Science.gov

Sample records for address operational issues

  1. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  2. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-05-29

    This paper describes a prototype for this EAS (real time) in the Bay area. Approach is pragmatic, attempting to establish a prototype system at a low cost and quickly. A real-time warning system can protect the public and mitigate earthquake damage. The proposed system is a distributed network of real-time strong-motion monitoring stations that telemetered data in real time to a central analysis facility which could transmit earthquake parameter information to an area before elastic wave energy arrived. Upgrades and issues that should be resolved before an operational EAS can be established, are listed.

  3. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-12-10

    The purpose of the earthquake alert system (EAS) is to outrun the seismic energy released in a large earthquake using a geographically distributed network of strong motion sensors that telemeter data to a rapid CPU-processing station, which then issues an area-wide warning to a region before strong motion will occur. The warning times involved are short, from 0 to 30 seconds or so; consequently, most responses must be automated. The San Francisco Bay Area is particularly well suited for an EAS because (1) large earthquakes have relatively shallow hypocenters (10- to 20-kilometer depth), giving favorable ray-path geometries for larger warning times than deeper from earthquakes, and (2) the active faults are few in number and well characterized, which means far fewer geographically distributed strong motion sensors are (about 50 in this region). An EAS prototype is being implemented in the San Francisco Bay Area. The system consists of four distinct subsystems: (1) a distributed strong motion seismic network, (2) a central processing station, (3) a warning communications system and (4) user receiver and response systems. We have designed a simple, reliable, and inexpensive strong motion monitoring station that consists of a three-component Analog Devices ADXLO5 accelerometer sensing unit, a vertical component weak motion sensor for system testing, a 16-bit digitizer with multiplexing, and communication output ports for RS232 modem or radio telemetry. The unit is battery-powered and will be sited in fire stations. The prototype central computer analysis system consists of a PC dam-acquisition platform that pipes the incoming strong motion data via Ethernet to Unix-based workstations for dam processing. Simple real-time algorithms, particularly for magnitude estimation, are implemented to give estimates of the time since the earthquake`s onset its hypocenter location, its magnitude, and the reliability of the estimate. These parameters are calculated and transmitted

  4. Addressing Transgender Issues in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Marian

    2016-01-01

    As mainstream media focus more attention on transgender issues, and as anti-discrimination laws evolve, a shift is taking place on campuses. Many schools now include gender identity and expression in their inclusivity work and seek to establish policies and procedures to support transgender students and their families. It's not an easy task. In…

  5. Addressing Transition Issues in Languages Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steigler-Peters, Susi; Moran, Wendy; Piccioli, Maria Teresa; Chesterton, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on what has been learned from the implementation and evaluation of the Australian Language and Continuity Initiative (LCI) in relation to addressing transition issues in language education. (Author/VWL)

  6. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  7. Federal Offices That Address Women's Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Patricia A.; And Others

    This directory contains a listing of federal offices that address women's issues. Among the departments and agencies included are: the executive branch and the executive agencies departments of agriculture, commerce, defense (Air Force, Army, Coast Guard, Marine Corps, National Guard and Navy), education, health and human services, housing and…

  8. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  9. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  10. Extending the ARS Experimental Watersheds to Address Regional Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, D.; Goodrich, D. C.; Winstral, A.; Bosch, D. D.; Pool, D.

    2001-12-01

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service's (ARS) Watershed Research Program maintains and operates a diverse, geog raphically distributed, nested, multi-scale, national ex perimental watershed network. This network, much of which has been operational for more than 40 years (several more than 60 years), constitutes one the best networks of its kind in the world. The watershed network and its instrumentation was primarily established to assess the hydrologic impacts of watershed conservation and management practices. It has evolved, through development of long-term hydrologic data, as a network of high quality outdoor laboratories for addressing emerging science issues facing hydrologists and resource managers. While the value of the experimental watershed for investigating precipitation, climatic, and hydrologic processes is unquestioned, extending the results from these investigations to other sites and larger areas is more difficult. ARS experimental watersheds are a few hundred km2 or smaller making it challenging to address regional scale issues. To address this the ARS watershed program is, with a suite of partners from universities and other federal agencies, enlarging its research focus to extend beyond the boundaries of the experimental watershed. In this poster we present several examples of this effort, with suggestions on how, using the experimental watershed and its core, a larger scale hydrologic observatory could be developed and maintained.

  11. Recent NRC research activities addressing valve and pump issues

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    The mission of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to ensure the safe design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants and other facilities in the U.S.A. One of the main roles that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) plays in achieving the NRC mission is to plan, recommend, and implement research programs that address safety and technical issues deemed important by the NRC. The results of the research activities provide the bases for developing NRC positions or decisions on these issues. Also, RES performs confirmatory research for developing the basis to evaluate industry responses and positions on various regulatory requirements. This presentation summarizes some recent RES supported research activities that have addressed safety and technical issues related to valves and pumps. These activities include the efforts on determining valve and motor-operator responses under dynamic loads and pressure locking events, evaluation of monitoring equipment, and methods for detecting and trending aging of check valves and pumps. The role that RES is expected to play in future years to fulfill the NRC mission is also discussed.

  12. Western Wind Strategy: Addressing Critical Issues for Wind Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Larson; Thomas Carr

    2012-03-30

    The goal of the Western Wind Strategy project was to help remove critical barriers to wind development in the Western Interconnection. The four stated objectives of this project were to: (1) identify the barriers, particularly barriers to the operational integration of renewables and barriers identified by load-serving entities (LSEs) that will be buying wind generation, (2) communicate the barriers to state officials, (3) create a collaborative process to address those barriers with the Western states, utilities and the renewable industry, and (4) provide a role model for other regions. The project has been on the forefront of identifying and informing state policy makers and utility regulators of critical issues related to wind energy and the integration of variable generation. The project has been a critical component in the efforts of states to push forward important reforms and innovations that will enable states to meet their renewable energy goals and lower the cost to consumers of integrating variable generation.

  13. THE ROLE OF RISK ASSESSMENT IN ADDRESSING HAZARDOUS WASTE ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk assessment plays many important roles in addressing hazardous waste issues. In addition to providing a scientific framework and common health metric to evaluate risks. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or "Superfund") risk assessm...

  14. Distributed photovoltaic systems - Addressing the utility interface issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstman, S. I.; Vachtsevanos, G. J.

    This paper reviews work conducted in the United States on the impact of dispersed photovoltaic sources upon utility operations. The photovoltaic (PV) arrays are roof-mounted on residential houses and connected, via appropriate power conditioning equipment, to the utility grid. The presence of such small (4-6 Kw) dispersed generators on the distribution network raises questions of a technical, economic and institutional nature. After a brief identification of utility interface issues, the paper addresses such technical concerns as protection of equipment and personnel safety, power quality and utility operational stability. A combination of experimental and analytical approaches has been adopted to arrive at solutions to these problems. Problem areas, under various PV system penetration scenarios, are identified and conceptual designs of protection and control equipment and operating policies are developed so that system reliability is maintained while minimizing capital costs. It is hoped that the resolution of balance-of-system and grid interface questions will ascertain the economic viability of photovoltaic systems and assist in their widespread utilization in the future.

  15. Addressing Physical and Emotional Issues in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jonathon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how physical and mental disabilities are addressed in children's literature. Many authors are able to integrate the issues into their work in a way that enhances the story and benefits the reader. As young readers learn about the issues and struggles faced by children with mental and physical disabilities,…

  16. Financial, operational issues entangle Medicaid managed care.

    PubMed

    Kalkhof, C J

    1992-08-01

    Federal and state governments may soon require provision of managed care to the Medicaid eligible segment of the community. HMO financial managers must develop financial and operational plans prior to entering into negotiations for the development of a contract with a state. Key financial and operational issues related to Medicaid aid categories, contracting with providers, general administration, and product design must be addressed to minimize financial risk.

  17. Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2008-03-01

    One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the

  18. Family Connections: Addressing Behavior Issues--Practical Tips for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCaze, Donna; Kirylo, James D.

    2012-01-01

    When parents get together, the subject of appropriately addressing the behavior of their children often comes to the forefront of conversations. Parents share various challenges they face with their children, including issues associated with listening, eating vegetables, doing chores, and a host of other discipline-related situations. The plethora…

  19. Effective Organizational Structures and Processes: Addressing Issues of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes organizational structures and processes at the institutional and project levels for the development and support of distance learning initiatives. It addresses environmental and stakeholder issues and explores principles and strategies of effective leadership for change creation and management.

  20. Addressing Consent Issues in Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death.

    PubMed

    Overby, Kim J; Weinstein, Michael S; Fiester, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Given the widening gap between the number of individuals on transplant waiting lists and the availability of donated organs, as well as the recent plateau in donations based on neurological criteria (i.e., brain death), there has been a growing interest in expanding donation after circulatory determination of death. While the prevalence of this form of organ donation continues to increase, many thorny ethical issues remain, often creating moral distress in both clinicians and families. In this article, we address one of these issues, namely, the challenges surrounding patient and surrogate informed consent for donation after circulatory determination of death. First we discuss several general concerns regarding consent related to this form of organ donation, and then we address additional issues that are unique to three different patient categories: adult patients with medical decision-making capacity or potential capacity, adult patients who lack capacity, and pediatric patients. PMID:26225503

  1. Addressing Consent Issues in Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death.

    PubMed

    Overby, Kim J; Weinstein, Michael S; Fiester, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Given the widening gap between the number of individuals on transplant waiting lists and the availability of donated organs, as well as the recent plateau in donations based on neurological criteria (i.e., brain death), there has been a growing interest in expanding donation after circulatory determination of death. While the prevalence of this form of organ donation continues to increase, many thorny ethical issues remain, often creating moral distress in both clinicians and families. In this article, we address one of these issues, namely, the challenges surrounding patient and surrogate informed consent for donation after circulatory determination of death. First we discuss several general concerns regarding consent related to this form of organ donation, and then we address additional issues that are unique to three different patient categories: adult patients with medical decision-making capacity or potential capacity, adult patients who lack capacity, and pediatric patients.

  2. The Case for Addressing Operator Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Jeanne F.; Zitting, Kirsi-Marja; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deficiency, which can be caused by acute sleep deprivation, chronic insufficient sleep, untreated sleep disorders, disruption of circadian timing, and other factors, is endemic in the U.S., including among professional and non-professional drivers and operators. Vigilance and attention are critical for safe transportation operations, but fatigue and sleepiness compromise vigilance and attention by slowing reaction times and impairing judgment and decision-making abilities. Research studies, polls, and accident investigations indicate that many Americans drive a motor vehicle or operate an aircraft, train or marine vessel while drowsy, putting themselves and others at risk for error and accident. In this chapter, we will outline some of the factors that contribute to sleepiness, present evidence from laboratory and field studies demonstrating how sleepiness impacts transportation safety, review how sleepiness is measured in laboratory and field settings, describe what is known about interventions for sleepiness in transportation settings, and summarize what we believe are important gaps in our knowledge of sleepiness and transportation safety. PMID:26056516

  3. Introduction: the need to address older women's mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Malatesta, Victor J

    2007-01-01

    Women are the primary consumers of mental health services. Ironically, research addressing their unique needs lags behind that of men's issues. The aging process introduces an important variable that accentuates the relative lack of information and specific treatment guidelines for older women who are confronted by mental health problems. This volume offers a comprehensive overview for the health professional who is seeking a greater depth of understanding with respect to the study of mental health problems in general, and how these issues pertain specifically to women and the aging process. A second goal of this project is to provide the practicing therapist and counselor with a research update and a broad clinical perspective offered by seasoned clinicians. Using current psychiatric diagnosis as a framework, the contributions address the range of mental health problems, including dementia and cognitive impairment, schizophrenia, alcohol abuse, mood and anxiety disorders, traumatic and dissociative conditions, sexual and eating disorders, and personality disorders. It is hoped that this book will inform, inspire and encourage students and health professionals in their work with middle aged and older women who are facing mental health challenges. PMID:17588876

  4. Environmental issues in operations management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthulingam, Suresh

    Adoption of sustainable operating practices is becoming an increasingly important issue for many organizations in the world today. In this dissertation, I use empirical methods to investigate factors that influence the adoption of sustainable practices and also identify issues that may hinder the adoption of such practices. I explore these issues in two diverse settings. In Chapter 1, I investigate the adoption and non-adoption of energy efficiency initiatives using a database of over 100,000 recommendations provided to more than 13,000 small and medium sized manufacturing firms. Even though the average payback across all recommendations is just over one year, many of these profitable opportunities are not implemented. Using a probit instrumental variable model, I identify four biases in the adoption of these recommendations. First, managers are myopic as they miss out on many profitable opportunities. Second, managers are more influenced by upfront costs than by net benefits when evaluating such initiatives. Third, adoption of a recommendation depends not only on its characteristics but also on the sequence in which the recommendations are presented. Adoption rates are higher for initiatives appearing early in a list of recommendations. Finally, adoption is not influenced by the number of options provided to decision makers. This contributes to the debate about whether or not choice overload occurs. We highlight decision biases previously unobserved in the Operations Management literature using field data rather than experimental data. We draw implications for enhancing adoption of energy efficiency initiatives and for other decision contexts where a collection of process improvement recommendations are made to firms. In Chapter 2, I examine the depth of adoption of the voluntary LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) standards for green buildings. Depth of adoption refers to the extent to which the buildings adopt practices related to the standard

  5. Addressing Teachers' Feelings of Lack of Control over Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on how an American Education System course, traditionally taught with broad objectives, was contextualized for science teachers. Using pre-assessment data, specific policy issues were targeted with the objective of increasing teachers' feelings of influence over issues. The approach used was adapted from exposure therapy, a…

  6. Imaginative Thinking: Addressing Social Justice Issues through MovieMaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boske, Christa A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the experiences of aspiring school leaders who utilized artmaking in this case, photography, poetry, music, collage, and short films through Microsoft MovieMaker as a means for addressing injustices within surrounding school communities. The paper aims to explore how aspiring school leaders…

  7. Teaching Writing in a Digital Age: Addressing Issues of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrill, Brittany B.

    2010-01-01

    The way people write and communicate has changed both inside and outside the university, and because of this writing instructors are professionally responsible for addressing these changes in the classroom. Technologies have affected writing for thousands of years. From the invention of the printing press to the Internet, challenges to writing…

  8. Teacher Education's Responsibility to Address Diversity Issues: Enhancing Institutional Capacity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnick, Susan L.; Zeichner, Kenneth M.

    1998-01-01

    Preservice teachers must be prepared to address substantial student diversity and to educate all students to higher levels of understanding and competence. Many teacher educators are not competent to prepare new teachers in this area. Several approaches to handling institutional aspects of teacher education for diversity are discussed, noting…

  9. Addressing the human factors issues associated with control room modifications

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.; Stubler, W.; Kramer, J.

    1998-03-01

    Advanced human-system interface (HSI) technology is being integrated into existing nuclear plants as part of plant modifications and upgrades. The result of this trend is that hybrid HSIs are created, i.e., HSIs containing a mixture of conventional (analog) and advanced (digital) technology. The purpose of the present research is to define the potential effects of hybrid HSIs on personnel performance and plant safety and to develop human factors guidance for safety reviews of them where necessary. In support of this objective, human factors issues associated with hybrid HSIs were identified. The issues were evaluated for their potential significance to plant safety, i.e., their human performance concerns have the potential to compromise plant safety. The issues were then prioritized and a subset was selected for design review guidance development.

  10. Web-Based Geospatial Tools to Address Hazard Mitigation, Natural Resource Management, and Other Societal Issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn,, Paul P.

    2009-01-01

    Federal, State, and local government agencies in the United States face a broad range of issues on a daily basis. Among these are natural hazard mitigation, homeland security, emergency response, economic and community development, water supply, and health and safety services. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) helps decision makers address these issues by providing natural hazard assessments, information on energy, mineral, water and biological resources, maps, and other geospatial information. Increasingly, decision makers at all levels are challenged not by the lack of information, but by the absence of effective tools to synthesize the large volume of data available, and to utilize the data to frame policy options in a straightforward and understandable manner. While geographic information system (GIS) technology has been widely applied to this end, systems with the necessary analytical power have been usable only by trained operators. The USGS is addressing the need for more accessible, manageable data tools by developing a suite of Web-based geospatial applications that will incorporate USGS and cooperating partner data into the decision making process for a variety of critical issues. Examples of Web-based geospatial tools being used to address societal issues follow.

  11. Creating Art Environments That Address Social Justice Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Gail

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I examine strategies for teaching students to make socially conscious art using a variety of media that emphasizes installation work. I present issues of social justice in the contemporary art world and include concerns of censorship that artists sometimes confront. I offer examples of team taught coordinated studies programs…

  12. Beyond Culturalism: Addressing Issues of Indigenous Disadvantage through Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda; Gowlett, Christina; Mills, Martin; Monk, Sue; Renshaw, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws from a study that explored issues of student equity, marginality and diversity in two secondary schools in regional Queensland (Australia). The paper foregrounds interview data gathered from administration, teaching and ancillary staff at one of the schools, "Crimson" High School. The school has a high Indigenous student…

  13. The Courage To Care: Addressing Sexual Minority Issues on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottenritter, Nan

    1998-01-01

    Sexual minority students face issues similar to those of ethnic and racial minority students. This article provides a framework for assessing the community college's inclusion of sexual minority students: lesbians, gays, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. The first section of the article assesses community colleges in terms of sexual…

  14. Teaching for Diversity: Addressing Diversity Issues in Responsive ESL Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Student diversity has become a typical phenomenon in American public schools. The impact of increasing diversity on literacy instruction is unchallenged. Teachers reinforce this message by often citing ESL student diversity as a barrier for literacy teaching. In order to better understand the complexity of diversity issues, I explored two ESL…

  15. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    SciTech Connect

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  16. A mental model proposed to address sustainability and terrorism issues.

    PubMed

    Schwing, Richard

    2002-06-01

    I have assembled traditional ways to think about human needs and power along with empirical data to support a mental model of human values. The hierarchy of needs from the world of psychology and the hierarchy of power from the world of diplomacy provide a structure for the model. The empirical data collected from several nations over the last three decades support the structure. Furthermore, an examination of specific trends in this data for specific values indicates that it is not impossible to achieve a sustainable world driven by sustainable values. A world that will be defined by its successful movement toward the "triple bottom line," a term articulated by John Elkington, is a world in which economic prosperity, environmental protection, and social equity are aligned. To say that the model allows one to address terrorism is based on the assumption that the lack of social equity or the perception of that lack determines the likelihood of terrorism.

  17. Newborn falls in-hospital: time to address the issue.

    PubMed

    Paul, Siba Prosad; Goodman, Alexander; Remorino, Rowena; Bolger, Sarah

    2011-04-01

    Newborn falls in-hospital are considered rare and mostly accidental. Few studies are available explaining such accidents. The number of cases may be under reported by parents because of the inevitable sense of guilt they experience. Although deaths have been rarely reported, such accidents may be associated with serious outcomes. An urgent assessment by both the midwifery and paediatric teams should be undertaken following the reporting of such accidents. This paper explains what is meant by newborn falls, presents some relevant literature and uses a case study involving a newborn in hospital to form the basis of a discussion. Importantly it is felt that there is a need to raise awareness of the potential of these accidents amongst health professionals. We hope this paper goes some way towards highlighting some key issues and, moreover, increases awareness of newborn falls in hospital. PMID:21560948

  18. SOFTWARE TOOLS THAT ADDRESS HAZARDOUS MATERIAL ISSUES DURING NUCLEAR FACILITY D and D

    SciTech Connect

    M. COURNOYER; R. GRUNDEMANN

    2001-03-01

    The 49-year-old Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Facility is where analytical chemistry and metallurgical studies on samples of plutonium and nuclear materials are conduct in support of the Department of Energy's nuclear weapons program. The CMR Facility is expected to be decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D) over the next ten to twenty years. Over the decades, several hazardous material issues have developed that need to be address. Unstable chemicals must be properly reassigned or disposed of from the workspace during D and D operation. Materials that have critical effects that are primarily chronic in nature, carcinogens, reproductive toxin, and materials that exhibit high chronic toxicity, have unique decontamination requirements, including the decontrolling of areas where these chemicals were used. Certain types of equipment and materials that contain mercury, asbestos, lead, and polychlorinated biphenyls have special provisions that must be addressed. Utilization of commercially available software programs for addressing hazardous material issues during D and D operations such as legacy chemicals and documentation are presented. These user-friendly programs eliminate part of the tediousness associated with the complex requirements of legacy hazardous materials. A key element of this approach is having a program that inventories and tracks all hazardous materials. Without an inventory of chemicals stored in a particular location, many important questions pertinent to D and D operations can be difficult to answer. On the other hand, a well-managed inventory system can address unstable and highly toxic chemicals and hazardous material records concerns before they become an issue. Tapping into the institutional database provides a way to take advantage of the combined expertise of the institution in managing a cost effective D and D program as well as adding a quality assurance element to the program. Using laboratory requirements as a logic flow

  19. "Cairo must address the equity issue." Interview: Sandra Postel.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Sandra Postel, of the Worldwatch Institute, believes that inequalities in consumption and income foster environmental degradation. The richest 20% are getting richer and consuming excessively. The bottom 20%, comprising about 1 billion people, are getting poorer and are degrading their environment in order to survive. Per capita availability of resources is continually being reduced. If there is a desire to improve the quality of life for the poorest segment of the world population, then the richest must forfeit something. Environmental taxation could reduce excessive consumption in general; this strategy would be the most efficient and useful. Taxes would be placed on pollution and resources in danger of depletion; income taxes could be reduced to balance the impact of increased taxes on the economy. Wealthy countries must make a renewed commitment to poverty alleviation and to realistic sustainable development. Aid budgets should no longer reflect military priorities or strategic objectives. Trade is clearly related to the environment and poverty, and these connections must be made publicly known. National and international trade policies must deal with poverty issues and not contribute to further environmental destruction. Eliminating debt problems is another problem in need of change. The World Bank and structural adjustment policies have not proved to be environmentally sound and have not benefitted the poor. Evaluation of programs is needed, and lending policies should reflect the growing awareness of the problems of the poor and environmental consequences. Consumption of energy, wood, paper, and water are all higher among industrialized wealthy countries. Technology needs to be applied to maximize resource use, and policies must reflect this commitment. Israel has set a good example with water consumption reduction through advanced technology. PMID:12345839

  20. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  1. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  2. Issue-Specific Barriers to Addressing Environmental Issues in the Classroom: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chankook; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    2006-01-01

    To explore issue-specific barriers to teaching environmental issues, the authors investigated secondary science teachers' perceived current and preferred teaching levels for 23 environmental issues and perceived barriers to teaching the selected issues. Subjects in this graduate project were 41 secondary science teachers self-selected to answer a…

  3. Operational Issues: What Science in Available?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Neri, David F.

    1997-01-01

    Flight/duty/rest considerations involve two highly complex factors: the diverse demands of aviation operations and human physiology (especially sleep and circadian rhythms). Several core operational issues related to fatigue have been identified, such as minimum rest requirements, duty length, flight time considerations, crossing multiple time zones, and night flying. Operations also can involve on-call reserve status and callout, delays due to unforeseen circumstances (e.g., weather, mechanical), and on-demand flights. Over 40 years of scientific research is now available to apply to these complex issues of flight/duty/rest requirements. This research involves controlled 'laboratory studies, simulations, and data collected during regular flight operations. When flight/duty/rest requirements are determined they are typically based on a variety of considerations, such as operational demand, safety, economic, etc. Rarely has the available, state-of-the-art science been a consideration along with these other factors when determining flight/duty/rest requirements. While the complexity of the operational demand and human physiology precludes an absolute solution, there is an opportunity to take full advantage of the current scientific data. Incorporating these data in a rational operational manner into flight/duty/rest requirements can improve flight crew performance, alertness, and ultimately, aviation safety.

  4. The corporate impact of addressing social issues: a financial case study of a project in Peru.

    PubMed

    Dabbs, Alan; Bateson, Matthew

    2002-05-01

    Large, multinational resource development projects can affect many aspects, including social, economic and ecological realities, in the regions where they operate. Social and environmental issues that are usually ignored in such projects are increasingly affecting the financial future of multinational corporations in negative ways. In this article, we advance the argument that corporations can successfully manage these issues and that if they choose to view these management efforts as an investment rather than an expense, they may well acquire a competitive advantage over companies that do not. We describe as a case study the Camisea natural gas and condensates development project in Peru, operated by Shell Prospecting and Development Peru (SPDP). Camisea is one of the first projects anywhere in the world to conduct a detailed analysis of key industry-related social issues and the processes, required investment and financial impact of managing them. The Camisea example supports the argument that addressing social and environmental concerns makes financial sense. In present value terms, the benefit of managing these concerns was expected to surpass the cost investment by approximately US$50 million. PMID:12125747

  5. The corporate impact of addressing social issues: a financial case study of a project in Peru.

    PubMed

    Dabbs, Alan; Bateson, Matthew

    2002-05-01

    Large, multinational resource development projects can affect many aspects, including social, economic and ecological realities, in the regions where they operate. Social and environmental issues that are usually ignored in such projects are increasingly affecting the financial future of multinational corporations in negative ways. In this article, we advance the argument that corporations can successfully manage these issues and that if they choose to view these management efforts as an investment rather than an expense, they may well acquire a competitive advantage over companies that do not. We describe as a case study the Camisea natural gas and condensates development project in Peru, operated by Shell Prospecting and Development Peru (SPDP). Camisea is one of the first projects anywhere in the world to conduct a detailed analysis of key industry-related social issues and the processes, required investment and financial impact of managing them. The Camisea example supports the argument that addressing social and environmental concerns makes financial sense. In present value terms, the benefit of managing these concerns was expected to surpass the cost investment by approximately US$50 million.

  6. Artificial intelligence issues related to automated computing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornfeck, William A.

    1989-01-01

    Large data processing installations represent target systems for effective applications of artificial intelligence (AI) constructs. The system organization of a large data processing facility at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is presented. The methodology and the issues which are related to AI application to automated operations within a large-scale computing facility are described. Problems to be addressed and initial goals are outlined.

  7. ROV intervention issues relating to pipelay operations in ultra deepwater

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, S.E.; McCoy, R.W.

    1994-12-31

    Recently, there has been a rapid increase in the water depths for some of the development projects of oil and gas fields. Not just in the installation of producing facilities, but of the transportation infrastructure. While ROVs are used extensively in support of deepwater pipelay operations, with the recent advances in J-Lay operations and the investigation into projects which may take this method to what is now being called ``ultra deepwater`` (i.e. 10,000 feet), there are new issues which must be addressed for continued ROV intervention to be successful. This paper will attempt to bring forth some of those issues and offer some potential solutions. It is necessary to begin thinking of these potential problem areas, as the solutions could impact the economics of the projects. These issues may well begin to influence the way the ROV industry further develops and refines it`s fleet to meet the needs of the authors clients in the future.

  8. The New ASERVIC Competencies for Addressing Spiritual and Religious Issues in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashwell, Craig S.; Watts, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, leaders in the Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling (ASERVIC) developed new competencies for addressing spiritual and religious issues in counseling. This article briefly addresses the need for new ASERVIC competencies, provides an overview of the process whereby the new competencies emerged, and concludes…

  9. Large system change challenges: addressing complex critical issues in linked physical and social domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddell, Steve; Cornell, Sarah; Hsueh, Joe; Ozer, Ceren; McLachlan, Milla; Birney, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Most action to address contemporary complex challenges, including the urgent issues of global sustainability, occurs piecemeal and without meaningful guidance from leading complex change knowledge and methods. The potential benefit of using such knowledge is greater efficacy of effort and investment. However, this knowledge and its associated tools and methods are under-utilized because understanding about them is low, fragmented between diverse knowledge traditions, and often requires shifts in mindsets and skills from expert-led to participant-based action. We have been engaged in diverse action-oriented research efforts in Large System Change for sustainability. For us, "large" systems can be characterized as large-scale systems - up to global - with many components, of many kinds (physical, biological, institutional, cultural/conceptual), operating at multiple levels, driven by multiple forces, and presenting major challenges for people involved. We see change of such systems as complex challenges, in contrast with simple or complicated problems, or chaotic situations. In other words, issues and sub-systems have unclear boundaries, interact with each other, and are often contradictory; dynamics are non-linear; issues are not "controllable", and "solutions" are "emergent" and often paradoxical. Since choices are opportunity-, power- and value-driven, these social, institutional and cultural factors need to be made explicit in any actionable theory of change. Our emerging network is sharing and building a knowledge base of experience, heuristics, and theories of change from multiple disciplines and practice domains. We will present our views on focal issues for the development of the field of large system change, which include processes of goal-setting and alignment; leverage of systemic transitions and transformation; and the role of choice in influencing critical change processes, when only some sub-systems or levels of the system behave in purposeful ways

  10. Sarah's Story: Using Ritual Therapy to Address Psychospiritual Issues in Treating Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Radha J.; Horton, H. Shelton, Jr.; Watson, Terri

    1997-01-01

    Describes an individual's healing from the trauma of childhood sexual abuse through counseling, spiritual growth, and the use of therapeutic ritual. Explores relationships between the psychospiritual issues associated with childhood sexual abuse and commonly designated treatment goals. Claims that addressing psychospiritual issues is crucial in…

  11. Addressing the Challenges of Distributed Hydrologic Modeling for Operational Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butts, M. B.; Yamagata, K.; Kobor, J.; Fontenot, E.

    2008-05-01

    Operational forecasting systems must provide reliable, accurate and timely flood forecasts for a range of catchments from small rapidly responding mountain catchments and urban areas to large, complex but more slowly responding fluvial systems. Flood forecasting systems have evolved from simple forecasting for flood mitigation to real-time decision support systems for real-time reservoir operations for water supply, navigation, hydropower, for managing environmental flows and habitat protection, cooling water and water quality forecasting. These different requirements lead to a number of challenges in applying distributed modelling in an operational context. These challenges include, the often short time available for forecasting that requires a trade-off between model complexity and accuracy on the one hand and on the other hand the need for efficient calculations to reduce the computation times. Limitations in the data available in real-time require modelling tools that can not only operate on a minimum of data but also take advantage of new data sources such as weather radar, satellite remote sensing, wireless sensors etc. Finally, models must not only accurately predict flood peaks but also forecast low flows and surface water-groundwater interactions, water quality, water temperature, optimal reservoir levels, and inundated areas. This paper shows how these challenges are being addressed in a number of case studies. The central strategy has been to develop a flexible modelling framework that can be adapted to different data sources, different levels of complexity and spatial distribution and different modelling objectives. The resulting framework allows amongst other things, optimal use of grid-based precipitation fields from weather radar and numerical weather models, direct integration of satellite remote sensing, a unique capability to treat a range of new forecasting problems such as flooding conditioned by surface water-groundwater interactions. Results

  12. Progress in Addressing DNFSB Recommendation 2002-1 Issues: Improving Accident Analysis Software Applications

    SciTech Connect

    VINCENT, ANDREW

    2005-04-25

    Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2002-1 (''Quality Assurance for Safety-Related Software'') identified a number of quality assurance issues on the use of software in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for analyzing hazards, and designing and operating controls to prevent or mitigate potential accidents. Over the last year, DOE has begun several processes and programs as part of the Implementation Plan commitments, and in particular, has made significant progress in addressing several sets of issues particularly important in the application of software for performing hazard and accident analysis. The work discussed here demonstrates that through these actions, Software Quality Assurance (SQA) guidance and software tools are available that can be used to improve resulting safety analysis. Specifically, five of the primary actions corresponding to the commitments made in the Implementation Plan to Recommendation 2002-1 are identified and discussed in this paper. Included are the web-based DOE SQA Knowledge Portal and the Central Registry, guidance and gap analysis reports, electronic bulletin board and discussion forum, and a DOE safety software guide. These SQA products can benefit DOE safety contractors in the development of hazard and accident analysis by precluding inappropriate software applications and utilizing best practices when incorporating software results to safety basis documentation. The improvement actions discussed here mark a beginning to establishing stronger, standard-compliant programs, practices, and processes in SQA among safety software users, managers, and reviewers throughout the DOE Complex. Additional effort is needed, however, particularly in: (1) processes to add new software applications to the DOE Safety Software Toolbox; (2) improving the effectiveness of software issue communication; and (3) promoting a safety software quality assurance culture.

  13. A light writable microfluidic "flash memory": optically addressed actuator array with latched operation for microfluidic applications.

    PubMed

    Hua, Zhishan; Pal, Rohit; Srivannavit, Onnop; Burns, Mark A; Gulari, Erdogan

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents a novel optically addressed microactuator array (microfluidic "flash memory") with latched operation. Analogous to the address-data bus mediated memory address protocol in electronics, the microactuator array consists of individual phase-change based actuators addressed by localized heating through focused light patterns (address bus), which can be provided by a modified projector or high power laser pointer. A common pressure manifold (data bus) for the entire array is used to generate large deflections of the phase change actuators in the molten phase. The use of phase change material as the working media enables latched operation of the actuator array. After the initial light "writing" during which the phase is temporarily changed to molten, the actuated status is self-maintained by the solid phase of the actuator without power and pressure inputs. The microfluidic flash memory can be re-configured by a new light illumination pattern and common pressure signal. The proposed approach can achieve actuation of arbitrary units in a large-scale array without the need for complex external equipment such as solenoid valves and electrical modules, which leads to significantly simplified system implementation and compact system size. The proposed work therefore provides a flexible, energy-efficient, and low cost multiplexing solution for microfluidic applications based on physical displacements. As an example, the use of the latched microactuator array as "normally closed" or "normally open" microvalves is demonstrated. The phase-change wax is fully encapsulated and thus immune from contamination issues in fluidic environments.

  14. A modular approach to addressing model design, scale, and parameter estimation issues in distributed hydrological modelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leavesley, G.H.; Markstrom, S.L.; Restrepo, P.J.; Viger, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    A modular approach to model design and construction provides a flexible framework in which to focus the multidisciplinary research and operational efforts needed to facilitate the development, selection, and application of the most robust distributed modelling methods. A variety of modular approaches have been developed, but with little consideration for compatibility among systems and concepts. Several systems are proprietary, limiting any user interaction. The US Geological Survey modular modelling system (MMS) is a modular modelling framework that uses an open source software approach to enable all members of the scientific community to address collaboratively the many complex issues associated with the design, development, and application of distributed hydrological and environmental models. Implementation of a common modular concept is not a trivial task. However, it brings the resources of a larger community to bear on the problems of distributed modelling, provides a framework in which to compare alternative modelling approaches objectively, and provides a means of sharing the latest modelling advances. The concepts and components of the MMS are described and an example application of the MMS, in a decision-support system context, is presented to demonstrate current system capabilities. Copyright ?? 2002 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  15. The PAMTRAK system and its operational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Dahly, B.; Walters, G.

    1995-10-01

    A system has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of the joint laboratory project with Los Alamos National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W). The objective is to provide support for Safeguards and Security and Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability within the DOE complex. Since its original design PAMTRAK has been enhanced to include material monitoring, personnel monitoring, and video surveillance. Material monitoring is provided by the WATCH (Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling) subsystem by performing continuous surveillance via constantly monitored Tamper Indicating Devices of all material not directly involved in the fuel manufacturing process. Personnel tracking uses radio frequency and infrared sensors to detect unauthorized access to restricted areas and to enforce constant monitoring of containers or other objects within a ``region of interest`` in a storage vault or other restricted area. Advantages of combining these sensor subsystems include reducing personnel radiation exposure by extending the time between required physical inventory intervals as well as adding robustness to existing security measures. PAMTRAK is being demonstrated as part of the integrated materials monitoring and accounting system in the Fuels and Manufacturing Facility (FMF) located at ANL-W. This paper will describe the technologies employed for installation of the system by SNL, as well as the operational issues involved in using the system at ANL-W.

  16. Addressing the shortage of health professionals in rural China: issues and progress

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jianlin; Ke, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Maldistribution of health professionals between urban and rural areas has been a serious problem in China. Urban hospitals attract most of the health professionals with serious shortages in rural areas. To address this issue, a number of policies have been implemented by the government, such as free medical education in exchange for obligatory rural service. PMID:25905487

  17. From Professional Development to Classroom Instruction: Addressing Issues Related to Science Inquiry Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2009-01-01

    In this rejoinder, I first provide a more detailed account of the discourse-focused professional development activities facilitated as part of the SMIT'N program, specifically addressing issues raised by van Zee with regard to the institute's overall format, goals and development strategies. Next, I resort to Peter Medawar's metaphorical view of…

  18. Beyond the Dialectics and Polemics: Canadian Catholic Schools Addressing LGBT Youth Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liboro, Renato M.; Travers, Robb; St. John, Alex

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Canadian media coverage on Bill 13--an Ontario legislative proposal to require all publicly funded schools to support Gay-Straight Alliances as a means of addressing issues concerning bullied lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students--instigated a divisive exchange among representatives of the Ontario Catholic school sector.…

  19. Recommendations and Strategies for Addressing Comprehensive Health Issues on Two-Year College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Gene M.; And Others

    The Two-Year College Development Center invited representatives from two-year colleges throughout New York to attend a two-day meeting to address comprehensive health issues, particularly pertaining to the transmission and prevention of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), as well as other infectious and chronic diseases. The attending…

  20. The Importance of Exposure in Addressing Current and Emerging Air Quality Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    The air quality issues that we face today and will face in the future are becoming increasingly more complex and require an improved understanding of human exposure to be effectively addressed. The objectives of this paper are (1) to discuss how concepts of human exposure and ex...

  1. Secure Naming and Addressing Operations for Store, Carry and Forward Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddy, Wesley M.; Ivancic, William D.; Iannicca, Dennis C.; Ishac, Joseph; Hylton, Alan G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes concepts for secure naming and addressing directed at Store, Carry and Forward (SCF) distributed applications, where disconnection and intermittent connectivity between forwarding systems is the norm. The paper provides a brief overview of store, carry and forward distributed applications followed by an in depth discussion of how to securely: create a namespace; allocate names within the namespace; query for names known within a local processing system or connected subnetwork; validate ownership of a given name; authenticate data from a given name; and, encrypt data to a given name. Critical issues such as revocation of names, mobility and the ability to use various namespaces to secure operations or for Quality-of-Service are also presented. Although the concepts presented for naming and addressing have been developed for SCF, they are directly applicable to fully connected systems.

  2. Task force St. Bernard: operational issues and medical management of a National Guard disaster response operation.

    PubMed

    Bonnett, Carl J; Schock, Tony R; McVaney, Kevin E; Colwell, Christopher B; Depass, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    After Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast of the United States on 29 August 2005, it became obvious that the country was facing an enormous national emergency. With local resources overwhelmed, governors across the US responded by deploying thousands of National Guard soldiers and airmen. The National Guard has responded to domestic disasters due to natural hazards since its inception, but an event with the magnitude of Hurricane Katrina was unprecedented. The deployment of >900 Army National Guard soldiers to St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana in the aftermath of the Hurricane was studied to present some of the operational issues involved with providing medical support for this type of operation. In doing so, the authors attempt to address some of the larger issues of how the National Guard can be incorporated into domestic disaster response efforts. A number of unforeseen issues with regards to medical operations, medical supply, communication, preventive medicine, legal issues, and interactions with civilians were encountered and are reviewed. A better understanding of the National Guard and how it can be utilized more effectively in future disaster response operations can be developed.

  3. Special issue on quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators Special issue on quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Carl M.; Fring, Andreas; Guenther, Uwe; Jones, Hugh F.

    2012-01-01

    special issue to appear before the end of November 2012. There is a nominal page limit of 15 printed pages per contribution (invited review papers can be longer). For papers exceeding this limit, the Guest Editors reserve the right to request a reduction in length. Further advice on publishing your work in Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical may be found at iopscience.iop.org/jphysa. Contributions to the special issue should be submitted by web upload via authors.iop.org/, or by email to jphysa@iop.org, quoting 'JPhysA Special issue on quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators'. Submissions should ideally be in standard LaTeX form. Please see the website for further information on electronic submissions. All contributions should be accompanied by a read-me file or covering letter giving the postal and e-mail addresses for correspondence. The Publishing Office should be notified of any subsequent change of address. The special issue will be published in the print and online versions of the journal.

  4. Special issue on quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators Special issue on quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Carl M.; Fring, Andreas; Guenther, Uwe; Jones, Hugh F.

    2012-01-01

    special issue to appear before the end of November 2012. There is a nominal page limit of 15 printed pages per contribution (invited review papers can be longer). For papers exceeding this limit, the Guest Editors reserve the right to request a reduction in length. Further advice on publishing your work in Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical may be found at iopscience.iop.org/jphysa. Contributions to the special issue should be submitted by web upload via authors.iop.org, or by email to jphysa@iop.org, quoting 'JPhysA Special issue on quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators'. Submissions should ideally be in standard LaTeX form. Please see the website for further information on electronic submissions. All contributions should be accompanied by a read-me file or covering letter giving the postal and e-mail addresses for correspondence. The Publishing Office should be notified of any subsequent change of address. The special issue will be published in the print and online versions of the journal.

  5. Operational and technical implications of the robotics revolution (Keynote Address)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bially, Theodore

    2005-05-01

    The premise of this talk is that more sophisticated robotics hardware and smarter software alone won"t suffice for achieving the full potential afforded by robotic assets. We will also have to develop entirely different mechanisms for planning and executing unmanned missions and new bandwidth-efficient approaches to sharing imagery and other wideband sensor data among large numbers of collaborating platforms. Our current incredibly detailed and complex mission planning methods will bog down if applied to operations involving large numbers of platforms - yet we will be deploying many more robotic assets in the future than we do today. In addition, inter-platform and reachback RF communications resources will be stretched thin if the sensor outputs of all these platforms need to processed off-board. A futuristic ISR mission involving multiple unmanned platforms and a broad range of wideband sensors is presented as an example to demonstrate the transformational potential of the large-scale deployment of robotic assets, and also the need for revolutionary new approaches to mission planning, command and control, sensor processing and exploitation.

  6. Addressing Key Science and Technology Issues for IFE Chambers, Target Fabrication and Target Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Goodin, D T; Nobile, A; Besenbruch, G; Haynes, D; Hoffer, J; Latkowski, J; Maxwell, J; Najmabadi, F; Nikroo, A; Peterson, P; Petzoldt, R; Rickman, W; Sethian, J; Steckle, W; Stephens, E; Tillack, M; Ying, A; Yoda, M

    2002-09-25

    Significant progress has been made in addressing critical issues for high repetition rate chambers, target fabrication and injection for inertial fusion energy (IFE) for both heavy ion and laser drivers. Research is being conducted in a coordinated manner by national laboratories, universities and industry. This paper provides an overview of U.S. research activities and discusses how interface considerations (such as beam propagation and target survival during injection) impact design choices.

  7. Multiple views to address diversity issues: an initial dialog to advance the chiropractic profession

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Claire; Killinger, Lisa Zaynab; Christensen, Mark G.; Hyland, John K.; Mrozek, John P.; Zuker, R. Fred; Kizhakkeveettil, Anupama; Perle, Stephen M.; Oyelowo, Tolu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide expert viewpoints on the topic of diversity in the chiropractic profession, including cultural competency, diversity in the profession, educational and clinical practice strategies for addressing diversity, and workforce issues. Over the next decades, changing demographics in North America will alter how the chiropractic profession functions on many levels. As the population increases in diversity, we will need to prepare our workforce to meet the needs of future patients and society. PMID:23966884

  8. The role of Violence Against Women Act in addressing intimate partner violence: a public health issue.

    PubMed

    Modi, Monica N; Palmer, Sheallah; Armstrong, Alicia

    2014-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as violence committed by a current or former boyfriend or girlfriend, spouse or ex-spouse. Each year, 1.3 to 5.3 million women in the United States experience IPV. The large number of individuals affected, the enormous healthcare costs, and the need for a multidisciplinary approach make IPV an important healthcare issue. The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) addresses domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. It emphasizes development of coordinated community care among law enforcement, prosecutors, victim services, and attorneys. VAWA was not reauthorized in 2012 because it lacked bipartisan support. VAWA 2013 contains much needed new provisions for Native Americans; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, gay, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals; and victims of human trafficking but does not address the large amount of intimate partner violence in America's immigrant population. There are important remaining issues regarding intimate partner violence that need to be addressed by future legislation. This review examines the role of legislation and addresses proposals for helping victims of IPV. PMID:24299159

  9. The Role of Violence Against Women Act in Addressing Intimate Partner Violence: A Public Health Issue

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Monica N.; Palmer, Sheallah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as violence committed by a current or former boyfriend or girlfriend, spouse or ex-spouse. Each year, 1.3 to 5.3 million women in the United States experience IPV. The large number of individuals affected, the enormous healthcare costs, and the need for a multidisciplinary approach make IPV an important healthcare issue. The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) addresses domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. It emphasizes development of coordinated community care among law enforcement, prosecutors, victim services, and attorneys. VAWA was not reauthorized in 2012 because it lacked bipartisan support. VAWA 2013 contains much needed new provisions for Native Americans; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, gay, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals; and victims of human trafficking but does not address the large amount of intimate partner violence in America's immigrant population. There are important remaining issues regarding intimate partner violence that need to be addressed by future legislation. This review examines the role of legislation and addresses proposals for helping victims of IPV. PMID:24299159

  10. 76 FR 58846 - Final Interim Staff Guidance: Review of Evaluation To Address Gas Accumulation Issues in Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... is to clarify the NRC staff guidance to address issues of gas accumulation in safety related systems... guidance documents. Disposition: On November 12, 2009 (74 FR 58323), the NRC staff issued proposed DC/COL... COMMISSION Final Interim Staff Guidance: Review of Evaluation To Address Gas Accumulation Issues in...

  11. Science Teachers' Use of Mass Media to Address Socio-Scientific and Sustainability Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Brown, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The currency, relevancy and changing nature of science makes it a natural topic of focus for mass media outlets. Science teachers and students can capitalize on this wealth of scientific information to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues; however, without a lens on how those media are created and how representations of science are constructed through media, the use of mass media in the science classroom may be risky. Limited research has explored how science teachers naturally use mass media to explore scientific issues in the classroom or how mass media is used to address potential overlaps between socio-scientific-issue based instruction and education for sustainability. This naturalistic study investigated the reported and actual classroom uses of mass media by secondary science teachers' to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues as well as the extent to which their instructional approaches did or did not overlap with frameworks for SSI-based instruction, education for sustainability, and media literacy education. The results of this study suggest that secondary science teachers use mass media to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues, but their use of frameworks aligned with SSI-based, education for sustainability, and media literacy education was limited. This paper provides suggestions for how we, as science educators and researchers, can advance a teaching and learning agenda for encouraging instruction that more fully utilizes the potential of mass media to explore socio-scientific issues in line with perspectives from education for sustainability.

  12. Commentary: what role should physician organizations play in addressing social justice issues?

    PubMed

    Bright, Cedric M

    2012-06-01

    A study by Peek and colleagues in this issue reveals that although racial and ethnic health disparities are recognized as a major national challenge, few physician organizations with both the influence and ability to change practice standards and address disparities appear to be effectively directing their resources to mitigate health disparities. In this commentary, the author examines the history of U.S. health disparities through the lens of social justice. He argues that today, physician organizations have the opportunity to change the paradigm of medicine from being a reactive industry to becoming a proactive industry through collaborations such as the Commission to End Health Disparities, which brings together more than 60 organizations, and the National Medical Association's "We Stand With You" program to improve health and combat disparities. Physician organizations can also address health disparities through advocacy for fair reimbursement policies, funding for pipeline programs to increase the diversity of the workforce, diversity in clinical trials, and other issues. Health disparities present to us in organized medicine a challenge that is cleverly disguised as an immovable object but that is truly a great opportunity for innovation, improvement, and growth. Physician organizations have a unique opportunity to provide avenues of innovation and accomplishment.

  13. Optimization of Compound Plate Preparation to Address Precipitation Issue in Mammalian A549 Cytotoxicity Assay.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra Achar, Vijayashree Gauribidanur; Barde, Shubhada Pramod; Mallya, Meenakshy Venkatesh; Awasthy, Disha; Narayan, Chandan

    2016-06-01

    This study illustrates the optimization of low-volume dispensing on a liquid handling system (LHS) to overcome the precipitation of compounds in the mammalian cytotoxicity assay with low dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) tolerance. All compounds at AstraZeneca Bangalore are tested in the mammalian cytotoxicity assay. In order to maintain the DMSO levels, serially diluted plates were prepared in DMSO/water. It was observed that some of the compounds precipitated. The IC50 data for such compounds were therefore erratic. To circumvent the problem of compound precipitation, the LHS was optimized to dispense low volumes (<1 µL). The plates were serially diluted using neat DMSO. Since the dilution was done using neat DMSO, there were no issues with precipitation. The serially diluted sample (0.5 µL) from the plate was stamped onto the assay plate to give the desired DMSO concentration. No significant differences in IC50 data were observed for 1 µL dispenses made from DMSO/water and 0.5 µL dispenses from neat DMSO for the samples with no precipitation issues. These data therefore gave us the confidence to switch over to 0.5 µL dispenses for the cytotoxicity assay to address the precipitation issue. However, precipitation of samples in the assay buffer is beyond the scope of this discussion.

  14. Afterschool: A Strategy for Addressing and Preventing Middle School Bullying. MetLife Foundation Afterschool Alert. Issue Brief No. 51

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Afterschool Alliance, in partnership with MetLife Foundation, is proud to present the second in a series of four issue briefs examining critical issues facing middle school youth and the vital role afterschool programs play in addressing these issues. This brief focuses on bullying awareness and prevention. Bullying is a dangerous behavior…

  15. Utilizing Internet-based Community Collaboration Tools and Geobrowsers to Address Issues of Water Resource Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agnese, F. A.

    2007-12-01

    More frequently society is demanding that earth- and environmental-resource issues be evaluated and addressed by interdisciplinary investigators from the scientific, engineering, planning, and regulatory communities. Often these investigators are required to interact with a larger community of public stakeholders. Also, these investigators, by necessity, develop databases and models derived from disparate data sets that are often large, complex, and vary dramatically in scale and quality. The tools to facilitate the interactions of these communities of individuals have only recently garnered the appropriate sophistication to enable real-time data viewing, encoding, browsing, and modeling. At the same time, the advent of second-generation internet, or Web 2.0, technologies found in web-based communities and hosted services (such as social-networking, wikis, weblogs, social bookmarking, podcasts, and RSS web feeds) have fused with the more traditional two- and three-dimensional geographic information systems. This "mash-up" of web-based and stand-alone tools and services creates a highly interactive user environment that is favorable to real-time collaboration, community discussion, and broad public dissemination in a wide-area distributed network. These tools and services are being utilized to facilitate the investigations and conversations of scientists and other stakeholders addressing water resource sustainability issues in the desert southwestern United States. The data and models derived from these investigations are visualized using industry standard tools like ArcGIS, Google Earth, and Google Maps to enable ease-of-use by both the technical and the public stakeholder communities.

  16. Ethical issues raised in addressing the needs of people with serious mental disorders in complex emergencies.

    PubMed

    Wissow, Lawrence S; Rutkow, Lainie; Kass, Nancy E; Rabins, Peter V; Vernick, Jon S; Hodge, James G

    2012-03-01

    Recent manmade and natural disasters highlight weaknesses in the public health systems designed to protect populations from harm and minimize disruption of the social and built environments. Emergency planning and response efforts have, as a result, focused largely on ensuring populations' physical well-being during and after a disaster. Many public health authorities, including the World Health Organization, have recognized the importance of addressing both mental and physical health concerns in emergency plans. Individuals with mental disorders represent a notable proportion of the overall population, and anticipating their needs is critical to comprehensive emergency planning and response efforts. Because people with serious mental disorders historically have been stigmatized, and many individuals with mental disorders may be unable to care for themselves, ethical guidance may be of assistance to those engaged in emergency planning and response. This article considers several broad categories of ethical issues that arise during emergencies for people with serious mental disorders and offers recommendations for ways in which emergency planners and other stakeholders can begin to address these ethical challenges.

  17. Can Go address the multicore issues of today and the manycore problems of tomorrow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binet, Sébastien

    2012-06-01

    Current High Energy and Nuclear Physics (HENP) libraries and frameworks were written before multicore systems became widely deployed and used. From this environment, a 'single-thread' processing model naturally emerged but the implicit assumptions it encouraged are greatly impairing our abilities to scale in a multicore/manycore world. While parallel programming - still in an intensive phase of R&D despite the 30+ years of literature on the subject - is an obvious topic to consider, other issues (build scalability, code clarity, code deployment and ease of coding) are worth investigating when preparing for the manycore era. Moreover, if one wants to use another language than C++, a language better prepared and tailored for expressing concurrency, one also needs to ensure a good and easy reuse of already field-proven libraries. We present the work resulting from such investigations applied to the Go programming language. We first introduce the concurrent programming facilities Go is providing and how its module system addresses the build scalability and dependency hell issues. We then describe the process of leveraging the many (wo)man-years put into scientific Fortran/C/C++ libraries and making them available to the Go ecosystem. The ROOT data analysis framework, the C-BLAS library and the Herwig-6 MonteCarlo generator will be taken as examples. Finally, performances of the tools involved in a small analysis written in Go and using ROOT I/O library will be presented.

  18. Understanding Current Safety Issues for Trajectory Based Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael; Stewart, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Increases in procedural complexity were investigated as a possible contributor to flight path deviations in airline operations. Understanding current operational issues and their causes must be embraced to maintain current safety standards while increasing future functionality. ASRS data and expert narratives were used to discover factors relating to pilot deviations. Our investigation pointed to ATC intervention, automation confusion, procedure design, and mixed equipment as primary issues. Future work will need to include objective data and mitigation strategies.

  19. A Cost-Efficient LDPC Decoder for DVB-S2 with the Solution to Address Conflict Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Yan; Bao, Dan; Yu, Zhiyi; Zeng, Xiaoyang; Chen, Yun

    In this paper, a cost-efficient LDPC decoder for DVB-S2 is presented. Based on the Normalized Min-Sum algorithm and the turbo-decoding message-passing (TDMP) algorithm, a dual line-scan scheduling is proposed to enable hardware reusing. Furthermore, we present the solution to the address conflict issue caused by the characteristic of the parity-check matrix defined by DVB-S2 LDPC codes. Based on SMIC 0.13µm standard CMOS process, the LDPC decoder has an area of 12.51mm2. The required operating frequency to meet the throughput requirement of 135Mbps with maximum iteration number of 30 is 105MHz. Compared with the latest published DVB-S2 LDPC decoder, the proposed decoder reduces area cost by 34%.

  20. Addressing Issues of Broadening Participation Highlighted in the Report on the Future of Undergraduate Geoscience Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaris, J. R.; Manduca, C. A.; Macdonald, H.; Iverson, E. A. R.

    2015-12-01

    The final report for the Summit on the Future of Geoscience Education lays out a consensus on issues that must be tackled by the geoscience community collectively if there are to be enough qualified people to fill the large number of expected geoscience job vacancies over the coming decade. Focus areas cited in the report include: Strengthening the connections between two-year colleges and four-year institutions Sharing and making use of successful recruitment and retention practices for students from underrepresented groups Making students aware of high-quality job prospects in the geosciences as well as its societal relevance The InTeGrate STEP Center for the Geosciences, the Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education at Two-Year Colleges (SAGE 2YC) program, and the Building Strong Geoscience Departments (BSGD) project together have developed a suite of web resources to help faculty and program leaders begin to address these and other issues. These resources address practices that support the whole student, both in the classroom and as a part of the co-curriculum as well as information on geoscience careers, guidance for developing coherent degree programs, practical advice for mentoring and advising, and many others. In addition to developing web resources, InTeGrate has also undertaken an effort to profile successful program practices at a variety of institutions. An analysis of these data shows several common themes (e.g. proactive marketing, community building, research experiences) that align well with the existing literature on what works to support student success. But there are also indications of different approaches and emphases between Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) and Primarily White Institutions (PWIs) as well as between different kinds of MSIs. Highlighting the different strategies in use can point both MSIs and PWIs to possible alternate solutions to the challenges their students face. InTeGrate - http

  1. The National Academy of Sciences offers a new framework for addressing global warming issues.

    PubMed

    Barnard, R C; Morgan, D L

    2000-02-01

    The recent landmark report by the National Academy of Sciences reviewed the science on which the Kyoto Protocol was based. NAS concluded that the policy choices and the mandatory reductions in greenhouse gases by the developed nations were based on incomplete science with significant uncertainties. In view of these uncertainties the NAS report developed a comprehensive strategic 10-year research program to address the basic issue of whether human activity that results in environmental changes is responsible for climate changes. The report provides a new framework for consideration of global warming issues. The UN International Panel on Climate Change (the UN science advisor) in its 1997 report to the Kyoto parties pointed out the confusing difference between scientific usage of the term "climate change" that distinguishes human from natural causes of change and the official usage that combines natural and human causes of changes in climate. The conclusion of the UN panel on human causes is equivocal. The 1999 report of the U.S. Global Science Research Committee also reached an equivocal conclusion on human causes and announced a 10-year research program to be developed in consultation with NAS. The precautionary measures provided in the 1992 UN Framework Convention differ from the ill-defined "precautionary principle" based on fear of uncertainty, and are consistent with the objectives of the NAS proposed research program. These developments together with the third report of the UN Intergovernmental Science Panel on developments in climate science due in 2001 merit consideration by the convention of the parties under the Kyoto Protocol. PMID:10715229

  2. The National Academy of Sciences offers a new framework for addressing global warming issues.

    PubMed

    Barnard, R C; Morgan, D L

    2000-02-01

    The recent landmark report by the National Academy of Sciences reviewed the science on which the Kyoto Protocol was based. NAS concluded that the policy choices and the mandatory reductions in greenhouse gases by the developed nations were based on incomplete science with significant uncertainties. In view of these uncertainties the NAS report developed a comprehensive strategic 10-year research program to address the basic issue of whether human activity that results in environmental changes is responsible for climate changes. The report provides a new framework for consideration of global warming issues. The UN International Panel on Climate Change (the UN science advisor) in its 1997 report to the Kyoto parties pointed out the confusing difference between scientific usage of the term "climate change" that distinguishes human from natural causes of change and the official usage that combines natural and human causes of changes in climate. The conclusion of the UN panel on human causes is equivocal. The 1999 report of the U.S. Global Science Research Committee also reached an equivocal conclusion on human causes and announced a 10-year research program to be developed in consultation with NAS. The precautionary measures provided in the 1992 UN Framework Convention differ from the ill-defined "precautionary principle" based on fear of uncertainty, and are consistent with the objectives of the NAS proposed research program. These developments together with the third report of the UN Intergovernmental Science Panel on developments in climate science due in 2001 merit consideration by the convention of the parties under the Kyoto Protocol.

  3. Space Station Engineering Design Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  4. How Does the Capability Approach Address Current Issues in Special Educational Needs, Disability and Inclusive Education Field?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwich, Brahm

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to examine what the capability approach has to offer to the field of special needs and inclusive education. Several key questions are addressed: can the capability approach replace the language of needs and rights; whether the capability approach can address key issues in the field of disabilities and difficulties in education and…

  5. Addressing issues associated with evaluating prediction models for survival endpoints based on the concordance statistic.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Long, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Prediction models for disease risk and prognosis play an important role in biomedical research, and evaluating their predictive accuracy in the presence of censored data is of substantial interest. The standard concordance (c) statistic has been extended to provide a summary measure of predictive accuracy for survival models. Motivated by a prostate cancer study, we address several issues associated with evaluating survival prediction models based on c-statistic with a focus on estimators using the technique of inverse probability of censoring weighting (IPCW). Compared to the existing work, we provide complete results on the asymptotic properties of the IPCW estimators under the assumption of coarsening at random (CAR), and propose a sensitivity analysis under the mechanism of noncoarsening at random (NCAR). In addition, we extend the IPCW approach as well as the sensitivity analysis to high-dimensional settings. The predictive accuracy of prediction models for cancer recurrence after prostatectomy is assessed by applying the proposed approaches. We find that the estimated predictive accuracy for the models in consideration is sensitive to NCAR assumption, and thus identify the best predictive model. Finally, we further evaluate the performance of the proposed methods in both settings of low-dimensional and high-dimensional data under CAR and NCAR through simulations.

  6. Approaches and incentives to implement integrated pest management that addresses regional and environmental issues.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Michael J; Goodell, Peter B

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural, environmental, and social and policy interests have influenced integrated pest management (IPM) from its inception. The first 50 years of IPM paid special attention to field-based management and market-driven decision making. Concurrently, IPM strategies became available that were best applied both within and beyond the bounds of individual fields and that also provided environmental benefits. This generated an incentives dilemma for farmers: selecting IPM activities for individual fields on the basis of market-based economics versus selecting IPM activities best applied regionally that have longer-term benefits, including environmental benefits, that accrue to the broader community as well as the farmer. Over the past several decades, public-supported incentives, such as financial incentives available to farmers from conservation programs for farms, have begun to be employed to encourage use of conservation techniques, including strategies with IPM relevance. Combining private investments with public support may effectively address the incentives dilemma when advanced IPM strategies are used regionally and provide public goods such as those benefiting resource conservation. This review focuses on adaptation of IPM to these broader issues, on transitions of IPM from primarily individual field-based decision making to coordinated community decision making, and on the form of partnerships needed to gain long-lasting regional and environmental benefits.

  7. From Silence to Safety and Beyond: Historical Trends in Addressing Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Issues in K-12 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Pat; Ouellett, Mathew

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an historical overview of changing perspectives in education practice and literature on addressing lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) issues in public K-12 schools. This article describes how the presentation and analysis of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender issues in the past 80 years have…

  8. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 22 - Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions C Appendix C to Part 22 National Defense Department of Defense... AND ADMINISTRATION Pt. 22, App. C Appendix C to Part 22—Administrative Requirements and Issues To...

  9. Secondary Education Systemic Issues: Addressing Possible Contributors to a Leak in the Science Education Pipeline and Potential Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Hollie

    2005-01-01

    To maintain the legacy of cutting edge scientific innovation in the United States our country must address the many pressing issues facing science education today. One of the most important issues relating to science education is the under-representation of African Americans and Hispanics in the science, technology, and engineering workforce.…

  10. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 22 - Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions C Appendix C to Part 22 National Defense Department of Defense... AND ADMINISTRATION Pt. 22, App. C Appendix C to Part 22—Administrative Requirements and Issues To...

  11. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 22 - Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Administrative Requirements and Issues To Be Addressed in Award Terms and Conditions C Appendix C to Part 22 National Defense Department of Defense... AND ADMINISTRATION Pt. 22, App. C Appendix C to Part 22—Administrative Requirements and Issues To...

  12. Earthquake Seismic Risk Reduction in Ohio: ODNR's Efforts to Address Issues with Natural and Induced Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besana-Ostman, G. M.

    2013-05-01

    With the increasing concerns regarding both natural and induced seismicity in Ohio, ODNR (Ohio Department of Natural Resources) initial efforts on seismic risk reduction paved way to various changes and improvement to tackle several major issues. For natural earthquakes, regional seismicity indicates a NE-SW structure in the northern portion of the area associated with a number of moderate historical earthquakes but no active trace identified. On the other hand, earthquakes of 1986 and 2011 are most probably incidents of induced seismicity that trigger more public uproar against disposal of regulated waste waters through injections. ODNR, in efforts to adapt with increasing need to regulate all operations related to both the Utica and Marcellus shale play within the state, had recently strengthen itself both through additional human resources and improved infrastructure. Tougher regulations and additional field tests were required that took effect immediately when a M4 earthquake was associated with the operations of an injection well. Public meetings were undertaken focused on educating many local inhabitants related to oil and gas operations, hydraulic fracturing, injection wells, and seismicity. Trainings for new and existing staff were regularly done especially for field inspection, data management and technology advancements. Considering the existing seismic stations that are few and distant related to sites of the injection wells, additional seismic stations were installed to gather baseline data and monitor for earthquakes within the injection area(s). Furthermore, to assess if the sites of the injection wells are safe from active structures, initial geomorphic and structural analyses indicated possible active faults in the northern portion of state oriented NE-SW. With the above-mentioned recent changes, ODNR had made a significant leap not only in the improvement of its principal regulatory role in the state for oil and gas operations but also in its

  13. Rewarding altruism: addressing the issue of payments for volunteers in public health initiatives.

    PubMed

    South, Jane; Purcell, Martin E; Branney, Peter; Gamsu, Mark; White, Judy

    2014-03-01

    Lay involvement in public health programmes occurs through formalised lay health worker (LHW) and other volunteer roles. Whether such participation should be supported, or indeed rewarded, by payment is a critical question. With reference to policy in England, UK, this paper argues how framing citizen involvement in health only as time freely given does not account for the complexities of practice, nor intrinsic motivations. The paper reports results on payment drawn from a study of approaches to support lay people in public health roles, conducted in England, 2007-9. The first phase of the study comprised a scoping review of 224 publications, three public hearings and a register of projects. Findings revealed the diversity of approaches to payment, but also the contested nature of the topic. The second phase investigated programme support matters in five case studies of public health projects, which were selected primarily to reflect role types. All five projects involved volunteers, with two utilising forms of payment to support engagement. Interviews were conducted with a sample of project staff, LHWs (paid and unpaid), external partners and service users. Drawing on both lay and professional perspectives, the paper explores how payment relates to social context as well as various motivations for giving, receiving or declining financial support. The findings show that personal costs are not always absorbed, and that there is a potential conflict between financial support, whether sessional payment or expenses, and welfare benefits. In identifying some of the advantages and disadvantages of payment, the paper highlights the complexity of an issue often addressed only superficially. It concludes that, in order to support citizen involvement, fairness and value should be considered alongside pragmatic matters of programme management; however policy conflicts need to be resolved to ensure that employment and welfare rights are maintained.

  14. Rewarding altruism: addressing the issue of payments for volunteers in public health initiatives.

    PubMed

    South, Jane; Purcell, Martin E; Branney, Peter; Gamsu, Mark; White, Judy

    2014-03-01

    Lay involvement in public health programmes occurs through formalised lay health worker (LHW) and other volunteer roles. Whether such participation should be supported, or indeed rewarded, by payment is a critical question. With reference to policy in England, UK, this paper argues how framing citizen involvement in health only as time freely given does not account for the complexities of practice, nor intrinsic motivations. The paper reports results on payment drawn from a study of approaches to support lay people in public health roles, conducted in England, 2007-9. The first phase of the study comprised a scoping review of 224 publications, three public hearings and a register of projects. Findings revealed the diversity of approaches to payment, but also the contested nature of the topic. The second phase investigated programme support matters in five case studies of public health projects, which were selected primarily to reflect role types. All five projects involved volunteers, with two utilising forms of payment to support engagement. Interviews were conducted with a sample of project staff, LHWs (paid and unpaid), external partners and service users. Drawing on both lay and professional perspectives, the paper explores how payment relates to social context as well as various motivations for giving, receiving or declining financial support. The findings show that personal costs are not always absorbed, and that there is a potential conflict between financial support, whether sessional payment or expenses, and welfare benefits. In identifying some of the advantages and disadvantages of payment, the paper highlights the complexity of an issue often addressed only superficially. It concludes that, in order to support citizen involvement, fairness and value should be considered alongside pragmatic matters of programme management; however policy conflicts need to be resolved to ensure that employment and welfare rights are maintained. PMID:24581065

  15. Issues in developing control zones for international space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nader, Blair A.; Krishen, Kumar

    1992-01-01

    Cooperative missions in earth orbit can be facilitated by developing a strategy to regulate the manner in which vehicles interact in orbit. One means of implementing such a strategy is to utilize a control zones technique that assigns different types of orbital operations to specific regions of space surrounding a vehicle. Considered here are issues associated with developing a control zones technique to regulate the interactions of spacecraft in proximity to a manned vehicle. Technical and planning issues, flight hardware and software issues, mission management parameter, and other constraints are discussed. Also covered are manned and unmanned vehicle operations, and manual versus automated flight control. A review of the strategies utilized by the Apollo Soyuz Test Project and the Space Station Freedom Program is also presented.

  16. Issues associated with establishing control zones for international space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nader, Blair A.; Krishen, Kumar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative missions in Earth orbit can be facilitated by developing a strategy to regulate the manner in which vehicles interact in orbit. One means of implementing such a strategy is to utilize a control zones technique that assigns different types of orbital operations to specific regions of space surrounding a vehicle. Considered here are issues associated with developing a control zones technique to regulate the interactions of spacecraft in proximity to a manned vehicle. Technical and planning issues, flight hardware and software issues, mission management parameter, and other constraints are discussed. Also covered are manned and unmanned vehicle operations, and manual versus automated flight control. A review of the strategies utilized by the Apollo Soyuz Test Project and the Space Station Freedom Program is also presented.

  17. 14 CFR 331.25 - To what address must operators or providers send their applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false To what address must operators or providers send their applications? 331.25 Section 331.25 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... Transportation, Office of Aviation Analysis (X-50)Aviation Relief Desk, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE.,...

  18. Exploring factors influencing farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme to address climatic issues in agricultural sectors.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Adeel; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Akhtar, Rulia

    2015-06-01

    This study empirically estimates farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme for addressing climate issues in Pakistan's agricultural sectors. The contingent valuation method (CVM) was employed to determine a monetary valuation of farmers' preferences for a planned adaptation programme by ascertaining the value attached to address climatic issues. The survey was conducted by distributing structured questionnaires among Pakistani farmers. The study found that 67 % of respondents were willing to pay for a planned adaptation programme. However, several socioeconomic and motivational factors exert greater influence on their willingness to pay (WTP). This paper specifies the steps needed for all institutional bodies to better address issues in climate change. The outcomes of this paper will support attempts by policy makers to design an efficient adaptation framework for mitigating and adapting to the adverse impacts of climate change. PMID:25613801

  19. Exploring factors influencing farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme to address climatic issues in agricultural sectors.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Adeel; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Akhtar, Rulia

    2015-06-01

    This study empirically estimates farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme for addressing climate issues in Pakistan's agricultural sectors. The contingent valuation method (CVM) was employed to determine a monetary valuation of farmers' preferences for a planned adaptation programme by ascertaining the value attached to address climatic issues. The survey was conducted by distributing structured questionnaires among Pakistani farmers. The study found that 67 % of respondents were willing to pay for a planned adaptation programme. However, several socioeconomic and motivational factors exert greater influence on their willingness to pay (WTP). This paper specifies the steps needed for all institutional bodies to better address issues in climate change. The outcomes of this paper will support attempts by policy makers to design an efficient adaptation framework for mitigating and adapting to the adverse impacts of climate change.

  20. New Issues on Electric Power Markets and System Operations in Asian Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Hiroshi; Park, Jong Keun; Sun, Yuanzhang; Wu, Felix F.; Yokoyama, Ryuichi

    As reliable and stable operations have become critical issues in deregulated electric power markets and systems, a growing number of individuals need advanced and timely information that will allow them to understand the major trends and technologies that are moving this dynamic segment of the electric power industry and market ahead. Under such circumstances, Power System Engineering Committee in The Institute of Electrical Engineering of Japan (Chairman: Ryuichi Yokoyama) and The Consortium for Power Technology of Japan (President: Takeshi Taneichi, Secretariat: Waseda University) have organized a special symposium on “New Issues on Electric Power Markets and System Operations in Asian Countries" on May 28th, 2007, at Uchisaiwaicho Hall in Tokyo. The purposes of the symposium were to address and discuss current situations and new issues related to reliable and stable operations of power markets and systems in the competitive environment in Asian countries. This article is a summary of presentations by four prominent speakers in the special symposium.

  1. Pursuing Justice for Refugee Students: Addressing Issues of Cultural (Mis)Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    In this paper Nancy Fraser's conceptual tools are drawn on to theorise issues of justice in a culturally diverse primary school in Australia where approximately 30% of the student population are immigrant/refugees. The paper examines justice issues of cultural recognition in relation to refugee student identity, behaviour and assessment. Drawing…

  2. A Consideration to Two Main Ethical Issues in Educational Research, and How May These Be Addressed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abed, Mohaned Ghazi

    2015-01-01

    This paper has firstly discussed the topic of Ethical Issues in Education, and has accordingly highlighted the fact that ethics are not something to deem at the commencement of a research project or fieldwork, but rather throughout the entire research process. Furthermore, two of the most important ethical issues have been given…

  3. Core Issues that Must be Addressed in Order to Improve Vocational Education and Training in Indonesia. An Institutional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cully, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Indonesia, like many other countries has to come to terms with the challenges of a rapidly advancing economic globalization. In order to address the major issues involved the government must take some very essential steps that are practical, attainable and sustainable. With global economies evolving from a traditional resource structure to that of…

  4. Teaching for Change: Addressing Issues of Difference in the College Classroom. Reprint Series No. 25. Harvard Educational Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geismar, Kathryn, Ed.; Nicoleau, Guitele, Ed.

    Contributors to this collection of essays describe how they address issues of race, gender, and class in their college courses as they attempt to ensure that their curricula and class discussions represent the perspectives of all students. Essays include: (1) "Introduction" (Kathryn Giesmar and Guitele Nicoleau); (2) "Dialogue across Differences:…

  5. Encouraging Pre-Service Teachers to Address Issues of Sexual Orientation in Their Classrooms: Walking the Walk & Talking the Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Laurie E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe ways that teacher educators can encourage future teachers to address lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) issues in their own classrooms. The Gay, Lesbian, Straight Education Network's ThinkB4YouSpeak Educator's Guide served as the framework for the activities that the author has implemented in…

  6. ISSUES THAT MUST BE ADDRESSED FOR RISK ASSESSMENT OF MIXED EXPOSURES: THE EPA EXPERIENCE WITH AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Issues that Must be Addressed for Risk Assessment of Mixed Exposures: The EPA Experience with Air Quality

    Daniel L. Costa, Sc.D.

    Abstract
    Humans are routinely exposed to a complex mixture of air pollutants in both their outdoor and indoor environments. The wide...

  7. Discovery Channel Telescope software progress report: addressing early commissioning and operations challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacasse, Michael; Lotz, Paul J.

    2014-07-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope is a 4.3m astronomical research telescope in northern Arizona constructed through a partnership between Discovery Communications and Lowell Observatory. In transition from construction phase to commissioning and operations, we faced a variety of software challenges, both foreseen and unforeseen, and addressed those with a variety of solutions including, isolation of the control systems network, development of an Operations Log application, extension of the interface to instrumentation software, improvements to engineering data analysis, provisions to avoid failure modes, and enhanced user experience. We describe these solutions and present an overview of the current project status.

  8. Addressing Air, Land & Water Nitrogen Issues under Changing Climate Trends & Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    The climate of western U.S. dairy producing states is anticipated to change significantly over the next 50 to 75 years. A multimedia modeling system based upon the “nitrogen cascade” concept has been configured to address three aspects of sustainability (environmenta...

  9. Teaching Water: Connecting across Disciplines and into Daily Life to Address Complex Societal Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Arri; Hall, Anne; Lee, Tong Soon; Zupko, Jack

    2009-01-01

    A central problem in higher education is how to best develop in students interdisciplinary thinking and application skills necessary to work and engage effectively in the twenty-first century. Traditional university structures make addressing this problem especially challenging. Using as a model courses with diverse perspectives on water taught by…

  10. 2016 State of the State Addresses: Governors' Top Education Issues. Education Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auck, Alyssa; Railey, Hunter

    2016-01-01

    Each year, governors take the stage to highlight accomplishments and outline policy priorities for their states. In an effort to provide up-to-date information on education policy trends, Education Commission of the States tracks all education policy proposals and accomplishments featured by governors in these State of the State addresses. At the…

  11. Afterschool in Action: How Innovative Afterschool Programs Address Critical Issues Facing Middle School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Over the last four years, the Afterschool Alliance and MetLife Foundation have worked together to identify exemplary, and often lesser-known afterschool programs across the nation. For the past two years, efforts have focused on finding innovative afterschool programs serving middle school students. This focus was developed to address the need for…

  12. Use of Social Software to Address Literacy and Identity Issues in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Jill

    2009-01-01

    The emerging trend of social software technology can address many different second language (L2) learner needs through authentic social interaction and a variety of scaffolding processes. Social software connects education with real-life learning and interests, and engages and motivates students. It can facilitate learning environments that are…

  13. Standards, Assessment, and Readiness: Addressing Postsecondary Transition Issues across State Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelau, Demarée K.

    2015-01-01

    This brief describes major challenges ahead for states, institutions, and most importantly, students as the standards and assessments from the Common Core Standards (CCSS) are implemented. It also offers recommendations to create a network structure that would assist K-12 and higher education leaders in addressing those challenges. To begin the…

  14. Governors' Top Education Issues: 2015 State of the State Addresses. ECS Education Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Stephanie; Rowland, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Education Commission of the States (ECS) strives to keep its constituency apprised of education policy trends across the states. To provide a comprehensive overview of educational priorities outlined by governors, ECS summarized the education proposals and accomplishments detailed in every 2015 State of the State address delivered to date. Each…

  15. Addressing Agricultural Issues in Health Care Education: An Occupational Therapy Curriculum Program Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallfield, Stacy; Anderson, Angela J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Medical and allied health professionals who work in agricultural states frequently address the needs of clients who live and work in rural and frontier environments. The primary occupations of those living in rural areas include farming, ranching, or other agriculture-related work. Farming is consistently ranked as one of the most…

  16. Bridging the Gap: Essential Issues to Address in Recurring Writing Center Appointments with Chinese ELL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nan, Frances

    2012-01-01

    As the population of international--and particularly Chinese--students grows in US academic institutions, it is critical that writing center tutors be able to address these students' needs. However, whereas writing tutors at the author's institution are often taught to be indirect and focus on higher order concerns, such strategies are not always…

  17. Open Lives, Safe Schools: Addressing Gay and Lesbian Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Donovan R., Ed.

    In all but a handful of states, it is legal to discriminate against individuals on the basis of sexual orientation. Ways in which homophobia and anti-gay sentiments affect education in the United States are addressed in this collection of essays. They are written for educators and others concerned about schooling, from kindergarten through…

  18. 32 CFR 37.1010 - What substantive issues should my award document address?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and negotiate a TIA individually to meet the specific requirements of the particular project, so the... document must address: (a) Project scope. The scope is an overall vision statement for the project, including a discussion of the project's purpose, objectives, and detailed military and commercial goals....

  19. 32 CFR 37.1010 - What substantive issues should my award document address?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and negotiate a TIA individually to meet the specific requirements of the particular project, so the... document must address: (a) Project scope. The scope is an overall vision statement for the project, including a discussion of the project's purpose, objectives, and detailed military and commercial goals....

  20. Clothing the Emperor: Addressing the Issue of English Language Proficiency in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunworth, Katie

    2010-01-01

    The English language proficiency levels of students in Australian higher education who have English as an additional language (EAL) has become an increasingly prominent issue, particularly as it relates to international students. In 2009 this resulted in the publication of a set of good practice principles for the sector. This paper argues that…

  1. Progression in Ethical Reasoning When Addressing Socio-Scientific Issues in Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berne, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of an intervention in a Swedish school in which the author, a teacher-researcher, sought to develop students' (14-15 years old) ethical reasoning in science through the use of peer discussions about socio-scientific issues. Prior to the student discussions various prompts were used to highlight different…

  2. Where We Live: A Curriculum Guide. ABE Materials that Address Housing Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellowitch, Azi

    This curriculum was developed to give adult basic education (ABE) teachers starting points for developing their own units around housing-related issues. The texts have been chosen thematically, rather than by skill level. The materials are designed for group work--oral reading and discussion. Readings focus on housing repairs, court procedures,…

  3. Extending Transition to Address Guardianship Alternatives: An Issue Concerning Students Who Have Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Dorothy Squatrito

    2014-01-01

    As students who have intellectual disability reach or have reached the age of majority, concerns regarding their competence to make informed decisions are often raised, as is the issue of adult guardianship. Guardianship refers to when a judge appoints an adult to be the guardian of another adult (ward) who has been determined to be unable to care…

  4. Teach to Reach: Addressing Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth Issues in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Horace R.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the delicate and complex issues immediate to the lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. The author places the discussion within the context of learning environments and presents ways in which pre-service and in-service teachers can help create safe and equitable spaces for all learners. Presented are…

  5. Skirting the Issue: Teachers' Experiences "Addressing Sexuality in Middle School Language Arts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puchner, Laurel; Klein, Nicole Aydt

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine perceptions, attitudes, and reported practices of a group of middle level Language Arts teachers concerning sexuality-related issues. Through interviews with 15 teachers, the study found that sexuality was in one sense pervasive, as it came up frequently in the teachers' practice. Yet at the same time the…

  6. The Role of Sexual Trauma in the Treatment of Chemically Dependent Women: Addressing the Relapse Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Rick; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Explores issues surrounding sexual trauma and chemical dependency. Aims to provide direction for relapse prevention with a relapse-prone population and explores application of traditional milieu substance-abuse treatment for sexual-trauma survivors. Makes recommendations for working with sexual-trauma survivors who are also substance abusers. (RJM)

  7. Science Teachers' Use of Mass Media to Address Socio-Scientific and Sustainability Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Brown, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The currency, relevancy and changing nature of science makes it a natural topic of focus for mass media outlets. Science teachers and students can capitalize on this wealth of scientific information to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues; however, without a lens on how those media are created and how representations of science are…

  8. The Use of Cohorts: A Powerful Way for Addressing Issues of Diversity in Preparation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Bruce G.; Caffarella, Rosemary S.

    Educational administration preparation programs increasingly are using cohorts, particularly as a way to teach diversity issues. Cohorts are groups of students who go through a 1- to 2-year study program together. The special characteristics of adult learning, the need for acknowledgement and use of experience, the different learning techniques,…

  9. Addressing lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender issues from the inside: one federal agency's approach.

    PubMed Central

    Craft, E M; Mulvey, K P

    2001-01-01

    The mission of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is to protect and serve underserved and vulnerable populations. Congress established SAMHSA under Public Law 102-321 on October 1, 1992, to strengthen the nation's health care capacity to provide prevention, diagnosis, and treatment services for substance abuse and mental illnesses. SAMHSA works in partnership with states, communities, and private organizations to address the needs of people with substance abuse and mental illnesses as well as the community risk factors that contribute to these illnesses. As part of its efforts to address the unique needs of special populations, SAMHSA has reached out to the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. SAMHSA and its centers (Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, and Center for Mental Health Services) have made a concerted effort, through both policy and programs, to develop services responsive to this community. PMID:11392928

  10. Evaluating programs that address ideological issues: ethical and practical considerations for practitioners and evaluators.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Lisa D; Fagen, Michael C; Neiger, Brad L

    2014-03-01

    There are important practical and ethical considerations for organizations in conducting their own, or commissioning external, evaluations and for both practitioners and evaluators, when assessing programs built on strongly held ideological or philosophical approaches. Assessing whether programs "work" has strong political, financial, and/or moral implications, particularly when expending public dollars, and may challenge objectivity about a particular program or approach. Using a case study of the evaluation of a school-based abstinence-until-marriage program, this article discusses the challenges, lessons learned, and ethical responsibilities regarding decisions about evaluation, specifically associated with ideologically driven programs. Organizations should consider various stakeholders and views associated with their program to help identify potential pitfalls in evaluation. Once identified, the program or agency needs to carefully consider its answers to two key questions: Do they want the answer and are they willing to modify the program? Having decided to evaluate, the choice of evaluator is critical to assuring that ethical principles are maintained and potential skepticism or criticism of findings can be addressed appropriately. The relationship between program and evaluator, including agreements about ownership and eventual publication and/or promotion of data, should be addressed at the outset. Programs and organizations should consider, at the outset, their ethical responsibility when findings are not expected or desired. Ultimately, agencies, organizations, and programs have an ethical responsibility to use their data to provide health promotion programs, whether ideologically founded or not, that appropriately and effectively address the problems they seek to solve. PMID:24532788

  11. Progression in Ethical Reasoning When Addressing Socio-scientific Issues in Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berne, Birgitta

    2014-11-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of an intervention in a Swedish school in which the author, a teacher-researcher, sought to develop students' (14-15 years old) ethical reasoning in science through the use of peer discussions about socio-scientific issues. Prior to the student discussions various prompts were used to highlight different aspects of the issues. In addition, students were given time to search for further information themselves. Analysis of students' written arguments, from the beginning of the intervention and afterwards, suggests that many students seem to be moving away from their use of everyday language towards using scientific concepts in their arguments. In addition, they moved from considering cloning and 'designer babies' solely in terms of the present to considering them in terms of the future. Furthermore, the students started to approach the issues in additional ways using not only consequentialism but also the approaches of virtue ethics, and rights and duties. Students' progression in ethical reasoning could be related to the characteristics of the interactions in peer discussions as students who critically and constructively argued with each other's ideas, and challenged each other's claims, made progress in more aspects of ethical reasoning than students merely using cumulative talk. As such, the work provides valuable indications for the importance of introducing peer discussions and debates about SSIs in connection to biotechnology into the teaching of science in schools.

  12. Approaches of the German food industry for addressing the issue of food losses.

    PubMed

    Richter, Beate; Bokelmann, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    In the food industry the subject of food losses is of great importance due to economic balance and an efficient application of resources as well as the development of an efficient food chain system. This paper presents the explorative results of a quantitative survey of leading companies of the German food industry to evaluate the relevance and handling of this issue. The investigation reveals that the topic food losses have a high significance in the food industry which will probably increase in future. A sample breakdown by branches indicates that the issue has the highest relevance for companies in the confectionery industry. These companies as well as those in the meat and fish industry want to consider the subject prospectively more powerful in their companies. Across the food industry, there is no communication to consumers of the efforts concerning food losses. And companies in the confectionery industry and in the fruit and vegetable industry rather want to engage more powerful in this topic if consumers' interest increases. But in order to minimize food losses at all stages along the supply chain, communication and collaboration at all stages is essential, especially the communication to consumers. Thus, it has to be verified whether a suitable communication can lead to advantages in competition and become an important issue for companies to differentiate from competitors.

  13. Approaches of the German food industry for addressing the issue of food losses.

    PubMed

    Richter, Beate; Bokelmann, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    In the food industry the subject of food losses is of great importance due to economic balance and an efficient application of resources as well as the development of an efficient food chain system. This paper presents the explorative results of a quantitative survey of leading companies of the German food industry to evaluate the relevance and handling of this issue. The investigation reveals that the topic food losses have a high significance in the food industry which will probably increase in future. A sample breakdown by branches indicates that the issue has the highest relevance for companies in the confectionery industry. These companies as well as those in the meat and fish industry want to consider the subject prospectively more powerful in their companies. Across the food industry, there is no communication to consumers of the efforts concerning food losses. And companies in the confectionery industry and in the fruit and vegetable industry rather want to engage more powerful in this topic if consumers' interest increases. But in order to minimize food losses at all stages along the supply chain, communication and collaboration at all stages is essential, especially the communication to consumers. Thus, it has to be verified whether a suitable communication can lead to advantages in competition and become an important issue for companies to differentiate from competitors. PMID:26691601

  14. Identifying Human Factors Issues in Aircraft Maintenance Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veinott, Elizabeth S.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Maintenance operations incidents submitted to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) between 1986-1992 were systematically analyzed in order to identify issues relevant to human factors and crew coordination. This exploratory analysis involved 95 ASRS reports which represented a wide range of maintenance incidents. The reports were coded and analyzed according to the type of error (e.g, wrong part, procedural error, non-procedural error), contributing factors (e.g., individual, within-team, cross-team, procedure, tools), result of the error (e.g., aircraft damage or not) as well as the operational impact (e.g., aircraft flown to destination, air return, delay at gate). The main findings indicate that procedural errors were most common (48.4%) and that individual and team actions contributed to the errors in more than 50% of the cases. As for operational results, most errors were either corrected after landing at the destination (51.6%) or required the flight crew to stop enroute (29.5%). Interactions among these variables are also discussed. This analysis is a first step toward developing a taxonomy of crew coordination problems in maintenance. By understanding what variables are important and how they are interrelated, we may develop intervention strategies that are better tailored to the human factor issues involved.

  15. Religiosity/spirituality of German doctors in private practice and likelihood of addressing R/S issues with patients.

    PubMed

    Voltmer, Edgar; Bussing, Arndt; Koenig, Harold G; Al Zaben, Faten

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the self-assessed religiosity and spirituality (R/S) of a representative sample of German physicians in private practice (n = 414) and how this related to their addressing R/S issues with patients. The majority of physicians (49.3 %)reported a Protestant denomination, with the remainder indicating mainly either Catholic(12.5 %) or none (31.9 %). A significant proportion perceived themselves as either religious(42.8 %) or spiritual (29.0 %). Women were more likely to rate themselves R/S than did men. Women (compared to men) were also somewhat more likely to attend religious services (7.4 vs. 2.1 % at least once a week) and participate in private religious activities(14.9 vs. 13.7 % at least daily), although these differences were not statistically significant.The majority of physicians (67.2 %) never/seldom addressed R/S issues with a typical patient. Physicians with higher self-perceived R/S and more frequent public and private religious activity were much more likely to address R/S issues with patients. Implications for patient care and future research are discussed.

  16. A Possible Approach for Addressing Neglected Human Factors Issues of Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher W.; Holloway, C. Michael

    2011-01-01

    The increasing complexity of safety-critical applications has led to the introduction of decision support tools in the transportation and process industries. Automation has also been introduced to support operator intervention in safety-critical applications. These innovations help reduce overall operator workload, and filter application data to maximize the finite cognitive and perceptual resources of system operators. However, these benefits do not come without a cost. Increased computational support for the end-users of safety-critical applications leads to increased reliance on engineers to monitor and maintain automated systems and decision support tools. This paper argues that by focussing on the end-users of complex applications, previous research has tended to neglect the demands that are being placed on systems engineers. The argument is illustrated through discussing three recent accidents. The paper concludes by presenting a possible strategy for building and using highly automated systems based on increased attention by management and regulators, improvements in competency and training for technical staff, sustained support for engineering team resource management, and the development of incident reporting systems for infrastructure failures. This paper represents preliminary work, about which we seek comments and suggestions.

  17. Introduction: what are the issues in addressing the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods?

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Dean D

    2003-06-01

    There is growing concern among the general public and the scientific community regarding the potential toxicity of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The use of biotechnology to enhance pest resistance or nutritional value has raised a number of fundamental questions including the consequences of insertion of reporter genes, the spread of resistance genes to surrounding plants, and the use of suicide genes to prohibit reuse of seed from engineered plants. Of particular interest is the ability of proteins from GMOs to elicit potentially harmful immunologic responses, including allergic hypersensitivity. The lack of information of the potential toxicity of these products suggests a need to identify the critical issues and research needs regarding these materials and to develop testing strategies to examine the allergenicity of these compounds.

  18. Introduction: what are the issues in addressing the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods?

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Dean D

    2003-01-01

    There is growing concern among the general public and the scientific community regarding the potential toxicity of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The use of biotechnology to enhance pest resistance or nutritional value has raised a number of fundamental questions including the consequences of insertion of reporter genes, the spread of resistance genes to surrounding plants, and the use of suicide genes to prohibit reuse of seed from engineered plants. Of particular interest is the ability of proteins from GMOs to elicit potentially harmful immunologic responses, including allergic hypersensitivity. The lack of information of the potential toxicity of these products suggests a need to identify the critical issues and research needs regarding these materials and to develop testing strategies to examine the allergenicity of these compounds. PMID:12826482

  19. Developing and Using Benchmarks for Eddy Current Simulation Codes Validation to Address Industrial Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayos, M.; Buvat, F.; Costan, V.; Moreau, O.; Gilles-Pascaud, C.; Reboud, C.; Foucher, F.

    2011-06-01

    To achieve performance demonstration, which is a legal requirement for the qualification of NDE processes applied on French nuclear power plants, the use of modeling tools is a valuable support, provided that the employed models have been previously validated. To achieve this, in particular for eddy current modeling, a validation methodology based on the use of specific benchmarks close to the actual industrial issue has to be defined. Nonetheless, considering the high variability in code origin and complexity, the feedback from experience on actual cases has shown that it was critical to define simpler generic and public benchmarks in order to perform a preliminary selection. A specific Working Group has been launched in the frame of COFREND, the French Association for NDE, resulting in the definition of several benchmark problems. This action is now ready for mutualization with similar international approaches.

  20. Beyond Boston: Applying Theory to Understand and Address Sustainability Issues in Focused Deterrence Initiatives for Violence Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Engel, Robin S.; Lovins, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Focused deterrence initiatives, including the most famous, Boston's Operation Ceasefire, have been associated with significant reductions in violence in several U.S. cities. Despite early successes, some cities have experienced long-term sustainability issues. Recent work in Cincinnati, Ohio, has focused on institutionalizing focused deterrence in…

  1. A public-policy practicum to address current issues in human, animal, and ecosystem health.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, John A; Johnson, Yvette J; Troutt, H Fred; Prudhomme, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    There are recognized needs for cross-training health professionals in human, animal, and ecosystem health and for public health policy to be informed by experts from medical, science, and social science disciplines. Faculty members of the Community Health and Preventive Medicine Section at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Institute of Government and Public Affairs, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have offered a public-policy course designed to meet those needs. The course was designed as a practicum to teach students the policy-making process through the development of policy proposals and to instruct students on how to effectively present accurate scientific, demographic, and statistical information to policy makers and to the public. All students substantially met the learning objectives of the course. This course represents another model that can be implemented to help students learn about complex, multifactorial issues that affect the health of humans, animals, and ecosystems, while promoting participation in public health policy development.

  2. Evaluation of Geese Theatre's Re-Connect program: addressing resettlement issues in prison.

    PubMed

    Harkins, Leigh; Pritchard, Cecilia; Haskayne, Donna; Watson, Andy; Beech, Anthony R

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the impact of Geese Theatre's Re-Connect program on a sample of offenders who attended it. This program used theatre performance, experiential exercises, skills practice role-plays, and metaphors such as the masks to invite a group of offenders to consider and explore issues connected with their release and reconnecting with a life outside prison. Pre- and postprogram psychometric tests, behavior ratings, and interviews were completed to assess the effectiveness of the program. Significant changes were observed from pre- to posttreatment in terms of self-efficacy, motivation to change, and improved confidence in skills (i.e., social and friendship, occupational, family and intimacy, dealing with authority, alternatives to aggression or offending, and self-management and self-control skills). Improved behavior and engagement within the program was observed over the 3 days of the program. Interviews also revealed the positive impact the program had on the participants. This provides evidence supporting the short-term effectiveness of the Re-Connect program.

  3. Addressing the amorphous content issue in quantitative phase analysis : the certification of NIST SRM 676a.

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, J. P.; Von Dreele, R. B.; Winburn, R.; Stephens, P. W.; Filliben, J. J.

    2011-07-01

    A non-diffracting surface layer exists at any boundary of a crystal and can comprise a mass fraction of several percent in a finely divided solid. This has led to the long-standing issue of amorphous content in standards for quantitative phase analysis (QPA). NIST standard reference material (SRM) 676a is a corundum ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) powder, certified with respect to phase purity for use as an internal standard in powder diffraction QPA. The amorphous content of SRM 676a is determined by comparing diffraction data from mixtures with samples of silicon powders that were engineered to vary their specific surface area. Under the (supported) assumption that the thickness of an amorphous surface layer on Si was invariant, this provided a method to control the crystalline/amorphous ratio of the silicon components of 50/50 weight mixtures of SRM 676a with silicon. Powder diffraction experiments utilizing neutron time-of-flight and 25 keV and 67 keV X-ray energies quantified the crystalline phase fractions from a series of specimens. Results from Rietveld analyses, which included a model for extinction effects in the silicon, of these data were extrapolated to the limit of zero amorphous content of the Si powder. The certified phase purity of SRM 676a is 99.02% {+-} 1.11% (95% confidence interval). This novel certification method permits quantification of amorphous content for any sample of interest, by spiking with SRM 676a.

  4. Addressing oral health disparities, inequity in access and workforce issues in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhinav; Purohit, Bharathi M

    2013-10-01

    The health sector challenges in India like those in other low and middle income countries are formidable. India has almost one-third of the world's dental schools. However, provisions of oral health-care services are few in rural parts of India where the majority of the Indian population resides. Disparities exist between the oral health status in urban and rural areas. The present unequal system of mainly private practice directed towards a minority of the population and based on reparative services needs to be modified. National oral health policy needs to be implemented as a priority, with an emphasis on strengthening dental care services under public health facilities. A fast-changing demographic profile and its implications needs to be considered while planning for the future oral health-care workforce. Current oral health status in developing countries, including India, is a result of government public health policies, not lack of dentists. The aim of the article is to discuss pertinent issues relating to oral health disparities, equity in health-care access, dental workforce planning and quality concerns pertaining to the present-day dental education and practices in India, which have implications for other developing countries. PMID:24074015

  5. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Muir, William M; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Croney, Candace

    2014-01-01

    As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with intensive rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory that offer potential solutions by improving adaptation of the bird to existing and proposed production environments. The outcomes of adaptation could lead to improvement of animal welfare by increasing fitness of the animal for the given environments, which might lead to increased contentment and decreased distress of birds in those systems. Genomic selection, based on dense genetic markers, will allow for more rapid improvement of traits that are expensive or difficult to measure, or have a low heritability, such as pecking, cannibalism, robustness, mortality, leg score, bone strength, disease resistance, and thus has the potential to address many poultry welfare concerns. Recently selection programs to include social effects, known as associative or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), have received much attention. Group, kin, multi-level, and multi-trait selection including IGEs have all been shown to be highly effective in reducing mortality while increasing productivity of poultry layers and reduce or eliminate the need for beak trimming. Multi-level selection was shown to increases robustness as indicated by the greater ability of birds to cope with stressors. Kin selection has been shown to be easy to implement and improve both productivity and animal well-being. Management practices and rearing conditions employed for domestic animal production will continue to change based on ethical and scientific results. However, the animal breeding tools necessary to provide an animal that is best adapted to these changing conditions

  6. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Muir, William M.; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Croney, Candace

    2014-01-01

    As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with intensive rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory that offer potential solutions by improving adaptation of the bird to existing and proposed production environments. The outcomes of adaptation could lead to improvement of animal welfare by increasing fitness of the animal for the given environments, which might lead to increased contentment and decreased distress of birds in those systems. Genomic selection, based on dense genetic markers, will allow for more rapid improvement of traits that are expensive or difficult to measure, or have a low heritability, such as pecking, cannibalism, robustness, mortality, leg score, bone strength, disease resistance, and thus has the potential to address many poultry welfare concerns. Recently selection programs to include social effects, known as associative or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), have received much attention. Group, kin, multi-level, and multi-trait selection including IGEs have all been shown to be highly effective in reducing mortality while increasing productivity of poultry layers and reduce or eliminate the need for beak trimming. Multi-level selection was shown to increases robustness as indicated by the greater ability of birds to cope with stressors. Kin selection has been shown to be easy to implement and improve both productivity and animal well-being. Management practices and rearing conditions employed for domestic animal production will continue to change based on ethical and scientific results. However, the animal breeding tools necessary to provide an animal that is best adapted to these changing conditions

  7. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Muir, William M; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Croney, Candace

    2014-01-01

    As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with intensive rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory that offer potential solutions by improving adaptation of the bird to existing and proposed production environments. The outcomes of adaptation could lead to improvement of animal welfare by increasing fitness of the animal for the given environments, which might lead to increased contentment and decreased distress of birds in those systems. Genomic selection, based on dense genetic markers, will allow for more rapid improvement of traits that are expensive or difficult to measure, or have a low heritability, such as pecking, cannibalism, robustness, mortality, leg score, bone strength, disease resistance, and thus has the potential to address many poultry welfare concerns. Recently selection programs to include social effects, known as associative or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), have received much attention. Group, kin, multi-level, and multi-trait selection including IGEs have all been shown to be highly effective in reducing mortality while increasing productivity of poultry layers and reduce or eliminate the need for beak trimming. Multi-level selection was shown to increases robustness as indicated by the greater ability of birds to cope with stressors. Kin selection has been shown to be easy to implement and improve both productivity and animal well-being. Management practices and rearing conditions employed for domestic animal production will continue to change based on ethical and scientific results. However, the animal breeding tools necessary to provide an animal that is best adapted to these changing conditions

  8. Addressing the unique safety and design concerns for operating tower-based scientific field campaigns.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, A. C.

    2006-12-01

    Scientific field campaigns often require specialized technical infrastructure for data collection. NASA's LBA- ECO Science Team needed a network of towers, up to 65 meters in height, to be constructed in the Amazon forest to serve as platforms for instrumentation used to estimate carbon dioxide and trace gas fluxes between the forest and the atmosphere. The design, construction, and operation of these scientific towers represented unique challenges to the construction crews, the logistics support staff, and the scientists due to operational requirements beyond tower site norms. These included selection of safe sites at remote locations within a dense forest; building towers without damaging the natural environment; locating diesel generators so that exhaust would not contaminate the measurement area; performing maintenance on continuously energized towers so as not to interrupt data collection; training inexperienced climbers needing safe access to towers; and addressing unique safety concerns (e.g. venomous animal response, chainsaw safety, off road driving). To meet the challenges of the complex field site, a comprehensive safety and site operation model was designed to ensure that NASA field safety standards were met, even under extreme conditions in the remote forests of the Amazon. The model includes all phases of field site safety and operation, including site design, construction, operational practices and policies, and personnel safety training. This operational model was employed over eight years, supporting a team of nearly 400 scientists, making several thousand site visits, without loss of life or major injury. The presentation will explore these concerns and present a model for comprehensive safety plans for NASA field missions.

  9. Issues Involving The OSI Concept of Operation For Noble Gas Radionuclide Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, C R; Sun, Y

    2011-01-21

    The development of a technically sound protocol for detecting the subsurface release of noble gas radionuclides is critical to the successful operation of an on site inspection (OSI) under the CTBT and has broad ramifications for all aspects of the OSI regime including the setting of specifications for both sampling and analysis equipment used during an OSI. With NA-24 support, we are investigating a variety of issues and concerns that have significant bearing on policy development and technical guidance regarding the detection of noble gases and the creation of a technically justifiable OSI concept of operation. The work at LLNL focuses on optimizing the ability to capture radioactive noble gases subject to the constraints of possible OSI scenarios. This focus results from recognizing the difficulty of detecting gas releases in geologic environments - a lesson we learned previously from the LLNL Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE). Evaluation of a number of important noble gas detection issues, potentially affecting OSI policy, has awaited the US re-engagement with the OSI technical community. Thus, there have been numerous issues to address during the past 18 months. Most of our evaluations of a sampling or transport issue necessarily involve computer simulations. This is partly due to the lack of OSI-relevant field data, such as that provided by the NPE, and partly a result of the ability of LLNL computer-based models to test a range of geologic and atmospheric scenarios far beyond what could ever be studied in the field making this approach very highly cost effective. We review some highlights of the transport and sampling issues we have investigated during the past year. We complete the discussion of these issues with a description of a preliminary design for subsurface sampling that is intended to be a practical solution to most if not all the challenges addressed here.

  10. Using Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Practices to Address Scientific Misunderstandings Around Complex Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    The new NGSS provide an important opportunity for scientists to develop curriculum that links the practice of science to research-based data in order to improve understanding in areas of science that are both complex and confusing. Our curriculum focuses in particular on the fate and transport of anthropogenic radionuclides. Radioactivity, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic, is highly debated and largely misunderstood, and for large sections of the population is a source of scientific misunderstanding. Developed as part of the international GEOTRACES project which focuses on identifying ocean processes and quantifying fluxes that control the distributions of selected trace elements and isotopes in the ocean, and on establishing the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions, the curriculum topic fits nicely into the applied focus of NGSS with both environmental and topical relevance. Our curriculum design focuses on small group discussion driven by questions, yet unlike more traditional curriculum pieces these are not questions posed to the students, rather they are questions posed by the students to facilitate their deeper understanding. Our curriculum design challenges the traditional question/answer memorization approach to instruction as we strive to develop an educational approach that supports the practice of science as well as the NGSS Cross Cutting Concepts and the Science & Engineering Practices. Our goal is for students to develop a methodology they can employ when faced with a complex scientific issue. Through background readings and team discussions they identify what type of information is important for them to know and where to find a reliable source for that information. Framing their discovery around key questions such as "What type of radioactive decay are we dealing with?", "What is the potential half-life of the isotope?", and "What are the pathways of transport of radioactivity?" allows students to evaluate a

  11. End of Life and Life After Death - Issues to be Addressed.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Poojar; Renuka, Pramod Kallur Parameshwar; Bonanthaya, Ravikiran

    2012-09-01

    Being an Oncologist, I have seen many patients suffering from cancer. It pains a lot looking at them fighting the battle of life, though knowing that they would lose miserably and surrender meekly as majority of the patients report to the hospital at an advanced stage of disease and only palliative care may be the option. There is an urgent need to create - Cancer Awareness in the villages and also about the end of life care in all terminally ill patients. 20 patients in the terminal phase were questioned regarding end of life care. The common questions they asked are, why has God punished me like this? Why me on earth? Should I die so early? Why should I leave my near and dear ones and go far away, from the point of no return? Do I ever see them again? With deep sorrow and sigh, they suffer till the last breath, having the feeling of insecurity as what would happen to their dear ones. In the terminal phase, the patients wishes must be respected and their needs must be fulfilled. The health care professionals should plan an appropriate care for each patient. Most of them feel that the best place to be in end of life is the home. Research has shown that Hospice care may improve the quality of life of a patient who is dying and of the patient's family. Communication about end of life care and decision making during the final moments of a person's life are very important. The patients suffering are mainly due to the physical, psychological, social and spiritual issues. Death of a terminally ill patient should never be a sudden loss. All healthcare professionals, Social workers and Non-Governmental Organisations must install the life after death of the person, who has struggled for every breath and assure that he/she shall rest in peace and shall smile seeing their near and dear ones living with dignity and pride in the society. Ultimately, the patient must have dignity in dying.

  12. Secondary Education Systemic Issues: Addressing Possible Contributors to a Leak in the Science Education Pipeline and Potential Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Hollie

    2005-06-01

    To maintain the legacy of cutting edge scientific innovation in the United States our country must address the many pressing issues facing science education today. One of the most important issues relating to science education is the under-representation of African Americans and Hispanics in the science, technology, and engineering workforce. Foreshadowing such under-representation in the workforce are the disproportionately low rates of African American and Hispanic students attaining college degrees in science and related fields. Evidence suggests disparate systemic factors in secondary science education are contributing to disproportionately low numbers of African American and Hispanic students in the science education pipeline. The present paper embarks on a critical analysis of the issue by elucidating some of the systemic factors within secondary education that contribute to the leak in the science education pipeline. In addition, this review offers a synthesis and explication of some of the policies and programs being implemented to address disparate systemic factors in secondary schools. Finally, recommendations are offered regarding potential mechanisms by which disparities may be alleviated.

  13. Geoethical issues involved in Tsunami Warning System concepts and operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalampakis, Marinos; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of a Tsunami Warning System (TWS) is to mitigate the effect of an incoming tsunami by alerting coastal population early enough to allow people to evacuate safely from inundation zones. Though this representation might seem oversimplified, nonetheless, achieving successfully this goal requires a positive synergy of geoscience, communication, emergency management, technology, education, social sciences, politics. Geoethical issues arise always when there is an interaction between geoscience and society, and TWS is a paradigmatic case where interaction is very strong and is made critical because a) the formulation of the tsunami alert has to be made in a time as short as possible and therefore on uncertain data, and b) any evaluation error (underestimation or overestimation) can lead to serious (and sometimes catastrophic) consequences involving wide areas and a large amount of population. From the geoethical point of view three issues are critical: how to (i) combine forecasts and uncertainties reasonably and usefully, (ii) cope and possibly solve the dilemma whether it is better over-alerting or under-alerting population and (iii) deal with responsibility and liability of geoscientists, TWS operators, emergency operators and coastal population. The discussion will be based on the experience of the Hellenic National Tsunami Warning Center (HL-NTWC, Greece), which operates on 24/7 basis as a special unit of the Institute of Geodynamics, National Observatory of Athens, and acts also as Candidate Tsunami Service Provider (CTSP) in the framework of the North-Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas Tsunami Warning System (NEAMTWS) of the IOC/UNESCO. Since August 2012, when HL-NTWC was officially declared as operational, 14 tsunami warning messages have been disseminated to a large number of subscribers after strong submarine earthquakes occurring in Greece and elsewhere in the eastern Mediterranean. It is recognized that the alerting process

  14. Community health and socioeconomic issues surrounding concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Donham, Kelley J; Wing, Steven; Osterberg, David; Flora, Jan L; Hodne, Carol; Thu, Kendall M; Thorne, Peter S

    2007-02-01

    A consensus of the Workgroup on Community and Socioeconomic Issues was that improving and sustaining healthy rural communities depends on integrating socioeconomic development and environmental protection. The workgroup agreed that the World Health Organization's definition of health, "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity," applies to rural communities. These principles are embodied in the following main points agreed upon by this workgroup. Healthy rural communities ensure a) the physical and mental health of individuals, b) financial security for individuals and the greater community, c) social well-being, d ) social and environmental justice, and e) political equity and access. This workgroup evaluated impacts of the proliferation of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on sustaining the health of rural communities. Recommended policy changes include a more stringent process for issuing permits for CAFOs, considering bonding for manure storage basins, limiting animal density per watershed, enhancing local control, and mandating environmental impact statements. PMID:17384786

  15. Community Health and Socioeconomic Issues Surrounding Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    PubMed Central

    Donham, Kelley J.; Wing, Steven; Osterberg, David; Flora, Jan L.; Hodne, Carol; Thu, Kendall M.; Thorne, Peter S.

    2007-01-01

    A consensus of the Workgroup on Community and Socioeconomic Issues was that improving and sustaining healthy rural communities depends on integrating socioeconomic development and environmental protection. The workgroup agreed that the World Health Organization’s definition of health, “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity,” applies to rural communities. These principles are embodied in the following main points agreed upon by this workgroup. Healthy rural communities ensure a) the physical and mental health of individuals, b) financial security for individuals and the greater community, c) social well-being, d ) social and environmental justice, and e) political equity and access. This workgroup evaluated impacts of the proliferation of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on sustaining the health of rural communities. Recommended policy changes include a more stringent process for issuing permits for CAFOs, considering bonding for manure storage basins, limiting animal density per watershed, enhancing local control, and mandating environmental impact statements. PMID:17384786

  16. Ethical issues in engineering models: an operations researcher's reflections.

    PubMed

    Kleijnen, J

    2011-09-01

    This article starts with an overview of the author's personal involvement--as an Operations Research consultant--in several engineering case-studies that may raise ethical questions; e.g., case-studies on nuclear waste, water management, sustainable ecology, military tactics, and animal welfare. All these case studies employ computer simulation models. In general, models are meant to solve practical problems, which may have ethical implications for the various stakeholders; namely, the modelers, the clients, and the public at large. The article further presents an overview of codes of ethics in a variety of disciples. It discusses the role of mathematical models, focusing on the validation of these models' assumptions. Documentation of these model assumptions needs special attention. Some ethical norms and values may be quantified through the model's multiple performance measures, which might be optimized. The uncertainty about the validity of the model leads to risk or uncertainty analysis and to a search for robust models. Ethical questions may be pressing in military models, including war games. However, computer games and the related experimental economics may also provide a special tool to study ethical issues. Finally, the article briefly discusses whistleblowing. Its many references to publications and websites enable further study of ethical issues in modeling. PMID:20535643

  17. Search and Rescue Operations of Aircraft in Africa: Some Compelling Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeyratne, Ruwantissa I. R.

    2002-01-01

    The world aviation community has felt the compelling need for a well-coordinated global programme for search and rescue operations of aircraft ever since commercial aviation was regulated in 1944. Guidelines and plans of action for search and rescue have therefore been considered critical in the event of an aircraft accident. This fact is eminently brought to bear in the continental regions of Africa and South America in particular, where vast expanses of land are still uninhabited or sparsely populated and controlled flight into terrain (CFIT-where an aircraft may crash on land while still under the control of technical crew) is a common occurrence. There are numerous guidelines that have been adopted under the umbrella of the International Civil Aviation Organization which are already in place for the provision of search and rescue operations pertaining to aircraft. However, when an accident occurs in the territory of a State, there are sensitivities involving the State in which the aircraft concerned was registered and issues of sovereignty which have to be considered. Additionally. issues such as the voluntary nature of the search and rescue services offered. confidentiality, timeliness of such operations, fairness and uniformity all play a critical role. This article addresses the issue of search and rescue operations in Africa and examines in some detail where the world aviation community is right now and where it is headed in this important field of human endeavour.

  18. Work group III: Methodologic issues in research on the food and physical activity environments: addressing data complexity.

    PubMed

    Oakes, J Michael; Mâsse, Louise C; Messer, Lynne C

    2009-04-01

    Progress in transdisciplinary research addressing the health effects of the food and physical activity environments appears hampered by several methodologic obstacles, including: (1) the absence of clear, testable conceptual models; (2) slow adoption of practicable, rigorous research designs; (3) improper use of analytic techniques; and (4) concerns about ubiquitous measurement error. The consequence of such obstacles is that data collected as part of the typical study are more complex than need be. We offer diagnoses and recommendations from an NIH-sponsored meeting that addressed core issues in food- and physical activity-environment research. Recommendations include improved conceptual models and more elaborate theories, experimental thinking and increased attention to causal effect estimation, adoption of cross-validation techniques, use of existing measurement-error models, and increased support for methodologic research.

  19. Community Coordinated Modeling Center: Addressing Needs of Operational Space Weather Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetsova, M.; Maddox, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Hesse, M.; Rastaetter, L.; Macneice, P.; Taktakishvili, A.; Berrios, D.; Chulaki, A.; Zheng, Y.; Mullinix, R.

    2012-01-01

    Models are key elements of space weather forecasting. The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC, http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov) hosts a broad range of state-of-the-art space weather models and enables access to complex models through an unmatched automated web-based runs-on-request system. Model output comparisons with observational data carried out by a large number of CCMC users open an unprecedented mechanism for extensive model testing and broad community feedback on model performance. The CCMC also evaluates model's prediction ability as an unbiased broker and supports operational model selections. The CCMC is organizing and leading a series of community-wide projects aiming to evaluate the current state of space weather modeling, to address challenges of model-data comparisons, and to define metrics for various user s needs and requirements. Many of CCMC models are continuously running in real-time. Over the years the CCMC acquired the unique experience in developing and maintaining real-time systems. CCMC staff expertise and trusted relations with model owners enable to keep up to date with rapid advances in model development. The information gleaned from the real-time calculations is tailored to specific mission needs. Model forecasts combined with data streams from NASA and other missions are integrated into an innovative configurable data analysis and dissemination system (http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov) that is accessible world-wide. The talk will review the latest progress and discuss opportunities for addressing operational space weather needs in innovative and collaborative ways.

  20. Legal issues to address when managing clinical information across Europe: the ECIT case study (www.ECIT.info).

    PubMed

    Lawford Davies, James; Jenkins, Julian

    2005-01-01

    This paper identifies issues which will need to be addressed in pursuing the aims and objectives of the European Classification of Infertility Taskforce (ECIT), namely: to establish classification codes for infertility management; to improve the consistency of infertility information collection by specialist centres, particularly but not exclusively by computerised systems; to use these codes to enable the transfer of infertility information from specialist centres to national infertility data registries; to develop a Grid linking the data held in European infertility data registries; to use Grid processing to mine the data in the European infertility data registries to optimise patient management improving the effectiveness of treatment and reducing the risk.

  1. Langley's DEVELOP Team Applies NASA's Earth Observations to Address Environmental Issues Across the Country and Around the Globe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, Lauren M.; Miller, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    The DEVELOP National Program was established over a decade ago to provide students with experience in the practical application of NASA Earth science research results. As part of NASA's Applied Sciences Program, DEVELOP focuses on bridging the gap between NASA technology and the public through projects that innovatively use NASA Earth science resources to address environmental issues. Cultivating a diverse and dynamic group of students and young professionals, the program conducts applied science research projects during three terms each year (spring, summer, and fall) that focus on topics ranging from water resource management to natural disasters.

  2. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Toni A.

    2014-01-01

    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed

  3. Issues affecting the industrial powerhouse and powerhouse operation

    SciTech Connect

    Dessette, R.D.

    1995-09-01

    The growth of industrial boilre regulatory issues is discussed. These issues include environmental issues, e.g., monitoring, air toxics, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions, ozone transport, waste management, Title V permits, new source reviews etc., energy issues, e.g., competitive sourcing, global climate change, energy efficiency and renewables, and government affairs issues, e.g., cost effectiveness risk assessment, and amendment of the 1990 Clean Air Acts.

  4. Key design issues for user terminals operating with HEO satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stojkovic, I.; Alonso, J. E.

    1995-01-01

    Coverage of high-latitude areas in the northern hemisphere using geostationary satellites can not be achieved with good elevation angles, and highly inclined elliptical orbits (HEO) present one possible way to overcome this problem. The high elevation angles they achieve and the relative motion of the satellites across the sky, including satellite hand-over, present a specific set of requirements for the design of user terminals, be they for communication or broadcast-reception purposed. This paper reviews key design issues for user terminals operating with satellites in highly inclined elliptical orbits. While all aspects of user terminal design are broadly covered, special emphasis is given to the antenna and RF front-end design. The types of terminals discussed include communications terminals: the hand-held, the notebook, and the vehicle-mounted types, as well as the vehicle-mounted digital audio broadcasting (DAB) receiver terminal. A number of solutions are outlined, based on tradeoffs with respect to the most significant system interface parameters such as G/T and equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP). Candidate antenna and front-end configurations were studied, in particular patch and helical antennas with the principal aim of deriving low cost, yet effective solutions. Issues related to achieving best EIRP for the communications terminals are presented, taking into account radiation safety limits. The differences in the design of receive only versus receive/transmit RF front-ends for HEO system terminals are highlighted and solutions for both proposed. This paper summarizes the results of internal ESTEC studies and external ESA-sponsored work concerning major user terminal parameters and design aspects performed for Archimedes -- a HEO satellite constellation for multimedia broadcasting and communications.

  5. Review of Issues Associated with Safe Operation and Management of the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnstone, Paul M.; Blomberg, Richard D.; Gleghorn, George J.; Krone, Norris J.; Voltz, Richard A.; Dunn, Robert F.; Donlan, Charles J.; Kauderer, Bernard M.; Brill, Yvonne C.; Englar, Kenneth G.; Himmel, Seymour C.; Fitch, Dennis E.; Parmet, Norman R.; McDonald, John F.McDonald; Stewart, John G.

    1996-01-01

    At the request of the President of the United States through the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), the NASA Administrator tasked the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel with the responsibility to identify and review issues associated with the safe operation and management of the Space Shuttle program arising from ongoing efforts to improve and streamline operations. These efforts include the consolidation of operations under a single Space Flight Operations Contract (SFOC), downsizing the Space Shuttle workforce and reducing costs of operations and management. The Panel formed five teams to address the potentially significant safety impacts of the seven specific topic areas listed in the study Terms of Reference. These areas were (in the order in which they are presented in this report): Maintenance of independent safety oversight; implementation plan for the transition of Shuttle program management to the Lead Center; communications among NASA Centers and Headquarters; transition plan for downsizing to anticipated workforce levels; implementation of a phased transition to a prime contractor for operations; Shuttle flight rate for Space Station assembly; and planned safety and performance upgrades for Space Station assembly. The study teams collected information through briefings, interviews, telephone conversations and from reviewing applicable documentation. These inputs were distilled by each team into observations and recommendations which were then reviewed by the entire Panel.

  6. Patient and healthcare perspectives on the importance and efficacy of addressing spiritual issues within an interdisciplinary bone marrow transplant clinic: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Shane; McConnell, Shelagh; Raffin Bouchal, Shelley; Ager, Naree; Booker, Reanne; Enns, Bert; Fung, Tak

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to use a qualitative approach to better understand the importance and efficacy of addressing spiritual issues within an interdisciplinary bone marrow transplant clinic from the perspectives of patients and healthcare providers. Setting Participants were recruited from the bone marrow transplant clinic of a large urban outpatient cancer care centre in western Canada. Participants: Focus groups were conducted with patients (n=7) and healthcare providers (n=9) to explore the importance of addressing spiritual issues across the treatment trajectory and to identify factors associated with effectively addressing these needs. Results Data were analysed using the qualitative approach of latent content analysis. Addressing spiritual issues was understood by patients and healthcare providers, as a core, yet under addressed, component of comprehensive care. Both sets of participants felt that addressing basic spiritual issues was the responsibility of all members of the interdisciplinary team, while recognising the need for specialised and embedded support from a spiritual care professional. While healthcare providers felt that the impact of the illness and treatment had a negative effect on patients’ spiritual well-being, patients felt the opposite. Skills, challenges, key time points and clinical indicators associated with addressing spiritual issues were identified. Conclusions Despite a number of conceptual and clinical challenges associated with addressing spiritual issues patients and their healthcare providers emphasised the importance of an integrated approach whereby basic spiritual issues are addressed by members of the interdisciplinary team and by an embedded spiritual care professional, who in addition also provides specialised support. The identification of clinical issues associated with addressing spiritual needs provides healthcare providers with clinical guidance on how to better integrate this aspect of care into

  7. Practical guidelines addressing ethical issues pertaining to the curation of human locus-specific variation databases (LSDBs).

    PubMed

    Povey, Sue; Al Aqeel, Aida I; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Dalgleish, Raymond; den Dunnen, Johan T; Firth, Helen V; Greenblatt, Marc S; Barash, Carol Isaacson; Parker, Michael; Patrinos, George P; Savige, Judith; Sobrido, Maria-Jesus; Winship, Ingrid; Cotton, Richard G H

    2010-11-01

    More than 1,000 Web-based locus-specific variation databases (LSDBs) are listed on the Website of the Human Genetic Variation Society (HGVS). These individual efforts, which often relate phenotype to genotype, are a valuable source of information for clinicians, patients, and their families, as well as for basic research. The initiators of the Human Variome Project recently recognized that having access to some of the immense resources of unpublished information already present in diagnostic laboratories would provide critical data to help manage genetic disorders. However, there are significant ethical issues involved in sharing these data worldwide. An international working group presents second-generation guidelines addressing ethical issues relating to the curation of human LSDBs that provide information via a Web-based interface. It is intended that these should help current and future curators and may also inform the future decisions of ethics committees and legislators. These guidelines have been reviewed by the Ethics Committee of the Human Genome Organization (HUGO).

  8. Addressing the Federal-State-Local Interface Issues During a Catastrophic Event Such as an Anthrax Attack

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Upton, Jaki F.

    2010-02-01

    On October 9, 2008, federal, state and local policy makers, emergency managers, and medical and public health officials convened in Seattle, Washington, for a workshop on Addressing the Federal-State-Local Interface Issues During a Catastrophic Event Such as an Anthrax Attack. The day-long symposium was aimed at generating a dialogue about recovery and restoration through a discussion of the associated challenges that impact entire communities, including people, infrastructure, and critical systems. The Principal Federal Official (PFO) provided an overview of the role of the PFO in a catastrophic event. A high-level summary of an anthrax scenario was presented. The remainder of the day was focused on interactive discussions among federal, state and local emergency management experts in the areas of: • Decision-making, prioritization, and command and control • Public health/medical services • Community resiliency and continuity of government. Key topics and issues that resulted from discussions included: • Local representation in the Joint Field Office (JFO) • JFO transition to the Long-Term Recovery Office • Process for prioritization of needs • Process for regional coordination • Prioritization - process and federal/military intervention • Allocation of limited resources • Re-entry decision and consistency • Importance of maintaining a healthy hospital system • Need for a process to establish a consensus on when it is safe to re-enter. This needs to be across all jurisdictions including the military. • Insurance coverage for both private businesses and individuals • Interaction between the government and industry. The symposium was sponsored by the Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration, a collaborative regional program jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and the U.S. Department of Defense. To aid the program’s efforts and inform the development of blueprint for recovery from a biological incident

  9. What Is the Purpose of the Theses Addressing the Issue of Program Evaluation in Turkey? (The Case of Curriculum and Instruction: 1997-2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkin-Sahin, Senar; Tunca, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, the aim is to investigate the theses addressing the issue of program evaluation in the field of Curriculum and Instruction (C&I) in 1997-2015. The study employed the survey model. The universe of the study consists of totally 87 theses addressing the issue of program evaluation in the field of C&I in 1997-2015. As the…

  10. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics branch--interdisciplinary research for addressing complex natural resource issues across landscapes and time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wilson, Juliette T.

    2013-01-01

    The Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center offers an interdisciplinary team of talented and creative scientists with expertise in biology, botany, ecology, geology, biogeochemistry, physical sciences, geographic information systems, and remote-sensing, for tackling complex questions about natural resources. As demand for natural resources increases, the issues facing natural resource managers, planners, policy makers, industry, and private landowners are increasing in spatial and temporal scope, often involving entire regions, multiple jurisdictions, and long timeframes. Needs for addressing these issues include (1) a better understanding of biotic and abiotic ecosystem components and their complex interactions; (2) the ability to easily monitor, assess, and visualize the spatially complex movements of animals, plants, water, and elements across highly variable landscapes; and (3) the techniques for accurately predicting both immediate and long-term responses of system components to natural and human-caused change. The overall objectives of our research are to provide the knowledge, tools, and techniques needed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, state agencies, and other stakeholders in their endeavors to meet the demand for natural resources while conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services. Ecosystem Dynamics scientists use field and laboratory research, data assimilation, and ecological modeling to understand ecosystem patterns, trends, and mechanistic processes. This information is used to predict the outcomes of changes imposed on species, habitats, landscapes, and climate across spatiotemporal scales. The products we develop include conceptual models to illustrate system structure and processes; regional baseline and integrated assessments; predictive spatial and mathematical models; literature syntheses; and frameworks or protocols for improved ecosystem monitoring, adaptive management, and program evaluation. The descriptions

  11. Impact of learning nutrition on medical students: their eating habits, knowledge and confidence in addressing dietary issues of patients.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Shama; Dwivedi, Shraddha; Khan, Maroof A

    2011-12-01

    Nutrition is an important component in the treatment of acute and chronic diseases and is a cornerstone in strategies for disease prevention and health promotion. Despite the acknowledged importance of nutrition, there is evidence to indicate that the nutrition training of medical students is inadequate in both quality and quantity. The study aimed to know the dietary/eating habits of medical students, assess their knowledge on nutrition and to assess their confidence in addressing the dietary issues of patients. It was a cross-sectional study conducted on final year medical students, interns and postgraduate students of Moti Lal Nehru Government Medical College, Allahabad. The sampling was purposive and a total of 218 participated in the study voluntarily. Overall 55% of the students were less knowledgeable and only 45% of them were more knowledgeable. Most (62%) postgraduates were more knowledgeable (p < 0.001). Majority of them (89.9%) were having healthy eating habits. There was no association between their healthy habits and more knowledge (p > 0.340). Only 45.4% of them were confident in assessing the diet of patients and 44% of them were confident in recommending change of diet in patients. However this study shows no association between increase in the level of knowledge and confidence levels of the students (p > 0.339 and p > 0.109) suggesting that we need to incorporate innovative teaching methods to increase their confidence. Most students (79%) said that the medical curriculum was either just enough or not enough in preparing them to deal with the dietary issues of patients and 55% of them were of the opinion that the faculty should be trained in nutrition. The study results intend to stimulate active consideration of proper role of nutrition learning in medical education.

  12. The Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network: An Effective Infrastructure for Addressing Important Issues in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    2016-10-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a rapidly evolving field with active preclinical and clinical development of new strategies for patient assessment, graft selection and manipulation, and pre- and post-transplantation drug and cell therapy. New strategies require evaluation in definitive clinical trials; however, HCT trials face unique challenges, including the relatively small number of transplantations performed at any single center, the diverse indications for HCT requiring dissimilar approaches, the complex nature of the intervention itself, the risk of multiple complications in the immediate post-transplantation period, and the risk of important, though infrequent, late effects. The Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) was established by the US National Heart Lung and Blood Institute and the National Cancer Institute to meet these challenges. In its 15 years as a network, the BMT CTN has proven to be a successful infrastructure for planning, implementing, and completing such trials and for providing definitive answers to questions leading to improvements in the understanding and practice of HCT. It has opened 37 trials, about one-half phase 2 and one-half phase 3, enrolled more than 8000 patients, and published 57 papers addressing important issues in the treatment of patients with life-threatening malignant and nonmalignant blood disorders. This review describes the network's accomplishments, key components of its success, lessons learned over the past 15 years, and challenges for the future.

  13. Innovative patient-centered skills training addressing challenging issues in cancer communications: Using patient's stories that teach.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Thomas W; Gorniewicz, James; Floyd, Michael; Tudiver, Fred; Odom, Amy; Zoppi, Kathy

    2016-05-01

    This workshop demonstrated the utility of a patient-centered web-based/digital Breaking Bad News communication training module designed to educate learners of various levels and disciplines. This training module is designed for independent, self-directed learning as well as group instruction. These interactive educational interventions are based upon video-recorded patient stories. Curriculum development was the result of an interdisciplinary, collaborative effort involving faculty from the East Tennessee State University (ETSU) Graduate Storytelling Program and the departments of Family and Internal Medicine at the James H. Quillen College of Medicine. The specific goals of the BBN training module are to assist learners in: (1) understanding a five-step patient-centered model that is based upon needs, preferences, and expectations of patients with cancer and (2) individualizing communication that is consistent with patient preferences in discussing emotions, informational detail, prognosis and timeline, and whether or not to discuss end-of-life issues. The pedagogical approach to the training module is to cycle through Emotional Engagement, Data, Modeled Practices, Adaptation Opportunities, and Feedback. The communication skills addressed are rooted in concepts found within the Reaching Common Ground communication training. A randomized control study investigating the effectiveness of the Breaking Bad News module found that medical students as well as resident physicians improved their communication skills as measured by an Objective Structured Clinical Examination. Four other similarly designed modules were also created: Living Through Treatment, Transitions: From Curable to Treatable/From Treatable to End-of-Life, Spirituality, and Family.

  14. Addressing Social Issues in the Classroom and Beyond: The Pedagogical Efforts of Pioneers in the Field. Research in Curriculum and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel, Ed.; Pedersen, Jon, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Addressing Social Issues in the Classroom and Beyond: The Pedagogical Efforts of Pioneers in the Field is comprised of essays that delineate the genesis and evolution of the thought and work of pioneers in the field of social issues and education. The authors (many of whom, themselves, are noted professors of education and who have done…

  15. Addressing Cultural Issues in an Organizational Context. Edited Conference Proceedings of the Teachers College Winter Roundtable (New York, New York, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Samuel D., Jr., Ed.; Carter, Robert T., Ed.

    Papers from this year's conference reflect the Roundtable's theme of addressing cultural issues in an organizational context. Topics cover a wide range of institutional and organizational issues in corporate, educational, and treatment settings. Papers include: (1) "The New Corporate Language for Race Relations" (keynote) (Clayton P. Alderfer);…

  16. Overview of US AID-World Bank-NASA Collaboration to Address Water Management Issues in the MENA Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    The World Bank, USAID and NASA have recently established a joint project to study multiple issues pertaining to water related applications in the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region. The main concentration of the project is on utilization of remote sensing data and hydrological models to address crop irrigation and mapping, flood mapping and forecasting, evapotranspiration and drought problems prevalent in this large geographic area. Additional emphases are placed on understanding the climate impact on these areas as well. Per IPCC 2007 report, by the end of this century MENA region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C rise in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation. This poses a serious problem for this geographic zone especially when majority of the hydrological consumption is for the agriculture sector and the remaining amount is for domestic consumption. The remote sensing data from space is one of the best ways to study such complex issues and further feed into the decision support systems. NASA's fleet of Earth Observing satellites offer a great vantage point from space to look at the globe and provide vital signs necessary to maintain healthy and sustainable ecosystem. These observations generate multiple products such as soil moisture, global precipitation, aerosols, cloud cover, normalized difference vegetation index, land cover/use, ocean altimetry, ocean salinity, sea surface winds, sea surface temperature, ozone and atmospheric gases, ice and snow measurements, and many more. All of the data products, models and research results are distributed-via the Internet freely through out the world. This project will utilize several NASA models such as global Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) to generate hydrological states and fluxes in near real time. These LDAS products will then be further compared with other NASA satellite observations (MODIS, VIIRS, TRMM, etc.) and other discrete models to compare and optimize

  17. Innovative patient-centered skills training addressing challenging issues in cancer communications: Using patient's stories that teach.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Thomas W; Gorniewicz, James; Floyd, Michael; Tudiver, Fred; Odom, Amy; Zoppi, Kathy

    2016-05-01

    This workshop demonstrated the utility of a patient-centered web-based/digital Breaking Bad News communication training module designed to educate learners of various levels and disciplines. This training module is designed for independent, self-directed learning as well as group instruction. These interactive educational interventions are based upon video-recorded patient stories. Curriculum development was the result of an interdisciplinary, collaborative effort involving faculty from the East Tennessee State University (ETSU) Graduate Storytelling Program and the departments of Family and Internal Medicine at the James H. Quillen College of Medicine. The specific goals of the BBN training module are to assist learners in: (1) understanding a five-step patient-centered model that is based upon needs, preferences, and expectations of patients with cancer and (2) individualizing communication that is consistent with patient preferences in discussing emotions, informational detail, prognosis and timeline, and whether or not to discuss end-of-life issues. The pedagogical approach to the training module is to cycle through Emotional Engagement, Data, Modeled Practices, Adaptation Opportunities, and Feedback. The communication skills addressed are rooted in concepts found within the Reaching Common Ground communication training. A randomized control study investigating the effectiveness of the Breaking Bad News module found that medical students as well as resident physicians improved their communication skills as measured by an Objective Structured Clinical Examination. Four other similarly designed modules were also created: Living Through Treatment, Transitions: From Curable to Treatable/From Treatable to End-of-Life, Spirituality, and Family. PMID:27497456

  18. What Educators in Catholic Schools Might Expect when Addressing Gay and Lesbian Issues: A Study of Needs and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Michael J.; Sever, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research indicated that Catholic high schools in the United States were not addressing the topic of homosexuality in any significant and systematic way prior to the mid-1990s, though practitioners in Catholic high schools have begun to address the topic in recent years. This study, in sampling seven Catholic schools in the greater Chicago…

  19. Canada's Compassionate Care Benefit: Is it an adequate public health response to addressing the issue of caregiver burden in end-of-life care?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An increasingly significant public health issue in Canada, and elsewhere throughout the developed world, pertains to the provision of adequate palliative/end-of-life (P/EOL) care. Informal caregivers who take on the responsibility of providing P/EOL care often experience negative physical, mental, emotional, social and economic consequences. In this article, we specifically examine how Canada's Compassionate Care Benefit (CCB) - a contributory benefits social program aimed at informal P/EOL caregivers - operates as a public health response in sustaining informal caregivers providing P/EOL care, and whether or not it adequately addresses known aspects of caregiver burden that are addressed within the population health promotion (PHP) model. Methods As part of a national evaluation of Canada's Compassionate Care Benefit, 57 telephone interviews were conducted with Canadian informal P/EOL caregivers in 5 different provinces, pertaining to the strengths and weaknesses of the CCB and the general caregiving experience. Interview data was coded with Nvivo software and emerging themes were identified by the research team, with such findings published elsewhere. The purpose of the present analysis was identified after comparing the findings to the literature specific to caregiver burden and public health, after which data was analyzed using the PHP model as a guiding framework. Results Informal caregivers spoke to several of the determinants of health outlined in the PHP model that are implicated in their burden experience: gender, income and social status, working conditions, health and social services, social support network, and personal health practises and coping strategies. They recognized the need for improving the CCB to better address these determinants. Conclusions This study, from the perspective of family caregivers, demonstrates that the CCB is not living up to its full potential in sustaining informal P/EOL caregivers. Effort is required to

  20. Polar Engineering and Research to Address Operational Challenges in Austere Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, J. L.; Richter-Menge, J.; Weale, J. C.; Lever, J. H.; Knuth, M. A.; Shoop, S. A.; Haehnel, R.; Arcone, S. A.; Bjella, K.; Finnegan, D. C.; Courville, Z.; Tracy, B. T.

    2009-12-01

    Logistics constraints and operational challenges in the austere environs of the polar regions present unique technological and engineering problems. Working closely with universities, government agencies and industry, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab (CRREL) routinely conducts scientific research and engineering in the Arctic, sub-Arctic and Antarctic covering a wide range of topics and applications. Current areas of focus include: improved mobility techniques for overland traverses; robotic vehicles for traversing, sampling and data collection; snow road and transportation characterization; integrated operational systems including airfield consolidation proof-of-concept studies; infrastructure technology such as firn air cooling, building design, snow foundations and sewage handling; remote/renewable autonomous power solutions for data collection; subsurface radar for crevasse detection and cryosphere characterization; ground-based lidar topographic scanning and near-real-time climate/environmental monitoring linked to AIS infrastructure. While these research and engineering efforts provide solutions and improved technology for specific problems, the impacts are many and wide-reaching and the results are often applicable to other challenging environments. Here, an overview of current research foci and projects is presented along with in-the-field applications, effects and future implications. The results and solutions of these efforts typically lead to technological improvements in operations and logistics which are cost-beneficial, thus freeing up funding dollars for fundamental scientific research. The links between basic research and applied solutions delivering far-reaching impacts (both large- and small-scale) on society, the environment, industry and scientific research are also demonstrated.

  1. Gulf of Mexico platform operators cope with abandonment issues

    SciTech Connect

    Moritis, G.

    1996-05-06

    Removing offshore facilities has become a significant part of oil and gas operations in the US outer continental shelf (OCS) of the Gulf of Mexico, a mature producing area. Not including future platforms, removal of existing structures might cost the industry between $1.4 and 3.3 billion, depending on the removal methods permitted. In every year since 1988, about 100 oil and gas platforms have been abandoned and removed in the Gulf of Mexico. In 1994, the number jumped to 181; however, in the last 2 years the number again has decreased to about 100/year. In 3 out of the last 5 years, more platforms and structures were abandoned than were installed. Through 1995, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) records show that 1,363 platforms have been removed. The first was in 1973. About 3,800 structures remain in the OCS of the Gulf of Mexico. Another 900--1,000 are in shallow state-controlled waters that are not included in MMS OCS statistics. The OCS producing structures vary from simple shallow-water caissons to the tension-legged platform Mars, being installed in 2,945 ft of water. The deepest conventional fixed platform is Shell Offshore Inc.`s Bullwinkle in 1,350 ft of water. The MMS requires platform removal within 1 year after termination of a lease. This paper reviews the methods for removal and types of platforms which are currently subject to abandonment in the near future. It evaluates cost options and liabilities of these various types of removal techniques.

  2. Top 10 Ways To Improve Public Schools. Innovative Solutions To Help Address the Issues and Challenges Facing Most Public School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Comptroller of Public Accounts, Austin.

    This report offers the top 10 challenges identified by public schools and the ways that the Texas School Performance Review (TSPR) suggests that these issues be addressed. The TSPR ensures that scarce education resources are spent in the classroom. For a TSPR review, the TSPR team is invited in for months of detailed study, during which it asks…

  3. Safety implications of cultural and cognitive issues in nuclear power plant operation.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Paulo V R; Dos Santos, Isaac L; Vidal, Mario C R

    2006-03-01

    This research project was designed to investigate cultural and cognitive issues related to the work of nuclear power plant operators during their time on the job in the control room and during simulator training (emergency situations), in order to show how these issues impact on plant safety. The modeling of the operators work deals with the use of operational procedures, the constant changes in the focus of attention and the dynamics of the conflicting activities. The paper focuses on the relationships between the courses of action of the different operators and the constraints imposed by their working environment. It shows that the safety implications of the control room operators' cognitive and cultural issues go far beyond the formal organizational constructs usually implied. Our findings indicate that the competence required for the operators are concerned with developing the possibility of constructing situation awareness, managing conflicts, gaps and time problems created by ongoing task procedures, and dealing with distractions, developing skills for collaborative work.

  4. Inclusion in Urban Educational Environments: Addressing Issues of Diversity, Equity, and Social Justice. Issues in the Research, Theory, Policy, and Practice of Urban Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Denise E.; McMahon, Brenda J.

    2006-01-01

    This book is motivated by the authors' experiences in working with students and their families in urban communities. They are particularly concerned about the urgent imperative to address the endemic educational and societal challenges that pervade the lives of urban students, particularly those who live in poverty, are of minority and immigrant…

  5. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems.

  6. A Task-Based Needs Analysis for Australian Aboriginal Students: Going beyond the Target Situation to Address Cultural Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Rhonda; Grote, Ellen; Rochecouste, Judith; Exell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    While needs analyses underpin the design of second language analytic syllabi, the methodologies undertaken are rarely examined. This paper explores the value of multiple data sources and collection methods for developing a needs analysis model to enable vocational education and training teachers to address the needs of Australian Aboriginal…

  7. Addressing Three Common Issues in Research on Youth Activities: An Integrative Approach for Operationalizing and Analyzing Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael A.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Youth activity involvement has been operationalized and analyzed using a wide range of approaches. Researchers face the challenges of distinguishing between the effects of involvement versus noninvolvement and intensity of involvement in a particular activity, accounting simultaneously for cumulative effects of involvement, and addressing multiple…

  8. The American Competitiveness Initiative: Addressing the STEM Teacher Shortage and Improving Student Academic Readiness. BHEF Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business-Higher Education Forum (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    America's leaders are increasingly concerned about U.S. competitiveness in a rapidly globalizing world. In response, during the 2006 State of the Union Address, President Bush introduced the American Competitiveness Initiative (ACI) to promote policy that bolsters student achievement in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and…

  9. Insights into the Interactions between Educational Messages: Looking across Multiple Organizations Addressing Water Issues in Maricopa County, Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutts, Bethany; Saltz, Charlene; Elser, Monica

    2008-01-01

    The public receives environmental information from a variety of sources. Evaluation of a single program or one organization's effort is incomplete. Through surveys and interviews, we evaluate the cumulative impact of outreach by 20 water-related organizations in Maricopa County, Arizona. Household water conservation is a topic addressed by 18…

  10. Comprehensive Lifecycle Planning and Management System For Addressing Water Issues Associated With Shale Gas Development In New York, Pennsylvania, And West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, J. Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a modeling system to allow operators and regulators to plan all aspects of water management activities associated with shale gas development in the target project area of New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia (target area ), including water supply, transport, storage, use, recycling, and disposal and which can be used for planning, managing, forecasting, permit tracking, and compliance monitoring. The proposed project is a breakthrough approach to represent the entire shale gas water lifecycle in one comprehensive system with the capability to analyze impacts and options for operational efficiency and regulatory tracking and compliance, and to plan for future water use and disposition. It will address all of the major water-related issues of concern associated with shale gas development in the target area, including water withdrawal, transport, storage, use, treatment, recycling, and disposal. It will analyze the costs, water use, and wastes associated with the available options, and incorporate constraints presented by permit requirements, agreements, local and state regulations, equipment and material availability, etc. By using the system to examine the water lifecycle from withdrawals through disposal, users will be able to perform scenario analysis to answer "what if" questions for various situations. The system will include regulatory requirements of the appropriate state and regional agencies and facilitate reporting and permit applications and tracking. These features will allow operators to plan for more cost effective resource production. Regulators will be able to analyze impacts of development over an entire area. Regulators can then make informed decisions about the protections and practices that should be required as development proceeds. This modeling system will have myriad benefits for industry, government, and the public. For industry, it will allow planning all water management operations for a

  11. Women Reaching Women: Change in Action--Using Action Learning to Help Address Seemingly Intractable and Large Scale Social Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Dawn; Watts, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, 28 women from the Women's Institute volunteered to join us in a project exploring the issue of world poverty and gender inequality, specifically highlighting the disproportionate effects of climate change on women. Collectively we were asking a big question about how we as individuals, based in England, make a difference on a global…

  12. Child Care Funding Re-Assessed: Operational Subsidies, Fee Relief and Taxation Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gifford, Jean; Cahir, Pam

    This paper examines issues raised in an earlier paper prepared by the Australian government, viewed from the perspective of the children's services field. The government paper discussed fee relief and operational subsidies, and suggested five possible funding packages. Part 1 of the paper considers operational subsidies in child care. This part…

  13. Is It More Important to Address the Issue of Patient Mobility or to Guarantee Universal Health Coverage in Europe?

    PubMed Central

    Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses whether European institutions should devote so much attention and funding to cross-border healthcare or they should instead prioritise guaranteeing universal health coverage (UHC), “addressing inequalities” and tackling the effects of austerity measures. The paper argues through providing the evidence in both areas of research, that the priority at European level from a public health and social justice perspective should be to guarantee UHC for all the population living in Europe and prioritise protective action for those who are most in need. PMID:26673649

  14. Addressing the sociotechnical drivers of quality improvement: a case study of post-operative DVT prophylaxis computerised decision support

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianji; McConnachie, Judy; Brenk, Thomas; Winterbottom, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Background Quality improvement (QI) initiatives characterised by iterative cycles of quantitative data analysis do not readily explain the organisational determinants of change. However, the integration of sociotechnical theory can inform more effective strategies. Our specific aims were to (1) describe a computerised decision support intervention intended to improve adherence with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis recommendations; and (2) show how sociotechnical theory expressed in ‘Fit between Individuals, Task and Technology’ framework (FITT) can identify and clarify the facilitators and barriers to QI work. Methods A multidisciplinary team developed and implemented electronic menus with DVT prophylaxis recommendations. Stakeholders were interviewed and human factors were analysed to optimise integration. Menu exposure, order placement and clinical performance were measured. Vista tool extraction and chart review were used. Performance compliance pre-implementation was 77%. Results There were 80–110 eligible cases per month. Initial menu use rate was 20%. After barriers were classified and addressed using the FITT framework, use improved 50% to 90%. Tasks, users and technology issues in the FITT model and their interfaces were identified and addressed. Workflow styles, concerns about validity of guidelines, cycle times and perceived ambiguity of risk were issues identified. Conclusions DVT prophylaxis in a surgical setting is fraught with socio-political agendas, cognitive dissonance and misaligned expectations. These must be sought and articulated if organisations are to respond to internal resistance to change. This case study demonstrates that QI teams using information technology must understand the clinical context, even in mature electronic health record environments, in order to implement sustainable systems. PMID:21209144

  15. An approach to addressing ethical issues in a community-based risk assessment for HIV: a case from Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Sivaram, Sudha; Srikrishnan, Aylur Kailasom; Murgavel, Kailapuri G; Mayer, Kenneth H; Anand, S; Celentano, David D; Solomon, Suniti

    2005-06-01

    Community-based assessment of HIV prevalence and behavioural risk factors is the basis for deciding priorities of prevention and care programmes. Here, upholding the human rights of participants in assessment is of utmost importance. The objective of the paper was to describe the process of implementation of an epidemiological survey to assess HIV-related behavioural and biological factors in Chennai city in South India and to suggest an ethical framework for conducting similar assessment activities in developing-country settings. A survey was conducted with participation from residents (n=1,659) of low-income urban communities (slums) as part of a community-based HIV/STD-prevention trial. Administration of the survey was preceded by extensive community contact and household visits to inform community members about the trial and assessment activities. Formative research further strengthened rapport with community, highlighted community concerns, and identified HIV-related risk behaviours that informed questionnaire design. The process of obtaining informed consent began before assessment activities and provided an opportunity for individuals to discuss participation with their families and friends. Privacy during assessment, comprehensive follow-up care for those who tested positive for HIV/STDs, such as nutritional and prevention counselling, referral services for opportunistic infections, and antenatal-care options for pregnant women increased trust and credibility of the project. The sustained availability of trial staff to facilitate access to resources to address non-HIV/STD-related felt-needs further strengthened participation of the community members. These resources included liaison services with local government to obtain public services, such as water and electricity and resources, to address concerns, such as alcohol abuse and domestic violence. Based on this experience, an ethical framework is suggested for conducting HIV epidemiological risk assessment

  16. Addressing System Integration Issues Required for the Developmente of Distributed Wind-Hydrogen Energy Systems: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D; Salehfar, H.; Harrison, K.W.; Dale, N.; Biaku, C.; Peters, A.J.; Hernandez-Pacheco: E.

    2008-04-01

    Wind generated electricity is a variable resource. Hydrogen can be generated as an energy storage media, but is costly. Advancements in power electronics and system integration are needed to make a viable system. Therefore, the long-term goal of the efforts at the University of North Dakota is to merge wind energy, hydrogen production, and fuel cells to bring emission-free and reliable power to commercial viability. The primary goals include 1) expand system models as a tool to investigate integration and control issues, 2) examine long-term effects of wind-electrolysis performance from a systematic perspective, and 3) collaborate with NREL and industrial partners to design, integrate, and quantify system improvements by implementing a single power electronics package to interface wild AC to PEM stack DC requirements. This report summarizes the accomplishments made during this project.

  17. Fostering youth leadership to address workplace and community environmental health issues: a university-school-community partnership.

    PubMed

    Delp, Linda; Brown, Marianne; Domenzain, Alejandra

    2005-07-01

    Many communities of color are disproportionately exposed to workplace and community environmental hazards. This article presents the results of a pilot project designed by a university-school-community partnership to develop youth leadership to confront these exposures. Using a popular empowerment education approach, students applied peer education, research, and organizing skills learned in the classroom to community-based internships in a service-learning model. Evaluation results from pretests and posttests, focus groups, and in-depth interviews demonstrated that students shared what they learned about young workers' rights and environmental justice with family and friends. They developed a critical analysis of environmental inequities, created a citywide youth coalition that advocates around legal, educational, and environmental issues affecting youth, and implemented campaigns to enforce child labor laws and to prevent school construction on contaminated land. This multifaceted model can serve as an important foundation to develop youth leaders to influence environmental policies in a variety of communities.

  18. Understanding the support needs of patients accessing test results online. PHRs offer great promise, but support issues must be addressed to ensure appropriate access.

    PubMed

    Wiljer, David; Urowitz, Sara; Apatu, Emma; Leonard, Kevin; Quartey, Naa Kwarley; Catton, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Personal health records (PHR) offer great promise in transforming the patient experience, but a number of support issues must be addressed to ensure that patients have appropriate access to their health information. Two hundred and fifty breast cancer patients registered to use a portal providing access to personal health information over a six-week period. All support calls were directed to a research triage centre and redirected either to technical, clinical or psychosocial support. Log files were coded and analyzed. Two hundred and thirty-nine support contacts were logged by 122 participants. The majority was referred to technical support; the remaining contacts were directed to clinical support. Seven categories of technical support were identified: registration problems, site access, login issues, password reset, activation key issues, result access and other difficulties. In accessing their test results, patients required support in a number of technical domains, but educational and psychosocial support were not heavily utilized.

  19. Addressing Work-Related Issues in Medical Rehabilitation: Revision of an Online Information Tool for Healthcare Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Hans-Dieter; Gerlich, Christian; Vogel, Heiner; Neuderth, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Background. Medical rehabilitation increasingly considers occupational issues as determinants of health and work ability. Information on work-related rehabilitation concepts should therefore be made available to healthcare professionals. Objective. To revise a website providing healthcare professionals in medical rehabilitation facilities with information on work-related concepts in terms of updating existing information and including new topics, based on recommendations from implementation research. Method. The modification process included a questionnaire survey of medical rehabilitation centers (n = 28); two workshops with experts from rehabilitation centers, health payers, and research institutions (n = 14); the selection of new topics and revision of existing text modules based on expert consensus; and an update of good practice descriptions of work-related measures. Results. Health payers' requirements, workplace descriptions, and practical implementation aids were added as new topics. The database of good practice examples was extended to 63 descriptions. Information on introductory concepts was rewritten and supplemented by current data. Diagnostic tools were updated by including additional assessments. Conclusions. Recommendations from implementation research such as assessing user needs and including expert knowledge may serve as a useful starting point for the dissemination of information on work-related medical rehabilitation into practice. Web-based information tools such as the website presented here can be quickly adapted to current evidence and changes in medicolegal regulations.

  20. The causality between smoking and lung cancer among groups and individuals: addressing issues in tobacco litigation in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Khang, Young-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses issues on the causality between smoking and lung cancer, which have been raised during the tobacco litigation in South Korea. It should be recognized that the explanatory ability of risk factor(s) for inter-individual variations in disease occurrence is different from the causal contribution of the risk factor(s) to disease occurrence. The affected subjects of the tobacco litigation in South Korea are lung cancer patients with a history of cigarette smoking. Thus, the attributable fraction of the exposed rather than the population attributable fraction should be used in the tobacco litigation regarding the causal contribution of smoking to lung cancer. Scientific evidence for the causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer is based on studies of individuals and groups, studies in animals and humans, studies that are observational or experimental, studies in laboratories and communities, and studies in both underdeveloped and developed countries. The scientific evidence collected is applicable to both groups and individuals. The probability of causation, which is calculated based on the attributable fraction for the association between smoking and lung cancer, could be utilized as evidence to prove causality in individuals.

  1. Addressing Work-Related Issues in Medical Rehabilitation: Revision of an Online Information Tool for Healthcare Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Hans-Dieter; Gerlich, Christian; Vogel, Heiner; Neuderth, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Background. Medical rehabilitation increasingly considers occupational issues as determinants of health and work ability. Information on work-related rehabilitation concepts should therefore be made available to healthcare professionals. Objective. To revise a website providing healthcare professionals in medical rehabilitation facilities with information on work-related concepts in terms of updating existing information and including new topics, based on recommendations from implementation research. Method. The modification process included a questionnaire survey of medical rehabilitation centers (n = 28); two workshops with experts from rehabilitation centers, health payers, and research institutions (n = 14); the selection of new topics and revision of existing text modules based on expert consensus; and an update of good practice descriptions of work-related measures. Results. Health payers' requirements, workplace descriptions, and practical implementation aids were added as new topics. The database of good practice examples was extended to 63 descriptions. Information on introductory concepts was rewritten and supplemented by current data. Diagnostic tools were updated by including additional assessments. Conclusions. Recommendations from implementation research such as assessing user needs and including expert knowledge may serve as a useful starting point for the dissemination of information on work-related medical rehabilitation into practice. Web-based information tools such as the website presented here can be quickly adapted to current evidence and changes in medicolegal regulations. PMID:27610246

  2. The causality between smoking and lung cancer among groups and individuals: addressing issues in tobacco litigation in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Khang, Young-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses issues on the causality between smoking and lung cancer, which have been raised during the tobacco litigation in South Korea. It should be recognized that the explanatory ability of risk factor(s) for inter-individual variations in disease occurrence is different from the causal contribution of the risk factor(s) to disease occurrence. The affected subjects of the tobacco litigation in South Korea are lung cancer patients with a history of cigarette smoking. Thus, the attributable fraction of the exposed rather than the population attributable fraction should be used in the tobacco litigation regarding the causal contribution of smoking to lung cancer. Scientific evidence for the causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer is based on studies of individuals and groups, studies in animals and humans, studies that are observational or experimental, studies in laboratories and communities, and studies in both underdeveloped and developed countries. The scientific evidence collected is applicable to both groups and individuals. The probability of causation, which is calculated based on the attributable fraction for the association between smoking and lung cancer, could be utilized as evidence to prove causality in individuals. PMID:26137845

  3. Addressing the Amorphous Content Issue in Quantitative Phase Analysis: The Certification of NIST Standard Reference Material 676a

    SciTech Connect

    J Cline; R Von Dreele; R Winburn; P Stephens; J Filliben

    2011-12-31

    A non-diffracting surface layer exists at any boundary of a crystal and can comprise a mass fraction of several percent in a finely divided solid. This has led to the long-standing issue of amorphous content in standards for quantitative phase analysis (QPA). NIST standard reference material (SRM) 676a is a corundum ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) powder, certified with respect to phase purity for use as an internal standard in powder diffraction QPA. The amorphous content of SRM 676a is determined by comparing diffraction data from mixtures with samples of silicon powders that were engineered to vary their specific surface area. Under the (supported) assumption that the thickness of an amorphous surface layer on Si was invariant, this provided a method to control the crystalline/amorphous ratio of the silicon components of 50/50 weight mixtures of SRM 676a with silicon. Powder diffraction experiments utilizing neutron time-of-flight and 25 keV and 67 keV X-ray energies quantified the crystalline phase fractions from a series of specimens. Results from Rietveld analyses, which included a model for extinction effects in the silicon, of these data were extrapolated to the limit of zero amorphous content of the Si powder. The certified phase purity of SRM 676a is 99.02% {+-} 1.11% (95% confidence interval). This novel certification method permits quantification of amorphous content for any sample of interest, by spiking with SRM 676a.

  4. Addressing Work-Related Issues in Medical Rehabilitation: Revision of an Online Information Tool for Healthcare Professionals.

    PubMed

    Lukasczik, Matthias; Wolf, Hans-Dieter; Gerlich, Christian; Küffner, Roland; Vogel, Heiner; Neuderth, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Background. Medical rehabilitation increasingly considers occupational issues as determinants of health and work ability. Information on work-related rehabilitation concepts should therefore be made available to healthcare professionals. Objective. To revise a website providing healthcare professionals in medical rehabilitation facilities with information on work-related concepts in terms of updating existing information and including new topics, based on recommendations from implementation research. Method. The modification process included a questionnaire survey of medical rehabilitation centers (n = 28); two workshops with experts from rehabilitation centers, health payers, and research institutions (n = 14); the selection of new topics and revision of existing text modules based on expert consensus; and an update of good practice descriptions of work-related measures. Results. Health payers' requirements, workplace descriptions, and practical implementation aids were added as new topics. The database of good practice examples was extended to 63 descriptions. Information on introductory concepts was rewritten and supplemented by current data. Diagnostic tools were updated by including additional assessments. Conclusions. Recommendations from implementation research such as assessing user needs and including expert knowledge may serve as a useful starting point for the dissemination of information on work-related medical rehabilitation into practice. Web-based information tools such as the website presented here can be quickly adapted to current evidence and changes in medicolegal regulations. PMID:27610246

  5. Successful Drug Development Despite Adverse Preclinical Findings Part 1: Processes to Address Issues and Most Important Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Junji; Plassmann, Stephanie; Prentice, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Unexpected adverse preclinical findings (APFs) are not infrequently encountered during drug development. Such APFs can be functional disturbances such as QT prolongation, morphological toxicity or carcinogenicity. The latter is of particular concern in conjunction with equivocal genotoxicity results. The toxicologic pathologist plays an important role in recognizing these effects, in helping to characterize them, to evaluate their risk for man, and in proposing measures to mitigate the risk particularly in early clinical trials. A careful scientific evaluation is crucial while termination of the development of a potentially useful drug must be avoided. This first part of the review discusses processes to address unexpected APFs and provides an overview over typical APFs in particular classes of drugs. If the mode of action (MoA) by which a drug candidate produces an APF is known, this supports evaluation of its relevance for humans. Tailor-made mechanistic studies, when needed, must be planned carefully to test one or several hypotheses regarding the potential MoA and to provide further data for risk evaluation. Safety considerations are based on exposure at no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAEL) of the most sensitive and relevant animal species and guide dose escalation in clinical trials. The availability of early markers of toxicity for monitoring of humans adds further safety to clinical studies. Risk evaluation is concluded by a weight of evidence analysis (WoE) with an array of parameters including drug use, medical need and alternatives on the market. In the second part of this review relevant examples of APFs will be discussed in more detail. PMID:22272031

  6. Interactive efforts to address DSM and IRP issues: Findings from the first year of a two-year study

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, M.; English, M.; Altman, J.; Yourstone, E.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents findings from the first year of a two-year study of interactive efforts involving utilities and non-utility parties (NUPS) working together to prepare plans, develop Demand-Side Management (DSM) programs, or otherwise promote integrated planning and the use of cost-effective DSM measures. Of the ten cases covered in the current study, seven involved the collaborative approach to NUP involvement, which generally is marked by intensive utility-NUP interactions designed to reach consensus on a broad range of important issues; in collaboratives, outside consultants often are provided to enhance the technical capabilities of the NUPS. Another of the cases in this study involved a ``cooperative arrangement,`` whereby a utility and a NLT worked together in a focused short-term effort to develop a single DSM program. The intense interaction involved in this approach makes it very similar to a collaborative, except that both the scope and the duration of the effort were much more limited than in a normal collaborative. The ninth case concerned a task force run by state regulatory staff that was charged with the limited job of studying various cost-effectiveness tests available for assessing prospective DSM measures. All of these approaches (collaborative, cooperative arrangement, and task force) are types of interactive effort, as that term is used in this report. The final case concerned NUPs` attempts to encourage greater utility use of DSM in Florida but, to date, no interactive effort has been initiated there. Three main features of interactive efforts are described in this report: (1) the participants involved; (2) the context in which the efforts took place; and (3) key characteristics of the interactive process. This report also examines the outcomes achieved by the interactive efforts. These outcomes can be divided into two general categories: Product-related and participant-related.

  7. Interactive efforts to address DSM and IRP issues: Findings from the first year of a two-year study

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, M. ); English, M.; Altman, J. . Energy, Environment and Resources Center); Yourstone, E. )

    1993-04-01

    This report presents findings from the first year of a two-year study of interactive efforts involving utilities and non-utility parties (NUPS) working together to prepare plans, develop Demand-Side Management (DSM) programs, or otherwise promote integrated planning and the use of cost-effective DSM measures. Of the ten cases covered in the current study, seven involved the collaborative approach to NUP involvement, which generally is marked by intensive utility-NUP interactions designed to reach consensus on a broad range of important issues; in collaboratives, outside consultants often are provided to enhance the technical capabilities of the NUPS. Another of the cases in this study involved a cooperative arrangement,'' whereby a utility and a NLT worked together in a focused short-term effort to develop a single DSM program. The intense interaction involved in this approach makes it very similar to a collaborative, except that both the scope and the duration of the effort were much more limited than in a normal collaborative. The ninth case concerned a task force run by state regulatory staff that was charged with the limited job of studying various cost-effectiveness tests available for assessing prospective DSM measures. All of these approaches (collaborative, cooperative arrangement, and task force) are types of interactive effort, as that term is used in this report. The final case concerned NUPs' attempts to encourage greater utility use of DSM in Florida but, to date, no interactive effort has been initiated there. Three main features of interactive efforts are described in this report: (1) the participants involved; (2) the context in which the efforts took place; and (3) key characteristics of the interactive process. This report also examines the outcomes achieved by the interactive efforts. These outcomes can be divided into two general categories: Product-related and participant-related.

  8. Toward improving hurricane forecasts using the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS): A framework to address the issues of Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Boothe, M.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Haddad, Z. S.; Knosp, B.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Li, P.; montgomery, M. T.; Niamsuwan, N.; Tallapragada, V. S.; Tanelli, S.; Turk, J.; Vukicevic, T.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate forecasting of extreme weather requires the use of both regional models as well as global General Circulation Models (GCMs). The regional models have higher resolution and more accurate physics - two critical components needed for properly representing the key convective processes. GCMs, on the other hand, have better depiction of the large-scale environment and, thus, are necessary for properly capturing the important scale interactions. But how to evaluate the models, understand their shortcomings and improve them? Satellite observations can provide invaluable information. And this is where the issues of Big Data come: satellite observations are very complex and have large variety while model forecast are very voluminous. We are developing a system - TCIS - that addresses the issues of model evaluation and process understanding with the goal of improving the accuracy of hurricane forecasts. This NASA/ESTO/AIST-funded project aims at bringing satellite/airborne observations and model forecasts into a common system and developing on-line tools for joint analysis. To properly evaluate the models we go beyond the comparison of the geophysical fields. We input the model fields into instrument simulators (NEOS3, CRTM, etc.) and compute synthetic observations for a more direct comparison to the observed parameters. In this presentation we will start by describing the scientific questions. We will then outline our current framework to provide fusion of models and observations. Next, we will illustrate how the system can be used to evaluate several models (HWRF, GFS, ECMWF) by applying a couple of our analysis tools to several hurricanes observed during the 2013 season. Finally, we will outline our future plans. Our goal is to go beyond the image comparison and point-by-point statistics, by focusing instead on understanding multi-parameter correlations and providing robust statistics. By developing on-line analysis tools, our framework will allow for consistent

  9. DOE Announces Winners of Reflector-CFL Competition: New lamps provide efficient downlighting and address issues about heat buildup

    SciTech Connect

    Sandahl, Linda J.

    2007-08-17

    This article described results of phase II of a technology innovation competition for reflector compact fluorescent bulbs (R-CFLs) sponsored by DOE's Emerging Technologies program. DOE developed the competition to speed introduction of advanced, screw-based R-CFLs to the marketplace. The lamps are used in recessed can ceiling fixtures, the most popular fixture in American homes today. There have been concerns about heat buildup affecting the performance and longevity of R-CFLs in recessed fixtures located in insulated ceilings with airtight housings. To pass the competition, each lamp had to maintain acceptable light output levels and reach an average rated life of at least 6,000 hours in high-temperature testing. The winning R-CFLs also had to meet rigorous specifications for light output, beam angle, and maximum operating temperature. Eight lamps, manufactured by GE, Osram Sylvania, and Philips, passed the requirements, joining other models by Philips and Feit that were identified as winners during Phase I of the competition. All of the winning lamps are Energy Star certified. The winning models will be promoted on DOE's R-CFLwebsite http://www.pnl.gov/rlamps.

  10. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  11. The Worker Component At The World Trade Center Cleanup: Addressing Cultural And Language Differences In Emergency Operations

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, B.; Carpenter, C.; Blair. D.

    2003-02-24

    On September 11, 2001, the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) caused astronomical loss of life and property. Systems in place to manage disaster response were strained to the limit because key first responders were among the casualties when the twin towers collapsed. In addition, the evolution of events required immediate response in a rapidly changing and extremely hazardous situation. Rescue, recovery, and clean up became an overpowering and sustained effort that would utilize the resources of federal, state and local governments and agencies. One issue during the response to the WTC disaster site that did not receive much attention was that of the limited and non-English speaking worker. The Operating Engineers National HAZMAT Program (OENHP), with its history of a Hispanic Outreach Program, was acutely aware of this issue with the Hispanic worker. The Hispanic population comprises approximately 27% of the population of New York City (1). The extremely unfortunate and tragic events of that day provided an opportunity to not only provide assistance for the Hispanic workers, but also to apply lessons learned and conduct studies on worker training with language barriers in a real life environment. However, due to the circumstances surrounding this tragedy, the study of these issues was conducted primarily by observation. Through partnerships with other organizations such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the New York Health Department, the New York Department of Design and Construction (DDC), the New York Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (NYCOSH), and private companies such as 3M and MSA, OENHP was able to provide translated information on hazards, protective measures, fit testing of respirators, and site specific safety and health training. The OENHP translated materials on hazards and how to protect workers into Spanish to assist in getting the information to the limited and non- English speaking workers.

  12. Legal Issues inherent in space shuttle operations. [reviewed by NASA Deputy General Counsel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The legal issues inherent in NASA's proceeding into the day-to-day operations of the space shuttle and other elements of the Space Transportation System are considered in light of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958. Based on this review, it was concluded that there is no immediate need for substantive amendments to that legislation.

  13. Addressing mental health disparities through clinical competence not just cultural competence: the need for assessment of sociocultural issues in the delivery of evidence-based psychosocial rehabilitation services.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ann-Marie; Brekke, John S

    2008-12-01

    Recognition of ethnic/racial disparities in mental health services has not directly resulted in the development of culturally responsive psychosocial interventions. There remains a fundamental need for assessment of sociocultural issues that have been linked with the expectations, needs, and goals of culturally diverse consumers with severe and persistent mental illness. The authors posit that embedding the assessment of sociocultural issues into psychosocial rehabilitation practice is one step in designing culturally relevant empirically supported practices. It becomes a foundation on which practitioners can examine the relevance of their interventions to the diversity encountered in everyday practice. This paper provides an overview of the need for culturally and clinically relevant assessment practices and asserts that by improving the assessment of sociocultural issues the clinical competence of service providers is enhanced. The authors offer a conceptual framework for linking clinical assessment of sociocultural issues to consumer outcomes and introduce an assessment tool adapted to facilitate the process in psychosocial rehabilitation settings. Emphasizing competent clinical assessment skills will ultimately offer a strategy to address disparities in treatment outcomes for understudied populations of culturally diverse consumers with severe and persistent mental illness.

  14. CORE AND EDGE ASPECTS OF QUIESCENT DOUBLE BARRIER OPERATION ON DIII-D.WITH RELEVANCE TO CRITICAL ITB PHYSICS ISSUES

    SciTech Connect

    DOYLE,EJ; CASPER,TA; BURRELL,KH; GREENFIELD,CM; WEST,WP; BUDNY,RV; DeBOO,JC; GAROFALO,AM; GOHIL,P; GROEBNER,RJ; HYATT,AW; JACKSON,GL; JERINGAN,TC; KINSEY,JE; LAO,LL; LASNIER,CJ; LEBOEUF,JN; LUCE,TC; MAKOWSKI,MA; McKEE,GR

    2003-03-01

    OAK-B135 Recent results from DIII-D address critical internal transport barrier (ITB) research issues relating to sustainability, impurity accumulation and ITB control, and have also demonstrated successful application of general profile control tools. In addition, substantial progress has been made in understanding the physics of the Quiescent Double Barrier (QDB) regime, increasing the demonstrating operating space for the regime and improving performance. Highlights include: (1) a clear demonstration of q-profile modification using electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD); (2) successful use of localized profile control using electron cyclotron heating (ECH) or ECCD to reduce central high-Z impurity accumulation associated with density peaking; (3) theory-based modeling codes are now being used to design experiments; (4) the operating space for Quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) has been substantially broadened, in particular higher density operation has been achieved; (5) absolute ({beta} 3.8%, neutron rate S{sub n} {le} 5.5 x 10{sup 15} s{sup -1}) and relative ({beta}{sub N}H{sub 89} = 7 for 10 {tau}{sub E}) performance has been increased; (6) with regard to sustainment, QDB plasmas have been run for 3.8 s or 26 {tau}{sub E}. These results emphasize that it is possible to produce sustained high quality H-mode performance with an edge localized mode (ELM)-free edge, directly addressing a major issue in fusion research, of how to ameliorate or eliminate ELM induced pulsed divertor particle and heat loads.

  15. Operational Issues Encountered by School Nutrition Directors in School Districts with Less than 30,000 Student Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushing, Keith; Nettles, Mary Frances; Johnson, James T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To identify operational issues and practices associated with operating school nutrition (SN) programs in school districts with less than 30,000 student enrollment. Method: The survey was adapted from a similar study that explored operational issues in school districts with enrollments of 30,000 or more students. The survey asked SN…

  16. Enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins: experiences from the Lower Mekong River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douven, W.; Mul, M. L.; Álvarez, B. F.; Son, L. H.; Bakker, N.; Radosevich, G.; van der Zaag, P.

    2012-03-01

    This paper analyses the design and impact of capacity building programmes aimed at enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins. Case study is a programme developed by the Mekong River Commission (MRC). A post training evaluation was applied to assess its impact in terms of individual capacity enhancement and change (use and application of knowledge, factors hampering application, and change in function and opportunities within their organisation). The design of the Capacity Building Programme of the MRC Flood Management and Mitigation Programme showed a well balanced range of subjects (such as IWRM, models and decision support systems and international water law) which are required for such an integrated topic. The post training evaluation, 6 months after the last training workshop, showed the increase in familiarity of the topics for all 37 respondents, with highest increase for the respondents with few years of working experience and from training and educational institutions. The relevance of the subjects taught is shown by the fact that 95% of the respondents indicated they saw the relevance of the subjects and 78% had already used some knowledge acquired in their job. The respondents also indicated that they did not have sufficient opportunities to apply all knowledge acquired. The phased implementation and training of lecturers during the training workshops, had a good impact, directly through increasing involvement in facilitation and delivery of the capacity building programme and through the use of the knowledge gained in short courses and development of curricula at their training institute. For these types of capacity building programmes, a few recommendations can be made. The selection of participants is crucial for the application of the learned knowledge in their work. The integrative nature of transboundary water issues calls for a capacity building programme addressing a

  17. 49 CFR 244.15 - Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration Plan not involving an amalgamation of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration... TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS OF CONTROL Safety Integration Plans § 244.15 Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration...

  18. 49 CFR 244.15 - Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration Plan not involving an amalgamation of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration... TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS OF CONTROL Safety Integration Plans § 244.15 Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration...

  19. 49 CFR 244.15 - Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration Plan not involving an amalgamation of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration... TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS OF CONTROL Safety Integration Plans § 244.15 Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration...

  20. 49 CFR 244.15 - Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration Plan not involving an amalgamation of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration... TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS OF CONTROL Safety Integration Plans § 244.15 Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration...

  1. 49 CFR 244.15 - Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration Plan not involving an amalgamation of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration... TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS OF CONTROL Safety Integration Plans § 244.15 Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration...

  2. Multiaxial Creep-Fatigue and Creep-Ratcheting Failures of Grade 91 and Haynes 230 Alloys Toward Addressing Design Issues of Gen IV Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, Tasnim; Lissenden, Cliff; Carroll, Laura

    2015-04-01

    The proposed research will develop systematic sets of uniaxial and multiaxial experimental data at a very high temperature (850-950°C) for Alloy 617. The loading histories to be prescribed in the experiments will induce creep-fatigue and creep-ratcheting failure mechanisms. These experimental responses will be scrutinized in order to quantify the influences of temperature and creep on fatigue and ratcheting failures. A unified constitutive model (UCM) will be developed and validated against these experimental responses. The improved UCM will be incorporated into the widely used finite element commercial software packages ANSYS. The modified ANSYS will be validated so that it can be used for evaluating the very high temperature ASME-NH design-by-analysis methodology for Alloy 617 and thereby addressing the ASME-NH design code issues.

  3. Review of performance, medical, and operational data on pilot aging issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoklosa, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    An extensive review of the literature and studies relating to performance, medical, operational, and legal data regarding pilot aging issues was performed in order to determine what evidence there is, if any, to support mandatory pilot retirement. Popular misconceptions about aging, including the failure to distinguish between the normal aging process and disease processes that occur more frequently in older individuals, continue to contribute to much of the misunderstanding and controversy that surround this issue. Results: Review of medical data related to the pilot aging issue indicate that recent improvement in medical diagnostics and treatment technology have made it possible to identify to a high degree individuals who are at risk for developing sudden incapacitating illness and for treating those with disqualifying medical conditions. Performance studies revealed that after controlling for the presence of disease states, older pilots are able to perform as well as younger pilots on many performance tasks. Review of accident data showed that older, healthy pilots do not have higher accident rates than younger pilots, and indeeed, evidence suggests that older pilots have an advantage in the cockpit due to higher experience levels. The Man-Machine-Mission-Environment interface of factors can be managed through structured, supervised, and enhanced operations, maintenance, flight reviews, and safety procedures in order to ensure safe and productive operations by reducing the margin of error and by increasing the margin of safety. Conclusions: There is no evidence indicating any specific age as an arbitrary cut-off point for pilots to perform their fight duties. A combination of regular medical screening, performance evaluation, enhanced operational maintenance, and safety procedures can most effectively ensure a safe pilot population than can a mandatory retirement policy based on arbitrary age restrictions.

  4. Modeling and Simulation of HVAC Faulty Operations and Performance Degradation due to Maintenance Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Liping; Hong, Tianzhen

    2013-01-01

    Almost half of the total energy used in the U.S. buildings is consumed by heating, ventilation and air conditionings (HVAC) according to EIA statistics. Among various driving factors to energy performance of building, operations and maintenance play a significant role. Many researches have been done to look at design efficiencies and operational controls for improving energy performance of buildings, but very few study the impacts of HVAC systems maintenance. Different practices of HVAC system maintenance can result in substantial differences in building energy use. If a piece of HVAC equipment is not well maintained, its performance will degrade. If sensors used for control purpose are not calibrated, not only building energy usage could be dramatically increased, but also mechanical systems may not be able to satisfy indoor thermal comfort. Properly maintained HVAC systems can operate efficiently, improve occupant comfort, and prolong equipment service life. In the paper, maintenance practices for HVAC systems are presented based on literature reviews and discussions with HVAC engineers, building operators, facility managers, and commissioning agents. We categorize the maintenance practices into three levels depending on the maintenance effort and coverage: 1) proactive, performance-monitored maintenance; 2) preventive, scheduled maintenance; and 3) reactive, unplanned or no maintenance. A sampled list of maintenance issues, including cooling tower fouling, boiler/chiller fouling, refrigerant over or under charge, temperature sensor offset, outdoor air damper leakage, outdoor air screen blockage, outdoor air damper stuck at fully open position, and dirty filters are investigated in this study using field survey data and detailed simulation models. The energy impacts of both individual maintenance issue and combined scenarios for an office building with central VAV systems and central plant were evaluated by EnergyPlus simulations using three approaches: 1) direct

  5. Reactor issues for tandem mirrors operating in the negative-potential mode

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L.J.; Campbell, R.B.

    1985-12-02

    During 1985, interest has been revived at LLNL in tandem mirrors operating in the negative-potential mode. The negative tandem is formed by combining ECRH-sustained hot electron end cell plasmas with pumping mechanisms to remove trapped ions from the end cells. No sloshing ions are required. The resulting negative potential in the end cells confines the central cell electrons. The requirement of charge neutrality causes the ambipolar potential of the central cell to become negative relative to the end wall (hence, the name ''negative' tandem mirror), thereby providing central cell ion confinement. This potential distribution is the exact inverse of the axial distribution for the conventional (positive) tandem mirror without thermal barriers. In the negative tandem mirror, central cell electrons are confined electrostatically, end cell electrons are confined magnetically, and ions are confined electrostatically everywhere. In this report, we briefly assess the reactor issues pertinent to the operation of the tandem mirror in the negative mode. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Concept of Operations Evaluation for Mitigating Space Flight-Relevant Medical Issues in a Planetary Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsten, Kristina; Hurst, Victor, IV; Scheuring, Richard; Baumann, David K.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Analogue environments assist the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) in developing capabilities to mitigate high risk issues to crew health and performance for space exploration. The Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) is an analogue habitat used to assess space-related products for planetary missions. The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) was tasked with developing planetary-relevant medical scenarios to evaluate the concept of operations for mitigating medical issues in such an environment. Methods: Two medical scenarios were conducted within the simulated planetary habitat with the crew executing two space flight-relevant procedures: Eye Examination with a corneal injury and Skin Laceration. Remote guidance for the crew was provided by a flight surgeon (FS) stationed at a console outside of the habitat. Audio and video data were collected to capture the communication between the crew and the FS, as well as the movements of the crew executing the procedures. Questionnaire data regarding procedure content and remote guidance performance also were collected from the crew immediately after the sessions. Results: Preliminary review of the audio, video, and questionnaire data from the two scenarios conducted within the HDU indicate that remote guidance techniques from an FS on console can help crew members within a planetary habitat mitigate planetary-relevant medical issues. The content and format of the procedures were considered concise and intuitive, respectively. Discussion: Overall, the preliminary data from the evaluation suggest that use of remote guidance techniques by a FS can help HDU crew execute space exploration-relevant medical procedures within a habitat relevant to planetary missions, however further evaluations will be needed to implement this strategy into the complete concept of operations for conducting general space medicine within similar environments

  7. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) AS A FRAMEWORK FOR ADDRESSING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFOS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The challenges Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) directly pose to sustainability include their impact on human health, receiving water bodies, groundwater, and air quality. These challenges result from the large quantities of macronutrients (carbon, nitrogen, and pho...

  8. Identifying Key Issues and Potential Solutions for Integrated Arrival, Departure, Surface Operations by Surveying Stakeholder Preferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aponso, Bimal; Coppenbarger, Richard A.; Jung, Yoon; Quon, Leighton; Lohr, Gary; O’Connor, Neil; Engelland, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) collaborates with the FAA and industry to provide concepts and technologies that enhance the transition to the next-generation air-traffic management system (NextGen). To facilitate this collaboration, ARMD has a series of Airspace Technology Demonstration (ATD) sub-projects that develop, demonstrate, and transitions NASA technologies and concepts for implementation in the National Airspace System (NAS). The second of these sub-projects, ATD-2, is focused on the potential benefits to NAS stakeholders of integrated arrival, departure, surface (IADS) operations. To determine the project objectives and assess the benefits of a potential solution, NASA surveyed NAS stakeholders to understand the existing issues in arrival, departure, and surface operations, and the perceived benefits of better integrating these operations. NASA surveyed a broad cross-section of stakeholders representing the airlines, airports, air-navigation service providers, and industry providers of NAS tools. The survey indicated that improving the predictability of flight times (schedules) could improve efficiency in arrival, departure, and surface operations. Stakeholders also mentioned the need for better strategic and tactical information on traffic constraints as well as better information sharing and a coupled collaborative planning process that allows stakeholders to coordinate IADS operations. To assess the impact of a potential solution, NASA sketched an initial departure scheduling concept and assessed its viability by surveying a select group of stakeholders for a second time. The objective of the departure scheduler was to enable flights to move continuously from gate to cruise with minimal interruption in a busy metroplex airspace environment using strategic and tactical scheduling enhanced by collaborative planning between airlines and service providers. The stakeholders agreed that this departure concept could improve schedule

  9. Operational Issues in the Development of a Cost-Effective Reusable LOX/LH2 Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Space Launch Initiative (SLI) was initiated in early 2001 to conduct technology development and to reduce the business and technical risk associated with developing the next-generation reusable launch system. In the field of main propulsion, two LOXLH2 rocket engine systems, the Pratt & Whitney / Aerojet Joint Venture (JV) COBRA and the Rocketdyne RS-83, were funded to develop a safe, economical, and reusable propulsion system. Given that a large-thrust reusable rocket engine program had not been started in the U.S. since 1971, with the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), this provided an opportunity to build on the experience developed on the SSME system, while exploiting advances in technology that had occurred in the intervening 30 years. One facet of engine development that was identified as being especially vital in order to produce an optimal system was in the areas of operability and maintainability. In order to achieve the high levels of performance required by the Space Shuttle, the SSME system is highly complex with very tight tolerances and detailed requirements. Over the lifetime of the SSME program, the engine has required a high level of manpower to support the performance of inspections, maintenance (scheduled and unscheduled) and operations (prelaunch and post-flight). As a consequence, the labor- intensive needs of the SSME provide a significant impact to the overall cost efficiency of the Space Transportation System (STS). One of the strategic goals of the SLI is to reduce cost by requiring the engine(s) to be easier (Le. less expensive) to operate and maintain. The most effective means of accomplishing this goal is to infuse the operability and maintainability features into the engine design from the start. This paper discusses some of the operational issues relevant to a reusable LOx/LH2 main engine, and the means by which their impact is mitigated in the design phase.

  10. 49 CFR 244.13 - Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration Plan involving an amalgamation of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... inspect, maintain and repair any type of on-track equipment, including locomotives, passenger cars, and freight cars of all types; (4) Dispatchers or operators; (5) Employees who inspect and maintain signal and... shall identify the post-accident toxicological testing, reasonable cause testing, and random alcohol...

  11. 49 CFR 244.13 - Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration Plan involving an amalgamation of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... inspect, maintain and repair any type of on-track equipment, including locomotives, passenger cars, and freight cars of all types; (4) Dispatchers or operators; (5) Employees who inspect and maintain signal and... shall identify the post-accident toxicological testing, reasonable cause testing, and random alcohol...

  12. How agro-ecological research helps to address food security issues under new IPM and pesticide reduction policies for global crop production systems.

    PubMed

    E Birch, A Nicholas; Begg, Graham S; Squire, Geoffrey R

    2011-06-01

    Drivers behind food security and crop protection issues are discussed in relation to food losses caused by pests. Pests globally consume food estimated to feed an additional one billion people. Key drivers include rapid human population increase, climate change, loss of beneficial on-farm biodiversity, reduction in per capita cropped land, water shortages, and EU pesticide withdrawals under policies relating to 91/414 EEC. IPM (Integrated Pest Management) will be compulsory for all EU agriculture by 2014 and is also being widely adopted globally. IPM offers a 'toolbox' of complementary crop- and region-specific crop protection solutions to address these rising pressures. IPM aims for more sustainable solutions by using complementary technologies. The applied research challenge now is to reduce selection pressure on single solution strategies, by creating additive/synergistic interactions between IPM components. IPM is compatible with organic, conventional, and GM cropping systems and is flexible, allowing regional fine-tuning. It reduces pests below economic thresholds utilizing key 'ecological services', particularly biocontrol. A recent global review demonstrates that IPM can reduce pesticide use and increase yields of most of the major crops studied. Landscape scale 'ecological engineering', together with genetic improvement of new crop varieties, will enhance the durability of pest-resistant cultivars (conventional and GM). IPM will also promote compatibility with semiochemicals, biopesticides, precision pest monitoring tools, and rapid diagnostics. These combined strategies are urgently needed and are best achieved via multi-disciplinary research, including complex spatio-temporal modelling at farm and landscape scales. Integrative and synergistic use of existing and new IPM technologies will help meet future food production needs more sustainably in developed and developing countries, in an era of reduced pesticide availability. Current IPM research gaps are

  13. Renewable Resource Integration Project - Scoping Study of Strategic Transmission, Operations, and Reliability Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph; Budhraja, Vikram; Ballance, John; Dyer, Jim; Mobasheri, Fred; Eto, Joseph

    2008-07-01

    California is on a path to increase utilization of renewable resources. California will need to integrate approximately 30,000 megawatts (MW) of new renewable generation in the next 20 years. Renewable resources are typically located in remote locations, not near the load centers. Nearly two/thirds or 20,000 MW of new renewable resources needed are likely to be delivered to Los Angeles Basin transmission gateways. Integration of renewable resources requires interconnection to the power grid, expansion of the transmission system capability between the backbone power grid and transmission gateways, and increase in delivery capacity from transmission gateways to the local load centers. To scope the transmission, operations, and reliability issues for renewables integration, this research focused on the Los Angeles Basin Area transmission gateways where most of new renewables are likely. Necessary actions for successful renewables integration include: (1) Expand Los Angeles Basin Area transmission gateway and nomogram limits by 10,000 to 20,000 MW; (2) Upgrade local transmission network for deliverability to load centers; (3) Secure additional storage, demand management, automatic load control, dynamic pricing, and other resources that meet regulation and ramping needed in real time operations; (4) Enhance local voltage support; and (5) Expand deliverability from Los Angeles to San Diego and Northern California.

  14. Issue Paper Potential Water Availability Problems Associated with Geothermal Energy Operations

    SciTech Connect

    1982-02-19

    The report is the first to study and discuss the effect of water supply problems of geothermal development. Geothermal energy resources have the potential of making a significant contribution to the U.S. energy supply situation, especially at the regional and local levels where the resources are located. A significant issue of concern is the availability and cost of water for use in a geothermal power operation primarily because geothermal power plants require large quantities of water for cooling, sludge handling and the operation of environmental control systems. On a per unit basis, geothermal power plants, because of their inherent high heat rejection rates, have cooling requirements several times greater than the conventional fossil fuel plants and therefore the supply of water is a critical factor in the planning, designing, and siting of geothermal power plants. However, no studies have been specifically performed to identify the water requirements of geothermal power plants, the underlying causes of water availability problems, and available techniques to alleviate some of these problems. There is no cost data included in the report. The report includes some descriptions of known geothermal areas. [DJE-2005

  15. The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) Network - Data and Technological Resources to Address Current and Emerging Issues in Agroecosystems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Wienhold, B.; Suyker, A.; Erickson, G.; Hayes, M. J.; Awada, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) is one of 18 established Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) networks across the US. PR-HPA is a partnership between the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), the USDA-ARS Agroecosystem Management Research Unit (AMRU) in Lincoln, and the USDA-ARS Environmental Management Research Unit (EMRU) in Clay Center, NE. The PR-HPA network encompasses 27,750 ha of research sites with data going back to the early 1900s. A partial list of on-going research projects include those encompassing long-term manuring and continuous corn (Est. 1912), dryland tillage plots (Est. 1970), soil nutrients and tillage (Est. 1983), biofuel feedstock studies (Est. 2001), and carbon sequestration study (Est. 2000). Affiliated partners include the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) that develops measures to improve preparedness and adaptation to climate variability and drought; the High Plains Regional Climate Center (HPRCC) that coordinates data acquisition from over 170 automated weather stations and around 50 automated soil moisture network across NE and beyond; the AMERIFLUX and NEBFLUX networks that coordinate the water vapor and carbon dioxide flux measurements across NE with emphasis on rainfed and irrigated crop lands; the ARS Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network (GRACEnet) and the Resilient Economic Agricultural Practices (REAP) project; and the Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT) that assists with the use of geospatial technologies for agriculture and natural resource applications. Current emphases are on addressing present-day and emerging issues related to profitability and sustainability of agroecosystems. The poster will highlight some of the ongoing and planned efforts in research pertaining to climate variability and change, water sustainability, and ecological and agronomic challenges associated

  16. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Ghatowar, P S

    1993-07-01

    The Union Deputy Minister of Health and Family Welfare in India addressed the 35th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay in 1993. Officials in developing countries have been concerned about population growth for more than 30 years and have instituted policies to reduce population growth. In the 1960s, population growth in developing countries was around 2.5%, but today it is about 2%. Despite this decline, the world will have 1 billion more individuals by the year 2001. 95% of these new people will be born in developing countries. India's population size is so great that India does not have the time to wait for development to reduce population growth. Population needs to be viewed as an integrated part of overall development, since it is linked to poverty, illiteracy, environmental damage, gender issues, and reproductive health. Despite a large population size, India has made some important advancements in health and family planning. For example, India has reduced population growth (to 2.14% annually between 1981-1991), infant mortality, and its birth rate. It has increased the contraceptive use rate and life expectancy. Its southern states have been more successful at achieving demographic goals than have the northern states. India needs to implement efforts to improve living conditions, to change attitudes and perceptions about small families and contraception, and to promote family planning acceptance earlier among young couples. Improvement of living conditions is especially important in India, since almost 33% of the people live in poverty. India needs to invest in nutrition, health, and education. The mass media and nongovernmental organizations need to create population awareness and demand for family planning services. Improvement in women's status accelerates fertility decline, as has happened in Kerala State. The government needs to facilitate generation of jobs. Community participation is needed for India to achieve

  17. Challenging the One-Way Paradigm for More Effective Science Communication: A Critical Review of Two Public Campaigns Addressing Contentious Environmental Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEntee, Marie; Mortimer, Claire

    2013-01-01

    This article examines two large-scale public communication campaigns to explore the appropriateness and effectiveness of using one-way communication in contentious environmental issues. The findings show while one-way communication can be successfully employed in contentious issues, it is not appropriate for all contexts and may contribute to…

  18. Overview of Carbon Dioxide Control Issues During International Space Station/Space Shuttle Joint Docked Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Crewed space vehicles have a common requirement to remove the carbon dioxide (CO2) created by the metabolic processes of the crew. The space shuttle [Space Transportation System (STS)] and International Space Station (ISS) each have systems in place that allow control and removal of CO2 from the habitable cabin environment. During periods in which the space shuttle is docked to the ISS, known as "joint docked operations," the space shuttle and ISS share a common atmosphere environment. During this period, an elevated amount of CO2 is produced through the combined metabolic activity of the STS and ISS crews. This elevated CO2 production, together with the large effective atmosphere created by collective volumes of the docked vehicles, creates a unique set of requirements for CO2 removal. This paper will describe individual CO2 control plans implemented by STS and ISS engineering teams, as well as the integrated plans used when both vehicles are docked. The paper will also discuss some of the issues and anomalies experienced by both engineering teams.

  19. Thermoregulatory models of safety-for-flight issues for space operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisacane, V. L.; Kuznetz, L. H.; Logan, J. S.; Clark, J. B.; Wissler, E. H.

    2006-10-01

    This study investigates the use of a mathematical model for thermoregulation as a tool in safety-of-flight issues and proposed solutions for mission operations of the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Specifically, this study assesses the effects of elevated cabin temperature and metabolic loads on astronauts wearing the Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) and the Liquid Cooled Ventilation Garment (LCVG). The 225-node Wissler model is validated by comparison with two ground-based human subject tests, firefighters, and surrogate astronauts under anomalous conditions that show good agreement. Subsequent simulations indicate that the performance of the ACES/LCVG is marginal. Increases in either workload or cabin temperature from the nominal will increase rectal temperature, stored heat load, heart rate, and sweating leading to possible deficits in the ability of the astronauts to perform cognitive and motor tasks that could affect the safety of the mission, especially the safe landing of the Shuttle. Specific relationships are given between cabin temperature and metabolic rate that define the threshold for decreased manual dexterity and loss of tracking skills. Model results indicate that the most effective mitigation strategy would be to decrease the LCVG inlet temperature. Methods of accomplishing this are also proposed.

  20. Burning-issue politics: How incinerator operators deal with fired-up communities

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, M.

    1993-10-01

    If TSDFs are the most controversial elements of hazardous waste regulation, then dealing with a host community is the most delicate issue in facility siting. In the last 20 years, public perception of hazardous waste treatment facilities, especially incinerators, has turned from naivete about waste management technologies to a general distrust of incinerator operators and government regulators. The political and emotional clout wielded by citizens and environmental activists can derail any incinerator developer's plans, even when industry and regulators support the project. Public resistance results from anxiety about the environment, low confidence in science and government, and a feeling of powerlessness over local events. Both RCRA and Superfund initially contained provisions for public comment but provided few statutory toeholds for citizens to obtain legal redress of grievances in court. Congress strengthened public participation opportunities when RCRA and Superfund were reauthorized in the 1980s. Since then, the public has become major player in the waste treatment business. Citizens group, often in combination with environmental organizations have waged aggressive public relations campaigns and used legal actions to defeat incinerator-siting proposals.

  1. Recommended Changes to the No Child Left Behind Act to Address Workforce Issues. Submitted to the House Subcommittee on Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, and Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Linda; Tsoi-A-Fatt, Rhonda

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents Center for Law and Social Policy's (CLASP's) recommendations on how No Child Left Behind (NCLB) could better address the workforce challenges faced by this country. CLASP is a nonprofit organization engaged in research, analysis, technical assistance, and advocacy on a range of issues affecting low-income families. The…

  2. Religious Congregations' Collaborations: With Whom Do They Work and What Resources Do They Share in Addressing HIV and Other Health Issues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werber, Laura; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Dominguez, Blanca X.; Mata, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how religious congregations interact with other community organizations to address health and, in particular, HIV-related needs within their membership and/or local communities. Case study data from a diverse sample of 14 urban congregations (6 Black, 4 Latino, 2 White, and 2 mixed race-ethnicity) indicate that they engaged in…

  3. The Design and Evaluation of a Teaching-Learning Sequence Addressing the Solubility Concept with Turkish Secondary School Students. Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabapinar, Filiz; Leach, John; Scott, Phil

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports upon a study addressing teaching and learning about solubility to Turkish first-year secondary school students (age 14-15). The principal aim of the research was to investigate the impact on students' understanding of solubility, of introducing a simple particle model of matter. A teaching intervention to fit within the existing…

  4. Addressing Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This dialogue, extracted from a conversation among some members of the Equity Special Issue Editorial Panel, concerns racism in mathematics education. It raises issues about the use of various terms; about fields of research outside of mathematics education; and about the kinds of racialization processes that occur for students, teachers, and…

  5. Project 10 Handbook: Addressing Lesbian and Gay Issues in Our Schools. A Resource Directory for Teachers, Guidance Counselors, Parents and School-Based Adolescent Care Providers. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friends of Project 10, Inc.

    This handbook was developed by Project 10, an on-campus counseling program within the Los Angeles (California) Unified School District. The handbook covers many of the issues and problems that arise for homosexual high school students. Introductory material includes a history of the informal beginnings of Project 10. The first chapter describes…

  6. Issues in Airborne Systems for Closely-Spaced Parallel Runway Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, A.; Carpenter, B.; Asari, K.; Kuchar, J.; Hansman, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    Efforts to increase airport capacity include studies of aircraft systems that would enable simultaneous approaches to closely spaced parallel runways in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). The time-critical nature of a parallel approach results in key design issues for current and future collision avoidance systems. These issues are being studied in two ways. First, a part-task flight simulator study has examined the procedural and display issues inherent in such a time-critical task. Second, a prototype collision avoidance logic capable of generating this maneuver guidance has been designed using a recently developed methodology.

  7. Looking beyond first-world problems: an emerging global workplace is encouraging more biomedical engineers to address the health issues of the developing world.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Each year, the developed world is flooded with complex new medical technologies, from robotic prosthetics to remote-controlled aspirin implants. Meanwhile, only about 10% of health research funds are spent addressing the pressing problems of developing nations, although these countries make up 93% of the worldwide burden of disease. In short, while a small fraction of the world pops brand-name pharmaceuticals, the majority suffers from poor sanitation, contaminated drinking water, preventable disease, and child mortality.

  8. Post-operative imaging in deep brain stimulation: A controversial issue.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Christian; Dooms, Georges; Berthold, Christophe; Hertel, Frank

    2016-08-01

    In deep brain stimulation (DBS), post-operative imaging has been used on the one hand to assess complications, such as haemorrhage; and on the other hand, to detect misplaced contacts. The post-operative determination of the accurate location of the final electrode plays a critical role in evaluating the precise area of effective stimulation and for predicting the potential clinical outcome; however, safety remains a priority in postoperative DBS imaging. A plethora of diverse post-operative imaging methods have been applied at different centres. There is neither a consensus on the most efficient post-operative imaging methodology, nor is there any standardisation for the automatic or manual analysis of the images within the different imaging modalities. In this article, we give an overview of currently applied post-operative imaging modalities and discuss the current challenges in post-operative imaging in DBS.

  9. Addressing Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Greg; Helmig, Mary; Kaplan, Bill; Kosch, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Four camp directors discuss how the September 11 tragedy and current world events will affect their camps. They describe how they are addressing safety concerns, working with parents, cooperating with outside agencies, hiring and screening international staff, and revising emergency plans. Camps must continue to offer community and support to…

  10. Editors' preface for the topical issue on Seven papers on Noncommutative Geometry and Operator Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Daniele; Landi, Giovanni; Vassout, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    This topical issue grew out of the International Conference "Noncommutative Geometry and Applications" held 16-21 June 2014 at Villa Mondragone, Frascati (Roma). The main purpose of the conference was to have a unified view of different incarnations of noncommutative geometry and its applications. The seven papers collected in the present topical issue represent a good sample of the topics covered at the workshop. The conference itself was one of the climaxes of the Franco-Italian project GREFI-GENCO, which was initiated in 2007 by CNRS and INDAM to promote and enhance collaboration and exchanges between French and Italian researchers in the area of noncommutative geometry.

  11. Orbit Determination Issues and Results to Incorporate Optical Measurements in Conjunction Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallado, David A.; Kelso, T. S.; Agapov, Vladimir; Molotov, Igor

    2009-03-01

    Operations in geosynchronous orbit are important for many aspects of commerce. Avoiding conjunctions between an ever increasingly crowded geosynchronous environment is therefore becoming more important especially in light of the Iridium 33 - Cosmos 2251 collision. SOCRATES has processed Two-Line Element (TLE) set information for over 5 years. Unfortunately, the TLE information is of limited quality, and obtaining high quality ephemerides is difficult. A next step is to see how we can replace the TLE data for those objects for which we do not get operator data (non-participating SOCRATES-GEO oerational satellites or debris). The International Scientific Observing Network (ISON) is an excellent resource to obtain high-quality observations on satellites. The paper introduces the orbit determination, along with test cases and comparisons with known operator orbits. Finally, we discuss how these observations could be used operationally in the conjunction processing and what considerations should be taken into account.

  12. Performance analysis and an assessment of operational issues of Ya-21U

    SciTech Connect

    Paramonov, D.V.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1996-03-01

    Extensive testing of the Soviet made TOPAZ-II space nuclear power system unit designated {open_quote}{open_quote}Ya-21U{close_quote}{close_quote} was conducted both in the USSR (1989{endash}1990) and in the US (August 1993 to March 1995). The unit underwent a total of 15 tests for a cumulative test/operation time of almost 8000 hours. These tests included steady-state operation at different power levels, fast startups and power optimizations. Leaks were detected in some of the Thermionic Fuel Elements (TFEs) after the first test in the US. These leaks that facilitated air incursion into the interelectrode gap caused operational changes in both electric power and conversion efficiency and changed the optimum cesium pressure and load voltage. Additional changes in operational performance were detected following shock and vibration tests performed in August 1994. Test data was examined and analyzed to assess the performance of not only individual TFEs, and also the whole Ya-21U unit, and identify causes for measured operational performance changes; most probable causes were identified and discussed. The Ya-21U unit remained operational throughout extensive testing for 8000 hours at conditions far exceeding the design limits of the TOPAZ-II system. No single TFE was damaged during testing and measured operational performance changes were uniform among working section TFEs. In addition to providing a unique knowledge base for future development and operation of thermionic power systems, the test results testify to the reliability and ruggedness of the TOPAZ-II system design. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Academic Institutions and One Health: Building Capacity for Transdisciplinary Research Approaches to Address Complex Health Issues at the Animal-Human-Ecosystem Interface.

    PubMed

    Allen-Scott, Lisa K; Buntain, Bonnie; Hatfield, Jennifer M; Meisser, Andrea; Thomas, Christopher James

    2015-07-01

    To improve health at the human, animal, and ecosystem interface, defined as One Health, training of researchers must transcend individual disciplines to develop a new process of collaboration. The transdisciplinary research approach integrates frameworks and methodologies beyond academic disciplines and includes involvement of and input from policy makers and members of the community. The authors argue that there should be a significant shift in academic institutions' research capacity to achieve the added value of a transdisciplinary approach for addressing One Health problems. This Perspective is a call to action for academic institutions to provide the foundations for this salient shift. The authors begin by describing the transdisciplinary approach, propose methods for building transdisciplinary research capacity, and highlight three value propositions that support the case. Examples are provided to illustrate how the transdisciplinary approach to research adds value through improved sustainability of impact, increased cost-effectiveness, and enhanced abilities to mitigate potentially harmful unintended consequences. The authors conclude with three key recommendations for academic institutions: (1) a focus on creating enabling environments for One Health and transdisciplinary research, (2) the development of novel funding structures for transdisciplinary research, and (3) training of "transmitters" using real-world-oriented educational programs that break down research silos through collaboration across disciplines.

  14. Religious congregations' collaborations: with whom do they work and what resources do they share in addressing HIV and other health issues?

    PubMed

    Werber, Laura; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Domínguez, Blanca X; Mata, Michael A

    2012-12-01

    This study explores how religious congregations interact with other community organizations to address health and, in particular, HIV-related needs within their membership and/or local communities. Case study data from a diverse sample of 14 urban congregations (6 Black, 4 Latino, 2 White, and 2 mixed race-ethnicity) indicate that they engaged in three types of relationships to conduct HIV and other health-related activities: (a) resources flowed to congregations from external entities, (b) resources flowed from congregations to external entities, and (c) congregations interacted with external entities. These types of relationships were present in roughly equal proportions; thus, congregations were not primarily the recipients of resources from other organizations in these interactions. Financial, material, and human capital resources were shared across these three relationship types, and the most common organization types that congregations were involved with for health efforts were prevention and social service organizations, health care providers, and other congregations. In addition, congregations tended to have more collaborative relationships with other faith-based organizations (FBOs) and tended to engage with non-FBOs more to either receive or provide resources. Results suggest that congregations contribute to community health by not only sponsoring health activities for their own members but also by providing specific support or resources to enhance the programming of other community organizations and collaborating with external organizations to sponsor congregation-based and community-based health activities.

  15. Academic Institutions and One Health: Building Capacity for Transdisciplinary Research Approaches to Address Complex Health Issues at the Animal–Human–Ecosystem Interface

    PubMed Central

    Allen-Scott, Lisa K.; Buntain, Bonnie; Hatfield, Jennifer M.; Meisser, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    To improve health at the human, animal, and ecosystem interface, defined as One Health, training of researchers must transcend individual disciplines to develop a new process of collaboration. The transdisciplinary research approach integrates frameworks and methodologies beyond academic disciplines and includes involvement of and input from policy makers and members of the community. The authors argue that there should be a significant shift in academic institutions’ research capacity to achieve the added value of a transdisciplinary approach for addressing One Health problems. This Perspective is a call to action for academic institutions to provide the foundations for this salient shift. The authors begin by describing the transdisciplinary approach, propose methods for building transdisciplinary research capacity, and highlight three value propositions that support the case. Examples are provided to illustrate how the transdisciplinary approach to research adds value through improved sustainability of impact, increased cost-effectiveness, and enhanced abilities to mitigate potentially harmful unintended consequences. The authors conclude with three key recommendations for academic institutions: (1) a focus on creating enabling environments for One Health and transdisciplinary research, (2) the development of novel funding structures for transdisciplinary research, and (3) training of “transmitters” using real-world-oriented educational programs that break down research silos through collaboration across disciplines. PMID:25650827

  16. Task 23 - background report on subsurface environmental issues relating to natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Topical report, February 1, 1994--February 28, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    This report describes information pertaining to environmental issues, toxicity, environmental transport, and fate of alkanolamines and glycols associated with natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Waste management associated with the operations is also discussed.

  17. Medical computing in the 1980s. Operating system and programming language issues.

    PubMed

    Greenes, R A

    1983-06-01

    Operating systems and programming languages differ widely in their suitability for particular applications. The diversity of medical computing needs demands a diversity of solutions. Compounding this diversity if the decentralization caused by evolution of local computing systems for local needs. Relevant current trends in computing include increased emphasis on decentralization, growing capabilities for interconnection of diverse systems, and development of common data base and file server capabilities. In addition, standardization and hardware in dependence of operating systems, as well as programming languages and development of programmerless systems, continue to widen application opportunities.

  18. [An approach to legal and operational issues in the management of health data].

    PubMed

    Fernández de Marcos, Isabel Davara

    2012-01-01

    Data protection regulation is a new and appealing issue in Mexico. The processing of health personal data will require even more specific regulation in the near future. Health care professionals and institutions need to adequate their usual proceedings to comply with the actual regulation in order to protect their patients and customers and avoid fines up to 35 million Mexican pesos and 10 years of prison. The aim of this article is to present a practical approach to the legal and managerial implications of this regulation.

  19. Shuttle ground operations efficiencies/technologies study. Volume 4: Preliminary Issues Database (PIDB) catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, A. L.; Hart, M. T.; Lowry, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    The Preliminary Issues Database (PIDB) was assembled very early in the study as one of the fundamental tools to be used throughout the study. Data was acquired from a variety of sources and compiled in such a way that the data could be easily sorted in accordance with a number of different analytical objectives. The system was computerized to significantly expedite sorting and make it more usable. The information contained in the PIDB is summarized and the reader is provided with the capability to manually find items of interest.

  20. Potential for by-product recovery in geothermal energy operations issue paper

    SciTech Connect

    1982-07-01

    This document identifies and discusses the significant issues raised by the idea of recovering useful by-products from wastes (primarily spent brine) generated during geothermal power production. The physical availability of numerous valuable materials in geothermal brines has captured the interest of geothermal resource developers and other parties ever since their presence was known. The prospects for utilizing huge volumes of highly-saline geothermal brines for electricity generation in the Imperial Valley of California have served to maintain this interest in both private sector and government circles.

  1. Chemical Issues Addressing the Construction of the Distal Ni[Cysteine-Glycine-Cysteine]2- Site of Acetyl CoA Synthase: Why Not Copper?

    PubMed Central

    Green, Kayla. N.; Brothers, Scott M.; Lee, Boram; Darensbourg, Marcetta. Y.; Rockcliffe, David. A.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of the Ni(Cysteine-Glycine-Cysteine)2-, Ni(CGC)2-, in the A-cluster active site of Acetyl CoA Synthase has prompted the synthesis of many small molecule models which employ M(N2S2) complexes as metalloligands. In vitro studies have shown that nickel incorporates into the N2S2 binding pocket even when copper is in the enzyme growth medium, while copper is preferentially taken up in the proximal site, displacing the catalytically active nickel. (Darnault, C.; Volbeda, A.; Kim, E.J.; Legrand, P.; Vernede, X.; Lindahl, P.A.; Fontecilla-Camps, J.C. Nat. Struct. Biol. 2003, 10, 271-279.) The work herein has been designed to address the chemical viability of copper(II) within the tripeptide N2S2 ligand set. To this end, a series of CuN2S2 2- complexes, the resin-bound, O-Cu(CGC)2- (A) and free Cu(CGC)2- (B) complexes, as well as Cu(ema)2- (C) and Cu(emi)2- (D) dianions, have been characterized by UV-vis, EPR, and ESI-MS spectroscopies, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and, where appropriate, x-ray diffraction studies, and compared to the NiII congeners. EPR spectroscopic results have indicated that, in frozen DMF solution, the copper complexes are distorted square planar structures with nitrogen and sulfur donors. This is consistent with X-ray diffraction measurements which also show copper(II) in a distorted square planar environment that is bereft of CuN2S2 2- intermolecular interactions. DFT calculations resulted in optimized structures that are consistent with crystallographic data and indicated HOMO-SOMO gaps of 5.01 eV and 4.68 eV for C and D as respectively. Optimized structures of Ni(ema)2- and Ni(emi)2- share the same basic characteristics as for the copper(II) congeners. Electrochemical characterization of C and D resulted in a reversible CuIII/II couple at -1.20 V and - 1.40 V, respectively. Reactivity studies with Rh(CO)2+ show similar donor capabilities for complexes A-D. Analysis of A shows that transmetallation does not occur. From competitive metal

  2. "Built-In" Action/Issues Tracking and Post-Ops Analysis Tool for Realtime Console Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) for the International Space Station (ISS) uses a number of formal databases to manage and track flight plan changes, onboard and ground equipment anomalies, and other events. However, individual console positions encounter many action items and/or occurrences that don't fit neatly into the databases, and while console logs are comprehensive, manual or automated searches do not always yield consistent results. The Payload Communications Manager (PAYCOM) team, whose members speak directly with the ISS onboard crew with respect to NASA payload operations, has found a creative way to reformat a mandatory Daily Report to organize action items, standing reminders, significant events, and other comments. While the report keeps others appraised of PAYCOMs activities and issues of the moment, the format makes it easy to capture very brief summaries of the items in a "Roll Off Matrix", including start and stop dates, resolution, and possible applicability to future ops. The matrix provides accountability for all action items, gives direct insight into the issues surrounding various payloads and methods of dealing with them, yields indirect information on PAYCOM priorities and processes, and provides a roadmap that makes it easier to get back to extensive details if needed. This paper describes how the ISS PAYCOM Daily Report and Roll Off Matrix are organized, used, and inter-related to each other and the PAYCOM operations log. While the application is for a manned vehicle, the concepts could apply in a wide spectrum of operational settings.

  3. Addressing Global Change Issues Using Atmospheric Chemistry Observations from Space: Providing Measurements for the Recovery of the Ozone Layer, Climate, and Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, J.

    2008-05-01

    As we enter the second decade of the 21st century, there is a trilogy of major issues around which satellite observations of trace gases and aerosols can be classified. The first large-scale problem focuses on the recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer, where satellites have a multi-decadal heritage of making important contributions to understanding the chemistry and dynamics of stratospheric ozone. The second aspect of this trilogy is the long-term build up of tropospheric trace gases and aerosols that affect climate, where relevant measurements include methane and the precursors to tropospheric ozone formation, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide. Satellite observations during the past decade have provided new insight into both trends and interannual variability of key tropospheric trace gases. However, the last and the most challenging aspect of this trilogy deals with the capability to use space observations to observe and hopefully help mitigate the detrimental aspects of air pollution that result in widespread harm to human health and other biological systems. The recently released "Decadal Survey" by the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) concurs with this philosophy and strongly encourages the use of satellite measurements for societal benefits. The NRC emphasized that if Earth scientists are to foster applications and extend the societal benefits of their work, they must also understand that satellite measurements need to be transformed into useful information that is understandable and meets the needs of being a tool for those who make decisions regarding air quality and policy-makers as well as for scientists, the traditional users of such measurements. Specifically, with respect to future atmospheric chemistry missions, the NRC (2007) recommended that a mission dedicated to the measurement of tropospheric trace gases from a geostationary satellite should be launched in the 2013-2016 timeframe (GEO-CAPE, Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution

  4. Combat veterans, mental health issues, and the death penalty: addressing the impact of post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Giardino, Anthony E

    2009-05-01

    More than 1.5 million Americans have participated in combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan over the past seven years. Some of these veterans have subsequently committed capital crimes and found themselves in our nation's criminal justice system. This Essay argues that combat veterans suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder or traumatic brain injury at the time of their offenses should not be subject to the death penalty.Offering mitigating evidence regarding military training, post-traumatic stress disorder, and traumatic brain injury presents one means that combat veterans may use to argue for their lives during the sentencing phase of their trials. Alternatively, Atkins v. Virginia and Roper v. Simmons offer a framework for establishing a legislatively or judicially created categorical exclusion for these offenders, exempting them from the death penalty as a matter of law. By understanding how combat service and service-related injuries affect the personal culpability of these offenders, the legal system can avoid the consequences of sentencing to death America's mentally wounded warriors, ensuring that only the worst offenders are subject to the ultimate punishment.

  5. Design, operation, and critical issues of the U.S. Space Station Freedom propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morano, Joseph S.; Henderson, John B.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Space Station Freedom Manned Base (SSFMB) propulsion system is a gaseous hydrogen/oxygen-based system for primary reboost, attitude control, and station contingencies using electrolyzed water as a propellant. A secondary propulsion reboost system employs multipropellant resistojets which utilize the various waste gases generated during normal station operations. The hydrogen/oxygen propulsion system is comprised of several modules which contain thrusters, propellant storage tanks, regulation subsystems, water electrolysis units, electronic controls, and fluid plumbing. The resistojet system is comprised of one module containing the resistojets, regulators, electronic controls, and fluid plumbing. The waste gas propellant storage takes place in the Fluid Management System.

  6. Contributions to resolving issues impeding the operation of high power microwave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashyn, Dmytro

    This thesis reports an experimental study aimed at extending high power, high efficiency gyrotron operation to submillimeter wavelengths. A series of experiments carried out both at the University of Maryland and the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Science, succeeded in demonstrating output power at 670 GHz of 180 kilowatts with 20% efficiency (gyrotron voltage was 57 kV and beam current was 16 amperes). The maximum output power achieved in the experiments was 210kW at somewhat higher voltage and current (viz. 58kV and 22A). The achieved output power and efficiency are twice as large as achieved in previous experiments in this frequency range with pulse duration in the range of tens of microseconds. These performance parameters are relevant to a previously proposed application of detecting concealed radioactive materials by air breakdown in a focused beam of sub-millimeter radiation. The 670 GHz gyrotron combined features of two lines of previous experiments: (a) to operate at the required frequency, pulsed solenoids producing 28T magnetic were employed and (b) to obtain high efficiency a very high order mode was used in the gyrotron cavity, as in the experiments with gyrotrons for plasma heating. Evidence of multimode beating was observed in submillimeter output envelope. The excitation of spurious modes, especially during the rise of the gyrotron voltage pulse, was analyzed and the method of avoiding this was proposed which also allows to reduce collector loading in gyrotrons operating in modulated regimes. The present study also includes theoretical analysis of the processes that deepens the understanding of microwave breakdown (arcing) in high power microwave devices. The effect of the dust particles microprotrusions on the device operation was analyzed. These microprotrusions were observed and their negative effects were remedied by careful polishing and machining of the resonator surface. Finally, the generated 670 GHz radiation was

  7. Core Community Specifications for Electron Microprobe Operating Systems: Software, Quality Control, and Data Management Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fournelle, John; Carpenter, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Modem electron microprobe systems have become increasingly sophisticated. These systems utilize either UNIX or PC computer systems for measurement, automation, and data reduction. These systems have undergone major improvements in processing, storage, display, and communications, due to increased capabilities of hardware and software. Instrument specifications are typically utilized at the time of purchase and concentrate on hardware performance. The microanalysis community includes analysts, researchers, software developers, and manufacturers, who could benefit from exchange of ideas and the ultimate development of core community specifications (CCS) for hardware and software components of microprobe instrumentation and operating systems.

  8. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  9. Optimal reservoir operation considering the water quality issues: A stochastic conflict resolution approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerachian, Reza; Karamouz, Mohammad

    2006-12-01

    In this study, an algorithm combining a water quality simulation model and a deterministic/stochastic conflict resolution technique is developed for determining optimal reservoir operating rules. As different decision makers and stakeholders are involved in reservoir operation, the Nash bargaining theory is used to resolve the existing conflict of interests. The utility functions of the proposed models are developed on the basis of the reliability of the water supply to downstream demands, water storage, and the quality of the withdrawn water. The expected value on the Nash product is considered as the objective function of the stochastic model, which can incorporate the inherent uncertainty of reservoir inflow. A water quality simulation model is also developed to simulate the thermal stratification cycle and the reservoir discharge quality through a selective withdrawal structure. The optimization models are solved using a new version of genetic algorithms called varying chromosome length genetic algorithm (VLGA). In this algorithm the chromosome length is sequentially increased to provide a good initial solution for the final traditional GA-based optimization model. The proposed stochastic optimization model can also reduce the computational burden of the previously proposed models such as stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) by reducing the number of state transitions in each stage. The proposed models which are called VLGAQ and SVLGAQ are applied to the 15-Khordad Reservoir in the central part of Iran. The results show that the proposed models can reduce the salinity of allocated water to different water demands as well as the salinity buildup in the reservoir.

  10. Robotic invasion of operation theatre and associated anaesthetic issues: A review.

    PubMed

    Kakar, Prem N; Das, Jyotirmoy; Roy, Preeti Mittal; Pant, Vijaya

    2011-01-01

    A Robotic device is a powered, computer controlled manipulator with artificial sensing that can be reprogrammed to move and position tools to carry out a wide range of tasks. Robots and Telemanipulators were first developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for use in space exploration. Today's medical robotic systems were the brainchild of the United States Department of Defence's desire to decrease war casualties with the development of 'telerobotic surgery'. The 'master-slave' telemanipulator concept was developed for medical use in the early 1990s where the surgeon's (master) manual movements were transmitted to end-effector (slave) instruments at a remote site. Since then, the field of surgical robotics has undergone massive transformation and the future is even brighter. As expected, any new technique brings with it risks and the possibility of technical difficulties. The person who bears the brunt of complications or benefit from a new invention is the 'Patient'. Anaesthesiologists as always must do their part to be the patient's 'best man' in the perioperative period. We should be prepared for screening and selection of patients in a different perspective keeping in mind the steep learning curves of surgeons, long surgical hours, extreme patient positioning and other previously unknown anaesthetic challenges brought about by the surgical robot. In this article we have tried to track the development of surgical robots and consider the unique anaesthetic issues related to robot assisted surgeries. PMID:21431048

  11. Robotic invasion of operation theatre and associated anaesthetic issues: A review

    PubMed Central

    Kakar, Prem N; Das, Jyotirmoy; Roy, Preeti Mittal; Pant, Vijaya

    2011-01-01

    A Robotic device is a powered, computer controlled manipulator with artificial sensing that can be reprogrammed to move and position tools to carry out a wide range of tasks. Robots and Telemanipulators were first developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for use in space exploration. Today’s medical robotic systems were the brainchild of the United States Department of Defence’s desire to decrease war casualties with the development of ‘telerobotic surgery’. The ‘master-slave’ telemanipulator concept was developed for medical use in the early 1990s where the surgeon’s (master) manual movements were transmitted to end-effector (slave) instruments at a remote site. Since then, the field of surgical robotics has undergone massive transformation and the future is even brighter. As expected, any new technique brings with it risks and the possibility of technical difficulties. The person who bears the brunt of complications or benefit from a new invention is the ‘Patient’. Anaesthesiologists as always must do their part to be the patient’s ‘best man’ in the perioperative period. We should be prepared for screening and selection of patients in a different perspective keeping in mind the steep learning curves of surgeons, long surgical hours, extreme patient positioning and other previously unknown anaesthetic challenges brought about by the surgical robot. In this article we have tried to track the development of surgical robots and consider the unique anaesthetic issues related to robot assisted surgeries. PMID:21431048

  12. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Gore, M S

    1997-07-01

    In India, data from the decennial censuses have been the catalyst that has led researchers to identify social policy needs and craft programs to lower overall mortality rates, infant mortality rates, and fertility rates. A new demographic phenomenon that is being exposed by the data is the increase in life expectancy that will see large numbers of individuals surviving 15-20 years beyond age 60. This increased life expectancy will lead to an increased old age dependency ratio and will require reexamination of the issue of resources to meet the needs of the elderly. These needs are social and psychological as well as physical. Research is needed to predict the initial consequences of population aging within different states. International comparisons within the Asian region will also foster identification of effective policies. Research is also needed to identify whether longevity is tied to higher educational and socioeconomic status in order to improve life expectancy among low-income groups. Another aspect that requires consideration is that most elderly women will likely survive their husbands. This means that they will be available to care for their husbands but will have to depend upon their children to care for them. The possible demographic diversity in the experience of aging among various states and classes and between the genders may be of special interest to researchers. PMID:12293130

  13. Virtual reality in planning and operations from research topic to practical issue

    SciTech Connect

    Rindahl, G.; Johnsen, T.; Mark, N. K. F.; Meyer, G.

    2006-07-01

    During the last decade of research and development on advanced visualization systems for the nuclear industry, the available technology has evolved significantly. In the same period, nuclear companies have entered a more competitive environment due to the increasingly open electricity market, resulting in strong demands on cost effective operations. This paper reports on some of the 3D applications developed by Inst. for Energy Technology in this time period, and on the emerging possibilities for practical applications of Virtual and Augmented Reality. Finally the paper proposes that well-considered deployment of recent and on-going technological advances in this field can be a contribution to improving economy and efficiency without compromising safety. (authors)

  14. Issues of operation during a trial burn at a wet process kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Ehinger, S.

    1997-12-31

    Trial burns are a requirement under Section 40 CFR 270.22 and 270.66(g), in order to obtain a Part B Permit, yet their usefulness when applied to a cement kiln has to be questioned. The very features that make a cement kiln so good at thermal destruction, that of very high temperatures and a long residence time, and the fact that they must stay at those temperatures in order to make their product, I believe greatly diminishes, if not eliminates the need for many trial burn requirements. In addition, for many kilns, operating at conditions required of a trial burn can have a very costly consequence. A trial burn is something that I believe both the regulation agency and the HWDF industry as a whole should work to modify and better adapt to each particular industry. It needs to be done.

  15. Reliability issues for a bolometer detector for ITER at high operating temperatures.

    PubMed

    Meister, H; Kannamüller, M; Koll, J; Pathak, A; Penzel, F; Trautmann, T; Detemple, P; Schmitt, S; Langer, H

    2012-10-01

    The first detector prototypes for the ITER bolometer diagnostic featuring a 12.5 μm thick Pt-absorber have been realized and characterized in laboratory tests. The results show linear dependencies of the calibration parameters and are in line with measurements of prototypes with thinner absorbers. However, thermal cycling tests up to 450 °C of the prototypes with thick absorbers demonstrated that their reliability at these elevated operating temperatures is not yet sufficient. Profilometer measurements showed a deflection of the membrane hinting to stresses due to the deposition processes of the absorber. Finite element analysis (FEA) managed to reproduce the deflection and identified the highest stresses in the membrane in the region around the corners of the absorber. FEA was further used to identify changes in the geometry of the absorber with a positive impact on the intrinsic stresses of the membrane. However, further improvements are still necessary.

  16. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  17. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  18. Operational warnings issued by the SMC in the 8th March snow event in Catalonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilaclara, E.; Segalà, S.; Andrés, A.; Aran, M.

    2010-09-01

    The snowfall event of 8th March 2010 was one of the most important of the last years in Catalonia, with high societal impact in the communication and in the power distribution. Since 2002, after an agreement between Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC) and Civil Protection authority, the SMC is the agency responsible to carry out meteorological warnings in Catalonia. These warnings are issued depending on the thresholds which are expected to be exceeded (three different probability degrees are defined), and are characterized by a high spatial and temporal resolution. In the snow event of 8th March, forecasting team of the SMC did the first meteorological warning three days before, on 5th March. During the two following days broadcasted four different warnings, taking into account the high probability of exceeding 2 cm of snow above 200 meters, 15 above 400 m and 30 above 800 m. Furthermore, the SMC disseminated also two special press releases with the aim to extend the forecast to the public. In the afternoon of Sunday, 7th March, the snow precipitation started in some areas of Catalonia. From this moment, the SMC followed the surveillance of situation with the remote sensing tools and the Meteorological Observers Network data. This network is formed by a hundred of spotters with mobile phones able to transmit observations in real time to our web site. This surveillance and the conceptual model of snow events in Catalonia allowed the forecasters to improve the estimation of the snow level forecasted by mesoscale meteorological models. In this event, the snow level obtained from these models was higher than the real one. In spite of the accuracy of the forecast, the impact was very important in Catalonia. On one hand, it was due to the exceptionality of the event, with 3 cm of snow in Barcelona in the afternoon of a working day. On the other hand, the large amount of wet snow precipitation (until 100 mm), and the wind, contributed to an important snow

  19. Evaluation issues on real-time operating system in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y. M.; Jeong, C. H.; Koh, J. S.

    2006-07-01

    In the recent few years, using the hard real-time operating system (RTOS) of safety-critical applications has gained increased acceptance in the nuclear safety system. Failure of this software could cause catastrophic consequences for human life. The digital I and C systems of nuclear power plants also have used hard RTOSs which are executing a required mission completely within its deadline. Because the nuclear power plants have to maintain a very high level of safety, the hard RTOS software should be reliable and safe. The RTOS used in safety-critical I and C systems is the base software used for the purpose of satisfying the real-time constraints, So, careful evaluation of its safety and functionality is very important, So far, the nuclear power plants of Korea have adopted commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) RTOS software. But, these days the RTOS embedded in safety grade PLC has been developed by KNICS project controlled by Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy of Korea. Whether COTS RTOS or newly developed RTOS, it must be evaluated its safety and reliability. (authors)

  20. Addressing Cyberbullying as a Media Literacy Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Christine Suniti; Chang, Shih-Hua; Linscott, Jamie A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Asian region accounts for the highest number of internet and mobile cell phones consumers among the regions of the world. As the use of information and communications technology becomes more and more widespread, the misuse of such technology becomes a concern. Cyberbullying, or bullying using information and communications…

  1. Team Packs: Addressing Human Sexuality Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. for Child Health Policy.

    This kit provides materials that teach about Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and pregnancy using group instructional methodology to actively engage students in the learning process. Using cooperative learning materials and videotape recordings, the program stresses…

  2. Addressing hypertext design and conversion issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glusko, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Hypertext is a network of information units connected by relational links. A hypertext system is a configuration of hardware and software that presents a hypertext to users and allows them to manage and access the information that it contains. Hypertext is also a user interface concept that closely supports the ways that people use printed information. Hypertext concepts encourage modularity and the elimination of redundancy in data bases because information can be stored only once but viewed in any appropriate context. Hypertext is such a hot idea because it is an enabling technology in that workstations and personal computers finally provide enough local processing power for hypertext user interfaces.

  3. Scientific Issues Addressed by the Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourcki, W. J.; Koch, D. G.; Lissauer, J. J.; Jenkins, J. M.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Kepler Mission uses a wide field-of-view telescope to photometrically monitor 100,000 main-sequence stars for evidence of planetary transits. Because of the large number of stars monitored and because the mission is designed with a precision (0.002%) sufficient to readily recognize Earth-size planets transiting solar-like stars, several hundred Earth-size planets should be found. Based on the the Dopper velocity observations that find 2% of the main-sequence stars have Jupiter-size planets in short-period orbits, the Kepler mission is also expected to detect about 2000 giant planets. Several questions about the association of planet types and stellar characteristics can be investigated. For example; Are small planets found when Jupiter-mass planets are also present in inner orbits? What is the frequency of small planets compared to Jupiter-mass planets? What is the frequency and distribution of planets intermediate in size and mass to that of Earth and Jupiter? What correlations exist between planet size, distribution, and frequency with the characteristics of the stars they orbit? A comparison between model predictions and observation should be a useful step in evolving better models of planetary system formation and help put the formation of our Solar System in perspective.

  4. Addressing endotoxin issues in bioengineered heparin.

    PubMed

    Suwan, Jiraporn; Torelli, Amanda; Onishi, Akihiro; Dordick, Jonathan S; Linhardt, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Heparin is a widely used clinical anticoagulant that is prepared from pig intestine. A contamination of heparin in 2008 has led to a reexamination of animal-derived pharmaceuticals. A bioengineered heparin prepared by bacterial fermentation and chemical and enzymatic processing is currently under development. This study examines the challenges of reducing or removing endotoxins associated with this process that are necessary to proceed with preclinical in vivo evaluation of bioengineered heparin. The current process is assessed for endotoxin levels, and strategies are examined for endotoxin removal from polysaccharides and enzymes involved in this process. PMID:23586950

  5. Soil water content assessment: critical issues concerning the operational application of the triangle method.

    PubMed

    Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of soil water content plays a key role in water management efforts to improve irrigation efficiency. Among the indirect estimation methods of soil water content via Earth Observation data is the triangle method, used to analyze optical and thermal features because these are primarily controlled by water content within the near-surface evaporation layer and root zone in bare and vegetated soils. Although the soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer theory describes the ongoing processes, theoretical models reveal limits for operational use. When applying simplified empirical formulations, meteorological forcing could be replaced with alternative variables when the above-canopy temperature is unknown, to mitigate the effects of calibration inaccuracies or to account for the temporal admittance of the soil. However, if applied over a limited area, a characterization of both dry and wet edges could not be properly achieved; thus, a multi-temporal analysis can be exploited to include outer extremes in soil water content. A diachronic empirical approach introduces the need to assume a constancy of other meteorological forcing variables that control thermal features. Airborne images were acquired on a Sicilian vineyard during most of an entire irrigation period (fruit-set to ripening stages, vintage 2008), during which in situ soil water content was measured to set up the triangle method. Within this framework, we tested the triangle method by employing alternative thermal forcing. The results were inaccurate when air temperature at airborne acquisition was employed. Sonic and aerodynamic air temperatures confirmed and partially explained the limits of simultaneous meteorological forcing, and the use of proxy variables improved model accuracy. The analysis indicates that high spatial resolution does not necessarily imply higher accuracies. PMID:25808771

  6. Calibration Issues and Operating System Requirements for Electron-Probe Microanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, P.

    2006-01-01

    Instrument purchase requirements and dialogue with manufacturers have established hardware parameters for alignment, stability, and reproducibility, which have helped improve the precision and accuracy of electron microprobe analysis (EPMA). The development of correction algorithms and the accurate solution to quantitative analysis problems requires the minimization of systematic errors and relies on internally consistent data sets. Improved hardware and computer systems have resulted in better automation of vacuum systems, stage and wavelength-dispersive spectrometer (WDS) mechanisms, and x-ray detector systems which have improved instrument stability and precision. Improved software now allows extended automated runs involving diverse setups and better integrates digital imaging and quantitative analysis. However, instrumental performance is not regularly maintained, as WDS are aligned and calibrated during installation but few laboratories appear to check and maintain this calibration. In particular, detector deadtime (DT) data is typically assumed rather than measured, due primarily to the difficulty and inconvenience of the measurement process. This is a source of fundamental systematic error in many microprobe laboratories and is unknown to the analyst, as the magnitude of DT correction is not listed in output by microprobe operating systems. The analyst must remain vigilant to deviations in instrumental alignment and calibration, and microprobe system software must conveniently verify the necessary parameters. Microanalysis of mission critical materials requires an ongoing demonstration of instrumental calibration. Possible approaches to improvements in instrument calibration, quality control, and accuracy will be discussed. Development of a set of core requirements based on discussions with users, researchers, and manufacturers can yield documents that improve and unify the methods by which instruments can be calibrated. These results can be used to

  7. Soil Water Content Assessment: Critical Issues Concerning the Operational Application of the Triangle Method

    PubMed Central

    Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of soil water content plays a key role in water management efforts to improve irrigation efficiency. Among the indirect estimation methods of soil water content via Earth Observation data is the triangle method, used to analyze optical and thermal features because these are primarily controlled by water content within the near-surface evaporation layer and root zone in bare and vegetated soils. Although the soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer theory describes the ongoing processes, theoretical models reveal limits for operational use. When applying simplified empirical formulations, meteorological forcing could be replaced with alternative variables when the above-canopy temperature is unknown, to mitigate the effects of calibration inaccuracies or to account for the temporal admittance of the soil. However, if applied over a limited area, a characterization of both dry and wet edges could not be properly achieved; thus, a multi-temporal analysis can be exploited to include outer extremes in soil water content. A diachronic empirical approach introduces the need to assume a constancy of other meteorological forcing variables that control thermal features. Airborne images were acquired on a Sicilian vineyard during most of an entire irrigation period (fruit-set to ripening stages, vintage 2008), during which in situ soil water content was measured to set up the triangle method. Within this framework, we tested the triangle method by employing alternative thermal forcing. The results were inaccurate when air temperature at airborne acquisition was employed. Sonic and aerodynamic air temperatures confirmed and partially explained the limits of simultaneous meteorological forcing, and the use of proxy variables improved model accuracy. The analysis indicates that high spatial resolution does not necessarily imply higher accuracies. PMID:25808771

  8. Investigation on Flame Characteristics and Burner Operability Issues of Oxy-Fuel Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhuri, Ahsan

    2013-09-30

    Oxy-fuel combustion has been used previously in a wide range of industrial applications. Oxy- combustion is carried out by burning a hydrocarbon fuel with oxygen instead of air. Flames burning in this configuration achieve higher flame temperatures which present opportunities for significant efficiency improvements and direct capture of CO2 from the exhaust stream. In an effort to better understand and characterize the fundamental flame characteristics of oxy-fuel combustion this research presents the experimental measurements of flame stability of various oxyfuel flames. Effects of H2 concentration, fuel composition, exhaust gas recirculation ratio, firing inputs, and burner diameters on the flame stability of these fuels are discussed. Effects of exhaust gas recirculation i.e. CO2 and H2O (steam) acting as diluents on burner operability are also presented. The roles of firing input on flame stability are then analyzed. For this study it was observed that many oxy-flames did not stabilize without exhaust gas recirculation due to their higher burning velocities. In addition, the stability regime of all compositions was observed to decrease as the burner diameter increased. A flashback model is also presented, using the critical velocity gradient gF) values for CH4-O2-CO2 flames. The second part of the study focuses on the experimental measurements of the flow field characteristics of premixed CH4/21%O2/79%N2 and CH4/38%O2/72%CO2 mixtures at constant firing input of 7.5 kW, constant, equivalence ratio of 0.8, constant swirl number of 0.92 and constant Reynolds Numbers. These measurements were taken in a swirl stabilized combustor at atmospheric pressure. The flow field visualization using Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) technique is implemented to make a better understanding of the turbulence characteristics of

  9. LONG TERM OPERATION ISSUES FOR ELECTRICAL CABLE SYSTEMS IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Fifield, Dr Leonard S; Duckworth, Robert C; Glass III, Dr. Samuel W.

    2016-01-01

    conditions, but extension of behavior to long term degradation under more mild conditions, such as those experienced by most installed cables in nuclear power plants, is complicated by the fact that different degradation mechanisms may be involved in extreme and mild scenarios. The discrepancy in predicted results from short term, more extreme exposure and actual results from longer term, more mild exposures can be counter intuitive. For instance, due to the attenuation of oxidation penetration in material samples rapidly aged through exposure to high temperatures, the bulk of the samples may be artificially protected from thermal aging. In another example, simultaneous exposure of cable insulation material to heat and radiation may actually lead to less damage at higher temperatures than may be observed at lower temperatures. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability program of the United States (US) Department of Energy Office (DOE) of Nuclear Energy is funding research to increase the predictive understanding of electrical cable material aging and degradation in existing nuclear power plants in support of continued safe operation of plants beyond their initial license periods. This research includes the evaluation and development of methods to assess installed cable condition.

  10. Food for Thought: Ideas for Improving School Food Service Operations. Innovative Solutions To Help Address the Issues and Challenges Facing Most Public School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Comptroller of Public Accounts, Austin.

    This booklet reports on a study of food service functions in Texas schools. The report contains examples taken from previous school reviews and is based on the state Comptroller's instruction that the best practices identified by the Texas School Performance Review team be communicated to all the state's school districts. Some examples present…

  11. Cognitive issues in autonomous spacecraft-control operations: An investigation of software-mediated decision making in a scaled environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Elizabeth Drummond

    As advances in technology are applied in complex, semi-automated domains, human controllers are distanced from the controlled process. This physical and psychological distance may both facilitate and degrade human performance. To investigate cognitive issues in spacecraft ground-control operations, the present experimental research was undertaken. The primary issue concerned the ability of operations analysts who do not monitor operations to make timely, accurate decisions when autonomous software calls for human help. Another key issue involved the potential effects of spatial-visualization ability (SVA) in environments that present data in graphical formats. Hypotheses were derived largely from previous findings and predictions in the literature. Undergraduate psychology students were assigned at random to a monitoring condition or an on-call condition in a scaled environment. The experimental task required subjects to decide on the veracity of a problem diagnosis delivered by a software process on-board a simulated spacecraft. To support decision-making, tabular and graphical data displays presented information on system status. A level of software confidence in the problem diagnosis was displayed, and subjects reported their own level of confidence in their decisions. Contrary to expectations, the performance of on-call subjects did not differ significantly from that of continuous monitors. Analysis yielded a significant interaction of sex and condition: Females in the on-call condition had the lowest mean accuracy. Results included a preference for bar charts over line graphs and faster performance with tables than with line graphs. A significant correlation was found between subjective confidence and decision accuracy. SVA was found to be predictive of accuracy but not speed; and SVA was found to be a stronger predictor of performance for males than for females. Low-SVA subjects reported that they relied more on software confidence than did medium- or high

  12. Cross-cultural issues in space operations: A survey study among ground personnel of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandal, Gro Mjeldheim; Manzey, Dietrich

    2009-12-01

    Today's space operations involve co-working of people with different ethnical, professional and organisational backgrounds. The aim of this study was to examine the implications of cultural diversity for efficient collaboration within the European Space Agency (ESA), and between ESA employees and representatives from other agencies. ESA employees from European countries ( N=576) answered to the CULT Ground Survey. The results showed that differences in relation to leadership and decision making were the most important issues thought to interfere with efficient co-working within ESA, and between ESA employees and colleagues from other agencies. Employees who collaborated with more than three nationalities within ESA indicated most challenges in co-working due to differences in compliance, behavioural norms and competitiveness. Challenges in co-working differed between agencies, and these differences were consistent with value differences in the national populations. The results may have applied value for training of European employees working in international space program teams.

  13. 46 CFR 170.140 - Operating information for a vessel constructed on or after January 1, 2009 and issued a SOLAS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operating information for a vessel constructed on or... for a vessel constructed on or after January 1, 2009 and issued a SOLAS safety certificate. (a) This section applies to each vessel that is— (1) Constructed on or after January 1, 2009; and (2) Issued...

  14. The importance for the MDG4 and MDG5 of addressing reproductive health issues during the second decade of life: review and analysis from times series data of 51 African countries.

    PubMed

    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate

    2011-06-01

    Addressing adolescent sexual and reproductive health issues are central to efforts for reducing childhood and maternal mortality embedded in MDG4 and MDG5. This paper reviews these issues in Africa and uses statistical methods for measuring changes to analyze recent and comparable time series data from 51 African countries. The contribution of adolescent fertility to total fertility and mortality remains quite high. Delayed marriage is occurring concomitantly with postponement of sexual debut among unmarried adolescents. Six African countries are likely to achieve the MGD4 and five are likely to reach the target for the MDG5; the majority of sub-Saharan African countries will fall short of achieving these goals, not even by 2100 for many at current rates of change in progress indicators. Implementing ground-breaking nationally owned mortality-reduction schemes covering preconceptional and interconceptional periods and well-functioning comprehensive health-care system secured by sustained commitments and financial investments in health and social services are urgently needed, in order to repeal trends of further undoing successes achieved so far or slowing recent progress, thus hastening the pace of child and maternal mortality decline. PMID:22590890

  15. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. VI. Dissolved oxygen concentrations below operating dams

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.; Kumar, K.D.; Solomon, J.A.; Hildebrand, S.G.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of an effort aimed at determining whether or not water quality degradation, as exemplified by dissolved oxygen concentrations, is a potentially significant issue affecting small-scale hydropower development in the US. The approach was to pair operating hydroelectric sites of all sizes with dissolved oxygen measurements from nearby downstream US Geological Survey water quality stations (acquired from the WATSTORE data base). The USGS data were used to calculate probabilities of non-compliance (PNCs), i.e., the probabilities that dissolved oxygen concentrations in the discharge waters of operating hydroelectric dams will drop below 5 mg/l. PNCs were estimated for each site, season (summer vs remaining months), and capacity category (less than or equal to 30 MW vs >30 MW). Because of the low numbers of usable sites in many states, much of the subsequent analysis was conducted on a regional basis. During the winter months (November through June) all regions had low mean PNCs regardless of capacity. Most regions had higher mean PNCs in summer than in winter, and summer PNCs were greater for large-scale than for small-scale sites. Among regions, the highest mean summer PNCs were found in the Great Basin, the Southeast, and the Ohio Valley. To obtain a more comprehensive picture of the effects of season and capacity on potential dissolved oxygen problems, cumulative probability distributions of PNC were developed for selected regions. This analysis indicates that low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the tailwaters below operating hydroelectric projects are a problem largely confined to large-scale facilities.

  16. State Decision-Makers Guide for Hazardous Waste Management: Defining Hazardous Wastes, Problem Recognition, Land Use, Facility Operations, Conceptual Framework, Policy Issues, Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, Alan; And Others

    Presented are key issues to be addressed by state, regional, and local governments and agencies in creating effective hazardous waste management programs. Eight chapters broadly frame the topics which state-level decision makers should consider. These chapters include: (1) definition of hazardous waste; (2) problem definition and recognition; (3)…

  17. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  18. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  19. Space station operations task force. Panel 4 report: Management integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Management Integration Panel of the Space Station Operations Task Force was chartered to provide a structure and ground rules for integrating the efforts of the other three panels and to address a number of cross cutting issues that affect all areas of space station operations. Issues addressed include operations concept implementation, alternatives development and integration process, strategic policy issues and options, and program management emphasis areas.

  20. Operational Issues and Trends Associated with the Pilot Introduction of Zinc for Childhood Diarrhoea in Bougouni District, Mali

    PubMed Central

    Winch, Peter J.; Gilroy, Kate E.; Doumbia, Seydou; Patterson, Amy E.; Daou, Zana; Diawara, Adama; Swedberg, Eric; Black, Robert E.; Fontaine, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Zinc for the treatment of childhood diarrhoea was introduced in a pilot area in southern Mali to prepare for a cluster-randomized effectiveness study and to inform policies on how to best introduce and promote zinc at the community level. Dispersible zinc tablets in 14-tablet blister packs were provided through community health centres and drug kits managed by community health workers (CHWs) in two health zones in Bougouni district, Mali. Village meetings and individual counselling provided by CHWs and head nurses at health centres were the principal channels of communication. A combination of methods were employed to (a) detect problems in communication about the benefits of zinc and its mode of administration; (b) identify and resolve obstacles to implementation of zinc through existing health services; and (c) describe household-level constraints to the adoption of appropriate home-management practices for diarrhoea, including administration of both zinc and oral rehydration solution (ORS). Population-based household surveys with caretakers of children sick in the previous two weeks were carried out before and four months after the introduction of zinc supplementation. Household follow-up visits with children receiving zinc from the health centres and CHWs were conducted on day 3 and 14 after treatment for a subsample of children. A qualitative process evaluation also was conducted to investigate operational issues. Preliminary evidence from this study suggests that the introduction of zinc does not reduce the use of ORS and may reduce inappropriate antibiotic use for childhood diarrhoea. Financial access to treatments, management of concurrent diarrhoea and fever, and high use of unauthorized drug vendors were identified as factors affecting the effectiveness of the intervention in this setting. The introduction of zinc, if not appropriately integrated with other disease-control strategies, has the potential to decrease the appropriate presumptive treatment of

  1. Operational issues and trends associated with the pilot introduction of zinc for childhood diarrhoea in Bougouni district, Mali.

    PubMed

    Winch, Peter J; Gilroy, Kate E; Doumbia, Seydou; Patterson, Amy E; Daou, Zana; Diawara, Adama; Swedberg, Eric; Black, Robert E; Fontaine, Olivier

    2008-06-01

    Zinc for the treatment of childhood diarrhoea was introduced in a pilot area in southern Mali to prepare for a cluster-randomized effectiveness study and to inform policies on how to best introduce and promote zinc at the community level. Dispersible zinc tablets in 14-tablet blister packs were provided through community health centres and drug kits managed by community health workers (CHWs) in two health zones in Bougouni district, Mali. Village meetings and individual counselling provided by CHWs and head nurses at health centres were the principal channels of communication. A combination of methods were employed to (a) detect problems in communication about the benefits of zinc and its mode of administration; (b) identify and resolve obstacles to implementation of zinc through existing health services; and (c) describe household-level constraints to the adoption of appropriate home-management practices for diarrhoea, including administration of both zinc and oral rehydration solution (ORS). Population-based household surveys with caretakers of children sick in the previous two weeks were carried out before and four months after the introduction of zinc supplementation. Household follow-up visits with children receiving zinc from the health centres and CHWs were conducted on day 3 and 14 after treatment for a subsample of children. A qualitative process evaluation also was conducted to investigate operational issues. Preliminary evidence from this study suggests that the introduction of zinc does not reduce the use of ORS and may reduce inappropriate antibiotic use for childhood diarrhoea. Financial access to treatments, management of concurrent diarrhoea and fever, and high use of unauthorized drug vendors were identified as factors affecting the effectiveness of the intervention in this setting. The introduction of zinc, if not appropriately integrated with other disease-control strategies, has the potential to decrease the appropriate presumptive treatment of

  2. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation. PMID:25145716

  3. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation.

  4. A Literary Review of One Versus Two Factor Theories of Learning as the Issue Relates to Operant Conditioning of the Autonomic Nervous System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Susann

    This paper reviews several issues regarding one- versus two-factor theories of learning. First, the traditional distinctions between classical and operant conditioning are presented. This includes both theoretical and experimental contrasts. Second, empirical evidence in support for a one-factor theory is examined. Numerous research studies…

  5. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  6. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  7. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  8. Issues in Peer Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawamura, Mark H.

    2001-01-01

    Based on concerns raised at a workshop at the Southern California College of Optometry, addresses critical issues in the process of peer review of faculty teaching and possible alternatives to these issues as applied to an optometric institution. (EV)

  9. The embedded operating system project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    This progress report describes research towards the design and construction of embedded operating systems for real-time advanced aerospace applications. The applications concerned require reliable operating system support that must accommodate networks of computers. The report addresses the problems of constructing such operating systems, the communications media, reconfiguration, consistency and recovery in a distributed system, and the issues of realtime processing. A discussion is included on suitable theoretical foundations for the use of atomic actions to support fault tolerance and data consistency in real-time object-based systems. In particular, this report addresses: atomic actions, fault tolerance, operating system structure, program development, reliability and availability, and networking issues. This document reports the status of various experiments designed and conducted to investigate embedded operating system design issues.

  10. Key Issues in Instructional Computer Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozny, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    Addresses key issues facing universities which plan to establish instructional computer graphics facilities, including computer-aided design/computer aided manufacturing systems, role in curriculum, hardware, software, writing instructional software, faculty involvement, operations, and research. Thirty-seven references and two appendices are…

  11. Reduction of CO2 Emissions Due to Wind Energy - Methods and Issues in Estimating Operational Emission Reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Holttinen, Hannele; Kiviluoma, Juha; McCann, John; Clancy, Matthew; Millgan, Michael; Pineda, Ivan; Eriksen, Peter Borre; Orths, Antje; Wolfgang, Ove

    2015-10-05

    This paper presents ways of estimating CO2 reductions of wind power using different methodologies. Estimates based on historical data have more pitfalls in methodology than estimates based on dispatch simulations. Taking into account exchange of electricity with neighboring regions is challenging for all methods. Results for CO2 emission reductions are shown from several countries. Wind power will reduce emissions for about 0.3-0.4 MtCO2/MWh when replacing mainly gas and up to 0.7 MtCO2/MWh when replacing mainly coal powered generation. The paper focuses on CO2 emissions from power system operation phase, but long term impacts are shortly discussed.

  12. Social Security and Undergraduates with Disabilities: An Analysis of the National Postsecondary Student Aid Survey. Addressing Trends in Development in Secondary Education and Transition. Information Brief. Vol. 3, Issue 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Hugh; Conway, Megan A.; Change, Kelly B.T.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this brief is to describe the characteristics of undergraduate students receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and Social Security Administration (SSI) benefits as they relate to issues of participation in postsecondary education and employment. This brief describes results from the National Postsecondary Student Aid…

  13. A review on durability issues and restoration techniques in long-term operations of direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood, Asad; Scibioh, M. Aulice; Prabhuram, Joghee; An, Myung-Gi; Ha, Heung Yong

    2015-11-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) remain attractive among advanced energy conversion technologies due to their high energy density and simple system configuration. Although they made an early market entry but failed to attain a large-scale commercialization mainly because of their inferior performance sustainment in lifetime operations and high production costs. There have been lots of R&D efforts made to upgrade the long-term durability of DMFCs to a commercially acceptable standard. These rigorous efforts have been useful in gaining insights about various degradation mechanisms and their origins. This review first briefly describes the recent progress in lifetime enhancement of DMFC technology reported by various groups in academia and industry. Then, it is followed by comprehensive discussions on the major performance degradation routes and associated physico-chemical origins, and influence of operational parameters, together with the methods which have been employed to alleviate and restore the performance losses. Finally, a brief summary of the presented literature survey is provided in conjunction with some possible future research directions.

  14. Experimental and theoretical investigation of operational and survivability issues in thermal radiators for thermionic space nuclear power systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Keddy, M.D.

    1994-03-15

    Heat pipes are a promising candidate for spacecraft radiators. This report describes a program designed to investigate the mass migration phenomenon in heat pipes. The program involved experiments to observe and measure the mass migration rates in both high and low operating temperature heat pipes. The low-temperature experiments were intended to simulate the operation of high-temperature, liquid metal heat pipes. Octadecane was the selected low-temperature working fluid. It is a paraffin and exhibits some of the characteristics of liquid metal working fluids. Sodium was the working fluid used in the high temperature experiment. A one-dimensional compressible flow model was developed for describing the hydrodynamics of rarefied vapor flow in heat pipe condensers. This model was compared with experimental data for the low-temperature octadecane heat pipes and the high-temperature sodium heat pipe. The model was found to satisfactorily predict the temperature profiles and location of freeze-fronts for the low-temperature heat pipes. Mass migration rate predictions using the model were satisfactory for the low-temperature heat pipes as well. However, the mass migration prediction for the high-temperature, sodium heat pipe was not in agreement with experimental data. An analytical model which accounts for property variations in the radial as well as longitudinal directions is recommended. A one-dimensional model was unsatisfactory for predicting mass migration rates in liquid metal heat pipes.

  15. The Mercator Océan operational and reanalysis systems: overview of recent improvements and scientific key issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, F.; Benkiran, M.; Bourdalle-Badie, R.; Bricaud, C.; Cailleau, S.; Chanut, J.; Desportes, C.; Dombrowsky, E.; drevillon, M.; Drillet, Y.; Elmoussaoui, A.; Ferry, N.; Garric, G.; Greiner, E.; Le Galloudec, O.; Lellouche, J.; Levier, B.; Parent, L.; Perruche, C.; Reffray, G.; Regnier, C.; Rémy, E.; Testut, C.; Tranchant, B.

    2011-12-01

    In the framework of the European project GMES/MyOcean, Mercator Océan has designed a hierarchy of ocean analysis, forecasting and reanalysis systems based on numerical models of the ocean/sea-ice, data assimilation methods and biogeochemistry model. Operational weekly analysis provide initial conditions for daily predictions. All ocean model configurations are based on NEMO. The 1/4° global and 1/12° Atlantic and Mediterranean configurations are improved with (i) the use of high frequency (3h) atmospheric forcings including the diurnal cycle, (ii) the use of the CORE bulk formulation, (iii) the use of a new TKE vertical mixing scheme, (iv) the use of the LIM2-EVP ice model. Leading to a better representation of the diurnal cycle, the stratification in upper layers, the sea-ice interannual extensions, or mesoscale features and WBC in the 1/12°. The 1/36° IBI regional configuration, adds non linear free surface, atmospheric pressure and tidal forcing, barotropic/baroclinic time splitting, and specific boundary conditions for operational nesting with the global system. At regional scale, a number of improvements (bathymetry and bottom friction) make it suitable for coastal modelling, validated state-of-art coastal ocean models. Data assimilation is based on reduced order Kalman filter using 3D multivariate modal decomposition of the forecast error. It assimilates jointly satellite altimetry, SST and in situ observations (temperature and salinity profiles, including ARGO data). Among difficulties, the assimilation has to be operated in real time, with limited and less accurate set of observations. Recent improvements in the global systems include (v) the insertion of the zonal/meridional velocity components into the control vector, (vi) the use of the IAU procedure, (vii) the insertion of new observational operators, (viii) the use of a new MDT, (ix) the introduction of pseudo-observations, (x) the use of a bias correction method based on a variational approach to

  16. Cross-Cultural Issues of Intra- and Inter-Organisational Cooperation in Space Operations: A Survey Study with Ground Personnel of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mjeldheim Sandal, Gro; Mjeldheim Sandal, Gro; Manzey, Dietrich

    Today's space operations often involve close co-working of people with different ethnical, professional and organizational backgrounds. The aim of the study was to examine the implications of cultural diversity for efficient collaboration within the European Space Agency (ESA), and between ESA employees and representatives from other agencies. Methods: A web-based survey was answered by 905 employees at the European Astronaut Centre and at the European Space Technology Centre. An adapted version of the Flight Management Attitude Questionnaire by Helmreich and Merrit was used. Personnel were also asked about interpersonal and operational issues that interfered with efficient co-working within ESA and in relation to other space agencies. Results: Collaboration within ESA: A descriptive analysis was conducted of the rank orders of challenges perceived by members of different nationalities (the Netherlands (N=68), German (N=138), Italian (N=135), French (N=124), British (N=84) and Scandinavian (27).Rank orders show a surprisingly uniformity across nationalities. Most respondents perceived differences in the preferred leadership style as the main challenge for co-working in multi-national groups followed by differences in dealing with conflicts and misunderstandings. In contrast communication problems due different languages and differences in non-verbal behaviour, as well as differences in gender stereotypes were among the lowest rated issues. However, Scandinavian respondents showed a different pattern from other nationalities. Collaboration between agencies: The most significant issues reported to interfere with the efficiency of inter-agency collaboration varied. Most difficulties were reported in relation to clarity of communication, insufficient sharing of task related information, understanding the process of decision making in partner organization, and authoritarian leadership style in the partner organization Conclusion: Cultural differences in leadership and

  17. 47 CFR 13.10 - Licensee address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee address. 13.10 Section 13.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.10 Licensee address. In accordance with § 1.923 of this chapter all applications must specify an address where...

  18. Initial Assessment of Sulfur-Iodine Process Safety Issues and How They May Affect Pilot Plant Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Cherry

    2006-09-01

    The sulfur-iodine process to make hydrogen by the thermochemical splitting of water is under active development as part of a U.S. Department of Energy program. An integrated lab scale system is currently being designed and built. The next planned stage of development is a pilot plant with a thermal input of about 500 kW, equivalent to about 30,000 standard liters per hour of hydrogen production. The sulfur-iodine process contains a variety of hazards, including temperatures up to 850 ºC and hazardous chemical species including SO2, H2SO4, HI, I2, and of course H2. The siting and design of a pilot plant must consider these and other hazards. This report presents an initial analysis of the hazards that might affect pilot plant design and should be considered in the initial planning. The general hazards that have been identified include reactivity, flammability, toxicity, pressure, electrical hazards, and industrial hazards such as lifting and rotating equipment. Personnel exposure to these hazards could occur during normal operations, which includes not only running the process at the design conditions but also initial inventory loading, heatup, startup, shutdown, and system flushing before equipment maintenance. Because of the complexity and severity of the process, these ancillary operations are expected to be performed frequently. In addition, personnel could be exposed to the hazards during various abnormal situations which could include unplanned phase changes of liquids or solids, leaks of process fluids or cooling water into other process streams, unintentional introducion of foreign species into the process, and unexpected side reactions. Design of a pilot plant will also be affected by various codes and regulations such as the International Building Code, the International Fire Code, various National Fire Protection Association Codes, and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act.

  19. Addressing Your Child's Weight at the Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  20. Is It More Important to Address the Issue of Patient Mobility or to Guarantee Universal Health Coverage in Europe?: Comment on "Regional Incentives and Patient Cross-Border Mobility: Evidence From the Italian Experience".

    PubMed

    Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2015-09-02

    This paper discusses whether European institutions should devote so much attention and funding to cross-border healthcare or they should instead prioritise guaranteeing universal health coverage (UHC), "addressing inequalities" and tackling the effects of austerity measures. The paper argues through providing the evidence in both areas of research, that the priority at European level from a public health and social justice perspective should be to guarantee UHC for all the population living in Europe and prioritise protective action for those who are most in need.

  1. Is It More Important to Address the Issue of Patient Mobility or to Guarantee Universal Health Coverage in Europe?: Comment on "Regional Incentives and Patient Cross-Border Mobility: Evidence From the Italian Experience".

    PubMed

    Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses whether European institutions should devote so much attention and funding to cross-border healthcare or they should instead prioritise guaranteeing universal health coverage (UHC), "addressing inequalities" and tackling the effects of austerity measures. The paper argues through providing the evidence in both areas of research, that the priority at European level from a public health and social justice perspective should be to guarantee UHC for all the population living in Europe and prioritise protective action for those who are most in need. PMID:26673649

  2. Addressing psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Woody, G E; McLellan, A T; O'Brien, C P; Luborsky, L

    1991-01-01

    Research studies indicate that addressing psychiatric comorbidity can improve treatment for selected groups of substance-abusing patients. However, the chances for implementing the necessary techniques on a large scale are compromised by the absence of professional input and guidance within programs. This is especially true in public programs, which treat some of the most disadvantaged, disturbed, and socially destructive individuals in the entire mental health system. One starting point for upgrading the level of knowledge and training of staff members who work in this large treatment system could be to develop a better and more authoritative information dissemination network. Such a system exists in medicine; physicians are expected to read appropriate journals and to guide their treatment decisions using the data contained in the journals. Standards of practice and methods for modifying current practice are within the tradition of reading new facts, studying old ones, and comparing treatment outcome under different conditions with what is actually being done. No such general system of information-gathering or -sharing exists, particularly in public treatment programs. One of the most flagrant examples of this "educational shortfall" can be found among those methadone programs that adamantly insist on prescribing no more than 30 to 35 mg/day for all patients, in spite of the overwhelming evidence that these dose levels generally are inadequate. In some cases, program directors are unaware of studies that have shown the relationship between dose and outcome. In other cases, they are aware of the studies but do not modify their practices accordingly. This example of inadequate dosing is offered as an example of one situation that could be improved by adherence to a system of authoritative and systematic information dissemination. Many issues in substance abuse treatment do not lend themselves to information dissemination as readily as that of methadone dosing

  3. National Academy of Sciences: Helping Scientists Navigate & Troubleshoot Visa Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Kathie

    2014-03-01

    The International Visitors Office (IVO) is a program operated by the Board on International Scientific Organizations of the National Academy of Sciences. The IVO serves as a resource on visa-related issues for scientists and students traveling to the United States for professional activities. The speaker will address visa issues for international scientists wishing to visit the United States, tips for trouble-shooting visa issues, and statistics on the current visa system.

  4. Public participation in environmental issues

    SciTech Connect

    Pilot, J.

    1998-12-31

    The need for public participation in environmental issues has grown in the past five years. The Responsible Care{reg_sign} Program, developed by the chemical industry, as well as government requirements for citizens` input into regulatory review have initiated public committees for environmental management issues. This paper will discuss three programs that have been implemented in Ontario to assist in public participation in environmental issues covering the following: 1. Great Waste Management Debate held in co-operation with Government, Boards of Trade, Industry, and Youth; 2. Public Liaison committee for Ontario`s Resource Recovery -- Waste to Energy Facility operating in the Region of Peel, the role they have played in its operation with the community; and 3. Brampton Environmental Community Advisory Panel, initiated by the Brampton Chemical Association`s need under Responsible Care for a public program to address concern related to company`s environmental issues in the community. As Chair of all three Committees, the paper will cover the benefits of the committees for public input and review of environmental issues related to environmental management.

  5. Variable addressability imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubala, Kenneth Scott

    The use of variable addressability for creating an optimum human-machine interface is investigated. Current wide field optical systems present more information to the human visual system than it has the capacity to perceive. The axial resolution, and/or the field of view can be increased by minimizing the difference between what the eye can perceive and what the system presents. The variable addressability function was developed through the use of a human factors experiment that characterized the position of the eye during the simulated use of a binocular system. Applying the variable addressability function to a conventional optical design required the development of a new metric for evaluating the expected performance of the variable addressability system. The new metric couples psycho-visual data and traditional optical data in order to specify the required performance of the variable addressability system. A non-linear mapping of the pixels is required in order to have the system work most efficiently with the human visual system, while also compensating for eye motion. The non-linear mapping function, which is the backbone of the variable addressability technique, can be created using optical distortion. The lens and system design is demonstrated in two different spectral bands. One of the designs was fabricated, tested, and assembled into a prototype. Through a second human factors study aimed at measuring performance, the variable addressability prototype was directly compared to a uniform addressability prototype, quantifying the difference in performance for the two prototypes. The human factors results showed that the variable addressability prototype provided better resolution 13% of the time throughout the experiment, but was 15% slower in use than the uniform addressability prototype.

  6. Mediating equity in shared water between community and industry: The effects of an after school program that addresses adolescents' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of water science and environmental issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Mary Chandler

    This critical ethnography deconstructs how one participant researcher came to understand young adults' changing knowledge about water science and environmental issues in an after school program in Colombia. The program intended to empower self-identified young community leaders by teaching participants to engage community members in discourse related to how environmental factors impact one's level of health and quality of life. The data presented in this study illustrate how student participants responded to long-term teacher engagement and to particular curricular components that included hands-on science teaching and social justice coaching. I assessed how student interest in and knowledge of local water ecology and sanitation infrastructure changed throughout the program. Students' responses to the use of technology and digital media were also included in the analysis. The data demonstrates a dramatic change in student's attitudes and perceptions related to their environment and how they feel about their ability to make positive changes in their community.

  7. Contemporary Native American Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestas, John R., Ed.

    A compilation of 58 representative speeches from the American Indian Community, this book is divided into 2 parts; Part I deals with issues of contemporary concern and Part II illustrates speech types and styles. All speeches are classified by issue as follows: sovereignty (2 speeches, 1 on the rise and fall of Indian sovereignty); trust…

  8. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  9. A novel electron gun with an independently addressable cathode array

    SciTech Connect

    Rudys, Joseph Matthew; Reed, Kim Warren; Pena, Gary Edward; Schneider, Larry X.

    2006-08-01

    The design of a novel electron gun with an array of independently addressable cathode elements is presented. Issues relating to operation in a 6.5 Tesla axial magnetic field are discussed. Simulations with the TriComp electromagnetic field code that were used to determine the space charge limited tube characteristic and to model focusing of the electron beam in the magnetic field are reviewed. Foil heating and stress calculations are discussed. The results of CYLTRAN simulations yielding the energy spectrum of the electron beam and the current transmitted through the foil window are presented.

  10. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  11. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  12. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  13. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  14. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  15. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... institutional offices; (2) Reviews of telephone directories or inquiries of information operators in the...

  16. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  17. Space Station Software Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (Editor); Beskenis, S. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Issues in the development of software for the Space Station are discussed. Software acquisition and management, software development environment, standards, information system support for software developers, and a future software advisory board are addressed.

  18. Issues Associated with a Hypersonic Maglev Sled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haney, Joseph W.; Lenzo, J.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic levitation has been explored for application from motors to transportation. All of these applications have been at velocities where the physics of the air or operating fluids are fairly well known. Application of Maglev to hypersonic velocities (Mach greater than 5) presents many opportunities, but also issues that require understanding and resolution. Use of Maglev to upgrade the High Speed Test Track at Holloman Air Force Base in Alamogordo New Mexico is an actual hypersonic application that provides the opportunity to improve test capabilities. However, there are several design issues that require investigation. This paper presents an overview of the application of Maglev to the test track and the issues associated with developing a hypersonic Maglev sled. The focus of this paper is to address the issues with the Maglev sled design, rather than the issues with the development of superconducting magnets of the sled system.

  19. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating. PMID:26420812

  20. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  1. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  2. Changes in waste stabilisation pond performance resulting from the retrofit of activated sludge treatment upstream: part II--Management and operating issues.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, D G; O'Brien, M J; Cromar, N J; Fallowfield, H J

    2005-01-01

    Bolivar Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) was originally commissioned with trickling filter secondary treatment, followed by waste stabilisation pond (WSP) treatment and marine discharge. In 1999, a dissolved air flotation/filtration (DAFF) plant was commissioned to treat a portion of the WSP effluent for horticultural reuse. In 2001, the trickling filters were replaced with activated sludge treatment. A shift in WSP ecology became evident soon after this time, characterised by a statistically significant reduction in algal counts in the pond effluent, and increased variability in algal counts and occasional population crashes in the ponds. While the photosynthetic capacity of the WSPs has been reduced, the concomitant reduction in organic loading has meant that the WSPs have not become overloaded. As a result of the improvement in water quality leaving the ponds, significant cost savings and improved product water quality have been realised in the subsequent DAFF treatment stage. A number of operating issues have arisen from the change, however, including the re-emergence of a midge fly nuisance at the site. Control of midge flies using chemical spraying has negated the cost savings realised in the DAFF treatment stage. While biomanipulation of the WSP may provide a less aggressive method of midge control, this case demonstrates the difficulty of predicting in advance all ramifications of a retrospective process change.

  3. Heat and mass transfer scale-up issues during freeze-drying, III: control and characterization of dryer differences via operational qualification tests.

    PubMed

    Rambhatla, S; Tchessalov, S; Pikal, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate differences in heat and mass transfer between freeze dryers due to inherent design characteristics using data obtained from sublimation tests. This study also aimed to provide guidelines for convenient scale-up of the freeze-drying process. Data obtained from sublimation tests performed on laboratory-scale, pilot, and production freeze dryers were used to evaluate various heat and mass transfer parameters: nonuniformity in shelf surface temperatures, resistance of pipe, refrigeration system, and condenser. Emissivity measurements of relevant surfaces such as the chamber wall and the freeze dryer door were taken to evaluate the impact of atypical radiation heat transfer during scale-up. "Hot" and "cold" spots were identified on the shelf surface of different freeze dryers, and the impact of variation in shelf surface temperatures on the primary drying time and the product temperature during primary drying was studied. Calculations performed using emissivity measurements on different freeze dryers suggest that a front vial in the laboratory lyophilizer received 1.8 times more heat than a front vial in a manufacturing freeze dryer operating at a shelf temperature of -25 degrees C and a chamber pressure of 150 mTorr during primary drying. Therefore, front vials in the laboratory are much more atypical than front vials in manufacturing. Steady-state heat and mass transfer equations were used to study a combination of different scale-up issues pertinent during lyophilization cycles commonly used for the freeze-drying of pharmaceuticals. PMID:16796357

  4. Addressing Poverty Issues in Christian Schools: Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankston, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of Christian education is to incorporate Biblical values in the curriculum, and one essential message in the Bible is to reach out and liberate the poor. Through interviews, writing protocols, a focus group meeting, and document analysis, this narrative study focuses on the question of how do Christian educators create pedagogical…

  5. A Strategic Model to Address Issues of Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontana, Leonard; Johnson, Elease; Green, Peggy; Macia, Jose; Wright, Ted; Daniel, Yanick; Distefano Diaz, Mary F.; Obenauf, Steve

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an interactive and collaborative strategic planning process by a community college in which student retention and success became a focus of a re-accreditation endeavor. The underlying assumption of this strategic planning effort was that engaging all groups that have a stake in student retention at the beginning of the…

  6. Jupiter's Polar Magnetosphere: Outstanding Issues to be Addressed By Juno

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Connerney, J. E. P.; McComas, D. J.; Mauk, B.; Gladstone, R.; Adriani, A.; Bagenal, F.; Bolton, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Juno is on course to enter polar orbit at Jupiter on July 4, 2016. After a small number of preliminary orbits during which the orbital period is reduced, approximately 30 science orbits will be executed to explore the interior of Jupiter, hence, its origin. A second primary objective of the mission, and the subject of this talk, is to carry out the first exploration of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere. All previous missions to Jupiter, including Ulysses, remained at low Jovian latitudes at close range, hence, our knowledge of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere is a composite of remote sensing (such as radio emissions in the hectometric and decametric bands as well as IR and UV images); application of observations of Earth's auroral and polar cap particles, fields, and auroral emissions; and modeling. While these likely inform our expectations of what Juno will actually measure qualitatively, Juno will provide the first in depth exploration of auroral processes at another planet, other than a small number of very brief encounters of Saturn's kilometric radio source region by Cassini. With a reasonably complete suite of in situ magnetospheric measurements coupled with remote sensing, Juno will enable us to compare Jupiter's polar magnetosphere with those expectations. Certainly, understanding the nature of auroral currents and mechanisms for particle acceleration are high on the list of priorities for these studies. In addition, it is expected that Juno will greatly improve our understanding of the mapping of auroral processes from high latitudes and low altitudes to the middle and outer magnetosphere.

  7. Ethical Issues in Addressing Inequity in/through ESL Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ena

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines a researcher's struggles with conducting "ethical" research when her case study reveals racializations faced by a minority teacher in a Canadian ESL program. How might becoming privy to research participants' experiences of inequity in ESL education complicate the notion of research ethics when "doing the right thing" runs…

  8. Obama address touches on research, energy, and environmental issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-02-01

    President Barack Obama's State of the Union message, delivered on 24 January, touched on the need for basic research, energy production, support for clean energy, and environmental protection, but it included just one passing reference to climate change. In addition, the speech made no note of the Administration's recent denial of a controversial application for the Keystone XL pipeline to transport crude oil from Canada to the United States and made just an elliptical reference regarding the bankrupt Solyndra Corporation, which the administration had touted as a clean energy company. Innovation "demands basic research," Obama said, adding that Congress should not "gut these investments in our budget." Noting that one promise for innovation is American-made energy, Obama said he is directing the administration to "open more than 75% of our potential offshore oil and gas resources."

  9. Advances in Pediatric Asthma in 2010: Addressing the Major Issues

    PubMed Central

    Szefler, Stanley J.

    2010-01-01

    Last year’s Advances in Pediatric Asthma concluded with the following statement “If we can close these [remaining] gaps through better communication, improvements in the health care system and new insights into treatment, we will move closer to better methods to intervene early in the course of the disease and induce clinical remission as quickly as possible in most children”. This year’s summary will focus on recent advances in pediatric asthma that take steps moving forward as reported in Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology publications in 2010. Some of those recent reports show us how to improve asthma management through steps to better understand the natural history of asthma, individualize asthma care, reduce asthma exacerbations, manage inner city asthma, and some potential new ways to use available medications to improve asthma control. It is clear that we have made many significant gains in managing asthma in children but we have a ways to go to prevent asthma exacerbations, alter the natural history of the disease, and to reduce health disparities in asthma care. Perhaps new directions in personalized medicine and improved health care access and communication will help maintain steady progress in alleviating the burden of this disease in children, especially young children. PMID:21211645

  10. Something to "Speak" about: Addressing Sensitive Issues through Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackett, Mark

    2007-01-01

    "Speak," by Laurie Halse Anderson, is one of the most powerful young adult novels to come along in the past decade. It has won numerous awards, including the "School Library Journal" award for "Best Book of the Year," and was a National Book Award Finalist. Despite this acclaim, many English teachers are uncomfortable teaching "Speak" in their…

  11. A Model for Addressing Spiritual Issues in Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Thomas J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the hesitancy of counselors and psychotherapists to approach the spiritual concerns of clients. Proposes a counseling and psychotherapy training model that contains discrete yet continuous levels of learning. The holistic epistemology of Gregory Bateson is used to derive guiding theoretical principles for the training model. (Author/JAC)

  12. Developing Social Marketing Capacity to Address Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, S.; Smart, E.; Kopela, J.; Gibson, T.; King, V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Social marketing is increasingly being seen as a potentially effective means of pursuing health education practice generally and within various specific areas such as mental health and wellbeing and more broadly in tackling health inequalities. This paper aims to report and reflect on the authors' experiences of undertaking a health…

  13. New smart materials to address issues of structural health monitoring.

    SciTech Connect

    Chaplya, Pavel Mikhail

    2004-12-01

    Nuclear weapons and their storage facilities may benefit from in-situ structural health monitoring systems. Appending health-monitoring functionality to conventional materials and structures has been only marginally successful. The purpose of this project was to evaluate feasibility of a new smart material that includes self-sensing health monitoring functions similar to that of a nervous system of a living organism. Reviews of current efforts in the fields of heath-monitoring, nanotechnology, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), and wireless sensor networks were conducted. Limitations of the current nanotechnology methods were identified and new approaches were proposed to accelerate the development of self-sensing materials. Wireless networks of MEMS sensors have been researched as possible prototypes of self-sensing materials. Sensor networks were also examined as enabling technologies for dense data collection techniques to be used for validation of numerical methods and material parameter identification. Each grain of the envisioned material contains sensors that are connected in a dendritic manner similar to networks of neurons in a nervous system. Each sensor/neuron can communicate with the neighboring grains. Both the state of the sensor (on/off) and the quality of communication signal (speed/amplitude) should indicate not only a presence of a structural defect but the nature of the defect as well. For example, a failed sensor may represent a through-grain crack, while a lost or degraded communication link may represent an inter-granular crack. A technology to create such material does not exist. While recent progress in the fields of MEMS and nanotechnology allows to envision these new smart materials, it is unrealistic to expect creation of self-sensing materials in the near future. The current state of MEMS, nanotechnology, communication, sensor networks, and data processing technologies indicates that it will take more than ten years for the technologies to mature enough to make self-sensing materials a reality. Nevertheless, recent advances in the field of nanotechnology demonstrate that nanotubes, nanorods, and nanoparticles of carbon, boron and other materials have remarkable mechanical and electrical properties. This would provide. for a plethora of potential applications including self-sensing materials. Record strength-to-weight ratios, ballistic conductivity, and sensing capabilities (i.e., piezo- resistance and piezoelectricity) have been reported for carbon nanotubes. The first transistors, sensors, and actuators have been made from the carbon nanotubes and other nanomaterials. However, nanomaterials are notoriously difficult to manipulate into useful geometries. Nano-manufacturing processes often produce bundles or random networks of nanostructured materials. Samples of the material are then manipulated with advanced microscopy tools to measure properties or to create a single device. This is a laborious and time consuming process. An often overlooked property of the manufactured nanotube bundles is their similarity to the dendritic structure of neural networks with a great quantity of interconnects that may serve as initiation sites for artificial neurons in a self-sensing material nervous system. To accelerate the development of self-sensing materials, future research should concentrate on naturally occurring dendritic nano-structures. While self-sensing materials with subgrain size sensors (scale of micrometers) remain in the realm of basic research, meso-scale (millimeters to centimeters) sensors and their networks are in the state of mature research and have begun to find their way into commercial applications. Macro-scale (centimeters to decimeters) sensors and their networks are commercially available from various sources. The majority of applications that employ sensor networks are driven by the needs of the Department of Defense. Widespread adaptation of sensor networks has been limited by, on one hand, the sensor's high cost of design, development, and deployment, and on the other hand, a lack of reliable long-term power sources. Solutions to both of these drawbacks require significant investments driven by real-life applications. Possible applications for sensor networks at Sandia National Laboratories include dense data collection techniques for validation of numerical methods and material parameter identification. For example, an array of distributed wireless macro-scale sensors can record the structural response of soils and reinforced concrete during explosive loading. Another example is an array of surface mounted micro-sensors that can record the modal response of nuclear weapon components. The collected data would be used to validate existing numerical codes and to identify new physical mechanisms to improve Sandia's computational models.

  14. Assessing Rural Coalitions That Address Safety and Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgus, Shari; Schwab, Charles; Shelley, Mack

    2012-01-01

    Community coalitions can help national organizations meet their objectives. Farm Safety 4 Just Kids depends on coalitions of local people to deliver farm safety and health educational programs to children and their families. These coalitions are called chapters. An evaluation was developed to identify individual coalition's strengths and…

  15. Creating Safety To Address Controversial Issues: Strategies for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valerio, Nina L.

    2001-01-01

    Presents seven elements of a safe classroom in controversy-driven courses, where students can exchange ideas rather than emotions as they learn and discuss. The elements are: collegiality, empowerment, role modeling, preparation, shared purpose, reflection, and commitment. Explains how teachers can create and nurture safe classrooms, describing…

  16. Addressing Issues of Peer Rejection in Child-Centered Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Mona W.

    1996-01-01

    Notes that children ignored or rebuffed by their peers may be denied access to learning opportunities involving peer interaction. Describes how the sociometric dynamics in one classroom affected three children. Suggests implementations to minimize negative impact of peer rejection including identifying sociometric patterns, and then utilizing…

  17. Addressing Issues of Workplace Harassment: Counseling the Targets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jacqueline; Coursol, Diane; Wahl, Kay Herting

    2002-01-01

    Workplace harassment includes dysfunctional personal interactions characterized by bullying behaviors, personal attacks, and attempts to denigrate others. Targets of workplace harassment may experience stress, depression, low self-esteem, loss of sleep, and even posttraumatic stress disorder. Strategies that counselors can use to work effectively…

  18. Addressing criminality in childhood: is responsivity the central issue?

    PubMed

    Nee, Claire; Ellis, Tom; Morris, Paul; Wilson, Amy

    2013-11-01

    The responsivity principle is the third element of the now well-established risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model of offender rehabilitation. Accruing evidence suggests it is often sacrificed in intervention programs. We aim to demonstrate the central importance of this principle when designing offender interventions by describing the results of a successful, highly responsive intervention for very young children (aged 7 upward) who have offended. A small slice of the offending population as a whole, child offenders are nevertheless tomorrow's serious, violent, and prolific lawbreakers, yet little is understood about what reduces their risk. Recent developments on responsivity are reviewed, before presenting the evaluation indicating significant and sustained drops in risk of recidivism. In-program factors such as the nature and dosage of interventions are examined, alongside outcome data. The article discusses how RNR and other models might apply to this particularly young and underresearched age group. PMID:23070956

  19. SLIIDEA: Positive Approaches for Addressing Behavioral Issues. inForum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Sunil

    2006-01-01

    When Congress passed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in 1997, it authorized an evaluation to track progress at the state and local levels on the legislative goals of IDEA. The U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) commissioned a national longitudinal study, the Study of State and Local…

  20. Addressing Machining Issues for the Intermetallic Compound 60-NITINOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.; Wozniak, Walter A.; McCue, Terry R.

    2012-01-01

    60-NITINOL (60 wt.% Ni - 40 wt.% Ti) is being studied as a material for advanced aerospace components. Frequent wire breakage during electrical-discharge machining of this material was investigated. The studied material was fabricated from hot isostatically pressed 60-NITINOL powder obtained through a commercial source. Bulk chemical analysis of the material showed that the composition was nominal but had relatively high levels of certain impurities, including Al and O. It was later determined that Al2O3 particles had contaminated the material during the hot isostatic pressing procedure and that these particles were the most likely cause of the wire breakage. The results of this investigation highlight the importance of material cleanliness to its further implementation.

  1. Addressing Issues of Power, Justice, and Privilege in Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Stacie L.

    2014-01-01

    Tate applauds Rogers's use of teacher research to illustrate how literacy coaches and teachers can approach an accelerative literacy framework with a critical literacy lens. Citing her own work, as well as the work of other critical literacy educators, Tate reminds readers that teacher research is a careful plan that encompasses the power of…

  2. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  3. Changing concepts: the presidential address.

    PubMed

    Weed, J C

    1974-09-01

    A discussion of conceptual change in areas related to fertility and medicine is presented in an address by the president of the American Fertility Society. Advances in technological research and medicine, particularly in steroids and reporductive physiology, have been the most readily acceptable changes. Cesarean section and surgical sterilization have also become increasingly accepted. Newer developments such as sperm banks, artificial insemination, and ovum transfer have created profound ethical, moral, and medical issued in human engineering research and evolutionary theory. The legalization of abortion has brought moral, ethical, and legal problems for many members of the medical profession. It is urged that the Society promote education of the people in reproductive function, sexual activity, and parental obligation while being acutely aware of the problems in influencing or altering human reproduction.

  4. Design issues for Mars planetary rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Gordon K. F.; Dejarnette, Fred R.; Walberg, Gerald D.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents some of the design issues and vehicle requirements that need to be addressed for the Mars planetary rovers. Some of the designs currently being investigated, including the JPL rover, the Martin Marietta vehicle, and the French Space Agency's VAP project, are examined. The rover must satisfy such mission requirements as surveying the terrain, preparing the landing sites, loading and unloading components for base operations, and aiding in the recovery of in situ materials.

  5. Issue Brief on Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Division on Developmental Disabilities, Council for Exceptional Children (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    During the past year, the Diversity Committee of the Division of Developmental Disabilities (DDD) Board worked with the Board and the Issues Committee Chair to develop an issue brief addressing diversity, its impact on the membership and the wider community that is served by the work of DDD, resulting in recommendations that will influence policy…

  6. BWR internal cracking issues

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, C.E. Jr.; Lund, A.L.

    1999-07-01

    The regulatory issues associated with cracking of boiling water reactor (BWR) internals is being addressed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and is the subject of a voluntary industry initiative. The lessons learned from this effort will be applied to pressurized water reactor (PWR) internals cracking issues.

  7. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  8. Multi Sensor Approach to Address Sustainable Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2007-01-01

    The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates, can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. However, the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. This requires continuous, and detailed observations from many sources in situ, airborne and space. By and large, the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. This requires a multiple sensors, look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality, multi hazard disasters, public health, hydrology and more. Therefore, there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation, data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population, some sound observations, scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants, endangered species and the ecology. Needless to say, there is no single sensor, which can answer all such questions effectively. Due to multi sensor approach, it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information, knowledge, budget, technology readiness and computational power. And, more importantly, the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. So far, each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing

  9. Current issues and actions

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed.

  10. Ethical and legal issues in e-mail therapy.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Daniel Edward; Schulman, Charles Eric

    1996-01-01

    Psychologists and psychiatrists recently started using electronic mail (e-mail) to conduct therapy. This article explores relevant ethical and legal issues including, among others, the nature of the professional relationship, boundaries of competence, informed consent, treating minors, confidentiality, and the duty to warn and protect. To illustrate these complex issues, two services currently operating are discussed. To address potential hazards to clients and the profession, a new ethical standard for e-mail therapists is offered.

  11. Issues in recycling galvanized scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Koros, P.J.; Hellickson, D.A.; Dudek, F.J.

    1995-02-10

    The quality of the steel used for most galvanizing (and tinplate) applications makes scrap derived from their production and use a premier solid charge material for steelmaking. In 1989 the AISI created a Task Force to define the issues and to recommend technologically and economically sound approaches to assure continued, unhindered recyclability of the growing volume of galvanized scrap. The AISI program addressed the treatment of full-sized industrial bales of scrap. The current, on-going MRI (US)--Argonne National Laboratory program is focused on ``loose`` scrap from industrial and post-consumer sources. Results from these programs, issues of scrap management from source to steel melting, the choices for handling zinc in iron and steelmaking and the benefits/costs for removal of zinc (and lead) from scrap prior to melting in BOF and foundry operations are reviewed in this paper.

  12. Opening Address of Chairman Michael Pertschuk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pertschuk, Michael

    Presented to a symposium sponsored by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to consider some of the issues involved in the continuing growth of a few large companies in the field of communication, this address cites statements of concern, made by the Supreme Court and by some periodicals, that excessive concentrations of power threaten First…

  13. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonso, William R.

    2004-01-01

    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  14. Problem Solvers: Solutions--The Inaugural Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dause, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Fourth graders in Miss Dause's and Mrs. Hicks's mathematics classes at South Mountain Elementary School in Dillsburg, Pennsylvania, worked with the data from the Inauagural Address problem that was previously published published in the February 2013 issue of "Teaching Children Mathematics". This activity allowed students to…

  15. Importance of Addressing Sexuality in Certified Rehabilitation Counselor Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazukauskas, Kelly A.; Lam, Chow S.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated Certified Rehabilitation Counselors' (CRCs) beliefs about the importance of addressing sexuality issues during rehabilitation. A modified version of the Family Life Sex Education Goals Questionnaire (FLSEGQ) was completed by 199 CRCs to determine which issues CRCs believe are most important to address. Six sexuality-related…

  16. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  17. Bax: Addressed to kill.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Manon, Stéphen

    2011-09-01

    The pro-apoptototic protein Bax (Bcl-2 Associated protein X) plays a central role in the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. In healthy mammalian cells, Bax is essentially cytosolic and inactive. Following a death signal, the protein is translocated to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it promotes a permeabilization that favors the release of different apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c. The regulation of Bax translocation is associated to conformational changes that are under the control of different factors. The evidences showing the involvement of different Bax domains in its mitochondrial localization are presented. The interactions between Bax and its different partners are described in relation to their ability to promote (or prevent) Bax conformational changes leading to mitochondrial addressing and to the acquisition of the capacity to permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:21641962

  18. Optical Addressing And Clocking Of RAM's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R.; Nixon, Robert H.; Bergman, Larry A.; Esener, Sadik

    1989-01-01

    Proposed random-access-memory (RAM) addressing system, in which memory linked optically to read/write logic circuits, greatly increases computer operating speed. System - comprises addressing circuits including numerous lasers as signal sources, numerous optical gates including optical detectors associated with memory cells, and holographic element to direct light signals to desired memory-cell locations - applied to high-capacity digital systems, supercomputers, and complex microcircuits.

  19. Operational Issues for Further Study in the Implementation of the Policy of the State Board of Education for Providing Equitable Opportunities for an Essential Education for All Students in Nebraska Public School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This "Operational Issues" document is intended to accompany the State Board of Education?s policy recommendations for providing equitable opportunities for all Nebraska students to receive an essential education. The Essential Education Policy will serve as the foundation document to guide immediate and long-range planning to achieve the equitable…

  20. Stakeholders' Engagement Methods for the Mining Social Responsibility Practice: Determination of Local Issues and Concerns Related to the Mines Operations in Northwest of the US.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaitis, A.

    2014-12-01

    Every year, all around the world, global environmental change affects the human habitat. This is effect enhanced by the mining operation, and creates new challenges in relationship between the mining and local community. The purpose of this project are developed the Stakeholders engagement evaluation plan which is currently developed in University of Nevada, Reno for the Emigrant mining project, located in the central Nevada, USA, and belong to the Newmont Mining Corporation, one of the gold production leader worldwide. The needs for this project is to create the open dialog between Newmont mining company and all interested parties which have social or environmental impacts from the Emigrant mine. Identification of the stakeholders list is first and one of the most difficult steps in the developing of mine social responsibility. Stakeholders' engagement evaluation plan must be based on the timing and available resources of the mining company, understanding the goals for the engagement, and on analyzes of the possible risks from engagement. In conclusion, the Stakeholders engagement evaluation plan includes: first, determinations of the stakeholders list, which must include any interested or effected by the mine projects groups, for example: state and local government representatives, people from local communities, business partners, environmental NGOs, indigenous people, and academic groups. The contacts and availability for communication is critical for Stakeholders engagement. Next, is to analyze characteristics of all these parties and determinate the level of interest and level of their influence on the project. The next step includes the Stakeholders matrix and mapping development, where all these information will be put together.After that, must be chosen the methods for stakeholders' engagement. The methods usually depends from the goals of engagement (create the dialog lines, collect the data, determinations of the local issues and concerns, or establish

  1. 14 CFR 121.318 - Public address system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... passengers unless it is equipped with a public address system which— (a) Is capable of operation independent... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public address system. 121.318 Section 121...) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS...

  2. The Democratic Imperative to Address Sexual Equality Rights in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gereluk, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Issues of sexual orientation elicit ethical debates in schools and society. In jurisdictions where a legal right has not yet been established, one argument commonly rests on whether schools ought to address issues of same-sex relationships and marriage on the basis of civil equality, or whether such controversial issues ought to remain in the…

  3. Shared address collectives using counter mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Blocksome, Michael; Dozsa, Gabor; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R; Miller, Douglas

    2014-02-18

    A shared address space on a compute node stores data received from a network and data to transmit to the network. The shared address space includes an application buffer that can be directly operated upon by a plurality of processes, for instance, running on different cores on the compute node. A shared counter is used for one or more of signaling arrival of the data across the plurality of processes running on the compute node, signaling completion of an operation performed by one or more of the plurality of processes, obtaining reservation slots by one or more of the plurality of processes, or combinations thereof.

  4. Addressing the insider threat

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-05-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  5. Addressing the insider threat

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  6. Gender: addressing a critical focus.

    PubMed

    Thornton, L; Wegner, M N

    1995-01-01

    The definition of gender was addressed at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China). After extensive debate, the definition developed by the UN Population Fund in 1995 was adopted: "a set of qualities and behaviors expected from a female or male by society." The sustainability of family planning (FP) programs depends on acknowledgment of the role gender plays in contraceptive decision-making and use. For example, programs must consider the fact that women in many cultures do not make FP decisions without the consent of their spouse. AVSC is examining providers' gender-based ideas about clients and the effects of these views on the quality of reproductive health services. Questions such as how service providers can encourage joint responsibility for contraception without requiring spousal consent or how they can make men feel comfortable about using a male method in a society where FP is considered a woman's issue are being discussed. Also relevant is how service providers can discuss sexual matters openly with female clients in cultures that do not allow women to enjoy their sexuality. Another concern is the potential for physical violence to a client as a result of the provision of FP services. PMID:12294397

  7. Applying Multiagent Simulation to Planetary Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Sims, Michael H.; Clancey, William J.; Lee, Pascal; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a multiagent modeling and simulation approach for designing cooperative systems. Issues addressed include the use of multiagent modeling and simulation for the design of human and robotic operations, as a theory for human/robot cooperation on planetary surface missions. We describe a design process for cooperative systems centered around the Brahms modeling and simulation environment being developed at NASA Ames.

  8. Bioaerosols associated with animal production operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air emissions from animal housing and manure management operations include a complex mixture of biological, microbial, and inorganic particulates along with odorous volatile compounds. This report highlights the state of current issues, technical knowledge, and remaining challenges to be addressed i...

  9. Addressing sleep disturbances: An opportunity to prevent cardiometabolic disease?

    PubMed Central

    GRANDNER, MICHAEL A.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing awareness of the role of sleep disturbance as an important factor in health and disease. Although subclinical sleep disturbances (insufficient sleep duration or inadequate sleep quality) may be difficult to assess with conceptual and/or methodological clarity, this review attempts to summarize and synthesize these findings. First, the concept of sleep disturbance in a public health context is introduced, to provide context and rationale. Second, operational definitions of ‘cardiometabolic disease’ and ‘sleep disturbance’ are offered, to address many unclear operationalizations. Third, the extant literature is summarized regarding short or long sleep duration and/or insufficient sleep, insomnia and insomnia symptoms, general (non-specific sleep disturbances), circadian rhythm abnormalities that result in sleep disturbances, and, briefly, sleep-disordered breathing. Fourth, the review highlights the social/behavioural context of sleep, including discussions of sleep and race/ethnicity, socio-economic position, and other social/environmental factors, in order to place these findings in a social-environmental context relevant to public health. Fifth, the review highlights the issue of sleep as a domain of health behaviour and addresses issues regarding development of healthy sleep interventions. Finally, a research agenda of future directions is proposed. PMID:24892892

  10. The Marketing Firm: Operant Interpretation of Corporate Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, Kevin J.; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we address the issue of applying operant psychology to derive plausible and useful interpretations of complex firm behavior in natural settings. The objective is to discuss an appropriate methodology based on case study design, developed specifically in Vella and Foxall (2011), to produce an operant interpretation of secondary…

  11. The embedded operating system project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The design and construction of embedded operating systems for real-time advanced aerospace applications was investigated. The applications require reliable operating system support that must accommodate computer networks. Problems that arise in the construction of such operating systems, reconfiguration, consistency and recovery in a distributed system, and the issues of real-time processing are reported. A thesis that provides theoretical foundations for the use of atomic actions to support fault tolerance and data consistency in real-time object-based system is included. The following items are addressed: (1) atomic actions and fault-tolerance issues; (2) operating system structure; (3) program development; (4) a reliable compiler for path Pascal; and (5) mediators, a mechanism for scheduling distributed system processes.

  12. Multicultural Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Charrles; Kampfe, Charlene

    This chapter examines issues related to working with diverse populations with addictions. A brief history of multiculturalism and multicultural counseling is presented. Issues particular to the treatment of people with addictions are examined, as well as prevention and assessment issues. Substance abuse issues among people in the gay male and…

  13. Critical Issues Facing School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styron, Ronald A., Jr.; Styron, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further extend research initially conducted in 2003 pertaining to the critical issues K-12 principals address on a daily basis. The study involved surveying school principals within the state of Mississippi to discover the critical issues they identified, the significance level of these issues, and the rationale…

  14. Design and Implementation of a C++ Software Package to scan for and parse Tsunami Messages issued by the Tsunami Warning Centers for Operational use at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardina, V.

    2012-12-01

    The US Tsunami Warning Centers (TWCs) have traditionally generated their tsunami message products primarily as blocks of text then tagged with headers that identify them on each particular communications' (comms) circuit. Each warning center has a primary area of responsibility (AOR) within which it has an authoritative role regarding parameters such as earthquake location and magnitude. This means that when a major tsunamigenic event occurs the other warning centers need to quickly access the earthquake parameters issued by the authoritative warning center before issuing their message products intended for customers in their own AOR. Thus, within the operational context of the TWCs the scientists on duty have an operational need to access the information contained in the message products issued by other warning centers as quickly as possible. As a solution to this operational problem we designed and implemented a C++ software package that allows scanning for and parsing the entire suite of tsunami message products issued by the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC), the West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC), and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The scanning and parsing classes composing the resulting C++ software package allow parsing both non-official message products(observatory messages) routinely issued by the TWCs, and all official tsunami message products such as tsunami advisories, watches, and warnings. This software package currently allows scientists on duty at the PTWC to automatically retrieve the parameters contained in tsunami messages issued by WCATWC, JMA, or PTWC itself. Extension of the capabilities of the classes composing the software package would make it possible to generate XML and CAP compliant versions of the TWCs' message products until new messaging software natively adds this capabilities. Customers who receive the TWCs' tsunami message products could also use the package to automatically retrieve information from

  15. There Will Be Struggle: The Development and Operational Issues of Social Justice Programs at State Universities in the United States of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jean Leon

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a two part analysis of social justice programs (SJPs) at state universities in the United States of America (USA). Two main questions are addressed: firstly, in Part I, "What might it take to develop a social justice program at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP)?" and secondly, in Part II, "Why do some universities have…

  16. Through the Eyes of Higher Education Attorneys: How Department Chairs Are Navigating the Waters of Legal Issues and Risk Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustoles, Carol L. J.

    2012-01-01

    Legal and risk management issues substantially impact the operations of colleges and universities, which face escalating compliance requirements in an increasingly litigious environment. Failing to assess legal liability issues and to constructively address them with risk management processes create vulnerability to claims and litigation,…

  17. Networking: challenges for network centric operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotts, Larry B.; Allen, John G.

    2004-11-01

    This paper examines some of the challenges facing the community in providing radio communications to enable information systems for military operations. We believe that much of the on-going/completed work is necessary, but not sufficient, to provide the military Network Centric Operations, which integrates military"s network centric enterprise with network centric warfare. Additional issues need to be addressed to better support battle commanders as well as decider-sensor-effecter linkages. We discuss a possible way ahead.

  18. Implementation Issues for Departure Planning Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John; Feron, Eric; Clarke, John-Paul; Odoni, Amedeo

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the proposed effort is to investigate issues associated with the design and implementation of decision aiding tools to assist in improving the departure process at congested airports. This effort follows a preliminary investigation of potential Departure Planning approaches and strategies, which identified potential benefits in departure efficiency, and also in reducing the environmental impact of aircraft in the departure queue. The preliminary study bas based, in large part, on observations and analysis of departure processes at Boston, Logan airport. The objective of this follow-on effort is to address key implementation issues and to expand the observational base to include airports with different constraints and traffic demand. Specifically, the objectives of this research are to: (1) Expand the observational base to include airports with different underlying operational dynamics. (2) Develop prototype decision aiding algorithms/approaches and assess potential benefits. and (3) Investigate Human Machine Integration (HMI) issues associated with decision aids in tower environments.

  19. Employment. Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Teri, Ed.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue addresses current trends and new developments in ensuring that individuals with disabilities have meaningful employment opportunities, especially in the context of recent federal legislation. Stressed throughout is the importance of collaboration among professionals, individuals with disabilities, and family members in achieving…

  20. ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CHALLENGES WITH COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the field of environmental engineering, modeling tools are playing an ever larger role in addressing air quality issues, including source pollutant emissions, atmospheric dispersion and human exposure risks. More detailed modeling of environmental flows requires tools for c...

  1. Space station operations task force. Panel 3 report: User development and integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The User Development and Integration Panel of the Space Station Operations Task Force was chartered to develop concepts relating to the operations of the Space Station manned base and the platforms, user accommodation and integration activities. The needs of the user community are addressed in the context with the mature operations phase of the Space Station. Issues addressed include space station pricing options, marketing strategies, payload selection and resource allocation options, and manifesting techniques.

  2. Operational Amplifiers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxcroft, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the introduction of low cost equipment into high school and college physical science classes. Examines the properties of an "ideal" operational amplifier and discusses how it might be used under saturated and non-saturated conditions. Notes the action of a "real" operational amplifier. (TW)

  3. 2015 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  4. National Crime Information Center Mandatory Minimum Standards Curriculum for Full Access Terminal Operators. Volume One--Administrative Issues, Policy and the Interstate Identification Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Bureau of Investigation, Washington, DC. National Crime Information Center.

    This document is the first volume of a two-volume set of lesson plans which together make up a complete training package for full-service terminal operators. The lesson plans are designed to ensure that a state's National Crime Information Center (NCIC) training program meets Advisory Policy Board standards. (NCIC is a nationwide computerized…

  5. Addressing Barriers to Learning. Volume 11, Number 2. Spring 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter of the Center for Mental Health in Schools includes the following features and regular segments: (1) Concerns = Opportunities: Addressing Student Disengagement, Acting Out, and Dropouts by Moving in New Directions; (2) Info Sheet: Costs of Not Addressing Barriers to Learning; and (3) Current Status of Mental…

  6. Special Issue of Teaching Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Education (Washington D.C.), 1986

    1986-01-01

    This special issue contains teaching strategies and suggestions for health-related activities at all educational levels. A few of the topics addressed by the 21 articles are heart disease, testicular cancer, hospital stress, family life, and sexual responsibility. (MT)

  7. Contractual Issues for Faculty Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, M. Dee; Gregg, Andrea C.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses contractual issues surrounding nursing faculty's clinical practice, such as competent participants, offer, consideration, and acceptance. Addresses evaluation of faculty practice contracts and alternatives for problem resolution. (Contains 24 references.) (SK)

  8. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  9. Addressing Stereotypes by Moving along the Continuum of Cultural Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Cheryl James

    2013-01-01

    Programs to help middle school students deal with racism and hate have been in place for some years, yet almost monthly we hear of students committing suicide or killing other students due to issues of isolation or harassment. Within the confines of a safe classroom, doctoral students in Educational Leadership addressed issues of stereotypes and…

  10. A process for resolving ash issues

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, J.M.

    1995-09-01

    Waste-to-energy (WTE) plants leave about 10 percent of the combusted trash volume as ash. The residue has been a problem for may WTE plant operators and the communities they serve. Recent changes in regulations governing ash handling have lead to new sampling procedures, more frequent testing, and more costly handling and treatment processes. The Nashville Thermal Transfer Corporation`s WTE plant is involved in an project developed by the American Ash Recycling Corp, which addresses environmental concerns, recycling, and cost concerns. This article describes the project and how it tackles these three issues. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  11. A Consideration of Constraints on Aircraft Departure Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darr, Stephen T.; Morello, Samuel A.; Shay, Richard F.; Lemos, Katherine A.; Jacobsen, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a system-level perspective on the operational issues and constraints that limit departure capacity at large metropolitan airports in today's air transportation system. It examines the influence of constraints evident in en route airspace, in metroplex operations, and at individual airports from today's perspective and with a view toward future gate-to-cruise operations. Cross cutting organizational and technological challenges are discussed in relation to their importance in addressing the constraints.

  12. Genetic Issues in Mental Retardation, 1996-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genetic Issues in Mental Retardation, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the first six issues of a newsletter, which discusses current knowledge about and concerns related to genetics and mental retardation. The second issue addresses the problem of genetic discrimination. The third issue considers genetic testing, screening, and counseling. The fourth issue addresses genetic privacy issues.…

  13. Addressing medical errors in hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Shepard P; Adkinson, Joshua M; Chung, Kevin C

    2014-09-01

    Influential think tanks such as the Institute of Medicine have raised awareness about the implications of medical errors. In response, organizations, medical societies, and hospitals have initiated programs to decrease the incidence and prevent adverse effects of these errors. Surgeons deal with the direct implications of adverse events involving patients. In addition to managing the physical consequences, they are confronted with ethical and social issues when caring for a harmed patient. Although there is considerable effort to implement system-wide changes, there is little guidance for hand surgeons on how to address medical errors. Admitting an error by a physician is difficult, but a transparent environment where patients are notified of errors and offered consolation and compensation is essential to maintain physician-patient trust. Furthermore, equipping hand surgeons with a guide for addressing medical errors will help identify system failures, provide learning points for safety improvement, decrease litigation against physicians, and demonstrate a commitment to ethical and compassionate medical care.

  14. Gender Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilfeld, Ellen M., Ed.; Hanssen, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This issue of "Coordinators' Notebook" focuses on gender issues in early childhood. The first article, "Both Halves of the Sky: Gender Socialization in the Early Years," focuses on the arguments that have led to an international call for increased participation of girls in education, an introduction to studies which map young children's…

  15. Issues Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sando, Joe S.

    A program for teaching techniques of critical thinking on issues concerning American Indians was developed for students at Albuquerque Indian School. It was designed to include not only the students but also their families with learning activities that required consultation in search of answers or understanding. The first issue presented sought to…

  16. Best Practices in Hiring: Addressing Unconscious Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Caroline E.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that implementing certain hiring practices will increase diversity in the workplace while enhancing academic quality. All of these practices rely on addressing the issue of 'unconscious bias.' A brief overview of unconscious bias--what it is, how it works, and simple measures to counter it--will be presented. Successful strategies, actions, and recommendations for implementing best recruiting and hiring practices, which have been proven to enhance academic excellence by ensuring a deep and diverse applicant pool, will also be presented.

  17. Addressing the underperformance of faculty and staff.

    PubMed

    Kenner, Carole; Pressler, Jana L

    2006-01-01

    Many new nursing leaders assuming work as deans, assistant deans, or interim deans have limited education, experience, or background to prepare them for the job. To assist new deans and those aspiring to be deans, the authors of this department, both deans, offer survival tips based on their personal experiences and insights. They address common issues, challenges, and opportunities that face academic executive teams, such as negotiating an executive contract, obtaining faculty lines, building effective work teams, managing difficult employees, and creating nimble organizational structure to respond to changing consumer, healthcare delivery, and community needs. The authors welcome counterpoint discussions with readers. PMID:17108781

  18. Donation after cardiac death and the emergency department: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jeremy R; Schears, Raquel M; Padela, Aasim I

    2014-01-01

    Organ donation after cardiac death (DCD) is increasingly considered as an option to address the shortage of organs available for transplantation, both in the United States and worldwide. The procedures for DCD differ from procedures for donation after brain death and are likely less familiar to emergency physicians (EPs), even as this process is increasingly involving emergency departments (EDs). This article explores the ED operational and ethical issues surrounding this procedure. PMID:24552527

  19. Drugs. Social Issues Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Eleanor C.; And Others

    The Social Issues Resources Series (SIRS) is a set of loose leaf units each of which is addressed to a different social issue. Each unit consists of articles which have been reproduced from newspapers, magazines, journals and government publications representing the prevailing spectrum of opinion, emphasis and complexity. Sixty articles are…

  20. Concrete Masonry Designs: Educational Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzberg, Randi, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This special journal issue addresses concrete masonry in educational facilities construction. The issue's feature articles are: (1) "It Takes a Village To Construct a Massachusetts Middle School," describing a middle school constructed almost entirely of concrete masonry and modeled after a typical small New England village; (2) "Lessons Learned,"…

  1. Management of environmental health issues for the 2004 Athens Olympic Games: is enhanced integrated environmental health surveillance needed in every day routine operation?

    PubMed Central

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Vaitsi, Vasiliki; Kapoula, Christina; Vousoureli, Anastasia; Kalivitis, Isidiros; Chervoni, Julia; Papastergiou, Panagiotis; Vasilogiannakopoulos, Antonios; Daniilidis, Vasilis D; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    Background Management of environmental health issues is an integral part of public health systems. An active integrated environmental health surveillance and response system was developed for the Athens Olympics to monitor and prevent exposure to environmental hazards. The potential for permanent implementation of the program was examined. Methods The environmental health surveillance and response system included standardization, computerization and electronic transmission of data concerning environmental inspections of 17 site categories (restaurants, swimming pools etc) of public health interest, drinking and recreational water examinations and suggested corrective actions. The Olympic Planning Unit integrated and centrally managed data from 13 public health agencies, recommended, supervised and coordinated prompt corrective actions. Methods used to test the effectiveness of the program were the assessment of water quality test and inspection results trends over time using linear regression and epidemiological surveillance findings. Results Between January 2003 and September the 30th, 2004, 196 inspectors conducted 8562 inspections, collected 5024 water samples and recommended 17 027 corrective actions. In 10 cruise ships used as floating hotels inspectors conducted 10 full inspections, 2 re-inspections, and 27 follow-up inspections. Unsatisfactory inspection results (r = 0.44, p < 0.0001) and positive water quality tests (r = 0.39, p < 0.001) presented an overall decrease trend over time. In August, 2003, an outbreak of salmonellosis was linked to a hotel restaurant which accommodated athletes during a test event. Conclusion Lessons learned for future events include timely implementation and installation of communication processes, and rapid and coordinated response to unsatisfactory inspection results. Routine national programs need to adopt enhanced environmental health surveillance aimed at public health decision-making, but with a different perspective. PMID

  2. Issues in Purchasing and Maintaining Intrinsic Standards

    SciTech Connect

    PETTIT,RICHARD B.; JAEGER,KLAUS; EHRLICH,CHARLES D.

    2000-09-12

    Intrinsic standards are widely used in the metrology community because they realize the best level uncertainty for many metrology parameters. For some intrinsic standards, recommended practices have been developed to assist metrologists in the selection of equipment and the development of appropriate procedures in order to realize the intrinsic standard. As with the addition of any new standard, the metrology laboratory should consider the pros and cons relative to their needs before purchasing the standard so that the laboratory obtains the maximum benefit from setting up and maintaining these standards. While the specific issues that need to be addressed depend upon the specific intrinsic standard and the level of realization, general issues that should be considered include ensuring that the intrinsic standard is compatible with the laboratory environment, that the standard is compatible with the current and future workload, and whether additional support standards will be required in order to properly maintain the intrinsic standard. When intrinsic standards are used to realize the best level of uncertainty for a specific metrology parameter, they usually require critical and important maintenance activities. These activities can including training of staff in the system operation, as well as safety procedures; performing periodic characterization measurements to ensure proper system operation; carrying out periodic intercomparisons with similar intrinsic standards so that proper operation is demonstrated; and maintaining control or trend charts of system performance. This paper has summarized many of these important issues and therefore should be beneficial to any laboratory that is considering the purchase of an intrinsic standard.

  3. Issues management made easier

    SciTech Connect

    Brownson, L.

    1993-10-01

    Increases in ES&H compliance issues within the past few years have necessitated a formal process by which DOE facilities address these issues. In May 1991, ANL-W implemented the ANL-W Issues Management System (IMS) to facilitate the management of compliance issues and scheduling of corrective action plans with limited resources. The central focus of this process is a computer database, Integrated Resource Management System (IRMS), which allows quick retrieval of compliance information, organization of compliance issues based on a risk-based prioritization methodology, and tracking of corrective action plans. Without the IRMS, the ANL-W Issues Management System would have been difficult to administer and manage. ANL-W has used the IRMS for both audit preparation and audit response, most noticeably the preparation and subsequent response to the 1991 Tiger Team audit. The IRMS was used to track ANL-W Self-Assessment corrective action plans, provide instant information to Tiger Team members regarding Self-Assessment findings, produce prioritized lists of Tiger Team concerns for developing corrective action plans, and track Tiger Team corrective action plans. Status reports to senior, laboratory management regarding the Tiger Team corrective action plan are produced based on information provided by the IRMS. This paper discusses the criteria used for selecting the IRMS, implementation of the Issues Management System using the IRMS, lessons learned, and the future evolution of the IRMS.

  4. 7 CFR Appendix A to Part 2811 - List of Addresses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Independence Avenue, Washington, DC. Address mail as follows: Director, Office of Operations, USDA, Room 113-W Administration Building, Washington, DC 20250. FOIA Officer, Office of Operations, USDA, Room 134-W Administration Building, Washington, DC 20250. Chief, Administrative Unit, Office of Operations, USDA, Room...

  5. 7 CFR Appendix A to Part 2811 - List of Addresses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Independence Avenue, Washington, DC. Address mail as follows: Director, Office of Operations, USDA, Room 113-W Administration Building, Washington, DC 20250. FOIA Officer, Office of Operations, USDA, Room 134-W Administration Building, Washington, DC 20250. Chief, Administrative Unit, Office of Operations, USDA, Room...

  6. 7 CFR Appendix A to Part 2811 - List of Addresses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Independence Avenue, Washington, DC. Address mail as follows: Director, Office of Operations, USDA, Room 113-W Administration Building, Washington, DC 20250. FOIA Officer, Office of Operations, USDA, Room 134-W Administration Building, Washington, DC 20250. Chief, Administrative Unit, Office of Operations, USDA, Room...

  7. Contractual issues for faculty practice.

    PubMed

    Gregg, A C; Williams, M D

    2001-01-01

    Contracts are a common foundation for faculty practice relationships between a college of nursing and other agencies. Although the legal format of a contract is relatively standardized, the process of contracting entails decisions and issues that increase its complexity. Little is available in the faculty practice literature that addresses contracts and contractual issues as a comprehensive whole. This article contains discussions of nursing faculty practice contractual issues such as the elements of a contract as a framework, including competent parties, offer, consideration, and acceptance. Evaluation of contract performance is addressed and alternatives for decision making and problem resolutions are suggested throughout. J Prof Nurs 17:173-179, 2001. PMID:11464338

  8. Family Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... not mean that everyone gets along all the time. Conflicts are a part of family life. Many things can lead to conflict, such as illness, disability, addiction, job loss, school problems, and marital issues. Listening to ...

  9. Analysis of Adverse Events in Identifying GPS Human Factors Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Hwoschinsky, Peter V.; Adams, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze GPS related adverse events such as accidents and incidents (A/I), Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) reports and Pilots Deviations (PDs) to create a framework for developing a human factors risk awareness program. Although the occurrence of directly related GPS accidents is small the frequency of PDs and ASRS reports indicated there is a growing problem with situational awareness in terminal airspace related to different types of GPs operational issues. This paper addresses the findings of the preliminary research and a brief discussion of some of the literature on related GPS and automation issues.

  10. Human missions to Mars: issues and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, M.; Kminek, G.

    Recent announcements of the planned future human exploration of Mars by both European and US space agencies have raised a host of questions and challenges that must be addressed in advance of long-duration human missions. While detailed mission planning is a long way off, numerous issues can already be identified in the broad context of planetary protection. In this session, a panel of experts will provide brief overviews of the types of challenges ahead, such as the protection of the martian environment; the integration of human and robotic mission elements and operations; precursor scientific information necessary to plan human missions; development and use of nuclear and other technologies for the protection and support of astronauts during the mission; protection of Earth upon return; and societal and ethical questions about human exploration. The session has been designed to encourage and incorporate audience participation in the discussion about the issues and challenges ahead.

  11. The Farm Crisis: Who's in Trouble, How to Respond. National Issues Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides a synopsis of information about the current crises in American agriculture. Addresses national farm policy, political activities, surplus crops, subsidy programs, the loss of smaller family-operated farms, and farm markets. Includes an opinion instrument that invites the reader to respond to the issues. (TW)

  12. Operator Performance Support System (OPSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conklin, Marlen Z.

    1993-01-01

    In the complex and fast reaction world of military operations, present technologies, combined with tactical situations, have flooded the operator with assorted information that he is expected to process instantly. As technologies progress, this flow of data and information have both guided and overwhelmed the operator. However, the technologies that have confounded many operators today can be used to assist him -- thus the Operator Performance Support Team. In this paper we propose an operator support station that incorporates the elements of Video and Image Databases, productivity Software, Interactive Computer Based Training, Hypertext/Hypermedia Databases, Expert Programs, and Human Factors Engineering. The Operator Performance Support System will provide the operator with an integrating on-line information/knowledge system that will guide expert or novice to correct systems operations. Although the OPSS is being developed for the Navy, the performance of the workforce in today's competitive industry is of major concern. The concepts presented in this paper which address ASW systems software design issues are also directly applicable to industry. the OPSS will propose practical applications in how to more closely align the relationships between technical knowledge and equipment operator performance.

  13. Global-Address Space Networking (GASNet) Library

    2011-04-06

    GASNet (Global-Address Space Networking) is a language-independent, low-level networking layer that provides network-independent, high-performance communication primitives tailored for implementing parallel global address space SPMD languages such as UPC and Titanium. The interface is primarily intended as a compilation target and for use by runtime library writers (as opposed to end users), and the primary goals are high performance, interface portability, and expressiveness. GASNet is designed specifically to support high-performance, portable implementations of global address spacemore » languages on modern high-end communication networks. The interface provides the flexibility and extensibility required to express a wide variety of communication patterns without sacrificing performance by imposing large computational overheads in the interface. The design of the GASNet interface is partitioned into two layers to maximize porting ease without sacrificing performance: the lower level is a narrow but very general interface called the GASNet core API - the design is basedheavily on Active Messages, and is implemented directly on top of each individual network architecture. The upper level is a wider and more expressive interface called GASNet extended API, which provides high-level operations such as remote memory access and various collective operations. This release implements GASNet over MPI, the Quadrics "elan" API, the Myrinet "GM" API and the "LAPI" interface to the IBM SP switch. A template is provided for adding support for additional network interfaces.« less

  14. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems.

  15. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution.

  16. Chandra data archive operations: lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollough, Michael L.; Rots, Arnold H.; Winkelman, Sherry L.

    2006-06-01

    We present a discussion of the lessons learned from establishing and operating the Chandra Data Archive (CDA). We offer an overview of the archive, what preparations were done before launch, the transition to operations, actual operations, and some of the unexpected developments that had to be addressed in running the archive. From this experience we highlight some of the important issues that need to be addressed in the creation and running of an archive for a major project. Among these are the importance of data format standards; the integration of the archive with the rest of the mission; requirements throughout all phases of the mission; operational requirements; what to expect at launch; the user interfaces; how to anticipate new tasks; and overall importance of team management and organization.

  17. 27 CFR 5.36 - Name and address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...”, “manufactured by”, or “produced by” (whichever may be appropriate to the act of rectification involved) followed... the place where the bottling, distilling or rectification operation occurred, if the address where...

  18. Loss Prevention Issues in Implementing New Hydrogen Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkin, C.; Blake, C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes loss prevention issues in implementing hydrogen technologies specifically focusing on hydrogen fueling stations. Hydrogen has been used in industrial applications for many years. In the last ten years, there has been a significant interest in using hydrogen as a vehicle fuel primarily for fuel cell vehicles. The paper will address the following loss prevention associated with hydrogen fueling operations: Hydrogen ignition properties, Hydrogen behavior in confined and semi-confined spaces, High pressure hydrogen storage, and Hydrogen release detection. The paper will address both outdoor fueling operations for road vehicles and indoor fueling operations for industrial trucks. The paper will also discuss outreach Department of Energy (DOE) education activities intended to make users aware of the hazards and safety measures associated with new hydrogen technologies.

  19. Ethical issues in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Digiovanni, Laura M

    2010-06-01

    Obstetricians must become comfortable addressing the ethical issues involved in clinical obstetrics and therefore must have an understanding of the key elements of clinical medical ethics. Balancing the principles of medical ethics can guide clinicians toward solutions to ethical dilemmas encountered in the care of pregnant women. The purpose of this article is to review the ethical foundations of clinical practice, recognize the ethical issues obstetricians face every day in caring for patients, and facilitate decision making. This article discusses the relevant ethical principles, identifies unique features of obstetrical ethics, examines ethical principles as they apply to pregnant patient and her fetus, and thereby, provides a conceptual framework for considering ethical issues and facilitating decision making in clinical obstetrics.

  20. 7 CFR Appendix A to Part 2811 - List of Addresses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false List of Addresses A Appendix A to Part 2811 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF OPERATIONS, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION TO THE PUBLIC Pt. 2811, App. A Appendix A to Part 2811—List of Addresses Section 1. General This list provides...

  1. 46 CFR 147.5 - Commandant (CG-OES); address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Commandant (CG-OES); address. 147.5 Section 147.5... General Provisions § 147.5 Commandant (CG-OES); address. Commandant (CG-OES) is the Office of Operating... Commandant (CG-OES), U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, 2100 2nd St. SW., Stop 7126, Washington, DC...

  2. 46 CFR 147.5 - Commandant (CG-522); address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commandant (CG-522); address. 147.5 Section 147.5... General Provisions § 147.5 Commandant (CG-522); address. Commandant (CG-522) is the Office of Operating... Commandant (CG-522), U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, 2100 2nd St. SW., Stop 7126, Washington, DC...

  3. 46 CFR 147.5 - Commandant (CG-522); address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commandant (CG-522); address. 147.5 Section 147.5... General Provisions § 147.5 Commandant (CG-522); address. Commandant (CG-522) is the Office of Operating... Commandant (CG-522), U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, 2100 2nd St. SW., Stop 7126, Washington, DC...

  4. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  5. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every Other…

  6. State of the Lab Address

    SciTech Connect

    King, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  7. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2016-07-12

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  8. Addressing Global Data Sharing Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Alter, George C.

    2015-01-01

    This issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics highlights the ethical issues that arise when researchers conducting projects in low- and middle-income countries seek to share the data they produce. Although sharing data is considered a best practice, the barriers to doing so are considerable and there is a need for guidance and examples. To that end, the authors of this article reviewed the articles in this special issue to identify challenges common to the five countries and to offer some practical advice to assist researchers in navigating this “uncharted territory,” as some termed it. Concerns around informed consent, data management, data dissemination, and validation of research contributions were cited frequently as particularly challenging areas, so the authors focused on these four topics with the goal of providing specific resources to consult as well as examples of successful projects attempting to solve many of the problems raised. PMID:26297753

  9. Addressing Global Data Sharing Challenges.

    PubMed

    Alter, George C; Vardigan, Mary

    2015-07-01

    This issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics highlights the ethical issues that arise when researchers conducting projects in low- and middle-income countries seek to share the data they produce. Although sharing data is considered a best practice, the barriers to doing so are considerable and there is a need for guidance and examples. To that end, the authors of this article reviewed the articles in this special issue to identify challenges common to the five countries and to offer some practical advice to assist researchers in navigating this "uncharted territory," as some termed it. Concerns around informed consent, data management, data dissemination, and validation of research contributions were cited frequently as particularly challenging areas, so the authors focused on these four topics with the goal of providing specific resources to consult as well as examples of successful projects attempting to solve many of the problems raised. PMID:26297753

  10. Addressing Global Data Sharing Challenges.

    PubMed

    Alter, George C; Vardigan, Mary

    2015-07-01

    This issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics highlights the ethical issues that arise when researchers conducting projects in low- and middle-income countries seek to share the data they produce. Although sharing data is considered a best practice, the barriers to doing so are considerable and there is a need for guidance and examples. To that end, the authors of this article reviewed the articles in this special issue to identify challenges common to the five countries and to offer some practical advice to assist researchers in navigating this "uncharted territory," as some termed it. Concerns around informed consent, data management, data dissemination, and validation of research contributions were cited frequently as particularly challenging areas, so the authors focused on these four topics with the goal of providing specific resources to consult as well as examples of successful projects attempting to solve many of the problems raised.

  11. Addressing violence against older women.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Domestic abuse is widespread and indiscriminate, causing health-related concerns and mental health issues in older women. Research suggests their needs are not met by existing services. This article examines physical and mental health issues faced by older women as a result of abusive relationships, and the barriers that exist to seeking help. Healthcare professionals can facilitate therapeutic engagement of older women living with domestic abuse. Refuges and related interventions are limited, but developing a stepped approach, tailored to older women's needs, could help. PMID:27369732

  12. Bond Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Rachel H.

    2000-01-01

    Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…

  13. Unaddressed Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochester, J. Martin

    2005-01-01

    Walter Parker's January article, "Teaching Against Idiocy," raises important and fascinating issues relating to the proper role and function of the K-12 social studies classroom. Although J. Martin Rochester, the author of this article, agrees with his basic premise that schools obviously have an obligation to help promote citizenship education,…

  14. Faculty Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Martin

    Patterns that emerged from reviewing syllabi for courses on faculty issues are discussed, and four sample syllabi are presented. Few doctoral programs in higher education administration were identified that devote an entire course to the subject of American college and university faculty. For four courses that did devote an entire course to the…

  15. Newspaper Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Thomas A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This special issue includes "The Microfilming of Newspapers: An Overview" (Thomas Bourke); "United States Newspaper Program: Progress and Propsects" (Larry Sullivan); "The Preservation of Canadian Newspapers" (Mary Jane Starr); "Current Filming of the New York Times at UMI" (Kenneth Tillman); and "The Cooperative Africana Microform Project" (Ray…

  16. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  17. Theoretical Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  18. Remediation tradeoffs addressed with simulated annealing optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, L. L., LLNL

    1998-02-01

    Escalation of groundwater remediation costs has encouraged both advances in optimization techniques to balance remediation objectives and economics and development of innovative technologies to expedite source region clean-ups. We present an optimization application building on a pump-and-treat model, yet assuming a prior removal of different portions of the source area to address the evolving management issue of more aggressive source remediation. Separate economic estimates of in-situ thermal remediation are combined with the economic estimates of the subsequent optimal pump-and-treat remediation to observe tradeoff relationships of cost vs. highest remaining contamination levels (hot spot). The simulated annealing algorithm calls the flow and transport model to evaluate the success of a proposed remediation scenario at a U.S.A. Superfund site contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

  19. Adopting Open Source Software to Address Software Risks during the Scientific Data Life Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinay, S.; Downs, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    Software enables the creation, management, storage, distribution, discovery, and use of scientific data throughout the data lifecycle. However, the capabilities offered by software also present risks for the stewardship of scientific data, since future access to digital data is dependent on the use of software. From operating systems to applications for analyzing data, the dependence of data on software presents challenges for the stewardship of scientific data. Adopting open source software provides opportunities to address some of the proprietary risks of data dependence on software. For example, in some cases, open source software can be deployed to avoid licensing restrictions for using, modifying, and transferring proprietary software. The availability of the source code of open source software also enables the inclusion of modifications, which may be contributed by various community members who are addressing similar issues. Likewise, an active community that is maintaining open source software can be a valuable source of help, providing an opportunity to collaborate to address common issues facing adopters. As part of the effort to meet the challenges of software dependence for scientific data stewardship, risks from software dependence have been identified that exist during various times of the data lifecycle. The identification of these risks should enable the development of plans for mitigating software dependencies, where applicable, using open source software, and to improve understanding of software dependency risks for scientific data and how they can be reduced during the data life cycle.

  20. Addressing Passive Smoking in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Sasha G.; Kuijlaars, Jennifer S.; Mesters, Ilse; Muris, Jean W. M.; van Schayck, Constant P.; Dompeling, Edward; Feron, Frans J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background A significant number of parents are unaware or unconvinced of the health consequences of passive smoking (PS) in children. Physicians could increase parental awareness by giving personal advice. Aim To evaluate the current practices of three Dutch health professions (paediatricians, youth health care physicians, and family physicians) regarding parental counselling for passive smoking (PS) in children. Methods All physicians (n = 720) representing the three health professions in Limburg, the Netherlands, received an invitation to complete a self-administered electronic questionnaire including questions on their: sex, work experience, personal smoking habits, counselling practices and education regarding PS in children. Results The response rate was 34%. One tenth (11%) of the responding physicians always addressed PS in children, 32% often, 54% occasionally and 4% reported to never attend to it. The three health professions appeared comparable regarding their frequency of parental counselling for PS in children. Addressing PS was more likely when children had respiratory problems. Lack of time was the most frequently mentioned barrier, being very and somewhat applicable for respectively 14% and 43% of the physicians. One fourth of the responders had received postgraduate education about PS. Additionally, 49% of the responders who did not have any education about PS were interested in receiving it. Conclusions Physicians working in the paediatric field in Limburg, the Netherlands, could more frequently address PS in children with parents. Lack of time appeared to be the most mentioned barrier and physicians were more likely to counsel parents for PS in children with respiratory complaints/diseases. Finally, a need for more education on parental counselling for PS was expressed. PMID:24809443

  1. Opportunities and challenges of using technology to address health disparities.

    PubMed

    Rivers, Brian M; Bernhardt, Jay M; Fleisher, Linda; Green, Bernard Lee

    2014-03-01

    During a panel presentation at the American Association for Cancer Research Cancer Health Disparities Conference titled 'Opportunities and challenges of using technology to address health disparities', the latest scientific advances in the application and utilization of mobile technology and/or mobile-health (mHealth) interventions to address cancer health disparities were discussed. The session included: an examination of overall population trends in the uptake of technology and the potential of addressing health disparities through such media; an exploration of the conceptual issues and challenges in the construction of mHealth interventions to address disparate and underserved populations; and a presentation of pilot study findings on the acceptability and feasibility of using mHealth interventions to address prostate cancer disparities among African-American men.

  2. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  3. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  4. Policy issues in interconnecting networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiner, Barry M.

    1989-01-01

    To support the activities of the Federal Research Coordinating Committee (FRICC) in creating an interconnected set of networks to serve the research community, two workshops were held to address the technical support of policy issues that arise when interconnecting such networks. The workshops addressed the required and feasible technologies and architectures that could be used to satisfy the desired policies for interconnection. The results of the workshop are documented.

  5. 32 CFR 724.806 - Decisional issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... matter of propriety or equity, the NDRB shall address it as an issue of equity. (b) Change of discharge... issue of propriety is not a matter upon which the NDRB grants a change in discharge, and by providing an... position by explaining why the applicant's issue is not a matter upon which the NDRB grants a change...

  6. Issues in Media Ethics. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that over the past decade incidents have occurred and new technologies have appeared which together have raised questions about the ethical values of American journalists, this Digest seeks to identify some of those ethical issues and to point to the work of those who have studied these issues. It addresses issues of plagiarism and…

  7. Teaching Social Issues in the English Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Focusing on the rationales and materials for teaching social issues in the English classroom, this thematic issue contains the following articles: "Introduction: Reflections of Society in Literature" (M. B. Fleming); "Addressing Social and/or Controversial Issues in the English Classroom" (S. Totten); "The Growing Threat to Quality Education: How…

  8. Economic perspectives on key issues

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.; Thomas, B.

    1985-01-01

    This book is about the contribution that economics can make to the understanding of some of today's key issues. The twelve topics discussed are representative of a very wide range of concerns. The first three chapters (on nuclear deterrence, the Palestinian problem, and sanctions against South Africa) are all issues associated with international relations. Later chapters consider the environment, poverty, technology, and the role of government. Family, crime, comprehensive education and youth unemployment issues are also addressed. All of the topics included illustrate issues which are of concern to many different societies. However, it is important to examine these issues in specific contexts rather than to rely on a purely general treatment using stylised facts. In a number of chapters the issues are therefore presented in the context of the UK and sometimes particular case studies are discussed.

  9. Commercialization in NASA Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Charlene E.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with commercialization in NASA space operations are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) NASA's financial outlook; 2) Space operations; 3) Space operations technology; and 4) Strategies associated with these operations.

  10. Commentary: Cultural Issues in Decisionmaking.

    PubMed

    Muaygil, Ruaim

    2016-04-01

    This case presents several fundamental ethical issues. The first issue is the patient's refusal of treatment (a nasogastric tube [NGT] insertion). Second, the patient's refusal of a seemingly beneficial treatment, combined with her medical history, ultimately necessitates an assessment of her decisionmaking capacity. Third, the sister's reluctance to participate in decisionmaking requires a discussion of appropriate surrogate decisionmakers. Finally, the main ethical component to this case is a cultural one, which should be addressed appropriately.

  11. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Trickett, D.

    1998-12-15

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

  12. Issues in physician contracting.

    PubMed

    Fanburg, John D; Leone, Alyson M

    2005-09-01

    Dermatologists will enter into a number of different contracts during their professional careers. It is important that in each agreement they enter, dermatologists reap the benefits that they aspire for and understand the consequences of each provision. This article addresses just a few of the different issues that arise in physician contracting, such as choosing the appropriate form of business entity; the importance of a writing; term and termination of the contract; compensation models; benefits, vacation and other time off included in the contract; malpractice insurance; and restrictive covenants. Each provision should be carefully analyzed to ensure that it will protect the best interests of the dermatologist in that situation. PMID:16202950

  13. Addressing concerns and achieving expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.

    1995-12-01

    Approximately 2-1/2 years ago many of us were gathered here in Prague at a similar conference with a similar name, {open_quotes}Energy and Environment: Transitions in Eastern Europe.{close_quotes} Over 300 professionals from 26 nations attended. The objective of the conference was to: Facilitate the Solution of Long and Short Term Energy and Environmental Problems in Eastern Europe by Bringing Together People, ideas and technologies which could be applied to specific problems in a logical step-by-step manner. It was conceded at the time that the long term solution would consist of thoughtfully integrated steps and that the conference was the first step. We are here in the Czech Republic again this week to continue what was started. As before, this conference continues to: (1) Provide a forum to identify and discuss cost-effective environmentally acceptable energy and environmental technology options and their associated socioeconomic issues. (2) Stimulate the Formation of business partnerships (3) Identify key barrier issues hindering technology applications and identify implementation pathways that eliminate or avoid obstacles to progress.

  14. Addressing Concerns and Taking on the Third Rail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieschke, Kathleen J.; Mintz, Laurie B.

    2009-01-01

    In this rejoinder, the authors begin by addressing some of the questions raised about the Values Statement. They then focus on next steps, first briefly summarizing a few excellent suggestions made by the authors of the reaction papers and then zeroing in on the tension-wrought issue of when values regarding sexual orientation and religion…

  15. Addressing the Mathematics-Specific Needs of Beginning Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Beginning mathematics teachers at the secondary level (middle and high school grades) have mathematics-specific needs that induction programs should address more substantially. However, a number of issues in how programs can accomplish this are more complex than often framed in discussions occurring in the induction programs and the field of…

  16. Addressing Nature Deficit Disorder through Primitive Camping Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kevin; Varner, Keegan; Sallee, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Today's youth suffer from Nature Deficit Disorder, a condition that has been connected to ADHD, shortage of creativity, and general lack of knowledge about the outdoors. A team of educators and specialists are addressing this issue with primitive camping. County educators were trained using experiential learning and train-the-trainer techniques.…

  17. Using Applied Theatre as a Tool to Address Netizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeiker, Fadi Fayad

    2015-01-01

    This paper charts the ways in which a researcher uses applied theatre practice as a tool to address netizenship issues in the advancement of digital age by documenting a workshop he co-facilitated with graduate students at the University of Porto during the Future Places conference in 2013. The workshop used applied theatre both to catalyze…

  18. Addressing the Causes of Chef Shortages in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratten, John; O'Leary, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To outline the reasons for staff shortages in the UK catering industry and then to decide if further training could help to address these issues. Design/methodology/approach: The objectives have been achieved by examining the training provisions at a college, and then asking the students, their training staff, employers and employees…

  19. Adult Education Periodicals; A List of Addresses. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Adult Education Div.

    Over 100 titles are listed in the revised UNESCO adult education periodicals list. Each entry includes the title, complete address, the name of the publishing organization, the editor's name, frequency of issue, and language. Based on information on hand in the UNESCO Secretariat the listings are classified by area: (1) Africa, (2) Asia and the…

  20. Addressing Cultural and Native Language Interference in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allard, Daniele; Bourdeau, Jacqueline; Mizoguchi, Riichiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of cultural and native language interference in second/foreign language acquisition. More specifically, it examines issues of interference that can be traced to a student's native language and that also have a cultural component. To this effect, an understanding of what actually comprises both interference and…

  1. Addressing Equity within Science Education Courses: Sharing Approaches and Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieseman, Katherine C.; Bryan, Lynn; Hammrich, Penny; Lynch, Sharon; McGinnis, Randy; Pyle, Eric

    A discussion session provided opportunities for individuals involved in science teacher education to exchange approaches and ideas on how equity issues in science teaching and learning are being addressed in science teacher education courses. Evaluative questions included: (1) What conceptions of equity in science education underpin individual…

  2. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  3. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  4. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Spaceport Hawaii - Environmental issues

    SciTech Connect

    Hayward, T.B. )

    1992-03-01

    The geographical, economic, and infrastructural factors of the Island of Hawaii make this island an ideal site for a privately owned and operated commercial launching facility for launching small- to medium-sized payloads into both equatorial and polar orbits. This paper describes the preparation of an environmental impact statement, which was initiated as a prelude to the eventual construction and operation of the commercial launching facility on the Island of Hawaii and which follows the Hawaii State law and the National Environmental Policy Act. The issues discussed are the regional characteristics of the Island of Hawaii, the candidate launch vehicles, the flight safety considerations, the spaceport development issues, and the potential impact of the future spaceport on the Mauna Kea Observatory on the Island of Hawaii.

  6. Addressing the water budget with SMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Y. H.; AlBitar, A.; Tomer, S. K.; Merlin, O.; Pellarin, T.

    2012-12-01

    SMOS, a L Band radiometer using aperture synthesis to achieve a good spatial resolution, was successfully launched on November 2, 2009. It was developed and made under the leadership of the European Space Agency (ESA) as an Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. It is a joint program with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France and the Centro para el Desarrollo Teccnologico Industrial (CDTI) in Spain. SMOS carries a single payload, an L band 2D interferometric,radiometer in the 1400-1427 MHz h protected band. This wavelength penetrates well through the vegetation and the atmosphere is almost transparent enabling to infer both soil moisture and vegetation water content. SMOS achieves an unprecedented spatial resolution of 50 km at L-band maximum (43 km on average) with multi angular-dual polarized (or fully polarized) brightness temperatures over the globe and with a revisit time smaller than 3 days. SMOS as been now acquiring data for almost 2 years. The data quality exceeds what was expected, showing very good sensitivity and stability. The data is however very much impaired by man made emission in the protected band, leading to degraded measurements in several areas including parts of Europe and of China. However, many different international teams are now addressing cal val activities in various parts of the world, with notably large field campaigns either on the long time scale or over specific targets to address the specific issues. In parallel different teams are now starting addressing data use in various fields including hydrology. It requires coupling with other models and or disaggregation to address soil moisture distribution over watersheds. Significant new results were obtained for floods and drought events, together with new potential applications in terms of precipitation monitoring This paper thus gives an overview of the science goals of the SMOS mission, a description of its main elements, and a taste of the first results including

  7. Virtues, Teacher Professional Expertise, and Socioscientific Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Wayne; Yaxley, Bevis; Wallace, John

    2007-01-01

    This article develops the notion that virtues can be utilized as a means of understanding the professional expertise that science teachers demonstrate when they deal with socioscientific issues. Socioscientific issues are those contentious issues that connect science to the society in which it operates--environmental issues being a prime example.…

  8. Pipeline issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisley, Joe T.

    1990-01-01

    The declining pool of graduates, the lack of rigorous preparation in science and mathematics, and the declining interest in science and engineering careers at the precollege level promises a shortage of technically educated personnel at the college level for industry, government, and the universities in the next several decades. The educational process, which starts out with a large number of students at the elementary level, but with an ever smaller number preparing for science and engineering at each more advanced educational level, is in a state of crisis. These pipeline issues, so called because the educational process is likened to a series of ever smaller constrictions in a pipe, were examined in a workshop at the Space Grant Conference and a summary of the presentations and the results of the discussion, and the conclusions of the workshop participants are reported.

  9. 75 FR 55341 - Recovery Policy RP9523.12, Debris Operation-Hand-Loaded Trucks and Trailers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Recovery Policy RP9523.12, Debris Operation--Hand-Loaded... Operation--Hand-Loaded Trucks and Trailers. DATES: This policy is effective April 12, 2010. ADDRESSES: This... loaded physically by hand, rather than with mechanical equipment. FEMA previously issued this policy...

  10. Programming support environment issues in the Byron programming environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Matthew J.

    1986-01-01

    Issues are discussed which programming support environments need to address in order to successfully support software engineering. These concerns are divided into two categories. The first category, issues of how software development is supported by an environment, includes support of the full life cycle, methodology flexibility, and support of software reusability. The second category contains issues of how environments should operate, such as tool reusability and integration, user friendliness, networking, and use of a central data base. This discussion is followed by an examination of Byron, an Ada based programming support environment developed at Intermetrics, focusing on the solutions Byron offers to these problems, including the support provided for software reusability and the test and maintenance phases of the life cycle. The use of Byron in project development is described briefly, and some suggestions for future Byron tools and user written tools are presented.

  11. Optically addressed ultra-wideband phased antenna array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Jian

    Demands for high data rate and multifunctional apertures from both civilian and military users have motivated development of ultra-wideband (UWB) electrically steered phased arrays. Meanwhile, the need for large contiguous frequency is pushing operation of radio systems into the millimeter-wave (mm-wave) range. Therefore, modern radio systems require UWB performance from VHF to mm-wave. However, traditional electronic systems suffer many challenges that make achieving these requirements difficult. Several examples includes: voltage controlled oscillators (VCO) cannot provide a tunable range of several octaves, distribution of wideband local oscillator signals undergo high loss and dispersion through RF transmission lines, and antennas have very limited bandwidth or bulky sizes. Recently, RF photonics technology has drawn considerable attention because of its advantages over traditional systems, with the capability of offering extreme power efficiency, information capacity, frequency agility, and spatial beam diversity. A hybrid RF photonic communication system utilizing optical links and an RF transducer at the antenna potentially provides ultra-wideband data transmission, i.e., over 100 GHz. A successful implementation of such an optically addressed phased array requires addressing several key challenges. Photonic generation of an RF source with over a seven-octave bandwidth has been demonstrated in the last few years. However, one challenge which still remains is how to convey phased optical signals to downconversion modules and antennas. Therefore, a feed network with phase sweeping capability and low excessive phase noise needs to be developed. Another key challenge is to develop an ultra-wideband array antenna. Modern frontends require antennas to be compact, planar, and low-profile in addition to possessing broad bandwidth, conforming to stringent space, weight, cost, and power constraints. To address these issues, I will study broadband and miniaturization

  12. Measuring Recreation Benefits: Conceptual and Empirical Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookshire, David S.; Smith, V. Kerry

    1987-05-01

    The focus of this special section is the conceptual and empirical issues associated with the development of water-based recreation benefit estimation methodologies. The papers address two themes in the ongoing development of modeling the demand for outdoor recreation. The issues of characterizing and estimating nonuse (existence) values are discussed by K. J. Boyle and R. C. Bishop (this issue) and B. Madariaga and K. E. McConnell (this issue). R. Mendelsohn (this issue) and N. E. Bockstael et al. (this issue) address the problem of developing consistent methodologies for modeling the household's recreation decisions. This paper attempts to identify and highlight the issues and interrelationships of both sets of papers. An attempt is made to identify remaining research issues.

  13. Analysis of remote operating systems for space-based servicing operations, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A two phase study was conducted to analyze and develop the requirements for remote operating systems as applied to space based operations for the servicing, maintenance, and repair of satellites. Phase one consisted of the development of servicing requirements to establish design criteria for remote operating systems. Phase two defined preferred system concepts and development plans which met the requirements established in phase one. The specific tasks in phase two were to: (1) identify desirable operational and conceptual approaches for selected mission scenarios; (2) examine the potential impact of remote operating systems incorporated into the design of the space station; (3) address remote operating systems design issues, such as mobility, which are effected by the space station configuration; and (4) define the programmatic approaches for technology development, testing, simulation, and flight demonstration.

  14. Pharmacogenetics: ethical issues and policy options.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Allen; Califano, Andrea; Kahn, Jeffrey; McPherson, Elizabeth; Robertson, John; Brody, Baruch

    2002-03-01

    Pharmacogenetics offers the prospect of an era of safer and more effective drugs, as well as more individualized use of drug therapies. Before the benefits of pharmacogenetics can be realized, the ethical issues that arise in research and clinical application of pharmacogenetic technologies must be addressed. The ethical issues raised by pharmacogenetics can be addressed under six headings: (1) regulatory oversight, (2) confidentiality and privacy, (3) informed consent, (4) availability of drugs, (5) access, and (6) clinicians' changing responsibilities in the era of pharmacogenetic medicine. We analyze each of these categories of ethical issues and provide policy approaches for addressing them.

  15. Human Mars Surface Science Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobskill, Marianne R.; Lupisella, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    cleanliness levels associated with crew presence. Low-latency telerobotic science operations has the potential to address a number of contamination control and planetary protection issues and will be explored in this paper. Crew autonomy is another key cross-cutting challenge regarding Mars surface science operations, because the communications delay between earth and Mars could as high as 20 minutes one way, likely requiring the crew to perform many science tasks without direct timely intervention from ground support on earth. Striking the operational balance between crew autonomy and earth support will be a key challenge that this paper will address.

  16. 76 FR 40451 - Agency Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance-Change of Address Statement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance-- Change of Address Statement.... 2900-0503.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance--Change of Address... continued ownership of property issued under Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance when an address change for...

  17. Hybrid content addressable memory MSD arithmetic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yao; Kim, Dai Hyun; Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Eichmann, George

    1990-07-01

    The modified signed-digit (MSD) number system, because of its inherent weak interdigit dependance, has been suggested as a useful means for a fast and parallel digital arithmetic. To maintain a fast processing speed, a single-stage holographic optical content-addressable memory (CAM) based MSD algorithm was suggested. In this paper, a novel non-holographic opto-electronic CAM based fast MSD addition processing architecture is proposed. The proposed concept has been verified with our first-order proof-of-principle experiments. A figure of merit comparison of this and other existing approaches is also presented. Based on this key opto-electronic CAM element, implementation of more sophisticated I'VISD arithmetic, such as optical MSD subtraction and multiplication operations, are proposed.

  18. Extreme space weather studies: Addressing societal needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngwira, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme space weather events can adversely impact the operations of critical modern-day technological infrastructure such as high-voltage electric power transmission grids. Understanding of coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere dynamics under extreme solar wind driving conditions is still a major challenge mainly because of a lack of data during such time intervals. This presentation will highlight some of the past and on-going investigations on extreme space weather events, and how these investigations are used to address societal needs. Particularly, I will describe how first principles physics-based 3-D global MHD models are playing a major role in advancing our knowledge on extreme geomagnetically induced currents. These MHD models represent a very important component of attempts to understand the response of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system to varying solar wind conditions.

  19. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications. PMID:21193369

  20. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development. PMID:12032502