern islands and on the tip of mainland Australia. Significant population structuring associated with the presence of clusters of highly related individuals results from breeding in-situ following colonization, with little postestablishment movement. Results also suggest that less important secondary movements occur between islands; these appear to be human mediated and restricted by quarantine zones. Control of the planthopper may be very difficult on islands close to Papua New Guinea given the apparent propensity for multiple invasion, but may be achievable further south where local populations appear highly independent and isolated. PMID:23789032

  18. Population genetics suggest that multiple invasion processes need to be addressed in the management plan of a plant disease vector.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kylie L; Congdon, Bradley C

    2013-06-01

    The use of a multidisciplinary approach is becoming increasingly important when developing management strategies that mitigate the economic and biological costs associated with invasive pests. A framework of simulated dispersal is combined with life-history information and analyses of population genetic structure to investigate the invasion dynamics of a plant disease vector, the island sugarcane planthopper (Eumetopina flavipes), through an archipelago of significant Australian quarantine concern. Analysis of eight microsatellite loci from 648 individuals suggests that frequent, wind-assisted immigration from multiple sources in Papua New Guinea contributes significantly to repeated colonization of far northern islands. However, intermittent wind-assisted immigration better explains patterns of genetic diversity and structure in the southern islands and on the tip of mainland Australia. Significant population structuring associated with the presence of clusters of highly related individuals results from breeding in-situ following colonization, with little postestablishment movement. Results also suggest that less important secondary movements occur between islands; these appear to be human mediated and restricted by quarantine zones. Control of the planthopper may be very difficult on islands close to Papua New Guinea given the apparent propensity for multiple invasion, but may be achievable further south where local populations appear highly independent and isolated.

  19. Symmetric caging formation for convex polygonal object transportation by multiple mobile robots based on fuzzy sliding mode control.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yanyan; Kim, YoonGu; Wee, SungGil; Lee, DongHa; Lee, SukGyu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of object caging and transporting is considered for multiple mobile robots. With the consideration of minimizing the number of robots and decreasing the rotation of the object, the proper points are calculated and assigned to the multiple mobile robots to allow them to form a symmetric caging formation. The caging formation guarantees that all of the Euclidean distances between any two adjacent robots are smaller than the minimal width of the polygonal object so that the object cannot escape. In order to avoid collision among robots, the parameter of the robots radius is utilized to design the caging formation, and the A⁎ algorithm is used so that mobile robots can move to the proper points. In order to avoid obstacles, the robots and the object are regarded as a rigid body to apply artificial potential field method. The fuzzy sliding mode control method is applied for tracking control of the nonholonomic mobile robots. Finally, the simulation and experimental results show that multiple mobile robots are able to cage and transport the polygonal object to the goal position, avoiding obstacles.

  20. 3D reconstruction based on multiple views for close-range objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Zheng; Zhang, Jianqing

    2007-06-01

    It is difficult for traditional photogrammetry techniques to reconstruct 3D model of close-range objects. To overcome the restriction and realize complex objects' 3D reconstruction, we present a realistic approach on the basis of multi-baseline stereo vision. This incorporates the image matching based on short-baseline-multi-views, and 3D measurement based on multi-ray intersection, and the 3D reconstruction of the object's based on TIN or parametric geometric model. Different complex object are reconstructed by this way. The results demonstrate the feasibility and effectivity of the method.

  1. Whole Watershed Restoration Planning Tools for Estimating Tradeoffs Among Multiple Objectives

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a set of decision support tools to assist whole watershed restoration planning in the Pacific Northwest. Here we describe how these tools are being integrated and applied in collaboration with tribes and community stakeholders to address restoration of hydrological ...

  2. Multiple Objectives Achieved with a Germination Experiment in a Science Education Biology Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergwerff, Ken; Warners, David

    2007-01-01

    In our college course, "Life Science for Elementary School Teachers," our investigation assesses the germination success of an invasive plant, purple loosestrife, compared to native wildflowers. Topics addressed include the scientific method, experimental design, seed dormancy, plant competition, ethno-botany, and success of non-native plants. The…

  3. Brief Report: Reduced Grouping Interference in Children with ASD--Evidence from a Multiple Object Tracking Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Kris; de-Wit, Lee; Van der Hallen, Ruth; Haesen, Birgitt; Steyaert, Jean; Noens, Ilse; Wagemans, Johan

    2014-01-01

    This study was inspired by the more locally oriented processing style in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A modified multiple object tracking (MOT) task was administered to a group of children with and without ASD. Participants not only had to distinguish moving targets from distracters, but they also had to track targets when they were visually…

  4. Effectiveness of Guided Multiple Choice Objective Questions Test on Students' Academic Achievement in Senior School Mathematics by School Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igbojinwaekwu, Patrick Chukwuemeka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated, using pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design, the effectiveness of guided multiple choice objective questions test on students' academic achievement in Senior School Mathematics, by school location, in Delta State Capital Territory, Nigeria. The sample comprised 640 Students from four coeducation secondary…

  5. Assessment and Instruction of Object Permanence in Children with Blindness and Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Susan M.; Vargas, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This article discusses the impact of blindness and low vision on the development of object permanence and provides suggestions for assessment and instruction. Methods: The reviewed literature was identified by searching both ERIC and Psych Info using combinations of search terms such as "object permanence" and "visual impairment" or…

  6. Tracking the changing features of multiple objects: progressively poorer perceptual precision and progressively greater perceptual lag.

    PubMed

    Howard, Christina J; Holcombe, Alex O

    2008-04-01

    To measure the limits on attentive tracking of continuously changing features, in our task objects constantly changed smoothly and unpredictably in orientation, spatial period or position. Observers reported the last state of one of the objects. We observed a gradual decline in performance as the number of tracked objects increased, implicating a graded processing resource. Additionally, responses were more similar to previous states of the tracked object than its final state, especially in the case of spatial frequency. Indeed for spatial frequency, this perceptual lag reached 250ms when tracking four objects. The pattern of the perceptual lags, the graded effect of set size, and the double-report performance suggest the presence of both serial and parallel processing elements.

  7. Phylogenetic relationships within the lizard clade Xantusiidae: using trees and divergence times to address evolutionary questions at multiple levels.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Brice P; Pramuk, Jennifer B; Bezy, Robert L; Sinclair, Elizabeth A; de Queiroz, Kevin; Sites, Jack W

    2013-10-01

    Xantusiidae (night lizards) is a clade of small-bodied, cryptic lizards endemic to the New World. The clade is characterized by several features that would benefit from interpretation in a phylogenetic context, including: (1) monophyletic status of extant taxa Cricosaura, Lepidophyma, and Xantusia; (2) a species endemic to Cuba (Cricosaura typica) of disputed age; (3) origins of the parthenogenetic species of Lepidophyma; (4) pronounced micro-habitat differences accompanied by distinct morphologies in both Xantusia and Lepidophyma; and (5) placement of Xantusia riversiana, the only vertebrate species endemic to the California Channel Islands, which is highly divergent from its mainland relatives. This study incorporates extensive new character data from multiple gene regions to investigate the phylogeny of Xantusiidae using the most comprehensive taxonomic sampling available to date. Parsimony and partitioned Bayesian analyses of more than 7 kb of mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data from 11 loci all confirm that Xantusiidae is monophyletic, and comprises three well-supported clades: Cricosaura, Xantusia, and Lepidophyma. The Cuban endemic Cricosaura typica is well supported as the sister to all other xantusiids. Estimates of divergence time indicate that Cricosaura diverged from the (Lepidophyma+Xantusia) clade ≈ 81 million years ago (Ma), a time frame consistent with the separation of the Antilles from North America. Our results also confirm and extend an earlier study suggesting that parthenogenesis has arisen at least twice within Lepidophyma without hybridization, that rock-crevice ecomorphs evolved numerous times (>9) within Xantusia and Lepidophyma, and that the large-bodied Channel Island endemic X. riversiana is a distinct, early lineage that may form the sister group to the small-bodied congeners of the mainland.

  8. Systems and methods for maintaining multiple objects within a camera field-of-view

    DOEpatents

    Gans, Nicholas R.; Dixon, Warren

    2016-03-15

    In one embodiment, a system and method for maintaining objects within a camera field of view include identifying constraints to be enforced, each constraint relating to an attribute of the viewed objects, identifying a priority rank for the constraints such that more important constraints have a higher priority that less important constraints, and determining the set of solutions that satisfy the constraints relative to the order of their priority rank such that solutions that satisfy lower ranking constraints are only considered viable if they also satisfy any higher ranking constraints, each solution providing an indication as to how to control the camera to maintain the objects within the camera field of view.

  9. Detecting Multiple Moving Objects in Crowded Environments with Coherent Motion Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2008-01-01

    We propose an object detection system that uses the locations of tracked low-level feature points as input, and produces a set of independent coherent motion regions as output. As an object moves, tracked feature points on it span a coherent 3D region in the space-time volume defined by the video. In the case of multi-object motion, many possible coherent motion regions can be constructed around the set of all feature point tracks. Our approach is to identify all possible coherent motion regions, and extract the subset that maximizes an overall likelihood function while assigning each point track to at most one motion region. We solve the problem of finding the best set of coherent motion regions with a simple greedy algorithm, and show that our approach produces semantically correct detections and counts of similar objects moving through crowded scenes.

  10. Recursive forward dynamics for multiple robot arms moving a common task object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    1988-01-01

    Recursive forward dynamics algorithms are developed for an arbitrary number of robot arms moving a commonly held object. The multiarm forward dynamics problem is to find the angular accelerations at the joints and the contact forces that the arms impart to the task object. The problem also involves finding the acceleration of this object. The multiarm forward dynamics solutions provide a thorough physical and mathematical understanding of the way several arms behave in response to a set of applied joint moments. Such an understanding simplifies and guides the subsequent control design and experimentation process. The forward dynamics algorithms also provide the necessary analytical foundation for conducting analysis and simulation studies. The multiarm algorithms are based on the filtering and smoothing approach recently advanced for single-arm dynamics, and they can be built up modularly from the single-arm algorithms. The algorithms compute recursively the joint-angle accelerations, the contact forces, and the task-object accelerations. Algorithms are also developed to evaluate in closed form the linear transformations from the active joint moments to the joint-angle accelerations, to the task-object accelerations., and to the task-object contact forces. A possible computing architecture is presented as a precursor to a more complete investigation of the computational performance of the dynamics algorithms.

  11. Single and multiple object tracking using log-euclidean Riemannian subspace and block-division appearance model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiming; Li, Xi; Luo, Wenhan; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Maybank, Stephen; Zhang, Zhongfei

    2012-12-01

    Object appearance modeling is crucial for tracking objects, especially in videos captured by nonstationary cameras and for reasoning about occlusions between multiple moving objects. Based on the log-euclidean Riemannian metric on symmetric positive definite matrices, we propose an incremental log-euclidean Riemannian subspace learning algorithm in which covariance matrices of image features are mapped into a vector space with the log-euclidean Riemannian metric. Based on the subspace learning algorithm, we develop a log-euclidean block-division appearance model which captures both the global and local spatial layout information about object appearances. Single object tracking and multi-object tracking with occlusion reasoning are then achieved by particle filtering-based Bayesian state inference. During tracking, incremental updating of the log-euclidean block-division appearance model captures changes in object appearance. For multi-object tracking, the appearance models of the objects can be updated even in the presence of occlusions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed tracking algorithm obtains more accurate results than six state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. PMID:22331855

  12. Single and multiple object tracking using log-euclidean Riemannian subspace and block-division appearance model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiming; Li, Xi; Luo, Wenhan; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Maybank, Stephen; Zhang, Zhongfei

    2012-12-01

    Object appearance modeling is crucial for tracking objects, especially in videos captured by nonstationary cameras and for reasoning about occlusions between multiple moving objects. Based on the log-euclidean Riemannian metric on symmetric positive definite matrices, we propose an incremental log-euclidean Riemannian subspace learning algorithm in which covariance matrices of image features are mapped into a vector space with the log-euclidean Riemannian metric. Based on the subspace learning algorithm, we develop a log-euclidean block-division appearance model which captures both the global and local spatial layout information about object appearances. Single object tracking and multi-object tracking with occlusion reasoning are then achieved by particle filtering-based Bayesian state inference. During tracking, incremental updating of the log-euclidean block-division appearance model captures changes in object appearance. For multi-object tracking, the appearance models of the objects can be updated even in the presence of occlusions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed tracking algorithm obtains more accurate results than six state-of-the-art tracking algorithms.

  13. Building a surface model of an object using multiple range views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soucy, Marc-Andre A.; Laurendeau, Denis

    1992-03-01

    This paper presents a two-step technique to build a non-redundant surface model of an object using information provided by N registered range views. In the first processing step, the redundancy between views (e.g., 3-D information belonging to more than one view) is detected. Range views are considered as sets of 3-D points. The redundancy between the views is modeled by the Venn diagram of the N sets. Using the Venn diagram, the second processing step yields a non-redundant surface model of the object. A mesh of 3-D triangles defined in an object-centered reference frame describes the surface information present in the N range views. The proposed view integration technique is independent of the number of 3-D views and does not impose orthogonallity between them.

  14. The design, implementation and acceptability of an integrated intervention to address multiple behavioral and psychosocial risk factors among pregnant African American women

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Kathy S; Blake, Susan M; Milligan, Renee A; Sharps, Phyllis W; White, Davene B; Rodan, Margaret F; Rossi, Maryann; Murray, Kennan B

    2008-01-01

    Background African American women are at increased risk for poor pregnancy outcomes compared to other racial-ethnic groups. Single or multiple psychosocial and behavioral factors may contribute to this risk. Most interventions focus on singular risks. This paper describes the design, implementation, challenges faced, and acceptability of a behavioral counseling intervention for low income, pregnant African American women which integrated multiple targeted risks into a multi-component format. Methods Six academic institutions in Washington, DC collaborated in the development of a community-wide, primary care research study, DC-HOPE, to improve pregnancy outcomes. Cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, depression and intimate partner violence were the four risks targeted because of their adverse impact on pregnancy. Evidence-based models for addressing each risk were adapted and integrated into a multiple risk behavior intervention format. Pregnant women attending six urban prenatal clinics were screened for eligibility and risks and randomized to intervention or usual care. The 10-session intervention was delivered in conjunction with prenatal and postpartum care visits. Descriptive statistics on risk factor distributions, intervention attendance and length (i.e., with < 4 sessions considered minimal adherence) for all enrolled women (n = 1,044), and perceptions of study participation from a sub-sample of those enrolled (n = 152) are reported. Results Forty-eight percent of women screened were eligible based on presence of targeted risks, 76% of those eligible were enrolled, and 79% of those enrolled were retained postpartum. Most women reported a single risk factor (61%); 39% had multiple risks. Eighty-four percent of intervention women attended at least one session (60% attended ≥ 4 sessions) without disruption of clinic scheduling. Specific risk factor content was delivered as prescribed in 80% or more of the sessions; 78% of sessions were

  15. WV R-EMAP STUDY: MULTIPLE-OBJECTIVE SAMPLING DESIGN FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multi-objective sampling design has been implemented through Regional Monitoring and Assessment Program (R-EMAP) support of a cooperative agreement with the state of West Virginia. Goals of the project include: 1) development and testing of a temperature-adjusted fish IBI for t...

  16. Faster than the speed of rejection: Object identification processes during visual search for multiple targets

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, Hayward J.; Walenchok, Stephen C.; Houpt, Joseph W.; Hout, Michael C.; Goldinger, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    When engaged in a visual search for two targets, participants are slower and less accurate in their responses, relative to their performance when searching for singular targets. Previous work on this “dual-target cost” has primarily focused on the breakdown of attention guidance when looking for two items. Here, we investigated how object identification processes are affected by dual-target search. Our goal was to chart the speed at which distractors could be rejected, in order to assess whether dual-target search impairs object identification. To do so, we examined the capacity coefficient, which measures the speed at which decisions can be made, and provides a baseline of parallel performance against which to compare. We found that participants could search at or above this baseline, suggesting that dual-target search does not impair object identification abilities. We also found substantial differences in performance when participants were asked to search for simple versus complex images. Somewhat paradoxically, participants were able to reject complex images more rapidly than simple images. We suggest that this reflects the greater number of features that can be used to identify complex images, a finding that has important consequences for understanding object identification in visual search more generally. PMID:25938253

  17. Shape-based discriminative analysis of combined bilateral hippocampi using multiple object alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Li; Makedon, Fillia; Saykin, Andrew

    2004-05-01

    Shape analysis of hippocampi in schizophrenia has been preformed previously using the spherical harmonic SPHARM description. In these studies, the left and right hippocampi are aligned independently and the spatial relation between them is not explored. This paper presents a new SPHARM-based technique which examines not only the individual shape information of the two hippocampi but also the spatial relation between them. The left and right hippocampi are treated as a single shape configuration. A ploy-shape alignment algorithm is developed for aligning configurations of multiple SPHARM surfaces as follows: (1) the total volume is normalized; (2) the parameter space is aligned for creating the surface correspondence; (3) landmarks are created by a uniform sampling of multiple surfaces for each configuration; (4) a quaternion-based algorithm is employed to align each landmark representation to the mean configuration through the least square rotation and translation iteratively until the mean converges. After applying the poly-shape alignment algorithm, a point distribution model is applied to aligned landmarks for feature extraction. Classification is performed using Fisher's linear discriminant with an effective feature selection scheme. Applying the above procedure to our hippocampal data (14 controls versus 25 schizophrenics, all right-handed males), we achieve the best cross-validation accuracy of 92%, supporting the idea that the whole shape configuration of the two hippocampi provides valuable information in detecting schizophrenia. The results of an ROC analysis and a visualization of discriminative patterns are also included.

  18. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Multiple-Flyby Low-Thrust Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob A.; Vavrina, Matthew A.; Ghosh, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary design of low-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys, the bodies at which those flybys are performed, and in some cases the final destination. In addition, a time-history of control variables must be chosen that defines the trajectory. There are often many thousands, if not millions, of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be a very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very desirable. This work presents such an approach by posing the mission design problem as a multi-objective hybrid optimal control problem. The method is demonstrated on a hypothetical mission to the main asteroid belt.

  19. Detecting multiple moving objects in crowded environments with coherent motion regions

    DOEpatents

    Cheriyadat, Anil M.; Radke, Richard J.

    2013-06-11

    Coherent motion regions extend in time as well as space, enforcing consistency in detected objects over long time periods and making the algorithm robust to noisy or short point tracks. As a result of enforcing the constraint that selected coherent motion regions contain disjoint sets of tracks defined in a three-dimensional space including a time dimension. An algorithm operates directly on raw, unconditioned low-level feature point tracks, and minimizes a global measure of the coherent motion regions. At least one discrete moving object is identified in a time series of video images based on the trajectory similarity factors, which is a measure of a maximum distance between a pair of feature point tracks.

  20. Single and Multiple Object Tracking Using a Multi-Feature Joint Sparse Representation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiming; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Maybank, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a tracking algorithm based on a multi-feature joint sparse representation. The templates for the sparse representation can include pixel values, textures, and edges. In the multi-feature joint optimization, noise or occlusion is dealt with using a set of trivial templates. A sparse weight constraint is introduced to dynamically select the relevant templates from the full set of templates. A variance ratio measure is adopted to adaptively adjust the weights of different features. The multi-feature template set is updated adaptively. We further propose an algorithm for tracking multi-objects with occlusion handling based on the multi-feature joint sparse reconstruction. The observation model based on sparse reconstruction automatically focuses on the visible parts of an occluded object by using the information in the trivial templates. The multi-object tracking is simplified into a joint Bayesian inference. The experimental results show the superiority of our algorithm over several state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. PMID:26353296

  1. Objective markers for sleep propensity: comparison between the Multiple Sleep Latency Test and the Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig.

    PubMed

    Olbrich, Sebastian; Fischer, Marie M; Sander, Christian; Hegerl, Ulrich; Wirtz, Hubert; Bosse-Henck, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    The regulation of wakefulness is important for high-order organisms. Its dysregulation is involved in the pathomechanism of several psychiatric disorders. Thus, a tool for its objective but little time-consuming assessment would be of importance. The Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig allows the objective measurement of sleep propensity, based on a single resting state electroencephalogram. To compare the Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig with the standard for objective assessment of excessive daytime sleepiness, a four-trial Multiple Sleep Latency Test in 25 healthy subjects was conducted. Between the first two trials, a 15-min, 25-channel resting electroencephalogram was recorded, and Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig was used to classify the sleep propensity (i.e., type of vigilance regulation) of each subject. The results of both methods showed significant correlations with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ρ = -0.70; ρ = 0.45, respectively) and correlated with each other (ρ = -0.54). Subjects with a stable electroencephalogram-vigilance regulation yielded significant increased sleep latencies compared with an unstable regulation (multiple sleep latency 898.5 s versus 549.9 s; P = 0.03). Further, Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig classifications allowed the identification of subjects with average sleep latencies <6 min with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 77%. Thus, Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig provides similar information on wakefulness regulation in comparison to the much more cost- and time-consuming Multiple Sleep Latency Test. Due to its high sensitivity and specificity for large sleep propensity, Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig could be an effective and reliable alternative to the Multiple Sleep Latency Test, for example for screening purposes in large cohorts, where objective information about wakefulness regulation is needed.

  2. Pareto evolution of gene networks: an algorithm to optimize multiple fitness objectives.

    PubMed

    Warmflash, Aryeh; Francois, Paul; Siggia, Eric D

    2012-10-01

    The computational evolution of gene networks functions like a forward genetic screen to generate, without preconceptions, all networks that can be assembled from a defined list of parts to implement a given function. Frequently networks are subject to multiple design criteria that cannot all be optimized simultaneously. To explore how these tradeoffs interact with evolution, we implement Pareto optimization in the context of gene network evolution. In response to a temporal pulse of a signal, we evolve networks whose output turns on slowly after the pulse begins, and shuts down rapidly when the pulse terminates. The best performing networks under our conditions do not fall into categories such as feed forward and negative feedback that also encode the input-output relation we used for selection. Pareto evolution can more efficiently search the space of networks than optimization based on a single ad hoc combination of the design criteria.

  3. Neo: an object model for handling electrophysiology data in multiple formats.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Samuel; Guarino, Domenico; Jaillet, Florent; Jennings, Todd; Pröpper, Robert; Rautenberg, Philipp L; Rodgers, Chris C; Sobolev, Andrey; Wachtler, Thomas; Yger, Pierre; Davison, Andrew P

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscientists use many different software tools to acquire, analyze and visualize electrophysiological signals. However, incompatible data models and file formats make it difficult to exchange data between these tools. This reduces scientific productivity, renders potentially useful analysis methods inaccessible and impedes collaboration between labs. A common representation of the core data would improve interoperability and facilitate data-sharing. To that end, we propose here a language-independent object model, named "Neo," suitable for representing data acquired from electroencephalographic, intracellular, or extracellular recordings, or generated from simulations. As a concrete instantiation of this object model we have developed an open source implementation in the Python programming language. In addition to representing electrophysiology data in memory for the purposes of analysis and visualization, the Python implementation provides a set of input/output (IO) modules for reading/writing the data from/to a variety of commonly used file formats. Support is included for formats produced by most of the major manufacturers of electrophysiology recording equipment and also for more generic formats such as MATLAB. Data representation and data analysis are conceptually separate: it is easier to write robust analysis code if it is focused on analysis and relies on an underlying package to handle data representation. For that reason, and also to be as lightweight as possible, the Neo object model and the associated Python package are deliberately limited to representation of data, with no functions for data analysis or visualization. Software for neurophysiology data analysis and visualization built on top of Neo automatically gains the benefits of interoperability, easier data sharing and automatic format conversion; there is already a burgeoning ecosystem of such tools. We intend that Neo should become the standard basis for Python tools in neurophysiology.

  4. Neo: an object model for handling electrophysiology data in multiple formats

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Samuel; Guarino, Domenico; Jaillet, Florent; Jennings, Todd; Pröpper, Robert; Rautenberg, Philipp L.; Rodgers, Chris C.; Sobolev, Andrey; Wachtler, Thomas; Yger, Pierre; Davison, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscientists use many different software tools to acquire, analyze and visualize electrophysiological signals. However, incompatible data models and file formats make it difficult to exchange data between these tools. This reduces scientific productivity, renders potentially useful analysis methods inaccessible and impedes collaboration between labs. A common representation of the core data would improve interoperability and facilitate data-sharing. To that end, we propose here a language-independent object model, named “Neo,” suitable for representing data acquired from electroencephalographic, intracellular, or extracellular recordings, or generated from simulations. As a concrete instantiation of this object model we have developed an open source implementation in the Python programming language. In addition to representing electrophysiology data in memory for the purposes of analysis and visualization, the Python implementation provides a set of input/output (IO) modules for reading/writing the data from/to a variety of commonly used file formats. Support is included for formats produced by most of the major manufacturers of electrophysiology recording equipment and also for more generic formats such as MATLAB. Data representation and data analysis are conceptually separate: it is easier to write robust analysis code if it is focused on analysis and relies on an underlying package to handle data representation. For that reason, and also to be as lightweight as possible, the Neo object model and the associated Python package are deliberately limited to representation of data, with no functions for data analysis or visualization. Software for neurophysiology data analysis and visualization built on top of Neo automatically gains the benefits of interoperability, easier data sharing and automatic format conversion; there is already a burgeoning ecosystem of such tools. We intend that Neo should become the standard basis for Python tools in neurophysiology

  5. Neo: an object model for handling electrophysiology data in multiple formats.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Samuel; Guarino, Domenico; Jaillet, Florent; Jennings, Todd; Pröpper, Robert; Rautenberg, Philipp L; Rodgers, Chris C; Sobolev, Andrey; Wachtler, Thomas; Yger, Pierre; Davison, Andrew P

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscientists use many different software tools to acquire, analyze and visualize electrophysiological signals. However, incompatible data models and file formats make it difficult to exchange data between these tools. This reduces scientific productivity, renders potentially useful analysis methods inaccessible and impedes collaboration between labs. A common representation of the core data would improve interoperability and facilitate data-sharing. To that end, we propose here a language-independent object model, named "Neo," suitable for representing data acquired from electroencephalographic, intracellular, or extracellular recordings, or generated from simulations. As a concrete instantiation of this object model we have developed an open source implementation in the Python programming language. In addition to representing electrophysiology data in memory for the purposes of analysis and visualization, the Python implementation provides a set of input/output (IO) modules for reading/writing the data from/to a variety of commonly used file formats. Support is included for formats produced by most of the major manufacturers of electrophysiology recording equipment and also for more generic formats such as MATLAB. Data representation and data analysis are conceptually separate: it is easier to write robust analysis code if it is focused on analysis and relies on an underlying package to handle data representation. For that reason, and also to be as lightweight as possible, the Neo object model and the associated Python package are deliberately limited to representation of data, with no functions for data analysis or visualization. Software for neurophysiology data analysis and visualization built on top of Neo automatically gains the benefits of interoperability, easier data sharing and automatic format conversion; there is already a burgeoning ecosystem of such tools. We intend that Neo should become the standard basis for Python tools in neurophysiology. PMID

  6. A new behavioural apparatus to reduce animal numbers in multiple types of spontaneous object recognition paradigms in rats.

    PubMed

    Ameen-Ali, K E; Eacott, M J; Easton, A

    2012-10-15

    Standard object recognition procedures assess animals' memory through their spontaneous exploration of novel objects or novel configurations of objects with other aspects of their environment. Such tasks are widely used in memory research, but also in pharmaceutical companies screening new drug treatments. However, behaviour in these tasks may be driven by influences other than novelty such as stress from handling which can subsequently influence performance. This extra-experimental variance means that large numbers of animals are required to maintain power. In addition, accumulation of data is time consuming as animals typically perform only one trial per day. The present study aimed to explore how effectively recognition memory could be tested with a new continual trials apparatus which allows for multiple trials within a session and reduced handling stress through combining features of delayed nonmatching-to-sample and spontaneous object recognition tasks. In this apparatus Lister hooded rats displayed performance significantly above chance levels in object recognition tasks (Experiments 1 and 2) and in tasks of object-location (Experiment 3) and object-in-context memory (Experiment 4) with data from only five animals or fewer per experimental group. The findings indicated that the results were comparable to those of previous reports in the literature and maintained statistical power whilst using less than a third of the number of animals typically used in spontaneous recognition paradigms. Overall, the results highlight the potential benefit of the continual trials apparatus to reduce the number of animals used in recognition memory tasks.

  7. Autonomous Motion Segmentation of Multiple Objects in Low Resolution Video Using Variational Level Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Moelich, M

    2003-11-18

    This report documents research that was done during a ten week internship in the Sapphire research group at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during the Summer of 2003. The goal of the study was to develop an algorithm that is capable of isolating (segmenting) moving objects in low resolution video sequences. This capability is currently being developed by the Sapphire research group as the first stage in a longer term video data mining project. This report gives a chronological account of what ideas were tried in developing the algorithm and what was learned from each attempt. The final version of the algorithm, which is described in detail, gives good results and is fast.

  8. Hemifield asymmetries differentiate VSTM for single- and multiple-feature objects.

    PubMed

    Sheremata, Summer; Shomstein, Sarah

    2014-08-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is a capacity-limited system for maintaining visual information across brief durations. Limits in the amount of information held in memory reflect processing constraints in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), a region of the frontoparietal network also involved in visual attention. During VSTM and visual attention, areas of IPS demonstrate hemispheric asymmetries. Whereas the left hemisphere represents information in only the right hemifield, the right hemisphere represents information across the visual field. In visual attention, hemispheric asymmetries are associated with differences in behavioral performance across the visual field. In order to assess the degree of hemifield asymmetries in VSTM, we measured memory performance across the visual field for both single- and two-feature objects. Consistent with theories of right-hemisphere dominance, there was a memory benefit for single-feature items in the left visual hemifield. However, when the number of features increased, the behavioral bias reversed, demonstrating a benefit for remembering two-feature objects in the right hemifield. On an individual basis, the cost of remembering an additional feature in the hemifields was correlated, suggesting that the shift in hemifield biases reflected a redistribution of resources across the visual field. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these results cannot be explained by differences in perceptual or decision-making load. Our results are consistent with a flexible resource model of VSTM in which attention and/or working memory demands result in representation of items in the right hemifield by both the left and right hemispheres.

  9. A numerical study of sensory-guided multiple views for improved object identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakeslee, B. A.; Zelnio, E. G.; Koditschek, D. E.

    2014-06-01

    We explore the potential on-line adjustment of sensory controls for improved object identification and discrimination in the context of a simulated high resolution camera system carried onboard a maneuverable robotic platform that can actively choose its observational position and pose. Our early numerical studies suggest the significant efficacy and enhanced performance achieved by even very simple feedback-driven iteration of the view in contrast to identification from a fixed pose, uninformed by any active adaptation. Specifically, we contrast the discriminative performance of the same conventional classification system when informed by: a random glance at a vehicle; two random glances at a vehicle; or a random glance followed by a guided second look. After each glance, edge detection algorithms isolate the most salient features of the image and template matching is performed through the use of the Hausdor↵ distance, comparing the simulated sensed images with reference images of the vehicles. We present initial simulation statistics that overwhelmingly favor the third scenario. We conclude with a sketch of our near-future steps in this study that will entail: the incorporation of more sophisticated image processing and template matching algorithms; more complex discrimination tasks such as distinguishing between two similar vehicles or vehicles in motion; more realistic models of the observers mobility including platform dynamics and eventually environmental constraints; and expanding the sensing task beyond the identification of a specified object selected from a pre-defined library of alternatives.

  10. Subjective, but not objective, lingering effects of multiple past concussions in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Brian L; McKay, Carly D; Mrazik, Martin; Barlow, Karen M; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Emery, Carolyn A

    2013-09-01

    The existing literature on lingering effects from concussions in children and adolescents is limited and mixed, and there are no clear answers for patients, clinicians, researchers, or policy makers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether there are lingering effects of past concussions in adolescent athletes. Participants in this study included 643 competitive Bantam and Midget hockey players (most elite 20% by division of play) between 13 and 17 years of age (mean age=15.5, SD=1.2). Concussion history at baseline assessment was retrospectively documented using a pre-season questionnaire (PSQ), which was completed at home by parents and players in advance of baseline testing. Players with English as a second language, self-reported attention or learning disorders, a concussion within 6 months of baseline, or suspected invalid test profiles were excluded from these analyses. Demographically adjusted standard scores for the five composites/domains and raw symptom ratings from the brief Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) computerized battery were analyzed. Adolescent athletes with one or two or more prior concussions did not have significantly worse neurocognitive functioning on ImPACT than did those with no previous concussions. There were significantly more symptoms reported in those with two or more prior concussions than in those with no or one prior concussion. Adolescents with multiple previous concussions had higher levels of baseline symptoms, but there were not group differences in neurocognitive functioning using this brief computerized battery.

  11. An Approach to Automatic Motion Synthesis Harmonized with Music for Multiple Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Nakatani, Mie; Nishida, Shogo

    This paper proposed a research approach to automatic choreography synthesis based on SMF(Standard Midi File) for multiple animated figures. Based on the K.Hevner’s theory, 8 types of emotion in each beat can be extracted from music structure elements, such as tempo, key, rythm, melody, harmony, pitch, which can be computed from SMF. The time of one beat is limited to transmit the emotion to human. By the analysis of emotion, a music can be integrated to several time intervals, every which includes several continuous beats. The top value of synthetic emotion vector represents the emotion type of the interval. Based on the experiment result of C.Matsumoto, 14 motion factors can be mapped from the emotion of interval. According to the 14 motion factors, the macro-motions at the terminals of every interval, and the micromotions between every interval can be generated by mapping rules. We made a prototype system and did a subjective evaluation experiment. The result is fairly good at the congruity between generated motions and given emotion music. A successful research to solve these issues should lead to aid the designation of 3DCG animation.

  12. HackaMol: An Object-Oriented Modern Perl Library for Molecular Hacking on Multiple Scales.

    PubMed

    Riccardi, Demian; Parks, Jerry M; Johs, Alexander; Smith, Jeremy C

    2015-04-27

    HackaMol is an open source, object-oriented toolkit written in Modern Perl that organizes atoms within molecules and provides chemically intuitive attributes and methods. The library consists of two components: HackaMol, the core that contains classes for storing and manipulating molecular information, and HackaMol::X, the extensions that use the core. The core is well-tested, well-documented, and easy to install across computational platforms. The goal of the extensions is to provide a more flexible space for researchers to develop and share new methods. In this application note, we provide a description of the core classes and two extensions: HackaMol::X::Calculator, an abstract calculator that uses code references to generalize interfaces with external programs, and HackaMol::X::Vina, a structured class that provides an interface with the AutoDock Vina docking program. PMID:25793330

  13. Practical Study on HVAC Control Technology Based on the Learning Function and Optimum Multiple Objective Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Haruka; Dazai, Ryota; Kaseda, Chosei; Ikaga, Toshiharu; Kato, Akihiro

    Demand among large office buildings for the energy-saving benefits of the HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning) System are increasing as more and more people become concerned with global environmental issues. However, immoderate measures taken in the interest of energy conservation may encroach on the thermal comfort and productivity level of office workers. Building management should satisfy both indoor thermal comfort and energy conservation while adapting to the many regulatory, social, climate, and other changes that occur during the lifespan of the building. This paper demonstrates how optimal control of the HVAC system, based on data modeling and the multi-objective optimal method, achieves an efficient equilibrium between thermal comfort and energy conservation.

  14. Approach to proliferation risk assessment based on multiple objective analysis framework

    SciTech Connect

    Andrianov, A.; Kuptsov, I.

    2013-07-01

    The approach to the assessment of proliferation risk using the methods of multi-criteria decision making and multi-objective optimization is presented. The approach allows the taking into account of the specifics features of the national nuclear infrastructure, and possible proliferation strategies (motivations, intentions, and capabilities). 3 examples of applying the approach are shown. First, the approach has been used to evaluate the attractiveness of HEU (high enriched uranium)production scenarios at a clandestine enrichment facility using centrifuge enrichment technology. Secondly, the approach has been applied to assess the attractiveness of scenarios for undeclared production of plutonium or HEU by theft of materials circulating in nuclear fuel cycle facilities and thermal reactors. Thirdly, the approach has been used to perform a comparative analysis of the structures of developing nuclear power systems based on different types of nuclear fuel cycles, the analysis being based on indicators of proliferation risk.

  15. HackaMol: An Object-Oriented Modern Perl Library for Molecular Hacking on Multiple Scales.

    PubMed

    Riccardi, Demian; Parks, Jerry M; Johs, Alexander; Smith, Jeremy C

    2015-04-27

    HackaMol is an open source, object-oriented toolkit written in Modern Perl that organizes atoms within molecules and provides chemically intuitive attributes and methods. The library consists of two components: HackaMol, the core that contains classes for storing and manipulating molecular information, and HackaMol::X, the extensions that use the core. The core is well-tested, well-documented, and easy to install across computational platforms. The goal of the extensions is to provide a more flexible space for researchers to develop and share new methods. In this application note, we provide a description of the core classes and two extensions: HackaMol::X::Calculator, an abstract calculator that uses code references to generalize interfaces with external programs, and HackaMol::X::Vina, a structured class that provides an interface with the AutoDock Vina docking program.

  16. MOD* Lite: An Incremental Path Planning Algorithm Taking Care of Multiple Objectives.

    PubMed

    Oral, Tugcem; Polat, Faruk

    2016-01-01

    The need for determining a path from an initial location to a target one is a crucial task in many applications, such as virtual simulations, robotics, and computer games. Almost all of the existing algorithms are designed to find optimal or suboptimal solutions considering only a single objective, namely path length. However, in many real life application path length is not the sole criteria for optimization, there are more than one criteria to be optimized that cannot be transformed to each other. In this paper, we introduce a novel multiobjective incremental algorithm, multiobjective D* lite (MOD* lite) built upon a well-known path planning algorithm, D* lite. A number of experiments are designed to compare the solution quality and execution time requirements of MOD* lite with the multiobjective A* algorithm, an alternative genetic algorithm we developed multiobjective genetic path planning and the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm.

  17. Eye fixation during multiple object attention is based on a representation of discrete spatial foci

    PubMed Central

    Fluharty, Meg; Jentzsch, Ines; Spitschan, Manuel; Vishwanath, Dhanraj

    2016-01-01

    We often look at and attend to several objects at once. How the brain determines where to point our eyes when we do this is poorly understood. Here we devised a novel paradigm to discriminate between different models of spatial selection guiding fixation. In contrast to standard static attentional tasks where the eye remains fixed at a predefined location, observers selected their own preferred fixation position while they tracked static targets that were arranged in specific geometric configurations and which changed identity over time. Fixations were best predicted by a representation of discrete spatial foci, not a polygonal grouping, simple 2-foci division of attention or a circular spotlight. Moreover, attentional performance was incompatible with serial selection. Together with previous studies, our findings are compatible with a view that attentional selection and fixation rely on shared spatial representations and suggest a more nuanced definition of overt vs. covert attention. PMID:27561413

  18. Detection of High-Z Objects using Multiple Scattering of Cosmic Ray Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Gary E.; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Gomez, John; Morris, Christopher; Priedhorsky, William C.; Saunders, Alexander; Schultz, Larry J.; Teasdale, Margaret E.

    2004-02-01

    Detection of high-Z material hidden inside a large volume of ordinary cargo is an important and timely task given the danger associated with illegal transport of uranium and heavier elements. Existing radiography techniques are inefficient for shielded material, often expensive and involve radiation hazards, real and perceived. We recently demonstrated that radiographs can be formed using cosmic-ray muons. Here, we show that compact, high-Z objects can be detected and located in 3 dimensions with muon radiography. The natural flux of cosmic-ray muons, approximately 10,000 m-2min-1, can generate a reliable detection signal in a fraction of a minute, using large-area muon detectors as used in particle and nuclear physics.

  19. Detection of high-Z objects using multiple scattering of cosmic ray muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priedhorsky, William C.; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Hogan, Gary E.; Morris, Christopher; Saunders, Alexander; Schultz, Larry J.; Teasdale, Margaret E.

    2003-10-01

    We demonstrate that high-Z material can be detected and located in three dimensions using radiographs formed by cosmic-ray muons. Detection of high-Z material hidden inside large volume of ordinary cargo is an important and timely task given the danger associated with illegal transport of uranium and heavier elements. Existing radiography techniques are inefficient for shielded material, often expensive and involve radiation hazards, real and perceived. We recently demonstrated that radiographs can be formed using cosmic-ray muons [K. N. Borozdin et al., Nature (London) 422, 277 (2003)]. Here, we show that compact, high-Z objects can be detected and located in three dimensions with muon radiography. The natural flux of cosmic-ray muons [P. K. F. Grieder, Cosmic Rays at Earth (Elsevier, New York, 2001)], approximately 10 000 m-2 min-1, can form useful images in ˜1 min, using large-area muon detectors like those used in high-energy physics.

  20. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Multiple-Flyby Interplanetary Mission Design using Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob A.; Vavrina, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary design of high-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys and the bodies at which those flybys are performed. For some missions, such as surveys of small bodies, the mission designer also contributes to target selection. In addition, real-valued decision variables, such as launch epoch, flight times, maneuver and flyby epochs, and flyby altitudes must be chosen. There are often many thousands of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be a very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very desirable. This work presents such an approach by posing the impulsive mission design problem as a multi-objective hybrid optimal control problem. The method is demonstrated on several real-world problems. Two assumptions are frequently made to simplify the modeling of an interplanetary high-thrust trajectory during the preliminary design phase. The first assumption is that because the available thrust is high, any maneuvers performed by the spacecraft can be modeled as discrete changes in velocity. This assumption removes the need to integrate the equations of motion governing the motion of a spacecraft under thrust and allows the change in velocity to be modeled as an impulse and the expenditure of propellant to be modeled using the time-independent solution to Tsiolkovsky's rocket equation [1]. The second assumption is that the spacecraft moves primarily under the influence of the central body, i.e. the sun, and all other perturbing forces may be neglected in preliminary design. The path of the spacecraft may then be modeled as a series of conic sections. When a spacecraft performs a close

  1. Investigation on Multiple Algorithms for Multi-Objective Optimization of Gear Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthapadmanabhan, R.; Babu, S. Arun; Hareendranath, KR; Krishnamohan, C.; Krishnapillai, S.; A, Krishnan

    2016-09-01

    The field of gear design is an extremely important area in engineering. In this work a spur gear reduction unit is considered. A review of relevant literatures in the area of gear design indicates that compact design of gearbox involves a complicated engineering analysis. This work deals with the simultaneous optimization of the power and dimensions of a gearbox, which are of conflicting nature. The focus is on developing a design space which is based on module, pinion teeth and face-width by using MATLAB. The feasible points are obtained through different multi-objective algorithms using various constraints obtained from different novel literatures. Attention has been devoted in various novel constraints like critical scoring criterion number, flash temperature, minimum film thickness, involute interference and contact ratio. The output from various algorithms like genetic algorithm, fmincon (constrained nonlinear minimization), NSGA-II etc. are compared to generate the best result. Hence, this is a much more precise approach for obtaining practical values of the module, pinion teeth and face-width for a minimum centre distance and a maximum power transmission for any given material.

  2. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Multiple-Flyby Interplanetary Mission Design Using Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob A.; Vavrina, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary design of high-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys and the bodies at which those flybys are performed. For some missions, such as surveys of small bodies, the mission designer also contributes to target selection. In addition, real-valued decision variables, such as launch epoch, flight times, maneuver and flyby epochs, and flyby altitudes must be chosen. There are often many thousands of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be a very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very desirable. This work presents such an approach by posing the impulsive mission design problem as a multiobjective hybrid optimal control problem. The method is demonstrated on several real-world problems.

  3. A Multi-Objective Compounded Local Mobile Cloud Architecture Using Priority Queues to Process Multiple Jobs.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaohui; Sun, Bingyi; Cui, Jiaxu; Xu, Gaochao

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the greatly increased use of mobile devices, the disadvantages of portable devices have gradually begun to emerge. To solve these problems, the use of mobile cloud computing assisted by cloud data centers has been proposed. However, cloud data centers are always very far from the mobile requesters. In this paper, we propose an improved multi-objective local mobile cloud model: Compounded Local Mobile Cloud Architecture with Dynamic Priority Queues (LMCpri). This new architecture could briefly store jobs that arrive simultaneously at the cloudlet in different priority positions according to the result of auction processing, and then execute partitioning tasks on capable helpers. In the Scheduling Module, NSGA-II is employed as the scheduling algorithm to shorten processing time and decrease requester cost relative to PSO and sequential scheduling. The simulation results show that the number of iteration times that is defined to 30 is the best choice of the system. In addition, comparing with LMCque, LMCpri is able to effectively accommodate a requester who would like his job to be executed in advance and shorten execution time. Finally, we make a comparing experiment between LMCpri and cloud assisting architecture, and the results reveal that LMCpri presents a better performance advantage than cloud assisting architecture. PMID:27419854

  4. A Multi-Objective Compounded Local Mobile Cloud Architecture Using Priority Queues to Process Multiple Jobs.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaohui; Sun, Bingyi; Cui, Jiaxu; Xu, Gaochao

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the greatly increased use of mobile devices, the disadvantages of portable devices have gradually begun to emerge. To solve these problems, the use of mobile cloud computing assisted by cloud data centers has been proposed. However, cloud data centers are always very far from the mobile requesters. In this paper, we propose an improved multi-objective local mobile cloud model: Compounded Local Mobile Cloud Architecture with Dynamic Priority Queues (LMCpri). This new architecture could briefly store jobs that arrive simultaneously at the cloudlet in different priority positions according to the result of auction processing, and then execute partitioning tasks on capable helpers. In the Scheduling Module, NSGA-II is employed as the scheduling algorithm to shorten processing time and decrease requester cost relative to PSO and sequential scheduling. The simulation results show that the number of iteration times that is defined to 30 is the best choice of the system. In addition, comparing with LMCque, LMCpri is able to effectively accommodate a requester who would like his job to be executed in advance and shorten execution time. Finally, we make a comparing experiment between LMCpri and cloud assisting architecture, and the results reveal that LMCpri presents a better performance advantage than cloud assisting architecture.

  5. A Multi-Objective Compounded Local Mobile Cloud Architecture Using Priority Queues to Process Multiple Jobs

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaohui; Sun, Bingyi; Cui, Jiaxu; Xu, Gaochao

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the greatly increased use of mobile devices, the disadvantages of portable devices have gradually begun to emerge. To solve these problems, the use of mobile cloud computing assisted by cloud data centers has been proposed. However, cloud data centers are always very far from the mobile requesters. In this paper, we propose an improved multi-objective local mobile cloud model: Compounded Local Mobile Cloud Architecture with Dynamic Priority Queues (LMCpri). This new architecture could briefly store jobs that arrive simultaneously at the cloudlet in different priority positions according to the result of auction processing, and then execute partitioning tasks on capable helpers. In the Scheduling Module, NSGA-II is employed as the scheduling algorithm to shorten processing time and decrease requester cost relative to PSO and sequential scheduling. The simulation results show that the number of iteration times that is defined to 30 is the best choice of the system. In addition, comparing with LMCque, LMCpri is able to effectively accommodate a requester who would like his job to be executed in advance and shorten execution time. Finally, we make a comparing experiment between LMCpri and cloud assisting architecture, and the results reveal that LMCpri presents a better performance advantage than cloud assisting architecture. PMID:27419854

  6. An optical spectrograph design for a new-generation multiple object Doppler instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bo; Ge, Jian

    2006-06-01

    This paper describes an optical spectrograph design for the W.M. Keck Exoplanet Tracker (ET) multi-object Doppler radial velocity instrument. The Keck ET is currently installed at the Sloan 2.5m telescope (Ge et al. this proceedings), and is capable of simultaneously monitoring 60 stars with high precision for a planet survey. The spectrograph consists of an entrance slit, collimator optics, a Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) grating, camera optics and a 4kx4k CCD camera, and provides a spectral resolution of R =5000, with a 180 mm diameter collimated beam. The collimator and camera optics (300 mm largest diameter) are made of two standard optical grade glasses: BK7 and F2, respectively. The spectrograph is transmissive and optimized for delivering high throughput and high image quality over the entire operation bandwidth: 500-590 nm. The f/4 input beams from the Keck ET interferometer are converted to f/1.5 beams on the detector by this spectrograph, and form 60 stellar fringe spectra.

  7. Modeling and optimization of a multi-product biosynthesis factory for multiple objectives.

    PubMed

    Lee, Fook Choon; Pandu Rangaiah, Gade; Lee, Dong-Yup

    2010-05-01

    Genetic algorithms and optimization in general, enable us to probe deeper into the metabolic pathway recipe for multi-product biosynthesis. An augmented model for optimizing serine and tryptophan flux ratios simultaneously in Escherichia coli, was developed by linking the dynamic tryptophan operon model and aromatic amino acid-tryptophan biosynthesis pathways to the central carbon metabolism model. Six new kinetic parameters of the augmented model were estimated with considerations of available experimental data and other published works. Major differences between calculated and reference concentrations and fluxes were explained. Sensitivities and underlying competition among fluxes for carbon sources were consistent with intuitive expectations based on metabolic network and previous results. Biosynthesis rates of serine and tryptophan were simultaneously maximized using the augmented model via concurrent gene knockout and manipulation. The optimization results were obtained using the elitist non-dominant sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) supported by pattern recognition heuristics. A range of Pareto-optimal enzyme activities regulating the amino acids biosynthesis was successfully obtained and elucidated wherever possible vis-à-vis fermentation work based on recombinant DNA technology. The predicted potential improvements in various metabolic pathway recipes using the multi-objective optimization strategy were highlighted and discussed in detail. PMID:20051269

  8. Economy-oriented vehicle adaptive cruise control with coordinating multiple objectives function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eben Li, Shengbo; Li, Keqiang; Wang, Jianqiang

    2013-01-01

    A recent design issue of adaptive cruise control systems is how to reduce fuel consumption when following a preceding vehicle. High fuel economy is achievable through reducing acceleration level, however, it is also significantly restrained by two other functional demands, track capability and driver desired response. In the framework of multi-objective coordination, this paper develops and experimentally validates an economy-oriented headway control algorithm for a passenger car with internal combustion engine. The control algorithm is synthesised in a hierarchical structure. The upper controller, undertaking a major coordinating task, is designed based on the model predictive control theory. Fuel economy, tracking capability, and the driver desired response are formulated as its cost function and constraints in a finite prediction horizon. As further analysis indicated, such a design inevitably results in infeasible control inputs in some extreme cases, e.g. urgent situations involving rapid acceleration/deceleration. A constraint softening method is adopted to enlarge the feasible region in the cost of somewhat sacrificing the optimality of the original cost function. Finally, a prototyping controller is developed based on xPC toolbox and equipped in a passenger car. The followed field tests show that, compared to a linear quadratic controller, such an algorithm improves both fuel economy and tracking capability while also being more responsive to driver car-following behaviours.

  9. Implementation of an object oriented track reconstruction model into multiple LHC experiments*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, Irwin; Gonzalez, Saul; Qian, Sijin

    2001-10-01

    An Object Oriented (OO) model (Gaines et al., 1996; 1997; Gaines and Qian, 1998; 1999) for track reconstruction by the Kalman filtering method has been designed for high energy physics experiments at high luminosity hadron colliders. The model has been coded in the C++ programming language and has been successfully implemented into the OO computing environments of both the CMS (1994) and ATLAS (1994) experiments at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. We shall report: how the OO model was adapted, with largely the same code, to different scenarios and serves the different reconstruction aims in different experiments (i.e. the level-2 trigger software for ATLAS and the offline software for CMS); how the OO model has been incorporated into different OO environments with a similar integration structure (demonstrating the ease of re-use of OO program); what are the OO model's performance, including execution time, memory usage, track finding efficiency and ghost rate, etc.; and additional physics performance based on use of the OO tracking model. We shall also mention the experience and lessons learned from the implementation of the OO model into the general OO software framework of the experiments. In summary, our practice shows that the OO technology really makes the software development and the integration issues straightforward and convenient; this may be particularly beneficial for the general non-computer-professional physicists.

  10. An efficient sequential approach to tracking multiple objects through crowds for real-time intelligent CCTV systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Liyuan; Huang, Weimin; Gu, Irene Yu-Hua; Luo, Ruijiang; Tian, Qi

    2008-10-01

    Efficiency and robustness are the two most important issues for multiobject tracking algorithms in real-time intelligent video surveillance systems. We propose a novel 2.5-D approach to real-time multiobject tracking in crowds, which is formulated as a maximum a posteriori estimation problem and is approximated through an assignment step and a location step. Observing that the occluding object is usually less affected by the occluded objects, sequential solutions for the assignment and the location are derived. A novel dominant color histogram (DCH) is proposed as an efficient object model. The DCH can be regarded as a generalized color histogram, where dominant colors are selected based on a given distance measure. Comparing with conventional color histograms, the DCH only requires a few color components (31 on average). Furthermore, our theoretical analysis and evaluation on real data have shown that DCHs are robust to illumination changes. Using the DCH, efficient implementations of sequential solutions for the assignment and location steps are proposed. The assignment step includes the estimation of the depth order for the objects in a dispersing group, one-by-one assignment, and feature exclusion from the group representation. The location step includes the depth-order estimation for the objects in a new group, the two-phase mean-shift location, and the exclusion of tracked objects from the new position in the group. Multiobject tracking results and evaluation from public data sets are presented. Experiments on image sequences captured from crowded public environments have shown good tracking results, where about 90% of the objects have been successfully tracked with the correct identification numbers by the proposed method. Our results and evaluation have indicated that the method is efficient and robust for tracking multiple objects (>or= 3) in complex occlusion for real-world surveillance scenarios.

  11. Radial velocities of galaxies in the cluster Klemola 22 from observations with OPTOPUS, the ESO multiple object spectroscopy facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristiani, S.; D'Odorico, S.; de Souza, R.; Lund, G.; Quintana, H.

    1987-06-01

    This paper presents the first results obtained with the ESO multiple fiber spectroscopic facility (OPTOPUS). Radial velocities and magnitudes are given for 44 galaxies in the cluster Klemola 22. The average redshift is 16160 km s-1 and the velocity dispersion 742 km s-1. The galaxy Kle 22/17 shows strong emission lines of [O III], with a FWHM of 850 km s-1, and is classified as a type 2 Seyfert. From these observations, the average efficiency of OPTOPUS, including telescope, spectrograph and detector, is computed as 1 detected photoelectron Å-1s-1 for an object of 15 B magnitude.

  12. Hierarchical Robot Control System and Method for Controlling Select Degrees of Freedom of an Object Using Multiple Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a robot having manipulators for grasping an object using one of a plurality of grasp types during a primary task, and a controller. The controller controls the manipulators during the primary task using a multiple-task control hierarchy, and automatically parameterizes the internal forces of the system for each grasp type in response to an input signal. The primary task is defined at an object-level of control, e.g., using a closed-chain transformation, such that only select degrees of freedom are commanded for the object. A control system for the robotic system has a host machine and algorithm for controlling the manipulators using the above hierarchy. A method for controlling the system includes receiving and processing the input signal using the host machine, including defining the primary task at the object-level of control, e.g., using a closed-chain definition, and parameterizing the internal forces for each of grasp type.

  13. Improvement of the R-SWAT-FME framework to support multiple variables and multi-objective functions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Application of numerical models is a common practice in the environmental field for investigation and prediction of natural and anthropogenic processes. However, process knowledge, parameter identifiability, sensitivity, and uncertainty analyses are still a challenge for large and complex mathematical models such as the hydrological/water quality model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). In this study, the previously developed R program language-SWAT-Flexible Modeling Environment (R-SWAT-FME) was improved to support multiple model variables and objectives at multiple time steps (i.e., daily, monthly, and annually). This expansion is significant because there is usually more than one variable (e.g., water, nutrients, and pesticides) of interest for environmental models like SWAT. To further facilitate its easy use, we also simplified its application requirements without compromising its merits, such as the user-friendly interface. To evaluate the performance of the improved framework, we used a case study focusing on both streamflow and nitrate nitrogen in the Upper Iowa River Basin (above Marengo) in the United States. Results indicated that the R-SWAT-FME performs well and is comparable to the built-in auto-calibration tool in multi-objective model calibration. Overall, the enhanced R-SWAT-FME can be useful for the SWAT community, and the methods we used can also be valuable for wrapping potential R packages with other environmental models.

  14. Improvement of the R-SWAT-FME framework to support multiple variables and multi-objective functions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang

    2014-01-01

    Application of numerical models is a common practice in the environmental field for investigation and prediction of natural and anthropogenic processes. However, process knowledge, parameter identifiability, sensitivity, and uncertainty analyses are still a challenge for large and complex mathematical models such as the hydrological/water quality model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). In this study, the previously developed R program language-SWAT-Flexible Modeling Environment (R-SWAT-FME) was improved to support multiple model variables and objectives at multiple time steps (i.e., daily, monthly, and annually). This expansion is significant because there is usually more than one variable (e.g., water, nutrients, and pesticides) of interest for environmental models like SWAT. To further facilitate its easy use, we also simplified its application requirements without compromising its merits, such as the user-friendly interface. To evaluate the performance of the improved framework, we used a case study focusing on both streamflow and nitrate nitrogen in the Upper Iowa River Basin (above Marengo) in the United States. Results indicated that the R-SWAT-FME performs well and is comparable to the built-in auto-calibration tool in multi-objective model calibration. Overall, the enhanced R-SWAT-FME can be useful for the SWAT community, and the methods we used can also be valuable for wrapping potential R packages with other environmental models. PMID:23933430

  15. Opportunity, risk, and success recognizing, addressing, and balancing multiple factors crucial to the success of a project management system deployed to support multi-lateral decommissioning programs

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, Greg; Longsworth, Paul

    2007-07-01

    This paper addresses the factors involved in effectively implementing a world-class program/project management information system funded by multiple nations. Along with many other benefits, investing in and utilizing such systems improves delivery and drive accountability for major expenditures. However, there are an equally large number of impediments to developing and using such systems. To be successful, the process requires a dynamic combining of elements and strategic sequencing of initiatives. While program/project-management systems involve information technologies, software and hardware, they represent only one element of the overall system.. Technology, process, people and knowledge must all be integrated and working in concert with one another to assure a fully capable system. Major system implementations occur infrequently, and frequently miss established targets in relatively small organizations (with the risk increasing with greater complexity). The European Bank of Reconstruction (EBRD) is midway through just such an implementation. The EBRD is using funds from numerous donor countries to sponsor development of an overarching program management system. The system will provide the Russian Federation with the tools to effectively manage prioritizing, planning, and physically decommissioning assets{sub i}n northwest Russia to mitigate risks associated the Soviet era nuclear submarine program. Project-management delivery using world-class techniques supported by aligned systems has been proven to increase the probability of delivering on-time and on-budget, assuring those funding such programs optimum value for money. However, systems deployed to manage multi-laterally funded projects must be developed with appropriate levels of consideration given to unique aspects such as: accommodation of existing project management methods, consideration for differences is management structures and organizational behaviors, incorporation of unique strengths, and

  16. FMOS: the fiber multiple-object spectrograph: Part VI. Onboard performances and results of the engineering observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamuro, Fumihide; Maihara, Toshinori; Akiyama, Masayuki; Kimura, Masahiko; Tamura, Naoyuki; Takato, Naruhisa; Tait, Philip; Ohta, Kouji; Eto, Shigeru; Moritani, Yuuki; Dalton, Gavin B.; Lewis, Ian J.; Lee, Hanshin; Tosh, Ian A. J.; Froud, Tim R.; Murray, Graham J.; Blackburn, Colin; Bonfield, David G.; Gillingham, Peter R.; Smedley, Scott; Smith, Greg A.; Frost, Gabriella

    2008-07-01

    FMOS: the Fiber Multiple-Object Spectrograph is the next common-use instrument of the Subaru Telescope, having a capability of 400 targets multiplicity in the near-infrared 0.9-1.8μm wavelength range with a field coverage of 30' diameter. FMOS consists of three units: 1) the prime focus unit including the corrector lenses, the Echidna fiber positioner, and the instrument-bay to adjust the instrument focus and shift the axis of the corrector lens system, 2) the fiber bundle unit equipping two fiber slits on one end and a fiber connector box with the back-illumination mechanism on the other end on the bundle, 3) the two infrared spectrographs (IRS1 and IRS2) to obtain 2×200 spectra simultaneously. After all the components were installed in the telescope at the end of 2007, the total performance was checked through various tests and engineering observations. We report the results of these tests and demonstrate the performance of FMOS.

  17. Multiple object tracking with non-unique data-to-object association via generalized hypothesis testing. [tracking several aircraft near each other or ships at sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, D. W.; Lefler, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    A generalized hypothesis testing approach is applied to the problem of tracking several objects where several different associations of data with objects are possible. Such problems occur, for instance, when attempting to distinctly track several aircraft maneuvering near each other or when tracking ships at sea. Conceptually, the problem is solved by first, associating data with objects in a statistically reasonable fashion and then, tracking with a bank of Kalman filters. The objects are assumed to have motion characterized by a fixed but unknown deterministic portion plus a random process portion modeled by a shaping filter. For example, the object might be assumed to have a mean straight line path about which it maneuvers in a random manner. Several hypothesized associations of data with objects are possible because of ambiguity as to which object the data comes from, false alarm/detection errors, and possible uncertainty in the number of objects being tracked. The statistical likelihood function is computed for each possible hypothesized association of data with objects. Then the generalized likelihood is computed by maximizing the likelihood over parameters that define the deterministic motion of the object.

  18. An objective rationale for the choice of regularisation parameter with application to global multiple-frequency S-wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaroli, C.; Sambridge, M.; Lévêque, J.-J.; Debayle, E.; Nolet, G.

    2013-10-01

    In a linear ill-posed inverse problem, the regularisation parameter (damping) controls the balance between minimising both the residual data misfit and the model norm. Poor knowledge of data uncertainties often makes the selection of damping rather arbitrary. To go beyond that subjectivity, an objective rationale for the choice of damping is presented, which is based on the coherency of delay-time estimates in different frequency bands. Our method is tailored to the problem of global multiple-frequency tomography (MFT), using a data set of 287 078 S-wave delay times measured in five frequency bands (10, 15, 22, 34, and 51 s central periods). Whereas for each ray path the delay-time estimates should vary coherently from one period to the other, the noise most likely is not coherent. Thus, the lack of coherency of the information in different frequency bands is exploited, using an analogy with the cross-validation method, to identify models dominated by noise. In addition, a sharp change of behaviour of the model ℓ∞-norm, as the damping becomes lower than a threshold value, is interpreted as the signature of data noise starting to significantly pollute at least one model component. Models with damping larger than this threshold are diagnosed as being constructed with poor data exploitation. Finally, a preferred model is selected from the remaining range of permitted model solutions. This choice is quasi-objective in terms of model interpretation, as the selected model shows a high degree of similarity with almost all other permitted models (correlation superior to 98% up to spherical harmonic degree 80). The obtained tomographic model is displayed in the mid lower-mantle (660-1910 km depth), and is shown to be compatible with three other recent global shear-velocity models. A wider application of the presented rationale should permit us to converge towards more objective seismic imaging of Earth's mantle.

  19. Toward Accuracy, Depth and Insight: How Reflective Writing Assignments Can Be Used to Address Multiple Learning Objectives in Small and Large Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukewich, Kristie R.; Vossen, Deborah P.

    2015-01-01

    Writing-to-learn involves the use of low-stakes informal writing activities intended to help students reflect on concepts or ideas presented in a course. Writing-to-learn can be a flexible and effective tool to help students understand and engage with course concepts, and past research has shown that writing-to-learn activities can substantially…

  20. Addressing Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Greg; Helmig, Mary; Kaplan, Bill; Kosch, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Four camp directors discuss how the September 11 tragedy and current world events will affect their camps. They describe how they are addressing safety concerns, working with parents, cooperating with outside agencies, hiring and screening international staff, and revising emergency plans. Camps must continue to offer community and support to…

  1. [Spatial optimum allocation of shelter-forest types in Three Gorges Reservoir Area based on multiple objective grey situation decision].

    PubMed

    Ma, Hao; Zhou, Zhi-xiang; Wang, Peng-cheng; Wu, Chang-guang; Xiao, Wen-fa

    2010-12-01

    Based on the 2007 Landsat TM images and the dominant environmental factors of shelter forest, the forest sites in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area were classified, and by using multiple objective grey situation decision model, three indices including water conservation amount, biomass, and stand productivity were selected to make the spatial optimum allocation of the present four kinds of shelter forest (coniferous forest, broadleaf forest, mixed coniferous-broadleaf forest, and shrub) in the Area. The forest sites in the Area in 2007 could be classified into 40 types, and after the optimization of spatial allocation, the proportion of coniferous forest, broadleaf forest, mixed coniferous-broadleaf forest, and shrub would be 32.55%, 29.43%, 34.95%, and 3.07%, respectively. Comparing with that before optimization, the proportion of coniferous forest and shrub after optimization was reduced by 8.79% and 28.55%, while that of broadleaf forest and mixed coniferous-broadleaf forest was increased by 10.23% and 27.11%, respectively. After the optimization of spatial allocation, the amount of water conservation, biomass, and stand productivity of the shelter forests in the area would be increased by 14.09 x 10(8) m3, 0.35 x 10(8) t, and 1.08 x 10(6) t, respectively.

  2. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  3. An Objective Rationale for the Choice of Regularisation Parameter with Application to Global Multiple-Frequency S-Wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaroli, C.; Sambridge, M.; Leveque, J. J.; Debayle, E.; Nolet, G.

    2014-12-01

    In a linear ill-posed inverse problem, the regularisation parameter (damping) controls the balance between minimising both the residual data misfit and the model norm. Poor knowledge of data uncertainties often makes the selection of damping rather arbitrary. To go beyond that subjectivity, an objective rationale for the choice of damping is presented, which is based on the coherency of delay-time estimates in different frequency bands. Our method is tailored to the problem of global Multiple-Frequency Tomography, using a data set of 287078 S-wave delay-times measured in five frequency bands (10, 15, 22, 34, 51 s central periods). Whereas for each ray path the delay-time estimates should vary coherently from one period to the other, the noise most likely is not coherent. Thus, the lack of coherency of the information in different frequency bands is exploited, using an analogy with the cross-validation method, to identify models dominated by noise.In addition, a sharp change of behaviour of the model infinity-norm, as the damping becomes lower than a threshold value, is interpreted as the signature of data noise starting to significantly pollute at least one model component. Models with damping larger than this threshold are diagnosed as being constructed with poor data exploitation.Finally, a preferred model is selected from the remaining range of permitted model solutions. This choice is quasi-objective in terms of model interpretation, as the selected model shows a high degree of similarity with almost all other permitted models. The obtained tomographic model is displayed in mid lower-mantle (660-1910 km depth), and is shown to be mostly compatible with three other recent global shear-velocity models, while significant differences can be noticed. A wider application of the presented rationale should permit us to converge towards more objective seismic imaging of the Earth's mantle, using as much as possible of the relevant structural information in the data

  4. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  5. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  6. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Ghatowar, P S

    1993-07-01

    The Union Deputy Minister of Health and Family Welfare in India addressed the 35th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay in 1993. Officials in developing countries have been concerned about population growth for more than 30 years and have instituted policies to reduce population growth. In the 1960s, population growth in developing countries was around 2.5%, but today it is about 2%. Despite this decline, the world will have 1 billion more individuals by the year 2001. 95% of these new people will be born in developing countries. India's population size is so great that India does not have the time to wait for development to reduce population growth. Population needs to be viewed as an integrated part of overall development, since it is linked to poverty, illiteracy, environmental damage, gender issues, and reproductive health. Despite a large population size, India has made some important advancements in health and family planning. For example, India has reduced population growth (to 2.14% annually between 1981-1991), infant mortality, and its birth rate. It has increased the contraceptive use rate and life expectancy. Its southern states have been more successful at achieving demographic goals than have the northern states. India needs to implement efforts to improve living conditions, to change attitudes and perceptions about small families and contraception, and to promote family planning acceptance earlier among young couples. Improvement of living conditions is especially important in India, since almost 33% of the people live in poverty. India needs to invest in nutrition, health, and education. The mass media and nongovernmental organizations need to create population awareness and demand for family planning services. Improvement in women's status accelerates fertility decline, as has happened in Kerala State. The government needs to facilitate generation of jobs. Community participation is needed for India to achieve

  7. An echolocation model for range discrimination of multiple closely spaced objects: Transformation of spectrogram into the reflected intensity distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Ikuo; Kunugiyama, Kenji; Yano, Masafumi

    2004-02-01

    Using frequency-modulated echolocation, bats can discriminate the range of objects with an accuracy of less than a millimeter. However, bats' echolocation mechanism is not well understood. The delay separation of three or more closely spaced objects can be determined through analysis of the echo spectrum. However, delay times cannot be properly correlated with objects using only the echo spectrum because the sequence of delay separations cannot be determined without information on temporal changes in the interference pattern of the echoes. To illustrate this, Gaussian chirplets with a carrier frequency compatible with bat emission sweep rates were used. The delay time for object 1, T1, can be estimated from the echo spectrum around the onset time. The delay time for object 2 is obtained by adding T1 to the delay separation between objects 1 and 2 (extracted from the first appearance of interference effects). Further objects can be located in sequence by this same procedure. This model can determine delay times for three or more closely spaced objects with an accuracy of about 1 μs, when all the objects are located within 30 μs of delay separation. This model is applicable for the range discrimination of objects having different reflected intensities and in a noisy environment (0-dB signal-to-noise ratio) while the cross-correlation method is hard to apply to these problems.

  8. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  9. Constraints on Multiple Object Tracking in Williams Syndrome: How Atypical Development Can Inform Theories of Visual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Katrina; Hoffman, James E.; O'Hearn, Kirsten; Landau, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The ability to track moving objects is a crucial skill for performance in everyday spatial tasks. The tracking mechanism depends on representation of moving items as coherent entities, which follow the spatiotemporal constraints of objects in the world. In the present experiment, participants tracked 1 to 4 targets in a display of 8 identical…

  10. Developmental Profiles for Multiple Object Tracking and Spatial Memory: Typically Developing Preschoolers and People with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hearn, Kirsten; Hoffman, James E.; Landau, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The ability to track moving objects, a crucial skill for mature performance on everyday spatial tasks, has been hypothesized to require a specialized mechanism that may be available in infancy (i.e. indexes). Consistent with the idea of specialization, our previous work showed that object tracking was more impaired than a matched spatial memory…

  11. Explaining diversity of livestock-farming management strategies of multiple-job holders: importance of level of production objectives and role of farming in the household.

    PubMed

    Fiorelli, C; Dedieu, B; Pailleux, J-Y

    2007-09-01

    We characterised the livestock-farming management strategies of multiple-job holders and identified which variables contributed most to the differentiation of these strategies. We hypothesised that they would mainly be differentiated by the contribution of the farming income to the total household income and the availability of the household members for farming. The multiple-job holding livestock-farmer's motivations, decisions and actions about both multiple-job holding and livestock farming were obtained in semi-directed interviews of 35 sheep farmers who held multiple jobs, on farm and off farm. They were synthesised into six variables characterising the diversity of the livestock-farming objectives and management guidelines. Thanks to a multiple factorial analysis, we showed that the diversity of the sheep-farming management strategies of multiple-job holders was better explained by two factors 'level of motivation of the farmer to get high technical results' and 'more personal fulfilling v. the family business conception of farming', than the factors we hypothesised. Within our sample, the performances ranged from 0.7 to 1.4 weaned lambs per ewe per year. Six sheep-farming management strategies were identified. They illustrated the importance of the level of production objectives and of farming income expectation, which were found to be independent, in explaining diversity. No direct relationship between farm work organisation and sheep-farming management strategy was identified. Explaining the diversity of the livestock-farming management strategies of multiple-job holders appears to require that all the benefits expected from farming and their hierarchy be identified before analysing how they are translated into production objectives and management guidelines.

  12. Two Children with Multiple Disabilities Increase Adaptive Object Manipulation and Reduce Inappropriate Behavior via a Technology-Assisted Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Didden, Robert; Oliva, Doretta; Campodonico, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Persons with severe to profound multiple disabilities, such as intellectual, visual, and motor disabilities, may be characterized by low levels of adaptive engagement with the environment. They may also display forms of inappropriate, stereotypical behavior (like hand mouthing, that is, putting their fingers into or over their mouths) or…

  13. A computational model of echolocation: Transformation of spectrogram into the reflected intensity distribution for range discrimination of multiple closely spaced objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Ikuo; Kunugiyama, Kenji; Yano, Masafumi

    2001-05-01

    Using frequency-modulated echolocation, bats can discriminate the range of objects with an accuracy of less than a millimeter. However, the echolocation mechanism is not well understood. The delay separation of three or more closely spaced objects can be determined through analysis of the echo spectrum. However, delay times cannot be properly correlated with objects using only the echo spectrum because the sequence of delay separations cannot be determined without information on temporal changes in the interference pattern of the echoes. To illustrate this, Gaussian chirplets with a carrier frequency compatible with bat emission sweep rates were used. The delay time for object 1, T1, can be estimated from the echo spectrum around the onset time. The delay time for object 2 is obtained by adding T1 to the delay separation between objects 1 and 2 (extracted from the first appearance of interference effects). Further objects can be located in sequence by this same procedure. This model can determine delay times for multiple closely spaced objects with an accuracy of about 1 microsecond, when all the objects are located within 30 microseconds of delay separation. This accuracy is possible even with objects having different reflected intensities and in a noisy environment.

  14. Design and Integration of an All-Magnetic Attitude Control System for FASTSAT-HSV01's Multiple Pointing Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeKock, Brandon; Sanders, Devon; Vanzwieten, Tannen; Capo-Lugo, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The FASTSAT-HSV01 spacecraft is a microsatellite with magnetic torque rods as it sole attitude control actuator. FASTSAT s multiple payloads and mission functions require the Attitude Control System (ACS) to maintain Local Vertical Local Horizontal (LVLH)-referenced attitudes without spin-stabilization, while the pointing errors for some attitudes be significantly smaller than the previous best-demonstrated for this type of control system. The mission requires the ACS to hold multiple stable, unstable, and non-equilibrium attitudes, as well as eject a 3U CubeSat from an onboard P-POD and recover from the ensuing tumble. This paper describes the Attitude Control System, the reasons for design choices, how the ACS integrates with the rest of the spacecraft, and gives recommendations for potential future applications of the work.

  15. Managing multiple funding streams and agendas to achieve local and global health and research objectives: lessons from the field.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Charles B; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Raelly, Roselyne L; Freeman, Bethany L; Wambulawae, Inonge; Silwizya, Geoffrey; Topp, Stephanie M; Chilengi, Roma; Henostroza, German; Kapambwe, Sharon; Simbeye, Darius; Sibajene, Sheila; Chi, Harmony; Godfrey, Katy; Chi, Benjamin; Moore, Carolyn Bolton

    2014-01-01

    Multiple funding sources provide research and program implementation organizations a broader base of funding and facilitate synergy, but also entail challenges that include varying stakeholder expectations, unaligned grant cycles, and highly variable reporting requirements. Strong governance and strategic planning are essential to ensure alignment of goals and agendas. Systems to track budgets and outputs, as well as procurement and human resources are required. A major goal of funders is to transition leadership and operations to local ownership. This article details successful approaches used by the newly independent nongovernmental organization, the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia.

  16. Managing multiple funding streams and agendas to achieve local and global health and research objectives: lessons from the field

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Charles B.; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Raelly, Roselyne; Freeman, Bethany; Wambulawae, Inonge; Silwizya, Geoffrey; Topp, Stephanie; Chilengi, Roma; Henostroza, German; Kapambwe, Sharon; Simbeye, Darius; Sibajene, Sheila; Chi, Harmony; Godfrey, Katy; Chi, Benjamin; Moore, Carolyn Bolton

    2014-01-01

    Multiple funding sources provide research and program implementation organizations a broader base of funding and facilitate synergy, but also entail challenges that include varying stakeholder expectations, unaligned grant cycles, and highly variable reporting requirements. Strong governance and strategic planning are essential to ensure alignment of goals and agendas. Systems to track budgets and outputs as well as procurement and human resources are required. A major goal is to transition leadership and operations to local ownership. This article details successful approaches used by the newly independent non-governmental organization, the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia (CIDRZ). PMID:24321983

  17. Two Simple and Efficient Algorithms to Compute the SP-Score Objective Function of a Multiple Sequence Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Ranwez, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a crucial step in many molecular analyses and many MSA tools have been developed. Most of them use a greedy approach to construct a first alignment that is then refined by optimizing the sum of pair score (SP-score). The SP-score estimation is thus a bottleneck for most MSA tools since it is repeatedly required and is time consuming. Results Given an alignment of n sequences and L sites, I introduce here optimized solutions reaching O(nL) time complexity for affine gap cost, instead of O(n2L), which are easy to implement. PMID:27505054

  18. Reconciling the Multiple Objectives of Prison Diversion Programs for Drug Offenders: Evidence from Kansas' Senate Bill 123

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemen, Don; Rengifo, Andres F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In recent years, several states have created mandatory prison-diversion programs for felony drug possessors. These programs have both individual-level goals of reducing recidivism rates and system-level goals of reducing prison populations. Objective: This study examines the individual level and system level impact of Kansas' Senate…

  19. Robust design of multiple trailing edge flaps for helicopter vibration reduction: A multi-objective bat algorithm approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, Rajnish; Ganguli, Ranjan; Seetharama Bhat, M.

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to determine an optimal trailing edge flap configuration and flap location to achieve minimum hub vibration levels and flap actuation power simultaneously. An aeroelastic analysis of a soft in-plane four-bladed rotor is performed in conjunction with optimal control. A second-order polynomial response surface based on an orthogonal array (OA) with 3-level design describes both the objectives adequately. Two new orthogonal arrays called MGB2P-OA and MGB4P-OA are proposed to generate nonlinear response surfaces with all interaction terms for two and four parameters, respectively. A multi-objective bat algorithm (MOBA) approach is used to obtain the optimal design point for the mutually conflicting objectives. MOBA is a recently developed nature-inspired metaheuristic optimization algorithm that is based on the echolocation behaviour of bats. It is found that MOBA inspired Pareto optimal trailing edge flap design reduces vibration levels by 73% and flap actuation power by 27% in comparison with the baseline design.

  20. Enhanced phonological facilitation and traces of concurrent word form activation in speech production: an object-naming study with multiple distractors.

    PubMed

    Abdel Rahman, Rasha; Melinger, Alissa

    2008-09-01

    In the present study, we extended the classic picture-word interference paradigm by the presentation of multiple distractor words (Experiment 1) to reexamine whether the word forms of semantic alternatives receive activation in the course of object naming. Experiment 2 showed that phonological facilitation can be magnified by the presentation of multiple words that share overlapping initial and final segments with the target name. Experiments 3 and 4 tested for traces ofnontarget phonological activation with multiple distractors, which enhances the chances of detecting such effects. These experiments revealed a consistent pattern of interference effects induced by words that were related to a semantic category member, consistent with theories assuming phonological activation of nontarget alternatives. PMID:19086192

  1. FMOS the fibre multiple-object spectrograph, part VIII: current performances and results of the engineering observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Masahiko; Akiyama, Masayuki; Dalton, Gavin B.; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Lewis, Ian J.; Maihara, Toshinori; Ohta, Kouji; Tait, Philip; Takato, Naruhisa; Tamura, Naoyuki; Tosh, Ian A. J.; Smedley, Scott; Curtis Lake, Emma; Inagaki, Takeshi; Jeschke, Eric; Kawate, Kaori; Moritani, Yuuki; Sumiyoshi, Masanao; Yabe, Kiyoto

    2010-07-01

    The Fibre Multi-Object Spectrograph for Subaru Telescope (FMOS) is a near-infrared instrument with 400 fibres in a 30' filed of view at F/2 prime focus. To observe 400 objects simultaneously, we have developed a fibre positioner called "Echidna" using a tube piezo actuator. We have also developed two OH-airglow suppressed and refrigerated spectrographs. Each spectrograph has two spectral resolution modes: the low-resolution mode and the high-resolution mode. The low-resolution mode covers the complete wavelength range of 0.9 - 1.8 μm with one exposure, while the high-resolution mode requires four exposures at different camera positions to cover the full wavelength range. The first light was accomplished in May 2008. The science observations and the open-use observations begin in May 2010.

  2. A hybrid credibility-based fuzzy multiple objective optimisation to differential pricing and inventory policies with arbitrage consideration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemy Yaghin, R.; Fatemi Ghomi, S. M. T.; Torabi, S. A.

    2015-10-01

    In most markets, price differentiation mechanisms enable manufacturers to offer different prices for their products or services in different customer segments; however, the perfect price discrimination is usually impossible for manufacturers. The importance of accounting for uncertainty in such environments spurs an interest to develop appropriate decision-making tools to deal with uncertain and ill-defined parameters in joint pricing and lot-sizing problems. This paper proposes a hybrid bi-objective credibility-based fuzzy optimisation model including both quantitative and qualitative objectives to cope with these issues. Taking marketing and lot-sizing decisions into account simultaneously, the model aims to maximise the total profit of manufacturer and to improve service aspects of retailing simultaneously to set different prices with arbitrage consideration. After applying appropriate strategies to defuzzify the original model, the resulting non-linear multi-objective crisp model is then solved by a fuzzy goal programming method. An efficient stochastic search procedure using particle swarm optimisation is also proposed to solve the non-linear crisp model.

  3. Fiber Optics at ESO - Part Two - Fiber Optics Multiple Object Spectroscopy at the 3.6-METER Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enard, D.; Lund, G.; Tarenghi, M.

    1983-09-01

    During a 6-day test period late in November 1982, a prototype optical fiber device (nicknamed "Fiber Optopus") was tested at the 3.6 m telescope Cassegrain focus. The principle of this device, described in more detail in the following paragraphs, is such that the light from up to 50 randomly separated points on the sky (within the Cassegrain focus field of view) can be simultaneously guided via separate flexible optical fibers to the entrance slit of the B&C spectrograph. By making use of a two-dimensional detector such as a CCO the individual spectra, corresponding to each sampled point on the field, can be recorded simultaneously. When fully operational, the Fiber Optopus should enable a very strong reduction in telescope time to be achieved in observing programmes involving low resolution spectral mapping of extended fields. This feature will be of great interest to astronomers wishing to observe clusters of faint objects requiring long integration periods.

  4. Within-hemifield competition in early visual areas limits the ability to track multiple objects with attention.

    PubMed

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2014-08-27

    It is much easier to divide attention across the left and right visual hemifields than within the same visual hemifield. Here we investigate whether this benefit of dividing attention across separate visual fields is evident at early cortical processing stages. We measured the steady-state visual evoked potential, an oscillatory response of the visual cortex elicited by flickering stimuli, of moving targets and distractors while human observers performed a tracking task. The amplitude of responses at the target frequencies was larger than that of the distractor frequencies when participants tracked two targets in separate hemifields, indicating that attention can modulate early visual processing when it is divided across hemifields. However, these attentional modulations disappeared when both targets were tracked within the same hemifield. These effects were not due to differences in task performance, because accuracy was matched across the tracking conditions by adjusting target speed (with control conditions ruling out effects due to speed alone). To investigate later processing stages, we examined the P3 component over central-parietal scalp sites that was elicited by the test probe at the end of the trial. The P3 amplitude was larger for probes on targets than on distractors, regardless of whether attention was divided across or within a hemifield, indicating that these higher-level processes were not constrained by visual hemifield. These results suggest that modulating early processing stages enables more efficient target tracking, and that within-hemifield competition limits the ability to modulate multiple target representations within the hemifield maps of the early visual cortex.

  5. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications. PMID:21193369

  6. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications.

  7. Teaching Mathematics That Addresses Learners' Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouws, E.; Dicker, A-M.

    2011-01-01

    To meet the demands of our highly technological and globally competitive society, it is becoming increasingly important for all learners in South Africa to obtain skills and knowledge in mathematics. However, South Africa performed the worst of all the countries who participated in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS).…

  8. Frequency bandwidth extension by use of multiple Zeeman field offsets for electron spin-echo EPR oxygen imaging of large objects

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Payam; Epel, Boris; Sundramoorthy, Subramanian V.; Mailer, Colin; Halpern, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Electron spin-echo (ESE) oxygen imaging is a new and evolving electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging (EPRI) modality that is useful for physiological in vivo applications, such as EPR oxygen imaging (EPROI), with potential application to imaging of multicentimeter objects as large as human tumors. A present limitation on the size of the object to be imaged at a given resolution is the frequency bandwidth of the system, since the location is encoded as a frequency offset in ESE imaging. The authors’ aim in this study was to demonstrate the object size advantage of the multioffset bandwidth extension technique.Methods: The multiple-stepped Zeeman field offset (or simply multi-B) technique was used for imaging of an 8.5-cm-long phantom containing a narrow single line triaryl methyl compound (trityl) solution at the 250 MHz imaging frequency. The image is compared to a standard single-field ESE image of the same phantom.Results: For the phantom used in this study, transverse relaxation (T2e) electron spin-echo (ESE) images from multi-B acquisition are more uniform, contain less prominent artifacts, and have a better signal to noise ratio (SNR) compared to single-field T2e images.Conclusions: The multi-B method is suitable for imaging of samples whose physical size restricts the applicability of the conventional single-field ESE imaging technique. PMID:21815379

  9. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  10. Object locating system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, James L.; Petterson, Ben

    1998-06-09

    A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object's effect on electric fields. The object's effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions.

  11. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  12. Object locating system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, J.L.; Petterson, B.

    1998-06-09

    A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object`s effect on electric fields. The object`s effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions. 12 figs.

  13. Infrared mergers and infrared quasi-stellar objects with galactic winds - III. Mrk 231: an exploding young quasi-stellar object with composite outflow/broad absorption lines (and multiple expanding superbubbles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lípari, S.; Terlevich, R.; Zheng, W.; Garcia-Lorenzo, B.; Sanchez, S. F.; Bergmann, M.

    2005-06-01

    We present a study of outflow (OF) and broad absorption line (BAL) systems in Mrk 231, and in similar infrared (IR) quasi-stellar objects (QSOs). This study is based mainly on one-dimensional and two-dimensional spectroscopy (obtained at La Palma/William Herschel Telescope, Hubble Space Telescope, International Ultraviolet Explorer, European Southern Observatory/New Technology Telescope, Kitt Peak National Observatory, Apache Point Observatory and Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito observatories) plus Hubble Space Telescope images. For Mrk 231, we report evidence that the extreme nuclear OF process has at least three main components on different scales, which are probably associated with: (i) the radio jet, at parsec scale; (ii) the extreme starburst at parsec and kiloparsec scale. This OF has generated at least four concentric expanding superbubbles and the BAL systems. Specifically, inside and very close to the nucleus the two-dimensional spectra show the presence of an OF emission bump in the blend Hα+[NII], with a peak at the same velocity of the main BAL-I system (VEjectionBAL-I~-4700 km s-1). This bump was more clearly detected in the area located at 0.6-1.5 arcsec (490-1220 pc), to the south-west of the nucleus core, showing a strong and broad peak. In addition, in the same direction [at position angle (PA) ~-120°, i.e. close to the PA of the small-scale radio jet] at 1.7-2.5 arcsec, we also detected multiple narrow emission-line components, with `greatly' enhanced [NII]/Hα ratio (very similar to the spectra of jets bow shocks). These results suggest that the BAL-I system is generated in OF clouds associated with the parsec-scale jet. The Hubble Space Telescope images show four (or possibly five) nuclear superbubbles or shells with radii r~ 2.9, 1.5, 1.0, 0.6 and 0.2 kpc. For these bubbles, the two-dimensional Hα velocity field map and two-dimensional spectra show the following. (i) At the border of the more extended bubble (S1), a clear expansion of the

  14. Framework for Address Cooperative Extended Transactions

    1997-12-01

    The Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET) is an object-oriented software framework for building models of complex, cooperative behaviors of agents. it can be used to implement simulation models of societal processes such as the complex interplay of participating individuals and organizations engaged in multiple concurrent transactions in pursuit of their various goals. These transactions can be patterned on, for example, clinical guidelines and procedures, business practices, government and corporate policies, etc. FACET canmore » also address other complex behaviors such as biological life cycles or manufacturing processes. FACET includes generic software objects representing the fundamental classes of agent -- Person and Organization - with mechanisms for resource management, including resolution of conflicting requests for participation and/or use of the agent's resources. The FACET infrastructure supports stochastic behavioral elements and coping mechanisms by which specified special conditions and events can cause an active cooperative process to be preempted, diverting the participants onto appropriate alternative behavioral pathways.« less

  15. Integration of paleoseismic data from multiple sites to develop an objective earthquake chronology: Application to the Weber segment of the Wasatch fault zone, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DuRoss, Christopher B.; Personius, Stephen F.; Crone, Anthony J.; Olig, Susan S.; Lund, William R.

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to evaluate and integrate paleoseismic data from multiple sites into a single, objective measure of earthquake timing and recurrence on discrete segments of active faults. We apply this method to the Weber segment (WS) of the Wasatch fault zone using data from four fault-trench studies completed between 1981 and 2009. After systematically reevaluating the stratigraphic and chronologic data from each trench site, we constructed time-stratigraphic OxCal models that yield site probability density functions (PDFs) of the times of individual earthquakes. We next qualitatively correlated the site PDFs into a segment-wide earthquake chronology, which is supported by overlapping site PDFs, large per-event displacements, and prominent segment boundaries. For each segment-wide earthquake, we computed the product of the site PDF probabilities in common time bins, which emphasizes the overlap in the site earthquake times, and gives more weight to the narrowest, best-defined PDFs. The product method yields smaller earthquake-timing uncertainties compared to taking the mean of the site PDFs, but is best suited to earthquakes constrained by broad, overlapping site PDFs. We calculated segment-wide earthquake recurrence intervals and uncertainties using a Monte Carlo model. Five surface-faulting earthquakes occurred on the WS at about 5.9, 4.5, 3.1, 1.1, and 0.6 ka. With the exception of the 1.1-ka event, we used the product method to define the earthquake times. The revised WS chronology yields a mean recurrence interval of 1.3 kyr (0.7–1.9-kyr estimated two-sigma [2δ] range based on interevent recurrence). These data help clarify the paleoearthquake history of the WS, including the important question of the timing and rupture extent of the most recent earthquake, and are essential to the improvement of earthquake-probability assessments for the Wasatch Front region.

  16. Integration of paleoseismic data from multiple sites to develop an objective earthquake chronology: Application to the Weber segment of the Wasatch fault zone, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DuRoss, C.B.; Personius, S.F.; Crone, A.J.; Olig, S.S.; Lund, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to evaluate and integrate paleoseismic data from multiple sites into a single, objective measure of earthquake timing and recurrence on discrete segments of active faults. We apply this method to the Weber segment (WS) of the Wasatch fault zone using data from four fault-trench studies completed between 1981 and 2009. After systematically reevaluating the stratigraphic and chronologic data from each trench site, we constructed time-stratigraphic OxCal models that yield site probability density functions (PDFs) of the times of individual earthquakes. We next qualitatively correlated the site PDFs into a segment-wide earthquake chronology, which is supported by overlapping site PDFs, large per-event displacements, and prominent segment boundaries. For each segment-wide earthquake, we computed the product of the site PDF probabilities in common time bins, which emphasizes the overlap in the site earthquake times, and gives more weight to the narrowest, best-defined PDFs. The product method yields smaller earthquake-timing uncertainties compared to taking the mean of the site PDFs, but is best suited to earthquakes constrained by broad, overlapping site PDFs. We calculated segment-wide earthquake recurrence intervals and uncertainties using a Monte Carlo model. Five surface-faulting earthquakes occurred on the WS at about 5.9, 4.5, 3.1, 1.1, and 0.6 ka. With the exception of the 1.1-ka event, we used the product method to define the earthquake times. The revised WS chronology yields a mean recurrence interval of 1.3 kyr (0.7-1.9-kyr estimated two-sigma [2??] range based on interevent recurrence). These data help clarify the paleoearthquake history of the WS, including the important question of the timing and rupture extent of the most recent earthquake, and are essential to the improvement of earthquake-probability assessments for the Wasatch Front region.

  17. An HST Survey for 100-1000 au Companions around Young Stellar Objects in the Orion Molecular Clouds: Evidence for Environmentally Dependent Multiplicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kounkel, M.; Megeath, S. T.; Poteet, C. A.; Fischer, W. J.; Hartmann, L.

    2016-04-01

    We present a near-infrared survey for the visual multiples in the Orion molecular clouds region at separations between 100 and 1000 au. These data were acquired at 1.6 μm with the NICMOS and WFC3 cameras on the Hubble Space Telescope. Additional photometry was obtained for some of the sources at 2.05 μm with NICMOS and in the L‧ band with NSFCAM2 on NASA’s InfraRed Telescope Facility. Toward 129 protostars and 197 pre-main-sequence stars with disks observed with WFC3, we detect 21 and 28 candidate companions between the projected separations of 100-1000 au, of which less than 5 and 8, respectively, are chance line-of-sight coincidences. The resulting companion fraction (CF) after the correction for the line-of-sight contamination is {14.4}-1.3+1.1% for protostars and {12.5}-0.8+1.2% for the pre-main-sequence stars. These values are similar to those found for main-sequence stars, suggesting that there is little variation in the CF with evolution, although several observational biases may mask a decrease in the CF from protostars to the main-sequence stars. After segregating the sample into two populations based on the surrounding surface density of young stellar objects, we find that the CF in the high stellar density regions (ΣYSO > 45 pc-2) is approximately 50% higher than that found in the low stellar density regions (ΣYSO < 45 pc-2). We interpret this as evidence for the elevated formation of companions at 100-1000 au in the denser environments of Orion. We discuss possible reasons for this elevated formation.

  18. Variable addressability imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubala, Kenneth Scott

    The use of variable addressability for creating an optimum human-machine interface is investigated. Current wide field optical systems present more information to the human visual system than it has the capacity to perceive. The axial resolution, and/or the field of view can be increased by minimizing the difference between what the eye can perceive and what the system presents. The variable addressability function was developed through the use of a human factors experiment that characterized the position of the eye during the simulated use of a binocular system. Applying the variable addressability function to a conventional optical design required the development of a new metric for evaluating the expected performance of the variable addressability system. The new metric couples psycho-visual data and traditional optical data in order to specify the required performance of the variable addressability system. A non-linear mapping of the pixels is required in order to have the system work most efficiently with the human visual system, while also compensating for eye motion. The non-linear mapping function, which is the backbone of the variable addressability technique, can be created using optical distortion. The lens and system design is demonstrated in two different spectral bands. One of the designs was fabricated, tested, and assembled into a prototype. Through a second human factors study aimed at measuring performance, the variable addressability prototype was directly compared to a uniform addressability prototype, quantifying the difference in performance for the two prototypes. The human factors results showed that the variable addressability prototype provided better resolution 13% of the time throughout the experiment, but was 15% slower in use than the uniform addressability prototype.

  19. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  20. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  1. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  2. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  3. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  4. Multiple-return single-photon counting of light in flight and sensing of non-line-of-sight objects at shortwave infrared wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Laurenzis, Martin; Klein, Jonathan; Bacher, Emmanuel; Metzger, Nicolas

    2015-10-15

    Time-of-flight sensing with single-photon sensitivity enables new approaches for the localization of objects outside a sensor's field of view by analyzing backscattered photons. In this Letter, the authors have studied the application of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays and eye-safe infrared lasers, and provide experimental data of the direct visualization of backscattering light in flight, and direct vision and indirect vision of targets in line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight configurations at shortwave infrared wavelengths. PMID:26469627

  5. Use of multicriteria decision analysis to address conservation conflicts.

    PubMed

    Davies, A L; Bryce, R; Redpath, S M

    2013-10-01

    Conservation conflicts are increasing on a global scale and instruments for reconciling competing interests are urgently needed. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a structured, decision-support process that can facilitate dialogue between groups with differing interests and incorporate human and environmental dimensions of conflict. MCDA is a structured and transparent method of breaking down complex problems and incorporating multiple objectives. The value of this process for addressing major challenges in conservation conflict management is that MCDA helps in setting realistic goals; entails a transparent decision-making process; and addresses mistrust, differing world views, cross-scale issues, patchy or contested information, and inflexible legislative tools. Overall we believe MCDA provides a valuable decision-support tool, particularly for increasing awareness of the effects of particular values and choices for working toward negotiated compromise, although an awareness of the effect of methodological choices and the limitations of the method is vital before applying it in conflict situations.

  6. Mythogeography Works: Performing Multiplicity on Queen Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the exploration of, and performance on, a single street in Exeter, UK, as guided by an idea of "mythogeography" and a determination to address a place as a multiplicity of meanings, objects, accretions, rhythms and exceptions. It explores the virtues of and obstacles facing a performance made "on the hoof" in both…

  7. Cucurbit[8]uril as building block for facile fabrication of well-defined organic crystalline nano-objects with multiple morphologies and compositions.

    PubMed

    An, Qi; Dong, Cheng; Zhu, Wei; Tao, Cheng-An; Yang, Haowei; Wang, Yingxia; Li, Guangtao

    2012-02-20

    Cucurbit[n]urils (CB[n]) have great potential in material and medical applications due to their advantageous molecular recognition properties. Despite organic microcrystals being highly desirable in materials science and the medical industry, CB[n]-based micro- and nanocrystals have not been reported. A facile and efficient approach for producing CB[8]-based organic crystals with well-defined micro- and nanostructures is described, based on the unique host-guest chemistry of CB[8] macrocycle with small guest molecules. The described strategy allows fabrication of micro- and nanocrystals with multiple morphologies and compositions by simply adjusting the preparation conditions and the type of guest molecules. The mechanisms for the formation of the micro/nanocrystals are studied, and morphology-dependent optical and thermal properties typical of organic micro/nanocrystals are described. Additionally, attractive potentials of the prepared microcrystals are shown upon storing small molecules, and in optical applications. The molecular recognition abilities of CB[8] are highlighted in both its preparation process and potential application.

  8. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  9. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  10. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  11. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  12. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  13. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  14. Bax: Addressed to kill.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Manon, Stéphen

    2011-09-01

    The pro-apoptototic protein Bax (Bcl-2 Associated protein X) plays a central role in the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. In healthy mammalian cells, Bax is essentially cytosolic and inactive. Following a death signal, the protein is translocated to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it promotes a permeabilization that favors the release of different apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c. The regulation of Bax translocation is associated to conformational changes that are under the control of different factors. The evidences showing the involvement of different Bax domains in its mitochondrial localization are presented. The interactions between Bax and its different partners are described in relation to their ability to promote (or prevent) Bax conformational changes leading to mitochondrial addressing and to the acquisition of the capacity to permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:21641962

  15. Cost-Effective Abatement of Multiple Production Externalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Jeffery D.; Perry, Gregory M.; Adams, Richard M.

    1995-07-01

    This article explores the issue of multiple externalities through a case study of irrigated agricultural production in eastern Oregon. A mathematical programming model is used to demonstrate the manner in which a policy directed at one externality (soil erosion) may influence the incidence of another externality (groundwater pollution). A key determinant of multiple externality outcomes is interdependence in the processes producing agricultural commodities and externalities. Potential benefits from coordinating a policy to address multiple environmental objectives are discussed.

  16. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  17. Joint Composable Object Model and LVC Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rheinsmith, Richard; Wallace, Jeffrey; Bizub, Warren; Ceranowicz, Andy; Cutts, Dannie; Powell, Edward T.; Gustavson, Paul; Lutz, Robert; McCloud, Terrell

    2010-01-01

    Within the Department of Defense, multiple architectures are created to serve and fulfill one or several specific service or mission related LVC training goals. Multiple Object Models exist across and within those architectures and it is there that those disparate object models are a major source of interoperability problems when developing and constructing the training scenarios. The two most commonly used architectures are; HLA and TENA, with DIS and CTIA following close behind in terms of the number of users. Although these multiple architectures can share and exchange data the underlying meta-models for runtime data exchange are quite different, requiring gateways/translators to bridge between the different object model representations; while the Department of Defense's use of gateways are generally effective in performing these functions, as the LVC environment increases so too does the cost and complexity of these gateways. Coupled with the wide range of different object models across the various user communities we increase the propensity for run time errors, increased programmer stop gap measures during coordinated exercises, or failure of the system as a whole due to unknown or unforeseen incompatibilities. The Joint Composable Object Model (JCOM) project was established under an M&S Steering Committee (MSSC)-sponsored effort with oversight and control placed under the Joint Forces Command J7 Advanced Concepts Program Directorate. The purpose of this paper is to address the initial and the current progress that has been made in the following areas; the Conceptual Model Development Format, the Common Object Model, the Architecture Neutral Data Exchange Model (ANDEM), and the association methodology to allow the re-use of multiple architecture object models and the development of the prototype persistent reusable library.

  18. Love Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusack, Lynne

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the role of "security" or "transition" objects, such as a blanket or stuffed toy, in children's development of self-comfort and autonomy. Notes the influence of parents in the child-object relationship, and discusses children's responses to losing a security object, and the developmental point at which a child will give up such an…

  19. Object crowding.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Julian M; Tjan, Bosco S

    2011-05-25

    Crowding occurs when stimuli in the peripheral fields become harder to identify when flanked by other items. This phenomenon has been demonstrated extensively with simple patterns (e.g., Gabors and letters). Here, we characterize crowding for everyday objects. We presented three-item arrays of objects and letters, arranged radially and tangentially in the lower visual field. Observers identified the central target, and we measured contrast energy thresholds as a function of target-to-flanker spacing. Object crowding was similar to letter crowding in spatial extent but was much weaker. The average elevation in threshold contrast energy was in the order of 1 log unit for objects as compared to 2 log units for letters and silhouette objects. Furthermore, we examined whether the exterior and interior features of an object are differentially affected by crowding. We used a circular aperture to present or exclude the object interior. Critical spacings for these aperture and "donut" objects were similar to those of intact objects. Taken together, these findings suggest that crowding between letters and objects are essentially due to the same mechanism, which affects equally the interior and exterior features of an object. However, for objects defined with varying shades of gray, it is much easier to overcome crowding by increasing contrast.

  20. Citizenship Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee on Assessing the Progress of Education, Ann Arbor, MI.

    The general procedures used to develop educational objectives for the National Assessment of Educational Progress are outlined, as are the procedures used to develop citizenship objectives. Ten general objectives are stated: "show concern for the welfare and dignity of others"; "support rights and freedoms of all individuals"; "help maintain law…

  1. Addressing psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Woody, G E; McLellan, A T; O'Brien, C P; Luborsky, L

    1991-01-01

    Research studies indicate that addressing psychiatric comorbidity can improve treatment for selected groups of substance-abusing patients. However, the chances for implementing the necessary techniques on a large scale are compromised by the absence of professional input and guidance within programs. This is especially true in public programs, which treat some of the most disadvantaged, disturbed, and socially destructive individuals in the entire mental health system. One starting point for upgrading the level of knowledge and training of staff members who work in this large treatment system could be to develop a better and more authoritative information dissemination network. Such a system exists in medicine; physicians are expected to read appropriate journals and to guide their treatment decisions using the data contained in the journals. Standards of practice and methods for modifying current practice are within the tradition of reading new facts, studying old ones, and comparing treatment outcome under different conditions with what is actually being done. No such general system of information-gathering or -sharing exists, particularly in public treatment programs. One of the most flagrant examples of this "educational shortfall" can be found among those methadone programs that adamantly insist on prescribing no more than 30 to 35 mg/day for all patients, in spite of the overwhelming evidence that these dose levels generally are inadequate. In some cases, program directors are unaware of studies that have shown the relationship between dose and outcome. In other cases, they are aware of the studies but do not modify their practices accordingly. This example of inadequate dosing is offered as an example of one situation that could be improved by adherence to a system of authoritative and systematic information dissemination. Many issues in substance abuse treatment do not lend themselves to information dissemination as readily as that of methadone dosing

  2. Parallel Fuzzy Segmentation of Multiple Objects.

    PubMed

    Garduño, Edgar; Herman, Gabor T

    2008-01-01

    The usefulness of fuzzy segmentation algorithms based on fuzzy connectedness principles has been established in numerous publications. New technologies are capable of producing larger-and-larger datasets and this causes the sequential implementations of fuzzy segmentation algorithms to be time-consuming. We have adapted a sequential fuzzy segmentation algorithm to multi-processor machines. We demonstrate the efficacy of such a distributed fuzzy segmentation algorithm by testing it with large datasets (of the order of 50 million points/voxels/items): a speed-up factor of approximately five over the sequential implementation seems to be the norm. PMID:19444333

  3. Parallel Fuzzy Segmentation of Multiple Objects*

    PubMed Central

    Garduño, Edgar; Herman, Gabor T.

    2009-01-01

    The usefulness of fuzzy segmentation algorithms based on fuzzy connectedness principles has been established in numerous publications. New technologies are capable of producing larger-and-larger datasets and this causes the sequential implementations of fuzzy segmentation algorithms to be time-consuming. We have adapted a sequential fuzzy segmentation algorithm to multi-processor machines. We demonstrate the efficacy of such a distributed fuzzy segmentation algorithm by testing it with large datasets (of the order of 50 million points/voxels/items): a speed-up factor of approximately five over the sequential implementation seems to be the norm. PMID:19444333

  4. Final Report on Internet Addressable Lightswitch

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Pettler, Peter

    2001-08-27

    This report describes the work performed to develop and test a new switching system and communications network that is useful for economically switching lighting circuits in existing commercial buildings. The first section of the report provides the general background of the IBECS (Integrated Building Environmental Communications System) research and development work as well as the context for the development of the new switching system. The research and development effort that went into producing the first proof-of-concept (the IBECS Addressable Power Switch or APS) and the physical prototype of that concept is detailed in the second section. In the third section of the report, we detail the refined Powerline Carrier Based IBECS Title 24 Wall Switch system that evolved from the APS prototype. The refined system provided a path for installing IBECS switching technology in existing buildings that may not be already wired for light level switching control. The final section of the report describes the performance of the IBECS Title 24 Switch system as applied to a small demonstration in two offices at LBNL's Building 90. We learned that the new Powerline Carrier control systems (A-10 technology) that have evolved from the early X-10 systems have solved most of the noise problems that dogged the successful application of X-10 technologies in commercial buildings. We found that the new A-10 powerline carrier control technology can be reliable and effective for switching lighting circuits even in electrically noisy office environments like LBNL. Thus we successfully completed the task objectives by designing, building and demonstrating a new switching system that can provide multiple levels of light which can be triggered either from specially designed wall switches or from a digital communications network. By applying commercially available powerline carrier based technologies that communicate over the in-place lighting wiring system, this type of control can be

  5. Infant Object Categorization Transcends Diverse Object-Context Relations

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Arterberry, Martha E.; Mash, Clay

    2010-01-01

    Infants’ categorization of objects in different object-context relations was investigated. The experiment used a multiple-exemplar habituation-categorization procedure where 92 6-month-olds formed categories of animals and vehicles embedded in congruent, incongruent, and homogeneous object-context relations. Across diverse object-context relations, infants habituated to multiple exemplars within a category and categorized novel members of both animal and vehicle categories. Infants showed a slight advantage for categorizing animals. Infant object categorization appears to be robust to diversity in object-context relations. PMID:20031232

  6. Multiple Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  7. Trusted Objects

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  8. Choice--Kansas City Style: Addressing Equity from Multiple Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Johnnie

    1995-01-01

    Highlights case studies of three elementary schools in the Kansas City (Missouri) System of Choice program that resulted from a court order to erase all vestiges of segregation in the Kansas City school district. The possible effects of these choices of school programs on educational equity are summarized. (GR)

  9. Data-Driven Objectness.

    PubMed

    Hongwen Kang; Hebert, Martial; Efros, Alexei A; Kanade, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    We propose a data-driven approach to estimate the likelihood that an image segment corresponds to a scene object (its "objectness") by comparing it to a large collection of example object regions. We demonstrate that when the application domain is known, for example, in our case activity of daily living (ADL), we can capture the regularity of the domain specific objects using millions of exemplar object regions. Our approach to estimating the objectness of an image region proceeds in two steps: 1) finding the exemplar regions that are the most similar to the input image segment; 2) calculating the objectness of the image segment by combining segment properties, mutual consistency across the nearest exemplar regions, and the prior probability of each exemplar region. In previous work, parametric objectness models were built from a small number of manually annotated objects regions, instead, our data-driven approach uses 5 million object regions along with their metadata information. Results on multiple data sets demonstrates our data-driven approach compared to the existing model based techniques. We also show the application of our approach in improving the performance of object discovery algorithms. PMID:26353218

  10. APPLICATION OF OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES IN FRONT END COMPUTERS.

    SciTech Connect

    SKELLY,J.F.

    1997-11-03

    The Front End Computer (FEC) environment imposes special demands on software, beyond real time performance and robustness. FEC software must manage a diverse inventory of devices with individualistic timing requirements and hardware interfaces. It must implement network services which export device access to the control system at large, interpreting a uniform network communications protocol into the specific control requirements of the individual devices. Object oriented languages provide programming techniques which neatly address these challenges, and also offer benefits in terms of maintainability and flexibility. Applications are discussed which exhibit the use of inheritance, multiple inheritance and inheritance trees, and polymorphism to address the needs of FEC software.

  11. The role of attention in motion extrapolation: are moving objects 'corrected' or flashed objects attentionally delayed?

    PubMed

    Khurana, B; Watanabe, K; Nijhawan, R

    2000-01-01

    Objects flashed in alignment with moving objects appear to lag behind [Nijhawan, 1994 Nature (London) 370 256-257]. Could this 'flash-lag' effect be due to attentional delays in bringing flashed items to perceptual awareness [Titchener, 1908/1973 Lectures on the Elementary Psychology of Feeling and Attention first published 1908 (New York: Macmillan); reprinted 1973 (New York: Arno Press)]? We overtly manipulated attentional allocation in three experiments to address the following questions: Is the flash-lag effect affected when attention is (a) focused on a single event in the presence of multiple events, (b) distributed over multiple events, and (c) diverted from the flashed object? To address the first two questions, five rings, moving along a circular path, were presented while observers attentively tracked one or multiple rings under four conditions: the ring in which the disk was flashed was (i) known or (ii) unknown (randomly selected from the set of five); location of the flashed disk was (i) known or (ii) unknown (randomly selected from ten locations). The third question was investigated by using two moving objects in a cost-benefit cueing paradigm. An arrow cued, with 70% or 80% validity, the position of the flashed object. Observers performed two tasks: (a) reacted as quickly as possible to flash onset; (b) reported the flash-lag effect. We obtained a significant and unaltered flash-lag effect under all the attentional conditions we employed. Furthermore, though reaction times were significantly shorter for validly cued flashes, the flash-lag effect remained uninfluenced by cue validity, indicating that quicker responses to validly cued locations may be due to the shortening of post-perceptual delays in motor responses rather than the perceptual facilitation. We conclude that the computations that give rise to the flash-lag effect are independent of attentional deployment.

  12. 2015 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  13. Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Schiess, Nicoline; Calabresi, Peter A

    2016-08-01

    It is estimated that there are 300,000 people with multiple sclerosis (MS) in the United States and 2.3 million worldwide. Each MS attack can affect function in cognitive, emotional, motoric, sensory, or visual domains. Patients are often struck in the prime of their lives as they attempt to move forward with career, and family. Since the previous 2010 Seminars in Neurology Pearls and Pitfalls issue, the world of MS has drastically changed and advanced. Here the authors address the ever-changing MS world in both treatment options and diagnostics, covering easily missed differential diagnoses, newly available immunomodulatory therapy, and the challenges of safely treating patients. PMID:27643903

  14. Solar system object observations with Gaia Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashova, Maria; Tanga, Paolo; Mignard, Francois; CARRY, Benoit; Christophe, Ordenovic; DAVID, Pedro; Hestroffer, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    After a commissioning period, the astrometric mission Gaia of the European Space Agency (ESA) started its survey in July 2014. Throughout passed two years the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) has been treating the data. The current schedule anticipates the first Gaia Data Release (Gaia-DR1) toward the end of summer 2016. Nevertheless, it is not planned to include Solar System Objects (SSO) into the first release. This is due to a special treatment required by solar system objects, as well as by other peculiar sources (multiple and extended ones). In this presentation, we address issues and recent achivements in SSO processing, in particular validation of SSO-short term data processing chain, GAIA-SSO alerts, as well as the first runs of SSO-long term pipeline.

  15. Remembering complex objects in visual working memory: do capacity limits restrict objects or features?

    PubMed

    Hardman, Kyle O; Cowan, Nelson

    2015-03-01

    Visual working memory stores stimuli from our environment as representations that can be accessed by high-level control processes. This study addresses a longstanding debate in the literature about whether storage limits in visual working memory include a limit to the complexity of discrete items. We examined the issue with a number of change-detection experiments that used complex stimuli that possessed multiple features per stimulus item. We manipulated the number of relevant features of the stimulus objects in order to vary feature load. In all of our experiments, we found that increased feature load led to a reduction in change-detection accuracy. However, we found that feature load alone could not account for the results but that a consideration of the number of relevant objects was also required. This study supports capacity limits for both feature and object storage in visual working memory. PMID:25089739

  16. Addressing contrasting cognitive models in scientific collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diviacco, P.

    2012-04-01

    If the social aspects of scientific communities and their internal dynamics is starting to be recognized and acknowledged in the everyday lives of scientists, it is rather difficult for them to find tools that could support their activities consistently with this perspective. Issues span from gathering researchers to mutual awareness, from information sharing to building meaning, with the last one being particularly critical in research fields as the geo-sciences, that deal with the reconstruction of unique, often non-reproducible, and contingent processes. Reasoning here is, in fact, mainly abductive, allowing multiple and concurrent explanations for the same phenomenon to coexist. Scientists bias one hypothesis over another not only on strictly logical but also on sociological motivations. Following a vision, scientists tend to evolve and isolate themselves from other scientists creating communities characterized by different cognitive models, so that after some time these become incompatible and scientists stop understanding each other. We address these problems as a communication issue so that the classic distinction into three levels (syntactic, semantic and pragmatic) can be used. At the syntactic level, we highlight non-technical obstacles that condition interoperability and data availability and transparency. At the semantic level, possible incompatibilities of cognitive models are particularly evident, so that using ontologies, cross-domain reconciliation should be applied. This is a very difficult task to perform since the projection of knowledge by scientists, in the designated community, is political and thus can create a lot of tension. The strategy we propose to overcome these issues pertains to pragmatics, in the sense that it is intended to acknowledge the cultural and personal factors each partner brings into the collaboration and is based on the idea that meaning should remain a flexible and contingent representation of possibly divergent views

  17. Multi Sensor Approach to Address Sustainable Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2007-01-01

    The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates, can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. However, the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. This requires continuous, and detailed observations from many sources in situ, airborne and space. By and large, the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. This requires a multiple sensors, look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality, multi hazard disasters, public health, hydrology and more. Therefore, there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation, data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population, some sound observations, scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants, endangered species and the ecology. Needless to say, there is no single sensor, which can answer all such questions effectively. Due to multi sensor approach, it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information, knowledge, budget, technology readiness and computational power. And, more importantly, the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. So far, each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing

  18. Quantum origins of objectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horodecki, R.; Korbicz, J. K.; Horodecki, P.

    2015-03-01

    In spite of all of its successes, quantum mechanics leaves us with a central problem: How does nature create a bridge from fragile quanta to the objective world of everyday experience? Here we find that a basic structure within quantum mechanics that leads to the perceived objectivity is a so-called spectrum broadcast structure. We uncover this based on minimal assumptions, without referring to any dynamical details or a concrete model. More specifically, working formally within the decoherence theory setting with multiple environments (called quantum Darwinism), we show how a crucial for quantum mechanics notion of nondisturbance due to Bohr [N. Bohr, Phys. Rev. 48, 696 (1935), 10.1103/PhysRev.48.696] and a natural definition of objectivity lead to a canonical structure of a quantum system-environment state, reflecting objective information records about the system stored in the environment.

  19. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation. PMID:25145716

  20. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation.

  1. Learning Objects: Conditions for Viability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liber, O.

    2005-01-01

    This article elaborates the factors that have led to the emergence of the concept of learning objects as the predominant model for digital learning materials, examining the problems that they address. It suggests that while there do appear to be real benefits, for a learning object model to be successful there needs to be a thriving learning…

  2. Multiple Myeloma Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... it is multiple myeloma . Stay on top of discoveries, trials, research and more. Click here to sign up for the MMRF Newsletter First name Last name E-mail address CLOSE News & Press Multiple Myeloma Knowledge Center Privacy Policy Donor Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  3. Wireless Sensor Network Optimization: Multi-Objective Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Naeem, Muhammad; Anpalagan, Alagan; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Azam, Muhammad

    2015-07-20

    Optimization problems relating to wireless sensor network planning, design, deployment and operation often give rise to multi-objective optimization formulations where multiple desirable objectives compete with each other and the decision maker has to select one of the tradeoff solutions. These multiple objectives may or may not conflict with each other. Keeping in view the nature of the application, the sensing scenario and input/output of the problem, the type of optimization problem changes. To address different nature of optimization problems relating to wireless sensor network design, deployment, operation, planing and placement, there exist a plethora of optimization solution types. We review and analyze different desirable objectives to show whether they conflict with each other, support each other or they are design dependent. We also present a generic multi-objective optimization problem relating to wireless sensor network which consists of input variables, required output, objectives and constraints. A list of constraints is also presented to give an overview of different constraints which are considered while formulating the optimization problems in wireless sensor networks. Keeping in view the multi facet coverage of this article relating to multi-objective optimization, this will open up new avenues of research in the area of multi-objective optimization relating to wireless sensor networks.

  4. Wireless Sensor Network Optimization: Multi-Objective Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Naeem, Muhammad; Anpalagan, Alagan; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Azam, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Optimization problems relating to wireless sensor network planning, design, deployment and operation often give rise to multi-objective optimization formulations where multiple desirable objectives compete with each other and the decision maker has to select one of the tradeoff solutions. These multiple objectives may or may not conflict with each other. Keeping in view the nature of the application, the sensing scenario and input/output of the problem, the type of optimization problem changes. To address different nature of optimization problems relating to wireless sensor network design, deployment, operation, planing and placement, there exist a plethora of optimization solution types. We review and analyze different desirable objectives to show whether they conflict with each other, support each other or they are design dependent. We also present a generic multi-objective optimization problem relating to wireless sensor network which consists of input variables, required output, objectives and constraints. A list of constraints is also presented to give an overview of different constraints which are considered while formulating the optimization problems in wireless sensor networks. Keeping in view the multi facet coverage of this article relating to multi-objective optimization, this will open up new avenues of research in the area of multi-objective optimization relating to wireless sensor networks. PMID:26205271

  5. Ego, drives, and the dynamics of internal objects

    PubMed Central

    Boag, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between the ego, id, and internal objects. While ego psychology views the ego as autonomous of the drives, a less well-known alternative position views the ego as constituted by the drives. Based on Freud’s ego-instinct account, this position has developed into a school of thought which postulates that the drives act as knowers. Given that there are multiple drives, this position proposes that personality is constituted by multiple knowers. Following on from Freud, the ego is viewed as a composite sub-set of the instinctual drives (ego-drives), whereas those drives cut off from expression form the id. The nature of the “self” is developed in terms of identification and the possibility of multiple personalities is also established. This account is then extended to object-relations and the explanatory value of the ego-drive account is discussed in terms of the addressing the nature of ego-structures and the dynamic nature of internal objects. Finally, the impact of psychological conflict and the significance of repression for understanding the nature of splits within the psyche are also discussed. PMID:25071640

  6. Secure content objects

    DOEpatents

    Evans, William D.

    2009-02-24

    A secure content object protects electronic documents from unauthorized use. The secure content object includes an encrypted electronic document, a multi-key encryption table having at least one multi-key component, an encrypted header and a user interface device. The encrypted document is encrypted using a document encryption key associated with a multi-key encryption method. The encrypted header includes an encryption marker formed by a random number followed by a derivable variation of the same random number. The user interface device enables a user to input a user authorization. The user authorization is combined with each of the multi-key components in the multi-key encryption key table and used to try to decrypt the encrypted header. If the encryption marker is successfully decrypted, the electronic document may be decrypted. Multiple electronic documents or a document and annotations may be protected by the secure content object.

  7. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems.

  8. Addressable parallel cavity-based quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetlugin, Anton N.; Sokolov, Ivan V.

    2014-09-01

    We elaborate theoretically a model of addressable parallel cavity-based quantum memory for light able to store multiple transverse spatial modes of the input light signal of finite duration and, at the same time, a time sequence of the signals by side illumination. Having in mind possible applications for, e.g., quantum repeaters, we reveal the addressability of our memory, that is, its handiness for the read-out on demand of a given transverse quantized signal mode and of a given signal from the time sequence. The addressability is achieved by making use of different spatial configurations of pump wave during the write-in and the readout. We also demonstrate that for the signal durations of the order of few cavity decay times, better efficiency is achieved when one excites the cavity with zero light-matter coupling and finally performs fast excitation transfer from the intracavity field to the collective spin. On the other hand, the light-matter coupling control in time, based on dynamical impedance matching, allows to store and retrieve time restricted signals of the on-demand smooth time shape.

  9. Matching Alternative Addresses: a Semantic Web Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariannamazi, S.; Karimipour, F.; Hakimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI) provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature's literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  10. Multi objective multi refinery optimization with environmental and catastrophic failure effects objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khogeer, Ahmed Sirag

    2005-11-01

    Petroleum refining is a capital-intensive business. With stringent environmental regulations on the processing industry and declining refining margins, political instability, increased risk of war and terrorist attacks in which refineries and fuel transportation grids may be targeted, higher pressures are exerted on refiners to optimize performance and find the best combination of feed and processes to produce salable products that meet stricter product specifications, while at the same time meeting refinery supply commitments and of course making profit. This is done through multi objective optimization. For corporate refining companies and at the national level, Intea-Refinery and Inter-Refinery optimization is the second step in optimizing the operation of the whole refining chain as a single system. Most refinery-wide optimization methods do not cover multiple objectives such as minimizing environmental impact, avoiding catastrophic failures, or enhancing product spec upgrade effects. This work starts by carrying out a refinery-wide, single objective optimization, and then moves to multi objective-single refinery optimization. The last step is multi objective-multi refinery optimization, the objectives of which are analysis of the effects of economic, environmental, product spec, strategic, and catastrophic failure. Simulation runs were carried out using both MATLAB and ASPEN PIMS utilizing nonlinear techniques to solve the optimization problem. The results addressed the need to debottleneck some refineries or transportation media in order to meet the demand for essential products under partial or total failure scenarios. They also addressed how importing some high spec products can help recover some of the losses and what is needed in order to accomplish this. In addition, the results showed nonlinear relations among local and global objectives for some refineries. The results demonstrate that refineries can have a local multi objective optimum that does not

  11. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  12. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every Other…

  13. State of the Lab Address

    SciTech Connect

    King, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  14. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2016-07-12

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  15. A universal functional object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    A scheme is presented for realizing any function, combinational or sequential, in a single universal function scheme, termed the universal function object UF. This scheme is addressed to the problem of the proliferation of the number of parts (cards, chips) necessary for conventional implementation in an LSI technology of a computer system. The UF implementation will use about ten times more circuits than a conventional implementation regardless of the size of the design. The UF approach also includes general-purpose spares for failing circuits. The procedure could be used both at manufacture to increase yields, as well as to achieve automatic repair.

  16. Variability in perceived satisfaction of reservoir management objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen, W.J.; Gates, T.K.; Flug, M.

    1997-01-01

    Fuzzy set theory provides a useful model to address imprecision in interpreting linguistically described objectives for reservoir management. Fuzzy membership functions can be used to represent degrees of objective satisfaction for different values of management variables. However, lack of background information, differing experiences and qualifications, and complex interactions of influencing factors can contribute to significant variability among membership functions derived from surveys of multiple experts. In the present study, probabilistic membership functions are used to model variability in experts' perceptions of satisfaction of objectives for hydropower generation, fish habitat, kayaking, rafting, and scenery preservation on the Green River through operations of Flaming Gorge Dam. Degree of variability in experts' perceptions differed among objectives but resulted in substantial uncertainty in estimation of optimal reservoir releases.

  17. [Multiple apheresis].

    PubMed

    Coffe, C

    2007-05-01

    Multiple apheresis makes it possible to obtain at least two labile blood components from a single donor using a cell separator. It can be either multicomponent apheresis leading to the preparation of at least two different blood component types or red blood cell apheresis providing two identical red blood cell concentrates. These techniques available in addition to whole blood donation, are modifying collection strategies in many Etablissements Français du Sang and will contribute to improve stock logistics in the future. In areas with insufficient stock, these procedures will help achieve blood component self-sufficiency. The author first describes the principle underlying different--current or future--techniques as well as their advantages and drawbacks. He finally addresses the potential impact of these processes on the evolution of blood collection and the advantages to be gained. PMID:17521944

  18. Visual appearance interacts with conceptual knowledge in object recognition

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Olivia S.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Objects contain rich visual and conceptual information, but do these two types of information interact? Here, we examine whether visual and conceptual information interact when observers see novel objects for the first time. We then address how this interaction influences the acquisition of perceptual expertise. We used two types of novel objects (Greebles), designed to resemble either animals or tools, and two lists of words, which described non-visual attributes of people or man-made objects. Participants first judged if a word was more suitable for describing people or objects while ignoring a task-irrelevant image, and showed faster responses if the words and the unfamiliar objects were congruent in terms of animacy (e.g., animal-like objects with words that described human). Participants then learned to associate objects and words that were either congruent or not in animacy, before receiving expertise training to rapidly individuate the objects. Congruent pairing of visual and conceptual information facilitated observers' ability to become a perceptual expert, as revealed in a matching task that required visual identification at the basic or subordinate levels. Taken together, these findings show that visual and conceptual information interact at multiple levels in object recognition. PMID:25120509

  19. GTOSS: Generalized Tethered Object Simulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, David D.

    1987-01-01

    GTOSS represents a tether analysis complex which is described by addressing its family of modules. TOSS is a portable software subsystem specifically designed to be introduced into the environment of any existing vehicle dynamics simulation to add the capability of simulating multiple interacting objects (via multiple tethers). These objects may interact with each other as well as with the vehicle into whose environment TOSS is introduced. GTOSS is a stand alone tethered system analysis program, representing an example of TOSS having been married to a host simulation. RTOSS is the Results Data Base (RDB) subsystem designed to archive TOSS simulation results for future display processing. DTOSS is a display post processors designed to utilize the RDB. DTOSS extracts data from the RDB for multi-page printed time history displays. CTOSS is similar to DTOSS, but is designed to create ASCII plot files. The same time history data formats provided for DTOSS (for printing) are available via CTOSS for plotting. How these and other modules interact with each other is discussed.

  20. Optically Addressable Spatial Light Modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph; Larsson, Anders G.

    1994-01-01

    Integrated multiple-quantum-well/Fabry-Perot structure provides high-contrast variation of reflection of reading beam, under control of writing beam. Periodic potential barriers separate photogenerated electrons from holes, leading to long recombination lifetimes and large concentrations of free charge carriers. Concentrations quench excitons or fill energy bands in quantum wells, altering absorption of reading beam.

  1. Object Tracking Benchmark.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi; Lim, Jongwoo; Yang, Ming-Hsuan

    2015-09-01

    Object tracking has been one of the most important and active research areas in the field of computer vision. A large number of tracking algorithms have been proposed in recent years with demonstrated success. However, the set of sequences used for evaluation is often not sufficient or is sometimes biased for certain types of algorithms. Many datasets do not have common ground-truth object positions or extents, and this makes comparisons among the reported quantitative results difficult. In addition, the initial conditions or parameters of the evaluated tracking algorithms are not the same, and thus, the quantitative results reported in literature are incomparable or sometimes contradictory. To address these issues, we carry out an extensive evaluation of the state-of-the-art online object-tracking algorithms with various evaluation criteria to understand how these methods perform within the same framework. In this work, we first construct a large dataset with ground-truth object positions and extents for tracking and introduce the sequence attributes for the performance analysis. Second, we integrate most of the publicly available trackers into one code library with uniform input and output formats to facilitate large-scale performance evaluation. Third, we extensively evaluate the performance of 31 algorithms on 100 sequences with different initialization settings. By analyzing the quantitative results, we identify effective approaches for robust tracking and provide potential future research directions in this field.

  2. Multi-objective vs. single-objective calibration of a hydrologic model using single- and multi-objective screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Juliane; Cuntz, Matthias; Shafii, Mahyar; Zink, Matthias; Schäfer, David; Thober, Stephan; Samaniego, Luis; Tolson, Bryan

    2016-04-01

    Hydrologic models are traditionally calibrated against observed streamflow. Recent studies have shown however, that only a few global model parameters are constrained using this kind of integral signal. They can be identified using prior screening techniques. Since different objectives might constrain different parameters, it is advisable to use multiple information to calibrate those models. One common approach is to combine these multiple objectives (MO) into one single objective (SO) function and allow the use of a SO optimization algorithm. Another strategy is to consider the different objectives separately and apply a MO Pareto optimization algorithm. In this study, two major research questions will be addressed: 1) How do multi-objective calibrations compare with corresponding single-objective calibrations? 2) How much do calibration results deteriorate when the number of calibrated parameters is reduced by a prior screening technique? The hydrologic model employed in this study is a distributed hydrologic model (mHM) with 52 model parameters, i.e. transfer coefficients. The model uses grid cells as a primary hydrologic unit, and accounts for processes like snow accumulation and melting, soil moisture dynamics, infiltration, surface runoff, evapotranspiration, subsurface storage and discharge generation. The model is applied in three distinct catchments over Europe. The SO calibrations are performed using the Dynamically Dimensioned Search (DDS) algorithm with a fixed budget while the MO calibrations are achieved using the Pareto Dynamically Dimensioned Search (PA-DDS) algorithm allowing for the same budget. The two objectives used here are the Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) of the simulated streamflow and the NSE of the logarithmic transformation. It is shown that the SO DDS results are located close to the edges of the Pareto fronts of the PA-DDS. The MO calibrations are hence preferable due to their supply of multiple equivalent solutions from which the

  3. Approaches to Understanding and Addressing Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Emily; Goldner, Elliot M.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment-resistant depression is associated with significant disability and, due to its high prevalence, results in substantive economic and societal burden at a population level. The objective of this study is to synthesize extant literature on approaches currently being applied to understand and address this condition. It is hoped that the findings can be used to inform practitioners and guide future research. A scoping review of the scientific literature was conducted with findings categorized and charted by underlying research paradigm. Currently, the vast majority of research stems from a biological paradigm (81%). Research on treatment-resistant depression would benefit from a broadened field of study. Given that multiple etiological mechanisms likely contribute to treatment-resistant depression and current efforts at prevention and treatment have substantial room for improvement, an expanded research agenda could more effectively address this significant public health issue. PMID:22570778

  4. Aboriginal health promotion through addressing employment discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Perry, Ryan; Kelaher, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Localities Embracing and Accepting Diversity (LEAD) program aimed to improve the mental health of Aboriginal Victorians by addressing racial discrimination and facilitating social and economic participation. As part of LEAD, Whittlesea Council adopted the Aboriginal Employment Pathways Strategy (AEPS) to increase Aboriginal employment and retention within the organisation. The Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Training Program was developed to build internal cultural competency and skills in recruiting and retaining Aboriginal staff. Analysis of surveys conducted before (pre; n=124) and after (post; n=107) the training program indicated a significant increase in participant understanding across all program objectives and in support of organisational policies to improve Aboriginal recruitment and retention. Participants ended the training with concrete ideas about intended changes, as well as how these changes could be supported by their supervisors and the wider organisation. Significant resources have since been allocated to implementing the AEPS over 5 years. In line with principles underpinning the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013-23, particularly the focus on addressing racism as a determinant of health, this paper explores the AEPS and training program as promising approaches to health promotion through addressing barriers to Aboriginal employment. Possible implications for other large organisations are also considered. PMID:25155236

  5. Aboriginal health promotion through addressing employment discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Perry, Ryan; Kelaher, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Localities Embracing and Accepting Diversity (LEAD) program aimed to improve the mental health of Aboriginal Victorians by addressing racial discrimination and facilitating social and economic participation. As part of LEAD, Whittlesea Council adopted the Aboriginal Employment Pathways Strategy (AEPS) to increase Aboriginal employment and retention within the organisation. The Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Training Program was developed to build internal cultural competency and skills in recruiting and retaining Aboriginal staff. Analysis of surveys conducted before (pre; n=124) and after (post; n=107) the training program indicated a significant increase in participant understanding across all program objectives and in support of organisational policies to improve Aboriginal recruitment and retention. Participants ended the training with concrete ideas about intended changes, as well as how these changes could be supported by their supervisors and the wider organisation. Significant resources have since been allocated to implementing the AEPS over 5 years. In line with principles underpinning the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013-23, particularly the focus on addressing racism as a determinant of health, this paper explores the AEPS and training program as promising approaches to health promotion through addressing barriers to Aboriginal employment. Possible implications for other large organisations are also considered.

  6. Adobe Boxes: Locating Object Proposals Using Object Adobes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhiwen; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Zhu, Lei; Yuan, Junsong

    2016-09-01

    Despite the previous efforts of object proposals, the detection rates of the existing approaches are still not satisfactory enough. To address this, we propose Adobe Boxes to efficiently locate the potential objects with fewer proposals, in terms of searching the object adobes that are the salient object parts easy to be perceived. Because of the visual difference between the object and its surroundings, an object adobe obtained from the local region has a high probability to be a part of an object, which is capable of depicting the locative information of the proto-object. Our approach comprises of three main procedures. First, the coarse object proposals are acquired by employing randomly sampled windows. Then, based on local-contrast analysis, the object adobes are identified within the enlarged bounding boxes that correspond to the coarse proposals. The final object proposals are obtained by converging the bounding boxes to tightly surround the object adobes. Meanwhile, our object adobes can also refine the detection rate of most state-of-the-art methods as a refinement approach. The extensive experiments on four challenging datasets (PASCAL VOC2007, VOC2010, VOC2012, and ILSVRC2014) demonstrate that the detection rate of our approach generally outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, especially with relatively small number of proposals. The average time consumed on one image is about 48 ms, which nearly meets the real-time requirement.

  7. Hybrid content addressable memory MSD arithmetic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yao; Kim, Dai Hyun; Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Eichmann, George

    1990-07-01

    The modified signed-digit (MSD) number system, because of its inherent weak interdigit dependance, has been suggested as a useful means for a fast and parallel digital arithmetic. To maintain a fast processing speed, a single-stage holographic optical content-addressable memory (CAM) based MSD algorithm was suggested. In this paper, a novel non-holographic opto-electronic CAM based fast MSD addition processing architecture is proposed. The proposed concept has been verified with our first-order proof-of-principle experiments. A figure of merit comparison of this and other existing approaches is also presented. Based on this key opto-electronic CAM element, implementation of more sophisticated I'VISD arithmetic, such as optical MSD subtraction and multiplication operations, are proposed.

  8. Addressing Passive Smoking in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Sasha G.; Kuijlaars, Jennifer S.; Mesters, Ilse; Muris, Jean W. M.; van Schayck, Constant P.; Dompeling, Edward; Feron, Frans J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background A significant number of parents are unaware or unconvinced of the health consequences of passive smoking (PS) in children. Physicians could increase parental awareness by giving personal advice. Aim To evaluate the current practices of three Dutch health professions (paediatricians, youth health care physicians, and family physicians) regarding parental counselling for passive smoking (PS) in children. Methods All physicians (n = 720) representing the three health professions in Limburg, the Netherlands, received an invitation to complete a self-administered electronic questionnaire including questions on their: sex, work experience, personal smoking habits, counselling practices and education regarding PS in children. Results The response rate was 34%. One tenth (11%) of the responding physicians always addressed PS in children, 32% often, 54% occasionally and 4% reported to never attend to it. The three health professions appeared comparable regarding their frequency of parental counselling for PS in children. Addressing PS was more likely when children had respiratory problems. Lack of time was the most frequently mentioned barrier, being very and somewhat applicable for respectively 14% and 43% of the physicians. One fourth of the responders had received postgraduate education about PS. Additionally, 49% of the responders who did not have any education about PS were interested in receiving it. Conclusions Physicians working in the paediatric field in Limburg, the Netherlands, could more frequently address PS in children with parents. Lack of time appeared to be the most mentioned barrier and physicians were more likely to counsel parents for PS in children with respiratory complaints/diseases. Finally, a need for more education on parental counselling for PS was expressed. PMID:24809443

  9. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating. PMID:26420812

  10. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  11. Million object spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditto, Thomas D.; Ritter, Joseph M.

    2008-07-01

    A new class of astronomical telescope with a primary objective grating (POG) has been studied as an alternative to mirrors. Nineteenth century POG telescopes suffered from low resolution and ambiguity of overlapping spectra as well as background noise. The present design uses a conventional secondary spectrograph to disambiguate all objects while enjoying a very wide instantaneous field-of-view, up to 40°. The POG competes with mirrors, in part, because diffraction gratings provide the very chromatic dispersion that mirrors defeat. The resulting telescope deals effectively with long-standing restrictions on multiple object spectrographs (MOS). The combination of a POG operating in the first-order, coupled to a spectrographic astronomical telescope, isolates spectra from all objects in the free spectral range of the primary. First disclosed as a concept in year 2002, a physical proof-of-principle is now reported. The miniature laboratory model used a 50 mm plane grating primary and was able to disambiguate between objects appearing at angular resolutions of 55 arcseconds and spectral spacings of 0.15 nm. Astronomical performance is a matter of increasing instrument size. A POG configured according to our specifications has no moving parts during observations and is extensible to any length that can be held flat to tolerances approaching float glass. The resulting telescope could record over one million spectra per night of objects in a line of right ascension. The novel MOS does not require pre-imaging to start acquisition of uncharted star fields. Problems are anticipated in calibration and integration time. We propose means to ameliorate them.

  12. Addressing biogenic greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower in LCA.

    PubMed

    Hertwich, Edgar G

    2013-09-01

    The ability of hydropower to contribute to climate change mitigation is sometimes questioned, citing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide resulting from the degradation of biogenic carbon in hydropower reservoirs. These emissions are, however, not always addressed in life cycle assessment, leading to a bias in technology comparisons, and often misunderstood. The objective of this paper is to review and analyze the generation of greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs for the purpose of technology assessment, relating established emission measurements to power generation. A literature review, data collection, and statistical analysis of methane and CO2 emissions are conducted. In a sample of 82 measurements, methane emissions per kWh hydropower generated are log-normally distributed, ranging from micrograms to 10s of kg. A multivariate regression analysis shows that the reservoir area per kWh electricity is the most important explanatory variable. Methane emissions flux per reservoir area are correlated with the natural net primary production of the area, the age of the power plant, and the inclusion of bubbling emissions in the measurement. Even together, these factors fail to explain most of the variation in the methane flux. The global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 85 gCO2/kWh and 3 gCH4/kWh, with a multiplicative uncertainty factor of 2. GHG emissions from hydropower can be largely avoided by ceasing to build hydropower plants with high land use per unit of electricity generated. PMID:23909506

  13. Addressing biogenic greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower in LCA.

    PubMed

    Hertwich, Edgar G

    2013-09-01

    The ability of hydropower to contribute to climate change mitigation is sometimes questioned, citing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide resulting from the degradation of biogenic carbon in hydropower reservoirs. These emissions are, however, not always addressed in life cycle assessment, leading to a bias in technology comparisons, and often misunderstood. The objective of this paper is to review and analyze the generation of greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs for the purpose of technology assessment, relating established emission measurements to power generation. A literature review, data collection, and statistical analysis of methane and CO2 emissions are conducted. In a sample of 82 measurements, methane emissions per kWh hydropower generated are log-normally distributed, ranging from micrograms to 10s of kg. A multivariate regression analysis shows that the reservoir area per kWh electricity is the most important explanatory variable. Methane emissions flux per reservoir area are correlated with the natural net primary production of the area, the age of the power plant, and the inclusion of bubbling emissions in the measurement. Even together, these factors fail to explain most of the variation in the methane flux. The global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 85 gCO2/kWh and 3 gCH4/kWh, with a multiplicative uncertainty factor of 2. GHG emissions from hydropower can be largely avoided by ceasing to build hydropower plants with high land use per unit of electricity generated.

  14. Can You Know Me Better? An Exploratory Study Combining Behavioural and Physiological Measurements for an Objective Assessment of Sensory Responsiveness in a Child with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Mariely; Silva, Karine; Magalhaes, Ana; Amaral, Isabel; Pestana, Helena; de Sousa, Liliana

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sensory assessment of individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) can be difficult for several reasons, including the idiosyncratic reactions that these individuals exhibit to environmental stimuli. This case report presents a combination of behavioural and physiological measurements aimed at providing an…

  15. Pedagogical Issues in Object Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerur, Sridhar; Ramanujan, Sam; Kesh, Someswar

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the need for people with object-oriented (OO) skills, explains benefits of OO in software development, and addresses some of the difficulties in teaching OO. Topics include the evolution of programming languages; differences between OO and traditional approaches; differences from data modeling; and Unified Modeling Language (UML) and…

  16. Boundary Crossing and Boundary Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkerman, Sanne F.; Bakker, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Diversity and mobility in education and work present a paramount challenge that needs better conceptualization in educational theory. This challenge has been addressed by educational scholars with the notion of "boundaries", particularly by the concepts of "boundary crossing" and "boundary objects". Although studies on boundary crossing and…

  17. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  18. Changing concepts: the presidential address.

    PubMed

    Weed, J C

    1974-09-01

    A discussion of conceptual change in areas related to fertility and medicine is presented in an address by the president of the American Fertility Society. Advances in technological research and medicine, particularly in steroids and reporductive physiology, have been the most readily acceptable changes. Cesarean section and surgical sterilization have also become increasingly accepted. Newer developments such as sperm banks, artificial insemination, and ovum transfer have created profound ethical, moral, and medical issued in human engineering research and evolutionary theory. The legalization of abortion has brought moral, ethical, and legal problems for many members of the medical profession. It is urged that the Society promote education of the people in reproductive function, sexual activity, and parental obligation while being acutely aware of the problems in influencing or altering human reproduction.

  19. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  20. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  1. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Addressing Common Student Errors with Classroom Voting in Multivariable Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Kelly; Parker, Mark; Zullo, Holly; Stewart, Ann

    2012-01-01

    One technique for identifying and addressing common student errors is the method of classroom voting, in which the instructor presents a multiple-choice question to the class, and after a few minutes for consideration and small group discussion, each student votes on the correct answer, often using a hand-held electronic clicker. If a large number…

  3. Addressing the Needs of Students with Rett Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ellenburg, Jennifer S.; Acton, Olivia M.; Torrey, Gregory

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses symptoms of students with Rett Syndrome, a disability in females characterized by the development of multiple specific deficits following a period of normal functioning after birth. Specific interventions for students with Rett syndrome are provided and address communication, stereotypic movements, self-injurious behaviors,…

  4. Bayesian Joint Modelling for Object Localisation in Weakly Labelled Images.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhiyuan; Hospedales, Timothy M; Xiang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    We address the problem of localisation of objects as bounding boxes in images and videos with weak labels. This weakly supervised object localisation problem has been tackled in the past using discriminative models where each object class is localised independently from other classes. In this paper, a novel framework based on Bayesian joint topic modelling is proposed, which differs significantly from the existing ones in that: (1) All foreground object classes are modelled jointly in a single generative model that encodes multiple object co-existence so that "explaining away" inference can resolve ambiguity and lead to better learning and localisation. (2) Image backgrounds are shared across classes to better learn varying surroundings and "push out" objects of interest. (3) Our model can be learned with a mixture of weakly labelled and unlabelled data, allowing the large volume of unlabelled images on the Internet to be exploited for learning. Moreover, the Bayesian formulation enables the exploitation of various types of prior knowledge to compensate for the limited supervision offered by weakly labelled data, as well as Bayesian domain adaptation for transfer learning. Extensive experiments on the PASCAL VOC, ImageNet and YouTube-Object videos datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our Bayesian joint model for weakly supervised object localisation. PMID:26340253

  5. ARTEMIS Science Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Angelopoulos, V.; Brain, D. A.; Delory, G. T.; Eastwood, J. P.; Farrell, W. M.; Grimm, R. E.; Halekas, J. S.; Hasegawa, H.; Hellinger, P.; Khurana, K. K.; Lillis, R. J.; Oieroset, M.; Phan, T.-D.; Raeder, J.; Russell, C. T.; Schriver, D.; Slavin, J. A.; Travnicel, P. M.; Weygand, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's two spacecraft ARTEMIS mission will address both heliospheric and planetary research questions, first while in orbit about the Earth with the Moon and subsequently while in orbit about the Moon. Heliospheric topics include the structure of the Earth's magnetotail; reconnection, particle acceleration, and turbulence in the Earth's magnetosphere, at the bow shock, and in the solar wind; and the formation and structure of the lunar wake. Planetary topics include the lunar exosphere and its relationship to the composition of the lunar surface, the effects of electric fields on dust in the exosphere, internal structure of the Moon, and the lunar crustal magnetic field. This paper describes the expected contributions of ARTEMIS to these baseline scientific objectives.

  6. Evaluating local indirect addressing in SIMD proc essors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David; Tomboulian, Sherryl

    1989-01-01

    In the design of parallel computers, there exists a tradeoff between the number and power of individual processors. The single instruction stream, multiple data stream (SIMD) model of parallel computers lies at one extreme of the resulting spectrum. The available hardware resources are devoted to creating the largest possible number of processors, and consequently each individual processor must use the fewest possible resources. Disagreement exists as to whether SIMD processors should be able to generate addresses individually into their local data memory, or all processors should access the same address. The tradeoff is examined between the increased capability and the reduced number of processors that occurs in this single instruction stream, multiple, locally addressed, data (SIMLAD) model. Factors are assembled that affect this design choice, and the SIMLAD model is compared with the bare SIMD and the MIMD models.

  7. Addressing Risks to Advance Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Iltis, Ana S.; Misra, Sahana; Dunn, Laura B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Campbell, Amy; Earll, Sarah A.; Glowinski, Anne; Hadley, Whitney B.; Pies, Ronald; DuBois, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk communication and management are essential to the ethical conduct of research, yet addressing risks may be time consuming for investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) may reject study designs that appear too risky. This can discourage needed research, particularly in higher risk protocols or those enrolling potentially vulnerable individuals, such as those with some level of suicidality. Improved mechanisms for addressing research risks may facilitate much needed psychiatric research. This article provides mental health researchers with practical approaches to: 1) identify and define various intrinsic research risks; 2) communicate these risks to others (e.g., potential participants, regulatory bodies, society); 3) manage these risks during the course of a study; and 4) justify the risks. Methods As part of a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded scientific meeting series, a public conference and a closed-session expert panel meeting were held on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. The expert panel reviewed the literature with a focus on empirical studies and developed recommendations for best practices and further research on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. IRB review was not required because there were no human subjects. The NIMH played no role in developing or reviewing the manuscript. Results Challenges, current data, practical strategies, and topics for future research are addressed for each of four key areas pertaining to management and disclosure of risks in clinical trials: identifying and defining risks, communicating risks, managing risks during studies, and justifying research risks. Conclusions Empirical data on risk communication, managing risks, and the benefits of research can support the ethical conduct of mental health research and may help investigators better conceptualize and confront risks and to gain IRB approval. PMID:24173618

  8. Addressing Extremes within the WCRP - GEWEX Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oevelen, P. J.; Stewart, R.; Detemmerman, V.

    2008-12-01

    For large international coordination programs such as the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) as part of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) it is difficult to strike a good balance between enabling as much international involvement as is possible and desirable and the achievability of the objectives. WCRP has decided that "Extremes Research" is one of several areas where it would like to see its efforts strengthened and scientific research pushed forward. The foci that are being selected should be phrased such that they are practical and achievable within a time span of 1 to 3 years. Preferably these foci build upon the expertise from cross WCRP activities and are not restricted to single core project activities. In this presentation an overview will be given of the various activities within GEWEX that are related to extremes and which ones would be most ideal to be addressed as WCRP foci from a GEWEX perspective. The rationale and context of extreme research will be presented as well links to other national and international programs. "Extremes Research" as a topic is attractive since it has a high societal relevance and impact. However, numerous definitions of extremes exist and they are being used in widely varying contexts making it not always clear of what exactly is being addressed. This presentation will give an outlook on what can be expected research wise in the near future based upon the outcomes of the Extremes Workshop organised last June in Vancouver in the context of the Coordinated Energy and water cycle Observations Project (CEOP) as part of GEWEX. In particular it will be shown how these activities, which will only address certain types of extremes, can be linked to adaptation and mitigation efforts taking place in other organisations and by national and international bodies.

  9. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development. PMID:12032502

  10. Gender: addressing a critical focus.

    PubMed

    Thornton, L; Wegner, M N

    1995-01-01

    The definition of gender was addressed at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China). After extensive debate, the definition developed by the UN Population Fund in 1995 was adopted: "a set of qualities and behaviors expected from a female or male by society." The sustainability of family planning (FP) programs depends on acknowledgment of the role gender plays in contraceptive decision-making and use. For example, programs must consider the fact that women in many cultures do not make FP decisions without the consent of their spouse. AVSC is examining providers' gender-based ideas about clients and the effects of these views on the quality of reproductive health services. Questions such as how service providers can encourage joint responsibility for contraception without requiring spousal consent or how they can make men feel comfortable about using a male method in a society where FP is considered a woman's issue are being discussed. Also relevant is how service providers can discuss sexual matters openly with female clients in cultures that do not allow women to enjoy their sexuality. Another concern is the potential for physical violence to a client as a result of the provision of FP services. PMID:12294397

  11. Addressing Chronic Disease Within Supportive Housing Programs

    PubMed Central

    Henwood, Benjamin F.; Stanhope, Victoria; Brawer, Rickie; Weinstein, Lara Carson; Lawson, James; Stwords, Edward; Crossan, Cornelius

    2015-01-01

    Background Tenants of supportive housing have a high burden of chronic health conditions. Objectives To examine the feasibility of developing a tenant-involved health promotion initiative within a “housing first” agency using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) framework. Methods Qualitative analyses of nine research capacity-building group meetings and fifteen individual pre- and post-interviews with those who completed a chronic disease self-management program, resulting in the development of several themes. Results Tenants of supportive housing successfully partnered with health care providers to implement a chronic disease self-management program, noting that “health care becomes ‘relevant’ with housing.” Conclusions Supportive housing organizations are well-situated to implement health promotion initiatives. Such publicly subsidized housing that is accompanied by comprehensive supports must also include self-management training to help people overcome both internal and external barriers to addressing chronic health needs. PMID:23543023

  12. Remediation tradeoffs addressed with simulated annealing optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, L. L., LLNL

    1998-02-01

    Escalation of groundwater remediation costs has encouraged both advances in optimization techniques to balance remediation objectives and economics and development of innovative technologies to expedite source region clean-ups. We present an optimization application building on a pump-and-treat model, yet assuming a prior removal of different portions of the source area to address the evolving management issue of more aggressive source remediation. Separate economic estimates of in-situ thermal remediation are combined with the economic estimates of the subsequent optimal pump-and-treat remediation to observe tradeoff relationships of cost vs. highest remaining contamination levels (hot spot). The simulated annealing algorithm calls the flow and transport model to evaluate the success of a proposed remediation scenario at a U.S.A. Superfund site contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

  13. Application of object oriented programming techniques in front end computers

    SciTech Connect

    Skelly, J.F.

    1997-11-01

    The Standard Model for accelerator control systems describes two levels of computers, often called Console Level Computers (CLCs) and Front End Computers (FECs), joined by a network. The Front End Computer (FEC) environment imposes special demands on software, beyond real time performance and robustness. FEC software must manage a diverse inventory of devices with individualistic timing requirements and hardware interfaces. It must implement network services which export device access to the control system at large, interpreting a uniform network communications protocol into the specific control requirements of the individual devices. Object oriented languages provide programming techniques which neatly address these challenges, and also offer benefits in terms of maintainability and flexibility. Applications are discussed which exhibit the use of inheritance, multiple inheritance and inheritance trees, and polymorphism to address the needs of FEC software.

  14. Towards a Useful Classification of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchill, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The learning object remains an ill-defined concept, despite numerous and extensive discussion in the literature. This paper attempts to address this problem by providing a classification that potentially brings together various perspectives of what a learning object may be. Six unique types of learning objects are proposed and discussed:…

  15. An inexact multi-objective programming model for water resources management in industrial parks of Binhai New Area, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Li, W; Wang, B; Liu, X W; Xie, Y L; Liu, L

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Binhai New Area of Tianjin has been suffering severe water shortage due to climate change and industrial activities. Integrated and effective water resources management approaches are urgent for the sustainable development of industrial parks in Binhai New Area. However, uncertainties exist in many aspects of the water resources system and are inevitably problematic for water resources planning and policy-making. To address these uncertainties, an interval multiple-objective programming model was developed here to support the long-term planning of industrial water resources management in Binhai New Area, Tianjin, China. The model incorporated both multiple-objective programming and interval linear programming into a general programming framework. The developed model could handle the uncertainties and complexities of the water management system, and also allowed decision makers to adjust fuzzy objective control decision variables to satisfy multiple holistic and interactive objectives. The solutions are useful for planning adjustments of the existing water allocation patterns in Binhai New Area.

  16. Numerical Analysis Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Michael

    1997-08-01

    The Numerical Analysis Objects project (NAO) is a project in the Mathematics Department of IBM's TJ Watson Research Center. While there are plenty of numerical tools available today, it is not an easy task to combine them into a custom application. NAO is directed at the dual problems of building applications from a set of tools, and creating those tools. There are several "reuse" projects, which focus on the problems of identifying and cataloging tools. NAO is directed at the specific context of scientific computing. Because the type of tools is restricted, problems such as tools with incompatible data structures for input and output, and dissimilar interfaces to tools which solve similar problems can be addressed. The approach we've taken is to define interfaces to those objects used in numerical analysis, such as geometries, functions and operators, and to start collecting (and building) a set of tools which use these interfaces. We have written a class library (a set of abstract classes and implementations) in C++ which demonstrates the approach. Besides the classes, the class library includes "stub" routines which allow the library to be used from C or Fortran, and an interface to a Visual Programming Language. The library has been used to build a simulator for petroleum reservoirs, using a set of tools for discretizing nonlinear differential equations that we have written, and includes "wrapped" versions of packages from the Netlib repository. Documentation can be found on the Web at "http://www.research.ibm.com/nao". I will describe the objects and their interfaces, and give examples ranging from mesh generation to solving differential equations.

  17. Addressing concerns and achieving expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.

    1995-12-01

    Approximately 2-1/2 years ago many of us were gathered here in Prague at a similar conference with a similar name, {open_quotes}Energy and Environment: Transitions in Eastern Europe.{close_quotes} Over 300 professionals from 26 nations attended. The objective of the conference was to: Facilitate the Solution of Long and Short Term Energy and Environmental Problems in Eastern Europe by Bringing Together People, ideas and technologies which could be applied to specific problems in a logical step-by-step manner. It was conceded at the time that the long term solution would consist of thoughtfully integrated steps and that the conference was the first step. We are here in the Czech Republic again this week to continue what was started. As before, this conference continues to: (1) Provide a forum to identify and discuss cost-effective environmentally acceptable energy and environmental technology options and their associated socioeconomic issues. (2) Stimulate the Formation of business partnerships (3) Identify key barrier issues hindering technology applications and identify implementation pathways that eliminate or avoid obstacles to progress.

  18. Robust shape tracking with multiple models in ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Jacinto C; Marques, Jorge S

    2008-03-01

    This paper addresses object tracking in ultrasound images using a robust multiple model tracker. The proposed tracker has the following features: 1) it uses multiple dynamic models to track the evolution of the object boundary, and 2) it models invalid observations (outliers), reducing their influence on the shape estimates. The problem considered in this paper is the tracking of the left ventricle which is known to be a challenging problem. The heart motion presents two phases (diastole and systole) with different dynamics, the multiple models used in this tracker try to solve this difficulty. In addition, ultrasound images are corrupted by strong multiplicative noise which prevents the use of standard deformable models. Robust estimation techniques are used to address this difficulty. The multiple model data association (MMDA) tracker proposed in this paper is based on a bank of nonlinear filters, organized in a tree structure. The algorithm determines which model is active at each instant of time and updates its state by propagating the probability distribution, using robust estimation techniques.

  19. Addressing Chronic Malnutrition through Multi-Sectoral, Sustainable Approaches: A Review of the Causes and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Reinhardt, Kristina; Fanzo, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Chronic malnutrition, including stunting, is an important example of a global challenge that spans multiple sectors, specifically health, agriculture, and the environment. The objective of this paper is to review current knowledge on the causes and consequences of chronic malnutrition and their relationship with multiple sectors. Understanding the causes includes approaching chronic malnutrition from the basic, underlying, and immediate levels. The causes reach from macro-level environmental influences to specific micronutrient intake. In order to effectively address stunting, it is important to understand the timing of stunting and the ability of individuals to catch up in terms of linear growth, cognitive ability, and immune function. The consequences of chronic malnutrition are transgenerational and they have an impact at the individual, community, and national level in the short- and long-term. There are still many gaps in knowledge regarding both the causes and consequences of chronic malnutrition, particularly when it comes to the interaction with agriculture and the environment, and understanding these gaps is important to addressing the burden of chronic malnutrition through evidence-based interventions. PMID:25988116

  20. Calibration of asynchronous smart phone cameras from moving objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Oksana; Istenič, Klemen; Bharti, Vibhav; Dhali, Maruf Ahmed; Barmaimon, Daniel; Houssineau, Jérémie; Clark, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Calibrating multiple cameras is a fundamental prerequisite for many Computer Vision applications. Typically this involves using a pair of identical synchronized industrial or high-end consumer cameras. This paper considers an application on a pair of low-cost portable cameras with different parameters that are found in smart phones. This paper addresses the issues of acquisition, detection of moving objects, dynamic camera registration and tracking of arbitrary number of targets. The acquisition of data is performed using two standard smart phone cameras and later processed using detections of moving objects in the scene. The registration of cameras onto the same world reference frame is performed using a recently developed method for camera calibration using a disparity space parameterisation and the single-cluster PHD filter.

  1. Design, Development, and Validation of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Gwen; Soh, Leen-Kiat; Samal, Ashok

    2006-01-01

    A learning object is a small, stand-alone, mediated content resource that can be reused in multiple instructional contexts. In this article, we describe our approach to design, develop, and validate Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) compliant learning objects for undergraduate computer science education. We discuss the advantages of…

  2. Multi-Objective Community Detection Based on Memetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Community detection has drawn a lot of attention as it can provide invaluable help in understanding the function and visualizing the structure of networks. Since single objective optimization methods have intrinsic drawbacks to identifying multiple significant community structures, some methods formulate the community detection as multi-objective problems and adopt population-based evolutionary algorithms to obtain multiple community structures. Evolutionary algorithms have strong global search ability, but have difficulty in locating local optima efficiently. In this study, in order to identify multiple significant community structures more effectively, a multi-objective memetic algorithm for community detection is proposed by combining multi-objective evolutionary algorithm with a local search procedure. The local search procedure is designed by addressing three issues. Firstly, nondominated solutions generated by evolutionary operations and solutions in dominant population are set as initial individuals for local search procedure. Then, a new direction vector named as pseudonormal vector is proposed to integrate two objective functions together to form a fitness function. Finally, a network specific local search strategy based on label propagation rule is expanded to search the local optimal solutions efficiently. The extensive experiments on both artificial and real-world networks evaluate the proposed method from three aspects. Firstly, experiments on influence of local search procedure demonstrate that the local search procedure can speed up the convergence to better partitions and make the algorithm more stable. Secondly, comparisons with a set of classic community detection methods illustrate the proposed method can find single partitions effectively. Finally, the method is applied to identify hierarchical structures of networks which are beneficial for analyzing networks in multi-resolution levels. PMID:25932646

  3. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  4. Cognitive object recognition system (CORS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Chaitanya; Varadarajan, Karthik Mahesh; Krishnamurthi, Niyant; Xu, Shuli; Biederman, Irving; Kelley, Troy

    2010-04-01

    We have developed a framework, Cognitive Object Recognition System (CORS), inspired by current neurocomputational models and psychophysical research in which multiple recognition algorithms (shape based geometric primitives, 'geons,' and non-geometric feature-based algorithms) are integrated to provide a comprehensive solution to object recognition and landmarking. Objects are defined as a combination of geons, corresponding to their simple parts, and the relations among the parts. However, those objects that are not easily decomposable into geons, such as bushes and trees, are recognized by CORS using "feature-based" algorithms. The unique interaction between these algorithms is a novel approach that combines the effectiveness of both algorithms and takes us closer to a generalized approach to object recognition. CORS allows recognition of objects through a larger range of poses using geometric primitives and performs well under heavy occlusion - about 35% of object surface is sufficient. Furthermore, geon composition of an object allows image understanding and reasoning even with novel objects. With reliable landmarking capability, the system improves vision-based robot navigation in GPS-denied environments. Feasibility of the CORS system was demonstrated with real stereo images captured from a Pioneer robot. The system can currently identify doors, door handles, staircases, trashcans and other relevant landmarks in the indoor environment.

  5. Interweaving Knowledge Resources to Address Complex Environmental Health Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Beth Ellen; Suk, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Complex problems do not respect academic disciplinary boundaries. Environmental health research is complex and often moves beyond these boundaries, integrating diverse knowledge resources to solve such challenges. Here we describe an evolving paradigm for interweaving approaches that integrates widely diverse resources outside of traditional academic environments in full partnerships of mutual respect and understanding. We demonstrate that scientists, social scientists, and engineers can work with government agencies, industry, and communities to interweave their expertise into metaphorical knowledge fabrics to share understanding, resources, and enthusiasm. Objective Our goal is to acknowledge and validate how interweaving research approaches can contribute to research-driven, solution-oriented problem solving in environmental health, and to inspire more members of the environmental health community to consider this approach. Discussion The National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program (SRP), as mandated by Congress, has evolved to become a program that reaches across a wide range of knowledge resources. SRP fosters interweaving multiple knowledge resources to develop innovative multidirectional partnerships for research and training. Here we describe examples of how motivation, ideas, knowledge, and expertise from different people, institutions, and agencies can integrate to tackle challenges that can be as complex as the resources they bring to bear on it. Conclusions By providing structure for interweaving science with its stakeholders, we are better able to leverage resources, increase potential for innovation, and proactively ensure a more fully developed spectrum of beneficial outcomes of research investments. Citation Anderson BE, Naujokas MF, Suk WA. 2015. Interweaving knowledge resources to address complex environmental health challenges. Environ Health Perspect 123:1095–1099

  6. Multiple Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called multiple pregnancy . If more than one egg is released during the menstrual cycle and each ... fraternal twins (or more). When a single fertilized egg splits, it results in multiple identical embryos. This ...

  7. Multiple myeloma

    MedlinePlus

    Plasma cell dyscrasia; Plasma cell myeloma; Malignant plasmacytoma; Plasmacytoma of bone; Myeloma - multiple ... Multiple myeloma most commonly causes: Low red blood cell count ( anemia ), which can lead to fatigue and ...

  8. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the ... attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins ...

  9. Learning Object Repositories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This chapter looks at the development and nature of learning objects, meta-tagging standards and taxonomies, learning object repositories, learning object repository characteristics, and types of learning object repositories, with type examples. (Contains 1 table.)

  10. Tracking visual objects using pyramidal rotation invariant features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paheding, Sidike; Essa, Almabrok; Krieger, Evan; Asari, Vijayan

    2016-02-01

    Challenges in object tracking such as object deformation, occlusion, and background variations require a robust tracker to ensure accurate object location estimation. To address these issues, we present a Pyramidal Rotation Invariant Features (PRIF) that integrates Gaussian Ringlet Intensity Distribution (GRID) and Fourier Magnitude of Histogram of Oriented Gradients (FMHOG) methods for tracking objects from videos in challenging environments. In this model, we initially partition a reference object region into increasingly fine rectangular grid regions to construct a pyramid. Histograms of local features are then extracted for each level of pyramid. This allows the appearance of a local patch to be captured at multiple levels of detail to make the algorithm insensitive to partial occlusion. Then GRID and magnitude of discrete Fourier transform of the oriented gradient are utilized to achieve a robust rotation invariant feature. The GRID feature creates a weighting scheme to emphasize the object center. In the tracking stage, a Kalman filter is employed to estimate the center of the object search regions in successive frames. Within the search regions, we use a sliding window technique to extract the PRIF of candidate objects, and then Earth Mover's Distance (EMD) is used to classify the best matched candidate features with respect to the reference. Our PRIF object tracking algorithm is tested on two challenging Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) datasets, namely Columbus Large Image Format (CLIF) and Large Area Image Recorder (LAIR), to evaluate its robustness. Experimental results show that the proposed PRIF approach yields superior results compared to state-of-the-art feature based object trackers.

  11. Need to Address Evidence-Based Practice in Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents a case for addressing evidence-based practice (EBP) in educational administration. Content is arranged around four objectives: (a) summarizing the status of educational administration as a profession, (b) defining evidence and the model, (c) explaining EBP's social and professional merit, and (d) identifying barriers…

  12. Addressing Nicotine Dependence in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: Perspectives from Residency Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Fromont, Sebastien C.; Banys, Peter; Eisendrath, Stuart J.; Horowitz, Mardi J.; Jacobs, Marc H.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: According to APA treatment recommendations, psychiatrists should assess and intervene in tobacco use with all of their patients who smoke. The ease with which this occurs may vary by treatment model. This study examined perspectives in residency training to identify a framework for addressing nicotine dependence within psychodynamic…

  13. Promoting Interdisciplinary Collaboration: Trainees Addressing Siloed Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitts, Robert Li; Christodoulou, Joanna; Goldman, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Professional siloing within medical institutions has been identified as a problem in medical education, including resident training. The authors discuss how trainees from different disciplines can collaborate to address this problem. Method: A group of trainees from psychiatry, developmental medicine, neurology, and education came…

  14. Addressing the Causes of Chef Shortages in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratten, John; O'Leary, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To outline the reasons for staff shortages in the UK catering industry and then to decide if further training could help to address these issues. Design/methodology/approach: The objectives have been achieved by examining the training provisions at a college, and then asking the students, their training staff, employers and employees…

  15. Addressing Patient Sexual Orientation in the Undergraduate Medical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamas, Rebecca L.; Miller, Karen Hughes; Martin, Leslee J.; Greenberg, Ruth B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to estimate the number of hours dedicated to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender content in one medical school's undergraduate curriculum, compare it to the national average, and identify barriers to addressing this content. Methods: Course and clerkship directors were asked to estimate how many hours they spent on…

  16. Primitive Solar System Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewitt, David

    1999-10-01

    Some of the most fundamental and topical questions in astronomy concern the origin and evolution of planetary systems. In the solar system, these questions are most directly addressed through observations of chemically and physically primitive bodies in which a record of the initial conditions may be preserved. The most primitive materials in the solar system reside near its outer edge, in a trans-Neptunian ring known as the Kuiper Belt and in a surrounding spherical cloud first postulated by Oort. These regions supply comets to the inner solar system and, in the case of the Kuiper Belt, preserve evidence of dynamical processes operative in the first 100 million years after formation. The Kuiper Belt is also a source of collisionally produced dust and may be analogous to the dusty rings observed encircling a number of nearby main-sequence stars. I will review the currently known properties of these primitive objects, and discuss how ALMA can contribute to our understanding of the early solar system.

  17. Finger Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simanihuruk, Mudin

    2011-01-01

    Multiplication facts are difficult to teach. Therefore many researchers have put a great deal of effort into finding multiplication strategies. Sherin and Fuson (2005) provided a good survey paper on the multiplication strategies research area. Kolpas (2002), Rendtorff (1908), Dabell (2001), Musser (1966) and Markarian (2009) proposed the finger…

  18. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multiple Sclerosis Information Page Condensed from Multiple Sclerosis: Hope Through ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Multiple Sclerosis? An unpredictable disease of the central nervous system, ...

  19. CCCC Chair's Address: Representing Ourselves, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the text of the author's address at the fifty-ninth annual convention of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) in March 2008. In her address, the author picks up strands of previous Chairs' addresses and weaves them through the fabric of her remarks. What she hopes will give sheen to the fabric is her…

  20. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  1. 47 CFR 13.10 - Licensee address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee address. 13.10 Section 13.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.10 Licensee address. In accordance with § 1.923 of this chapter all applications must specify an address where...

  2. 75 FR 49813 - Change of Address

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... COMMISSION 11 CFR Parts 9405, 9407, 9409, 9410, 9420, and 9428 Change of Address AGENCY: United States... Assistance Commission (EAC) is amending its regulations to reflect a change of address for its headquarters. This technical amendment is a nomenclature change that updates and corrects the address for...

  3. 77 FR 48429 - Commission Address Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION 29 CFR Parts 2700, 2701, 2702, 2704, 2705, 2706 Commission Address Change AGENCY... to inform the public of the address change. DATES: This final rule will take effect on August 27... because the amendments are of a minor and administrative nature dealing with only a change in address....

  4. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  5. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  6. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  7. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  8. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  9. Normalized Metadata Generation for Human Retrieval Using Multiple Video Surveillance Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Inhye; Lee, Seungwon; Paik, Joonki

    2016-01-01

    Since it is impossible for surveillance personnel to keep monitoring videos from a multiple camera-based surveillance system, an efficient technique is needed to help recognize important situations by retrieving the metadata of an object-of-interest. In a multiple camera-based surveillance system, an object detected in a camera has a different shape in another camera, which is a critical issue of wide-range, real-time surveillance systems. In order to address the problem, this paper presents an object retrieval method by extracting the normalized metadata of an object-of-interest from multiple, heterogeneous cameras. The proposed metadata generation algorithm consists of three steps: (i) generation of a three-dimensional (3D) human model; (ii) human object-based automatic scene calibration; and (iii) metadata generation. More specifically, an appropriately-generated 3D human model provides the foot-to-head direction information that is used as the input of the automatic calibration of each camera. The normalized object information is used to retrieve an object-of-interest in a wide-range, multiple-camera surveillance system in the form of metadata. Experimental results show that the 3D human model matches the ground truth, and automatic calibration-based normalization of metadata enables a successful retrieval and tracking of a human object in the multiple-camera video surveillance system. PMID:27347961

  10. Normalized Metadata Generation for Human Retrieval Using Multiple Video Surveillance Cameras.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Inhye; Lee, Seungwon; Paik, Joonki

    2016-01-01

    Since it is impossible for surveillance personnel to keep monitoring videos from a multiple camera-based surveillance system, an efficient technique is needed to help recognize important situations by retrieving the metadata of an object-of-interest. In a multiple camera-based surveillance system, an object detected in a camera has a different shape in another camera, which is a critical issue of wide-range, real-time surveillance systems. In order to address the problem, this paper presents an object retrieval method by extracting the normalized metadata of an object-of-interest from multiple, heterogeneous cameras. The proposed metadata generation algorithm consists of three steps: (i) generation of a three-dimensional (3D) human model; (ii) human object-based automatic scene calibration; and (iii) metadata generation. More specifically, an appropriately-generated 3D human model provides the foot-to-head direction information that is used as the input of the automatic calibration of each camera. The normalized object information is used to retrieve an object-of-interest in a wide-range, multiple-camera surveillance system in the form of metadata. Experimental results show that the 3D human model matches the ground truth, and automatic calibration-based normalization of metadata enables a successful retrieval and tracking of a human object in the multiple-camera video surveillance system. PMID:27347961

  11. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  12. Robust object matching for persistent tracking with heterogeneous features.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanlin; Hsu, Steve; Sawhney, Harpreet S; Kumar, Rakesh; Shan, Ying

    2007-05-01

    This paper addresses the problem of matching vehicles across multiple sightings under variations in illumination and camera poses. Since multiple observations of a vehicle are separated in large temporal and/or spatial gaps, thus prohibiting the use of standard frame-to-frame data association, we employ features extracted over a sequence during one time interval as a vehicle fingerprint that is used to compute the likelihood that two or more sequence observations are from the same or different vehicles. Furthermore, since our domain is aerial video tracking, in order to deal with poor image quality and large resolution and quality variations, our approach employs robust alignment and match measures for different stages of vehicle matching. Most notably, we employ a heterogeneous collection of features such as lines, points, and regions in an integrated matching framework. Heterogeneous features are shown to be important. Line and point features provide accurate localization and are employed for robust alignment across disparate views. The challenges of change in pose, aspect, and appearances across two disparate observations are handled by combining a novel feature-based quasi-rigid alignment with flexible matching between two or more sequences. However, since lines and points are relatively sparse, they are not adequate to delineate the object and provide a comprehensive matching set that covers the complete object. Region features provide a high degree of coverage and are employed for continuous frames to provide a delineation of the vehicle region for subsequent generation of a match measure. Our approach reliably delineates objects by representing regions as robust blob features and matching multiple regions to multiple regions using Earth Mover's Distance (EMD). Extensive experimentation under a variety of real-world scenarios and over hundreds of thousands of Confirmatory Identification (CID) trails has demonstrated about 95 percent accuracy in vehicle

  13. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  14. Public health approach to address maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Rai, Sanjay K; Anand, K; Misra, Puneet; Kant, Shashi; Upadhyay, Ravi Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Reducing maternal mortality is one of the major challenges to health systems worldwide, more so in developing countries that account for nearly 99% of these maternal deaths. Lack of a standard method for reporting of maternal death poses a major hurdle in making global comparisons. Currently much of the focus is on documenting the "number" of maternal deaths and delineating the "medical causes" behind these deaths. There is a need to acknowledge the social correlates of maternal deaths as well. Investigating and in-depth understanding of each maternal death can provide indications on practical ways of addressing the problem. Death of a mother has serious implications for the child as well as other family members and to prevent the same, a comprehensive approach is required. This could include providing essential maternal care, early management of complications and good quality intrapartum care through the involvement of skilled birth attendants. Ensuring the availability, affordability, and accessibility of quality maternal health services, including emergency obstetric care (EmOC) would prove pivotal in reducing the maternal deaths. To increase perceived seriousness of the community regarding maternal health, a well-structured awareness campaign is needed with importance be given to avoid adolescent pregnancy as well. Initiatives like Janani Surakhsha Yojna (JSY) that have the potential to improve maternal health needs to be strengthened. Quality assessments should form an essential part of all services that are directed toward improving maternal health. Further, emphasis needs to be given on research by involving multiple allied partners, with the aim to develop a prioritized, coordinated, and innovative research agenda for women's health. PMID:23229211

  15. Object recognition by active fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prantl, Manfred; Kopp-Borotschnig, Hermann; Ganster, Harald; Sinclair, David; Pinz, Axel J.

    1996-10-01

    Today's computer vision applications often have to deal with multiple, uncertain, and incomplete visual information. In this paper, we apply a new method, termed 'active fusion', to the problem of generic object recognition. Active fusion provides a common framework for active selection and combination of information from multiple sources in order to arrive at a reliable result at reasonable costs. In our experimental setup we use a camera mounted on a 2m by 1.5m x/z-table observing objects placed on a rotating table. Zoom, pan, tilt, and aperture setting of the camera can be controlled by the system. We follow a part-based approach, trying to decompose objects into parts, which are modeled as geons. The active fusion system starts from an initial view of the objects placed on the table and is continuously trying to refine its current object hypotheses by requesting additional views. The implementation of active fusion on the basis of probability theory, Dempster-Shafer's theory of evidence and fuzzy set theory is discussed. First results demonstrating segmentation improvements by active fusion are presented.

  16. Ice Dragon: A Mission to Address Science and Human Exploration Objectives on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Davila, A.; Sanders, G.; Glass, Brian; Gonzales, A.; Heldmann, Jennifer; Karcz, J.; Lemke, L.; Sanders, G.

    2012-01-01

    We present a mission concept where a SpaceX Dragon capsule lands a payload on Mars that samples ground ice to search for evidence of life, assess hazards to future human missions, and demonstrate use of Martian resources.

  17. Ice Dragon: A Mission to Address Science and Human Exploration Objectives on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C.; Davilla, A.; Davis, S.; Glass, B.; Gonzales, A.; Heldmann, J.; Karcz, J.; Lemke, L.; Sanders, G.

    2012-06-01

    We present a mission concept where a SpaceX Dragon capsule lands a payload on Mars that samples ground ice to search for evidence of life, assess hazards to future human missions, and demonstrate use of Martian resources.

  18. Mapping the distribution of the main host for plague in a complex landscape in Kazakhstan: An object-based approach using SPOT-5 XS, Landsat 7 ETM+, SRTM and multiple Random Forests.

    PubMed

    Wilschut, L I; Addink, E A; Heesterbeek, J A P; Dubyanskiy, V M; Davis, S A; Laudisoit, A; M Begon; Burdelov, L A; Atshabar, B B; de Jong, S M

    2013-08-01

    Plague is a zoonotic infectious disease present in great gerbil populations in Kazakhstan. Infectious disease dynamics are influenced by the spatial distribution of the carriers (hosts) of the disease. The great gerbil, the main host in our study area, lives in burrows, which can be recognized on high resolution satellite imagery. In this study, using earth observation data at various spatial scales, we map the spatial distribution of burrows in a semi-desert landscape. The study area consists of various landscape types. To evaluate whether identification of burrows by classification is possible in these landscape types, the study area was subdivided into eight landscape units, on the basis of Landsat 7 ETM+ derived Tasselled Cap Greenness and Brightness, and SRTM derived standard deviation in elevation. In the field, 904 burrows were mapped. Using two segmented 2.5 m resolution SPOT-5 XS satellite scenes, reference object sets were created. Random Forests were built for both SPOT scenes and used to classify the images. Additionally, a stratified classification was carried out, by building separate Random Forests per landscape unit. Burrows were successfully classified in all landscape units. In the 'steppe on floodplain' areas, classification worked best: producer's and user's accuracy in those areas reached 88% and 100%, respectively. In the 'floodplain' areas with a more heterogeneous vegetation cover, classification worked least well; there, accuracies were 86 and 58% respectively. Stratified classification improved the results in all landscape units where comparison was possible (four), increasing kappa coefficients by 13, 10, 9 and 1%, respectively. In this study, an innovative stratification method using high- and medium resolution imagery was applied in order to map host distribution on a large spatial scale. The burrow maps we developed will help to detect changes in the distribution of great gerbil populations and, moreover, serve as a unique empirical

  19. Mapping the distribution of the main host for plague in a complex landscape in Kazakhstan: An object-based approach using SPOT-5 XS, Landsat 7 ETM+, SRTM and multiple Random Forests.

    PubMed

    Wilschut, L I; Addink, E A; Heesterbeek, J A P; Dubyanskiy, V M; Davis, S A; Laudisoit, A; M Begon; Burdelov, L A; Atshabar, B B; de Jong, S M

    2013-08-01

    Plague is a zoonotic infectious disease present in great gerbil populations in Kazakhstan. Infectious disease dynamics are influenced by the spatial distribution of the carriers (hosts) of the disease. The great gerbil, the main host in our study area, lives in burrows, which can be recognized on high resolution satellite imagery. In this study, using earth observation data at various spatial scales, we map the spatial distribution of burrows in a semi-desert landscape. The study area consists of various landscape types. To evaluate whether identification of burrows by classification is possible in these landscape types, the study area was subdivided into eight landscape units, on the basis of Landsat 7 ETM+ derived Tasselled Cap Greenness and Brightness, and SRTM derived standard deviation in elevation. In the field, 904 burrows were mapped. Using two segmented 2.5 m resolution SPOT-5 XS satellite scenes, reference object sets were created. Random Forests were built for both SPOT scenes and used to classify the images. Additionally, a stratified classification was carried out, by building separate Random Forests per landscape unit. Burrows were successfully classified in all landscape units. In the 'steppe on floodplain' areas, classification worked best: producer's and user's accuracy in those areas reached 88% and 100%, respectively. In the 'floodplain' areas with a more heterogeneous vegetation cover, classification worked least well; there, accuracies were 86 and 58% respectively. Stratified classification improved the results in all landscape units where comparison was possible (four), increasing kappa coefficients by 13, 10, 9 and 1%, respectively. In this study, an innovative stratification method using high- and medium resolution imagery was applied in order to map host distribution on a large spatial scale. The burrow maps we developed will help to detect changes in the distribution of great gerbil populations and, moreover, serve as a unique empirical

  20. Mapping the distribution of the main host for plague in a complex landscape in Kazakhstan: An object-based approach using SPOT-5 XS, Landsat 7 ETM+, SRTM and multiple Random Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilschut, L. I.; Addink, E. A.; Heesterbeek, J. A. P.; Dubyanskiy, V. M.; Davis, S. A.; Laudisoit, A.; Begon, M.; Burdelov, L. A.; Atshabar, B. B.; de Jong, S. M.

    2013-08-01

    Plague is a zoonotic infectious disease present in great gerbil populations in Kazakhstan. Infectious disease dynamics are influenced by the spatial distribution of the carriers (hosts) of the disease. The great gerbil, the main host in our study area, lives in burrows, which can be recognized on high resolution satellite imagery. In this study, using earth observation data at various spatial scales, we map the spatial distribution of burrows in a semi-desert landscape. The study area consists of various landscape types. To evaluate whether identification of burrows by classification is possible in these landscape types, the study area was subdivided into eight landscape units, on the basis of Landsat 7 ETM+ derived Tasselled Cap Greenness and Brightness, and SRTM derived standard deviation in elevation. In the field, 904 burrows were mapped. Using two segmented 2.5 m resolution SPOT-5 XS satellite scenes, reference object sets were created. Random Forests were built for both SPOT scenes and used to classify the images. Additionally, a stratified classification was carried out, by building separate Random Forests per landscape unit. Burrows were successfully classified in all landscape units. In the ‘steppe on floodplain’ areas, classification worked best: producer's and user's accuracy in those areas reached 88% and 100%, respectively. In the ‘floodplain’ areas with a more heterogeneous vegetation cover, classification worked least well; there, accuracies were 86 and 58% respectively. Stratified classification improved the results in all landscape units where comparison was possible (four), increasing kappa coefficients by 13, 10, 9 and 1%, respectively. In this study, an innovative stratification method using high- and medium resolution imagery was applied in order to map host distribution on a large spatial scale. The burrow maps we developed will help to detect changes in the distribution of great gerbil populations and, moreover, serve as a unique

  1. Mapping the distribution of the main host for plague in a complex landscape in Kazakhstan: An object-based approach using SPOT-5 XS, Landsat 7 ETM+, SRTM and multiple Random Forests

    PubMed Central

    Wilschut, L.I.; Addink, E.A.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Dubyanskiy, V.M.; Davis, S.A.; Laudisoit, A.; M.Begon; Burdelov, L.A.; Atshabar, B.B.; de Jong, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Plague is a zoonotic infectious disease present in great gerbil populations in Kazakhstan. Infectious disease dynamics are influenced by the spatial distribution of the carriers (hosts) of the disease. The great gerbil, the main host in our study area, lives in burrows, which can be recognized on high resolution satellite imagery. In this study, using earth observation data at various spatial scales, we map the spatial distribution of burrows in a semi-desert landscape. The study area consists of various landscape types. To evaluate whether identification of burrows by classification is possible in these landscape types, the study area was subdivided into eight landscape units, on the basis of Landsat 7 ETM+ derived Tasselled Cap Greenness and Brightness, and SRTM derived standard deviation in elevation. In the field, 904 burrows were mapped. Using two segmented 2.5 m resolution SPOT-5 XS satellite scenes, reference object sets were created. Random Forests were built for both SPOT scenes and used to classify the images. Additionally, a stratified classification was carried out, by building separate Random Forests per landscape unit. Burrows were successfully classified in all landscape units. In the ‘steppe on floodplain’ areas, classification worked best: producer's and user's accuracy in those areas reached 88% and 100%, respectively. In the ‘floodplain’ areas with a more heterogeneous vegetation cover, classification worked least well; there, accuracies were 86 and 58% respectively. Stratified classification improved the results in all landscape units where comparison was possible (four), increasing kappa coefficients by 13, 10, 9 and 1%, respectively. In this study, an innovative stratification method using high- and medium resolution imagery was applied in order to map host distribution on a large spatial scale. The burrow maps we developed will help to detect changes in the distribution of great gerbil populations and, moreover, serve as a unique

  2. Picturing Objects in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinskey, Jeanne L.; Jachens, Liza J.

    2014-01-01

    Infants' transfer of information from pictures to objects was tested by familiarizing 9-month-olds (N = 31) with either a color or black-and-white photograph of an object and observing their preferential reaching for the real target object versus a distractor. One condition tested object recognition by keeping both objects visible, and the…

  3. Selecting a Reference Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

  4. Systems and Methods for Imaging of Falling Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Tim (Inventor); Fallgatter, Cale (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Imaging of falling objects is described. Multiple images of a falling object can be captured substantially simultaneously using multiple cameras located at multiple angles around the falling object. An epipolar geometry of the captured images can be determined. The images can be rectified to parallelize epipolar lines of the epipolar geometry. Correspondence points between the images can be identified. At least a portion of the falling object can be digitally reconstructed using the identified correspondence points to create a digital reconstruction.

  5. Integrating multiple networks for protein function prediction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background High throughput techniques produce multiple functional association networks. Integrating these networks can enhance the accuracy of protein function prediction. Many algorithms have been introduced to generate a composite network, which is obtained as a weighted sum of individual networks. The weight assigned to an individual network reflects its benefit towards the protein functional annotation inference. A classifier is then trained on the composite network for predicting protein functions. However, since these techniques model the optimization of the composite network and the prediction tasks as separate objectives, the resulting composite network is not necessarily optimal for the follow-up protein function prediction. Results We address this issue by modeling the optimization of the composite network and the prediction problems within a unified objective function. In particular, we use a kernel target alignment technique and the loss function of a network based classifier to jointly adjust the weights assigned to the individual networks. We show that the proposed method, called MNet, can achieve a performance that is superior (with respect to different evaluation criteria) to related techniques using the multiple networks of four example species (yeast, human, mouse, and fly) annotated with thousands (or hundreds) of GO terms. Conclusion MNet can effectively integrate multiple networks for protein function prediction and is robust to the input parameters. Supplementary data is available at https://sites.google.com/site/guoxian85/home/mnet. The Matlab code of MNet is available upon request. PMID:25707434

  6. Understanding How Evaluators Deal with Multiple Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Michelle Elyce

    2009-01-01

    Although many leaders in evaluation advise evaluators to address the diverse needs of stakeholders, very little is known about how or if practicing evaluators address this injunction. Understanding how practicing evaluators address the needs of multiple stakeholders could inform evaluator training. The purpose of this qualitative study was to…

  7. An addressable cell array for a platform of biosensor chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Seungkyoung; Choi, Soo-hee; Jung, Moon Youn; Song, Kibong; Park, Jeong Won

    2013-05-01

    In order to detect interested matters in fields, various lab-on-a-chips where chemical, physical, or biological sensors are loaded have been developed. eNOSE can be a representative example among them. Because animals can sense 300~1000 different chemicals by olfactory system - smell -, the olfactory system has been spotlighted as new materials in the field of sensing. Those investigations, however, are usually focused on how to detect signals from the olfactory neurons or receptors loaded on chips and enhance sensing efficacy of chips. Therefore, almost of those chips are designed for only one material sensing. Multi-sensing using multi-channels will be needed when the olfactory systems are adopted well on chips. For multiple sensing, we developed an addressable cell array. The chip has 38 cell-chambers arranged in a circle shape and different cell types of thirty eight can be allocated with specific addresses on the chip without any complex valve system. In order to confirm the cell addressing, we loaded EGFP-transfected and empty vector-transfected HEK293a cells into inlets of the cell array in a planned address and those cells were positioned into each chamber by brief aspiration. The arrayed cells were confirmed as a specific pattern through EGFP and nuclei staining. This cell array which can generate address of sensor materials like cells with their own specification is expected to be applied to a platform for a biosensor chip at various sensing fields.

  8. Exogenous attention to unseen objects?

    PubMed

    Norman, Liam J; Heywood, Charles A; Kentridge, Robert W

    2015-09-01

    Attention and awareness are closely related phenomena, but recent evidence has shown that not all attended stimuli give rise to awareness. Controversy still remains over whether, and the extent to which, a dissociation between attention and awareness encompasses all forms of attention. For example, it has been suggested that attention without awareness is more readily demonstrated for voluntary, endogenous attention than its reflexive, exogenous counterpart. Here we examine whether exogenous attentional cueing can have selective behavioural effects on stimuli that nevertheless remain unseen. Using a task in which object-based attention has been shown in the absence of awareness, we remove all possible contingencies between cues and target stimuli to ensure that any cueing effects must be under purely exogenous control, and find evidence of exogenous object-based attention without awareness. In a second experiment we address whether this dissociation crucially depends on the method used to establish that the objects indeed remain unseen. Specifically, to confirm that objects are unseen we adopt appropriate signal detection task procedures, including those that retain parity with the primary attentional task (by requiring participants to discriminate the two types of trial that are used to measure an effect of attention). We show a significant object-based attention effect is apparent under conditions where the selected object indeed remains undetectable.

  9. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function

    PubMed Central

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the “Hash_64” field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  10. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    PubMed

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution.

  11. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    PubMed

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  12. From object structure to object function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlateva, Stoyanka D.; Vaina, Lucia M.

    1991-03-01

    In this paper we provide a mathematical support for the nature of the shape representation methods useful for the computation of possible functions of an objects as derived from its shape structure. We discuss the concepts of parts and subparts of objects in the framework of axis based shape representation methods and boundary based methods. We propose a new method for obtaining descriptions of parts which based on a theorem from differential geometry (Pogorelov 1974) that any regular surface can be approximated in a finite environment with a given accuracy by a parabolloid of one of the following types - elliptic, hyperbolic and a parabolloid degenerating into a plane or a parabolic cylinder. Based on these considerations we suggest a heuristic for the approximation of convex object parts by a polyhedra, cylinder, ellipsoid or generalized cone with straight axis depending on the presence of plane, parabolic, elliptic subsets in their boundary, and nonconvex object parts by generalized cones with curved axis. This approach allows to obtain a primitive based shape description after the decomposition of the object shape through the more general boundary-based methods. We present examples of decomposing and describing shapes of common objects in terms of their parts, subparts and associated features.

  13. DDT and Malaria Prevention: Addressing the Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Bouwman, Hindrik; van den Berg, Henk; Kylin, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Background The debate regarding dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in malaria prevention and human health is polarized and can be classified into three positions: anti-DDT, centrist-DDT, pro-DDT. Objective We attempted to arrive at a synthesis by matching a series of questions on the use of DDT for indoor residual spraying (IRS) with literature and insights, and to identify options and opportunities. Discussion Overall, community health is significantly improved through all available malaria control measures, which include IRS with DDT. Is DDT “good”? Yes, because it has saved many lives. Is DDT safe as used in IRS? Recent publications have increasingly raised concerns about the health implications of DDT. Therefore, an unqualified statement that DDT used in IRS is safe is untenable. Are inhabitants and applicators exposed? Yes, and to high levels. Should DDT be used? The fact that DDT is “good” because it saves lives, and “not safe” because it has health and environmental consequences, raises ethical issues. The evidence of adverse human health effects due to DDT is mounting. However, under certain circumstances, malaria control using DDT cannot yet be halted. Therefore, the continued use of DDT poses a paradox recognized by a centrist-DDT position. At the very least, it is now time to invoke precaution. Precautionary actions could include use and exposure reduction. Conclusions There are situations where DDT will provide the best achievable health benefit, but maintaining that DDT is safe ignores the cumulative indications of many studies. In such situations, addressing the paradox from a centrist-DDT position and invoking precaution will help design choices for healthier lives. PMID:21245017

  14. Addressing Free Radical Oxidation in Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Criscito, Maressa C.; Schlesinger, Todd E.; Verdicchio, Robert; Szoke, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Comparatively little attention has been paid to the role of free radical oxidation in acne vulgaris. Here, using the traditional abnormalities cited for acne, the authors address the role of free radical oxidation throughout the pathogenesis by detailing the chemistry that may contribute to clinical changes. To probe the effects of free radical oxidation and test an antioxidant, they conducted a preliminary study of topically applied vitamin E. Methods: Seventeen patients with mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris were evaluated over an eight-week period in two private dermatology practices in this open-label study. All patients enrolled were on the same baseline regimen of salicylic acid and benzoyl peroxide. This regimen was then supplemented with topical vitamin E in sunflower seed oil. Results: At the end of the eight-week period, all patients demonstrated clinical improvement, as indicated by a reduction in the number of lesions and global mean difference. A statistically significant reduction was noted as early as Week 2. Enrolled patients also expressed a positive experience due to good tolerability and easy application. Conclusion: Although the exact pathogenesis of acne vulgaris remains unknown, the presence of excessive reactive oxygen species can be implicated in each of the major abnormalities involved. This presence, along with the positive results of the authors’ preliminary study, demonstrates the need for more exploration on the use of topical antioxidants in limiting free radical oxidation in the acne model. This paper is designed to stimulate academic discussion regarding a new way of thinking about the disease state of acne. PMID:26962389

  15. Representing Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harries, Tony; Barmby, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors wish to explore the use of visual representations in facilitating the understanding of multiplication. In doing so, they examine the different aspects of multiplication that they can access through different representations. In addition, they draw on a study that they have been carrying out looking at pupils' actual use…

  16. Multiple Access Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    The Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) strawman design uses a hybrid Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)/Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) implementation. TDMA is used for the forward direction (from Suppliers to Users), and FDMA for the return direction (from Users to Suppliers). An alternative architecture is proposed that will require minimal real time coordination and yet provide a fast access method by using random access Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The CDMA system issues are addressed such as connecting suppliers and users, both of whom may be located anywhere in the CONUS, when the user terminals are constrained in size and weight; and providing efficient traffic routing under highly variable traffic requirements. It is assumed that bandwidth efficiency is not of paramount importance. CDMA or Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA) communication is a method in which a group of carriers operate at the same nominal center frequency but are separable from each other by the low cross correlation of the spreading codes used. Interference and multipath rejection capability, ease of selective addressing and message screening, low density power spectra for signal hiding and security, and high resolution ranging are among the benefits of spread spectrum communications.

  17. Objective and subjective measures for sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Zhao, Zhong-Xin

    2007-07-01

    Subjective and objective measures of sleep structure or quality could help to characterize the chronic sleep disturbances, with relation to patients' risk factor profiles and co-morbidities. Studies have shown that discrepancies can occur between subjective data regarding sleep disturbances and the impact of insomnia and objective assays, and surrogate markers of sleep and sleep disturbances. Both objective and subjective measures should be incorporated into clinic studies. It seems likely that sleep quality is represented by a combination of more than one subjective sleep parameter. Objective and subjective assessments of sleep quality may relate to different parameters. Future studies incorporated both subjective and objective measures could help to address the sleep disorders.

  18. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  19. Addressing Standards and Assessments on the IEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sandra J.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Esler, Amy; Whetstone, Patti J.

    2001-01-01

    A study that examined state Individualized Education Program (IEP) forms found that out of the 41 with IEP forms, only 5 specifically addressed educational standards on their forms. Thirty-one states addressed the general curriculum on their IEP forms and 30 states listed three or more options for assessment participation. (Contains nine…

  20. History Forum Addresses Creation/Evolution Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinsberg, John

    1997-01-01

    A series of programs entitled Creationism and Evolution: The History of a Controversy was presented at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The controversy was addressed from an historical and sociological, rather than a scientific perspective. Speakers addressed the evolution of scientific creationism, ancient texts versus sedimentary rocks…

  1. 16 CFR 1000.4 - Commission address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission address. 1000.4 Section 1000.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.4 Commission address. The principal Offices of the Commission are at 4330 East West...

  2. 10 CFR 218.34 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Addresses. 218.34 Section 218.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Procedures § 218.34 Addresses. All..., Economic Regulatory Administration, Department of Energy, 2000 M Street, NW., Washington, DC 20461, and...

  3. 40 CFR 374.6 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addresses. 374.6 Section 374.6... COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS § 374.6 Addresses. Administrator, U.S.... Environmental Protection Agency, 77 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, IL 60604. Regional Administrator, Region...

  4. 10 CFR 218.34 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Addresses. 218.34 Section 218.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Procedures § 218.34 Addresses. All correspondence, petitions, and any information required by this part shall be submitted to: Administrator, Economic Regulatory Administration, Department...

  5. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  6. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  7. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  8. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  9. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  10. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  11. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  12. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  13. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  14. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... institutional offices; (2) Reviews of telephone directories or inquiries of information operators in the...

  15. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding verb conjugations (Lipski…

  16. 37 CFR 251.1 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE... Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels (CARPs) must be addressed as follows: (a) If hand delivered by a... through the U.S. Postal Service, use the following address: Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel, P.O....

  17. Image compression using address-vector quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu

    1990-12-01

    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  18. Identifying the Multiple Intelligences of Your Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Joyce A.; Conti, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    One way of addressing individual differences among adult learners is to identify the Multiple Intelligences of the learner. Multiple Intelligences refers to the concept developed by Howard Gardner that challenges the traditional view of intelligence and explains the presence of nine different Multiple Intelligences. The purpose of this study was…

  19. Fundamental Measurement of Rank-Ordered Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linacre, John M.

    A Rasch measurement model can be constructed to meet the requirements of rank ordered data. If multiple rankings of the same objects are available, then the parameters of the objects can be estimated, along with their standard errors and also with statistics summarizing the fit of the data to the measurement model. This paper summarizes the…

  20. Regularized Embedded Multiple Kernel Dimensionality Reduction for Mine Signal Processing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuang; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Traditional multiple kernel dimensionality reduction models are generally based on graph embedding and manifold assumption. But such assumption might be invalid for some high-dimensional or sparse data due to the curse of dimensionality, which has a negative influence on the performance of multiple kernel learning. In addition, some models might be ill-posed if the rank of matrices in their objective functions was not high enough. To address these issues, we extend the traditional graph embedding framework and propose a novel regularized embedded multiple kernel dimensionality reduction method. Different from the conventional convex relaxation technique, the proposed algorithm directly takes advantage of a binary search and an alternative optimization scheme to obtain optimal solutions efficiently. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for supervised, unsupervised, and semisupervised scenarios. PMID:27247562

  1. Regularized Embedded Multiple Kernel Dimensionality Reduction for Mine Signal Processing.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Traditional multiple kernel dimensionality reduction models are generally based on graph embedding and manifold assumption. But such assumption might be invalid for some high-dimensional or sparse data due to the curse of dimensionality, which has a negative influence on the performance of multiple kernel learning. In addition, some models might be ill-posed if the rank of matrices in their objective functions was not high enough. To address these issues, we extend the traditional graph embedding framework and propose a novel regularized embedded multiple kernel dimensionality reduction method. Different from the conventional convex relaxation technique, the proposed algorithm directly takes advantage of a binary search and an alternative optimization scheme to obtain optimal solutions efficiently. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for supervised, unsupervised, and semisupervised scenarios.

  2. Multiple homicides.

    PubMed

    Copeland, A R

    1989-09-01

    A study of multiple homicides or multiple deaths involving a solitary incident of violence by another individual was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Florida, during 1983-1987. A total of 107 multiple homicides were studied: 88 double, 17 triple, one quadruple, and one quintuple. The 236 victims were analyzed regarding age, race, sex, cause of death, toxicologic data, perpetrator, locale of the incident, and reason for the incident. This article compares this type of slaying with other types of homicide including those perpetrated by serial killers. Suggestions for future research in this field are offered.

  3. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  4. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness. PMID:27648219

  5. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  6. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness. PMID:27648219

  7. Multiple object redshift determinations in clusters of galaxies using OCTOPUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazure, A.; Proust, D.; Sodre, L.; Lund, G.; Capelato, H.

    1987-03-01

    The ESO multiobject facility, Octopus, was used to observe a sample of galaxy clusters such as SC2008-565 in an attempt to collect a large set of individual radial velocities. A dispersion of 114 A/mm was used, providing spectral coverage from 3800 to 5180 A. Octopus was found to be a well-adapted instrument for the rapid and simultaneous determination of redshifts in cataloged galaxy clusters.

  8. Multiple object redshift determinations in clusters of galaxies using OCTOPUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazure, A.; Proust, D.; Sodre, L.; Capelato, H. V.; Lund, G.

    1988-04-01

    The ESO multiobject facility, Octopus, was used to observe a sample of galaxy clusters such as SC2008-565 in an attempt to collect a large set of individual radial velocities. A dispersion of 114 A/mm was used, providing spectral coverage from 3800 to 5180 A. Octopus was found to be a well-adapted instrument for the rapid and simultaneous determination of redshifts in cataloged galaxy clusters.

  9. Multiple Object Adaptive Optics: Mixed NGS/LGS tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Tim; Gendron, Eric; Basden, Alastair; Martin, Olivier; Osborn, James; Henry, David; Hubert, Zoltan; Sivo, Gaetano; Gratadour, Damien; Chemla, Fanny; Sevin, Arnaud; Cohen, Matthieu; Younger, Eddy; Vidal, Fabrice; Wilson, Richard; Batterley, Tim; Bitenc, Urban; Reeves, Andrew; Bharmal, Nazim; Raynaud, Henri-François; Kulcsar, Caroline; Conan, Jean-Marc; Guzman, Dani; De Cos Juez, Javier; Huet, Jean-Michel; Perret, Denis; Dickson, Colin; Atkinson, David; Baillie, Tom; Longmore, Andy; Todd, Stephen; Talbot, Gordon; Morris, Simon; Myers, Richard; Rousset, Gérard

    2013-12-01

    Open-loop adaptive optics has been successfully demonstrated on-sky by several groups, including the fully tomographic MOAO demonstration made using CANARY. MOAO instrumentation such as RAVEN will deliver the first astronomical science and other planned instruments aim to extend both open-loop AO performance and the number of corrected fields. Many of these planned systems rely on the use of tomographic open-loop LGS wavefront sensing. Here we present results from the combined NGS/LGS tomographic CANARY system and then compare the NGS- and LGS-based tomographic system performance. We identify the major system performance drivers, and highlight some potential routes for further exploitation of open-loop tomographic AO.

  10. A taxing environment: evaluating the multiple objectives of environmental taxes.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Hale, Brack W

    2002-12-15

    Environmental taxes have attracted attention in recent years as a tool to internalize environmental externalities. This paper evaluates Sweden's experience with environmental taxes in the energy sector by examining how environmental taxes compare with estimated environmental externalities associated with the use of oil, coal, natural gas, and forest residue fuels. We also analyze how environmental taxes influence fuel choices in the energy sector by comparing the production, environmental, and tax costs for the same fuels. We find that (i) the Swedish environmental taxes correspond imperfectly with environmental costs; (ii) the Swedish tax and subsidy system introduces changes in fuel choice decisions; (iii) the energy users are responding to the incentives created by the tax and subsidy systems in ways that are consistent with economic theory; and (iv) the Swedish experience with environmental taxes and subsidies bears directly on wider evaluations of energy policy approaches internationally.

  11. Considering Materiality in Educational Policy: Messy Objects and Multiple Reals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Tara; Edwards, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Educational analysts need new ways to engage with policy processes in a networked world of complex transnational connections. In this discussion, Tara Fenwick and Richard Edwards argue for a greater focus on materiality in educational policy as a way to trace the heterogeneous interactions and precarious linkages that enact policy as complex…

  12. Forest management under uncertainty for multiple bird population objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, C.T.; Plummer, W.T.; Conroy, M.J.; Ralph, C. John; Rich, Terrell D.

    2005-01-01

    We advocate adaptive programs of decision making and monitoring for the management of forest birds when responses by populations to management, and particularly management trade-offs among populations, are uncertain. Models are necessary components of adaptive management. Under this approach, uncertainty about the behavior of a managed system is explicitly captured in a set of alternative models. The models generate testable predictions about the response of populations to management, and monitoring data provide the basis for assessing these predictions and informing future management decisions. To illustrate these principles, we examine forest management at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, where management attention is focused on the recovery of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population. However, managers are also sensitive to the habitat needs of many non-target organisms, including Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) and other forest interior Neotropical migratory birds. By simulating several management policies on a set of-alternative forest and bird models, we found a decision policy that maximized a composite response by woodpeckers and Wood Thrushes despite our complete uncertainty regarding system behavior. Furthermore, we used monitoring data to update our measure of belief in each alternative model following one cycle of forest management. This reduction of uncertainty translates into a reallocation of model influence on the choice of optimal decision action at the next decision opportunity.

  13. Object relations in Harry Potter.

    PubMed

    Lake, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    Good fiction helps children address their emotional dilemmas by evoking repressed content, and offering strategies and meaningful values that help them work towards resolutions. Because certain fundamental conflicts continue to be revisited and reworked throughout adulthood, it follows that masterful children's literature might enthrall adults as well. Given the extraordinary, worldwide success of the Harry Potter stories with both children and adults, it might be inferred that they, indeed, are among such literature. Common object relations themes, as well as other intrapsychic processes, are presented in such an imaginative and resonant way that the unconscious is readily engaged. The character of Harry Potter, specifically, embodies such universal (repressed) torments as the agony of destroying and losing the mother; the ominous perception of good and bad objects at war within the self; and the earnest reparative efforts offered to save the self from eternal separation from the beloved other.

  14. Object relations in Harry Potter.

    PubMed

    Lake, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    Good fiction helps children address their emotional dilemmas by evoking repressed content, and offering strategies and meaningful values that help them work towards resolutions. Because certain fundamental conflicts continue to be revisited and reworked throughout adulthood, it follows that masterful children's literature might enthrall adults as well. Given the extraordinary, worldwide success of the Harry Potter stories with both children and adults, it might be inferred that they, indeed, are among such literature. Common object relations themes, as well as other intrapsychic processes, are presented in such an imaginative and resonant way that the unconscious is readily engaged. The character of Harry Potter, specifically, embodies such universal (repressed) torments as the agony of destroying and losing the mother; the ominous perception of good and bad objects at war within the self; and the earnest reparative efforts offered to save the self from eternal separation from the beloved other. PMID:14535615

  15. User-specific interfaces for clinical data-management systems: an object-based approach.

    PubMed Central

    Wilton, R.

    1992-01-01

    Multiple user-specific visual interfaces are desirable in any computer-based clinical data-management system that is used by different people with different jobs to perform. The programming and maintenance problems of supporting multiple user interfaces to a single information system can be addressed by separating user-interface functionality from data-management subsystems, and by building user interfaces from object-based software components whose functionality is bound to an underlying server-client data-management architecture. Experience with this approach in a patient-tracking system suggests that this object-based approach is viable in the design of a user interface for a clinical information system. PMID:1482880

  16. Addressing single trapped ions for Rydberg quantum logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachor, P.; Feldker, T.; Walz, J.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate the excitation of ions to the Rydberg state 22F by vacuum ultraviolet radiation at a wavelength of 123 nm combined with the coherent manipulation of the optical qubit transition in {}40{{Ca}}+. With a tightly focused beam at 729 nm wavelength we coherently excite a single ion from a linear string into the metastable 3{D}5/2 state before a VUV pulse excites it to the Rydberg state. In combination with ion shuttling in the trap, we extend this approach to the addressed excitation of multiple ions. The coherent initialization as well as the addressed Rydberg excitation are key prerequisites for more complex applications of Rydberg ions in quantum simulation or quantum information processing.

  17. Object Oriented Modeling and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    The Object Oriented Modeling and Design seminar is intended for software professionals and students, it covers the concepts and a language-independent graphical notation that can be used to analyze problem requirements, and design a solution to the problem. The seminar discusses the three kinds of object-oriented models class, state, and interaction. The class model represents the static structure of a system, the state model describes the aspects of a system that change over time as well as control behavior and the interaction model describes how objects collaborate to achieve overall results. Existing knowledge of object oriented programming may benefit the learning of modeling and good design. Specific expectations are: Create a class model, Read, recognize, and describe a class model, Describe association and link, Show abstract classes used with multiple inheritance, Explain metadata, reification and constraints, Group classes into a package, Read, recognize, and describe a state model, Explain states and transitions, Read, recognize, and describe interaction model, Explain Use cases and use case relationships, Show concurrency in activity diagram, Object interactions in sequence diagram.

  18. Orienting Attention to Sound Object Representations Attenuates Change Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backer, Kristina C.; Alain, Claude

    2012-01-01

    According to the object-based account of attention, multiple objects coexist in short-term memory (STM), and we can selectively attend to a particular object of interest. Although there is evidence that attention can be directed to visual object representations, the assumption that attention can be oriented to sound object representations has yet…

  19. Objectives and Preparing Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purohit, Anal A.; Bober, Kenneth F.

    1984-01-01

    The concepts behind, and construction of, specific behavioral objectives are examined as steps that are preliminary to evaluating student performance through tests. A taxonomy of educational objectives and guidelines in preparing them are outlined in detail. (MSE)

  20. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  1. 40 CFR 98.9 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... submitted to the following address: (a) For U.S. mail. Director, Climate Change Division, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Mail Code: 6207J, Washington, DC 20460. (b) For package deliveries. Director,...

  2. 40 CFR 98.9 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... submitted to the following address: (a) For U.S. mail. Director, Climate Change Division, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Mail Code: 6207J, Washington, DC 20460. (b) For package deliveries. Director,...

  3. Addressing Your Child's Weight at the Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  4. Addressing Transition Issues in Languages Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steigler-Peters, Susi; Moran, Wendy; Piccioli, Maria Teresa; Chesterton, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on what has been learned from the implementation and evaluation of the Australian Language and Continuity Initiative (LCI) in relation to addressing transition issues in language education. (Author/VWL)

  5. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  6. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  7. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  8. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  9. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  10. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  11. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  12. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  13. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  14. Ownership and Object History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Ori; Neary, Karen R.; Defeyter, Margaret A.; Malcolm, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate behavior in relation to an object often requires judging whether it is owned and, if so, by whom. The authors propose accounts of how people make these judgments. Our central claim is that both judgments often involve making inferences about object history. In judging whether objects are owned, people may assume that artifacts (e.g.,…

  15. Objects in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  16. Survivability via Control Objectives

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  17. Learning Objects and Gerontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinreich, Donna M.; Tompkins, Catherine J.

    2006-01-01

    Virtual AGE (vAGE) is an asynchronous educational environment that utilizes learning objects focused on gerontology and a learning anytime/anywhere philosophy. This paper discusses the benefits of asynchronous instruction and the process of creating learning objects. Learning objects are "small, reusable chunks of instructional media" Wiley…

  18. On the Crime Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akutaev, Rasul M.; Magomedov, Guseyn B.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research of this problem is caused by the theoretical and practical needs of a specific concept of the crime object as one of the corpus delicti signs essentially the determining and defining its object and objective side, thereby--the nature of socially dangerous act. Besides, being a facultative sign of corpus delicti, the…

  19. The Language of Objection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Francis M.

    2010-01-01

    Whenever the author talks to audiences about transforming school systems, without exception people raise objections. The half dozen most common objections often come in the form of "Yes, nice idea but..." What follows the "but" is the objection. The author learned a technique for responding to these "buts" from family members who work in sales.…

  20. Presentation on Instructional Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naz, Bibi Asia

    2009-01-01

    "Learning can be defined as change in a student's capacity for performance as a result of experience" (Kenneth D. Moore). The intended changes should be specified in instructional objectives. Viewed in this context, an objective can be defined as a clear and unambiguous description of your instructional intent. An objective is not a statement of…