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Sample records for address obituary entries

  1. Addressing childhood obesity at school entry: Qualitative experiences of school health professionals.

    PubMed

    Turner, Gillian L; Owen, Stephanie; Watson, Paula M

    2016-09-01

    School entry provides an opportune moment for health professionals to intervene with children who are overweight, yet identification and management of childhood obesity presents challenges in practice. This multi-method qualitative study explored the experiences of 26 school health professionals in addressing childhood obesity at school entry. Methods included semi-structured interviews with service managers (n = 3); focus groups with school nurses (n = 12) and child health practitioners (n = 6); and open-ended questionnaires with school nurses (n = 4) and child health practitioners (n = 1) who were unable to attend the focus groups. A thematic analysis revealed agreement between service managers, school nurses and child health practitioners. Whilst it was felt school health professionals have an important role to play in managing childhood obesity, efforts to address child weight were limited by a lack of capacity, lack of clear protocols, challenges of engaging parents and insufficient training in childhood obesity and related lifestyle issues. School health policymakers need to recognize childhood obesity as a serious public health issue, allocate appropriate resources to nurse training and development and ensure clear pathways are established to ensure consistency of care. PMID:26105059

  2. Beyond school re-entry: addressing the long-term needs of students with brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Janus, P L; Mishkin, L W; Pearson, S

    1997-01-01

    Educators today face the challenge of providing appropriate programs for students with a wide variety of needs. Students with acquired brain injuries may sustain permanent physical, cognitive, and psycho-social sequelae which can significantly impact their ability to function at home, in school, and in the community. After discharge from a rehabilitation facility, the educational system becomes critical in facilitating the student's ongoing progress. Addressing the long-term needs of students with brain injuries requires that educational personnel become knowledgeable about appropriate learning strategies and program modifications. This article describes the educational outcomes of students with acquired brain injuries, discusses critical features of effective programs, and suggests interventions for consideration in instructional planning. PMID:24526106

  3. The Disposition of AIDS Imagery in "New York Times" Obituaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alali, A. Odasuo

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of 100 AIDS death obituaries indicates imageries reflect much about American society, such as attitudes toward homosexuality, attitudes toward AIDS, and understanding of linkages between sexual practices and AIDS. Analysis suggests construction of AIDS obituaries may be manifestations of sociopolitical structure and a consequence of bias…

  4. Obituary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-03-01

    Flaviu Cristian It was with great sadness that we learned of the death of Professor Flaviu Cristian on 27 April 1999 after a long and courageous battle with cancer. Professor Cristian has been an active member of the Editorial Board of Distributed Systems Engineering since its launch. He was very well known for his work on time synchronization and fault tolerance. He will be sadly missed by all who knew him personally or by reputation. Morris Sloman 30 April 1999

  5. Obituary.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    JUNE JOLLY, who has died at the age of 87, was an influential nurse and author who helped transform the care of children in hospital. She overturned the tradition that excluded parents from their child's bedside. She also, famously, brought a baby elephant and a lion cub into St Thomas' Hospital to delight children and, as nursing officer in paediatrics at the Brook Hospital in Woolwich, London, persuaded a circus to entertain on site - dressing as a clown herself. PMID:27156416

  6. Obituaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, R. G.; Sloss, L. L.

    Seymour O. Schlanger, the William Deering Professor of Geology at Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill., died June 30, 1990. Sy's work profoundly affected many areas of Earth science, including globally distributed Cretaceous black shales and their implications for paleoceanography, the subsidence history of oceanic volcanos as revealed by the diagenesis of carbonates drilled and dredged on Pacific atolls and guyots, reef facies as semiquantitative indicators of paleolatitude, the timing of (Cretaceous) Pacific oceanic volcanism, and tests of and alternatives to the fixed-hotspot hypothesis. Sy was also well known to fellow AGU members for his organizational and intellectual contributions to the Deep Sea Drilling project and its successors. Sy participated in or led four legs and was founding chairman of the Joint Oceanographic Institutions/U.S. Science Advisory Committee (USSAC).

  7. Obituary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-02-01

    The fusion research community and the Nuclear Fusion Board of Editors have recently lost two of their brightest lights. Dr Derek Robinson passed away on 2 December 2002 and Professor Masahiro Wakatani on 9 January 2003. The career of Dr Robinson spanned forty years. In the first decade thereof, Dr Robinson and his UK colleagues made measurements of Russian tokamaks confirming the good confinement of that system. These historic results led to the enthusiastic development of tokamaks worldwide but also set the example of truly international collaboration that made fusion research unique. In the last decade of his career, Dr Robinson became Director of the United Kingdom fusion energy research programme, actively supporting JET and other European programmes. He was a profound and articulate member of the ITER Technical Advisory Committee. He actively pursued collaboration around the globe, which he started 35 years ago. He thereby strongly promoted plasma physics research on small devices outside the industrialized countries. We appreciate the sound judgment and common sense he brought to the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Board. For a large part of his life as a theoretician, Professor Wakatani was a member of the Faculty of Energy Science at Kyoto University. Like Dr Robinson, he was also closely involved with ITER both as Chair of its Confinement and Transport Expert Group and as a member of the ITER Physics Basis Editors. This group edited the landmark 1999 publication by Nuclear Fusion. Professor Wakatani authored many insightful papers on tokamak and helical toroidal plasmas. He was highly regarded as an inventive theorist and frequently called upon to participate in international workshops. Only a few weeks before his death he submitted, together with five co-authors from three ITER-parties, an extensive and in-depth review article on turbulent transport in toroidal devices to Nuclear Fusion. This manuscript promises to become a salute to the scientific excellence of a great physicist. Dr Robinson and Professor Wakatani have made major contributions to the archive literature and set high standards of excellence. The Nuclear Fusion Board of Editors will strive to assure that the journal will continue to meet and maintain these standards as fusion energy research moves ahead. We, the staff and Editorial Board members of Nuclear Fusion, will miss their help in pursuing this task. F W Perkins, Chairman of the Board of Editors F C Schüller, Editor, also on behalf of the Editors Emeriti and the Editorial Office staff members

  8. The Romantic Rhetoric of 19th Century Obituaries: "She Gave a Few Faint Gasps and Died."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnew, Eleanor

    Scholars of writing, language, and culture will find a rich fund of research material in 19th-century obituaries which convey extensive details of the deceased's life through an elegant language reminiscent of an oral culture. In contrast to today's newspaper obituaries, which are business-like, tight-lipped, and entirely devoid of any details or…

  9. The Portrayal of Librarians in Obituaries at the End of the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilevko, Juris; Gottlieb, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    Obituaries can reveal much about the way a profession is conceived and structured in the popular imagination. This article examines obituaries of librarians in the "New York Times" between 1977 and 2002 to determine how librarians were presented to the general public by a major newspaper. Although librarianship is a female-intensive profession,…

  10. Obituary: Alexander Dalgarno (1928 - 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartquist, Tom; Babb, James F. Babb; Loeb, Avi

    collisions and calculated charge transfer cross sections. Some of these proved later to be important for forming the spectra of diffuse astronomical matter surrounding high mass stars and 100 million solar mass black holes at the centers of active galaxies. In the early 1950s David Bates stimulated Alex's interest in the study of quantum processes occurring in the upper terrestrial atmosphere. Together they considered the sources of the nightglow and dayglow features and concluded that the altitudes previously inferred for them from observations were up to several hundred kilometers too large. Experiments carried on V2 rockets, like those seen by Alex in wartime London, proved him and David to be right. Alex felt that though many theorists believe that "physics is embodied in its equations," it is instead "to be found in the solutions to the equations." He was a master at developing and applying methods that simplified calculations leading to reliable solutions. Exploiting the contemporary advances in electronic computation, by the 1960s Alex and his colleagues were able to address atomic and molecular processes of increasing complexity. Their development and early applications of the S-matrix theory of molecular rotational excitation by particle impact triggered major advances in molecular physics and theoretical chemistry and in the understanding of processes important in many environments, including a wide variety of astrophysical sources. In 1967 Alex became a professor in the Harvard Department of Astronomy and a member of the staff of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. He was a team member for several Atmosphere Explorer satellite missions, which elucidated the roles of atoms and ions in the upper atmosphere and paved the way for further applications to the other planets. By 1969 Alex was publishing papers on molecular hydrogen (H2) radiative processes, including photodissociation, in which the foundations of molecular astrophysics began to emerge. H2 is the

  11. Obituary: Alexander Dalgarno (1928 - 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartquist, Tom; Babb, James F. Babb; Loeb, Avi

    collisions and calculated charge transfer cross sections. Some of these proved later to be important for forming the spectra of diffuse astronomical matter surrounding high mass stars and 100 million solar mass black holes at the centers of active galaxies. In the early 1950s David Bates stimulated Alex's interest in the study of quantum processes occurring in the upper terrestrial atmosphere. Together they considered the sources of the nightglow and dayglow features and concluded that the altitudes previously inferred for them from observations were up to several hundred kilometers too large. Experiments carried on V2 rockets, like those seen by Alex in wartime London, proved him and David to be right. Alex felt that though many theorists believe that "physics is embodied in its equations," it is instead "to be found in the solutions to the equations." He was a master at developing and applying methods that simplified calculations leading to reliable solutions. Exploiting the contemporary advances in electronic computation, by the 1960s Alex and his colleagues were able to address atomic and molecular processes of increasing complexity. Their development and early applications of the S-matrix theory of molecular rotational excitation by particle impact triggered major advances in molecular physics and theoretical chemistry and in the understanding of processes important in many environments, including a wide variety of astrophysical sources. In 1967 Alex became a professor in the Harvard Department of Astronomy and a member of the staff of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. He was a team member for several Atmosphere Explorer satellite missions, which elucidated the roles of atoms and ions in the upper atmosphere and paved the way for further applications to the other planets. By 1969 Alex was publishing papers on molecular hydrogen (H2) radiative processes, including photodissociation, in which the foundations of molecular astrophysics began to emerge. H2 is the

  12. OBITUARY Chris Beling, 1955-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, P. G.

    2011-01-01

    This short tribute to Chris Beling, who died in July 2010 at the age of 54, is written on behalf of all members of the positron research community, by whom he was much loved and admired. Obituary Picture 1 Chris Beling, a much respected and admired member of the positron research community who was a familiar face at SLOPOS and other positron conferences over the past three decades, suffered heart failure as he swam out to rescue his younger brother Jeremy while holidaying in his home town of Paignton, in the southwest of England, on June 18 2010. Chris gained a first-class honours degree in physics at Keble College, Oxford, in 1977, and his PhD in Radiation Physics from the University of London in 1981. His postdoctoral research, performed with Alan Smith at St Bart's Medical College in London, focussed on positron studies of liquids [1]. His appointment as a lecturer at University College London in 1983 marked the beginning of his research involving positron beams [2] which was to continue for the rest of his life. In 1987 he moved to the University of Hong Kong (HKU), where he became professor of physics in 2007, working with Professor Steve Fung (with whom he studied at Oxford) and later with Francis Ling. During his 23 years in Hong Kong Chris developed his research interests, concentrating principally on positron beam studies of semiconductors [3]. His brother Jeremy commented that 'moving to Hong Kong was the making of Chris; he found love and happiness'. Chris's research interests reflected the deep intellectual interest he had in his work. He maintained a strong interest in developing the capabilities of positron beam systems - initially by proposing models for field-assisted moderators to increase slow positron yields [4] and later by constructing a hybrid magnetic/electrostatic beam [5] and scanning annihilation spectroscopy [6], among other imaginative advances. His interests in semiconductor physics led him to develop a positron technique analogous to

  13. Obituary: Martha Locke Hazen, 1931-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Thomas R.; Willson, Lee Anne

    2007-12-01

    role in the field for several years, helping to organize the first Space for Women conference in 1975. Martha's long term support for the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) was a natural consequence of her earlier work as an observational astronomer as well as curator of the plate stacks. She joined AAVSO in 1975, and was first elected to the Council in 1984, became a vice president, and eventually became president in 1992. When long-term AAVSO secretary Clinton Banker Ford (obituary, BAAS, 26, p. 1602-1603, 1994) passed away in February 1993, Martha was elected secretary to replace Ford, and served in that capacity for over ten years. Her services to AAVSO went well beyond those years in elective offices, however, and cannot be fully understood only in those terms. Martha also served a vital role as a friend and mentor for Janet Akyüz Mattei ((obituary, BAAS, 36, p. 1681-1682, 2004) throughout the latter's tenure as the director of AAVSO. The proximity of the plate stacks and AAVSO offices made it convenient for them to spend frequent lunch hours together, almost invariably discussing problems in administering the AAVSO. Both the authors of this obituary can testify, as former AAVSO presidents, to the importance of Martha's support and advice for Janet, and to the importance of her role behind the scenes in AAVSO activities for many years. AAVSO honored Martha for this service by presenting her their 37th Merit Award. After her first marriage ended in divorce in 1982, Martha married Bruce McHenry, a retired career professional from the National Park Service, in 1991. That their relationship was a happy and fulfilling one is attested by the many friends Bruce made among Martha's astronomical associates. Their extensive travel together frequently involved Bruce's continuing professional interest in natural-history interpretation, but also touched many astronomical bases. Their travels also took the happy couple to the sites of many old canals, an

  14. Obituary: William L. Kraushaar, 1920-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, George W.

    2009-01-01

    rays with interstellar matter are most abundant. It also demonstrated the existence of extra-galactic gamma-ray sources that have since been identified as giant black holes at the centers of distant galaxies. The OSO 3 experiment opened the field of high-energy gamma-ray astronomy, which has become one of the most active areas of space research. Upon his move to Wisconsin, Kraushaar established a research group in the new area of X-ray astronomy. Using instruments flown on "sounding" rockets, he and his colleagues produced the first all-sky map of low-energy X rays that revealed the spatial distribution of million-degree interstellar gas. They extended these results in several satellite experiments. Kraushaar was appointed the Max Mason Professor of Physics in 1980. Kraushaar was a fellow of the American Physical Society, and a member of the American Astronomical Society, the International Astronomical Union, the National Academy of Sciences, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He received Fulbright and Guggenheim fellowships and the Senior Scientist Award of the Humboldt Foundation. He served on numerous advisory committees of the National Academy of Sciences and NASA. Kraushaar co-authored with Professor Uno Ingard a college text, Introduction to Mechanics, Matter, and Waves. After his retirement, Kraushaar moved to Maine where he resided in Scarborough with summers at his cabin in Denmark, Maine. He is survived by his wife, the former Elizabeth Rodgers, and by three children from his first marriage. This obituary is based on an article that appeared in the 2 April 2008 edition of MIT Tech Talk.

  15. Obituary: James C. Kemp, 1927-1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, E. F.

    2009-01-01

    James C. Kemp was born in Detroit, Michigan on 9 February 1927, and died in Eugene, Oregon, on 29 March 1988. He went to high school in Mexico City and did undergraduate studies at the University of Michigan and University of California at Berkeley. Kemp was an active observational astronomer, having migrated from earlier interests in Slavic languages, in which he majored, electrical engineering, and physics. He obtained a PhD in electrical engineering at Berkeley in 1960 and did post-doctoral work there with Erwin Hahn on spin resonance. He went to the University of Oregon in 1961 and conducted research in magneto-optics, developing, in the process, a piezo-optical birefringence modulator to measure circular polarization. The modulator is described by Tinbergen (1996). Kemp explored new areas as he measured magnetic fields in the sunspots with polarized infrared light, and developed polarimeters and photometers to study the behavior of such astronomical sources as white dwarfs, the relativistic jets of binary SS 433, the x-ray binary Cyg X-1, and the bright eclipsing binaries Algol and e Aurigae on the 61- and, later, 81-cm telescope at the Pine Mountain Observatory, of which Kemp was director until his death from cancer. His measurement of circularly polarization in the continuum light of the white dwarf GJ 742 (Grw +70∘ 8247, Kemp et al. 1970b) was an important discovery, and through his study of Algol (Kemp et al. 1983; Wilson & Liou 1993), he appears to have been the first to discover the limb polarization in eclipsing binaries predicted by Chandrasekhar (1946ab). Although it has taken twenty years for the BAAS to publish his obituary notice, it is somewhat appropriate that his former student, Gary Henson, who provided much of the background for this article, is involved with a polarimetry team to observe and analyze data from e Aurigae, as it approaches ingress of the next primary minimum beginning summer, 2009. The author acknowledges with gratitude the

  16. Obituary: Robert Mowbray Walker, 1929-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenherr, Neil T.

    2004-12-01

    spectacular results. Chief among these was the identification and characterization of stellar condensates in meteorites, which opened a window into stellar evolution and the creation of the heavier elements. Always in pursuit of more powerful ways to analyze small amounts of material, Walker devoted the last years of his life to the implementation of nanoscale secondary-ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) promoting the development, acquisition and application of the most advanced instrument of its kind. This effort was rewarded with the discovery, which he had forecast years earlier, of presolar silicate grains in interplanetary dust particles. The Robert M. Walker Symposium at the University in March 2003 honored his contributions and achievements. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1973. Among his other honors are the E.O. Lawrence Memorial Award of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, the J. Lawrence Smith medal of the National Academy of Sciences, the Leonard medal of the Meteoritical Society and the Antarctic Service Medal. He received honorary doctorates from Union College (1967), the French University of Clermont-Ferrand (1975) and Washington University (2004). He was also one of the founders, and first president, of VITA (Volunteers in Technical Assistance), an organization that provides technological expertise to third world countries. Walker and his wife maintained a residence in St. Louis County but in 2001, Bob became a part time visiting professor at the University of Brussels. It was in Brussels that his fatal illness was correctly diagnosed. In addition to his wife, Walker is survived by his sons, Eric and Mark Walker; and three grandchildren. His most important legacy will remain the sizable number of students, postdocs, and colleagues within the meteoritic and cosmochemist communities that he mentored and inspired. Portions of this obituary are based upon one given in the on-line Record of Washington University and another published by Floss

  17. OBITUARY Chris Beling, 1955-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, P. G.

    2011-01-01

    This short tribute to Chris Beling, who died in July 2010 at the age of 54, is written on behalf of all members of the positron research community, by whom he was much loved and admired. Obituary Picture 1 Chris Beling, a much respected and admired member of the positron research community who was a familiar face at SLOPOS and other positron conferences over the past three decades, suffered heart failure as he swam out to rescue his younger brother Jeremy while holidaying in his home town of Paignton, in the southwest of England, on June 18 2010. Chris gained a first-class honours degree in physics at Keble College, Oxford, in 1977, and his PhD in Radiation Physics from the University of London in 1981. His postdoctoral research, performed with Alan Smith at St Bart's Medical College in London, focussed on positron studies of liquids [1]. His appointment as a lecturer at University College London in 1983 marked the beginning of his research involving positron beams [2] which was to continue for the rest of his life. In 1987 he moved to the University of Hong Kong (HKU), where he became professor of physics in 2007, working with Professor Steve Fung (with whom he studied at Oxford) and later with Francis Ling. During his 23 years in Hong Kong Chris developed his research interests, concentrating principally on positron beam studies of semiconductors [3]. His brother Jeremy commented that 'moving to Hong Kong was the making of Chris; he found love and happiness'. Chris's research interests reflected the deep intellectual interest he had in his work. He maintained a strong interest in developing the capabilities of positron beam systems - initially by proposing models for field-assisted moderators to increase slow positron yields [4] and later by constructing a hybrid magnetic/electrostatic beam [5] and scanning annihilation spectroscopy [6], among other imaginative advances. His interests in semiconductor physics led him to develop a positron technique analogous to

  18. Obituary: Andrew Stephen Wilson, 1947-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, Sylvain

    2009-01-01

    papers that are still standard references in the field today. In the last 15 years, Andrew became an avid proponent of two of NASA's Great Observatories, the Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory. Since 1985, he was NASA Interdisciplinary Scientist and member of the Science Working Group for the Chandra X-ray Observatory. He was also an adjunct astronomer at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore since 1994. Taking advantage of this leap in technology, Andrew used these facilities to examine the environment of black holes in unprecedented detail and led a research group that was second to none in this area of research. Over the years, Andrew trained and supervised twelve Ph.D. students and more than fifteen postdoctoral research scientists, all of whom are active members of the astronomical community today. This group's work on nearby radio galaxies (e.g., Cygnus A, M87, and Pictor A) and Seyfert galaxies (e.g., the Circinus galaxy, NGC 1068, NGC 4151, and NGC 4258) is simply outstanding, a monument to Andrew's passion and perseverance to seek a complete physical understanding of the AGN phenomenon. Andrew was at his best in one-on-one discussions. He did not beat around the bush. He was always direct, frank, and honest, all for the sake of better science. He also never did anything halfway. Andrew was fully devoted to his science and held himself and others to the highest intellectual standards. He inspired many by his example, his discipline, and a sense of humor that was equally charming and disarming. The twinkle in his eyes and mischievous smile were sure signs that he was about to say something provocative and witty. Andrew will be dearly missed by the entire astronomical community. I thank Andrew's wife and brother, Kaija and Martin Wilson, for their assistance in writing this obituary.

  19. Obituary: E. Dorrit Hoffleit, 1907-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia

    2007-12-01

    American Association of Variable Star Observers, where MMO papers still turn up, though perhaps not so many as in Dorrit's day. She would also continue education and public outreach activities in the local community that her predecessor, Margaret Harwood, had established. Summer research experience for undergraduate opportunities have become common, but they were rare in 1957, especially for women students, and the ones who came to MMO (more than one hundred over her term) were undoubtedly very strongly motivated. They left even more so, with the striking result that about 25 of the Hoffleit students became professional astronomers. A few of the earliest are now retired; many remain in stellar astronomy, but others have spread across the Solar System and the galaxies. According to a list compiled by Dorrit, with minor additions, these are, in chronological order: Margo Friedel Aller, Andrea Knudsen Dupree, Barbara Welther, Gretchen Luft Hagen Harris, Nancy Houk, Martha Safford Hanner, Diane Reeve Moorhead, Nancy Remage Evans, Catherine Doremus Garmany, Jane Turner, Jean Warren Goad, Karen Alper Castle, Marcia Keyes Rieke, Judy Karpen, Karen Kwitter, Esther Hu, Bonnie Buratti, Harriet Dinerstein, Melissa McGrath, Constance Phillips Walker, John Briggs, Deborah Crocker, Edward Morgan, and Karen Meech. The program went co-ed shortly before Dorrit handed it over to Emilia Belaserne). A special paragraph must go to Janet Akyüz Mattei. She came to MMO in the summer of 1969 upon the recommendation of Paris Pismis, an Armenian-Turkish-Mexican astronomer who had known Janet in Turkey and was a very old friend of Dorrit's (and of mine). Janet's own obituary sadly appeared in these pages (BAAS, 36, pp. 1681-82, 2004), the last 30 of her only 61 years having been spent as the director of AAVSO. Among the many important things Janet did in that directorial capacity was to persuade Dorrit Hoffleit to write up the story of her life for publication by AAVSO in 2002, from which much of

  20. Obituary: Bohdan Paczynski, 1940-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spergel, David

    2007-12-01

    would like to thank Bruce Draine and Jeremiah Ostriker for their assistance in writing this obituary. The photograph is by Robert P. Matthews, Princeton University (1989).

  1. Obituary: James Adolph Westphal, 1930-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, G. Edward

    2004-12-01

    Agoura Hills, California and Susan Stroll of Eagle Rock, California; and an uncle, Eddy Westphal of Indiana. A portion of this obituary was taken from a tribute by Robert Tindol published September 14, 2004 in an electronic Caltech Newsletter.

  2. Obituary: John Allen Eddy (1931-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, Owen

    2011-12-01

    and eventual impacts of environmental changes of all kinds. In 2004 they moved to Tucson, where Eddy worked for NASA at the National Solar Observatory until the time of his death. Author's Note: A principal source of information is the interview with John A. Eddy by Spencer Weart on 21 April 1999, Niels Bohr Library & Archives, American Institute of Physics, College Park, MD USA, www.aip.org/history/ohilist/22910.html. See also the obituary by Peter Foukal in Physics Today, January 2010, pp. 60-61.

  3. Obituary: Fred Lawrence Whipple, 1906-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeomans, Donald Keith

    2004-12-01

    innovative thinkers in twentieth century planetary science. Yet through it all, he remained just Fred to all who knew him. Whether you were a young student or a distinguished internationally recognized scientist, this gentleman treated everyone with the same kindness and respect. The entire planetary science community has benefited immeasurably from his wide-ranging insights; we've lost a creative scientist and a kind mentor - but he remains a superb role model for us all. This obituary is based on one by D.K. Yeomans and J. Veverka that appeared in "Nature" (4 Nov. 2004, vol. 432, p. 31). Photograph provided by J. Veverka.

  4. Obituary: Allan R. Sandage (1926-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devorkin, David

    2011-12-01

    , SkyandTelescope.com - Homepage News - Tribute to a Pioneering Cosmologist.mht] Sandage deeply believed that true "knowledge . . . came directly from the sky rather than by dialectic discussion or revelation." [Allan Sandage, "Edwin Hubble 1889-1953" JRASC 83 #6 (December 1989)] With convictions like these it is not surprising that cross-over physicists who engaged him, such as Edwin Salpeter, expressed amazement that Sandage could command resources available to no other astronomer, or that he could sit on invaluable catalogue data for years before releasing it as a whole argument. [Interview of Edwin Salpeter by Spencer Weart, 30 March 1978, AIP. http://www.aip.org/history/ohilist/4854.html/] Colleagues, writers and historians who encountered him during his mature years consistently remarked on his competitiveness and fierce defense of his results. At the end of a long and passionate essay on Edwin Hubble in 1989, Sandage coyly remarked on the present state of the Hubble Constant, "But it must be fairly pointed out that some astronomers, not believing the problem of the distance scale has been solved by the results of the 200-inch programme from 1950 to 1980, have suggested that the value of the Hubble constant can be determined to the satisfaction of the skeptics only by the future use of the Hubble Space Telescope. For this one suspects that Hubble might have been pleased." [Allan Sandage, "Edwin Hubble 1889-1953" JRASC 83 #6 (December 1989)] Though not formally religious early on, Sandage became deeply spiritual in his outlook on life and the universe, and on the practice of astronomy. As Donald Lynden-Bell commented in an online Guardian obituary, "Sandage believed that he was discovering the age of creation ..." [9 December 2010, "Allan Sandage Obituary" guardian.co.uk] And in a 2002 essay for the "Truth Journal," Sandage revealed that he believed that astronomical discovery had theological significance. He took as an example the Big Bang, was it akin to the search

  5. An obituary of Christoph Scheiner from the year 1650. (German Title: Ein Nachruf auf Christoph Scheiner aus dem Jahr 1650)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daxecker, Franz; Schaffenrath, Florian

    An obituary of the astronomer and Jesuit Christoph Scheiner (1573-1650) was discovered in Cracow in the year 2001. This discovery makes it now possible to fix Scheiner's year of birth to 1573. Scheiner had a controversy with Galileo Galilei about the priority of the discovery of sunspots. Scheiner remained a supporter of the geocentric system until his death in 1650. The obituary gives new insights into Scheiner's personality and the last years of his life.

  6. The Last Judgement: Exploring Intellectual Leadership in Higher Education through Academic Obituaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macfarlane, Bruce; Chan, Roy Y.

    2014-01-01

    The literature on leadership in higher education is focused mainly on senior academic leaders with managerial roles. It largely excludes informal and distributed forms of intellectual leadership offered by full professors among others. This article explores the concept of intellectual leadership using academic obituaries. A total of 63 obituaries…

  7. Dead Academics: What Can We Learn about Academic Work and Life from Obituaries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tight, Malcolm

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses the obituaries of 100 academics published in the British quality press in 2007 to see what they tell us about the changing nature of contemporary academic work, and how it is presented in this particular genre of writing. It concludes that the influence of Oxbridge and the American higher education system, and the dominance…

  8. The Special Education Story: Obituary, Accident Report, Conversion Experience, Reincarnation, or None of the Above?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, James M.

    2000-01-01

    The current status of special education and possible futures are examined through a true news story of current "reform" efforts in Washington, D.C. schools and in imaginary future news stories reporting on special education as an obituary, an accident, a conversion experience, and a reincarnation. The author urges special educators to reject…

  9. Obituary: Soren W. Henriksen (1916-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chovitz, Bernard

    2011-12-01

    observations from this source for geodesy and laid the ground-work for their utilization at AMS. Soren turned the attention of his Section to the development of satellite observing systems. He was largely responsible for the employment of Minitrack II and SECOR, mobile satellite tracking systems that could be readily shifted from one set of sites to another. In 1960 he was promoted to Chief of Research and Analysis. The administrative and supervisory duties this entailed limited his opportunities for individual research, and at the beginning of 1965 he left for a position at Raytheon Autometric where he was able to apply his experience in satellite data analysis to the demands of various contractors. A typical contract report of this period coauthored by him was "Modes of Satellite Triangulation Adjustment." During his seven years at Autometric he received its Outstanding Author Award twice. He helped organize the Third International Symposium on the Use of Artificial Satellites for Geodesy held in Washington, D. C., in April 1971, and coedited the proceedings, published as Geophysical Monograph 15 by the American Geophysical Union (AGU). Based on this accomplishment, in 1972 AGU asked him to serve as editor for a collection of articles covering NASA's National Geodetic Satellite Project. This turned out to be a two year task, during which Soren carried the load of assembling the 1030 page, two volume, compilation. After completion Soren returned to the Federal government as a research geodesist in the Geodetic Research and Development Laboratory at NOAA in 1974. His work there covered a variety of topics including determination of polar motion, utilization of geoceiver observations, and photogrammetric applications. He applied his editorial skills to the 1980 edition of the "Manual of Photogrammetry" as an associate editor, and authored the entry on field surveys for photogrammetry. But the major efforts of his ten year stint at NOAA were devoted to the preparation of a

  10. Obituary: Soren W. Henriksen (1916-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chovitz, Bernard

    2011-12-01

    observations from this source for geodesy and laid the ground-work for their utilization at AMS. Soren turned the attention of his Section to the development of satellite observing systems. He was largely responsible for the employment of Minitrack II and SECOR, mobile satellite tracking systems that could be readily shifted from one set of sites to another. In 1960 he was promoted to Chief of Research and Analysis. The administrative and supervisory duties this entailed limited his opportunities for individual research, and at the beginning of 1965 he left for a position at Raytheon Autometric where he was able to apply his experience in satellite data analysis to the demands of various contractors. A typical contract report of this period coauthored by him was "Modes of Satellite Triangulation Adjustment." During his seven years at Autometric he received its Outstanding Author Award twice. He helped organize the Third International Symposium on the Use of Artificial Satellites for Geodesy held in Washington, D. C., in April 1971, and coedited the proceedings, published as Geophysical Monograph 15 by the American Geophysical Union (AGU). Based on this accomplishment, in 1972 AGU asked him to serve as editor for a collection of articles covering NASA's National Geodetic Satellite Project. This turned out to be a two year task, during which Soren carried the load of assembling the 1030 page, two volume, compilation. After completion Soren returned to the Federal government as a research geodesist in the Geodetic Research and Development Laboratory at NOAA in 1974. His work there covered a variety of topics including determination of polar motion, utilization of geoceiver observations, and photogrammetric applications. He applied his editorial skills to the 1980 edition of the "Manual of Photogrammetry" as an associate editor, and authored the entry on field surveys for photogrammetry. But the major efforts of his ten year stint at NOAA were devoted to the preparation of a

  11. Obituary: Thomas Michael Donahue, 1921-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gombosi, Tamás I.

    2004-12-01

    Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, and Cassini. Based on observations by the Pioneer Venus entry probe, he

  12. Obituary: Hans Albrecht Bethe, 1906-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijers, Ralph

    2007-12-01

    One of the unquestioned giants of physics and astrophysics, Hans Bethe, died on 6 March 2005, at the venerable age of 98, in his home town of Ithaca, New York. Seven decades of contributing to research and a Nobel Prize for his work on stellar hydrogen burning make a listing of his honors superfluous (besides being impossible in this space). Bethe was born in Strassburg, in then German Alsass Lothringen, on 2 July 1906. His father, Albrecht Julius Bethe (1872-1954), taught physiology at the University, and his mother, Anna Kuhn (1876-1966), was a musician and writer. Both his grandfathers were physicians. He spent his youth in Strassburg, Kiel, and Frankfurt, and some time in sanatoria due to tuberculosis. Hans's first scientific paper, at age 18, was with his father and a colleague, on dialysis. His education and early career in Germany brought him into contact with many top stars in the quantum revolution. Starting in Frankfurt in chemistry, Bethe soon switched to physics, taught there by Walter Gerlach and Karl Meissner, among others. In 1926, he successfully applied to join Arnold Sommerfeld's group in Munich, where he met one of his later long-term collaborators, Rudolf Peierls. Bethe considered his entry into physics to have come at an ideal time, with the new ideas of wave mechanics being developed and discussed right there; it was certainly also at an ideal place. His doctoral thesis was on the theory of electron diffraction by crystals, following the experimental work by Clinton Davisson and Lester Germer and the work on X-ray diffraction by Max von Laue and Paul Ewald. The newly minted doctor went from there briefly to Frankfurt and then to Ewald in Stuttgart, where he felt at home academically and personally. In 1939, Bethe would marry Ewald's daughter Rose. Not much later, though, Sommerfeld recalled him to Munich, where Sommerfeld created a Privatdozent position for him. There he worked out the solution for a linear chain of coupled spins by what we

  13. Obituary: Thomas Michael Donahue, 1921-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gombosi, Tamás I.

    2004-12-01

    Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, and Cassini. Based on observations by the Pioneer Venus entry probe, he concluded that Venus once had an ocean before a runaway greenhouse effect led to its current state. Analyzing similar data from Martian meteorites, he again argued for a substantial Martian ocean, anticipating the current series of missions to Mars. In these and many other cases he laid the foundation for our current understanding of planetary atmospheres. In 1999, Tom described his career this way, "I parlayed my training in atomic physics into a faculty position at Pitt, doing research in aeronomy and laboratory studies of atomic physics. This led to rocket and satellite exploration of the upper atmosphere of Earth in the 60s and spacecraft exploration of Mars, Venus and the Outer Planets beginning in the 70s. Along the way my students, post-docs and I were deeply involved in the problem of anthropogenic destruction of the stratospheric ozone in the early 70s. This led to my continuing interest in global change." Throughout his life Tom retained a keen interest in the history of his family in Ireland, as his mother and grandfather both emigrated from County Kerry. He studied oral and written sources, writing as early as 1942 on the family and the early history of the Eóghanachta Rathleinn. Recently his efforts supported the establishment of the international O'Donoghue society, in particular spearheading a project that continues to reveal fresh detail about family migrations from the High Kings to the Cromwellian period. Tom brought his powerful intellect and drive to a broad range of lifelong passions beyond science. Fluent in several languages, from classical Greek to modern Irish, he was also widely read in American, Irish and French history and literature, and was an exacting student of French wine. He loved classical and folk music, often singing hundreds of songs for his family in keys only he knew. A devotee of tennis, he continued playing weekly matches until early

  14. Obituary: Hans Albrecht Bethe, 1906-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijers, Ralph

    2007-12-01

    One of the unquestioned giants of physics and astrophysics, Hans Bethe, died on 6 March 2005, at the venerable age of 98, in his home town of Ithaca, New York. Seven decades of contributing to research and a Nobel Prize for his work on stellar hydrogen burning make a listing of his honors superfluous (besides being impossible in this space). Bethe was born in Strassburg, in then German Alsass Lothringen, on 2 July 1906. His father, Albrecht Julius Bethe (1872-1954), taught physiology at the University, and his mother, Anna Kuhn (1876-1966), was a musician and writer. Both his grandfathers were physicians. He spent his youth in Strassburg, Kiel, and Frankfurt, and some time in sanatoria due to tuberculosis. Hans's first scientific paper, at age 18, was with his father and a colleague, on dialysis. His education and early career in Germany brought him into contact with many top stars in the quantum revolution. Starting in Frankfurt in chemistry, Bethe soon switched to physics, taught there by Walter Gerlach and Karl Meissner, among others. In 1926, he successfully applied to join Arnold Sommerfeld's group in Munich, where he met one of his later long-term collaborators, Rudolf Peierls. Bethe considered his entry into physics to have come at an ideal time, with the new ideas of wave mechanics being developed and discussed right there; it was certainly also at an ideal place. His doctoral thesis was on the theory of electron diffraction by crystals, following the experimental work by Clinton Davisson and Lester Germer and the work on X-ray diffraction by Max von Laue and Paul Ewald. The newly minted doctor went from there briefly to Frankfurt and then to Ewald in Stuttgart, where he felt at home academically and personally. In 1939, Bethe would marry Ewald's daughter Rose. Not much later, though, Sommerfeld recalled him to Munich, where Sommerfeld created a Privatdozent position for him. There he worked out the solution for a linear chain of coupled spins by what we

  15. Obituary: James Gilbert Baker, 1914-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Neal Kenton

    2005-12-01

    (1970), the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1946), and the National Academy of Engineering (1979). He was a member of the American Astronomical Society, the International Astronomical Union, and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. He authored numerous professional papers and has over fifty US patents. He maintained his affiliation with the Harvard College Observatory and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory until he retired in 2003. Even after his retirement in 2003, he continued work at his home on a new telescope design that he told his family he should have discovered in 1940. Light was always his tool to the understanding of the Universe. An entry from his personal observation log, 7 January 1933, made after an evening of star gazing reveals the pure inspiration of his efforts: "After all, it is the satisfaction obtained which benefits humanity, more than any other thing. It is in the satisfaction of greater human knowledge about the cosmos that the scientist is spurred on to greater efforts." James Baker fulfilled the destiny he had foreseen in 1933, living to see professional and amateur astronomers use his instruments and designs to further the understanding of the cosmos. Whereas, he had not predicted that his cameras would protect this nation for over many years. He is survived by his wife, his four children and five grandchildren. 1Oscar Bryant, "Astronomical Designs," in "Accent", the University of Louisville College of Arts and Sciences Alumni Newsletter, Spring 1994. 2George W. Goddard,Brigadier General, "Overview", 273.

  16. Obituary: Thomas Julian Ahrens (1936-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanloz, Raymond; Asimow, Paul

    2011-12-01

    Thomas J. Ahrens, a leader in the use of shock waves to study planetary interiors and impact phenomena, died at his home in Pasadena, California on November 24, 2010, at the age of 74. He was the California Institute of Technology's Fletcher Jones Professor of Geophysics, formally emeritus since 2005 but professionally active to the end. Tom was a pioneer in experimental and numerical studies of the effects of hypervelocity impact, arguably the most important geophysical process in the formation, growth and - in many cases - surface evolution of planets. As a professor at Caltech, he established the foremost university laboratory for shock wave experiments, where students and research associates from around the world pursued basic research in geophysics, planetary science and other disciplines. Previously, high-pressure shock experiments were primarily conducted in national laboratories, where they were initially associated with development of nuclear weapons. The shock wave laboratory at Caltech was noted for key measurements addressing major questions in planetary geophysics. Equation-of-state studies on silicate melts showed that magma deep in Earth's mantle could be denser than the coexisting crystals, implying downward transport of melts (and associated heat) rather than the upward eruption of lavas observed in volcanic regions at Earth's surface. Shock-melting experiments on iron at pressures of Earth's core provide a crucial constraint on the temperature at the center of our planet. And studies of hydrous, carbonate and sulphate minerals under shock compression document how climate-altering molecules can be released by major impacts, such as the K/T event associated with the most recent mass extinction of biota in Earth history. In addition, Tom was a leader in numerical simulation of cratering, bringing the most recent laboratory measurements into the modeling of planetary impacts. Tom's training was in geophysics and applied experimental physics, as

  17. Obituary: Patrick L. Nolan (1952-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digel, Seth

    2011-12-01

    Patrick Lee Nolan died at his home in Palo Alto, California, on November 6, 2011, from complications related to a brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme, which had been diagnosed less than five months earlier. He was born in Colusa, California, on November 18, 1952. Pat was the only child of John Henry Nolan and Carol Lee Harris Nolan. For most of his childhood they lived in Grass Valley, California, where his father was a butcher and his mother was a surgical nurse. Pat graduated from the California Institute of Technology in 1974 with a B.S. in Physics and completed a Ph.D. at the University of California at San Diego in 1982. His graduate and professional career was devoted to high-energy astronomy. His loss is being keenly felt by his friends and colleagues around the world, including the members of the Chancel Choir of the Menlo Park Presbyterian Church, of which he was a member for 25 years. At U. C. San Diego, Pat worked on construction of the Hard X-ray and Low Energy Gamma Ray Experiment for the first High Energy Astronomy Observatory mission, which was launched in 1977. His Ph.D. thesis, supervised by Prof. Laurence E. Peterson, was based on data from this instrument and addressed variability of the high-energy emission from Cygnus X-1 and other black hole binary systems in the Milky Way. After he completed his Ph.D., Pat took a National Research Council postdoctoral research position at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C. He worked there from 1982-1984 developing spectral analysis software and studying gamma-ray bursts using the gamma-ray spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission satellite. A paper in Nature setting constraining limits on positron-electron annihilation radiation in the spectra of bursts marked the culmination of his efforts. Pat was hired by Prof. Robert Hofstadter at Stanford University in 1984 to work on the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET). As a co-investigator for EGRET, Pat worked on its calorimeter

  18. Obituary: Hugo Schwarz, 1953-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisciunas, Kevin

    2007-12-01

    Hugo Schwarz died in a motorcycle accident on 20 October 2006 near his home in La Serena, Chile. At the time of his death he was a staff astronomer at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and President of IAU Commission 50 (The Protection of Existing and Potential Observatory Sites). After Hugo's half-brother Frans died when Hugo was an infant, he effectively grew up as an only child. One consequence was that Hugo became an avid reader. He once estimated that he had read between 3,000 and 4,000 books. He also moved around a great deal. For most of the first seven years of his life, Hugo lived in Venezuela because his father worked for Shell Oil Company. According to Hugo's count, he had a total of 43 different addresses in his life. This gave him experience with different cultures and a facility with several languages. He was fluent in Dutch, German, Spanish, and English, and knew some French. He was very fond of quoting his father's sayings in Dutch and liked to relate stories filled with Chilean-slang to people who understood neither, providing translations that retained the cleverness of the originals. While on holiday in Scotland in 1974, Hugo decided to enroll in the Glasgow College of Technology, as it was then known. A year later he transferred to the University of Glasgow, where he earned his BSc (1979) and PhD (officially in 1984). From 1982 to 1986 he worked on X-ray detectors for X-ray astronomy at Mullard Space Science Laboratory, south of London. In 1986 Hugo, his first wife Catriona (Cat), and their two children departed for Chile, where Hugo worked as a staff astronomer for the European Southern Observatory. Over the next nine years he spent over 1,300 nights at La Silla. A big change occurred in 1995 when Hugo moved to La Palma in the Canary Islands to be Astronomer in Charge of the Nordic Optical Telescope. He was very proud of having organized a team of astronomers and technicians who made the NOT into a valuable research facility with minimal

  19. Obituary: Hugo Schwarz, 1953-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisciunas, Kevin

    2007-12-01

    Hugo Schwarz died in a motorcycle accident on 20 October 2006 near his home in La Serena, Chile. At the time of his death he was a staff astronomer at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and President of IAU Commission 50 (The Protection of Existing and Potential Observatory Sites). After Hugo's half-brother Frans died when Hugo was an infant, he effectively grew up as an only child. One consequence was that Hugo became an avid reader. He once estimated that he had read between 3,000 and 4,000 books. He also moved around a great deal. For most of the first seven years of his life, Hugo lived in Venezuela because his father worked for Shell Oil Company. According to Hugo's count, he had a total of 43 different addresses in his life. This gave him experience with different cultures and a facility with several languages. He was fluent in Dutch, German, Spanish, and English, and knew some French. He was very fond of quoting his father's sayings in Dutch and liked to relate stories filled with Chilean-slang to people who understood neither, providing translations that retained the cleverness of the originals. While on holiday in Scotland in 1974, Hugo decided to enroll in the Glasgow College of Technology, as it was then known. A year later he transferred to the University of Glasgow, where he earned his BSc (1979) and PhD (officially in 1984). From 1982 to 1986 he worked on X-ray detectors for X-ray astronomy at Mullard Space Science Laboratory, south of London. In 1986 Hugo, his first wife Catriona (Cat), and their two children departed for Chile, where Hugo worked as a staff astronomer for the European Southern Observatory. Over the next nine years he spent over 1,300 nights at La Silla. A big change occurred in 1995 when Hugo moved to La Palma in the Canary Islands to be Astronomer in Charge of the Nordic Optical Telescope. He was very proud of having organized a team of astronomers and technicians who made the NOT into a valuable research facility with minimal

  20. Obituary: John W. Firor (1927-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilman, Peter A.

    2009-12-01

    John W. Firor, a former Director of the High Altitude Observatory and the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and a founder of the Solar Physics Division of the American Astronomical Society, died of Alzheimer's disease in Pullman, Washington on November 5, 2007, he was 80. He was born in Athens Georgia on October 18, 1927, where his father was a professor of agricultural economics. John had an unusually diverse scientific career. His interest in physics and astrophysics began while serving in the army, during which time he was assigned to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, where he guarded highly radioactive materials (many have heard him describe how informal the protections were compared to later times). After his service he returned to college and graduated in physics from Georgia Tech in 1949. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1954, writing his thesis on cosmic rays under John Simpson. John Firor would later remark that: "If you needed cosmic rays to actually do anything, you are sunk." That thought, partly in jest, may help explain his motivation for moving to so many new scientific and management pursuits. John moved from cosmic ray physics to radio astronomy (particularly of the Sun) when he began work at the Carnegie Institution of Washington's Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, where he remained until 1961. During this time, he met Walter Orr Roberts, then the Director of the High Altitude Observatory (HAO) in Boulder, Colorado. HAO was then affiliated with the University of Colorado. In 1959, a movement began to upgrade the atmospheric sciences in the United States by establishing a National Center, where the largest, most important atmospheric research problems could be addressed. Roberts became the first Director of NCAR, as well as the first president of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), the consortium of universities that was commissioned to manage and staff the new Center. HAO became a

  1. Obituary: Thomas Julian Ahrens (1936-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanloz, Raymond; Asimow, Paul

    2011-12-01

    Thomas J. Ahrens, a leader in the use of shock waves to study planetary interiors and impact phenomena, died at his home in Pasadena, California on November 24, 2010, at the age of 74. He was the California Institute of Technology's Fletcher Jones Professor of Geophysics, formally emeritus since 2005 but professionally active to the end. Tom was a pioneer in experimental and numerical studies of the effects of hypervelocity impact, arguably the most important geophysical process in the formation, growth and - in many cases - surface evolution of planets. As a professor at Caltech, he established the foremost university laboratory for shock wave experiments, where students and research associates from around the world pursued basic research in geophysics, planetary science and other disciplines. Previously, high-pressure shock experiments were primarily conducted in national laboratories, where they were initially associated with development of nuclear weapons. The shock wave laboratory at Caltech was noted for key measurements addressing major questions in planetary geophysics. Equation-of-state studies on silicate melts showed that magma deep in Earth's mantle could be denser than the coexisting crystals, implying downward transport of melts (and associated heat) rather than the upward eruption of lavas observed in volcanic regions at Earth's surface. Shock-melting experiments on iron at pressures of Earth's core provide a crucial constraint on the temperature at the center of our planet. And studies of hydrous, carbonate and sulphate minerals under shock compression document how climate-altering molecules can be released by major impacts, such as the K/T event associated with the most recent mass extinction of biota in Earth history. In addition, Tom was a leader in numerical simulation of cratering, bringing the most recent laboratory measurements into the modeling of planetary impacts. Tom's training was in geophysics and applied experimental physics, as

  2. Obituary: John W. Firor (1927-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilman, Peter A.

    2009-12-01

    John W. Firor, a former Director of the High Altitude Observatory and the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and a founder of the Solar Physics Division of the American Astronomical Society, died of Alzheimer's disease in Pullman, Washington on November 5, 2007, he was 80. He was born in Athens Georgia on October 18, 1927, where his father was a professor of agricultural economics. John had an unusually diverse scientific career. His interest in physics and astrophysics began while serving in the army, during which time he was assigned to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, where he guarded highly radioactive materials (many have heard him describe how informal the protections were compared to later times). After his service he returned to college and graduated in physics from Georgia Tech in 1949. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1954, writing his thesis on cosmic rays under John Simpson. John Firor would later remark that: "If you needed cosmic rays to actually do anything, you are sunk." That thought, partly in jest, may help explain his motivation for moving to so many new scientific and management pursuits. John moved from cosmic ray physics to radio astronomy (particularly of the Sun) when he began work at the Carnegie Institution of Washington's Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, where he remained until 1961. During this time, he met Walter Orr Roberts, then the Director of the High Altitude Observatory (HAO) in Boulder, Colorado. HAO was then affiliated with the University of Colorado. In 1959, a movement began to upgrade the atmospheric sciences in the United States by establishing a National Center, where the largest, most important atmospheric research problems could be addressed. Roberts became the first Director of NCAR, as well as the first president of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), the consortium of universities that was commissioned to manage and staff the new Center. HAO became a

  3. Obituary: David Q. Wark, 1918-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillin, Larry Max

    2003-12-01

    failures. Finally, in exasperation, he decided to investigate. On pulling the disc out and examining it with a microscope, he observed a speck of cigar ash that had landed on the disc's surface and scratched it. From that time on, although he was seldom seen without a tattered cigar, it was never lit when he was in his office. Dr. Wark was dedicated to his parents and the field of meteorology. This dedication was demonstrated when he provided a generous donation to the AMS to establish the Percival D. Wark and Clara B. (Mackey) Wark Scholarship. This is an annual scholarship to be awarded to a student majoring in atmospheric or related oceanic and hydrologic sciences. Dr. Wark is survived by his nephew Walter Damon Wark of no fixed address, and his great nephew Christopher Hal Wark of Fresno, California. His two brothers, Francis Walter and Robert Damon, as well as his sister, Dorothy Marie (née Wark) Schaertl, pre-deceased him.

  4. GOCE Re-Entry Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastida, B.; Flohrer, T.; Lemmens, S.; Krag, H.

    2015-03-01

    Every year ESA, through the Space Debris Office, participates to an Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) Re-entry Test Campaign.. For the campaign of 2013, ESA’s proposal to select GOCE's re-entry was accepted. The campaign opened on the 21st October 2013 after fuel depletion of the drag-compensating ion propulsion. GOCE was expected to enter into a phase of attitude-controlled fine-pointing mode (FPM) until the attitude controllers would be unable to cope with the atmospheric torques and then the satellite would enter in a phase of fully uncontrolled flight. In this paper, we present the evolution of ESA’s daily predictions on the re-entry epoch using different sources of orbital information. The uncertainties on the spacecraft operability (i.e. the physical limits of the attitude controller) led to a non-standard re-entry scenario were different attitudes had to be considered (instead of the commonly assumed random tumbling mode case that is used whenever no information on the physical properties of a re-entering object is available). A daily assessment of the status, in coordination with the flight control team, was required and implied a continuous update on the predicted failure point of the attitude controller. This in turn imposed the need for considering an asymmetric re-entry window. These operation-bound uncertainties were simulated to predict the attitude evolution after failure at different altitudes and their effects evaluated to be taken into account for the re-entry predictions. We present ESA’s re-entry prediction activities for GOCE, internally, and within the IADC, and address specific technical aspects and challenges for re-entry predictions, which are related to the expected and occurred attitude of GOCE during the final re-entry phase.

  5. Orion Entry Handling Qualities Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bihari, B.; Tiggers, M.; Strahan, A.; Gonzalez, R.; Sullivan, K.; Stephens, J. P.; Hart, J.; Law, H., III; Bilimoria, K.; Bailey, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Orion Command Module (CM) is a capsule designed to bring crew back from the International Space Station (ISS), the moon and beyond. The atmospheric entry portion of the flight is deigned to be flown in autopilot mode for nominal situations. However, there exists the possibility for the crew to take over manual control in off-nominal situations. In these instances, the spacecraft must meet specific handling qualities criteria. To address these criteria two separate assessments of the Orion CM s entry Handling Qualities (HQ) were conducted at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) using the Cooper-Harper scale (Cooper & Harper, 1969). These assessments were conducted in the summers of 2008 and 2010 using the Advanced NASA Technology Architecture for Exploration Studies (ANTARES) six degree of freedom, high fidelity Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) simulation. This paper will address the specifics of the handling qualities criteria, the vehicle configuration, the scenarios flown, the simulation background and setup, crew interfaces and displays, piloting techniques, ratings and crew comments, pre- and post-fight briefings, lessons learned and changes made to improve the overall system performance. The data collection tools, methods, data reduction and output reports will also be discussed. The objective of the 2008 entry HQ assessment was to evaluate the handling qualities of the CM during a lunar skip return. A lunar skip entry case was selected because it was considered the most demanding of all bank control scenarios. Even though skip entry is not planned to be flown manually, it was hypothesized that if a pilot could fly the harder skip entry case, then they could also fly a simpler loads managed or ballistic (constant bank rate command) entry scenario. In addition, with the evaluation set-up of multiple tasks within the entry case, handling qualities ratings collected in the evaluation could be used to assess other scenarios such as the constant bank angle

  6. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  7. Obituary: Jörn Rossa (1969-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veras, Dimitri

    2009-12-01

    responsive, punctual, organized, polite and truthful; he did not tolerate false flattery and he held strongly to his own beliefs. Joern ardently loved his family and was faithful to his friends. Joern had several passions outside of astronomy. Among these were music, travel, snorkeling and photography. He played guitar and idolized Fleetwood Mac, The Eagles, and Tom Petty, among many other artists. While visiting 45 U.S. States and many other countries, Joern had a knack for picking up languages and spoke impeccable English. We will miss Joern, a loyal son, friend and colleague. Acknowledgments: Ralf Hahn, Nadya Gorlova, Seppo Laine and Roeland van der Marel provided crucial information, perspectives and memories needed for the foundation of this obituary; Ralf-Juergen Dettmar, Maria-Cruz Gälvez-Ortiz, Maren Hempel and Stefan Kautsch provided advice and support which helped complete the obituary; the photograph is courtesy of Nadya Gorlova.

  8. Technology for Entry Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, James A.; Arnold, James; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Kolawa, Elizabeth; Munk, Michelle; Wercinski, Paul; Laub, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph describing technologies for entry probes is presented. The topics include: 1) Entry Phase; 2) Descent Phase; 3) Long duration atmospheric observations; 4) Survivability at high temperatures; and 5) Summary.

  9. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  10. Opening addresses.

    PubMed

    Chukudebelu, W O; Lucas, A O; Ransome-kuti, O; Akinla, O; Obayi, G U

    1988-01-01

    The theme of the 3rd International Conference of the Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Nigeria (SOGON) held October 26, 1986 in Enugu was maternal morbidity and mortality in Africa. The opening addresses emphasize the high maternal mortality rate in Africa and SOGON's dedication to promoting women's health and welfare. In order to reduce maternal mortality, the scope of this problem must be made evident by gathering accurate mortality rates through maternity care monitoring and auditing. Governments, health professionals, educators, behavioral scientists, and communication specialists have a responsibility to improve maternal health services in this country. By making the population aware of this problem through education, measures can be taken to reduce the presently high maternal mortality rates. Nigerian women are physically unprepared for childbirth; therefore, balanced diets and disease prevention should be promoted. Since about 40% of deliveries are unmanaged, training for traditional birth attendants should be provided. Furthermore, family planning programs should discourage teenage pregnancies, encourage birth spacing and small families, and promote the use of family planning techniques among men. The problem of child bearing and rearing accompanied by hard work should also be investigated. For practices to change so that maternal mortality rates can be reduced, attitudes must be changed such that the current rates are viewed as unacceptable. PMID:12179275

  11. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  12. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  13. Obituary: Ernest Hurst Cherrington, Jr., 1909-1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterbrock, Donald E.

    2003-12-01

    lunar photography from unmanned space vehicles. All the ground-based photographs in his book came from Lick Observatory, most of them taken by Moore and Fred Chappell, with whom he had worked. About 1979 he retired from Hood College and he and his wife moved to San Jose, near the home of their surviving son, Robert N. Cherrington. Ernest was always a good family man, devoted to his wife and children. I met Ernest at his home in San Jose and interviewed him several times in preparation for the Lick centennial in 1988; he had warm memories of Lick and the Berkeley Astronomical Department. In 1984 he had updated his book to "Exploring the Moon through Binoculars and Small Telescopes", with additional photographs from lunar orbiting vehicles and one taken by Neil Armstrong of Buzz Aldrin on the moon's surface. Ernest's wife Ann died in 1988 and he followed her eight years later. There are about one hundred letters to, from, or about Ernest, written in the years 1931 to 1948, in the Mary Lea Shane Archives of the Lick Observatory, McHenry Library, University of California. These letters, his published papers and book, and Perkins Observatory annual reports, together with information provided by Robert N. Cherrington and my own notes and memories of conversations with Ernest and Ann formed the basis of this obituary article.

  14. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  15. Stardust Entry Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Qualls, Garry D.

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the reconstruction analyses performed for the Stardust capsule entry is described. The results indicate that the actual entry was very close to the pre-entry predictions. The capsule landed 8.1 km north-northwest of the desired target at Utah Test and Training Range. Analyses of infrared video footage and radar range data (obtained from tracking stations) during the descent show that drogue parachute deployment was 4.8 s later than the pre-entry prediction, while main parachute deployment was 19.3 s earlier than the pre-set timer indicating that main deployment was actually triggered by the backup baroswitch. Reconstruction of a best estimated trajectory revealed that the aerodynamic drag experienced by the capsule during hypersonic flight was within 1% of pre-entry predications. Observations of the heatshield support the pre-entry estimates of small hypersonic angles of attack, since there was very little, if any, charring of the shoulder region or the aftbody. Through this investigation, an overall assertion can be made that all the data gathered from the Stardust capsule entry were consistent with flight performance close to nominal pre-entry predictions. Consequently, the design principles and methodologies utilized for the flight dynamics, aerodynamics, and aerothermodynamics analyses have been corroborated.

  16. Entry Skills for BSNs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stull, Mary K.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the Continuing Education for Consensus on Entry Skills project, designed to bring the expectations of nursing service and nursing education closer on entry-level competencies of new baccalaureate graduates. Discusses teaching and collaboration skills, planning and evaluation of patient care skills, interpersonal relations/communication…

  17. Trajectory Optimization with Adaptive Deployable Entry and Placement Technology Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saranathan, H.; Saikia, S.; Grant, M. J.; Longuski, J. M.

    2014-06-01

    This paper compares the results of trajectory optimization for Adaptive Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) using different control methods. ADEPT addresses the limitations of current EDL technology in delivering heavy payloads to Mars.

  18. 5. PORTICO AND ENTRY DETAIL, SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION. This entry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. PORTICO AND ENTRY DETAIL, SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION. This entry replaces original twin entries to southeast and southwest rooms from portico, and was installed when south entry hall was built. - Oak Island (House), County Road 768 vicinity, Edisto Island, Charleston County, SC

  19. Magnetic content addressable memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenye

    Content Addressable Memories are designed with comparison circuits built into every bit cell. This parallel structure can increase the speed of searching from O(n) (as with Random Access Memories) to O(1), where n is the number of entries being searched. The high cost in hardware limits the application of CAM within situations where higher searching speed is extremely desired. Spintronics technology can build non-volatile Magnetic RAM with only one device for one bit cell. There are various technologies involved, like Magnetic Tunnel Junctions, off-easy-axis programming method, Synthetic Anti-Ferromagnetic tri-layers, Domain Wall displacement, Spin Transfer Torque tri-layers and etc. With them, particularly the Tunnel Magneto-Resistance variation in MTJ due to difference in magnetization polarity of the two magnets, Magnetic CAM can be developed with reduced hardware cost. And this is demonstrated by the discussion in this dissertation. Six MCAM designs are discussed. In the first design, comparand (C), local information (S) and their complements are stored into 4 MTJs connected in XOR gate pattern. The other five designs have one or two stacks for both information storage and comparison, and full TMR ratio can be taken advantage of. Two challenges for the five are specifically programming C without changing S and selectively programming a cell out of an array. The solutions to specific programming are: by confining the programming field for C in a ring structure design; by using field programming and spin polarized current programming respectively for C and S in the SAF+DW and SAF+STT tri-layer design; by making use of the difference in thresholds between direct mode and toggle mode switching in the SAF+SAF design. The problem of selective programming is addressed by off-easy-axis method and by including SAF tri-layers. Cell with STT tri-layers for both C and S can completely avoid the problems of specific and selective programming, but subject to the limit of

  20. Optimizing TLB entries for mixed page size storage in contiguous memory

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Kriegel, Jon K.; Ohmacht, Martin; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2013-04-30

    A system and method for accessing memory are provided. The system comprises a lookup buffer for storing one or more page table entries, wherein each of the one or more page table entries comprises at least a virtual page number and a physical page number; a logic circuit for receiving a virtual address from said processor, said logic circuit for matching the virtual address to the virtual page number in one of the page table entries to select the physical page number in the same page table entry, said page table entry having one or more bits set to exclude a memory range from a page.

  1. Time card entry system

    SciTech Connect

    Montierth, B.S.

    1996-05-01

    The Time Card Entry System was developed to interface with the DOE Headquarters Electronic Time and Attendance (ETA) system. It features pop-up window pick lists for Work Breakdown Structure Numbers and Hour Codes and has extensive processing that ensures that time and attendance reported by the employee fulfills US Government/OMB requirements before Timekeepers process the data at the end of the two week payroll cycle using ETA. Tours of Duty (e.g. ten hour day, four day week with Friday through Sunday off), established in the ETA system, are imported into the Time Card Entry System by the Timekeepers. An individual`s Tour of Duty establishes the basis for validation of time of day and number of hours worked per day. At the end of the two week cycle, data is exported by the Timekeepers from the Time Card Entry System into ETA data files.

  2. Shuttle entry guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harpold, J. C.; Graves, C. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the entry guidance for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. This guidance provides the steering commands for trajectory control from initial penetration of the earth's atmosphere until the terminal area guidance is activated at an earth-relative speed of 2500 fps. At this point, the Orbiter is at a distance of about 50 nmi from the runway threshold, and at an altitude of about 80,000 ft. The entry guidance design is based on an analytic solution of the equations of motion defining the drag acceleration profile that meets the terminal criteria of the entry flight while maintaining the flight within systems and operational constraints. Guidance commands, which are based on a control law that ensures damping of oscillatory type trajectory motion, are computed to steer the Orbiter to this drag acceleration profile.

  3. Entry Systems Panel deliberations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasky, Daniel J.; Rummler, Donald R.; Bersch, Charlie; Dixon, Sidney C.

    1993-01-01

    The Entry Systems Panel was chaired by Don Rummler, LaRC and Dan Rasky, ARC. As requested, each panel participant prior to the workshop prepared and delivered presentations to: (1) identify technology needs; (2) assess current programs; (3) identify technology gaps; and (4) identify highest payoff areas R&D. Participants presented background on the entry systems R&D efforts and operations experiences for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. These participants represented NASA Centers involved in research (Ames Research Center), development (Johnson Space Center) and operations (Kennedy Space Center) and the Shuttle Orbiter prime contractor. The presentations lead to the discovery of several lessons learned.

  4. Atmospheric Entry Studies for Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Parul; Allen, Gary A.; Hwang, Helen; Prabhu, Dinesh; Aliaga, Jose; Marley, Mark; McGuire, Kathy; Huynh, Loc; Garcia, Joseph; Moses, Robert; Winski, Rick; Skylanskiy, Evgeniy

    2013-01-01

    The Objectives of this work are: 1) Establish a range of probe atmospheric entry environments based on the Uranus Flagship mission outlined in the Planetary Science Decadal Survey for two launch windows: Year 2021 and 2034. 2) Define Uranus entry trade space by performing parametric studies, by varying vehicle mass and size and entry Flight Path Angle (FPA). 3) Investigate various trajectory options, including direct ballistic entry and aero-capture entry. 4) Identify entry technologies that could be leveraged to enable a viable mission to Uranus that meets science objectives.

  5. Flavivirus Entry Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Yin; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2015-09-11

    Many flaviviruses are significant human pathogens that are transmitted by mosquitoes and ticks. Although effective vaccines are available for yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitic virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus, these and other flaviviruses still cause thousands of human deaths and millions of illnesses each year. No clinically approved antiviral therapy is available for flavivirus treatment. To meet this unmet medical need, industry and academia have taken multiple approaches to develop antiflavivirus therapy, among which targeting viral entry has been actively pursued in the past decade. Here we review the current knowledge of flavivirus entry and its use for small molecule drug discovery. Inhibitors of two major steps of flaviviral entry have been reported: (i) molecules that block virus-receptor interaction; (ii) compounds that prevent conformational change of viral envelope protein during virus-host membrane fusion. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of targeting viral entry for treatment of flavivirus infection as compared to targeting viral replication proteins. PMID:27617926

  6. Think Exit at Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Tom; Satterfield, Coy E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the "Think Exit at Entry" program that has become the guiding principle for the Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ). The Georgia DJJ believes that the transition process begins the day the youth enters the system and continues well after release from the institution. Literature points the need for transition planning…

  7. Double-Entry Bookkeeping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert

    1999-01-01

    Explains the principles and mechanics of double-entry bookkeeping as a part of the accounting cycle to produce a functioning set of accounting records. Suggests that libraries need to have accurate and timely information about their spending to gain financial control and protect against fraud and abuse. (LRW)

  8. 9. FIRST FLOOR, ENTRY HALL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARDS FRONT ENTRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. FIRST FLOOR, ENTRY HALL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARDS FRONT ENTRY WITH OPEN DOORWAY TO WINDER STAIRWAY ON RIGHT - Open Gate Farm, House, Ridge Road, 1 mile East of Elephant Road, Perkasie, Bucks County, PA

  9. INTERIOR OF ENTRY HALLWAY AND STEEL ENTRY DOOR ON SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF ENTRY HALLWAY AND STEEL ENTRY DOOR ON SOUTH SIDE, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Telephone Exchange, Coral Sea Road north of Bismarck Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Atmospheric Entry Studies for Uranus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, P.; Allen, G. A.; Hwang, H. H.; Marley, M. S.; McGuire, M. K.; Garcia, J. A.; Sklyanskiy, E.; Huynh, L. C.; Moses, R. W.

    2014-07-01

    To better understand the technology requirements for Uranus atmospheric entry probe, Entry Vehicle Technology project funded an internal study with a multidisciplinary team from NASA Ames, Langley and JPL. The results of this study are communicated.

  11. Atmospheric Entry Studies for Uranus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, P.; Allen, G. A.; Hwang, H. H.; Marley, M. S.; McGuire, M. K.; Garcia, J. A.; Sklyanskiy, E.; Huynh, L. C.; Moses, R. W.

    2014-06-01

    To better understand the technology requirements for a Uranus atmospheric entry probe, an internal NASA study funded by ISPT program was conducted. The talk describes two different approaches to the planet: 1) direct ballistic entry and 2) Aerocapture.

  12. Obituary: Raymond Edwin White Jr., 1933-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebert, James William

    2004-12-01

    Raymond E. White, Jr., died unexpectedly at his home, in the early morning hours of October 12, 2004. Death appears to have been caused by severe diabetic shock. He retired from the Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory in July 1999 with the title of University Distinguished Professor, after serving on the faculty of this institution for over 35 years. He was born in Freeport, Illinois, on 6 May 1933, to Beatrice and Raymond E, Sr. -the latter being a career soldier in the US Army. Ray's early schooling took place in Illinois, New Jersey, Germany and Switzerland, following his father's assignments. He obtained a bachelors degree from the University of Illinois in 1955. Next Ray enlisted in the US Army, but quickly was enrolled in Officer Candidate School. He then served as lst Lt. in the US Army Corps of Engineers. Although military affairs remained a lifelong interest, and he was a member of the Company of Military Historians, Ray decided after three years to return to academia. He entered the astronomy PhD program at the University of Illinois in 1958. His PhD dissertation was supervised by Ivan R. King. Ray accepted a faculty position at the University of Arizona in 1964. First and foremost, Ray White was known at Arizona as an excellent teacher, revered by a large number of former students. When the astronomy major program was begun in 1967, Ray was one of three, original, major advisors. Over the next three decades, he was a leader at the University level in reforming the undergraduate program and courses. He was selected Outstanding University Faculty Member in April 1989 and he served as one of a handful of professors who are Faculty Fellows. These Fellows devote untold hundreds of hours as part-time residents at student dormitories, to give students a friendly face to address their problems. In 1995, Ray was among the first group of faculty to be recognized as University Distinguished Professors. In the year of his retirement, 1999, University

  13. Obituary: Raymond Edwin White Jr., 1933-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebert, James William

    2004-12-01

    Raymond E. White, Jr., died unexpectedly at his home, in the early morning hours of October 12, 2004. Death appears to have been caused by severe diabetic shock. He retired from the Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory in July 1999 with the title of University Distinguished Professor, after serving on the faculty of this institution for over 35 years. He was born in Freeport, Illinois, on 6 May 1933, to Beatrice and Raymond E, Sr. -the latter being a career soldier in the US Army. Ray's early schooling took place in Illinois, New Jersey, Germany and Switzerland, following his father's assignments. He obtained a bachelors degree from the University of Illinois in 1955. Next Ray enlisted in the US Army, but quickly was enrolled in Officer Candidate School. He then served as lst Lt. in the US Army Corps of Engineers. Although military affairs remained a lifelong interest, and he was a member of the Company of Military Historians, Ray decided after three years to return to academia. He entered the astronomy PhD program at the University of Illinois in 1958. His PhD dissertation was supervised by Ivan R. King. Ray accepted a faculty position at the University of Arizona in 1964. First and foremost, Ray White was known at Arizona as an excellent teacher, revered by a large number of former students. When the astronomy major program was begun in 1967, Ray was one of three, original, major advisors. Over the next three decades, he was a leader at the University level in reforming the undergraduate program and courses. He was selected Outstanding University Faculty Member in April 1989 and he served as one of a handful of professors who are Faculty Fellows. These Fellows devote untold hundreds of hours as part-time residents at student dormitories, to give students a friendly face to address their problems. In 1995, Ray was among the first group of faculty to be recognized as University Distinguished Professors. In the year of his retirement, 1999, University

  14. Obituary: Alastair Graham Walker Cameron, 1925-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truran, James W.; Thielemann, F.-K.; Cowan, J. J.

    2005-12-01

    . He taught for two years at Iowa State and then spent seven years as a Senior Research Officer at Chalk River. It was from this period that his important early contributions to nuclear astrophysics emerged. His research addressed a broad range of problems concerning the origin of the elements, culminating in the publication in 1957 of a discussion of stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis which, together with the paper by E.M. Burbidge, G.F. Burbidge, W.A. Fowler, and F. Hoyle, substantially defined the field of nucleosynthesis as we understand it today. Cameron joined the staff of the NASA Institute for Space Studies in New York and served as a Senior Scientist from 1961 to 1966, then continued on to the Belfer Graduate School of Science of Yeshiva University in New York, prior to moving to Harvard. Working with an increasing number of graduate students and postdocs, Cameron continued his studies in nuclear physics, concentrating on building systematics of nuclear mass formulae, nuclear level densities, thermonuclear reaction rates, and weak interaction rates. These nuclear systematics, coupled to early calculations of supernova explosions, enabled the first detailed numerical investigations of explosive nucleosynthesis from which the identification of 56Ni as the dominant product emerged. During these years, Cameron's research activities and interests expanded considerably to encompass broad areas of space physics, including specifically the origin of the Solar System. Notable here is the significant role he played in the early formulation and development of the impact theory for the origin of the Moon. This theory posits - and early numerical simulations by Cameron and his collaborators confirmed - that the collision of a large, Mars sized object with the Earth early in its history yields debris from which the Moon can coalesce, and can account for both an iron-depleted Moon and the masses and angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system. Cameron was an extremely

  15. Time Card Entry System

    1996-05-07

    The Time Card Entry System was developed for the Department of Enegy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) to interface with the DOE headquarters (DOE-HQ) Electronic Time and Attendance (ETA) system for payroll. It features pop-up window pick lists for Work Breakdown Structure numbers and Hour Codes and has extensive processing that ensures that time and attendance reported by the employee fulfills U.S. Government/OMB requirements before Timekeepers process the data at the end of the two weekmore » payroll cycle using ETA. A tour of duty profile (e.g., ten hour day, four day week with Sunday, friday and Saturday off), previously established in the ETA system, is imported into the Time Card Entry System by the timekeepers. An individual''s profile establishes the basis for validation of time of day and number of hours worked per day. At the end of the two cycle, data is exported by the timekeepers from the Time Card Entry System into ETA files.« less

  16. Time Card Entry System

    SciTech Connect

    Montierth, B. S.

    1996-05-07

    The Time Card Entry System was developed for the Department of Enegy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) to interface with the DOE headquarters (DOE-HQ) Electronic Time and Attendance (ETA) system for payroll. It features pop-up window pick lists for Work Breakdown Structure numbers and Hour Codes and has extensive processing that ensures that time and attendance reported by the employee fulfills U.S. Government/OMB requirements before Timekeepers process the data at the end of the two week payroll cycle using ETA. A tour of duty profile (e.g., ten hour day, four day week with Sunday, friday and Saturday off), previously established in the ETA system, is imported into the Time Card Entry System by the timekeepers. An individual''s profile establishes the basis for validation of time of day and number of hours worked per day. At the end of the two cycle, data is exported by the timekeepers from the Time Card Entry System into ETA files.

  17. Awards and Addresses Summary

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Each year at the annual ASHG meeting, addresses are given in honor of the society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the next pages, we have printed the Presidential Address and the addresses for the William Allan Award. The other addresses, accompanied by pictures of the speakers, can be found at www.ashg.org.

  18. Planetary entry experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roger A.

    1994-01-01

    The final report summarizes the results from three research areas: (1) window design for the radiometric measurement of the forebody radiative heating experienced by atmospheric entry spaceraft; (2) survey of the current understanding of chemical species on selected solar system bodies and assess the importance of measurements with regard to vehicle environment and with regard to understanding of planetary atmospheres with emphasis on Venus, Mars, and Titan; and (3) measure and analyze the radiation (VUV to near-IR) from the shock heated gas cap of a blunt body in an Ames arc Jet wind-tunnel facility.

  19. Entry Systems Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasky, Daniel J.; Rummler, Donald R.; Bersch, Charlie; Dixon, Sidney C.

    1993-01-01

    As general findings, lessons learned from shuttle are: (1) bridge established between development center (JSC) Research Centers (ARC, LARC), and industry (RI, LMSC, Corning, Mansville, 3M LTV, Union Carbide, Hexcel) for shuttle TPS; (2) not all test results adequately analyzed or in hindsight, completely encompassing all failure modes; (3) gap heating effects from ground facilities not totally indicative of flight experience; (4) need to design with operations in mind (not just to cost) example: moisture intrusion of GR/EP, many other examples; (5) RSI- developed as point design for maneuvering entry vehicle of high L/D; and (6) RSI - 15 years from invention to use on flight hardware.

  20. Entry guidance and entry autopilot (STS-1 baseline)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harpold, J. C.; Hill, O.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary entry guidance and autopilot software formulations, for use in the Mission Control Center (MCC) entry processor, are presented. The MCC requirements are met by a definition of coordinate systems, a list of parameter definitions for the software formulations, a description of the entry guidance detailed formulation requirements, a description of the detailed autopilot formualtion requirements, a description of the targeting routine, and a set of formulation flow charts.

  1. 19 CFR 142.17 - One entry summary for multiple entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false One entry summary for multiple entries. 142.17...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Entry Summary Documentation § 142.17 One entry summary... director may permit the filing of one entry summary for merchandise the subject of separate entries if:...

  2. An Entry Flight Controls Analysis for a Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Philip

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center has been performing studies to address the feasibility of various single-stage to orbit concepts for use by NASA and the commercial launch industry to provide a lower cost access to space. Some work on the conceptual design of a typical lifting body concept vehicle, designated VentureStar(sup TM) has been conducted in cooperation with the Lockheed Martin Skunk Works. This paper will address the results of a preliminary flight controls assessment of this vehicle concept during the atmospheric entry phase of flight. The work includes control analysis from hypersonic flight at the atmospheric entry through supersonic speeds to final approach and landing at subsonic conditions. The requirements of the flight control effectors are determined over the full range of entry vehicle Mach number conditions. The analysis was performed for a typical maximum crossrange entry trajectory utilizing angle of attack to limit entry heating and providing for energy management, and bank angle to modulation of the lift vector to provide downrange and crossrange capability to fly the vehicle to a specified landing site. Sensitivity of the vehicle open and closed loop characteristics to CG location, control surface mixing strategy and wind gusts are included in the results. An alternative control surface mixing strategy utilizing a reverse aileron technique demonstrated a significant reduction in RCS torque and fuel required to perform bank maneuvers during entry. The results of the control analysis revealed challenges for an early vehicle configuration in the areas of hypersonic pitch trim and subsonic longitudinal controllability.

  3. Image compression using address-vector quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu

    1990-12-01

    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  4. Electrical power requirements analysis. Single failure tolerant entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pipher, M. D.; Green, P. A.; Wolfgram, D. F.

    1977-01-01

    The results of an analysis of the orbiter electrical power system for the case of a single failure tolerant (SFT) entry are presented. The analysis was performed using the shuttle electrical power system analysis computer program. It was performed to permit assessment of the capability of the orbiter systems to support the proposed entry configuration and to provide the data necessary to identify potential constraints and limitations. Three contingency modes have been identified which would require an SFT entry. This analysis addresses an SFT entry resulting from the loss of two fuel cell powerplants, while on orbit. The results of the analysis indicate that, even under near optimum conditions, the fuel cell power demand will exceed the tested operating capacity of 16 kw, and that various electrical components may experience voltages below 24 VDC.

  5. The state-of-the-art port of entry workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, B.

    1995-05-01

    The increased demand for freight movements through international ports of entry and the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have increased freight traffic at border ports of entry. The State-of-the-Art Port of Entry Workshop initiated a dialogue among technologists and stakeholders to explore the potential uses of technology at border crossings and to set development priorities. International ports of entry are both information and labor intensive, and there are many promising technologies that could be used to provide timely information and optimize inspection resources. Participants universally held that integration of technologies and operations is critical to improving port services. A series of Next Steps was developed to address stakeholder issues and national priorities, such as the National Transportation Policy and National Drug Policy. This report documents the views of the various stakeholders and technologists present at the workshop and outlines future directions of study.

  6. Computerized Physician Order Entry

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Raman; Yen, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) has been promoted as an important component of patient safety, quality improvement, and modernization of medical practice. In practice, however, CPOE affects health care delivery in complex ways, with benefits as well as risks. Every implementation of CPOE is associated with both generally recognized and unique local factors that can facilitate or confound its rollout, and neurohospitalists will often be at the forefront of such rollouts. In this article, we review the literature on CPOE, beginning with definitions and proceeding to comparisons to the standard of care. We then proceed to discuss clinical decision support systems, negative aspects of CPOE, and cultural context of CPOE implementation. Before concluding, we follow the experiences of a Chief Medical Information Officer and neurohospitalist who rolled out a CPOE system at his own health care organization and managed the resulting workflow changes and setbacks. PMID:24381708

  7. Shuttle entry guidance revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mease, Kenneth D.; Kremer, Jean-Paul

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle entry guidance concept is reviewed which is aimed at tracking a reference drag trajectory that leads to the specified range and velocity for the initiation of the terminal energy management phase. An approximate method of constructing the domain of attraction is proposed, and its validity is ascertained by simulation. An alternative guidance law yielding global exponential tracking in the absence of control saturation is derived using a feedback linearization method. It is noted that the alternative guidance law does not improve on the stability and performance of the current guidance law, for the operating domain and control capability of the Shuttle. It is suggested that the new guidance law with a larger operating domain and increased lift-to-drag capability would be superior.

  8. Space assembled entry systems certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.

    1993-01-01

    The approach taken to the issue, that 'How do you say you're 'good for go' if you space assemble an entry vehicle?', are: (1) shuttle orbiter thermal protection certification; (2) shuttle thermal protection system flight experience; and (3) space assembled entry system certification.

  9. The Context of Superintendent Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytle, James H.

    2009-01-01

    The current rhetoric about accountability, making adequate yearly progress, and focusing on quality classroom instruction obfuscates the core challenge in becoming a superintendent: How does one use the entry and transition process to learn what the real challenges and issues are in a school district? Can entry be used as a time for personal and…

  10. Parachute Swivel Mechanism for planetary entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birner, R.; Kaese, J.; Koller, F.; Muehlner, E.; Luhmann, H.-J.

    1993-01-01

    A parachute swivel mechanism (PSM) for planetary entry missions such as a Mars probe (MARSNET) or return of cometary material samples (ROSETTA mission) has been developed. The purpose of the PSM is to decouple the spin of the probe from the parachute, with low friction torque, during both the deployment and descent phases. Critical requirements are high shock loads, low friction, low temperatures, and several years of storage in the deep space environment (during the cruise phase of the probe, prior to operation). The design uses a main thrust ball bearing to cope with the load requirement and a smaller thrust ball bearing for guiding of the shaft. Except for use on the Viking and Galileo swivels, it appears that this type of bearing has very rarely been employed in space mechanisms, so that little is known of its friction behavior with dry lubrication. A slip ring assembly allows the transfer of electrical power for post-reefing of the parachute. A test program has been conducted covering the environmental conditions of Mars entry and Earth reentry. This paper describes requirement constraints, model missions of planetary entries, a bearing trade-off, analyses performed, design details, the lubrication system, and test results (friction torque versus load/spin rate). In addition, the design of the test rig is addressed.

  11. Viking entry aerodynamics and heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polutchko, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of the Mars entry including the mission sequence of events and associated spacecraft weights are described along with the Viking spacecraft. Test data are presented for the aerodynamic characteristics of the entry vehicle showing trimmed alpha, drag coefficient, and trimmed lift to drag ratio versus Mach number; the damping characteristics of the entry configuration; the angle of attack time history of Viking entries; stagnation heating and pressure time histories; and the aeroshell heating distribution as obtained in tests run in a shock tunnel for various gases. Flight tests which demonstrate the aerodynamic separation of the full-scale aeroshell and the flying qualities of the entry configuration in an uncontrolled mode are documented. Design values selected for the heat protection system based on the test data and analysis performed are presented.

  12. Reconstruction of the Genesis Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Qualls, Garry D.; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the findings from a reconstruction analysis of the Genesis capsule entry. First, a comparison of the atmospheric properties (density and winds) encountered during the entry to the pre-entry profile is presented. The analysis that was performed on the video footage (obtained from the tracking stations at UTTR) during the descent is then described from which the Mach number at the onset of the capsule tumble was estimated following the failure of the drogue parachute deployment. Next, an assessment of the Genesis capsule aerodynamics that was extracted from the video footage is discussed, followed by a description of the capsule hypersonic attitude that must have occurred during the entry based on examination of the recovered capsule heatshield. Lastly, the entry trajectory reconstruction that was performed is presented.

  13. 19 CFR 141.61 - Completion of entry and entry summary documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Completion of entry and entry summary documentation. (a) Preparation—(1) Paper entry and entry summary... 15422(a) of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (Pub. L. 110-234), for all goods entered...

  14. 19 CFR 142.13 - When entry summary must be filed at time of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... duties attached, if the entry/entry summary information and a valid scheduled statement date have been... estimated duties attached if the entry/entry summary information and a valid scheduled statement date...

  15. Public University Entry in Ghana: Is It Equitable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusif, Hadrat; Yussof, Ishak; Osman, Zulkifly

    2013-01-01

    Public universities in Ghana are highly subsidised by the central government and account for about 80 per cent of university students in the country. Yet issues of fairness in terms of entry into the public university system have so far hardly been addressed. To find out whether participation in public university education is equitable, the…

  16. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    SciTech Connect

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs.

  17. 7 CFR 319.37-14 - Ports of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... offered for importation at any Customs designated port of entry indicated in 19 CFR 101.3(b)(1.... Mailing address: P.O. Box 660520, Miami, FL 33266. Orlando Plant Inspection Station, 9317 Tradeport Drive, Orlando, FL 32827. Georgia Atlanta Hartsfield Perishable Complex, 1270 Woolman Place, Atlanta, GA...

  18. 7 CFR 319.37-14 - Ports of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... offered for importation at any Customs designated port of entry indicated in 19 CFR 101.3(b)(1.... Mailing address: P.O. Box 660520, Miami, FL 33266. Orlando Plant Inspection Station, 9317 Tradeport Drive, Orlando, FL 32827. Georgia Atlanta Hartsfield Perishable Complex, 1270 Woolman Place, Atlanta, GA...

  19. Predictors of Student Success in Entry-Level Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Mamta K.

    2009-01-01

    Although the educational evaluation process is useful and valuable and is supported by the Higher Education Act, a strong research base for program evaluation of college entry-level science courses is still lacking. Studies in science disciplines such as, biology, chemistry, and physics have addressed various affective and demographic factors and…

  20. DLMS voice data entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, P. B.

    1980-06-01

    This report describes the design, principles of operation, and performance characteristics of an Advanced Development Model of a voice recognition system (VRS) which can serve to input cartographic data to a computer. The completed system has been installed at the Defense Mapping Agency Aerospace Center (DMAAC) at St. Louis, MO, for evaluation and testing. The VRS is intended for use in entering by voice cartographic data to the Digital Landmass System (DLMS) Data Base. It was designed to satisfy the DMAAC product specifications. The software developed for the VRS includes two complete stand-alone programs. Performance tests conducted at TTI disclosed an average system word recognition accuracy of just under 99 percent for five talkers. The recognition tests were conducted by the use of tape recordings. These tape recordings were made during a previous contract involving cartographic data entry. Each person spoke approximately 536 words after uttering five training repetitions. The test results were virtually identical to those obtained during the previous contract.

  1. ESA Venus Entry Probe Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vandenBerg, M. L.; Falkner, P.; Phipps, A.; Underwood, J. C.; Lingard, J. S.; Moorhouse, J.; Kraft, S.; Peacock, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Venus Entry Probe is one of ESA s Technology Reference Studies (TRS). The purpose of the Technology Reference Studies is to provide a focus for the development of strategically important technologies that are of likely relevance for future scientific missions. The aim of the Venus Entry Probe TRS is to study approaches for low cost in-situ exploration of Venus and other planetary bodies with a significant atmosphere. In this paper, the mission objectives and an outline of the mission concept of the Venus Entry Probe TRS are presented.

  2. Selected optimal shuttle entry computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    Parameterization and the Davidon-Fletcher-Powell method are used to study the characteristics of optimal shuttle entry trajectories. Two problems of thermal protective system weight minimization are considered: roll modulation and roll plus an angle-of-attack modulation. Both problems are targeted for the edges of the entry footprint. Results consistent with constraints on loads and control bounds are particularly well-behaved and strongly support 'energy' approximation results obtained for the case of symmetric flight by Kelley and Sullivan (1973). Furthermore, results indicate that optimal shuttle entry trajectories should be easy to duplicate and to analyze by using simple techniques.

  3. 27. View of entry door to vestibule to MWOC entry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. View of entry door to vestibule to MWOC entry door in transmitter building no. 102 (note coded key pad to left and intercom phone on left) and door to the central systems monitor room (CSMR) to right (out of sight). - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  4. Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT)

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Adaptable, Deployable Entry Placement Technology (ADEPT) Project will test and demonstrate a deployable aeroshell concept as a viable thermal protection system for entry, descent, and landing o...

  5. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  6. PeoplePersonality: Chris Clarke - a physicist who studies ice cream Teaching Anecdotes: Annie Jump Cannon Obituary: György Marx 1927-2002 Starting Out: What Katie did next: part 3 Opinions: What is really important?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    Featuring relationships, personalities, interactions, environments and reputations involved in physics and education PERSONALITY (156) Chris Clarke - a physicist who studies ice cream TEACHING ANECDOTES (157) Annie Jump Cannon OBITUARY (158) György Marx 1927-2002 Steven Chapman STARTING OUT (159) What Katie did next: part 3 Katie Pennicott OPINIONS (160) What is really important? Kerry Parker

  7. Adult Education Periodicals; A List of Addresses. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Adult Education Div.

    Over 100 titles are listed in the revised UNESCO adult education periodicals list. Each entry includes the title, complete address, the name of the publishing organization, the editor's name, frequency of issue, and language. Based on information on hand in the UNESCO Secretariat the listings are classified by area: (1) Africa, (2) Asia and the…

  8. Re-entry Experiment Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    On August 10, 2009, NASA successfully launched the Inflatable Re-entry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE) and proved that spacecraft can use inflatable heat shields to reduce speed and provide protection du...

  9. 32 CFR 763.4 - Entry restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entry restrictions. 763.4 Section 763.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY ISLANDS UNDER NAVY JURISDICTION RULES GOVERNING PUBLIC ACCESS Entry Regulations for Kaho'olawe Island, Hawaii § 763.4 Entry restrictions. (a) Entry by any person upon Kaho'olawe...

  10. 32 CFR 763.4 - Entry restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entry restrictions. 763.4 Section 763.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY ISLANDS UNDER NAVY JURISDICTION RULES GOVERNING PUBLIC ACCESS Entry Regulations for Kaho'olawe Island, Hawaii § 763.4 Entry restrictions. (a) Entry by any person upon Kaho'olawe...

  11. 32 CFR 763.4 - Entry restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entry restrictions. 763.4 Section 763.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY ISLANDS UNDER NAVY JURISDICTION RULES GOVERNING PUBLIC ACCESS Entry Regulations for Kaho'olawe Island, Hawaii § 763.4 Entry restrictions. (a) Entry by any person upon Kaho'olawe...

  12. 19 CFR 191.143 - Drawback entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Foreign-Built Jet Aircraft Engines Processed in the United States § 191.143 Drawback entry. (a) Filing of entry. Drawback entries covering these foreign-built jet aircraft engines shall be filed on Customs Form 7551, modified to show that the entry covers jet aircraft engines processed...

  13. 19 CFR 142.16 - Entry summary documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Entry summary documentation. 142.16 Section 142.16... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Entry Summary Documentation § 142.16 Entry summary documentation. (a) Entry summary not filed at time of entry. When the entry documentation is filed before the entry...

  14. 19 CFR 142.16 - Entry summary documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry summary documentation. 142.16 Section 142.16... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Entry Summary Documentation § 142.16 Entry summary documentation. (a) Entry summary not filed at time of entry. When the entry documentation is filed before the entry...

  15. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  16. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  17. Address of the President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Frederic W.

    1976-01-01

    The president of the Association of American Colleges addresses at the 62nd annual meeting the theme of the conference: "Looking to the Future--Liberal Education in a Radically Changing Society." Contributions to be made by AAC are examined. (LBH)

  18. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  19. Space sciences - Keynote address

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Joseph K.

    1990-01-01

    The present status and projected future developments of the NASA Space Science and Applications Program are addressed. Emphasis is given to biochemistry experiments that are planned for the Space Station. Projects for the late 1990s which will study the sun, the earth's magnetosphere, and the geosphere are briefly discussed.

  20. Inflatable Re-entry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE-4) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litton, Daniel K.; Bose, David M.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Hughes, Stephen; Wright, Henry S.; Lindell, Michael C.; Derry, Stephen D.; Olds, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    The suite of Inflatable Re-Entry Vehicle Experiments (IRVE) is designed to further our knowledge and understanding of Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIADs). Before infusion into a future mission, three challenges need to be addressed: surviving the heat pulse during re-entry, demonstrating system performance at relevant scales, and demonstrating controllability in the atmosphere. IRVE-4 will contribute to a better understanding of controllability by characterizing how a HIAD responds to a set of controlled inputs. The ability to control a HIAD is vital for missions that are g-limited, require precision targeting and guidance for aerocapture or entry, descent, and landing. The IRVE-4 flight test will focus on taking a first look into controlling a HIAD. This paper will give an overview of the IRVE-4 mission including the control response portion of the flight test sequence, and will provide a review of the mission s development.

  1. Atmospheric entry heating of micrometeorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, G. J.

    1989-01-01

    A computer simulation of the atmospheric entry deceleration and heating of cosmic dust particles has been developed and the predicted peak temperatures are compared to the earlier closed-form mathematical solutions of Whipple (195) and Fraundorf (1980). A 20-micron diameter particle of density 1 gm/cu cm having a velocity of 10 km/s at infinity and entering the atmosphere at normal incidence reaches a peak temperature of 1159 K. The duration of the heating pulse is about 8 s but the particle remains within 100 K of the peak temperature for only 1.0 s. As the angle of incidence decreases, the peak temperature reached on entry also decreases, and the duration of the temperature pulse increases. Comparison with the Whipple amd Fraundorf models indicates that they accurately assess the entry heating for cosmic dust particles of moderate or higher densities and entry angles near normal incidence. As particle density decreases or the entry angle nears grazing incidence, they overestimate the peak temperature.

  2. Mars Science Laboratory Entry Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendeck, Gavin F.

    2011-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory will be the first Mars mission to attempt a guided entry with the objective of safely delivering the entry vehicle to a survivable parachute deploy state within 12.5 km of the pre-designated parachute deploy coordinates. The Entry Terminal Point Controller guidance algorithm is derived from the final phase Apollo Command Module guidance and, like Apollo, modulates the bank angle to control range based on deviations in range, altitude rate, and drag acceleration from a reference trajectory. For application to Mars landers which must make use of the tenuous Martian atmosphere, it is critical to balance the lift of the vehicle to minimize the range while still ensuring a safe deploy altitude. An overview of the process to generate optimized guidance settings is presented, discussing improvements made over the last nine years. Performance tradeoffs between ellipse size and deploy altitude will be presented, along with imposed constraints of entry acceleration and heating. Performance sensitivities to the bank reversal deadbands, heading alignment, attitude initialization error, and entry delivery errors are presented.

  3. Excerpts from keynote address

    SciTech Connect

    Creel, G.C.

    1995-06-01

    Excerpts from the keynote principally address emissions issues in the fossil power industry as related to heat rate improvements. Stack emissions of both sulfur and nitrogen oxides are discussed, and a number of examples are given: (1) PEPCO`s Potomac River Station, and (2) Morgantown station`s NOX reduction efforts. Circulating water emissions are also briefly discussed, as are O & M costs of emission controls.

  4. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  5. Safety concerns for first entry operations of orbiting spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Steven H.; Limero, Thomas F.; James, John T.

    1994-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom crew will face operational problems unique to the spacecraft environment due to the absence of convection currents and the confined atmosphere within the habitable modules. Airborne contaminants from the materials offgassing or contingency incidents like thermodegradation may accumulate until they reach hazardous concentrations. Flow modeling and experiences from previous space flight missions confirm that caution must be exercised during first-entry operations. A review of the first-entry procedures performed during the Skylab Program will be presented to highlight the necessity for carefully planned operations. Many of the environmental conditions that can be expected on the Space Station are analogous to those which exist in confined storage or work spaces in the industrial setting. Experience with closed-loop environmental operations (e.g., atmospheric control of submarines) have also demonstrated that the buildup of trace contaminant gases could result in conditions that lead to mission termination or loss of crew. Consequently, some first-entry issues for the Station can be addressed by comparing them to familiar techniques developed on Earth. The instruments of the Environmental Health System (EHS) will provide the necessary monitoring capability to protect crew health and safety during the planned first-entry procedures of the MTC phase of the SSF Program. The authors of this paper will describe those procedures and will cite an example of the consequences when proper first-entry procedures are not followed.

  6. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  7. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  8. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  9. Numerical Skip-Entry Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tigges, Michael; Crull, Timothy; Rea, Jeremy; Johnson, Wyatt

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses a preliminary guidance and targeting strategy for accomplishing Skip-Entry (SE) flight during a lunar return-capsule entry flight. One of the primary benefits of flying a SE trajectory is to provide the crew with continuous Continental United States (CONUS) landing site access throughout the lunar month. Without a SE capability, the capsule must land either in water or at one of several distributed land sites in the Southern Hemisphere for a significant portion of a lunar month using a landing and recovery scenario similar to that employed during the Apollo program. With a SE trajectory, the capsule can land either in water at a site in proximity to CONUS or at one of several distributed landing sites within CONUS, thereby simplifying the operational requirements for crew retrieval and vehicle recovery, and possibly enabling a high degree of vehicle reusability. Note that a SE capability does not require that the vehicle land on land. A SE capability enables a longer-range flight than a direct-entry flight, which permits the vehicle to land at a much greater distance from the Entry Interface (EI) point. This does not exclude using this approach to push the landing point to a water location in proximity of CONUS and utilizing water or airborne recovery forces.

  10. Delayed School Entry in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Since 1997 Uganda has seen a large increase in school enrolment. Despite this increased enrolment, universal education has remained elusive. Many children enrol in school, but not at the recommended age, and they drop out before completing school. This article focuses on one of these problems--delayed school entry. What household factors are…

  11. OBITUARY: Dorianna Twersky (1922-2010) Dorianna Twersky (1922-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, P.

    2010-03-01

    write are in danger of being misunderstood. I honestly believe that authors and referees were keeping to promised deadlines, because they would have been afraid of a disapproving glance from her. The fact that the journal was blossoming under her leadership is true, but this would be said of course in nearly any obituary. If I try nevertheless to distil my admiration for her into an objective-sounding statement, I would point to the fact that she consistently made technically correct decisions regarding matters in which she had no direct personal know-how. The way she worked this miracle was based on an extraordinary capability to judge people: she knew exactly whom to trust to what percentage." Karl Lackner

  12. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  13. Bax: Addressed to kill.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Manon, Stéphen

    2011-09-01

    The pro-apoptototic protein Bax (Bcl-2 Associated protein X) plays a central role in the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. In healthy mammalian cells, Bax is essentially cytosolic and inactive. Following a death signal, the protein is translocated to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it promotes a permeabilization that favors the release of different apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c. The regulation of Bax translocation is associated to conformational changes that are under the control of different factors. The evidences showing the involvement of different Bax domains in its mitochondrial localization are presented. The interactions between Bax and its different partners are described in relation to their ability to promote (or prevent) Bax conformational changes leading to mitochondrial addressing and to the acquisition of the capacity to permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:21641962

  14. Using Competencies to Assess Entry-Level Knowledge of Students Graduating from Parks and Recreation Academic Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Amy R.; Elkins, Daniel J.; Beggs, Brent A.

    2014-01-01

    To address the Council on Accreditation of Parks, Recreation, Tourism, and Related Professions accreditation standard 7.01.01, the Entry Level Competency Assessment was developed to measure 46 competencies in four categories needed by entry level professionals. Students rated their competence prior to beginning their senior internship. The results…

  15. 32 CFR 770.38 - Entry restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in Puerto Rico § 770.38 Entry restrictions. Except for duly authorized military personnel and... duties, entry upon any U.S. Navy installation or property in Puerto Rico at anytime, by any person...

  16. 32 CFR 770.39 - Entry procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Entry Regulations for Naval Installations and Property in Puerto Rico... entry upon any U.S. Naval installation or property in Puerto Rico from the Commanding Officer of...

  17. 32 CFR 770.18 - Entry restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor... the United States in the performance of their official duties, entry upon Naval Submarine Base,...

  18. 32 CFR 770.18 - Entry restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor... the United States in the performance of their official duties, entry upon Naval Submarine Base,...

  19. 32 CFR 770.18 - Entry restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor... the United States in the performance of their official duties, entry upon Naval Submarine Base,...

  20. 32 CFR 770.18 - Entry restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor... the United States in the performance of their official duties, entry upon Naval Submarine Base,...

  1. 32 CFR 770.18 - Entry restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor... the United States in the performance of their official duties, entry upon Naval Submarine Base,...

  2. Overview of entry risk predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrozinski, R.; Mendeck, G.; Cutri-Kohart, R.

    Risk to people on the ground from uncontrolled entries of spacecraft is a primary concern when analyzing end-of-life disposal options for satellites. Countries must balance this risk with the need to mitigate an exponentially growing space debris population. Currently the United States does this via guidelines that call for a satellite to be disposed of in a controlled manner if an uncontrolled entry would be too risky to people on the ground. This risk is measured by a quantity called "casualty expectation", or E , where casualty expectation is defined as the expectedc number of people suffering death or injury due to a spacecraft entry event. If Ec exceeds 1 in 10,000, U. S. guidelines state that the entry should be controlled rather than uncontrolled. Since this guideline can have serious impacts on the cost, lifetime, and even the mission and functionality of a satellite, it is critical that this quantity be estimated well, and decision makers understand all assumptions and limitations inherent in the resulting value. This paper discusses several issues regarding estimates of casualty expectation, beginning with an overview of relevant United States policies and guidelines. The equation the space industry typically uses to estimate casualty expectation is presented, along with a look at the sensitivity of the results to the typical assumptions, models, and initial condition uncertainties. Differences in these modeling issues with respect to launch failure Ec estimates are included in the discussion. An alternate quantity to assess risks due to spacecraft entries is introduced. "Probability of casualty", or Pc , is defined as the probability of one or more instances of people suffering death or injury due to a spacecraft entry event. The equation to estimate Pc is derived, where the same assumptions, modeling, and initial condition issues for Ec apply. Several examples are then given of both Ec and Pc estimate calculations. Due to the difficult issues in

  3. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...

  4. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...

  5. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...

  6. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42...

  7. 32 CFR 770.29 - Entry procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entry procedures. 770.29 Section 770.29 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES RULES LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.29 Entry procedures....

  8. 19 CFR 191.143 - Drawback entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drawback entry. 191.143 Section 191.143 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Foreign-Built Jet Aircraft Engines Processed in the United States § 191.143 Drawback entry. (a) Filing of entry....

  9. 10 CFR 1048.3 - Unauthorized entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unauthorized entry. 1048.3 Section 1048.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) TRESPASSING ON STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE FACILITIES AND OTHER PROPERTY § 1048.3 Unauthorized entry. Unauthorized entry into or upon an SPR facility or real...

  10. 10 CFR 1048.3 - Unauthorized entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unauthorized entry. 1048.3 Section 1048.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) TRESPASSING ON STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE FACILITIES AND OTHER PROPERTY § 1048.3 Unauthorized entry. Unauthorized entry into or upon an SPR facility or real...

  11. 10 CFR 1048.3 - Unauthorized entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unauthorized entry. 1048.3 Section 1048.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) TRESPASSING ON STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE FACILITIES AND OTHER PROPERTY § 1048.3 Unauthorized entry. Unauthorized entry into or upon an SPR facility or real...

  12. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  13. 32 CFR 763.5 - Entry procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entry procedures. 763.5 Section 763.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY ISLANDS UNDER NAVY JURISDICTION RULES GOVERNING PUBLIC ACCESS Entry Regulations for Kaho'olawe Island, Hawaii § 763.5 Entry procedures. (a) It is the policy of the Commander Naval...

  14. 32 CFR 763.5 - Entry procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entry procedures. 763.5 Section 763.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY ISLANDS UNDER NAVY JURISDICTION RULES GOVERNING PUBLIC ACCESS Entry Regulations for Kaho'olawe Island, Hawaii § 763.5 Entry procedures. (a) It is the policy of the Commander Naval...

  15. 19 CFR 18.11 - Entry; classes of goods for which entry is authorized; form used.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Entry; classes of goods for which entry is authorized; form used. 18.11 Section 18.11 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Transportation Without Appraisement § 18.11 Entry; classes of goods for which entry is authorized; form used....

  16. 19 CFR 141.64 - Review and correction of entry and entry summary documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Review and correction of entry and entry summary documentation. 141.64 Section 141.64 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Presentation of Entry Papers §...

  17. TCES. Time Card Entry System

    SciTech Connect

    Montierth, B.

    1996-05-01

    The Time Card Entry System was developed for the Department of Enegy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) to interface with the DOE headquarters (DOE-HQ) Electronic Time and Attendance (ETA) system for payroll. It features pop-up window pick lists for Work Breakdown Structure numbers and Hour Codes and has extensive processing that ensures that time and attendance reported by the employee fulfills U.S. Government/OMB requirements before Timekeepers process the data at the end of the two week payroll cycle using ETA. A tour of duty profile (e.g., ten hour day, four day week with Sunday, friday and Saturday off), previously established in the ETA system, is imported into the Time Card Entry System by the timekeepers. An individual`s profile establishes the basis for validation of time of day and number of hours worked per day. At the end of the two cycle, data is exported by the timekeepers from the Time Card Entry System into ETA files.

  18. Fragmentation and ablation during entry

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-09-01

    This note discusses objects that both fragment and ablate during entry, using the results of previous reports to describe the velocity, pressure, and fragmentation of entering objects. It shows that the mechanisms used there to describe the breakup of non-ablating objects during deceleration remain valid for most ablating objects. It treats coupled fragmentation and ablation during entry, building on earlier models that separately discuss the entry of objects that are hard, whose high heat of ablation permits little erosion, and those who are strong whose strength prevents fragmentation, which are discussed in ``Radiation from Hard Objects,`` ``Deceleration and Radiation of Strong, Hard, Asteroids During Atmospheric Impact,`` and ``Meteor Signature Interpretation.`` This note provides a more detailed treatment of the further breakup and separation of fragments during descent. It replaces the constraint on mass per unit area used earlier to determine the altitude and magnitude of peak power radiation with a detailed analytic solution of deceleration. Model predictions are shown to be in agreement with the key features of numerical calculations of deceleration. The model equations are solved for the altitudes of maximum radiation, which agree with numerical integrations. The model is inverted analytically to infer object size and speed from measurements of peak power and altitude to provide a complete model for the approximate inversion of meteor data.

  19. Coupling approaches used in atmospheric entry models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsevich, M. I.

    2012-09-01

    While a planet orbits the Sun, it is subject to impact by smaller objects, ranging from tiny dust particles and space debris to much larger asteroids and comets. Such collisions have taken place frequently over geological time and played an important role in the evolution of planets and the development of life on the Earth. Though the search for near-Earth objects addresses one of the main points of the Asteroid and Comet Hazard, one should not underestimate the useful information to be gleaned from smaller atmospheric encounters, known as meteors or fireballs. Not only do these events help determine the linkages between meteorites and their parent bodies; due to their relative regularity they provide a good statistical basis for analysis. For successful cases with found meteorites, the detailed atmospheric path record is an excellent tool to test and improve existing entry models assuring the robustness of their implementation. There are many more important scientific questions meteoroids help us to answer, among them: Where do these objects come from, what are their origins, physical properties and chemical composition? What are the shapes and bulk densities of the space objects which fully ablate in an atmosphere and do not reach the planetary surface? Which values are directly measured and which are initially assumed as input to various models? How to couple both fragmentation and ablation effects in the model, taking real size distribution of fragments into account? How to specify and speed up the recovery of a recently fallen meteorites, not letting weathering to affect samples too much? How big is the pre-atmospheric projectile to terminal body ratio in terms of their mass/volume? Which exact parameters beside initial mass define this ratio? More generally, how entering object affects Earth's atmosphere and (if applicable) Earth's surface? How to predict these impact consequences based on atmospheric trajectory data? How to describe atmospheric entry

  20. Potent D-Peptide Inhibitors of HIV-1 Entry

    SciTech Connect

    Welch,B.; VanDemark, A.; Heroux, A.; Hill, C.; Kay, M.

    2007-01-01

    During HIV-1 entry, the highly conserved gp41 N-trimer pocket region becomes transiently exposed and vulnerable to inhibition. Using mirror-image phage display and structure-assisted design, we have discovered protease-resistant D-amino acid peptides (D-peptides) that bind the N-trimer pocket with high affinity and potently inhibit viral entry. We also report high-resolution crystal structures of two of these D-peptides in complex with a pocket mimic that suggest sources of their high potency. A trimeric version of one of these peptides is the most potent pocket-specific entry inhibitor yet reported by three orders of magnitude (IC50 = 250 pM). These results are the first demonstration that D-peptides can form specific and high-affinity interactions with natural protein targets and strengthen their promise as therapeutic agents. The D-peptides described here address limitations associated with current L-peptide entry inhibitors and are promising leads for the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS.

  1. Viral entry mechanisms: the increasing diversity of paramyxovirus entry

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Everett Clinton; Popa, Andreea; Chang, Andres; Masante, Cyril; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2009-01-01

    The paramyxovirus family contains established human pathogens such as measles virus and human respiratory syncytial virus, and emerging pathogens including the Hendra and Nipah viruses and the recently identified human metapneumovirus. Two major envelope glycoproteins, the attachment protein and the fusion protein, promote the processes of viral attachment and virus-cell membrane fusion required for entry. While common mechanisms of fusion protein proteolytic activation and the mechanism of membrane fusion promotion have been shown in recent years, considerable diversity exists in the family related to receptor binding and the potential mechanisms of fusion triggering. PMID:19878307

  2. Atmospheric Entry Experiments at IRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Endlich, P.; Herdrich, G.; Kurtz, H.; Laux, T.; Löhle, S.; Nazina, N.; Pidan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Entering the atmosphere of celestial bodies, spacecrafts encounter gases at velocities of several km/s, thereby being subjected to great heat loads. The thermal protection systems and the environment (plasma) have to be investigated by means of computational and ground facility based simulations. For more than a decade, plasma wind tunnels at IRS have been used for the investigation of TPS materials. Nevertheless, ground tests and computer simulations cannot re- place space flights completely. Particularly, entry mission phases encounter challenging problems, such as hypersonic aerothermodynamics. Concerning the TPS, radiation-cooled materials used for reuseable spacecrafts and ablator tech- nologies are of importance. Besides the mentioned technologies, there is the goal to manage guidance navigation, con- trol, landing technology and inflatable technologies such as ballutes that aim to keep vehicles in the atmosphere without landing. The requirement to save mass and energy for planned interplanetary missions such as Mars Society Balloon Mission, Mars Sample Return Mission, Mars Express or Venus Sample Return mission led to the need for manoeuvres like aerocapture, aero-breaking and hyperbolic entries. All three are characterized by very high kinetic vehicle energies to be dissipated by the manoeuvre. In this field flight data are rare. The importance of these manoeuvres and the need to increase the knowledge of required TPS designs and behavior during such mission phases point out the need of flight experiments. As result of the experience within the plasma diagnostic tool development and the plasma wind tunnel data base, flight experiments like the PYrometric RE-entry EXperiment PYREX were developed, fully qualified and successfully flown. Flight experiments such as the entry spectrometer RESPECT and PYREX on HOPE-X are in the conceptual phase. To increase knowledge in the scope of atmospheric manoeuvres and entries, data bases have to be created combining both

  3. Atlas F entry aerothermic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of obtaining heat transfer data on an expended Atlas F booster launch vehicle was investigated in the altitude range of 300,000 to 200,000 feet during entry conditions, with a velocity in the range of 20,000 to 25,000 feet per second, and through a range of vehicle attitudes of plus or minus 90 degrees. These data are desired for correlation with turbulent heat transfer and boundary layer transition data obtained from wind tunnel test facilities. The data would also be valuable in assessing rarified gas and surface catalicity effects in a real gas environment.

  4. Mars entry trajectory optimization using DOC and DCNLP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuang; Peng, Yuming

    2011-02-01

    This paper addresses the issue of Mars atmospheric entry trajectory optimization by use of the desensitized optimal control (DOC) and Direct Collocation and Nonlinear Programming (DCNLP). Firstly, desensitized optimal control methodology is adopted to reduce the sensitivity of terminal state variables with respect to uncertainties and perturbations along the trajectory, in addition to optimizing the original performance index. Then, Direct Collocation (DC) method is used to transform the optimal control problem into Nonlinear Programming (NLP) problem which can be easily solved using the SNOPT software package. Monte Carlo simulations of error analysis show that the sensitivity of terminal state variables with respect to uncertainties and perturbations is significantly reduced, leading to improved entry precision.

  5. The mechanism of HCV entry into host cells.

    PubMed

    Douam, Florian; Lavillette, Dimitri; Cosset, François-Loïc

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an enveloped, positive strand RNA virus classified within the Flaviviridae family and is a major cause of liver disease worldwide. HCV life cycle and propagation are tightly linked to several aspects of lipid metabolism. HCV propagation depends on and also shapes several aspects of lipid metabolism such as cholesterol uptake and efflux through different lipoprotein receptors during its entry into cells, lipid metabolism modulating HCV genome replication, lipid droplets acting as a platform for recruitment of viral components, and very low density lipoprotein assembly pathway resulting in incorporation of neutral lipids and apolipoproteins into viral particles. During the first steps of infection, HCV enters hepatocytes through a multistep and slow process. The initial capture of HCV particles by glycosaminoglycans and/or lipoprotein receptors is followed by coordinated interactions with the scavenger receptor class B type I, a major receptor of high-density lipoprotein, the CD81 tetraspanin, and the tight junction proteins Claudin-1 and Occludin. This tight concert of receptor interactions ultimately leads to uptake and cellular internalization of HCV through a process of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Over the years, the identification of the HCV entry receptors and cofactors has led to a better understanding of HCV entry and of the narrow tropism of HCV for the liver. Yet, the role of the two HCV envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2, remains ill-defined, particularly concerning their involvement in the membrane fusion process. Here, we review the current knowledge and advances addressing the mechanism of HCV cell entry within hepatocytes and we highlight the challenges that remain to be addressed. PMID:25595801

  6. Optimal firm growth under the threat of entry

    PubMed Central

    Kort, Peter M.; Wrzaczek, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the incumbent-entrant problem in a fully dynamic setting. We find that under an open-loop information structure the incumbent anticipates entry by overinvesting, whereas in the Markov perfect equilibrium the incumbent slightly underinvests in the period before the entry. The entry cost level where entry accommodation passes into entry deterrence is lower in the Markov perfect equilibrium. Further we find that the incumbent’s capital stock level needed to deter entry is hump shaped as a function of the entry time, whereas the corresponding entry cost, where the entrant is indifferent between entry and non-entry, is U-shaped. PMID:26435573

  7. Regulatory strategies and market entry

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the intertwining influence of regulation, the pursuit of social goals, and market entry. The authors focus on the California natural gas distribution system, showing how the California Public Utilies Commission increasingly exercised its authority to set rates so as to meet social goals. Among these goals were lower fuel oil use, lower residential rates, and greater small power production. However, by calling on large users to pay substantially above their costs to subsidize these programs, the system was left open to cream-skimming entry. When a major new market for natural gas in the Kern County oil fields arose, several groups applied to the Federanl Energy Regulatory Commission to build an interstate gas pipeline - Califronia's first- dedicated to serving those customers. The proposals are being considered because of past pricing trends, because of the desire to avoid state regulatory oversight of their operations, and because they can be used to evade federal price regulations on natural gas. However, from a societal economic standpoint, all of the pipelines would be exceedingly expensive. The case demonstrates the unexpected and often the perverse consequences of pursuing social goals within a regulatory framework.

  8. Preventing re-entry to foster care.

    PubMed

    Carnochan, Sarah; Rizik-Baer, Daniel; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Re-entry to foster care generally refers to circumstances in which children who have been discharged from foster care to be reunified with their family of origin, adopted, or provided kinship guardianship are returned to foster care. In the context of the federal performance measurement system, re-entry refers specifically to a return to foster care following an unsuccessful reunification. The federal Children and Family Services Review measures re-entry to foster care with a single indicator, called the permanency of reunification indicator, one of four indicators comprising the reunification composite measure. This review focuses on research related to the re-entry indicator, including the characteristics of children, caregivers and families, as well as case and child welfare services that are associated with a higher or lower risk of re-entry to foster care. Promising post-reunification services designed to prevent re-entry to foster care are described. PMID:23705650

  9. Risk Assessment for Destructive Re-Entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lips, T.; Koppenwallner, G.; Bianchi, L.; Klinkrad, H.

    2009-03-01

    From 2007 to 2008, Hypersonic Technology Göttingen (HTG) worked on a study called Risk Assessment for Destructive Re-entry (RADR). The main purposes of this study were to identify and to quantify the inherent uncertainties of re-entry analysis tools, and to provide possible risk mitigation measures. For these purposes, three basic risk scenarios were specified: a 1-ton-class satellite without propulsion for uncontrolled re-entry, a 6-ton-class satellite with propulsion and the capability to perform a controlled re-entry, and a 1-ton-class launcher upper stage re-entering uncontrolled. Based on the identified uncertainty parameters, variation analyses were conducted for these scenarios with the two ESA tools for re-entry analysis SCARAB (Spacecraft Atmospheric Reentry and Aerothermal Breakup) and SESAM (Spacecraft Entry Survival Analysis Module). This paper describes the major results of the RADR study.

  10. 2014 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  11. 2013 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the Presidential Address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  12. 32 CFR 770.57 - Entry procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Portsmouth, NH 03801, Attention: Security Manager (Code 1700). For groups, foreign citizens, and news media... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Entry Regulations for Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Portsmouth,...

  13. 32 CFR 770.57 - Entry procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Portsmouth, NH 03801, Attention: Security Manager (Code 1700). For groups, foreign citizens, and news media... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Entry Regulations for Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Portsmouth,...

  14. 32 CFR 770.57 - Entry procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Portsmouth, NH 03801, Attention: Security Manager (Code 1700). For groups, foreign citizens, and news media... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Entry Regulations for Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Portsmouth,...

  15. 32 CFR 770.57 - Entry procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Portsmouth, NH 03801, Attention: Security Manager (Code 1700). For groups, foreign citizens, and news media... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Entry Regulations for Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Portsmouth,...

  16. 32 CFR 770.57 - Entry procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Portsmouth, NH 03801, Attention: Security Manager (Code 1700). For groups, foreign citizens, and news media... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Entry Regulations for Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Portsmouth,...

  17. 32 CFR 770.19 - Entry procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Silverdale... Commanding Officer, Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, 1100 Hunley Road, Silverdale, WA 98315. (b) Each...

  18. 32 CFR 770.19 - Entry procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Silverdale... Commanding Officer, Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, 1100 Hunley Road, Silverdale, WA 98315. (b) Each...

  19. 32 CFR 770.19 - Entry procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Silverdale... Commanding Officer, Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, 1100 Hunley Road, Silverdale, WA 98315. (b) Each...

  20. 32 CFR 770.19 - Entry procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Silverdale... Commanding Officer, Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, 1100 Hunley Road, Silverdale, WA 98315. (b) Each...

  1. 32 CFR 770.19 - Entry procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Silverdale... Commanding Officer, Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, 1100 Hunley Road, Silverdale, WA 98315. (b) Each...

  2. Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Protein–Mediated Inhibition of Host Cell Entry of Ebolaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Wrensch, Florian; Karsten, Christina B.; Gnirß, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Markus; Lu, Kai; Takada, Ayato; Winkler, Michael; Simmons, Graham; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly pathogenic in humans and nonhuman primates and pose a severe threat to public health. The interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins can restrict entry of ebolaviruses, influenza A viruses, and other enveloped viruses. However, the breadth and mechanism of the antiviral activity of IFITM proteins are incompletely understood. Here, we employed ebolavirus glycoprotein–pseudotyped vectors and ebolavirus-like particles to address this question. We show that IFITM proteins inhibit the cellular entry of diverse ebolaviruses and demonstrate that type I interferon induces IFITM protein expression in macrophages, major viral targets. Moreover, we show that IFITM proteins block entry of influenza A viruses and ebolaviruses by different mechanisms and provide evidence that antibodies and IFITM proteins can synergistically inhibit cellular entry of ebolaviruses. These results provide insights into the role of IFITM proteins in infection by ebolaviruses and suggest a mechanism by which antibodies, though poorly neutralizing in vitro, might contribute to viral control in vivo. PMID:26034199

  3. Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Protein-Mediated Inhibition of Host Cell Entry of Ebolaviruses.

    PubMed

    Wrensch, Florian; Karsten, Christina B; Gnirß, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Markus; Lu, Kai; Takada, Ayato; Winkler, Michael; Simmons, Graham; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly pathogenic in humans and nonhuman primates and pose a severe threat to public health. The interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins can restrict entry of ebolaviruses, influenza A viruses, and other enveloped viruses. However, the breadth and mechanism of the antiviral activity of IFITM proteins are incompletely understood. Here, we employed ebolavirus glycoprotein-pseudotyped vectors and ebolavirus-like particles to address this question. We show that IFITM proteins inhibit the cellular entry of diverse ebolaviruses and demonstrate that type I interferon induces IFITM protein expression in macrophages, major viral targets. Moreover, we show that IFITM proteins block entry of influenza A viruses and ebolaviruses by different mechanisms and provide evidence that antibodies and IFITM proteins can synergistically inhibit cellular entry of ebolaviruses. These results provide insights into the role of IFITM proteins in infection by ebolaviruses and suggest a mechanism by which antibodies, though poorly neutralizing in vitro, might contribute to viral control in vivo. PMID:26034199

  4. Peer Relations at School Entry: Sex Differences in the Outcomes of Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Leve, Leslie D.; Fisher, Philip A.; DeGarmo, David S.

    2008-01-01

    Converging research indicates that foster children with maltreatment histories have more behavior problems and poorer peer relations than biologically reared, nonmaltreated youth. However, little is known about whether such deficits in peer relations work independently or as a result of increased behavior problems, and whether outcomes for foster children differ by sex. To address these questions, multiagent methods were used to assess peer relations at school entry among maltreated foster children and a comparison sample of low-income, nonmaltreated, biologically reared children (N = 121). Controlling for caregiver-reported behavior problems prior to school entry, results from a multigroup SEM analysis suggested that there were significant relationships between foster care status and poor peer relations at school entry and between foster care status and the level of behavior problems prior to school entry for girls only. These Sex × Foster care status interactions suggest the need for gender-sensitive interventions with maltreated foster children. PMID:19234614

  5. The transition to automated practitioner order entry in a teaching hospital: the VA Puget Sound experience.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, T. H.

    1999-01-01

    We recently installed an automated practitioner order entry system on our busiest inpatient wards and critical care units. The installation followed 20 months preparation in which we created the workstation, network, and host infrastructure, developed requisite policies, recruited personnel to support the system, and installed the software in areas where the pace of order entry was less intense. Since implementing automated order entry, we have experienced problems such as an increase in time required for practitioners to enter orders, workflow changes on inpatient units, difficulties with patient transfers, and others. Our user support system has been heavily used during the transition period. Software tailoring and enhancements designed to address these problems are planned, as is installation of the order entry system in remaining clinical units in our medical centers. PMID:10566427

  6. Shuttle Entry Air Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, P. M., III

    1978-01-01

    The SEADS system (Shuttle Entry Air Data System) is being developed to provide research quality hypersonic (M greater than 3.5) air data. SEADS will accomplish this through the instrumentation of the orbiter's baseline nose cap. The SEADS development program consists of (1) the design and testing program required to define a reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) nose cap penetration concept which will not degrade nose cap performance, (2) the definition of analytical techniques and design criteria for array definition and flight data analysis, (3) the verification of these analytical techniques and array criteria through a comprehensive wind-tunnel test program, (4) the demonstration of the system concept through detailed testing, and (5) the analyses and tests required to flight-certify the SEADS system.

  7. 19 CFR 10.31 - Entry; bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for sale or sale on approval. (b) The port director, if he is satisfied as to the importer's identity... entry as to identity and quantity and for the purpose of accepting the entry under the applicable..., HTSUS, motion-picture advertising films entered under subheading 9813.00.25, HTSUS, and...

  8. Specification of the Model 3 Entry Lexicon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode, Mary

    The Model 3 communication skills lexicon consists of three lists of words developed by the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) for use in communication skills instruction in K-6. This report documents the procedures followed in compiling the entry lexicon, the first component of the Model 3 communication skills lexicon. The entry lexicon is…

  9. 47 CFR 90.713 - Entry criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Entry criteria. 90.713 Section 90.713 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Regulations Governing Licensing and Use of Frequencies in the 220-222 MHz Band § 90.713 Entry criteria. (a) As set forth in...

  10. Mars Pathfinder Atmosphere Entry Trajectory Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, David A.

    1995-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder spacecraft will enter the Martian atmosphere directly from the interplanetary trajectory, at a relatively high velocity. The design of the nominal entry trajectory, and the accurate determination of potential trajectory dispersions, is necessary for the development of the Pathfinder Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) System.

  11. 32 CFR 245.27 - Data entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Data entry. 245.27 Section 245.27 National... Under ESCAT § 245.27 Data entry. Aircraft will file IFR or VFR flight plans, assigned a discrete... entered in the remarks section of the flight plan. The EATPL number will be passed with flight plan...

  12. 32 CFR 245.27 - Data entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data entry. 245.27 Section 245.27 National... Under ESCAT § 245.27 Data entry. Aircraft will file IFR or VFR flight plans, assigned a discrete... entered in the remarks section of the flight plan. The EATPL number will be passed with flight plan...

  13. 32 CFR 245.27 - Data entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data entry. 245.27 Section 245.27 National... Under ESCAT § 245.27 Data entry. Aircraft will file IFR or VFR flight plans, assigned a discrete... entered in the remarks section of the flight plan. The EATPL number will be passed with flight plan...

  14. 32 CFR 245.27 - Data entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data entry. 245.27 Section 245.27 National... Under ESCAT § 245.27 Data entry. Aircraft will file IFR or VFR flight plans, assigned a discrete... entered in the remarks section of the flight plan. The EATPL number will be passed with flight plan...

  15. 32 CFR 245.27 - Data entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data entry. 245.27 Section 245.27 National... Under ESCAT § 245.27 Data entry. Aircraft will file IFR or VFR flight plans, assigned a discrete... entered in the remarks section of the flight plan. The EATPL number will be passed with flight plan...

  16. 19 CFR 147.11 - Entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) TRADE FAIRS Procedure for Importation § 147.11 Entry. (a) Made in name of fair operator. All entries of articles for a fair shall be made at the port in the name of the fair operator which shall be deemed for... exhibition purposes under the Trade Fair Act of 1959. Mark Number Package and contents Quality Invoice...

  17. 19 CFR 147.11 - Entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) TRADE FAIRS Procedure for Importation § 147.11 Entry. (a) Made in name of fair operator. All entries of articles for a fair shall be made at the port in the name of the fair operator which shall be deemed for... exhibition purposes under the Trade Fair Act of 1959. Mark Number Package and contents Quality Invoice...

  18. Space X First Entry Sample Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The toxicological assessment of one sample collected on May 26, 2012 and returned to earth on May 31, 2012 was analyzed for pollutants that had offgassed into the Dragon capsule by the time of first entry operations performed by the ISS crew. The components identified in the first-entry sample and their contributions to the total T-value are shown.

  19. 19 CFR 163.3 - Entry records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Entry records. 163.3 Section 163.3 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) RECORDKEEPING § 163.3 Entry records. Any person described in § 163.2(a) with reference to...

  20. 19 CFR 163.3 - Entry records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry records. 163.3 Section 163.3 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) RECORDKEEPING § 163.3 Entry records. Any person described in § 163.2(a) with reference to...

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic Power Generation in the Laboratory Simulated Martian Entry Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vuskovic, L.; Popovic, S.; Drake, J.; Moses, R. W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) conversion of the energy released during the planetary entry phase of an interplanetary vehicle trajectory. The effect of MHD conversion is multi-fold. It reduces and redirects heat transferred to the vehicle, and regenerates the dissipated energy in reusable and transportable form. A vehicle on an interplanetary mission carries about 10,000 kWh of kinetic energy per ton of its mass. This energy is dissipated into heat during the planetary atmospheric entry phase. For instance, the kinetic energy of Mars Pathfinder was about 4220 kWh. Based on the loss in velocity, Mars Pathfinder lost about 92.5% of that energy during the plasma-sustaining entry phase that is approximately 3900 kWh. An ideal MHD generator, distributed over the probe surface of Mars Pathfinder could convert more than 2000 kWh of this energy loss into electrical energy, which correspond to more than 50% of the kinetic energy loss. That means that the heat transferred to the probe surface can be reduced by at least 50% if the converted energy is adequately stored, or re-radiated, or directly used. Therefore, MHD conversion could act not only as the power generating, but also as the cooling process. In this paper we describe results of preliminary experiments with light and microwave emitters powered by model magnetohydrodynamic generators and discuss method for direct use of converted energy.

  2. Orion Entry Display Feeder and Interactions with the Entry Monitor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Darren; Bernatovich, Mike; Gillespie, Ellen; Kadwa, Binaifer; Matthews, Dave; Penny, Wes; Zak, Tim; Grant, Mike; Bihari, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft is designed to return astronauts to a landing within 10 km of the intended landing target from low Earth orbit, lunar direct-entry, and lunar skip-entry trajectories. Al pile the landing is nominally controlled autonomously, the crew can fly precision entries manually in the event of an anomaly. The onboard entry displays will be used by the crew to monitor and manually fly the entry, descent, and landing, while the Entry Monitor System (EMS) will be used to monitor the health and status of the onboard guidance and the trajectory. The entry displays are driven by the entry display feeder, part of the Entry Monitor System (EMS). The entry re-targeting module, also part of the EMS, provides all the data required to generate the capability footprint of the vehicle at any point in the trajectory, which is shown on the Primary Flight Display (PFD). It also provides caution and warning data and recommends the safest possible re-designated landing site when the nominal landing site is no longer within the capability of the vehicle. The PFD and the EMS allow the crew to manually fly an entry trajectory profile from entry interface until parachute deploy having the flexibility to manually steer the vehicle to a selected landing site that best satisfies the priorities of the crew. The entry display feeder provides data from the ENIS and other components of the GNC flight software to the displays at the proper rate and in the proper units. It also performs calculations that are specific to the entry displays and which are not made in any other component of the flight software. In some instances, it performs calculations identical to those performed by the onboard primary guidance algorithm to protect against a guidance system failure. These functions and the interactions between the entry display feeder and the other components of the EMS are described.

  3. 19 CFR 141.91 - Entry without required invoice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry without required invoice. 141.91 Section 141... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Invoices § 141.91 Entry without required invoice. If a required invoice is not available in proper form at the time the entry or entry summary documentation...

  4. 19 CFR 141.54 - Separate entries for consolidated shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Separate entries for consolidated shipments. 141... Entry § 141.54 Separate entries for consolidated shipments. When separate entries for consolidated... ultimate consignees who desire to make separate entries shall deposit with the port director evidence...

  5. 19 CFR 143.35 - Procedure for electronic entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Procedure for electronic entry summary. 143.35...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Electronic Entry Filing § 143.35 Procedure for electronic entry summary. In order to obtain entry summary processing electronically, the...

  6. 19 CFR 143.35 - Procedure for electronic entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure for electronic entry summary. 143.35...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Electronic Entry Filing § 143.35 Procedure for electronic entry summary. In order to obtain entry summary processing electronically, the...

  7. 19 CFR 143.35 - Procedure for electronic entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedure for electronic entry summary. 143.35...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Electronic Entry Filing § 143.35 Procedure for electronic entry summary. In order to obtain entry summary processing electronically, the...

  8. 19 CFR 143.35 - Procedure for electronic entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Procedure for electronic entry summary. 143.35...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Electronic Entry Filing § 143.35 Procedure for electronic entry summary. In order to obtain entry summary processing electronically, the...

  9. 19 CFR 143.35 - Procedure for electronic entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Procedure for electronic entry summary. 143.35...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Electronic Entry Filing § 143.35 Procedure for electronic entry summary. In order to obtain entry summary processing electronically, the...

  10. 19 CFR 142.11 - Entry summary form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry summary form. 142.11 Section 142.11 Customs... (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Entry Summary Documentation § 142.11 Entry summary form. (a) Customs Form 7501. The entry summary shall be on Customs Form 7501 unless a different form is prescribed elsewhere in...

  11. 19 CFR 142.11 - Entry summary form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Entry summary form. 142.11 Section 142.11 Customs... (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Entry Summary Documentation § 142.11 Entry summary form. (a) Customs Form 7501. The entry summary shall be on Customs Form 7501 unless a different form is prescribed elsewhere in...

  12. Abort-once-around entry corridor analysis program document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyle, H. C.

    1975-01-01

    The abort once around entry target corridor analysis program (ABECAP) was studied. The allowable range of flight path angles at entry interface for acceptable entry trajectories from a shuttle abort once around (AOA) situation was established. The solutions thus determined may be shown as corridor plots of entry interface flight path angle versus range from entry interface (EI) to the target.

  13. 19 CFR 142.3 - Entry documentation required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry documentation required. 142.3 Section 142.3... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Entry Documentation § 142.3 Entry documentation required. (a) Contents. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the entry documentation required to secure...

  14. Thermal Soak Analysis of Earth Entry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Parul; Sepka, Steven A.; Aliaga, Jose F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2012-01-01

    The Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle project is developing an integrated tool called Multi Mission System Analysis for Planetary Entry Descent and Landing that will provide key technology solutions including mass sizing, aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, and thermal and structural analysis for any given sample return mission. Thermal soak analysis and temperature predictions of various components including the payload container of the entry vehicle are part of the solution that this tool will offer to mission designers. The present paper focuses on the thermal soak analysis of an entry vehicle design based on the Mars Sample Return entry vehicle geometry and discusses a technical approach to develop parametric models for thermal soak analysis that will be integrated into the tool.

  15. Graduates' Personality Characteristics and Labor Market Entry an Empirical Study among Dutch Economics Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semeijn, J.; Boone, C.; van der Velden, R.; van Witteloostuijn, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we explore the value of personality characteristics in explaining success in labor market entry with a sample of graduates in economics from Maastricht University (the Netherlands). Specifically, the paper addresses the following twofold research question: does personality explain labor market outcomes, and how much weight does this…

  16. Obituary: Gordon Donaldson Obituary: Gordon Donaldson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegrum, Colin; Campbell, Archie; Hampshire, Damian

    2013-07-01

    Gordon Donaldson died in Glasgow on 28 November 2012 at the age of 71. He was born in Edinburgh and brought up and educated in Glasgow, which was his home city for much of his life. He was educated first at Glasgow Academy, and then with a scholarship at Christ's College Cambridge. Here he read Natural Sciences, finishing with first class honors in Physics. He then did a PhD on tunneling in superconductors in the Mond Laboratory, supervised by John Adkins. These were interesting times, since type II superconductors had only recently been identified, and the Mond was a leading player in the physics of vortices and other quantum effects. It was headed by Pippard and Shoenberg, and colleagues around that time were Brian Josephson, John Clarke, Colin Gough and John Waldram. On finishing his PhD in 1966 Gordon went straight to a lectureship at the University of Lancaster. In 1975 during a sabbatical at the University of California, Berkeley, with John Clarke's group, Gordon co-invented thin-film gradiometers with integrated DC SQUIDs. He then moved back to Glasgow, to the Department of Applied Physics at Strathclyde University, where he founded a new research group to make and use superconducting devices, especially SQUIDs and gradiometers. From modest beginnings the group grew steadily, acquiring new facilities and members, until in the 1990s it had over 20 members and a host of collaborators from elsewhere in Glasgow and abroad. With funding from the Wellcome Trust, Gordon and colleagues at Glasgow University and the Southern General Hospital in Glasgow set up a new biomagnetism facility in 1998 on the hospital campus to use SQUID gradiometers made at Strathclyde for measurements on patients and volunteers. Another of his main research interests was the use of SQUIDs for nondestructive evaluation (NDE). This started in the days before high temperature superconductors (HTS) with wire-wound gradiometers and niobium SQUIDs, soon moving on to miniature thin-film niobium integrated SQUID gradiometers. This was followed by major programs to develop and demonstrate HTS gradiometers for NDE. Gordon was appointed to a personal professorship in 1985 and became Professor of Applied Physics two years later. He was also head of department from 1984 to 1986 and again from 1993 to 1998. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and became Convener of their Physics Panel. He was also a Trustee of the James Clerk Maxwell Foundation. Gordon was much involved in teaching and in many university matters. He was particularly fond of the course How Things Work, which he developed and taught for fifteen years, that was so much in keeping with his passion for useful practical physics and science. After the explosion in HTS research, Gordon became the Coordinator for the National Committee for Superconductivity in the UK for three years from 1990. One of his important tasks was to coordinate the distribution of EPSRC funds to university groups and to support industrial activity. He did this with tact and good judgment. He knew everybody, understood what they were doing, and made sure that while the large groups were well supported, nobody was left out completely. This exercise could have led to resentment, but under his guidance it was a great success and it is a pity that similar exercises have not been tried since. He was a key member of the Low Temperature Group of the Institute of Physics in London, and became its Chairman for the last three years of his tenure. In 1998, he was invited to become editor of Superconductor Science and Technology (SuST). He was a referee for every paper in the journal during this period, which was an enormous task and very widely appreciated by the superconductivity community. He was particularly active during the discovery and commercialization of MgB2. He oversaw a smooth handover to his successor as Editor-in-Chief in 2007. Gordon's long list of publications and contributions to books attest to his advancement of superconducting technology. He will be especially remembered as an independent originator of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of materials and structures using SQUIDs, and for the advancement and use of the gradiometers developed at Berkeley for biomagnetic use. He organized and chaired two key conferences, the International Superconductive Electronics Conference in Glasgow in 1991 and then the 1995 European Conference on Applied Superconductivity in Edinburgh, together with many smaller specialist meetings. Since he retired he was afflicted with severe back problems, and unfortunately operations were not successful. He was confined to a wheelchair and later to the house, which was a great trial to him. Gordon was universally respected and liked both as a scientist and a person. He was sharp, humorous and excellent company on social occasions. He will be much missed by his many colleagues and friends at SuST and throughout science, as well as by his family.

  17. Obituary: Gordon Donaldson Obituary: Gordon Donaldson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegrum, Colin; Campbell, Archie; Hampshire, Damian

    2013-07-01

    Gordon Donaldson died in Glasgow on 28 November 2012 at the age of 71. He was born in Edinburgh and brought up and educated in Glasgow, which was his home city for much of his life. He was educated first at Glasgow Academy, and then with a scholarship at Christ's College Cambridge. Here he read Natural Sciences, finishing with first class honors in Physics. He then did a PhD on tunneling in superconductors in the Mond Laboratory, supervised by John Adkins. These were interesting times, since type II superconductors had only recently been identified, and the Mond was a leading player in the physics of vortices and other quantum effects. It was headed by Pippard and Shoenberg, and colleagues around that time were Brian Josephson, John Clarke, Colin Gough and John Waldram. On finishing his PhD in 1966 Gordon went straight to a lectureship at the University of Lancaster. In 1975 during a sabbatical at the University of California, Berkeley, with John Clarke's group, Gordon co-invented thin-film gradiometers with integrated DC SQUIDs. He then moved back to Glasgow, to the Department of Applied Physics at Strathclyde University, where he founded a new research group to make and use superconducting devices, especially SQUIDs and gradiometers. From modest beginnings the group grew steadily, acquiring new facilities and members, until in the 1990s it had over 20 members and a host of collaborators from elsewhere in Glasgow and abroad. With funding from the Wellcome Trust, Gordon and colleagues at Glasgow University and the Southern General Hospital in Glasgow set up a new biomagnetism facility in 1998 on the hospital campus to use SQUID gradiometers made at Strathclyde for measurements on patients and volunteers. Another of his main research interests was the use of SQUIDs for nondestructive evaluation (NDE). This started in the days before high temperature superconductors (HTS) with wire-wound gradiometers and niobium SQUIDs, soon moving on to miniature thin-film niobium integrated SQUID gradiometers. This was followed by major programs to develop and demonstrate HTS gradiometers for NDE. Gordon was appointed to a personal professorship in 1985 and became Professor of Applied Physics two years later. He was also head of department from 1984 to 1986 and again from 1993 to 1998. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and became Convener of their Physics Panel. He was also a Trustee of the James Clerk Maxwell Foundation. Gordon was much involved in teaching and in many university matters. He was particularly fond of the course How Things Work, which he developed and taught for fifteen years, that was so much in keeping with his passion for useful practical physics and science. After the explosion in HTS research, Gordon became the Coordinator for the National Committee for Superconductivity in the UK for three years from 1990. One of his important tasks was to coordinate the distribution of EPSRC funds to university groups and to support industrial activity. He did this with tact and good judgment. He knew everybody, understood what they were doing, and made sure that while the large groups were well supported, nobody was left out completely. This exercise could have led to resentment, but under his guidance it was a great success and it is a pity that similar exercises have not been tried since. He was a key member of the Low Temperature Group of the Institute of Physics in London, and became its Chairman for the last three years of his tenure. In 1998, he was invited to become editor of Superconductor Science and Technology (SuST). He was a referee for every paper in the journal during this period, which was an enormous task and very widely appreciated by the superconductivity community. He was particularly active during the discovery and commercialization of MgB2. He oversaw a smooth handover to his successor as Editor-in-Chief in 2007. Gordon's long list of publications and contributions to books attest to his advancement of superconducting technology. He will be especially remembered as an independent originator of

  18. LABORATORY VOICE DATA ENTRY SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    PRAISSMAN,J.L.SUTHERLAND,J.C.

    2003-04-01

    We have assembled a system using a personal computer workstation equipped with standard office software, an audio system, speech recognition software and an inexpensive radio-based wireless microphone that permits laboratory workers to enter or modify data while performing other work. Speech recognition permits users to enter data while their hands are holding equipment or they are otherwise unable to operate a keyboard. The wireless microphone allows unencumbered movement around the laboratory without a ''tether'' that might interfere with equipment or experimental procedures. To evaluate the potential of voice data entry in a laboratory environment, we developed a prototype relational database that records the disposal of radionuclides and/or hazardous chemicals Current regulations in our laboratory require that each such item being discarded must be inventoried and documents must be prepared that summarize the contents of each container used for disposal. Using voice commands, the user enters items into the database as each is discarded. Subsequently, the program prepares the required documentation.

  19. Computerized provider order entry systems.

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    Computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems are designed to replace a hospital's paper-based ordering system. They allow users to electronically write the full range of orders, maintain an online medication administration record, and review changes made to an order by successive personnel. They also offer safety alerts that are triggered when an unsafe order (such as for a duplicate drug therapy) is entered, as well as clinical decision support to guide caregivers to less expensive alternatives or to choices that better fit established hospital protocols. CPOE systems can, when correctly configured, markedly increase efficiency and improve patient safety and patient care. However, facilities need to recognize that currently available CPOE systems require a tremendous amount of time and effort to be spent in customization before their safety and clinical support features can be effectively implemented. What's more, even after they've been customized, the systems may still allow certain unsafe orders to be entered. Thus, CPOE systems are not currently a quick or easy remedy for medical errors. ECRI's Evaluation of CPOE systems--conducted in collaboration with the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP)--discusses these and other related issues. It also examines and compares CPOE systems from three suppliers: Eclipsys Corp., IDX Systems Corp., and Siemens Medical Solutions Health Services Corp. Our testing focuses primarily on the systems' interfacing capabilities, patient safeguards, and ease of use. PMID:11696968

  20. Retrovirus Entry by Endocytosis and Cathepsin Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Yoshinao; Hayashi, Hideki; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Sato, Hironori; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Retroviruses include infectious agents inducing severe diseases in humans and animals. In addition, retroviruses are widely used as tools to transfer genes of interest to target cells. Understanding the entry mechanism of retroviruses contributes to developments of novel therapeutic approaches against retrovirus-induced diseases and efficient exploitation of retroviral vectors. Entry of enveloped viruses into host cell cytoplasm is achieved by fusion between the viral envelope and host cell membranes at either the cell surface or intracellular vesicles. Many animal retroviruses enter host cells through endosomes and require endosome acidification. Ecotropic murine leukemia virus entry requires cathepsin proteases activated by the endosome acidification. CD4-dependent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is thought to occur via endosomes, but endosome acidification is not necessary for the entry whereas entry of CD4-independent HIVs, which are thought to be prototypes of CD4-dependent viruses, is low pH dependent. There are several controversial results on the retroviral entry pathways. Because endocytosis and endosome acidification are complicatedly controlled by cellular mechanisms, the retrovirus entry pathways may be different in different cell lines. PMID:23304142

  1. Modeling late entry bias in survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Masaaki; Eguchi, Shinto

    2005-06-01

    In a failure time analysis, we sometimes observe additional study subjects who enter during the study period. These late entries are treated as left-truncated data in the statistical literature. However, with real data, there is a substantial possibility that the delayed entries may have extremely different hazards compared to the other standard subjects. We focus on a situation in which such entry bias might arise in the analysis of survival data. The purpose of the present article is to develop an appropriate methodology for making inference about data including late entries. We construct a model that includes parameters for the effect of delayed entry bias having no specification for the distribution of entry time. We also discuss likelihood inference based on this model and derive the asymptotic behavior of estimates. A simulation study is conducted for a finite sample size in order to compare the analysis results using our method with those using the standard method, where independence between entry time and failure time is assumed. We apply this method to mortality analysis among atomic bomb survivors defined in a geographical study region. PMID:16011705

  2. Entry Guidance for the Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping

    1999-01-01

    The X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator is a half-scale prototype developed to test the key technologies needed for a full-scale single-stage reusable launch vehicle (RLV). The X-33 is a suborbital vehicle that will be launched vertically, and land horizontally. The goals of this research were to develop an alternate entry guidance scheme for the X-33 in parallel to the actual X-33 entry guidance algorithms, provide comparative and complementary study, and identify potential new ways to improve entry guidance performance. Toward these goals, the nominal entry trajectory is defined by a piecewise linear drag-acceleration-versus-energy profile, which is in turn obtained by the solution of a semi-analytical parameter optimization problem. The closed-loop guidance is accomplished by tracking the nominal drag profile with primarily bank-angle modulation on-board. The bank-angle is commanded by a single full-envelope nonlinear trajectory control law. Near the end of the entry flight, the guidance logic is switched to heading control in order to meet strict conditions at the terminal area energy management interface. Two methods, one on ground-track control and the other on heading control, were proposed and examined for this phase of entry guidance where lateral control is emphasized. Trajectory dispersion studies were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the entry guidance algorithms against a number of uncertainties including those in propulsion system, atmospheric properties, winds, aerodynamics, and propellant loading. Finally, a new trajectory-regulation method is introduced at the end as a promising precision entry guidance method. The guidance principle is very different and preliminary application in X-33 entry guidance simulation showed high precision that is difficult to achieve by existing methods.

  3. Stakeholder identification of advanced technology opportunities at international ports of entry

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, S.K.; Icerman, L.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the Advanced Technologies for International and Intermodal Ports of Entry (ATIPE) Project, a diverse group of stakeholders was engaged to help identify problems experienced at inland international border crossings, particularly those at the US-Mexican border. The fundamental issue at international ports of entry is reducing transit time through the required documentation and inspection processes. Examples of other issues or problems, typically manifested as time delays at border crossings, repeatedly mentioned by stakeholders include: (1) lack of document standardization; (2) failure to standardize inspection processes; (3) inadequate information and communications systems; (4) manual fee and tariff collection; (5) inconsistency of processes and procedures; and (6) suboptimal cooperation among governmental agencies. Most of these issues can be addressed to some extent by the development of advanced technologies with the objective of allowing ports of entry to become more efficient while being more effective. Three categories of technologies were unambiguously of high priority to port of entry stakeholders: (1) automated documentation; (2) systems integration; and (3) vehicle and cargo tracking. Together, these technologies represent many of the technical components necessary for pre-clearance of freight approaching international ports of entry. Integration of vehicle and cargo tracking systems with port of entry information and communications systems, as well as existing industry legacy systems, should further enable border crossings to be accomplished consistently with optimal processing times.

  4. Physical security workshop summary: entry control

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Entry control hardware has been used extensively in the past to assist security forces in separating the authorized from the unauthorized at the plant perimeter. As more attention is being focused on the insider threat, these entry control elements are being used to extend the security inspectors' presence into the plant by compartmentalizing access and monitoring vital components. This paper summarizes the experiences expressed by the participants at the March 16 to 19, 1982 INMM Physical Protection Workshop in utilizing access control and contraband detection hardware for plant wide entry control applications.

  5. Entry, Descent, and Landing With Propulsive Deceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    The future exploration of the Solar System will require innovations in transportation and the use of entry, descent, and landing (EDL) systems at many planetary landing sites. The cost of space missions has always been prohibitive, and using the natural planetary and planet s moons atmospheres for entry, descent, and landing can reduce the cost, mass, and complexity of these missions. This paper will describe some of the EDL ideas for planetary entry and survey the overall technologies for EDL that may be attractive for future Solar System missions.

  6. Advances in spacecraft atmospheric entry guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito Manrique, Joel

    In order to advance entry guidance technology two different research areas have been explored with the objective of increasing the reachable landing area and the landing accuracy for future Mars missions. Currently only the northern hemisphere of Mars is available for landing due to its low elevation. Only low elevation landing sites have the necessary atmospheric density to allow landing using current Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology. In order to reach most of the Ancient Highlands, the majority of the southern hemisphere, advanced EDL technology is needed in multiple fields, including entry guidance. The first research area is the definition and applications of reachable and controllable sets for entry. The definition of the reachable and controllable sets provides a framework for the study of the capabilities of an entry vehicle in a given planet. Reachable and controllable sets can be used to comprehensively characterize the envelope of trajectories that a vehicle can fly, the sites it can reach and the entry states that can be accommodated. The sets can also be used for the evaluation of trajectory planning algorithms and to assist in the selection of the entry or landing sites. In essence, the reachable and controllable sets offer a powerful vehicle and trajectory analysis and design framework that allows for better mission design choices. In order to illustrate the use of the sets, they are computed for a representative Mars mission using two different vehicle configurations. The sets characterize the impact of the vehicle configuration on the entry capability. Furthermore, the sets are used to find the best skip-entry trajectory for a return from the Moon mission, highlighting the utility of the sets in atmospheric maneuvers other than entry. The second research area is the development of the components of an entry guidance algorithm that allow high elevation landing and provide as well high landing accuracy. The approach taken follows the

  7. Texting while driving: is speech-based text entry less risky than handheld text entry?

    PubMed

    He, J; Chaparro, A; Nguyen, B; Burge, R J; Crandall, J; Chaparro, B; Ni, R; Cao, S

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design and driving safety training. This study compared the effect of speech-based versus handheld text entries on simulated driving performance by asking participants to perform a car following task while controlling the duration of a secondary text-entry task. Results showed that both speech-based and handheld text entries impaired driving performance relative to the drive-only condition by causing more variation in speed and lane position. Handheld text entry also increased the brake response time and increased variation in headway distance. Text entry using a speech-based cell phone was less detrimental to driving performance than handheld text entry. Nevertheless, the speech-based text entry task still significantly impaired driving compared to the drive-only condition. These results suggest that speech-based text entry disrupts driving, but reduces the level of performance interference compared to text entry with a handheld device. In addition, the difference in the distraction effect caused by speech-based and handheld text entry is not simply due to the difference in task duration. PMID:25089769

  8. Aerocapture Inflatable Decelerator for Planetary Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reza, Sajjad; Hund, Richard; Kustas, Frank; Willcockson, William; Songer, Jarvis; Brown, Glen

    2007-01-01

    Forward Attached Inflatable Decelerators, more commonly known as inflatable aeroshells, provide an effective, cost efficient means of decelerating spacecrafts by using atmospheric drag for aerocapture or planetary entry instead of conventional liquid propulsion deceleration systems. Entry into planetary atmospheres results in significant heating and aerodynamic pressures which stress aeroshell systems to their useful limits. Incorporation of lightweight inflatable decelerator surfaces with increased surface-area footprints provides the opportunity to reduce heat flux and induced temperatures, while increasing the payload mass fraction. Furthermore, inflatable aeroshell decelerators provide the needed deceleration at considerably higher altitudes and Mach numbers when compared with conventional rigid aeroshell entry systems. Inflatable aeroshells also provide for stowage in a compact space, with subsequent deployment of a large-area, lightweight heatshield to survive entry heating. Use of a deployable heatshield decelerator enables an increase in the spacecraft payload mass fraction and may eliminate the need for a spacecraft backshell.

  9. Generic aerocapture atmospheric entry study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An atmospheric entry study to fine a generic aerocapture vehicle capable of missions to Mars, Saturn, and Uranus is reported. A single external geometry was developed through atmospheric entry simulations. Aerocapture is a system design concept which uses an aerodynamically controlled atmospheric entry to provide the necessary velocity depletion to capture payloads into planetary orbit. Design concepts are presented which provide the control accuracy required while giving thermal protection for the mission payload. The system design concepts consist of the following elements: (1) an extendable biconic aerodynamic configuration with lift to drag ratio between 1.0 and 2.0; (2) roll control system concepts to control aerodynamic lift and disturbance torques; (3) aeroshell design concepts capable of meeting dynamic pressure loads during aerocapture; and (4) entry thermal protection system design concepts to meet thermodynamic loads during aerocapture.

  10. Multiscale perspectives of virus entry via endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Most viruses take advantage of endocytic pathways to gain entry into host cells and initiate infections. Understanding of virus entry via endocytosis is critically important for the design of antiviral strategies. Virus entry via endocytosis is a complex process involving hundreds of cellular proteins. The entire process is dictated by events occurring at multiple time and length scales. In this review, we discuss and evaluate the available means to investigate virus endocytic entry, from both experimental and theoretical/numerical modeling fronts, and highlight the importance of multiscale features. The complexity of the process requires investigations at a systems biology level, which involves the combination of different experimental approaches, the collaboration of experimentalists and theorists across different disciplines, and the development of novel multiscale models. PMID:23734580

  11. Remodeling of Calcium Entry Pathways in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Carlos; Sobradillo, Diego; Hernández-Morales, Miriam; Núñez, Lucía

    2016-01-01

    Ca(2+) entry pathways play important roles in control of many cellular functions, including long-term proliferation, migration and cell death. In recent years, it is becoming increasingly clear that, in some types of tumors, remodeling of Ca(2+) entry pathways could contribute to cancer hallmarks such as excessive proliferation, cell migration and invasion as well as resistance to cell death or survival. In this chapter we briefly review findings related to remodeling of Ca(2+) entry pathways in cancer with emphasis on the mechanisms that contribute to increased store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) and store-operated currents (SOCs) in colorectal cancer cells. Finally, since SOCE appears critically involved in colon tumorogenesis, the inhibition of SOCE by aspirin and other NSAIDs and its possible contribution to colon cancer chemoprevention is reviewed. PMID:27161240

  12. Submerged Entry Nozzles that Resist Clogging

    SciTech Connect

    2001-04-01

    Development Of Submerged Entry Nozzles (SENs) Can Incrase Yields, Improve Product Quality, And Increase Productivity In Continuous Casting Of Steel, A Process Used For The Production Of 95% Of Steel In The U.S.

  13. Entry, Descent, and Landing Operations Analysis for the Genesis Re-Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Lyons, Dan T.

    2005-01-01

    On September 8, 2004, the Genesis spacecraft returned to Earth after spending 29 months about the sun-Earth libration point collecting solar wind particles. Four hours prior to Earth arrival, the entry capsule containing the samples was released for entry and subsequent landing at the Utah Test and Training Range. This paper provides an overview of the entry, descent, and landing trajectory analysis that was performed during the Mission Operations Phase leading up to final approach to Earth. The operations effort accurately delivered the entry capsule to the desired landing site. The final landing location was 8.3 km from the target, and was well within the allowable landing area. Preliminary reconstruction analyses indicate that the actual entry trajectory was very close to the pre-entry prediction.

  14. Transmission strategies for atmospheric entry probes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butman, S.

    1972-01-01

    In this article we shall be concerned with the question of how to maximize the expected data return when the channel capacity cannot be predicted in advance. An example of this type is a planetary entry probe to Venus or Jupiter, whose atmospheric transmission characteristics are not yet fully known. And even if they were known, these transmission characteristics would be subject to unpredictable changes due to planet weather and/or entry trajectory.

  15. Entry/Exit Port testing, test report

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelman, R.H.

    1993-05-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module I (WRAP-1) facility must have the ability to allow 55-gallon drums to enter and exit glovebox enclosures. An Entry/Exit Port (Appendix 1, Figure 1), designed by United Engineers and Constructors (UE&C), is one method chosen for drum transfer. The Entry/Exit Port is to be used for entry of 55-gallon drums into both process entry gloveboxes, exit of 55-gallon drum waste pucks from the low-level waste (LLW) glovebox, and loadout of waste from the restricted waste management glovebox. The Entry/Exit Port relies on capture velocity air flow and a neoprene seal to provide alpha confinement when the Port is in the open and closed positions, respectively. Since the glovebox is in a slight vacuum, air flow is directed into the glovebox through the space between the overpack drum and glovebox floor. The air flow is to direct any airborne contamination into the glovebox. A neoprene seal is used to seal the Port door to the glovebox floor, thus maintaining confinement in the closed position. Entry/Exit Port testing took place February 17, 1993, through April 14, 1993, in the 305 building of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Testing was performed in accordance with the Entry/Exit Port Testing Test Plan, document number WHC-SD-WO26-TP-005. A prototype Entry/Exit Port built at the Hanford Site was tested using fluorescent paint pigment and smoke candles as simulant contaminants. This test report is an interim test report. Further developmental testing is required to test modifications made to the Port as the original design of the Port did not provide complete confinement during all stages of operation.

  16. Models of radon entry: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Gadgil, A.J.

    1991-08-01

    This paper reviews existing models of radon entry into houses. The primary mechanism of radon entry in houses with high indoor concentrations is, in most cases, convective entry of radon bearing soil-gas from the surrounding soil. The driving force for this convective entry is the small indoor-outdoor pressure difference arising from the stack effect and other causes. Entry points for the soil-gas generally are the cracks or gaps in the building substructure, or though other parts of the building shell in direct contact with the soil, although entry may also occur by flow though permeable concrete or cinder block walls of the substructure. Models using analytical solutions to idealized geometrical configurations with simplified boundary conditions obtain analytical tractability of equations to be solved at the cost of severe approximations; their strength is in the insights they offer with their solutions. Models based on lumped parameters attempt to characterize the significant physical behavioral characteristics of the soil-gas and radon flow. When realistic approximations are desired for the boundary conditions and terms in the governing equations, numerical models must be used; these are usually based on finite difference or finite element solutions to the governing equations. Limited data are now available for experimental verification of model predictions. The models are briefly reviewed and their strengths and limitations are discussed.

  17. Orion Capsule Handling Qualities for Atmospheric Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tigges, Michael A.; Bihari, Brian D.; Stephens, John-Paul; Vos, Gordon A.; Bilimoria, Karl D.; Mueller, Eric R.; Law, Howard G.; Johnson, Wyatt; Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Two piloted simulations were conducted at NASA's Johnson Space Center using the Cooper-Harper scale to study the handling qualities of the Orion Command Module capsule during atmospheric entry flight. The simulations were conducted using high fidelity 6-DOF simulators for Lunar Return Skip Entry and International Space Station Return Direct Entry flight using bank angle steering commands generated by either the Primary (PredGuid) or Backup (PLM) guidance algorithms. For both evaluations, manual control of bank angle began after descending through Entry Interface into the atmosphere until drogue chutes deployment. Pilots were able to use defined bank management and reversal criteria to accurately track the bank angle commands, and stay within flight performance metrics of landing accuracy, g-loads, and propellant consumption, suggesting that the pilotability of Orion under manual control is both achievable and provides adequate trajectory performance with acceptable levels of pilot effort. Another significant result of these analyses is the applicability of flying a complex entry task under high speed entry flight conditions relevant to the next generation Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle return from Mars and Near Earth Objects.

  18. Nipah virus entry can occur by macropinocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Pernet, Olivier; Pohl, Christine; Ainouze, Michelle; Kweder, Hasan; Buckland, Robin

    2009-12-20

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic biosafety level 4 paramyxovirus that emerged recently in Asia with high mortality in man. NiV is a member, with Hendra virus (HeV), of the Henipavirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family. Although NiV entry, like that of other paramyxoviruses, is believed to occur via pH-independent fusion with the host cell's plasma membrane we present evidence that entry can occur by an endocytic pathway. The NiV receptor ephrinB2 has receptor kinase activity and we find that ephrinB2's cytoplasmic domain is required for entry but is dispensable for post-entry viral spread. The mutation of a single tyrosine residue (Y304F) in ephrinB2's cytoplasmic tail abrogates NiV entry. Moreover, our results show that NiV entry is inhibited by constructions and drugs specific for the endocytic pathway of macropinocytosis. Our findings could potentially permit the rapid development of novel low-cost antiviral treatments not only for NiV but also HeV.

  19. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems. PMID:21537142

  20. Planetary/DOD entry technology flight experiments. Volume 2: Planetary entry flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, H. E.; Krieger, R. J.; Mcneilly, W. R.; Vetter, H. C.

    1976-01-01

    The technical feasibility of launching a high speed, earth entry vehicle from the space shuttle to advance technology for the exploration of the outer planets' atmospheres was established. Disciplines of thermodynamics, orbital mechanics, aerodynamics propulsion, structures, design, electronics and system integration focused on the goal of producing outer planet environments on a probe shaped vehicle during an earth entry. Major aspects of analysis and vehicle design studied include: planetary environments, earth entry environment capability, mission maneuvers, capabilities of shuttle upper stages, a comparison of earth entry planetary environments, experiment design and vehicle design.

  1. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  2. Communities Address Barriers to Connectivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Rural areas lag behind urban areas in access to information technologies. Public institutions play a critical role in extending the benefits of information technologies to those who would not otherwise have access. The most successful rural telecommunications plans address barriers to use, such as unawareness of the benefits, technophobia, the…

  3. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  4. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2013-03-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  5. State of the Lab Address

    SciTech Connect

    King, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  6. 19 CFR 141.53 - Procedure for separate entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure for separate entries. 141.53 Section 141....53 Procedure for separate entries. When separate entries for one consignment are made in accordance... simultaneously when practicable. (b) A separate consignee's declaration shall be filed for each entry. (c)...

  7. 19 CFR 141.52 - Separate entries for different portions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Separate entries for different portions. 141.52... Entry § 141.52 Separate entries for different portions. If the port director is satisfied that there... conduct of Customs business, separate entries may be made for different portions of all...

  8. 7 CFR 319.24-5 - Condition of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Regulations Governing Entry of Indian Corn Or Maize § 319.24-5 Condition of entry. The corn shall not be removed from the port of entry... Quarantine Programs, that the corn has been properly sterilized and released for entry without...

  9. 7 CFR 319.24-5 - Condition of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Regulations Governing Entry of Indian Corn Or Maize § 319.24-5 Condition of entry. The corn shall not be removed from the port of entry... Quarantine Programs, that the corn has been properly sterilized and released for entry without...

  10. 7 CFR 319.24-5 - Condition of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Regulations Governing Entry of Indian Corn Or Maize § 319.24-5 Condition of entry. The corn shall not be removed from the port of entry... Quarantine Programs, that the corn has been properly sterilized and released for entry without...

  11. 7 CFR 319.24-5 - Condition of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Regulations Governing Entry of Indian Corn Or Maize § 319.24-5 Condition of entry. The corn shall not be removed from the port of entry... Quarantine Programs, that the corn has been properly sterilized and released for entry without...

  12. 50 CFR 660.334 - Limited entry permits-endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.334 Limited entry permits-endorsements. (a) “A” endorsement. A limited entry permit with an “A” endorsement entitles the holder to participate in the limited entry fishery for all groundfish species with the type(s) of limited entry gear specified in the endorsement, except for...

  13. 19 CFR 143.21 - Merchandise eligible for informal entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Merchandise eligible for informal entry. 143.21 Section 143.21 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Informal Entry § 143.21 Merchandise eligible for informal entry. The following types...

  14. 19 CFR 143.21 - Merchandise eligible for informal entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Merchandise eligible for informal entry. 143.21 Section 143.21 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Informal Entry § 143.21 Merchandise eligible for informal entry. The following types...

  15. 19 CFR 143.21 - Merchandise eligible for informal entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Merchandise eligible for informal entry. 143.21 Section 143.21 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Informal Entry § 143.21 Merchandise eligible for informal entry. The following types...

  16. 19 CFR 142.3 - Entry documentation required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Entry documentation required. 142.3 Section 142.3 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Entry Documentation § 142.3 Entry documentation required. (a) Contents. Except as provided in paragraph (b)...

  17. 19 CFR 143.11 - Merchandise eligible for appraisement entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Merchandise eligible for appraisement entry. 143.11 Section 143.11 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Appraisement Entry § 143.11 Merchandise eligible for appraisement entry. (a)...

  18. 19 CFR 142.44 - Entry number range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Entry number range. 142.44 Section 142.44 Customs... (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.44 Entry number range. After an application for Line Release has received final approval, filers must provide the port director, in writing, with a range of entry...

  19. 19 CFR 142.44 - Entry number range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Entry number range. 142.44 Section 142.44 Customs... (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.44 Entry number range. After an application for Line Release has received final approval, filers must provide the port director, in writing, with a range of entry...

  20. Lowering Entry Barriers for Multidisciplinary Cyber(e)-Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, S.

    2012-04-01

    Multidisciplinarity is more and more important to study the Earth System and address Global Changes. To achieve that, multidisciplinary cyber(e)-infrastructures are an important instrument. In the last years, several European, US and international initiatives have been started to carry out multidisciplinary infrastructures, including: the Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE), the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES), the Data Observation Network for Earth (DataOne), and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The majority of these initiatives are developing service-based digital infrastructures asking scientific Communities (i.e. disciplinary Users and data Producers) to implement a set of standards for information interoperability. For scientific Communities, this has represented an entry barrier which has proved to be high, in several cases. In fact, both data Producers and Users do not seem to be willing to invest precious resources to become expert on interoperability solutions -on the contrary, they are focused on developing disciplinary and thematic capacities. Therefore, an important research topic is lowering entry barriers for joining multidisciplinary cyber(e)-Infrastructures. This presentation will introduce a new approach to achieve multidisciplinary interoperability underpinning multidisciplinary infrastructures and lowering the present entry barriers for both Users and data Producers. This is called the Brokering approach: it extends the service-based paradigm by introducing a new a Brokering layer or cloud which is in charge of managing all the interoperability complexity (e.g. data discovery, access, and use) thus easing Users' and Producers' burden. This approach was successfully experimented in the framework of several European FP7 Projects and in GEOSS.

  1. Mars 2020 Entry, Descent and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Deepak; Wright, Henry; White, Todd; Schoenenberger, Mark; Santos, Jose; Karlgaard, Chris; Kuhl, Chris; Oishi, TOmo; Trombetta, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    This paper will introduce Mars Entry Descent and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI2) on NASA's Mars2020 mission. Mars2020 is a flagship NASA mission with science and technology objectives to help answer questions about possibility of life on Mars as well as to demonstrate technologies for future human expedition. Mars2020 is scheduled for launch in 2020. MEDLI2 is a suite of instruments embedded in the heatshield and backshell thermal protection systems of Mars2020 entry vehicle. The objectives of MEDLI2 are to gather critical aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics and TPS performance data during EDL phase of the mission. MEDLI2 builds up the success of MEDLI flight instrumentation on Mars Science Laboratory mission in 2012. MEDLI instrumentation suite measured surface pressure and TPS temperature on the heatshield during MSL entry into Mars. MEDLI data has since been used for unprecedented reconstruction of aerodynamic drag, vehicle attitude, in-situ atmospheric density, aerothermal heating, transition to turbulence, in-depth TPS performance and TPS ablation. [1,2] In addition to validating predictive models, MEDLI data has highlighted extra margin available in the MSL forebody TPS, which can potentially be used to reduce vehicle parasitic mass. MEDLI2 expands the scope of instrumentation by focusing on quantities of interest not addressed in MEDLI suite. The type the sensors are expanded and their layout on the TPS modified to meet these new objectives. The paper will provide key motivation and governing requirements that drive the choice and the implementation of the new sensor suite. The implementation considerations of sensor selection, qualification, and demonstration of minimal risk to the host mission will be described. The additional challenges associated with mechanical accommodation, electrical impact, data storage and retrieval for MEDLI2 system, which extends sensors to backshell will also be described.

  2. 19 CFR 10.112 - Filing free entry documents or reduced duty documents after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Filing free entry documents or reduced duty documents after entry. 10.112 Section 10.112 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A...

  3. 19 CFR 10.112 - Filing free entry documents or reduced duty documents after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Filing free entry documents or reduced duty documents after entry. 10.112 Section 10.112 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A...

  4. 19 CFR 10.112 - Filing free entry documents or reduced duty documents after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Filing free entry documents or reduced duty documents after entry. 10.112 Section 10.112 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A...

  5. Atmospheric Entry Studies for Venus Missions: 45 Sphere-Cone Rigid Aeroshells and Ballistic Entries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Spilker, Thomas R.; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Hwang, Helen H.; Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Moses, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study considers direct ballistic entries into the atmosphere of Venus using a 45deg sphere-cone rigid aeroshell, a legacy shape that has been used successfully in the past in the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe Mission. For a number of entry mass and heatshield diameter combinations (i.e., various ballistic coefficients) and entry velocities, the trajectory space in terms of entry flight path angles between skip out and -30deg is explored with a 3DoF trajectory code, TRAJ. From these trajectories, the viable entry flight path angle space is determined through the use of mechanical and thermal performance limits on the thermal protection material and science payload; the thermal protection material of choice is entry-grade carbon phenolic, for which a material thermal response model is available. For mechanical performance, a 200 g limit is placed on the peak deceleration load experienced by the science instruments, and 10 bar is assumed as the pressure limit for entry-grade carbon-phenolic material. For thermal performance, inflection points in the total heat load distribution are used as cut off criteria. Analysis of the results shows the existence of a range of critical ballistic coefficients beyond which the steepest possible entries are determined by the pressure limit of the material rather than the deceleration load limit.

  6. 19 CFR 18.11 - Entry; classes of goods for which entry is authorized; form used.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... reloading of the stock may be done under Customs supervision. (e) Entries for immediate transportation... without appraisement covering textiles and textile products subject to section 204, Agricultural Act of... approximate correctness of the value and quantity stated in the entry (e.g. Detailed quantity description,...

  7. 19 CFR 18.11 - Entry; classes of goods for which entry is authorized; form used.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... reloading of the stock may be done under Customs supervision. (e) Entries for immediate transportation... without appraisement covering textiles and textile products subject to section 204, Agricultural Act of... approximate correctness of the value and quantity stated in the entry (e.g. Detailed quantity description,...

  8. 75 FR 82241 - Technical Correction: Completion of Entry and Entry Summary-Declaration of Value

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 49939) implementing the Act's first sale declaration requirement that for a... Correction: Completion of Entry and Entry Summary-- Declaration of Value AGENCY: Customs and Border... indicate on the CBP Form 7501 the manner by which the declared transaction value on imported...

  9. 76 FR 82315 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Entry/Immediate Delivery Application and Simplified Entry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register (76 FR 66740) on October 27, 2011, allowing for a... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Entry/Immediate Delivery Application and Simplified Entry AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department...

  10. 76 FR 8294 - Technical Correction: Completion of Entry and Entry Summary-Declaration of Value; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U. S. Customs and Border Protection 19 CFR Part 141 RIN 1515-AD61 (Formerly 1505-AB96) Technical Correction: Completion of Entry and Entry Summary-- Declaration of Value; Correction AGENCY: Customs...

  11. Hybrid Entry Ship: A Conceptual Entry-Descent and Surveillance Platform for Venus Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Mr.; Saroha, Mr.; Priyadarshi, Mr.; Limaye, Mr.

    2015-04-01

    A hybrid entry ship concept which will enter from low Venus orbit. It will undergo series of changes in its configuration to meet an optimal entry-descent and surveillance sequence. It houses payloads upto 300 kg. Available power to payload is 250W.

  12. 76 FR 66875 - Informal Entry Limit and Removal of a Formal Entry Requirement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... quotas under the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing, CBP no longer needs to require formal entries for... for these articles due to the elimination of absolute quotas and visa requirements for textile..., which requires the use of a formal entry and visa or export license for certain shipments of textile...

  13. Entry control system for large populations

    SciTech Connect

    Merillat, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    An Entry Control System has been developed which is appropriate for use at an installation with a large population requiring access over a large area. This is accomplished by centralizing the data base management and enrollment functions and decentralizing the guard-assisted, positive personnel identification and access functions. Current information pertaining to all enrollees is maintained through user-friendly enrollment stations. These stations may be used to enroll individuals, alter their area access authorizations, change expiration dates, and other similar functions. An audit trail of data base alterations is provided to the System Manager. Decentrailized systems exist at each area to which access is controlled. The central system provides these systems with the necessary entry control information to allow them to operate microprocessor-driven entry control devices. The system is comprised of commercially available entry control components and is structured such that it will be able to incorporate improved devices as technology porogresses. Currently, access is granted to individuals who possess a valid credential, have current access authorization, can supply a memorized personal identification number, and whose physical hand dimensions match their profile obtained during enrollment. The entry control devices report misuses as security violations to a Guard Alarm Display and Assessment System.

  14. Thermal Analysis Methods For Earth Entry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.; Dec, John A.; Lindell, Michael C.

    2000-01-01

    Thermal analysis of a vehicle designed to return samples from another planet, such as the Earth Entry vehicle for the Mars Sample Return mission, presents several unique challenges. The Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) must contain Martian material samples after they have been collected and protect them from the high heating rates of entry into the Earth's atmosphere. This requirement necessitates inclusion of detailed thermal analysis early in the design of the vehicle. This paper will describe the challenges and solutions for a preliminary thermal analysis of an Earth Entry Vehicle. The aeroheating on the vehicle during entry would be the main driver for the thermal behavior, and is a complex function of time, spatial position on the vehicle, vehicle temperature, and trajectory parameters. Thus, the thermal analysis must be closely tied to the aeroheating analysis in order to make accurate predictions. Also, the thermal analysis must account for the material response of the ablative thermal protection system (TPS). For the exo-atmospheric portion of the mission, the thermal analysis must include the orbital radiation fluxes on the surfaces. The thermal behavior must also be used to predict the structural response of the vehicle (the thermal stress and strains) and whether they remain within the capability of the materials. Thus, the thermal analysis requires ties to the three-dimensional geometry, the aeroheating analysis, the material response analysis, the orbital analysis, and the structural analysis. The goal of this paper is to describe to what degree that has been achieved.

  15. Feasibility study of low angle planetary entry. [probe design for Jovian entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defrees, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of a Jovian entry by a probe originally designed for Saturn and Uranus entries is examined. An entry probe is described which is capable of release near an outer planet's sphere of influence and descent to a predetermined target entry point in the planet's atmosphere. The probe is designed so as to survive the trapped particle radiation belts and an entry heating pulse. Data is gathered and relayed to an overflying spacecraft bus during descent. Probe variations for two similar missions are described. In the first flyby of Jupiter by a Pioneer spacecraft launched during the 1979 opportunity is examined parametrically. In the second mission an orbiter based on Pioneer and launched in 1980 is defined in specific terms. The differences rest in the science payloads and directly affected wiring and electronics packages.

  16. Shuttle program. MCC Level C formulation requirements: Entry guidance and entry autopilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harpold, J. C.; Hill, O.

    1980-01-01

    A set of preliminary entry guidance and autopilot software formulations is presented for use in the Mission Control Center (MCC) entry processor. These software formulations meet all level B requirements. Revision 2 incorporates the modifications required to functionally simulate optimal TAEM targeting capability (OTT). Implementation of this logic in the MCC must be coordinated with flight software OTT implementation and MCC TAEM guidance OTT. The entry guidance logic is based on the Orbiter avionics entry guidance software. This MCC requirements document contains a definition of coordinate systems, a list of parameter definitions for the software formulations, a description of the entry guidance detailed formulation requirements, a description of the detailed autopilot formulation requirements, a description of the targeting routine, and a set of formulation flow charts.

  17. MCC level C formulation requirements. Entry guidance and entry autopilot, optional TAEM targeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harpold, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The level C software formulations requirements for the entry guidance and the simplified autopilot to be used by the Mission Control Center (MCC) entry processor are presented. The modifications required to functionally simulate optional Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM) targeting capability (OTT) are incorporated. Implementation of this logic in the MCC must be coordinated with flight software OTT implementation and MCC TAEM guidance OTT. The entry guidance logic is based on the orbiter avionics entry guidance software. Descriptions of the entry guidance detailed formulation requirements, the detailed autopilot formulation requirements, and the targeting routine are given. Also included are a definition of coordinate systems, a list of parameter definitions for the software formulations, and a set of formulation flow charts.

  18. Evaluation of Mars Entry Reconstructured Trajectories Based on Hypothetical 'Quick-Look' Entry Navigation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pastor, P. Rick; Bishop, Robert H.; Striepe, Scott A.

    2000-01-01

    A first order simulation analysis of the navigation accuracy expected from various Navigation Quick-Look data sets is performed. Here quick-look navigation data are observations obtained by hypothetical telemetried data transmitted on the fly during a Mars probe's atmospheric entry. In this simulation study, navigation data consists of 3-axis accelerometer sensor and attitude information data. Three entry vehicle guidance types are studied: I. a Maneuvering entry vehicle (as with Mars 01 guidance where angle of attack and bank angle are controlled); II. Zero angle-of-attack controlled entry vehicle (as with Mars 98); and III. Ballistic, or spin stabilized entry vehicle (as with Mars Pathfinder);. For each type, sensitivity to progressively under sampled navigation data and inclusion of sensor errors are characterized. Attempts to mitigate the reconstructed trajectory errors, including smoothing, interpolation and changing integrator characteristics are also studied.

  19. Woven Thermal Protection System Based Heat-shield for Extreme Entry Environments Technology (HEEET)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerby, Donald; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Stackpoole, Margaret; Chinnapongse, Ronald; Munk, Michelle; Dillman, Robert; Feldman, Jay; Prabhu, Dinesh; Beerman, Adam

    2013-01-01

    NASA's future robotic missions utilizing an entry system into Venus and the outer planets, namely, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, result in extremely high entry conditions that exceed the capabilities of state of the art low to mid density ablators such as PICA or Avcoat. Therefore mission planners typically assume the use of a fully dense carbon phenolic heat shield similar to what was flown on Pioneer Venus and Galileo. Carbon phenolic is a robust TPS material however its high density and relatively high thermal conductivity constrain mission planners to steep entries, with high heat fluxes and pressures and short entry durations, in order for CP to be feasible from a mass perspective. The high entry conditions pose challenges for certification in existing ground based test facilities and the longer-term sustainability of CP will continue to pose challenges. In 2012 the Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) in NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate funded NASA ARC to investigate the feasibility of a Woven Thermal Protection System (WTPS) to meet the needs of NASA's most challenging entry missions. This project was highly successful demonstrating that a Woven TPS solution compares favorably to CP in performance in simulated reentry environments and provides the opportunity to manufacture graded materials that should result in overall reduced mass solutions and enable a much broader set of missions than does CP. Building off the success of the WTPS project GCDP has funded a follow on project to further mature and scale up the WTPS concept for insertion into future NASA robotic missions. The matured WTPS will address the CP concerns associated with ground based test limitations and sustainability. This presentation will briefly discuss results from the WTPS Project and the plans for WTPS maturation into a heat-shield for extreme entry environment.

  20. Woven Thermal Protection System Based Heat-shield for Extreme Entry Environments Technology (HEEET)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chinnapongse, Ronald; Ellerbe, Donald; Stackpoole, Maragaret; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Beerman, Adam; Feldman, Jay; Peterson Keith; Prabhu, Dinesh; Dillman, Robert; Munk, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    NASA's future robotic missions utilizing an entry system into Venus and the outer planets, namely, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, result in extremely severe entry conditions that exceed the capabilities of state of the art low to mid density ablators such as PICA or Avcoat. Therefore mission planners typically assume the use of a fully dense carbon phenolic heat shield similar to what was flown on Pioneer Venus and Galileo. Carbon phenolic (CP) is a robust TPS material however its high density and relatively high thermal conductivity constrain mission planners to steep entries, with high heat fluxes and pressures and short entry durations, in order for CP to be feasible from a mass perspective. The high entry conditions pose challenges for certification in existing ground based test facilities and the longer-­-term sustainability of CP will continue to pose challenges. In 2012 the Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) in NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate funded NASA ARC to investigate the feasibility of a Woven Thermal Protection System (WTPS) to meet the needs of NASA's most challenging entry missions. This project was highly successful demonstrating that a Woven TPS solution compares favorably to CP in performance in simulated reentry environments and provides the opportunity to manufacture graded materials that should result in overall reduced mass solutions and enable a much broader set of missions than does CP. Building off the success of the WTPS project GCDP has funded a follow on project to further mature and scale up the WTPS concept for insertion into future NASA robotic missions. The matured WTPS will address the CP concerns associated with ground based test limitations and sustainability. This presentation will briefly discuss results from the WTPS Project and the plans for WTPS maturation into a heat-­-shield for extreme entry environment.

  1. Public university entry in Ghana: Is it equitable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusif, Hadrat; Yussof, Ishak; Osman, Zulkifly

    2013-06-01

    Public universities in Ghana are highly subsidised by the central government and account for about 80 per cent of university students in the country. Yet issues of fairness in terms of entry into the public university system have so far hardly been addressed. To find out whether participation in public university education is equitable, the authors of this paper carried out a binary logistic regression analysis. Individual data were collected from 1,129 (614 male and 515 female) final year senior high school (SHS) students for the 2009 cohort. The authors measured student, father and mother characteristics likely to influence admission to a public university. The results show that the major predictors of public university entry are students' academic ability, quality of SHS attended and number of siblings. This seems to suggest that there is a significant bias in the selection of students from different socio-economic groups for admission to highly subsidised public universities. The implication is that public financing of university education in Ghana may not be equitable.

  2. Challenges to Computational Aerothermodynamic Simulation and Validation for Planetary Entry Vehicle Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Johnston, Christopher O.; Kleb, Bil

    2010-01-01

    Challenges to computational aerothermodynamic (CA) simulation and validation of hypersonic flow over planetary entry vehicles are discussed. Entry, descent, and landing (EDL) of high mass to Mars is a significant driver of new simulation requirements. These requirements include simulation of large deployable, flexible structures and interactions with reaction control system (RCS) and retro-thruster jets. Simulation of radiation and ablation coupled to the flow solver continues to be a high priority for planetary entry analyses, especially for return to Earth and outer planet missions. Three research areas addressing these challenges are emphasized. The first addresses the need to obtain accurate heating on unstructured tetrahedral grid systems to take advantage of flexibility in grid generation and grid adaptation. A multi-dimensional inviscid flux reconstruction algorithm is defined that is oriented with local flow topology as opposed to grid. The second addresses coupling of radiation and ablation to the hypersonic flow solver - flight- and ground-based data are used to provide limited validation of these multi-physics simulations. The third addresses the challenges of retro-propulsion simulation and the criticality of grid adaptation in this application. The evolution of CA to become a tool for innovation of EDL systems requires a successful resolution of these challenges.

  3. Cubesat Application for Planetary Entry Missions (CAPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esper, Jaime; Baumann, Jean-Pierre; Herdrich, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The Cubesat Application for Planetary Entry Missions (CAPE) concept describes a high-performing Cubesat system which includes a propulsion module and miniaturized technologies capable of surviving atmospheric entry heating, while reliably transmitting scientific and engineering data. The Micro Return Capsule 2 (MIRKA2) is CAPE’s first planetary entry probe flight prototype. Within this context, this paper summarizes CAPE’s configuration and typical operational scenario. It also summarizes MIRKA2’s design and basic aerodynamic characteristics, and discusses potential challenges drawn from the experience of missions such as Stardust and MUSES-C. CAPE not only opens the door to new planetary mission capabilities, it also offers relatively low-cost opportunities especially suitable to university participation.

  4. Earth Entry Vehicle for Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitcheltree, R. A.; Braun, R. D.; Hughes. S. J.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2000-01-01

    The driving requirement for design of a Mars Sample return mission is assuring containment of the returned samples. The impact of this requirement on developmental costs, mass allocation, and design approach of the Earth Entry Vehicle is significant. A simple Earth entry vehicle is described which can meet these requirements and safely transport the Mars Sample Return mission's sample through the Earth's atmosphere to a recoverable location on the surface. Detailed analysis and test are combined with probabilistic risk assessment to design this entirely passive concept that circumvents the potential failure modes of a parachute terminal descent system. The design also possesses features that mitigate other risks during the entry, descent, landing and recovery phases. The results of a full-scale drop test are summarized.

  5. Shuttle entry technology payloads. [for aerothermodynamic research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, P. M., III

    1975-01-01

    The flight frequency of the Space Transportation System (STS) coupled with its large payload-carrying capability will provide an unprecedented opportunity for conducting aerothermodynamic/entry technology research. This STS research opportunity can be characterized into two distinct categories: (1) that research which will utilize the STS orbiter as the test vehicle, and (2) that research which will utilize a vehicle launched from the orbiter for entry. To date, on-going studies have defined experiments as well as the support systems required for the shuttle launched research program. The proposed Entry Technology Program will provide a flight data base from which accurate correlations can be performed relative to ground test and analysis data. These correlations will result in optimized designs for future flight systems.

  6. Entry and Landing Probe for Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J. P.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Butts, A. J.; Carroll, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    Results of a recent study of entry and landing probes for the exploration of Titan are presented. The probes considered were based on a wide range of exploration mission possibilities. They included: an atmospheric science probe, an intermediate atmospheric and limited surface science probe, and a larger atmospheric and expanded surface science probe. Because of lower gravity on Titan and its atmospheric characteristics, the entry environment is less severe than that of Mars. However, the large uncertainties in the current definition of the atmosphere and the uncertainties in Titan's surface characteristics have required tradeoffs of various combinations of entry and descent shapes and hard lander configurations. Results show that all probe classes are feasible without major developments.

  7. Low Froude number water entry cavity dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kominiarczuk, Jakub K.

    2005-11-01

    We analyze the dynamics of the projectile and the water entry cavity in low Froude number water impact where both kinetic and gravitational potential energy play a role. An experimental investigation is conducted where the impact and cavity development of billiard balls hitting a calm water surface at Froude number of O(10) are captured using high speed video camera at 1000 to 2000 frames per second. The phenomena associated with water entry at low impact speeds are complex as gravity, cavity pressure, flow separation, and splash generation significantly influence the cavity shape, surface closure and pinch off. For comparison, an existing analytical theory for the dynamics of water entry cavities for very high speeds is generalized and extended to low Froude number regime. In particular, this closed-form solution now accounts for effects of gravity and flow separation around the projectile. The comparison between the analytic solution and experimental results is excellent.

  8. General practice career intentions among graduate-entry students: a cross-sectional study at Ireland's newest medical school.

    PubMed

    Lane, G; Dunne, C; English, A; Finucane, P; O'Connor, R; Griffin, M; O'Sullivan, B; Hanrahan, C; McGrath, D; O'Donovan, N; Cullen, W

    2014-02-01

    Increased care provision and clinical activity in General Practice in Ireland will have important manpower implications. Recent developments in medical education policy including the introduction of graduate-entry medical degree programmes may help address this issue. The aim of this study was to determine GP career intentions among students on an Irish graduate-entry medical degree programme and to identify factors that influence these. An electronic cross-sectional study of students at University of Limerick Graduate-Entry Medical School (UL-GEMS) was undertaken. We received 139 replies (78% response rate). 41 (29%) reported GP was their current preferred career choice, while 29 (19%) reported it was their preferred career choice on entry to medical school. This first study to present data on GP career intentions among graduate-entry students in Ireland highlights the specialty as a popular preferred career choice among students, both on entry to, and during medical school. The study also identifies factors which are likely to be important in determining career intentions. Further research to examine this issue at other graduate-entry medical schools in Ireland and to determine whether our findings are pursued over time amongst graduates is a priority. PMID:24654489

  9. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  10. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  11. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  12. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  13. STS-121: Discovery Entry Flight Director Post Landing Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Steve Stitch, STS-121 Entry Flight Director, and Wayne Hale, Space Shuttle Program is shown in this post landing press conference. Steve Stitch begins with discussing the following topics: 1) Weather at Kennedy Space Center; 2) Gap filler protrusion; 3) De-orbit burn; 4) Space Shuttle Landing; 5) Global Position Satellite System (GPSS) performance; and 6) Post-landing rain showers. Wayne Hale discusses external tank observations at launch and the goals that were obtained by this flight, which are to deliver 4000 pounds of scientific equipment, increase the crew members to three on the International Space Station (ISS), and repair the ISS. Questions from the press on lessons learned from the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) leak, and flight readiness reviews are addressed.

  14. RTLS entry ranging analysis. [space shuttle reentry trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crull, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    Definition of the ranging capability of a mission 3A return-to-launch-site entry is reported. The limits on downrange and crossrange are established at the initiation of RTLS entry so that terminal area energy management interface conditions were achieved satisfactorily. The downrange and crossrange limits were defined for both nominal RTLS entry conditions and a composite set of dispersed RTLS entry conditions. The results indicate a wide range of acceptable downrange and crossrange positions are available at RTLS entry initiation for nominal conditions. This is greatly reduced when dispersions are considered. For dispersed RTLS entry conditions, an 18 nautical mile range of acceptable downranges is available at zero crossrange.

  15. Food Distribution. The Supermarket Entry Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This guide is designed to assist the coordinator of the Marketing and Distributive Education Cooperative Education Program in improving and expanding the instructional activities needed to prepare individuals to function in the food industry's entry-level jobs. The instructional material provides information about what is expected of a student…

  16. 46 CFR 197.482 - Logbook entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.482 Logbook entries. (a) The person-in-charge shall insure that the following information is recorded in the logbook for each commercial diving... underwater and surface conditions (weather, visibility, temperatures, and currents). (3) Name of the...

  17. 46 CFR 197.482 - Logbook entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.482 Logbook entries. (a) The person-in-charge shall insure that the following information is recorded in the logbook for each commercial diving... underwater and surface conditions (weather, visibility, temperatures, and currents). (3) Name of the...

  18. Simplified modeling for infiltration and radon entry

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, M.H.

    1992-08-01

    Air leakage in the envelopes of residential buildings is the primary mechanism for provided ventilation to those buildings. For radon the same mechanisms that drive the ventilation, drive the radon entry This paper attempts to provide a simplified physical model that can be used to understand the interactions between the building leakage distribution, the forces that drive infiltration and ventilation, and indoor radon concentrations, Combining both ventilation and entry modeling together allows an estimation of Radon concentration and exposure to be made and demonstrates how changes in the envelope or ventilation system would affect it. This paper will develop simplified modeling approaches for estimating both ventilation rate and radon entry rate based on the air tightness of the envelope and the driving forces. These approaches will use conventional leakage values (i.e. effective leakage area ) to quantify the air tightness and include natural and mechanical driving forces. This paper will introduce a simplified parameter, the Radon Leakage Area, that quantifies the resistance to radon entry. To be practical for dwellings, modeling of the occupant exposures to indoor pollutants must be simple to use and not require unreasonable input data. This paper presents the derivation of the simplified physical model, and applies that model to representative situations to explore the tendencies to be expected under different circumstances.

  19. Entry inhibitors: New advances in HCV treatment

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xi-Jing; Zhu, Yong-Zhe; Zhao, Ping; Qi, Zhong-Tian

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects approximately 3% of the world's population and causes chronic liver diseases, including liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although current antiviral therapy comprising direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) can achieve a quite satisfying sustained virological response (SVR) rate, it is still limited by viral resistance, long treatment duration, combined adverse reactions, and high costs. Moreover, the currently marketed antivirals fail to prevent graft reinfections in HCV patients who receive liver transplantations, probably due to the cell-to-cell transmission of the virus, which is also one of the main reasons behind treatment failure. HCV entry is a highly orchestrated process involving initial attachment and binding, post-binding interactions with host cell factors, internalization, and fusion between the virion and the host cell membrane. Together, these processes provide multiple novel and promising targets for antiviral therapy. Most entry inhibitors target host cell components with high genetic barriers and eliminate viral infection from the very beginning of the viral life cycle. In future, the addition of entry inhibitors to a combination of treatment regimens might optimize and widen the prevention and treatment of HCV infection. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms and prospects of the current preclinical and clinical development of antiviral agents targeting HCV entry. PMID:26733381

  20. TEST CELL STUDIES OF RADON ENTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to contrast the effectiveness of slab-in-stem wall (SSW) with floating slab (FS) construction practices, to measure radon transport and entry for model testing, to develop protocols relevant to depressurized radon measurements, and to determine...

  1. 46 CFR 197.482 - Logbook entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.482 Logbook entries. (a) The person-in-charge shall insure that the following information is recorded in the logbook for each commercial diving... underwater and surface conditions (weather, visibility, temperatures, and currents). (3) Name of the...

  2. 46 CFR 197.482 - Logbook entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.482 Logbook entries. (a) The person-in-charge shall insure that the following information is recorded in the logbook for each commercial diving... underwater and surface conditions (weather, visibility, temperatures, and currents). (3) Name of the...

  3. 46 CFR 197.482 - Logbook entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.482 Logbook entries. (a) The person-in-charge shall insure that the following information is recorded in the logbook for each commercial diving... underwater and surface conditions (weather, visibility, temperatures, and currents). (3) Name of the...

  4. Infectious Entry Pathway of Enterovirus B Species

    PubMed Central

    Marjomäki, Varpu; Turkki, Paula; Huttunen, Moona

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus B species (EV-B) are responsible for a vast number of mild and serious acute infections. They are also suspected of remaining in the body, where they cause persistent infections contributing to chronic diseases such as type I diabetes. Recent studies of the infectious entry pathway of these viruses revealed remarkable similarities, including non-clathrin entry of large endosomes originating from the plasma membrane invaginations. Many cellular factors regulating the efficient entry have recently been associated with macropinocytic uptake, such as Rac1, serine/threonine p21-activated kinase (Pak1), actin, Na/H exchanger, phospholipace C (PLC) and protein kinase Cα (PKCα). Another characteristic feature is the entry of these viruses to neutral endosomes, independence of endosomal acidification and low association with acidic lysosomes. The biogenesis of neutral multivesicular bodies is crucial for their infection, at least for echovirus 1 (E1) and coxsackievirus A9 (CVA9). These pathways are triggered by the virus binding to their receptors on the plasma membrane, and they are not efficiently recycled like other cellular pathways used by circulating receptors. Therefore, the best “markers” of these pathways may be the viruses and often their receptors. A deeper understanding of this pathway and associated endosomes is crucial in elucidating the mechanisms of enterovirus uncoating and genome release from the endosomes to start efficient replication. PMID:26690201

  5. 19 CFR 10.31 - Entry; bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 10.31, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Temporary Importations... importer is a resident. (g) Claim for free entry under Chapter 98, Subchapter XIII, HTSUS may be made...

  6. 19 CFR 10.31 - Entry; bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Temporary Importations... of which the importer is a resident. (g) Claim for free entry under Chapter 98, Subchapter...

  7. 19 CFR 10.78 - Entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry. 10.78 Section 10.78 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Products of American Fisheries §...

  8. 19 CFR 10.78 - Entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Entry. 10.78 Section 10.78 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Products of American Fisheries §...

  9. Entry inhibitors: New advances in HCV treatment.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xi-Jing; Zhu, Yong-Zhe; Zhao, Ping; Qi, Zhong-Tian

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects approximately 3% of the world's population and causes chronic liver diseases, including liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although current antiviral therapy comprising direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) can achieve a quite satisfying sustained virological response (SVR) rate, it is still limited by viral resistance, long treatment duration, combined adverse reactions, and high costs. Moreover, the currently marketed antivirals fail to prevent graft reinfections in HCV patients who receive liver transplantations, probably due to the cell-to-cell transmission of the virus, which is also one of the main reasons behind treatment failure. HCV entry is a highly orchestrated process involving initial attachment and binding, post-binding interactions with host cell factors, internalization, and fusion between the virion and the host cell membrane. Together, these processes provide multiple novel and promising targets for antiviral therapy. Most entry inhibitors target host cell components with high genetic barriers and eliminate viral infection from the very beginning of the viral life cycle. In future, the addition of entry inhibitors to a combination of treatment regimens might optimize and widen the prevention and treatment of HCV infection. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms and prospects of the current preclinical and clinical development of antiviral agents targeting HCV entry. PMID:26733381

  10. 32 CFR 770.44 - Entry restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New... upon Naval Submarine Base New London, or remaining thereon by any person for any purpose without the advance consent of the Commanding Officer, Naval Submarine Base New London, or his...

  11. 32 CFR 770.45 - Entry procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton... consent of the Commanding Officer, Naval Submarine Base New London, or his authorized representative shall, in writing, submit a request to the Commanding Officer, Naval Submarine Base New London, at...

  12. 32 CFR 770.44 - Entry restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New... upon Naval Submarine Base New London, or remaining thereon by any person for any purpose without the advance consent of the Commanding Officer, Naval Submarine Base New London, or his...

  13. 32 CFR 770.44 - Entry restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New... upon Naval Submarine Base New London, or remaining thereon by any person for any purpose without the advance consent of the Commanding Officer, Naval Submarine Base New London, or his...

  14. 32 CFR 770.44 - Entry restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New... upon Naval Submarine Base New London, or remaining thereon by any person for any purpose without the advance consent of the Commanding Officer, Naval Submarine Base New London, or his...

  15. 32 CFR 770.45 - Entry procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton... consent of the Commanding Officer, Naval Submarine Base New London, or his authorized representative shall, in writing, submit a request to the Commanding Officer, Naval Submarine Base New London, at...

  16. 32 CFR 770.44 - Entry restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New... upon Naval Submarine Base New London, or remaining thereon by any person for any purpose without the advance consent of the Commanding Officer, Naval Submarine Base New London, or his...

  17. 32 CFR 770.45 - Entry procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton... consent of the Commanding Officer, Naval Submarine Base New London, or his authorized representative shall, in writing, submit a request to the Commanding Officer, Naval Submarine Base New London, at...

  18. 32 CFR 770.45 - Entry procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton... consent of the Commanding Officer, Naval Submarine Base New London, or his authorized representative shall, in writing, submit a request to the Commanding Officer, Naval Submarine Base New London, at...

  19. 32 CFR 770.45 - Entry procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton... consent of the Commanding Officer, Naval Submarine Base New London, or his authorized representative shall, in writing, submit a request to the Commanding Officer, Naval Submarine Base New London, at...

  20. Thinking and Reading for Entry Level Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allentown Literacy Council, PA.

    A pilot project demonstrated that cooperative training programs are effective and cost efficient for small businesses. Common entry-level reading and thinking tasks were identified in a variety of occupational areas. Five growing occupational areas were identified: industrial/machine operator; health care; food preparation; hotel/hospitality; and…

  1. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  2. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  3. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  5. Shuttle Entry Imaging Using Infrared Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas; Berry, Scott; Alter, Stephen; Blanchard, Robert; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin; Tack, Steve

    2007-01-01

    During the Columbia Accident Investigation, imaging teams supporting debris shedding analysis were hampered by poor entry image quality and the general lack of information on optical signatures associated with a nominal Shuttle entry. After the accident, recommendations were made to NASA management to develop and maintain a state-of-the-art imagery database for Shuttle engineering performance assessments and to improve entry imaging capability to support anomaly and contingency analysis during a mission. As a result, the Space Shuttle Program sponsored an observation campaign to qualitatively characterize a nominal Shuttle entry over the widest possible Mach number range. The initial objectives focused on an assessment of capability to identify/resolve debris liberated from the Shuttle during entry, characterization of potential anomalous events associated with RCS jet firings and unusual phenomenon associated with the plasma trail. The aeroheating technical community viewed the Space Shuttle Program sponsored activity as an opportunity to influence the observation objectives and incrementally demonstrate key elements of a quantitative spatially resolved temperature measurement capability over a series of flights. One long-term desire of the Shuttle engineering community is to calibrate boundary layer transition prediction methodologies that are presently part of the Shuttle damage assessment process using flight data provided by a controlled Shuttle flight experiment. Quantitative global imaging may offer a complementary method of data collection to more traditional methods such as surface thermocouples. This paper reviews the process used by the engineering community to influence data collection methods and analysis of global infrared images of the Shuttle obtained during hypersonic entry. Emphasis is placed upon airborne imaging assets sponsored by the Shuttle program during Return to Flight. Visual and IR entry imagery were obtained with available airborne

  6. Social communication interventions for preschoolers: targeting peer interactions during peer group entry and cooperative play.

    PubMed

    Timler, Geralyn R; Olswang, Lesley B; Coggins, Truman E

    2005-08-01

    Some preschoolers with language impairment approach and manage peer interactions less effectively than typically developing peers. This article discusses assessment and intervention strategies for targeting preschoolers' social communication skills during peer entry and cooperative play situations. Essential features of effective interventions include identification of appropriate social communication targets, addressing and facilitating children's use of these targets during small group sessions with peers, and supporting generalization of newly acquired social communication behaviors to children's peer interactions within the classroom setting. PMID:16155855

  7. Obituary -- Enrique Chavira Navarrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carramiñana, A.

    2001-04-01

    During the twentieth century, Mexican astronomical observatories migrated Tonantzintla and from there to the selected mountain sites of San Pedro Mártir and Cananea. In Tonantzintla Mexican astronomy progressed from cosmography to astrophysics. There, during the fifties and sixties, Guillermo Haro used the Schmidt camera to place México in the astronomical map. Instrumental to this process was Enrique Chavira, whose scientific life almost exactly matched the second half of the century which has just finished, going from the pioneer times of the Tonantzintla Astrophysical Observatory to the fully developed Mexican astronomy of the dawn of the XXI century. Enrique Chavira died unexpectedly 38 days before the turn of the century. Even though his heart had shown past weaknesses, his daily presence in the corridors of the Tonantzintla Institute somehow led us to believe he would always be here. Chavira was the most senior of the astronomers at Tonantzintla and, though he never entered the decision circles, he always had an opinion, frequently ironic, about the main problems of the Instituto. I do remember more than one occasion Alfonso Serrano asking for the advice of Chavira, seeking the experience of the former assistant of Don Guillermo Haro. Born and raised in México City, Chavira eventually moved to Puebla, the closest large city to Tonantzintla, following the steps of Mexican observational astronomy. Without concluding his formal studies, Chavira managed to adjudicate for himself the title of ``astrónomo'', earning it with his skillful handling of the Schmidt camera and the photographic plates. Over the years he took over 8000 astronomical plates, which is a little more than half of the precious Tonantzintla collection. Even though Chavira was aware of his limitations, his ability in photographic astronomy made him a recognized astronomer. The list of his co-authors includes, apart from Guillermo Haro, other renamed astronomers like Manuel Peimbert, Luis Felipe Rodríguez, and Lee Hartmann. He worked in the study of stars with emission lines, flare stars, FU Orionis stars, infrared stars, mainly in in the Tonantzintla plates. Perhaps the closest step to immortality made by Chavira was the co-discovery of comet 1954K which bears the joint name Haro-Chavira, a tacit recognition to the doublet of observers of the golden years of Mexican astronomy. Chavira, witness of the transition from Tacubaya to Tonantzintla, of the overlap of both observatories and the birth of the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, óptica y Electrónica, survivor of the hardest times of this institute to see it finally blossom, stood with a calm mixture of humility, enthusiasm and humour. When the interest of the community for the use of Schmidt cameras decayed, when photographic plates were substituted by photoelectronic detectors and the urban light-pollution damaged the skies of Tonantzintla, Chavira went into the careful examination of astronomical plates, dedicating part of his time to attend the frequent visitors who arrive to the ``Observatorio de Tonantzintla''. He proudly showed to the public the Schmidt camera, telling witty anecdotes, often colored with a touch of fantasy. He stayed always close to astronomy and went to the Institute in an almost religious manner until the last day that life allowed him to do so.

  8. Raymond Stora's obituary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becchi, C.

    2015-10-01

    On Monday, July 20, 2015 Raymond Stora passed away; although he was seriously ill, his death was unexpected, the result of a sudden heart attack. Raymond was born on September 18, 1930. He had been sick for many months, yet continued to go to CERN where he was able to discuss the problems in physics and mathematics that interested him. In fact, his last publication (recorded on SPIRES) carries the date of December 2014, just before he contracted pneumonia, which dramatically reduced his mobility and hence the possibility of going to CERN. Still, this last project revived Raymond's interest in algebraic curves, and he spent a large part of his last months at home reading papers and books on this subject. In 2013, despite the large amount of time that his various therapies required, Raymond made a fundamental contribution to a difficult problem on renormalization in configuration space based on the subtle technical properties of homogeneous distributions. His knowledge of physics and, in particular, of quantum field theory, as well as of many fields of mathematics was so well known that many members of and visitors to CERN frequently asked Raymond for advice and assistance, which he gave with great enthusiasm and in the most gracious way. Ivan Todorov, commenting on Raymond's death, noted that we must remember Raymond's remarkable qualities, which were both human and scientific.

  9. Obituary for Moshe Shapiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Edward R.

    2014-04-01

    Moshe Shapiro, a pioneer in the area of quantum control of molecular dynamics, whose research opened new pathways for directing the course of chemical reactions and creating matter in unique, often quantum-specified states of aggregation, died on 3 December 2013 in Rehovot, Israel. He was 69 years old. Professor Shapiro is perhaps best known for his work with Paul Brumer of the University of Toronto. In 1986, the pair developed theoretical models predicting the control of unimolecular reactions following excitation by coherent fields of laser light. The reaction dynamics community immediately recognized the Brumer-Shapiro approach as distinct from ideas prevailing at the time to use sequences of short laser pulses timed to impulsively direct wavepacket motion in molecules. Many experimental groups devised strategies to apply this principle of phase control of molecular dynamics, and the results provided some of the earliest and most robust demonstrations of coherent control. The field has matured since to employ emerging electro-optic techniques to shape the phase and frequency characteristics of laser sources in time, and achieve degrees of control that rely simultaneously on interference and impulse. This is well demonstrated by the technique of step-wise adiabatic passage, introduced by Shapiro's group at the University of British Columbia, which enables the controlled transport of an ensemble of molecules to a selected level of excitation, and ultracold atoms to bound, ground-state molecules. Shapiro introduced a number of other new ideas to chemical dynamics. Working with Richard Bersohn, he performed early quantum scattering calculations that traced the multidimensional relaxation of potential energy in the photofragmentation of methyl iodide leading to vibrational excitation of the umbrella bend of the methyl radical product. He also described general conditions characterizing chaos in an isolated energy eigenstate, developed a theory for controlled photon induced symmetry breaking to form chiral products from achiral precursors, and showed how to use phase-coherent laser excitation to launch directional currents in semiconductors, in the absence of bias voltage. He has also contributed to important advances in laser catalysis, quantum computing and decoherence, transition state spectroscopy, potential inversion and wavefunction imaging, the theory of strong field phenomena in atoms and molecules, quantum theory of elementary exchange reactions and foundations of quantum mechanics. His most recent research focused on the control of molecular, atomic, and photonic processes with coherent light, quantum pattern recognition, coherent chiral separation and the coherent suppression of spontaneous emission, decoherence and other decay processes. At UBC, Moshe is remembered for his perceptiveness, broad vision and collegiality. 'One day he came to a group meeting with the idea of a solar-pumped living laser,' said physics colleague, Valery Milner. 'After thinking about this for two months, we designed an experiment using a random laser cavity that produced gain with milliwatts of pumping power applied to a fluorescent protein. We have now only to get lasing with the bacterium we engineered to express this protein.' Moshe studied for his PhD guided by Professor Raphael D Levine, in theoretical chemistry at the Hebrew University, focusing on photodissociation and molecular collisions. In 1970, he moved to Harvard University as a postdoctoral fellow, where he worked in reaction dynamics with Martin Karplus, a 2013 Nobel laureate in chemistry. In 1972, Moshe joined the faculty of the Department of Chemical Physics at the Weizmann Institute. There, he served as a department chair and was named the Jacques Mimran Professor of Chemical Physics. In 2002, he was appointed to a Canada Research Chair in Quantum Control in the Department of Chemistry at UBC. He won the Willis E Lamb Medal for achievements in the Physics of Quantum Electronics (2007), the John C Polanyi Award of The Canadian Society of Chemistry (2011), the Israel Ch

  10. Obituary: Peter E. Brommer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschow, K. H. J.; de Boer, F. R.; Degiorgi, L.; Jochemsen, R.; Wada, H.; Oostinga, Jeroen; van Wetering, Karine

    2016-07-01

    With great sadness we inform you that Dr P.E. Brommer, editor of Physica B: Condensed Matter Physics has passed away on March 23. Peter has been on the editorial board of the journal for more than 10 years. He was very dedicated to the journal and performed his editorial work with great care and sincerity. For all of us, the opinion and judgment of Peter have always been of crucial importance. We are very grateful for what Peter has meant for the journal. We will enormously miss him.

  11. 19 CFR 18.11 - Entry; classes of goods for which entry is authorized; form used.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... citations affecting § 18.11, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... administered by the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine shall be forwarded under such entries only...

  12. 31 CFR 315.3 - Converting definitive savings bonds to book-entry bonds in New Treasury Direct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... address for New Treasury Direct is www.treasurydirect.gov. Bond owners who wish to convert their... bonds are found at 31 CFR part 363. ... book-entry bonds in New Treasury Direct. 315.3 Section 315.3 Money and Finance: Treasury...

  13. 31 CFR 315.3 - Converting definitive savings bonds to book-entry bonds in New Treasury Direct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... address for New Treasury Direct is www.treasurydirect.gov. Bond owners who wish to convert their... bonds are found at 31 CFR part 363. ... book-entry bonds in New Treasury Direct. 315.3 Section 315.3 Money and Finance: Treasury...

  14. Analytic Guidance for the First Entry in a Skip Atmospheric Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Llama, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an analytic method to generate a reference drag trajectory for the first entry portion of a skip atmospheric entry. The drag reference, expressed as a polynomial function of the velocity, will meet the conditions necessary to fit the requirements of the complete entry phase. The generic method proposed to generate the drag reference profile is further simplified by thinking of the drag and the velocity as density and cumulative distribution functions respectively. With this notion it will be shown that the reference drag profile can be obtained by solving a linear algebraic system of equations. The resulting drag profile is flown using the feedback linearization method of differential geometric control as guidance law with the error dynamics of a second order homogeneous equation in the form of a damped oscillator. This approach was first proposed as a revisited version of the Space Shuttle Orbiter entry guidance. However, this paper will show that it can be used to fly the first entry in a skip entry trajectory. In doing so, the gains in the error dynamics will be changed at a certain point along the trajectory to improve the tracking performance.

  15. Local Calcium Entry and the Guidance of Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, K. R.

    1983-01-01

    The role of calcium in developing cells is illustrated. The Fucus egg, a brown algae is used to describe this phenomenom. Results of local calcium entry and forced calcium entry into the eggs are given.

  16. 19 CFR 142.3a - Entry numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Format. The following format, including hyphens, must be used when showing the entry number: XXX-NNNNNNN-N XXX represents an entry filer code assigned by CBP, NNNNNNN is a unique number which is...

  17. 19 CFR 142.3a - Entry numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Format. The following format, including hyphens, must be used when showing the entry number: XXX-NNNNNNN-N XXX represents an entry filer code assigned by CBP, NNNNNNN is a unique number which is...

  18. 19 CFR 142.3a - Entry numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Format. The following format, including hyphens, must be used when showing the entry number: XXX-NNNNNNN-N XXX represents an entry filer code assigned by CBP, NNNNNNN is a unique number which is...

  19. 19 CFR 142.3a - Entry numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Format. The following format, including hyphens, must be used when showing the entry number: XXX-NNNNNNN-N XXX represents an entry filer code assigned by CBP, NNNNNNN is a unique number which is...

  20. Stair and entry room, bunkhouse, first floor interior. Door from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Stair and entry room, bunkhouse, first floor interior. Door from entry hall leads to toilets and bathing rooms. A coat and hat rack is on each side of the door. - Sespe Ranch, Bunkhouse, 2896 Telegraph Road, Fillmore, Ventura County, CA

  1. 9 CFR 93.220 - Inspection at port of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... all such poultry found to be free from communicable disease and fever tick infestation and not to have..., or infested with fever ticks, shall be refused entry. Poultry refused entry, unless exported within...

  2. 9 CFR 93.220 - Inspection at port of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... all such poultry found to be free from communicable disease and fever tick infestation and not to have..., or infested with fever ticks, shall be refused entry. Poultry refused entry, unless exported within...

  3. In Situ Magnetohydrodynamic Energy Generation for Planetary Entry Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, H. K.; Braun, R. D.

    2014-06-01

    This work aims to study the suitability of multi-pass entry trajectories for harnessing of vehicle kinetic energy through magnetohydrodynamic power generation from the high temperature entry plasma. Potential mission configurations are analyzed.

  4. 19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate...

  5. 19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate...

  6. 19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate...

  7. 19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate...

  8. 19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate...

  9. 14 CFR 375.24 - Entry and clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Rules Generally Applicable § 375.24 Entry and clearance. All U.S. entry and clearance requirements for aircraft, passengers, crews,...

  10. 14 CFR 375.24 - Entry and clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Rules Generally Applicable § 375.24 Entry and clearance. All U.S. entry and clearance requirements for aircraft, passengers, crews,...

  11. 14 CFR 375.24 - Entry and clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Rules Generally Applicable § 375.24 Entry and clearance. All U.S. entry and clearance requirements for aircraft, passengers, crews,...

  12. 14 CFR 375.24 - Entry and clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Rules Generally Applicable § 375.24 Entry and clearance. All U.S. entry and clearance requirements for aircraft, passengers, crews,...

  13. FRONT OBLIQUE, WITH ENTRY AND WATER FEATURE TO LEFT, TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FRONT OBLIQUE, WITH ENTRY AND WATER FEATURE TO LEFT, TAKEN FROM ENTRY. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Housing Area Makalapa, Senior Officers' Quarters Type A, 37 Makalapa Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications. PMID:21193369

  15. Gender: addressing a critical focus.

    PubMed

    Thornton, L; Wegner, M N

    1995-01-01

    The definition of gender was addressed at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China). After extensive debate, the definition developed by the UN Population Fund in 1995 was adopted: "a set of qualities and behaviors expected from a female or male by society." The sustainability of family planning (FP) programs depends on acknowledgment of the role gender plays in contraceptive decision-making and use. For example, programs must consider the fact that women in many cultures do not make FP decisions without the consent of their spouse. AVSC is examining providers' gender-based ideas about clients and the effects of these views on the quality of reproductive health services. Questions such as how service providers can encourage joint responsibility for contraception without requiring spousal consent or how they can make men feel comfortable about using a male method in a society where FP is considered a woman's issue are being discussed. Also relevant is how service providers can discuss sexual matters openly with female clients in cultures that do not allow women to enjoy their sexuality. Another concern is the potential for physical violence to a client as a result of the provision of FP services. PMID:12294397

  16. Apollo experience report: Mission planning for Apollo entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, C. A.; Harpold, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    The problems encountered and the experience gained in the entry mission plans, flight software, trajectory-monitoring procedures, and backup trajectory-control techniques of the Apollo Program should provide a foundation upon which future spacecraft programs can be developed. Descriptions of these entry activities are presented. Also, to provide additional background information needed for discussion of the Apollo entry experience, descriptions of the entry targeting for the Apollo 11 mission and the postflight analysis of the Apollo 10 mission are presented.

  17. RITD - Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development in Russian Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ostresko, B.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Martin, S.; Siili, T.

    2014-04-01

    A new generation of inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Mars has been developed. It is used in both the initial atmospheric entry and atmospheric descent before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator into Martian surface. The EDLS applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied by the EU/RITD [1] project. Project focuses on the analysis and tests of the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system at the Earth re-entry.

  18. 19 CFR 151.41 - Information on entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Information on entry summary. 151.41 Section 151... Products § 151.41 Information on entry summary. On the entry summary for petroleum or petroleum products in... of the ASTM-IP Petroleum Measurement Tables (American Edition), approved by the American Society...

  19. 19 CFR 141.57 - Single entry for split shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the succeeding portions arrive at the port of entry within 10 calendar days of the date of the first... notification must be made before the entry summary is filed. (d) Entry or special permit for immediate delivery... split shipment under immediate delivery, an importer of record may follow the procedure prescribed...

  20. 19 CFR 141.57 - Single entry for split shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the succeeding portions arrive at the port of entry within 10 calendar days of the date of the first... notification must be made before the entry summary is filed. (d) Entry or special permit for immediate delivery... split shipment under immediate delivery, an importer of record may follow the procedure prescribed...

  1. 19 CFR 141.57 - Single entry for split shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the succeeding portions arrive at the port of entry within 10 calendar days of the date of the first... notification must be made before the entry summary is filed. (d) Entry or special permit for immediate delivery... split shipment under immediate delivery, an importer of record may follow the procedure prescribed...

  2. 41 CFR 101-30.101-9 - Item entry control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Item entry control. 101....1-General § 101-30.101-9 Item entry control. Item entry control means the functional responsibility of GSA/DOD cataloging to minimize the number of items in the supply system by: (a)...

  3. 41 CFR 101-30.101-9 - Item entry control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Item entry control. 101....1-General § 101-30.101-9 Item entry control. Item entry control means the functional responsibility of GSA/DOD cataloging to minimize the number of items in the supply system by: (a)...

  4. 9 CFR 590.430 - Limitation on entry of material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Entry of Material into Official Egg Products Plants § 590.430 Limitation on entry of material. (a) The Administrator shall limit the entry of eggs and egg products and other materials into official plants under...

  5. 9 CFR 590.430 - Limitation on entry of material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Entry of Material into Official Egg Products Plants § 590.430 Limitation on entry of material. (a) The Administrator shall limit the entry of eggs and egg products and other materials into official plants under...

  6. 9 CFR 590.430 - Limitation on entry of material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Entry of Material into Official Egg Products Plants § 590.430 Limitation on entry of material. (a) The Administrator shall limit the entry of eggs and egg products and other materials into official plants under...

  7. 9 CFR 590.430 - Limitation on entry of material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Entry of Material into Official Egg Products Plants § 590.430 Limitation on entry of material. (a) The Administrator shall limit the entry of eggs and egg products and other materials into official plants under...

  8. 9 CFR 590.430 - Limitation on entry of material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Entry of Material into Official Egg Products Plants § 590.430 Limitation on entry of material. (a) The Administrator shall limit the entry of eggs and egg products and other materials into official plants under...

  9. 32 CFR 643.11 - Rights of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Rights of entry. 643.11 Section 643.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE General § 643.11 Rights of entry. Pending the signing of the formal instrument, no right of entry will be granted unless authorized by the...

  10. 31 CFR 337.6 - Conversions to book-entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conversions to book-entry. 337.6... FEDERAL HOUSING ADMINISTRATION DEBENTURES Certificated Debentures § 337.6 Conversions to book-entry. Upon implementation of the book-entry debenture system, to be announced in advance by separate public notice, all...

  11. 31 CFR 337.6 - Conversions to book-entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conversions to book-entry. 337.6... HOUSING ADMINISTRATION DEBENTURES Certificated Debentures § 337.6 Conversions to book-entry. Upon implementation of the book-entry debenture system, to be announced in advance by separate public notice, all...

  12. 31 CFR 337.6 - Conversions to book-entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conversions to book-entry. 337.6... HOUSING ADMINISTRATION DEBENTURES Certificated Debentures § 337.6 Conversions to book-entry. Upon implementation of the book-entry debenture system, to be announced in advance by separate public notice, all...

  13. 31 CFR 337.6 - Conversions to book-entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conversions to book-entry. 337.6... HOUSING ADMINISTRATION DEBENTURES Certificated Debentures § 337.6 Conversions to book-entry. Upon implementation of the book-entry debenture system, to be announced in advance by separate public notice, all...

  14. 31 CFR 337.6 - Conversions to book-entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conversions to book-entry. 337.6... HOUSING ADMINISTRATION DEBENTURES Certificated Debentures § 337.6 Conversions to book-entry. Upon implementation of the book-entry debenture system, to be announced in advance by separate public notice, all...

  15. Rocket rendezvous at preassigned destinations with optimum entry trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nangia, A. K.

    Optimum entry rendezvous trajectories of commuter rockets between initial noncoaxial coplanar elliptic orbits and destination orbits in an inverse square gravitational field have been determined. Results are presented for an optimum entry rendezvous between earth and Mars. For a given interception angle, the results show that the launch angle for optimum entry rendezvous is smaller than that for the optimum exit rendezvous.

  16. 19 CFR 141.57 - Single entry for split shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Quantity of Merchandise To Be Included in an Entry... carrier in the exporting country under one bill of lading or waybill, and is thus intended by the importer... same port of entry in the United States, as listed in the original bill of lading or waybill; and...

  17. 19 CFR 141.57 - Single entry for split shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Quantity of Merchandise To Be Included in an Entry... carrier in the exporting country under one bill of lading or waybill, and is thus intended by the importer... same port of entry in the United States, as listed in the original bill of lading or waybill; and...

  18. The Double-Entry Journal in Literature Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Harold; Nugent, Susan

    The double-entry journal requires students to write affective response statements to literature readings and to compare such entries with those of classmates. Use of the double-entry journal is intended to activate students' prior learning and present feelings, foster collaborative learning, integrate major language skills, and encourage the…

  19. 19 CFR 147.43 - Entry under the Customs laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.43 Entry under.... Entry of merchandise under the Customs laws from a fair may be made in the name of any person duly authorized in writing by the fair operator to make such entry....

  20. 19 CFR 147.43 - Entry under the Customs laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.43 Entry under.... Entry of merchandise under the Customs laws from a fair may be made in the name of any person duly authorized in writing by the fair operator to make such entry....

  1. 19 CFR 147.43 - Entry under the Customs laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.43 Entry under.... Entry of merchandise under the Customs laws from a fair may be made in the name of any person duly authorized in writing by the fair operator to make such entry....

  2. 30 CFR 75.326 - Mean entry air velocity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mean entry air velocity. 75.326 Section 75.326... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.326 Mean entry air velocity. In exhausting face ventilation systems, the mean entry air velocity shall be at least 60 feet per...

  3. 30 CFR 75.326 - Mean entry air velocity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mean entry air velocity. 75.326 Section 75.326... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.326 Mean entry air velocity. In exhausting face ventilation systems, the mean entry air velocity shall be at least 60 feet per...

  4. 30 CFR 75.326 - Mean entry air velocity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mean entry air velocity. 75.326 Section 75.326... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.326 Mean entry air velocity. In exhausting face ventilation systems, the mean entry air velocity shall be at least 60 feet per...

  5. 30 CFR 75.326 - Mean entry air velocity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mean entry air velocity. 75.326 Section 75.326... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.326 Mean entry air velocity. In exhausting face ventilation systems, the mean entry air velocity shall be at least 60 feet per...

  6. 30 CFR 721.12 - Right of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Right of entry. 721.12 Section 721.12 Mineral... REGULATIONS FEDERAL INSPECTIONS § 721.12 Right of entry. (a) Authorized representatives of the Secretary..., shall have the right of entry to, upon, or through any surface coal mining and reclamation operations...

  7. 30 CFR 842.13 - Right of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Right of entry. 842.13 Section 842.13 Mineral... INSPECTION AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES FEDERAL INSPECTIONS AND MONITORING § 842.13 Right of entry. (a) Each... right of entry to, upon, and through any coal exploration or surface coal mining and...

  8. 32 CFR 809a.1 - Random installation entry point checks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Random installation entry point checks. 809a.1... Entry Policy § 809a.1 Random installation entry point checks. The installation commander determines when, where, and how to implement random checks of vehicles or pedestrians. The commander conducts...

  9. 78 FR 38069 - Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Register on February 6, 2012 (77 FR 5681), promulgated the regulation to establish Global Entry as an... FR 17492.) Travelers who wish to participate in Global Entry must apply via the CBP Global Entry Web... (SFO); Orlando International Airport, Orlando, Florida (MCO); Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County...

  10. 48 CFR 52.225-8 - Duty-Free Entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Director of Customs, please release shipment under 19 CFR part 142 and notify for execution of Customs... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Duty-Free Entry. 52.225-8...-Free Entry. As prescribed in 25.1101(e), insert the following clause: Duty-Free Entry (OCT 2010)...

  11. 48 CFR 52.225-8 - Duty-Free Entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Director of Customs, please release shipment under 19 CFR part 142 and notify for execution of Customs... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duty-Free Entry. 52.225-8...-Free Entry. As prescribed in 25.1101(e), insert the following clause: Duty-Free Entry (OCT 2010)...

  12. 48 CFR 52.225-8 - Duty-Free Entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Director of Customs, please release shipment under 19 CFR part 142 and notify for execution of Customs... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duty-Free Entry. 52.225-8...-Free Entry. As prescribed in 25.1101(e), insert the following clause: Duty-Free Entry (OCT 2010)...

  13. 48 CFR 52.225-8 - Duty-Free Entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Director of Customs, please release shipment under 19 CFR part 142 and notify for execution of Customs... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duty-Free Entry. 52.225-8...-Free Entry. As prescribed in 25.1101(e), insert the following clause: Duty-Free Entry (OCT 2010)...

  14. 48 CFR 52.225-8 - Duty-Free Entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Director of Customs, please release shipment under 19 CFR part 142 and notify for execution of Customs... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duty-Free Entry. 52.225-8...-Free Entry. As prescribed in 25.1101(e), insert the following clause: Duty-Free Entry (OCT 2010)...

  15. 32 CFR 809a.1 - Random installation entry point checks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Random installation entry point checks. 809a.1 Section 809a.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE... Entry Policy § 809a.1 Random installation entry point checks. The installation commander determines...

  16. 19 CFR 143.16 - Substitution of warehouse entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitution of warehouse entry. 143.16 Section 143.16 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... warehouse entry. The importer may substitute an entry for warehouse at any time within 1 year from the...

  17. Summary analysis of the Gemini entry aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.

    1972-01-01

    The aerodynamic data that were derived in 1967 from the analysis of flight-generated data for the Gemini entry module are presented. These data represent the aerodynamic characteristics exhibited by the vehicle during the entry portion of Gemini 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions. For the Gemini, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions, the flight-generated lift-to-drag ratios and corresponding angles of attack are compared with the wind tunnel data. These comparisons show that the flight generated lift-to-drag ratios are consistently lower than were anticipated from the tunnel data. Numerous data uncertainties are cited that provide an insight into the problems that are related to an analysis of flight data developed from instrumentation systems, the primary functions of which are other than the evaluation of flight aerodynamic performance.

  18. Tactile Data Entry for Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron B.; Hannaford, Blake; Sands, O Scott

    2012-01-01

    In the task-saturated environment of extravehicular activity (EVA), an astronaut's ability to leverage suit-integrated information systems is limited by a lack of options for data entry. In particular, bulky gloves inhibit the ability to interact with standard computing interfaces such as a mouse or keyboard. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation into a system that permits the space suit gloves themselves to be used as data entry devices. Hand motion tracking is combined with simple finger gesture recognition to enable use of a virtual keyboard, while tactile feedback provides touch-based context to the graphical user interface (GUI) and positive confirmation of keystroke events. In human subject trials, conducted with twenty participants using a prototype system, participants entered text significantly faster with tactile feedback than without (p = 0.02). The results support incorporation of vibrotactile information in a future system that will enable full touch typing and general mouse interactions using instrumented EVA gloves.

  19. RTLS entry load relief parameter optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crull, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of a candidate load relief control law for use during the pullup phase of Return-to-Launch-Site (RTLS) abort entries. The control law parameters and cycle time which optimized performance of the normal load factor limiting phase (load relief phase) of an RTLS entry are examined. A set of control law gains, a smoothing parameter, and a normal force coefficient curve fit are established which resulted in good load relief performance considering the possible aerodynamic coefficient uncertainties defined. Also, the examination of various guidance cycle times revealed improved load relief performance with decreasing cycle time. A .5 second cycle provided smooth and adequate load relief in the presence of all the aerodynamic uncertainties examined.

  20. Cell entry of hepatitis C virus

    SciTech Connect

    Bartosch, Birke . E-mail: Birke.Bartosch@ens-lyon.fr; Cosset, Francois-Loic . E-mail: Francois-Loic.Cosset@ens-lyon.fr

    2006-04-25

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), an important human pathogen, is an enveloped, positive-stranded RNA virus classified in the hepacivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Cell attachment of flaviviruses generally leads to endocytosis of bound virions. Systems that support HCV replication and particle formation in vitro are emerging only now, 16 years after the discovery of the virus. Albeit this limitation, the route of HCV cell entry as well as 'capture' molecules involved in low-affinity interactions for the initial contact of HCV with target cells and potential high-affinity receptor candidates that may mediate HCV trafficking and fusion has been described. The objective of this review is to summarize the contribution of different HCV model systems to our current knowledge about structure of the HCV GPs E1 and E2 and their roles in cell entry comprising cell attachment, interactions with cellular receptors, endocytosis, and fusion.

  1. Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

    After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  2. Concepts of papillomavirus entry into host cells.

    PubMed

    Day, Patricia M; Schelhaas, Mario

    2014-02-01

    Papillomaviruses enter basal cells of stratified epithelia. Assembly of new virions occurs in infected cells during terminal differentiation. This unique biology is reflected in the mechanism of entry. Extracellularly, the interaction of nonenveloped capsids with several host cell proteins, after binding, results in discrete conformational changes. Asynchronous internalization occurs over several hours by an endocytic mechanism related to, but distinct from macropinocytosis. Intracellular trafficking leads virions through the endosomal system, and from late endosomes to the trans-Golgi-network, before nuclear delivery. Here, we discuss the existing data with the aim to synthesize an integrated model of the stepwise process of entry, thereby highlighting key open questions. Additionally, we relate data from experiments with cultured cells to in vivo results. PMID:24525291

  3. Shuttle /STS-1/ entry trajectory reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, H. R.; Findlay, J. T.; Kelly, G. M.; Heck, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    The methods and data used to reconstruct the Shuttle entry trajectory aerodynamics from 180 km to landing are reviewed. Onboard accelerometer and gyro measurements are used with a weighted least squares filter along with ground tracking data to provide the evolving spacecraft state. The software development is described, noting that computations include linear acceleration and angular rate data, aerodynamic coefficient, and inertial measurement units, sampled at 170 Hz. Ground tracking data was gathered on S- and C-bands; Guam data is considered critical as it was taken during the blackout at the beginning of entry. The generation of a best estimate trajectory, combining flight and ground data, yields inplane parameters of altitude, flight path angle, and velocity for comparison with navigational instrumentation. Predicted lift/drag ratios were found to be accurate from Mach 1-25, and up to 23% low below Mach 1.

  4. Data entry and error embedding system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Jr., John (Inventor); Woo, Daniel N. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A data entry and error embedding system in which, first, a document is bitmapped and recorded in a first memory. Then, it is displayed, and portions of it to be replicated by data entry are underlayed by a window, into which window replicated data is entered in location and size such that it is juxtaposed just below that which is replicated, enhancing the accuracy of replication. Second, with this format in place, selected portions of the replicated data are altered by the insertion of character or word substitutions, thus the embedding of errors. Finally, a proofreader would endeavor to correct the error embedded data and a record of his or her changes recorded. In this manner, the skill level of the proofreader and accuracy of the data are computed.

  5. Shadowgraph Images of Re-entry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    These four shadowgraph images represent early re-entry vehicle concepts. A shadowgraph is a process that makes visible the disturbances that occur in a fluid flow at high velocity, in which light passing through a flowing fluid is refracted by the density gradients in the fluid resulting in bright and dark areas on a screen placed behind the fluid.H. Julian Allen pioneered and developed the Blunt Body Theory which made possible the heat shield designs that were embodied in the Mercury, Gemini and Apollo space capsules, enabling astronauts to survive the firey re-entry into Earth's atmosphere. A blunt body produces a shockwave in front of the vehicle--visible in the photo--that actually shields the vehicle from excessive heating. As a result, blunt body vehicles can stay cooler than pointy, low drag vehicles.

  6. Orion Exploration Mission Entry Interface Target Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rea, Jeremy R.

    2016-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle is required to return to the continental United States at any time during the month. In addition, it is required to provide a survivable entry from a wide range of trans-lunar abort trajectories. The Entry Interface (EI) state must be targeted to ensure that all requirements are met for all possible return scenarios, even in the event of no communication with the Mission Control Center to provide an updated EI target. The challenge then is to functionalize an EI state constraint manifold that can be used in the on-board targeting algorithm, as well as the ground-based trajectory optimization programs. This paper presents the techniques used to define the EI constraint manifold and to functionalize it as a set of polynomials in several dimensions.

  7. Heat shielding for Venus entry probes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. L.; Nicolet, W. E.

    1973-01-01

    Two contrasted approaches to ablative thermal protection of Venus entry probes are presented - a typical carbonaceous charring ablator and a dielectric reflective ablator. The interesting observation in this study is that mass loss is not the controlling variable in heat-shield sizing. A heat-soak problem determines the carbon phenolic sizing. For Teflon, the material thickness required to accomplish reflection is the sizing factor. The total heat-shield weight required to handle either steep or shallow entry is computed to be 13% less for a Teflon shield (if at least 3.2 mm are required for reflection) than for a charring ablator shield. If an efficient reflective backing is used with Teflon, the thickness can be reduced 1.0 mm and the computed weight is 31% less for Teflon than for the charring ablator. Such weight reductions may significantly increase the science payload weight of the miniprobes.

  8. Hypersonic Flight Mechanics. [for atmospheric entry trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busemann, A.; Vinh, N. X.; Culp, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of aerodynamic forces on trajectories at orbital speeds are discussed in terms of atmospheric models. The assumptions for the model are spherical symmetry, nonrotating, and an exponential atmosphere. The equations of flight, and the performance in extra-atmospheric flight are discussed along with the return to the atmosphere, and the entry. Solutions of the exact equations using directly matched asymptotic expansions are presented.

  9. Cameraless Peritoneal Entry in Abdominal Laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, William H.; Tully, Griffeth; Rajguru, Amit; Burnett, Dan R.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Despite significant advances in laparoscopic instrumentation and techniques, injury to intraabdominal structures remains a potentially serious complication of peritoneal access. Consensus on the best method to obtain peritoneal access is lacking. A safe technique that does not rely on direct visualization of the abdominal layers could shorten the learning curve for surgeons and potentially be adopted by other physicians for a variety of nonsurgical indications for peritoneal entry. Methods: A prospective series of 99 consecutive patients who underwent upper-abdominal laparoscopic surgery performed by a single surgeon between January 2009 and June 2010 was reviewed. The method used to obtain peritoneal access was the fluid-based peritoneal entry indication technique (C-PET) with the EndoTIP trocar. Results: Successful abdominal entry using C-PET was achieved in 90 (90.9%) of the patients; no trocar-related injuries or other injuries associated with peritoneal access occurred. The mean time from incision to confirmed peritoneal access was 21.4 s (range, 12 to 65). Of the 9 cases in which C-PET did not successfully gain entry, 6 occurred during the first 20 surgeries and only 3 in the final 79. Conclusions: C-PET is simple, safe, timely, and effective for gaining peritoneal access during laparoscopic abdominal surgeries. In this series, C-PET produced no complications and proved effective across a wide variety of patients, including the obese and those who had had previous surgery. Furthermore, C-PET does not require visual recognition of anatomic layers and potentially could easily be taught to nonsurgeon physicians who perform peritoneal access. PMID:23484564

  10. Space X1 First Entry Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    One mini-grab sample container (m-GSC) was returned aboard Space X1 because of the importance of quickly knowing first-entry conditions in this new commercial module. This sample was analyzed alongside samples of the portable clean room (PCR) used in the Space X complex at KSC. The recoveries of C-13-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene from the GSCs averaged 130, 129, and 132 %, respectively.

  11. Launch, Entry and Abort, Intravehicular Spacesuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Kenneth S.

    2010-01-01

    Senior spacesuit expert, will present information about Launch, Entry and Abort (LEA) spacesuits - part of an overall vehicle crew escape and survival system. These LEA spacesuits are worn during the launch and reentry to enhance crew survival. The U.S. has traditionally called these spacesuits Intravehicular Activity (IVA) spacesuits. The Russians refer to this type of spacesuit as "Rescue Suits." Thomas will discuss the success of the LEA suits and the consequences of eliminating their use or providing inadequate systems.

  12. Unified treatment of lifting atmospheric entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachtsheim, P. R.; Lehman, L. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a unified treatment of the effect of lift on peak acceleration during atmospheric entry. Earlier studies were restricted to different regimes because of approximations invoked to solve the same transcendental equation. This paper shows the connection between the earlier studies by employing a general expression for the peak acceleration and obtains solutions to the transcendental equation without invoking the earlier approximations. Results are presented and compared with earlier studies where appropriate.

  13. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  14. Reflecting ablating heat shields for planetary entry.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. L.; Nachtsheim, P. R.; Howe, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Heat shielding for planetary entry probes of future Jovian and Venusian missions will encounter heating levels well beyond those previously experienced. These entries are typically dominated by radiative heating from the shock layer. This paper demonstrates the potential of reflecting this incident radiation diffusely from an ablating material. This technique contrasts with the absorption experienced by char-forming or graphitic ablators. Two dielectric materials, Teflon (polytetra-fluoroethylene) and boron nitride, are examined for their ablative performance, including reflection, in a combined convective- and radiative-heating environment. For Teflon, at the conditions obtained, superimposition of radiative heating upon a convective stream causes no additional increase in surface recession over the convective only results. For boron nitride, an excellent room-temperature reflector in the visible spectrum, a decrease in reflectivity from 90 to 55 percent is experienced when the surface undergoes sublimation at high temperatures. The process of reflection in each of these materials is described in terms of backscattering from crystals. The significance of a sizable reflection as a mode of energy accommodation is demonstrated for Venusian entries as a potential reduction in mass loss due to ablation.

  15. Preliminary thermal analysis for Saturn entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoby, E. V.; Moss, J. N.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary thermal analysis based on recently defined Saturn entry conditions has been conducted. The study, using viscous-shock-layer and engineering codes employed for Project Galileo, investigated nonequilibrium chemistry effects on the Saturn thermal environment, defined the primary heat-transfer mode for heatshield design, delineated some problem areas for future thermal studies, and validated BIRCHES (Blunt Body Inviscid Radiative and Convective Heating Engineering Solutions) for parametric or design studies. The effect of nonequilibrium chemistry appears to significantly influence only the radiative fluxes with effects localized to the stagnation region. However, the heat-transfer mode pertinent to the overall heat-shield design is convection. The convective results of BIRCHES and a detailed code are in good agreement. The resulting mass-loss rates for the currently prescribed nominal Saturn entry conditions are small when compared with the values for nominal Jupiter entry conditions. With coupled carbon-phenolic ablation injection, the convective heating rates are reduced substantially while the radiative heating rates are increased when compared with the corresponding no-injection results.

  16. Atmospheric entry heating of cosmic dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, George J.

    1987-01-01

    A computer simulation of the atmospheric entry deceleration and heating for micrometeorites into a planetary atmosphere was developed. The results of this model were compared to an earlier model. The major difference between the extent of heating experienced in the two models results from an underestimation of the atmospheric density at altitudes above 130 km in the earlier model. Thus the earlier model systematically overestimates the peak temperature reached on atmospheric entry. The discrepancies are small for near vertical entry and/or high density particles, where little deceleration is experienced at high altitudes. For particles entering at grazing incidence and/or of low density the discrepancies are more pronounced. Gravitational enhancement, which is a function of geocentric velocity at the collection opportunity, was found to bias near Earth cosmic dust collections in favor of low velocity particles. The effect is to increase the proportion of low velocity dust, predominately from asteroids, in the stratospheric cosmic dust collections and on Earth orbiting spacecraft impact surfaces over its proportion in the interplanetary dust cloud.

  17. Gated entry into the ciliary compartment.

    PubMed

    Takao, Daisuke; Verhey, Kristen J

    2016-01-01

    Cilia and flagella play important roles in cell motility and cell signaling. These functions require that the cilium establishes and maintains a unique lipid and protein composition. Recent work indicates that a specialized region at the base of the cilium, the transition zone, serves as both a barrier to entry and a gate for passage of select components. For at least some cytosolic proteins, the barrier and gate functions are provided by a ciliary pore complex (CPC) that shares molecular and mechanistic properties with nuclear gating. Specifically, nucleoporins of the CPC limit the diffusional entry of cytosolic proteins in a size-dependent manner and enable the active transport of large molecules and complexes via targeting signals, importins, and the small G protein Ran. For membrane proteins, the septin protein SEPT2 is part of the barrier to entry whereas the gating function is carried out and/or regulated by proteins associated with ciliary diseases (ciliopathies) such as nephronophthisis, Meckel–Gruber syndrome and Joubert syndrome. Here, we discuss the evidence behind these models of ciliary gating as well as the similarities to and differences from nuclear gating. PMID:26472341

  18. Orion Entry, Descent, and Landing Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoelscher, Brian R.

    2007-01-01

    The Orion Entry, Descent, and Landing simulation was created over the past two years to serve as the primary Crew Exploration Vehicle guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) design and analysis tool at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Advanced NASA Technology Architecture for Exploration Studies (ANTARES) simulation is a six degree-of-freedom tool with a unique design architecture which has a high level of flexibility. This paper describes the decision history and motivations that guided the creation of this simulation tool. The capabilities of the models within ANTARES are presented in detail. Special attention is given to features of the highly flexible GN&C architecture and the details of the implemented GN&C algorithms. ANTARES provides a foundation simulation for the Orion Project that has already been successfully used for requirements analysis, system definition analysis, and preliminary GN&C design analysis. ANTARES will find useful application in engineering analysis, mission operations, crew training, avionics-in-the-loop testing, etc. This paper focuses on the entry simulation aspect of ANTARES, which is part of a bigger simulation package supporting the entire mission profile of the Orion vehicle. The unique aspects of entry GN&C design are covered, including how the simulation is being used for Monte Carlo dispersion analysis and for support of linear stability analysis. Sample simulation output from ANTARES is presented in an appendix.

  19. Cellular factors implicated in filovirus entry.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Suchita; Hope, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Although filoviral infections are still occurring in different parts of the world, there are no effective preventive or treatment strategies currently available against them. Not only do filoviruses cause a deadly infection, but they also have the potential of being used as biological weapons. This makes it imperative to comprehensively study these viruses in order to devise effective strategies to prevent the occurrence of these infections. Entry is the foremost step in the filoviral replication cycle and different studies have reported the involvement of a myriad of cellular factors including plasma membrane components, cytoskeletal proteins, endosomal components, and cytosolic factors in this process. Signaling molecules such as the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases comprising of Tyro3, Axl, and Mer have also been implicated as putative entry factors. Additionally, filoviruses are suggested to bind to a common receptor and recent studies have proposed T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) as potential receptor candidates. This paper summarizes the existing literature on filoviral entry with a special focus on cellular factors involved in this process and also highlights some fundamental questions. Future research aimed at answering these questions could be very useful in designing novel antiviral therapeutics. PMID:23365575

  20. Orion Entry Flight Control Stability and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahan, Alan L.; Loe, Greg R.; Seiler, Pete

    2007-01-01

    The Orion Spacecraft will be required to perform entry and landing functions for both Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Lunar return missions, utilizing only the Command Module (CM) with its unique systems and GN&C design. This paper presents the current CM Flight Control System (FCS) design to support entry and landing, with a focus on analyses that have supported its development to date. The CM FCS will have to provide for spacecraft stability and control while following guidance or manual commands during exo-atmospheric flight, after Service Module separation, translational powered flight required of the CM, atmospheric flight supporting both direct entry and skip trajectories down to drogue chute deploy, and during roll attitude reorientation just prior to touchdown. Various studies and analyses have been performed or are on-going supporting an overall FCS design with reasonably sized Reaction Control System (RCS) jets, that minimizes fuel usage, that provides appropriate command following but with reasonable stability and control margin. Results from these efforts to date are included, with particular attention on design issues that have emerged, such as the struggle to accommodate sub-sonic pitch and yaw control without using excessively large jets that could have a detrimental impact on vehicle weight. Apollo, with a similar shape, struggled with this issue as well. Outstanding CM FCS related design and analysis issues, planned for future effort, are also briefly be discussed.

  1. Kinetics of virus entry by endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2015-04-01

    Entry of virions into the host cells is either endocytotic or fusogenic. In both cases, it occurs via reversible formation of numerous relatively weak bonds resulting in wrapping of a virion by the host membrane with subsequent membrane rupture or scission. The corresponding kinetic models are customarily focused on the formation of bonds and do not pay attention to the energetics of the whole process, which is crucially dependent, especially in the case of endocytosis, on deformation of actin filaments forming the cytoskeleton of the host cell. The kinetic model of endocytosis, proposed by the author, takes this factor into account and shows that the whole process can be divided into a rapid initial transient stage and a long steady-state stage. The entry occurs during the latter stage and can be described as a first-order reaction. Depending on the details of the dependence of the grand canonical potential on the number of bonds, the entry can be limited either by the interplay of bond formation and membrane rupture (or scission) or by reaching a maximum of this potential.

  2. Analysis of Ebola Virus Entry Into Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Dahlmann, Franziska; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Babler, Anne; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Karsten, Christina B; Gnirß, Kerstin; Schneider, Heike; Wrensch, Florian; O'Callaghan, Christopher A; Bertram, Stephanie; Herrler, Georg; Becker, Stephan; Pöhlmann, Stefan; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike

    2015-10-01

    Ebolaviruses constitute a public health threat, particularly in Central and Western Africa. Host cell factors required for spread of ebolaviruses may serve as targets for antiviral intervention. Lectins, TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (Tyro3, Axl, Mer), T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) proteins, integrins, and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) have been reported to promote entry of ebolaviruses into certain cellular systems. However, the factors used by ebolaviruses to invade macrophages, major viral targets, are poorly defined. Here, we show that mannose-specific lectins, TIM-1 and Axl augment entry into certain cell lines but do not contribute to Ebola virus (EBOV)-glycoprotein (GP)-driven transduction of macrophages. In contrast, expression of Mer, integrin αV, and NPC1 was required for efficient GP-mediated transduction and EBOV infection of macrophages. These results define cellular factors hijacked by EBOV for entry into macrophages and, considering that Mer and integrin αV promote phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, support the concept that EBOV relies on apoptotic mimicry to invade target cells. PMID:25877552

  3. Nuclear Chk1 prevents premature mitotic entry.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Makoto; Goto, Hidemasa; Kasahara, Kousuke; Kawakami, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Makoto; Kiyono, Tohru; Goshima, Naoki; Inagaki, Masaki

    2011-07-01

    Chk1 inhibits the premature activation of the cyclin-B1-Cdk1. However, it remains controversial whether Chk1 inhibits Cdk1 in the centrosome or in the nucleus before the G2-M transition. In this study, we examined the specificity of the mouse monoclonal anti-Chk1 antibody DCS-310, with which the centrosome was stained. Conditional Chk1 knockout in mouse embryonic fibroblasts reduced nuclear but not centrosomal staining with DCS-310. In Chk1(+/myc) human colon adenocarcinoma (DLD-1) cells, Chk1 was detected in the nucleus but not in the centrosome using an anti-Myc antibody. Through the combination of protein array and RNAi technologies, we identified Ccdc-151 as a protein that crossreacted with DCS-310 on the centrosome. Mitotic entry was delayed by expression of the Chk1 mutant that localized in the nucleus, although forced immobilization of Chk1 to the centrosome had little impact on the timing of mitotic entry. These results suggest that nuclear but not centrosomal Chk1 contributes to correct timing of mitotic entry. PMID:21628425

  4. Coronaviruses Induce Entry-Independent, Continuous Macropinocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Megan Culler; Peek, Christopher T.; Becker, Michelle M.; Smith, Everett Clinton

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Macropinocytosis is exploited by many pathogens for entry into cells. Coronaviruses (CoVs) such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV are important human pathogens; however, macropinocytosis during CoV infection has not been investigated. We demonstrate that the CoVs SARS CoV and murine hepatitis virus (MHV) induce macropinocytosis, which occurs late during infection, is continuous, and is not associated with virus entry. MHV-induced macropinocytosis results in vesicle internalization, as well as extended filopodia capable of fusing with distant cells. MHV-induced macropinocytosis requires fusogenic spike protein on the cell surface and is dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor activation. Inhibition of macropinocytosis reduces supernatant viral titers and syncytia but not intracellular virus titers. These results indicate that macropinocytosis likely facilitates CoV infection through enhanced cell-to-cell spreading. Our studies are the first to demonstrate virus use of macropinocytosis for a role other than entry and suggest a much broader potential exploitation of macropinocytosis in virus replication and host interactions. PMID:25096879

  5. Mars Exploration Entry, Descent and Landing Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Robert D.; Manning, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    The United States has successfully landed five robotic systems on the surface of Mars. These systems all had landed mass below 0.6 metric tons (t), had landed footprints on the order of hundreds of km and landed at sites below -1.4 km MOLA elevation due the need to perform entry, descent and landing operations in an environment with sufficient atmospheric density. At present, robotic exploration systems engineers are struggling with the challenges of increasing landed mass capability to 0.8 t while improving landed accuracy to tens of km and landing at a site as high as +2 km MOLA elevation for the Mars Science Laboratory project. Meanwhile, current plans for human exploration of Mars call for the landing of 40-80 t surface elements at scientifically interesting locations within close proximity (tens of m) of pre-positioned robotic assets. This paper summarizes past successful entry, descent and landing systems and approaches being developed by the robotic Mars exploration program to increased landed performance (mass, accuracy and surface elevation). In addition, the entry, descent and landing sequence for a human exploration system will be reviewed, highlighting the technology and systems advances required.

  6. Analysis of Ebola Virus Entry Into Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Dahlmann, Franziska; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Babler, Anne; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Karsten, Christina B.; Gnirß, Kerstin; Schneider, Heike; Wrensch, Florian; O'Callaghan, Christopher A.; Bertram, Stephanie; Herrler, Georg; Becker, Stephan; Pöhlmann, Stefan; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses constitute a public health threat, particularly in Central and Western Africa. Host cell factors required for spread of ebolaviruses may serve as targets for antiviral intervention. Lectins, TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (Tyro3, Axl, Mer), T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) proteins, integrins, and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) have been reported to promote entry of ebolaviruses into certain cellular systems. However, the factors used by ebolaviruses to invade macrophages, major viral targets, are poorly defined. Here, we show that mannose-specific lectins, TIM-1 and Axl augment entry into certain cell lines but do not contribute to Ebola virus (EBOV)-glycoprotein (GP)–driven transduction of macrophages. In contrast, expression of Mer, integrin αV, and NPC1 was required for efficient GP-mediated transduction and EBOV infection of macrophages. These results define cellular factors hijacked by EBOV for entry into macrophages and, considering that Mer and integrin αV promote phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, support the concept that EBOV relies on apoptotic mimicry to invade target cells. PMID:25877552

  7. 19 CFR 132.14 - Special permits for immediate delivery; entry of merchandise before presenting entry summary for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... merchandise before presenting entry summary for consumption; permits of delivery. 132.14 Section 132.14... merchandise before presenting entry summary for consumption; permits of delivery. (a) Effect of issuance of... documentation before the proper presentation of an entry summary for consumption, or a withdrawal...

  8. 19 CFR 132.14 - Special permits for immediate delivery; entry of merchandise before presenting entry summary for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... merchandise before presenting entry summary for consumption; permits of delivery. 132.14 Section 132.14... merchandise before presenting entry summary for consumption; permits of delivery. (a) Effect of issuance of... documentation before the proper presentation of an entry summary for consumption, or a withdrawal...

  9. 19 CFR 132.14 - Special permits for immediate delivery; entry of merchandise before presenting entry summary for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... merchandise before presenting entry summary for consumption; permits of delivery. 132.14 Section 132.14... merchandise before presenting entry summary for consumption; permits of delivery. (a) Effect of issuance of... documentation before the proper presentation of an entry summary for consumption, or a withdrawal...

  10. 19 CFR 132.14 - Special permits for immediate delivery; entry of merchandise before presenting entry summary for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... merchandise before presenting entry summary for consumption; permits of delivery. 132.14 Section 132.14... merchandise before presenting entry summary for consumption; permits of delivery. (a) Effect of issuance of... documentation before the proper presentation of an entry summary for consumption, or a withdrawal...

  11. Science Rationale for Jupiter Entry Probe as Part of JIMO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. E.; Spilker, T. R.

    2003-01-01

    A Jupiter atmospheric entry probe as part of JIMO is a cost effective way to address fundamental science questions identified in the National Research Council Solar System Exploration Decadal Survey (SSEDS): New Frontiers in the Solar System, An Integrated Ex- ploration Strategy. Compared to either the cost of an entirely separate Jupiter mission, or the cost of JIMO itself, inclusion of such a probe on JIMO would be cost advantageous. The probe itself could be relatively simple, and could build on the Galileo Probe heritage. The SSEDS specifically identified the distribution of water across the Solar System as a Key Scientific Question. Correspondingly, knowing the water abun dance on Jupiter is fundamental to understanding almost every aspect of the evolution of the early solar nebula. The Galileo Probe obtained the abundance of several key elements in Jupiter's atmosphere, which data have already caused major rethinking of theories of how Jupiter formed and how the early solar nebula evolved. However, because of a combination of circumstances, the global abundance of the key element oxygen, in the form of water, was not obtained. Without knowledge of the jovian water abundance, further progress in understanding Solar System evolution and planet formation will be greatly inhibited. Therefore, quantifying jovian water abundance should be a goal of the very next mission to the jovian system. Such a measurement would be impossible via remote sensing from the JIMO orbiter because of the large distances the JIMO orbiter maintains from Jupiter. A Jupiter atmospheric entry probe as part of JIMO could achieve the fundamental water measurement. In order that a probe avoid repeating the Galileo probe's experience of failing to obtain the jovian water abundance, the probe should go deep, to at least 100 bars pressure. Probes to 100 bars have been accomplished many times in descending to the surface of Venus, and at 100 bars the temperature of the jovian atmosphere is 60

  12. Mesh-Based Entry Vehicle and Explosive Debris Re-Contact Probability Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPherson, Mark A.; Mendeck, Gavin F.

    2011-01-01

    The risk to a crewed vehicle arising from potential re-contact with fragments from an explosive breakup of any jettisoned spacecraft segments during entry has long sought to be quantified. However, great difficulty lies in efficiently capturing the potential locations of each fragment and their collective threat to the vehicle. The method presented in this paper addresses this problem by using a stochastic approach that discretizes simulated debris pieces into volumetric cells, and then assesses strike probabilities accordingly. Combining spatial debris density and relative velocity between the debris and the entry vehicle, the strike probability can be calculated from the integral of the debris flux inside each cell over time. Using this technique it is possible to assess the risk to an entry vehicle along an entire trajectory as it separates from the jettisoned segment. By decoupling the fragment trajectories from that of the entry vehicle, multiple potential separation maneuvers can then be evaluated rapidly to provide an assessment of the best strategy to mitigate the re-contact risk.

  13. Hypersonic aerodynamics and entry-maneuver: Aerothermodynamic interactions for two lifting entry vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrington, J. P.; Woods, W. C.

    1972-01-01

    The longitudinal, directional, and lateral static stability and control characteristics of a delta lifting body and a delta-wing body were obtained at a Mach number of 20 in helium for operational Reynolds numbers over an angle-of-attack range of -4 deg to 55 deg. The aerodynamic characteristics of the wing body were then evaluated in an entry study to examine the effects of vehicle performance on the aerothermodynamic parameters associated with constant and variable angle-of-attack modes for a 1500-n. mi. cross range. The experimental results indicated that the vehicles were stable, except for neutral directional stability for the wing-body shape, and could be trimmed over the operational angle-of-attack range; however, the wing-body vehicle had adverse yaw due to roll control. This roll-yaw coupling was not examined for the lifting body. The trajectory analysis indicated that a 17-percent decrease in performance required little change in the constant angle-of-attack entry mode and, in turn, resulted in a small decrease in the total heat load. For the pitch-modulated entry, the performance decrease required the pitch maneuver to begin earlier during entry and to last longer in order to meet the 1500-n. mi. cross range without a major heating penalty. The performance reduction also had little effect on the maximum laminar radiation equilibrium temperature over a major portion of the lower surface of the wing-body vehicle regardless of the entry mode.

  14. Sodium entry through endothelial store-operated calcium entry channels: regulation by Orai1

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ningyong; Cioffi, Donna L.; Alexeyev, Mikhail; Rich, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Orai1 interacts with transient receptor potential protein of the canonical subfamily (TRPC4) and contributes to calcium selectivity of the endothelial cell store-operated calcium entry current (ISOC). Orai1 silencing increases sodium permeability and decreases membrane-associated calcium, although it is not known whether Orai1 is an important determinant of cytosolic sodium transitions. We test the hypothesis that, upon activation of store-operated calcium entry channels, Orai1 is a critical determinant of cytosolic sodium transitions. Activation of store-operated calcium entry channels transiently increased cytosolic calcium and sodium, characteristic of release from an intracellular store. The sodium response occurred more abruptly and returned to baseline more rapidly than did the transient calcium rise. Extracellular choline substitution for sodium did not inhibit the response, although 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and YM-58483 reduced it by ∼50%. After this transient response, cytosolic sodium continued to increase due to influx through activated store-operated calcium entry channels. The magnitude of this sustained increase in cytosolic sodium was greater when experiments were conducted in low extracellular calcium and when Orai1 expression was silenced; these two interventions were not additive, suggesting a common mechanism. 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and YM-58483 inhibited the sustained increase in cytosolic sodium, only in the presence of Orai1. These studies demonstrate that sodium permeates activated store-operated calcium entry channels, resulting in an increase in cytosolic sodium; the magnitude of this response is determined by Orai1. PMID:25428882

  15. Sodium entry through endothelial store-operated calcium entry channels: regulation by Orai1.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ningyong; Cioffi, Donna L; Alexeyev, Mikhail; Rich, Thomas C; Stevens, Troy

    2015-02-15

    Orai1 interacts with transient receptor potential protein of the canonical subfamily (TRPC4) and contributes to calcium selectivity of the endothelial cell store-operated calcium entry current (ISOC). Orai1 silencing increases sodium permeability and decreases membrane-associated calcium, although it is not known whether Orai1 is an important determinant of cytosolic sodium transitions. We test the hypothesis that, upon activation of store-operated calcium entry channels, Orai1 is a critical determinant of cytosolic sodium transitions. Activation of store-operated calcium entry channels transiently increased cytosolic calcium and sodium, characteristic of release from an intracellular store. The sodium response occurred more abruptly and returned to baseline more rapidly than did the transient calcium rise. Extracellular choline substitution for sodium did not inhibit the response, although 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and YM-58483 reduced it by ∼50%. After this transient response, cytosolic sodium continued to increase due to influx through activated store-operated calcium entry channels. The magnitude of this sustained increase in cytosolic sodium was greater when experiments were conducted in low extracellular calcium and when Orai1 expression was silenced; these two interventions were not additive, suggesting a common mechanism. 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and YM-58483 inhibited the sustained increase in cytosolic sodium, only in the presence of Orai1. These studies demonstrate that sodium permeates activated store-operated calcium entry channels, resulting in an increase in cytosolic sodium; the magnitude of this response is determined by Orai1. PMID:25428882

  16. Physician order entry of ultrasound examination with handheld wireless terminal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuya, Shiro; Onogi, Yuzo; Shinohara, Nobuo; Yamaguchi, Izumi; Watanabe, Hiroki; Ohe, Kazuhiko; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Niidome, Takuro; Oyama, Hiroshi

    2004-04-01

    Although our hospital has an electronic order entry system, physician order entries must be performed using one of a limited number of terminals which are located in places like nurse stations. Due to this limitation, the mobility of the ultrasound machine cannot be fully exploited if a physician wants to perform a mobile ultrasound examination far from an entry terminal. In addition, this situation increases the possibility that a physician will fail to issue a paper voucher of the examination. In an attempt to resolve these problems, we have developed a mobile physician order entry system that incorporates ultrasound machines equipped with handheld wireless terminals, which use the 802.11b standard and the bandwidth is 11 Mbps. This is an efficient way to order ultrasound examination entries because physicians can register entries at any location in a hospital ward. In addition, the proposed system is a reliable method by which to attach images upon ultrasound examination entry.

  17. Assessment of the ATV-1 Re-Entry Observation Campaign for Future Re-Entry Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lips, T.; Lohle, S.; Marynowsky, T.; Rees, D.; Stenbeak-Nielsen, H. C.; Beks, M. L.; Hatton, J.

    2010-09-01

    This paper summarizes the midterm results of the currently ongoing ESA study “Assessment of the ATV-1 Reentry Observation Campaign for Future Re-entry Missions”. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the data obtained during a joint ESA/NASA airborne observation campaign of the destructive re-entry of ATV-1 Jules Verne which occurred on September 29, 2008. The presented results are focused on spectroscopic fragment characterization(material identification), frame-by-frame fragment tracking(manual and automatic) for various video recordings, 3D triangulation of the tracked fragments, and fragment propagation until complete demise or ground impact, including the actual size and location of the ATV-1 debris footprint. Fragment propagation analyses comprise also the derivation of aerodynamic fragment properties and potential delta velocities. These parameters are of high importance for the re-entry safety analysis for ATV-2 Johannes Kepler.

  18. How to Get Entry-Level Employment at the Top 100 Advertising Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, William J.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a survey which quantifies the entry-level market in top advertising agencies. Discusses employment projections, entry-level job distribution, source of entry-level employment, college degree of entry-level employees, academic major of entry-level employees, and entry-level assignments by major. Concludes that an advertising major is far…

  19. Characterization of Human Astrovirus Cell Entry

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Ernesto; Muñoz-Yañez, Claudia; Sánchez-San Martín, Claudia; Aguirre-Crespo, Gabriela; Baños-Lara, M. del Rocio; Gutierrez, Michelle; Espinosa, Rafaela; Acevedo, Yunuén; Arias, Carlos F.

    2014-01-01

    Human astroviruses (HAstV) are a frequent cause of gastroenteritis in young children and immunocompromised patients. To understand the early steps of HAstV infection in the highly permissive Caco-2 cell line, the binding and entry processes of the virus were characterized. The half-time of virus binding to the cell surface was about 10 min, while virus decapsidation took around 130 min. Drugs affecting clathrin-mediated endocytosis, endosome acidification, and actin filament polymerization, as well as those that reduce the presence of cholesterol in the cell membrane, decreased the infectivity of the virus. The infection was also reduced by silencing the expression of the clathrin heavy chain (CHC) by RNA interference or by overexpression of dominant-negative mutants of dynamin 2 and Eps15. Furthermore, the entry of HAstV apparently depends on the maturation of endosomes, since the infection was reduced by silencing the expression of Rab7, a small GTPase involved in the early- to late-endosome maturation. Altogether, our results suggest that HAstV enters Caco-2 cells using a clathrin-dependent pathway and reaches late endosomes to enter cells. Here, we have characterized the mechanism used by human astroviruses, important agents of gastroenteritis in children, to gain entry into their host cells. Using a combination of biochemical and genetic tools, we found that these viruses enter Caco-2 cells using a clathrin-dependent endocytic pathway, where they most likely need to travel to late endosomes to reach the cytoplasm and begin their replication cycle. PMID:24335315

  20. Suramin Inhibits Chikungunya Virus Entry and Transmission.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yi-Jung; Wang, Yu-Ming; Lu, Jeng-wei; Wu, Tzong-Yuan; Lin, Liang-In; Kuo, Szu-Cheng; Lin, Chang-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a profound global threat due to its high rate of contagion and the lack of vaccine or effective treatment. Suramin is a symmetric polyanionic naphthylurea that is widely used in the clinical treatment of parasite infections. Numerous studies have reported the broad antiviral activities of suramin; however, inhibition effects against CHIKV have not yet been demonstrated. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the antiviral effect of suramin on CHIKV infection and to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying inhibition using plaque reduction assay, RT-qPCR, western blot analysis, and plaque assay. Microneutralization assay was used to determine the EC50 of suramin in the CHIKV-S27 strain as well as in three other clinical strains (0611aTw, 0810bTw and 0706aTw). Time-of-addition was used to reveal the anti-CHIKV mechanism of suramin. We also evaluated anti-CHIKV activity with regard to viral entry, virus release, and cell-to-cell transmission. Cytopathic effect, viral RNA, viral protein, and the virus yield of CHIKV infection were shown to diminish in the presence of suramin in a dose-dependent manner. Suramin was also shown the inhibitory activities of the three clinical isolates. Suramin inhibited the early progression of CHIKV infection, due perhaps to interference with virus fusion and binding, which subsequently prevented viral entry. Results of a molecular docking simulation indicate that suramin may embed within the cavity of the E1/E2 heterodimer to interfere with their function. Suramin was also shown to reduce viral release and cell-to-cell transmission of CHIKV. In conclusion, Suramin shows considerable potential as a novel anti-CHIKV agent targeting viral entry, extracellular transmission, and cell-to-cell transmission. PMID:26208101

  1. Drug patent expirations and the speed of generic entry.

    PubMed Central

    Bae, J P

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Using recent data, to analyze the generic drug entry phenomenon to determine the factors that influence the speed and likelihood of generic drug entries. DATA SOURCES: Data for 81 drugs that have lost patent between 1987 and 1994. Patent and exclusive marketing rights expiration dates: Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalent Evaluations (1986-1989). Generic entry dates: FDA Drug and Device Product Approvals (Jan. 1987-Dec. 1994). Numbers of pending generic applications: FDA Office of Generic Drugs Quantitative Report-ANDAs and AADAs (Nov. 1990-Jan. 1993). Sales revenue: Pharmaceutical Data Services, Walsh-America. STUDY DESIGN: This study appropriately recognizes generic entry as a survival problem, and uses a proportional hazard method for analysis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: (1) There is a negative relationship between an innovative drug's sales revenue and the time to generic entry. (2) Entries of generics tend to be slower for drugs that have either very few or a very large number of competing brands in the marketplace. (3) The time to generic entry increased overall between 1987 and 1994. (4) Drugs that primarily treat chronic symptoms tend to enter faster than the types of drugs that primarily treat acute illnesses. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis shows that the generic industry is targeting large-revenue products and chronic drug markets. Entry of a generic drug is influenced by the existing branded substitutes in the marketplace. Surprisingly, the generic drug entry process has slowed despite many changes that would facilitate entry. PMID:9108806

  2. Patient Entry of Information: Evaluation of User Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kevin B

    2004-01-01

    Background Personal health records are web-based applications that allow patients to directly enter their own data into secure repositories in order to generate accessible profiles of medical information. Objective The authors evaluated a variety of user interfaces to determine whether different types of data entry methods employed by Personal health records may have an impact on the accuracy of patient-entered medical information. Methods Patients with disorders requiring treatment with thyroid hormone preparations were recruited to enter data into a web-based study application. The study application presented sequences of exercises that prompted free text entry, pick list selection, or radio button selection of information related to diagnoses, prescriptions, and laboratory test results. Entered data elements were compared to information abstracted from patients' clinic notes, prescription records, and laboratory test reports. Results Accuracy rates associated with the different data entry methods tested varied in relation to the complexity of requested information. Most of the data entry methods tested allowed for accurate entry of thyroid hormone preparation names, laboratory test names, and familiar diagnoses. Data entry methods that prompted guided abstraction of data elements from primary source documents were associated with more accurate entry of qualitative and quantitative information. Conclusions Different types of data entry methods employed by Personal health records may have an impact on the accuracy of patient-entered medical information. Approaches that rely on guided entry of data elements abstracted from primary source documents may promote more accurate entry of information. PMID:15249262

  3. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  4. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  5. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  6. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  7. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  8. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  9. 47 CFR 13.10 - Licensee address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee address. 13.10 Section 13.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.10 Licensee address. In accordance with § 1.923 of this chapter all applications must specify an address where...

  10. CCCC Chair's Address: Representing Ourselves, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the text of the author's address at the fifty-ninth annual convention of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) in March 2008. In her address, the author picks up strands of previous Chairs' addresses and weaves them through the fabric of her remarks. What she hopes will give sheen to the fabric is her…

  11. 75 FR 49813 - Change of Address

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... COMMISSION 11 CFR Parts 9405, 9407, 9409, 9410, 9420, and 9428 Change of Address AGENCY: United States... Assistance Commission (EAC) is amending its regulations to reflect a change of address for its headquarters. This technical amendment is a nomenclature change that updates and corrects the address for...

  12. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  13. Voice entry of hybrid microcircuit inspection data

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, M.W.

    1987-07-01

    Because every major manufacturer is trying to keep a competitive edge, millions of dollars are being spent on factory automation. However, automation alone does not provide the total answer. If processes are not characterized and then controlled as an integral part of factory automation, a less than optimum process with low yields resulting in either high rework costs or larger scrap piles will occur. Many good articles have been written on how to setup control charts to monitor processes, however, the key to a control chart working properly is to have accurate and timely data. Voice data entry provides the means of getting accurate and timely data.

  14. Distant entry pneumothorax in a competitive fencer.

    PubMed Central

    Harmer, P A; Moriarity, J; Walsh, M; Bean, M; Cramer, J

    1996-01-01

    An elite level fencer sustained a penetrating wound to the upper arm after his opponent's blade broke. Standard care for a deep puncture wound was given but it was some time before the athlete presented symptoms of a pneumothorax, which was confirmed by radiograph. Although resolution of this case was unremarkable, the possibility of penetrating thoracic injury, even when the point of entry is well outside the thorax and the athlete is not immediately symptomatic, should be born in mind by medical personnel working with fencers. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8889127

  15. About Pascal's tetrahedron with hypercomplex entries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, C.; Falcão, M. I.; Malonek, H. R.

    2013-10-01

    It is evident, that the properties of monogenic polynomials in (n + 1)-real variables significantly depend on the generators e1,e2,...,en of the underlying 2n-dimensional Clifford algebra Cℓ0,n over R and their interactions under multiplication. The case of n = 3 is studied through the consideration of Pascal's tetrahedron with hypercomplex entries as special case of the general Pascal simplex for arbitrary n, which represents a useful geometric arrangement of all possible products. The different layers Lk of Pascal's tetrahedron (or pyramid) are built by ordered symmetric products contained in the trinomial expansion of (e1+e2+e3)k,k = 0,1,....

  16. Evolved Acceleration Guidance for Planetary Entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mease, K. D.; Leavitt, J. A.; Ferch, M.

    The U.S. Apollo and Shuttle programs have proven the viability and effectiveness of acceleration guidance. New capabilities have been developed to augment this basic concept. Algorithms have been designed for low lift to drag ratio vehicles and for mid to high lift to drag ratio vehicles. These algorithms have been tested for Mars landing and for earth entry of reusable launch vehicles and have performed well in both cases. Also the trajectory planner has been incorporated into a landing footprint generator that is designed for on-board use.

  17. Anatomy of an entry vehicle experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eide, D. G.; Wurster, K. E.; Helms, V. T.; Ashby, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    The anatomy and evolution of a simple small-scale unmanned entry vehicle is described that is delivered to orbit by the shuttle and entered into the atmosphere from orbit to acquire flight data to improve our knowledge of boundary-layer behavior and evaluate advanced thermal protection systems. The anatomy of the experiment includes the justification for the experiments, instrumentation, configuration, material, and operational needs, and the translation of these needs into a configuration, weight statement, aerodynamics, program cost, and trajectory. Candidates for new instrumentation development are also identified for nonintrusive measurements of the boundary-layer properties.

  18. Entry flight control system downmoding evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, H. A.

    1978-01-01

    A method to desensitize the entry flight control system to structural vibration feedback which might induce an oscillatory instability is described. Trends in vehicle response and handling characteristics as a function of gain combinations in the FCS forward and rate feedback loops were described as observed in a man-in-the-loop simulation. Among the flight conditions considered are the effects of downmoding with APU failures, off-nominal trajectory conditions, sensed angle of attack errors, the impact on RCS fuel consumption, performance in the presence of aero variations, recovery from large FCS upsets, and default gains.

  19. Pioneer Venus multiprobe entry telemetry recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. B.; Ramos, R.

    1980-01-01

    The entry phase of the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe Mission involved data transmission over a two hour span. The criticality of recovering those two hours of data, coupled with the fact that there were no radio signals from the probes until their arrival at Venus, dictated unique telemetry recovery approaches on the ground. The result was double redundancy, use of spectrum analyzers to aid in rapid acquisition of the signals, and development of a technique for recovery of telemetry data without the use of real time coherent detection, which is normally employed for all other planetary missions.

  20. Space Shuttle Orbiter entry through landing navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewell, J. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter navigation system must be capable of determining its position and velocity throughout a variety of operational regimes. The design and operation of the entry through landing navigation system is described as it operates during a nominal end of mission from the orbital coasting phase throughout atmospheric flight and landing. Design and operation of the Kalman filter is described. Stabilization of the altitude channel prior to acquisition of external measurement data is described. Utilization of the Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN), barometric altimeter, and Microwave Scan Beam Landing System external measurement data is described. A comparison is made between predicted performance and the navigation accuracy observed during flight.

  1. Entry, Descent, and Landing with Propulsive Deceleration: Supersonic Retropropulsion Wind Tunnel Testing and Shock Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    The future exploration of the Solar System will require innovations in transportation and the use of entry, descent, and landing (EDL) systems at many planetary landing sites. The cost of space missions has always been prohibitive, and using the natural planetary and planet's moon atmospheres for entry, and descent can reduce the cost, mass, and complexity of these missions. This paper will describe some of the EDL ideas for planetary entry and survey the overall technologies for EDL that may be attractive for future Solar System missions. Future EDL systems may include an inflatable decelerator for the initial atmospheric entry and an additional supersonic retro-propulsion (SRP) rocket system for the final soft landing. A three engine retro-propulsion configuration with a 2.5 inch diameter sphere-cone aeroshell model was tested in the NASA Glenn 1x1 Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT). The testing was conducted to identify potential blockage issues in the tunnel, and visualize the rocket flow and shock interactions during supersonic and hypersonic entry conditions. Earlier experimental testing of a 70 degree Viking-like (sphere-cone) aeroshell was conducted as a baseline for testing of a supersonic retro-propulsion system. This baseline testing defined the flow field around the aeroshell and from this comparative baseline data, retro-propulsion options will be assessed. Images and analyses from the SWT testing with 300- and 500-psia rocket engine chamber pressures are presented here. In addition, special topics of electromagnetic interference with retro-propulsion induced shock waves and retro-propulsion for Earth launched booster recovery are also addressed.

  2. Entry, Descent, and Landing with Propulsive Deceleration: Supersonic Retropropulsion Wind Tunnel Testing and Shock Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The future exploration of the Solar System will require innovations in transportation and the use of entry, descent, and landing (EDL) systems at many planetary landing sites. The cost of space missions has always been prohibitive, and using the natural planetary and planet's moon atmospheres for entry, and descent can reduce the cost, mass, and complexity of these missions. This paper will describe some of the EDL ideas for planetary entry and survey the overall technologies for EDL that may be attractive for future Solar System missions. Future EDL systems may include an inflatable decelerator for the initial atmospheric entry and an additional supersonic retropropulsion (SRP) rocket system for the final soft landing. A three engine retropropulsion configuration with a 2.5 in. diameter sphere-cone aeroshell model was tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center's 1- by 1-ft (1×1) Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT). The testing was conducted to identify potential blockage issues in the tunnel, and visualize the rocket flow and shock interactions during supersonic and hypersonic entry conditions. Earlier experimental testing of a 70deg Viking-like (sphere-cone) aeroshell was conducted as a baseline for testing of a SRP system. This baseline testing defined the flow field around the aeroshell and from this comparative baseline data, retropropulsion options will be assessed. Images and analyses from the SWT testing with 300- and 500-psia rocket engine chamber pressures are presented here. In addition, special topics of electromagnetic interference with retropropulsion induced shock waves and retropropulsion for Earth launched booster recovery are also addressed.

  3. Activation of muscarinic receptors reduces store-operated Ca2+ entry in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Sternfeld, Lutz; Dudenhöffer, Monika; Ludes, Anja; Heinze, Diana; Anderie, Ines; Krause, Elmar

    2007-07-01

    In many cell types membrane receptors for hormones or neurotransmitters activate a signal transduction pathway which releases Ca2+ from intracellular Ca2+ stores by the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. As a consequence store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) becomes activated. In the present study we addressed the question if receptor/agonist binding can modulate Ca2+ entry by mechanisms different from the store-operated one. Therefore SOCE was examined in HEK293 cells microscopically with the fura-2 technique and with patch clamp. We found that maximally preactivated SOCE could, concentration dependently, be reduced up to 80% by the muscarinic agonist acetylcholine when the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration was used as a measure. Muscarinic receptors seem to mediate this decrease since atropine blocked the effect completely and cell types without muscarinic receptors (BHK21, CHO) did not show acetylcholine-induced decrease of Ca2+ entry. Moreover expression of muscarinic receptor subtypes M1 and M3 in BHK21 cells established the muscarinic decrease of SOCE. Electrical measurements revealed that the membrane potential of HEK293 cells did not show any response to ACh, excluding that changes of driving forces are responsible for the block of Ca2+ entry. In contrast the electrical current which is responsible for SOCE in HEK293 cells (Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ current (I(CRAC)) was inhibited (maximally 55%) by 10 microM ACh. From these data we conclude that in HEK293 cells a muscarinic signal transduction pathway exists which decreases the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration by an inhibition of I(CRAC). This mechanism may serve as a modulator of Ca2+ entry preventing a Ca2+ overload of the cytoplasm after Ca2+ store depletion. PMID:17321109

  4. Do meteoroids of sedimentary origin survive terrestrial atmospheric entry? The ESA artificial meteorite experiment STONE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brack, A.; Baglioni, P.; Borruat, G.; Brandstätter, F.; Demets, R.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Genge, M.; Kurat, G.; Miller, M. F.; Newton, E. M.; Pillinger, C. T.; Roten, C.-A.; Wäsch, E.

    2002-06-01

    The 18 SNC meteorites identified to date are all igneous rocks, being basalts or basaltic cumulates. The lack of sedimentary rocks in this inventory is therefore surprising, in view of the collisional history of Mars and the likelihood that Mars experienced warmer conditions, possibly with a significant hydrosphere, earlier in its history. To address the possibility that sedimentary rocks ejected by impact from the surface of Mars may have reached the Earth, but did not survive terrestrial atmospheric entry, an experiment was performed in which samples of dolomite, a simulated Martian regolith (consisting of basalt fragments in a gypsum matrix) and a basalt were fixed to the heat shield of a recoverable capsule and flown in low Earth orbit. Temperatures attained during re-entry were high enough to melt basalt and the silica fibres of the heat shield and were therefore comparable to those experienced by meteorites. The dolomite sample survived space flight and atmospheric re-entry, in part, as did fragments of the simulated Martian regolith, allowing detailed examinations of these 'artificial meteorites' to be conducted for chemical, mineralogical and isotopic modifications associated with atmospheric re-entry. Oxygen three-isotope measurements of the silica 'fusion crust' formed on the sample holder during atmospheric re-entry fit on a mixing line, with tropospheric O 2 and the interior of the sample holder as end members. Because much of the surface of Mars is covered by clastic sediments, meteorites of Martian provenance might be expected to be mostly sedimentary rocks rather than igneous ones. However, in the absence of a readily identifiable fusion crust, the extraterrestrial origin of such sedimentary rocks on Earth would most probably not be recognised without detailed petrological-geochemical examination and, ultimately, isotope measurements.

  5. The Design Process of Physical Security as Applied to a U.S. Border Port of Entry

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, G.G.

    1999-02-22

    This paper details the application of a standard physical security system design process to a US Border Port of Entry (PoE) for vehicle entry/exit. The physical security design methodology is described as well as the physical security similarities to facilities currently at a US Border PoE for vehicles. The physical security design process description includes the various elements that make up the methodologies well as the considerations that must be taken into account when dealing with system integration of those elements. The distinctions between preventing unlawful entry/exit of illegal contraband and personnel are described. The potential to enhance the functions of drug/contraband detection in the Pre-Primary Inspection area through the application of emerging technologies are also addressed.

  6. Entry, Descent, and Landing Operations Analysis for the Genesis Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Lyons, Daniel T.

    2007-01-01

    On September 8, 2004, the Genesis spacecraft returned to Earth after spending 29 months about the sun-Earth libration point (L1) collecting solar wind particles. Four hours prior to Earth arrival, the sample return capsule containing the samples was released for entry and subsequent landing at the Utah Test and Training Range. This paper provides an overview of the entry, descent, and landing trajectory analysis that was performed during the mission operations phase leading up to final approach to Earth. The final orbit determination solution produced an inertial entry flight-path angle of -8.002 deg (which was the desired nominal value) with a 3-sigma error of +/-0.0274 deg (a third of the requirement). The operations effort accurately delivered the entry capsule to the desired landing site. The final landing location was 8.3 km from the target, and was well within the allowable landing area. Overall, the Earth approach operation procedures worked well and there were no issues (logistically or performance based) that arose. As a result, the process of targeting a capsule from deep space and accurately landing it on Earth was successfully demonstrated.

  7. 77 FR 72715 - Informal Entry Limit and Removal of a Formal Entry Requirement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Federal Register (76 FR 66875) proposing to amend title 19 of the Code of Federal Regulations (``19 CFR... that was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 66875) on October 28, 2011, with the addition of the... Agreement on Textiles and Clothing because CBP no longer needs to require formal entries for these...

  8. Analytic Development of a Reference Profile for the First Entry in a Skip Atmospheric Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Llama, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This note shows that a feasible reference drag profile for the first entry portion of a skip entry can be generated as a polynomial expression of the velocity. The coefficients of that polynomial are found through the resolution of a system composed of m + 1 equations, where m is the degree of the drag polynomial. It has been shown that a minimum of five equations (m = 4) are required to establish the range and the initial and final conditions on velocity and flight path angle. It has been shown that at least one constraint on the trajectory can be imposed through the addition of one extra equation in the system, which must be accompanied by the increase in the degree of the drag polynomial. In order to simplify the resolution of the system of equations, the drag was considered as being a probability density function of the velocity, with the velocity as a distribution function of the drag. Combining this notion with the introduction of empirically derived constants, it has been shown that the system of equations required to generate the drag profile can be successfully reduced to a system of linear algebraic equations. For completeness, the resulting drag profiles have been flown using the feedback linearization method of differential geometric control as a guidance law with the error dynamics of a second order homogeneous equation in the form of a damped oscillator. Satisfactory results were achieved when the gains in the error dynamics were changed at a certain point along the trajectory that is dependent on the velocity and the curvature of the drag as a function of the velocity. Future work should study the capacity to update the drag profile in flight when dispersions are introduced. Also, future studies should attempt to link the first entry, as presented and controlled in this note, with a more standard control concept for the second entry, such as the Apollo entry guidance, to try to assess the overall skip entry performance. A guidance law that includes

  9. Synergy Between Entry Probes and Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Richard E.

    2005-01-01

    We identify two catagories of probe-orbiter interactions which benefit the science return from a particular mission. The first category is termed "Mission Design Aspects". This category is meant to describe those aspects of the mission design involving the orbiter that affect the science return from the probe(s). The second category of probe-orbiter interaction is termed "Orbiter-Probe Science Interactions", and is meant to include interactions between oribter and probe(s) that directly involve science measurements made from each platform. Two mission related aspects of probe-orbiter interactions are delivery of a probe(s) to the entry site(s) by an orbiter, and communication between each probe and the orbiter. We consider four general probe-orbiter science interactions that greatly enhance, or in certain cases are essential for, the mission science return. The four topics are, global context of the probe entry site(s), ground truth for remote sensing observations of an orbiter, atmospheric composition measurements, and wind measurements.

  10. Mars Pathfinder Atmospheric Entry Navigation Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, R. D.; Spencer, D. A.; Kallemeyn, P. H.; Vaughan, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    On July 4, 1997, after traveling close to 500 million km, the Pathfinder spacecraft successfully completed entry, descent, and landing, coming to rest on the surface of Mars just 27 km from its target point. In the present paper, the atmospheric entry and approach navigation activities required in support of this mission are discussed. In particular, the flight software parameter update and landing site prediction analyses performed by the Pathfinder operations navigation team are described. A suite of simulation tools developed during Pathfinder's design cycle, but extendible to Pathfinder operations, are also presented. Data regarding the accuracy of the primary parachute deployment algorithm is extracted from the Pathfinder flight data, demonstrating that this algorithm performed as predicted. The increased probability of mission success through the software parameter update process is discussed. This paper also demonstrates the importance of modeling atmospheric flight uncertainties in the estimation of an accurate landing site. With these atmospheric effects included, the final landed ellipse prediction differs from the post-flight determined landing site by less then 0.5 km in downtrack.

  11. Structural Correlates of Rotavirus Cell Entry

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhakim, Aliaa H.; Salgado, Eric N.; Fu, Xiaofeng; Pasham, Mithun; Nicastro, Daniela; Kirchhausen, Tomas; Harrison, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Cell entry by non-enveloped viruses requires translocation into the cytosol of a macromolecular complex—for double-strand RNA viruses, a complete subviral particle. We have used live-cell fluorescence imaging to follow rotavirus entry and penetration into the cytosol of its ∼700 Å inner capsid particle (“double-layered particle”, DLP). We label with distinct fluorescent tags the DLP and each of the two outer-layer proteins and track the fates of each species as the particles bind and enter BSC-1 cells. Virions attach to their glycolipid receptors in the host cell membrane and rapidly become inaccessible to externally added agents; most particles that release their DLP into the cytosol have done so by ∼10 minutes, as detected by rapid diffusional motion of the DLP away from residual outer-layer proteins. Electron microscopy shows images of particles at various stages of engulfment into tightly fitting membrane invaginations, consistent with the interpretation that rotavirus particles drive their own uptake. Electron cryotomography of membrane-bound virions also shows closely wrapped membrane. Combined with high resolution structural information about the viral components, these observations suggest a molecular model for membrane disruption and DLP penetration. PMID:25211455

  12. Extraterrestrial Regolith Derived Atmospheric Entry Heat Shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    High-mass planetary surface access is one of NASAs technical challenges involving entry, descent and landing (EDL). During the entry and descent phase, frictional interaction with the planetary atmosphere causes a heat build-up to occur on the spacecraft, which will rapidly destroy it if a heat shield is not used. However, the heat shield incurs a mass penalty because it must be launched from Earth with the spacecraft, thus consuming a lot of precious propellant. This NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) project investigated an approach to provide heat shield protection to spacecraft after launch and prior to each EDL thus potentially realizing significant launch mass savings. Heat shields fabricated in situ can provide a thermal-protection system for spacecraft that routinely enter a planetary atmosphere. By fabricating the heat shield with space resources from materials available on moons and asteroids, it is possible to avoid launching the heat-shield mass from Earth. Regolith has extremely good insulating properties and the silicates it contains can be used in the fabrication and molding of thermal-protection materials. In this paper, we will describe three types of in situ fabrication methods for heat shields and the testing performed to determine feasibility of this approach.

  13. Development of Inflatable Entry Systems Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Player, Charles J.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Corliss, James

    2005-01-01

    Achieving the objectives of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration will require the development of new technologies, which will in turn require higher fidelity modeling and analysis techniques, and innovative testing capabilities. Development of entry systems technologies can be especially difficult due to the lack of facilities and resources available to test these new technologies in mission relevant environments. This paper discusses the technology development process to bring inflatable aeroshell technology from Technology Readiness Level 2 (TRL-2) to TRL-7. This paper focuses mainly on two projects: Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE), and Inflatable Aeroshell and Thermal Protection System Development (IATD). The objectives of IRVE are to conduct an inflatable aeroshell flight test that demonstrates exoatmospheric deployment and inflation, reentry survivability and stability, and predictable drag performance. IATD will continue the development of the technology by conducting exploration specific trade studies and feeding forward those results into three more flight tests. Through an examination of these projects, and other potential projects, this paper discusses some of the risks, issues, and unexpected benefits associated with the development of inflatable entry systems technology.

  14. Orbit re-entry experiment vehicle development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masataka; Yamawaki, Kouji; Akimoto, Toshio; Murakami, Atsushi; Inaba, Motoyuki; Kaneko, Yutaka; Shimoda, Takayuki; Ishii, Yasuo; Izumi, Tatsushi; Kawano, Isao

    1992-08-01

    An overview of the Orbital Re-entry Experiment (OREX) vehicle development, including detail design, analyses on the overall system, guidance and control, propulsion, and data acquisition systems is presented. The outline of the experiment vehicle is shown. OREX flight is analyzed and the splash down point variance ellipse is shown. Vehicle body aerodynamic characteristics were analyzed and validated by supersonic wind tunnel and dynamically balanced wind tunnel tests. Analyses on onboard equipment environmental resistance, controllability from on orbit to re-entry phases and navigation and guidance of the space plane were conducted. It was confirmed that there was no problem on the guidance and control system. Review on the propellant volume and analyses on the propulsion system performance, propulsion system heat exchanger performance, and thruster and piping system temperature were conducted and possibility of hard starting of the 150 N hydrazine thruster was noticed. RF (Radio Frequency) link analyses were conducted around Tanegashima, Ogasawara, and the splash down area and prospect of continuously acquiring good link margin for 300 seconds was obtained. Semi unitized structure of truncated cone shape with main body made of aluminum alloy, which has application record for rockets, laid with skin, stringers, and frames was employed for the structure. Data acquisition systems for tracking and operation, including those at Tanegashima, Ogasawara, Christmas, down range ship, and airplane tracking stations were studied.

  15. Study of advanced atmospheric entry systems for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Entry system designs are described for various advanced Mars missions including sample return, hard lander, and Mars airplane. The Mars exploration systems for sample return and the hard lander require decleration from direct approach entry velocities of about 6 km/s to terminal velocities consistent with surface landing requirements. The Mars airplane entry system is decelerated from orbit at 4.6 km/s to deployment near the surface. Mass performance characteristics of major elements of the Mass performance characteristics are estimated for the major elements of the required entry systems using Viking technology or logical extensions of technology in order to provide a common basis of comparison for the three entry modes mission mode approaches. The entry systems, although not optimized, are based on Viking designs and reflect current hardware performance capability and realistic mass relationships.

  16. Orthopoxvirus species and strain differences in cell entry

    SciTech Connect

    Bengali, Zain; Satheshkumar, P.S.; Moss, Bernard

    2012-11-25

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) enters cells by a low pH endosomal route or by direct fusion with the plasma membrane. We previously found differences in entry properties of several VACV strains: entry of WR was enhanced by low pH, reduced by bafilomycin A1 and relatively unaffected by heparin, whereas entry of IHD-J, Copenhagen and Elstree were oppositely affected. Since binding and entry modes may have been selected by specific conditions of in vitro propagation, we now examined the properties of three distinct, recently isolated cowpox viruses and a monkeypox virus as well as additional VACV and cowpox virus strains. The recent isolates were more similar to WR than to other VACV strains, underscoring the biological importance of endosomal entry by orthopoxviruses. Sequence comparisons, gene deletions and gene swapping experiments indicated that viral determinants, other than or in addition to the A26 and A25 'fusion-suppressor' proteins, impact entry properties.

  17. 7 CFR 319.75-8 - Ports of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ports of entry. 319.75-8 Section 319.75-8 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Khapra Beetle § 319.75-8 Ports of entry. Any restricted article shall be imported only at a port of entry identified in § 319.37-14 of this part and found by...

  18. Tangential-Entry Injector With Internal Reed Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, George B., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Liquid-spray-injecting device provides designed pressure drop versus rate of flow to help meter flow. Includes cylinder with tangential entry slots and internal reed valve. Tangential entry imparts swirling motion to liquid, resulting in finely atomized liquid spray. Reeds vary flow areas of entry slots by deflecting in response to pressure of liquid. Variation alters pressure-versus-flow characteristic. Device used to provide wide range of throttleability for liquid fuel injected into combustion chamber or engine.

  19. 46 CFR 109.433 - Logbook entries. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Logbook entries. 1 109.433 Section 109.433 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Reports, Notifications, and Records Records § 109.433 Logbook entries. 1 1 Note: 46 U.S.C. 11301 requires that certain entries be made in an...

  20. Investigation of Transonic Wake Dynamics for Mechanically Deployable Entry Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Eric; Barnhardt, Michael; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Candler, Graham; Prabhu, Dinesh

    2012-01-01

    A numerical investigation of transonic flow around a mechanically deployable entry system being considered for a robotic mission to Venus has been performed, and preliminary results are reported. The flow around a conceptual representation of the vehicle geometry was simulated at discrete points along a ballistic trajectory using Detached Eddy Simulation (DES). The trajectory points selected span the low supersonic to transonic regimes with freestream Mach numbers from 1:5 to 0:8, and freestream Reynolds numbers (based on diameter) between 2:09 x 10(exp 6) and 2:93 x 10(exp 6). Additionally, the Mach 0:8 case was simulated at angles of attack between 0 and 5 . Static aerodynamic coefficients obtained from the data show qualitative agreement with data from 70deg sphere-cone wind tunnel tests performed for the Viking program. Finally, the effect of choices of models and numerical algorithms is addressed by comparing the DES results to those using a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model, as well as to results using a more dissipative numerical scheme.

  1. Electrochromic Window Demonstration at the Donna Land Port of Entry

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, Luis L.; Lee, Eleanor S.; Thanachareonkit, Anothai

    2015-05-01

    The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) Public Buildings Service (PBS) has jurisdiction, custody or control over 105 land ports of entry throughout the United States, 35 of which are located along the southern border. At these facilities, one of the critical functions of windows is to provide border control personnel with direct visual contact with the surrounding environment. This also can be done through surveillance cameras, but the high value that U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CPB) officers place on direct visual contact can be encapsulated in the following statement by a senior officer regarding this project: “nothing replaces line of sight.” In sunny conditions, however, outdoor visibility can be severely compromised by glare, especially when the orb of the sun is in the field of view. This often leads to the deployment of operable shading devices, such as Venetian blinds. While these devices address the glare, they obstruct the view of the surroundings, negating the visual security benefits of the windows.

  2. Wikipedia Entries as a Source of CAR Navigation Landmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binski, N.; Zhang, L.; Dalyot, S.

    2016-06-01

    Car navigation system devices provide today with an easy and simple solution to the basic concept of reaching a destination. Although these systems usually achieve this goal, they still deliver a limited and poor sequence of instructions that do not consider the human nature of using landmarks during wayfinding. This research paper addresses the concept of enriching navigation route instructions by adding supplementary route information in the form of landmarks. We aim at using a contributed source of landmarks information, which is easy to access, available, show high update rate, and have a large scale of information. For this, Wikipedia was chosen, since it represents the world's largest free encyclopaedia that includes information about many spatial entities. A survey and classification of available landmarks is implemented, coupled with ranking algorithms based on the entries' categories and attributes. These are aimed at retrieving the most relevant landmark information required that are valuable for the enrichment of a specific navigation route. The paper will present this methodology, together with examples and results, showing the feasibility of using this concept and its potential of enriching navigation processes.

  3. Cooperative Learning in Reservoir Simulation Classes: Overcoming Disparate Entry Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awang, Mariyamni

    2006-10-01

    Reservoir simulation is one of the core courses in the petroleum engineering curriculum and it requires knowledge and skills in three major disciplines, namely programming, numerical methods and reservoir engineering. However, there were often gaps in the students' readiness to undertake the course, even after completing the necessary requirements. The disparate levels of competency of the good and poor students made it difficult to target a certain level. Cooperative learning in the form of projects and peer teaching was designed to address the major concern of disparate entry skills, and at the same time the method used should also succeed in keeping students interest in class, developing communication skills and improving self-learning. Slower and weaker students were expected to benefit from being taught by good students, who were better prepared, and good students would gain deeper comprehension of the subject matter. From evaluations, the approach was considered successful since the overall passing rate was greater than 95% compared to previous years of around 70-80%. It had also succeeded in improving the learning environment in class. Future simulation classes will continue to use the cooperative approach with minor adjustments.

  4. Toward successful migration to computerized physician order entry for chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, J.; Taneva, S.; Kukreti, V.; Trbovich, P.; Easty, A.C.; Rossos, P.G.; Cafazzo, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Computerized physician order entry (cpoe) systems allow for medical order management in a clinical setting. Use of a cpoe has been shown to significantly improve chemotherapy safety by reducing the number of prescribing errors. Usability of these systems has been identified as a critical factor in their successful adoption. However, there is a paucity of literature investigating the usability of cpoe for chemotherapy and describing the experiences of cancer care providers in implementing and using a cpoe system. Methods A mixed-methods study, including a national survey and a workshop, was conducted to determine the current status of cpoe adoption in Canadian oncology institutions, to identify and prioritize knowledge gaps in cpoe usability and adoption, and to establish a research agenda to bridge those gaps. Survey respondents were representatives of cancer care providers from each Canadian province. The workshop participants were oncology clinicians, human factors engineers, patient safety researchers, policymakers, and hospital administrators from across Canada, with participation from the United States. Results A variety of issues related to implementing and using a cpoe for chemotherapy were identified. The major issues concerned the need for better understanding of current practices of chemotherapy ordering, preparation, and administration; a lack of system selection and procurement guidance; a lack of implementation and maintenance guidance; poor cpoe usability and workflow support; and other cpoe system design issues. An additional three research themes for addressing the existing challenges and advancing successful adoption of cpoe for chemotherapy were identified: The need to investigate variances in workflows and practices in chemotherapy ordering and administrationThe need to develop best-practice cpoe procurement and implementation guidance specifically for chemotherapyThe need to measure the effects of cpoe implementation in medical

  5. Short EpiData course: do participants use the data entry tool two years post-training?

    PubMed Central

    Chinnakali, P.; Shewade, H.; Gupta, V.; Nagpal, P.; Harries, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Setting: Training courses on data entry are few and far between compared to analysis. To address this gap, we conducted a short 2-day course on quality-assured data capture using EpiData for public health professionals in Bangalore and Puducherry, India, in 2013. Objective: To determine the proportion of participants who used EpiData and taught the software to others during the 2-years after training and explore the reasons for doing/not doing so. Design: Cross-sectional study with self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire developed using web-based Google Forms. We performed a manual thematic analysis to identify the major reasons for using/not using EpiData. Results: Of 46 participants, 38 (83%) responded. Of 31 participants involved in research, 17 (55%) had used EpiData, of whom 6 (35%) had performed double entry and validation. Of the 14 who did not use EpiData, 11 had used MS Excel or SPSS/Epi Info for data entry. Of the 38 respondents, 29 (76%) had taught EpiData to other colleagues and students. Reasons for using EpiData included its user-friendliness, its being open access and the ease in preventing data entry errors. Reasons for not performing double entry included lack of time and manpower. Conclusion: The short course on EpiData was effective in knowledge transfer and provides a scalable model for incorporation into the teaching curricula of medical schools and research institutions. PMID:26767181

  6. An Integrated Approach for Entry Mission Design and Flight Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping; Rao, Prabhakara

    2004-01-01

    An integrated approach for entry trajectory design, guidance, and simulation is proposed. The key ingredients for this approach are an on-line 3 degree-of-freedom entry trajectory planning algorithm and the entry guidance algorithm that generates the guidance gains automatically. When fully developed, such a tool could enable end-bend entry mission design and simulations in 3DOF and 6DOF mode from de-orbit burn to the TAEM interface and beyond, all in one key stroke. Some preliminary examples of such a capability are presented in this paper that demonstrate the potential of this type of integrated environment.

  7. ARCH TYPE MAGAZINE # 2131. INTERIOR LOOKING TOWARD ENTRY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCH TYPE MAGAZINE # 2131. INTERIOR LOOKING TOWARD ENTRY. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Magazine Type, Various roads in northern & eastern portions of installation, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Interior view, main entry lobby on Fourteenth Street United ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, main entry lobby on Fourteenth Street - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. Orbiter Return-To-Flight Entry Aeroheating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles H.; Anderson, Brian; Bourland, Gary; Bouslog, Stan; Cassady, Amy; Horvath, Tom; Berry, Scott A.; Gnoffo, Peter; Wood, Bill; Reuther, James; Driver, Dave; Chao, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    The Columbia accident on February 1, 2003 began an unprecedented level of effort within the hypersonic aerothermodynamic community to support the Space Shuttle Program. During the approximately six month time frame of the primary Columbia Accident Investigation Board activity, many technical disciplines were involved in a concerted effort to reconstruct the last moments of the Columbia and her crew, and understand the critical events that led to that loss. Significant contributions to the CAIB activity were made by the hypersonic aerothermodynamic community(REF CAIB) in understanding the re-entry environments that led to the propagation of an ascent foam induced wing leading edge damage to a subsequent breech of the wing spar of Columbia, and the subsequent breakup of the vehicle. A core of the NASA hypersonic aerothermodynamics team that was involved in the CAIB investigation has been combined with the United Space Alliance and Boeing Orbiter engineering team in order to position the Space Shuttle Program with a process to perform in-flight Thermal Protection System damage assessments. This damage assessment process is now part of the baselined plan for Shuttle support, and is a direct out-growth of the Columbia accident and NASAs response. Multiple re-entry aeroheating tools are involved in this damage assessment process, many of which have been developed during the Return To Flight activity. In addition, because these aeroheating tools are part of an overall damage assessment process that also involves the thermal and stress analyses community, in addition to a much broader mission support team, an integrated process for performing the damage assessment activities has been developed by the Space Shuttle Program and the Orbiter engineering community. Several subsets of activity in the Orbiter aeroheating communities support to the Return To Flight effort have been described in previous publications (CFD?, Cavity Heating? Any BLT? Grid Generation?). This work will

  10. Protease inhibitors targeting coronavirus and filovirus entry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanchen; Vedantham, Punitha; Lu, Kai; Agudelo, Juliet; Carrion, Ricardo; Nunneley, Jerritt W; Barnard, Dale; Pöhlmann, Stefan; McKerrow, James H; Renslo, Adam R; Simmons, Graham

    2015-04-01

    In order to gain entry into cells, diverse viruses, including Ebola virus, SARS-coronavirus and the emerging MERS-coronavirus, depend on activation of their envelope glycoproteins by host cell proteases. The respective enzymes are thus excellent targets for antiviral intervention. In cell culture, activation of Ebola virus, as well as SARS- and MERS-coronavirus can be accomplished by the endosomal cysteine proteases, cathepsin L (CTSL) and cathepsin B (CTSB). In addition, SARS- and MERS-coronavirus can use serine proteases localized at the cell surface, for their activation. However, it is currently unclear which protease(s) facilitate viral spread in the infected host. We report here that the cysteine protease inhibitor K11777, ((2S)-N-[(1E,3S)-1-(benzenesulfonyl)-5-phenylpent-1-en-3-yl]-2-{[(E)-4-methylpiperazine-1-carbonyl]amino}-3-phenylpropanamide) and closely-related vinylsulfones act as broad-spectrum antivirals by targeting cathepsin-mediated cell entry. K11777 is already in advanced stages of development for a number of parasitic diseases, such as Chagas disease, and has proven to be safe and effective in a range of animal models. K11777 inhibition of SARS-CoV and Ebola virus entry was observed in the sub-nanomolar range. In order to assess whether cysteine or serine proteases promote viral spread in the host, we compared the antiviral activity of an optimized K11777-derivative with that of camostat, an inhibitor of TMPRSS2 and related serine proteases. Employing a pathogenic animal model of SARS-CoV infection, we demonstrated that viral spread and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV is driven by serine rather than cysteine proteases and can be effectively prevented by camostat. Camostat has been clinically used to treat chronic pancreatitis, and thus represents an exciting potential therapeutic for respiratory coronavirus infections. Our results indicate that camostat, or similar serine protease inhibitors, might be an effective option for treatment of SARS and

  11. 40 CFR 170.112 - Entry restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... at the appropriate address as set forth in 40 CFR 150.17(a) or (b) and must be accompanied by two... of any such instructions, it shall be washed thoroughly in detergent and hot water. (v) Before...

  12. 40 CFR 170.112 - Entry restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... at the appropriate address as set forth in 40 CFR 150.17(a) or (b) and must be accompanied by two... of any such instructions, it shall be washed thoroughly in detergent and hot water. (v) Before...

  13. 40 CFR 170.112 - Entry restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... at the appropriate address as set forth in 40 CFR 150.17(a) or (b) and must be accompanied by two... of any such instructions, it shall be washed thoroughly in detergent and hot water. (v) Before...

  14. 40 CFR 170.112 - Entry restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... at the appropriate address as set forth in 40 CFR 150.17(a) or (b) and must be accompanied by two... of any such instructions, it shall be washed thoroughly in detergent and hot water. (v) Before...

  15. 40 CFR 170.112 - Entry restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... at the appropriate address as set forth in 40 CFR 150.17(a) or (b) and must be accompanied by two... of any such instructions, it shall be washed thoroughly in detergent and hot water. (v) Before...

  16. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    PubMed

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  17. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function

    PubMed Central

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the “Hash_64” field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  18. HIV Nuclear Entry: Clearing the Fog

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vaibhav B.; Aiken, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 and other lentiviruses have the unusual capability of infecting nondividing cells, but the mechanism by which they cross an intact nuclear membrane is mysterious. Recent work, including a new study (Lee, K.; Ambrose, Z.; Martin, T.D.; Oztop, I.; Mulky, A.; Julias, J.G.; Vandergraaff, N.; Baumann, J.G.; Wang, R.; Yuen, W. et al. Flexible use of nuclear import pathways by HIV-1. Cell Host Microbe 2010, 7, 221–233) confirms that the viral capsid plays a key role in HIV-1 nuclear entry in both dividing and nondividing cells. The identification of mutations in the viral capsid that alter the virus’s dependence on host cell nucleoporins represents an important advance in this poorly understood stage of the virus life cycle. PMID:21994675

  19. Stardust Hypervelocity Entry Observing Campaign Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kontinos, Dean A.; Jordan, David E.; Jenniskens, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In the early morning of January 15, 2006, the Stardust Sample Return Capsule (SRC) successfully delivered its precious cargo of cometary particles to the awaiting recovery team at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). As the SRC entered at 12.8 km/s, the fastest manmade object to traverse the atmosphere, a team of researchers imaged the event aboard the NASA DC-8 airborne observatory. At SRC entry, the airplane was at an altitude of 11.9 km positioned within 6.4 km of the prescribed, preferred target view location. The incoming SRC was first acquired approximately 18 seconds (s) after atmospheric interface and tracked for approximately 60 s, an observation period that is roughly centered in time around predicted peak heating.

  20. HIV Nuclear Entry: Clearing the Fog.

    PubMed

    Shah, Vaibhav B; Aiken, Christopher

    2010-05-01

    HIV-1 and other lentiviruses have the unusual capability of infecting nondividing cells, but the mechanism by which they cross an intact nuclear membrane is mysterious. Recent work, including a new study (Lee, K.; Ambrose, Z.; Martin, T.D.; Oztop, I.; Mulky, A.; Julias, J.G.; Vandergraaff, N.; Baumann, J.G.; Wang, R.; Yuen, W. et al. Flexible use of nuclear import pathways by HIV-1. Cell Host Microbe2010, 7, 221-233) confirms that the viral capsid plays a key role in HIV-1 nuclear entry in both dividing and nondividing cells. The identification of mutations in the viral capsid that alter the virus's dependence on host cell nucleoporins represents an important advance in this poorly understood stage of the virus life cycle. PMID:21994675