Science.gov

Sample records for address potential pitfalls

  1. Pitfalls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Triffet, Terry

    1990-01-01

    Though potentially of great benefit to the nation, the experience of the workshop participants and their discussions with Sea Grant and Land Grant officials make it clear that the Space Grant Program must avoid certain pitfalls of the past and present if it is to be successful. The most important of these are listed and briefly discussed.

  2. YouTube: Educational Potentials and Pitfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Troy; Cuthrell, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    The instructional potential of video technology in the classroom is promising, especially in light of the 21st Century Learning Framework (Siegle, 2009). Studies show positive gains in student outcomes as a result of the integration of video technology in instruction. This article explores potential uses of YouTube as an instructional aid in…

  3. Lung cancer nanomedicine: potentials and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Bölükbas, Deniz Ali; Meiners, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is by far the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Nanoparticle-based therapies enable targeted drug delivery for lung cancer treatment with increased therapeutic efficiency and reduced systemic toxicity. At the same time, nanomedicine has the potential for multimodal treatment of lung cancer that may involve 'all-in-one' targeting of several tumor-associated cell types in a timely and spatially controlled manner. Therapeutic approaches, however, are hampered by a translational gap between basic scientists, clinicians and pharma industry due to suboptimal animal models and difficulties in scale-up production of nanoagents. This calls for a disease-centered approach with interdisciplinary basic and clinical research teams with the support of pharma industries.

  4. Searchlight analysis: promise, pitfalls, and potential.

    PubMed

    Etzel, Joset A; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Braver, Todd S

    2013-09-01

    Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) is an increasingly popular approach for characterizing the information present in neural activity as measured by fMRI. For neuroimaging researchers, the searchlight technique serves as the most intuitively appealing means of implementing MVPA with fMRI data. However, searchlight approaches carry with them a number of special concerns and limitations that can lead to serious interpretation errors in practice, such as misidentifying a cluster as informative, or failing to detect truly informative voxels. Here we describe how such distorted results can occur, using both schematic illustrations and examples from actual fMRI datasets. We recommend that confirmatory and sensitivity tests, such as the ones prescribed here, should be considered a necessary stage of searchlight analysis interpretation, and that their adoption will allow the full potential of searchlight analysis to be realized.

  5. Searchlight analysis: promise, pitfalls, and potential

    PubMed Central

    Etzel, Joset A.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Braver, Todd S.

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) is an increasingly popular approach for characterizing the information present in neural activity as measured by fMRI. For neuroimaging researchers, the searchlight technique serves as the most intuitively appealing means of implementing MVPA with fMRI data. However, searchlight approaches carry with them a number of special concerns and limitations that can lead to serious interpretation errors in practice, such as misidentifying a cluster as informative, or failing to detect truly informative voxels. Here we describe how such distorted results can occur, using both schematic illustrations and examples from actual fMRI datasets. We recommend that confirmatory and sensitivity tests, such as the ones prescribed here, should be considered a necessary stage of searchlight analysis interpretation, and that their adoption will allow the full potential of searchlight analysis to be realized. PMID:23558106

  6. Designing sensory-substitution devices: Principles, pitfalls and potential1

    PubMed Central

    Kristjánsson, Árni; Moldoveanu, Alin; Jóhannesson, Ómar I.; Balan, Oana; Spagnol, Simone; Valgeirsdóttir, Vigdís Vala; Unnthorsson, Rúnar

    2016-01-01

    An exciting possibility for compensating for loss of sensory function is to augment deficient senses by conveying missing information through an intact sense. Here we present an overview of techniques that have been developed for sensory substitution (SS) for the blind, through both touch and audition, with special emphasis on the importance of training for the use of such devices, while highlighting potential pitfalls in their design. One example of a pitfall is how conveying extra information about the environment risks sensory overload. Related to this, the limits of attentional capacity make it important to focus on key information and avoid redundancies. Also, differences in processing characteristics and bandwidth between sensory systems severely constrain the information that can be conveyed. Furthermore, perception is a continuous process and does not involve a snapshot of the environment. Design of sensory substitution devices therefore requires assessment of the nature of spatiotemporal continuity for the different senses. Basic psychophysical and neuroscientific research into representations of the environment and the most effective ways of conveying information should lead to better design of sensory substitution systems. Sensory substitution devices should emphasize usability, and should not interfere with other inter- or intramodal perceptual function. Devices should be task-focused since in many cases it may be impractical to convey too many aspects of the environment. Evidence for multisensory integration in the representation of the environment suggests that researchers should not limit themselves to a single modality in their design. Finally, we recommend active training on devices, especially since it allows for externalization, where proximal sensory stimulation is attributed to a distinct exterior object. PMID:27567755

  7. Animal models of protein allergenicity: potential benefits, pitfalls and challenges.

    PubMed

    Dearman, R J; Kimber, I

    2009-04-01

    Food allergy is an important health issue. With an increasing interest in novel foods derived from transgenic crop plants, there is a growing need for the development of approaches suitable for the characterization of the allergenic potential of proteins. There are methods available currently (such as homology searches and serological testing) that are very effective at identifying proteins that are likely to cross-react with known allergens. However, animal models may play a role in the identification of truly novel proteins, such as bacterial or fungal proteins, that have not been experienced previously in the diet. We consider here the potential benefits, pitfalls and challenges of the selection of various animal models, including the mouse, the rat, the dog and the neonatal swine. The advantages and disadvantages of various experimental end-points are discussed, including the measurement of specific IgE by ELISA, Western blotting or functional tests such as the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay, and the assessment of challenge-induced clinical symptoms in previously sensitized animals. The experimental variables of route of exposure to test proteins and the incorporation of adjuvant to increase the sensitivity of the responses are considered also. It is important to emphasize that currently none of these approaches has been validated for the purposes of hazard identification in the context of a safety assessment. However, the available evidence suggests that the judicious use of an accurate and robust animal model could provide important additional data that would contribute significantly to the assessment of the potential allergenicity of novel proteins.

  8. Nonlinear Time Series Analysis in Earth Sciences - Potentials and Pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurths, Jürgen; Donges, Jonathan F.; Donner, Reik V.; Marwan, Norbert; Zou, Yong

    2010-05-01

    The application of methods of nonlinear time series analysis has a rich tradition in Earth sciences and has enabled substantially new insights into various complex processes there. However, some approaches and findings have been controversially discussed over the last decades. One reason is that they are often bases on strong restrictions and their violation may lead to pitfalls and misinterpretations. Here, we discuss three general concepts of nonlinear dynamics and statistical physics, synchronization, recurrence and complex networks and explain how to use them for data analysis. We show that the corresponding methods can be applied even to rather short and non-stationary data which are typical in Earth sciences. References Marwan, N., Romano, M., Thiel, M., Kurths, J.: Recurrence plots for the analysis of complex systems, Physics Reports 438, 237-329 (2007) Arenas, A., Diaz-Guilera, A., Kurths, J., Moreno, Y., Zhou, C.: Synchronization in complex networks, Physics Reports 469, 93-153 (2008) Marwan, N., Donges, J.F., Zou, Y., Donner, R. and Kurths, J., Phys. Lett. A 373, 4246 (2009) Donges, J.F., Zou, Y., Marwan, N. and Kurths, J. Europhys. Lett. 87, 48007 (2009) Donner, R., Zou, Y., Donges, J.F., Marwan, N. and Kurths, J., Phys. Rev. E 81, 015101(R) (2010)

  9. The commercial marketing of healthy lifestyles to address the global child and adolescent obesity pandemic: prospects, pitfalls and priorities.

    PubMed

    Kraak, Vivica I; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Story, Mary

    2009-11-01

    Public- and private-sector initiatives to promote healthy eating and physical activity, called 'healthy lifestyles', are a relatively recent response to the global obesity pandemic. The present paper explores different views about marketing healthy lifestyles with a special emphasis on private-sector initiatives and public-private partnerships designed to reach young people. We discuss aspects of these initiatives and partnerships from three perspectives: (i) the potential for commercial marketing practices to have a favourable influence on reversing global obesity trends (termed prospects); (ii) unresolved dilemmas and challenges that may hinder progress (termed pitfalls); and (iii) the implementation and evaluation of coordinated and systematic actions (termed priorities) that may increase the likelihood that commercially marketed healthy-lifestyle initiatives and public-private partnerships can make a positive contribution to reverse the rise in overweight and obesity among young people globally.

  10. Venous Intravasation: A Potential Pitfall of Confirmatory Hysterosalpingogram Following Essure Hysteroscopic Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Michael C.; Shim, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Indications for hysterosalpingography (HSG) include evaluation of infertility, spontaneous abortions, postoperative evaluation of tubal ligation, pre-myomectomy evaluation, and more recently, evaluation of tubal occlusion after placement of the Essure Permanent Birth Control System. Here we report a case of venous intravasation during a routine post-Essure HSG, a phenomenon in which contrast transits from the uterine cavity, through the myometrium, and directly into draining pelvic veins. Venous intravasation is a potential pitfall in interpretation of HSGs. PMID:23378884

  11. Potential pitfalls of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing.

    PubMed

    Peng, Rongxue; Lin, Guigao; Li, Jinming

    2016-04-01

    Recently, a novel technique named the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas)9 system has been rapidly developed. This genome editing tool has improved our ability tremendously with respect to exploring the pathogenesis of diseases and correcting disease mutations, as well as phenotypes. With a short guide RNA, Cas9 can be precisely directed to target sites, and functions as an endonuclease to efficiently produce breaks in DNA double strands. Over the past 30 years, CRISPR has evolved from the 'curious sequences of unknown biological function' into a promising genome editing tool. As a result of the incessant development in the CRISPR/Cas9 system, Cas9 co-expressed with custom guide RNAs has been successfully used in a variety of cells and organisms. This genome editing technology can also be applied to synthetic biology, functional genomic screening, transcriptional modulation and gene therapy. However, although CRISPR/Cas9 has a broad range of action in science, there are several aspects that affect its efficiency and specificity, including Cas9 activity, target site selection and short guide RNA design, delivery methods, off-target effects and the incidence of homology-directed repair. In the present review, we highlight the factors that affect the utilization of CRISPR/Cas9, as well as possible strategies for handling any problems. Addressing these issues will allow us to take better advantage of this technique. In addition, we also review the history and rapid development of the CRISPR/Cas system from the time of its initial discovery in 2012.

  12. Conducting qualitative research within Clinical Trials Units: avoiding potential pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Cindy; O'Cathain, Alicia; Hind, Danny; Adamson, Joy; Lawton, Julia; Baird, Wendy

    2014-07-01

    The value of using qualitative research within or alongside randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is becoming more widely accepted. Qualitative research may be conducted concurrently with pilot or full RCTs to understand the feasibility and acceptability of the interventions being tested, or to improve trial conduct. Clinical Trials Units (CTUs) in the United Kingdom (UK) manage large numbers of RCTs and, increasingly, manage the qualitative research or collaborate with qualitative researchers external to the CTU. CTUs are beginning to explicitly manage the process, for example, through the use of standard operating procedures for designing and implementing qualitative research with trials. We reviewed the experiences of two UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC) registered CTUs of conducting qualitative research concurrently with RCTs. Drawing on experiences gained from 15 studies, we identify the potential for the qualitative research to undermine the successful completion or scientific integrity of RCTs. We show that potential problems can arise from feedback of interim or final qualitative findings to members of the trial team or beyond, in particular reporting qualitative findings whilst the trial is on-going. The problems include: We make recommendations for improving the management of qualitative research within CTUs.

  13. Langerhans cells in anaplastic Kaposi sarcoma with a paucivascular phenotype: a potential diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Ramdial, Pratistadevi K; Sing, Yetish; Naicker, Shaun; Calonje, Eduardo; Sewram, Vikash; Singh, Bhugwan

    2011-04-01

    Anaplastic Kaposi sarcoma (AKS), a rare variant of Kaposi sarcoma, has a poorly recognized histomorphologic spectrum, including a paucivascular phenotype, that mimics a range of undifferentiated malignancies. This study, that highlights the hitherto undocumented phenomenon of S100-protein-positive Langerhans cells (SLCs) as a potential diagnostic pitfall in paucivascular AKS, involved review of nine such AKS that required diagnostic immunohistochemical (IHC) work-up. All biopsies had a predominant or exclusive spindle or epithelioid cell infiltrate. The first three tumors were diagnosed as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (2) and metastatic melanoma (1), based on S100-protein immunopositivity. Biopsy of a co-existent pigmented sole lesion (patient 3) demonstrated nodular KS. Subsequent IHC investigation of these three tumors demonstrated an endothelial phenotype and HHV8 immunopositivity, confirming AKS. CD1a and langerin staining of the S100-protein-positive cells confirmed Langerhans cells as the cause of the diagnostic pitfall. Subsequently, six further paucivascular AKS with intratumoral SLCs were recognized on histomorphological and IHC appraisal. In conclusion, heightened awareness of the histomorphologic spectrum, appropriate IHC investigation, and informed appraisal thereof, are critical to the diagnosis of AKS with an undifferentiated phenotype, and the avoidance of IHC pitfalls, such as those caused by under-recognition and misinterpretation of bystander SLCs in AKS.

  14. Thermography Applied to Interfacial Phenomena, Potentials and Pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoni, M.; Sefiane, K.

    Infrared (IR) thermography is a non-intrusive method for temperature measurement. Its ability to produce two-dimensional temperature images makes it a powerful tool for investigating systems exhibiting spatial variation of temperature. IR temperature measurements are almost always surface measurements; the technique has therefore found use in obtaining interfacial temperatures, primarily in heat and mass transfer investigations. The reasons for the technique's limited uptake likely stems from the requirement of accurate material emissivity data and the large number of potential sources of error. This chapter provides an overview of the underlying theory of radiative heat transfer. Key considerations and problems in the application of IR thermography are discussed with reference to some examples of recent successful applications.

  15. Measuring Hospital-Wide Mortality-Pitfalls and Potential.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Simon J; Goldmann, Don A; Perla, Rocco J; Parry, Gareth J

    2016-01-01

    Risk-adjusted hospital-wide mortality has been proposed as a key indicator of system-level quality. Several risk-adjusted measures are available, and one-the hospital standardized mortality ratio (HSMR) - is publicly reported in a number of countries, but not in the United States. This paper reviews potential uses of such measures. We conclude that available methods are not suitable for interhospital comparisons or rankings and should not be used for pay-for-performance or value-based purchasing/payment. Hospital-wide mortality is a relatively imprecise, crude measure of quality, but disaggregation into condition- and service-line-specific mortality can facilitate targeted improvement efforts. If tracked over time, both observed and expected mortality rates should be monitored to ensure that apparent improvement is not due to increasing expected mortality, which could reflect changes in case mix or coding. Risk-adjusted mortality can be used as an initial signal that a hospital's mortality rate is significantly higher than statistically expected, prompting further inquiry.

  16. From single gene to integrative molecular concept MAPS: pitfalls and potentials of microarray technology.

    PubMed

    Chiorino, G; Mello Grand, M; Scatolini, M; Ostano, P

    2008-01-01

    Microarray experiments have a large variety of applications and several important achievements have been obtained by means of this technology, especially within the field of whole genome expression profiling, which undoubtedly is the most diffused world-wide. Nevertheless, care must be taken in unconditionally applying such high-throughput techniques and in extracting/interpreting their results. Both the validity and the reproducibility of microarray-based clinical research have recently been challenged. Pitfalls and potentials of the microarray technology for gene expression profiling are critically reviewed in this paper.

  17. Potential Pitfalls Related to Space-Based Lidar Remote Sensing of the Earth with an Emphasis on Wind Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Spiers, Gary D.; Frehlich, Rod G.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A collection of issues is discussed that are potential pitfalls, if handled incorrectly, for earth-orbiting lidar remote sensing instruments. These issues arise due to the long target ranges, high lidar-to-target relative velocities, low signal levels, use of laser scanners, and other unique aspects of using lasers in earth orbit. Consequences of misunderstanding these topics range from minor inconvenience to improper calibration to total failure. We will focus on wind measurement using coherent detection Doppler lidar, but many of the potential pitfalls apply also to noncoherent lidar wind measurement, and to measurement of parameters other than wind. Each area will be identified as to its applicability.

  18. Oncocytic variant of malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor: a potential diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Boland, Jennifer M; Folpe, Andrew L

    2016-11-01

    Malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor (MGNET) is a very rare, aggressive malignant neoplasm that may occur in any location in the gastrointestinal tract. Malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumors typically consist of sheet-like to pseudopapillary proliferation of primitive-appearing epithelioid cells with a moderate amount of lightly eosinophilic cytoplasm, round nuclei and small nucleoli, often in association with osteoclast-like giant cells. By immunohistochemistry, these tumors show expression of S100 protein and SOX10, in the absence of expression of more specific melanocytic markers (eg, HMB45, Melan A). Genetically, malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumors are characterized by rearrangements of the EWSR1 or FUS genes with CREB1 or ATF1. We report a case of gastric malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor occurring in a 46-year-old woman and showing striking oncocytic cytoplasmic change, a previously undescribed potential diagnostic pitfall. An initial needle biopsy showed large, eosinophilic cells with S100 protein and SOX10 expression and lacking expression of KIT, DOG1, Melan A, keratin, chromogranin, or smooth muscle actin, and was interpreted as representing a granular cell tumor. The subsequent excision specimen showed similar-appearing areas, but also contained small more primitive-appearing areas, lacking oncocytic change and having high nuclear grade and brisk mitotic activity. This resection specimen was initially diagnosed as a malignant granular cell tumor. However subsequent gene expression profiling studies showed an EWSR1-ATF1 fusion, confirmed with fluorescence in situ hybridization for EWSR1, and a final diagnosis of MGNET with oncocytic change was made. This case highlights a previously undescribed pitfall in the diagnosis of MGNET, oncocytic change, and suggests that MGNET should be included in the differential diagnosis for unusual oncocytic neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract.

  19. Climate change mitigation: potential benefits and pitfalls of enhanced rock weathering in tropical agriculture.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David P; Lim, Felix; James, Rachael H; Pearce, Christopher R; Scholes, Julie; Freckleton, Robert P; Beerling, David J

    2017-04-01

    Restricting future global temperature increase to 2°C or less requires the adoption of negative emissions technologies for carbon capture and storage. We review the potential for deployment of enhanced weathering (EW), via the application of crushed reactive silicate rocks (such as basalt), on over 680 million hectares of tropical agricultural and tree plantations to offset fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Warm tropical climates and productive crops will substantially enhance weathering rates, with potential co-benefits including decreased soil acidification and increased phosphorus supply promoting higher crop yields sparing forest for conservation, and reduced cultural eutrophication. Potential pitfalls include the impacts of mining operations on deforestation, producing the energy to crush and transport silicates and the erosion of silicates into rivers and coral reefs that increases inorganic turbidity, sedimentation and pH, with unknown impacts for biodiversity. We identify nine priority research areas for untapping the potential of EW in the tropics, including effectiveness of tropical agriculture at EW for major crops in relation to particle sizes and soil types, impacts on human health, and effects on farmland, adjacent forest and stream-water biodiversity.

  20. Satellite Remote Sensing of Particulate Matter Air Quality: Progress, Potential and Pitfalls (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    Satellite Remote Sensing of Particulate Matter Air Quality: Progress, Potential and Pitfalls Abstract. Fine or respirable particles with particle aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) affect visibility, change cloud properties, reflect and absorb incoming solar radiation, affect human health and are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. These particles are injected into the atmosphere either as primary emissions or form into the atmosphere by gas to particle conversion. There are various sources of PM2.5 including emissions from automobiles, industrial exhaust, and agricultural fires. In 2006, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) made the standards stringent by changing the 24-hr averaged PM2.5 mass values from 65µgm-3 to 35µgm-3. This was primarily based on epidemiological studies that showed the long term health benefits of making the PM2.5 standards stringent. Typically PM2.5 mass concentration is measured from surface monitors and in the United States there are nearly 1000 such filter based daily and 600 contiguous stations managed by federal, state, local, and tribal agencies. Worldwide, there are few PM2.5 ground monitors since they are expensive to purchase, maintain and operate. Satellite remote sensing therefore provides a viable method for monitoring PM2.5 from space. Although, there are several hundred satellites currently in orbit and not all of them are suited for PM2.5 air quality assessments. Typically multi-spectral reflected solar radiation measurements from space-borne sensors are converted to aerosol optical depth (AOD) which is a measure of the column (surface to top of atmosphere) integrated extinction (absorption plus scattering). This column AOD (usually at 550 nm) is often converted to PM2.5 mass near the ground using various techniques. In this presentation we discuss the progress over the last decade on assessing PM2.5 from satellites; outline the potential and discuss the various pitfalls that one encounters. We

  1. Glioblastoma multiforme with epithelial differentiation: a potential diagnostic pitfall in cerebrospinal fluid cytology.

    PubMed

    Gill, Simpal K; Padmanabhan, Vijayalakshmi; Hickey, William F; Marotti, Jonathan D

    2015-08-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology provides valuable diagnostic and prognostic information for diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and remains the gold standard for the detection of neoplastic meningitis. Metastatic involvement of the CSF by non-CNS neoplasms far surpasses that of primary brain tumors, although conventional glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) can occasionally be identified in the CSF. GBM with epithelial differentiation is an uncommon variant that may contain features such as adenoid structures, signet ring cells, or squamous metaplasia. Herein, we present a case of GBM with epithelial differentiation to highlight a potential diagnostic pitfall in CSF cytology. A 55-year-old man presented with neurological symptoms and a 6.4 cm left temporal lobe cystic mass. Primary resection revealed GBM with focal epithelial differentiation confirmed by cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunohistochemical studies. Four months following primary resection, the patient developed severe headache for which a lumbar puncture with CSF cytologic evaluation was performed. The cytospin preparation showed numerous malignant epithelioid cells with high nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio and prominent cytoplasmic vacuoles resembling metastatic carcinoma. However, the lesional cells were cytomorphologically identical to the epithelial component present in the patient's recently diagnosed GBM. This case illustrates the potential for GBM with epithelial differentiation to closely mimic metastatic carcinoma from a non-CNS site in CSF cytology, which expands the differential diagnosis and emphasizes the necessity of clinical correlation.

  2. Single-pool exponential decomposition models: potential pitfalls in their use in ecological studies.

    PubMed

    Adair, E Carol; Hobbie, Sarah E; Hobbie, Russell K

    2010-04-01

    The importance of litter decomposition to carbon and nutrient cycling has motivated substantial research. Commonly, researchers fit a single-pool negative exponential model to data to estimate a decomposition rate (k). We review recent decomposition research, use data simulations, and analyze real data to show that this practice has several potential pitfalls. Specifically, two common decisions regarding model form (how to model initial mass) and data transformation (log-transformed vs. untransformed data) can lead to erroneous estimates of k. Allowing initial mass to differ from its true, measured value resulted in substantial over- or underestimation of k. Log-transforming data to estimate k using linear regression led to inaccurate estimates unless errors were lognormally distributed, while nonlinear regression of untransformed data accurately estimated k regardless of error structure. Therefore, we recommend fixing initial mass at the measured value and estimating k with nonlinear regression (untransformed data) unless errors are demonstrably lognormal. If data are log-transformed for linear regression, zero values should be treated as missing data; replacing zero values with an arbitrarily small value yielded poor k estimates. These recommendations will lead to more accurate k estimates and allow cross-study comparison of k values, increasing understanding of this important ecosystem process.

  3. Immunohistochemistry as potential diagnostic pitfall in the most common solid tumors of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Magro, Gaetano; Longo, Francesca Romana; Angelico, Giuseppe; Spadola, Saveria; Amore, Flavia Francesca; Salvatorelli, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Making a correct diagnosis when dealing with a small round blue cell tumor (SRBCT) of children and adolescents may be relatively straightforward if the tumor arises in the typical clinical setting and the classic pathologic features are all recognizable. However it is widely known that diagnostic difficulties may arise because of: (i) many tumors share overlapping morphological and/or immunohistochemical features; (ii) considerable clinical, pathologic, and immunohistochemical variations do exist; (iii) the increasing use of small biopsies in daily practice makes the diagnosis of these neoplasms more challenging. Accordingly, immunohistochemical analyses are currently mandatory in establishing the correct diagnosis. In this regard there is the need to identify more sensitive and specific immunomarkers useful in the distinction of the several tumor entities. Over the last decades, several markers, such as CD99, WT1 protein, desmin, myogenin, NB84, and INI1 have been identified, providing a considerable help in recognition of the most common solid tumors (ESW/pPNET, rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumor, desmoplastic small round cell tumor; malignant rhabdoid tumor) in children and adolescents. However, at the same time, their unusual, unexpected expression can result in a misinterpretation of the immunohistochemical results, especially by pathologists who are not familiar with oncologic pediatric pathology. Therefore the present review focuses on the potential immunohistochemical pitfalls which should be kept in mind by pathologists to prevent diagnostic errors when dealing with SRBCTs.

  4. Qualifying stem cell sources: how to overcome potential pitfalls in regenerative medicine?

    PubMed

    Reinke, Simon; Dienelt, Anke; Blankenstein, Antje; Duda, Georg N; Geissler, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative medicine aims to replace lost cells and to restore damaged tissues and organs by either tissue-engineering approaches or stimulation of endogenous processes. Due to their biological properties, stem cells promise to be an effective source for such strategies. Especially adult multipotent stem cells (ASCs) are believed to be applicable in a broad range of therapies for the treatment of multifactorial diseases or age-related degeneration, although the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying their regenerative function are often hardly described. Moreover, in some demanding clinical situations their efficiency remains limited. Thus, a basic understanding of ASCs regenerative function, their complex interplay with their microenvironment and how compromising conditions interfere with their efficiency is mandatory for any regenerative strategy. Concerning this matter, the impact of patient-specific constraints are often underestimated in research projects and their influence on the study results disregarded. Thus, researchers are urgently depending on well-characterized tissue samples or cells that are connected with corresponding donor information, such as secondary diseases, medication. Here, we outline principle pitfalls during experimental studies using human samples, and describe a potential strategy to overcome these challenges by establishing a core unit for cell and tissue harvesting. This facility aims to bridge the gap between clinic and research laboratories by the provision of a direct link to the clinical operating theatres. Such a strategy clearly supports basic and clinical research in the conduct of their studies and supplies highly characterized human samples together with the corresponding donor information.

  5. Autoantibodies in a Three-Year-Old Girl with Visceral Leishmaniasis: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall

    PubMed Central

    Pouladfar, Gholamreza; Jafarpour, Zahra; Pourabbas, Bahman; Geramizadeh, Bita; Dashti, Anahita Sanaei

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a life-threatening parasitic infection, is endemic in the Mediterranean region. Diagnosis of VL is based on epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory findings. However, sometimes, clinical features and laboratory findings overlap with those of autoimmune diseases. In some cases, autoantibodies are detected in patients with VL and this could be a potential diagnostic pitfall. In this study, we have reported on a three-year-old girl from a VL-endemic area in Iran, who presented with prolonged fever and splenomegaly. Bone marrow examination, serologic tests, and the molecular PCR assay were performed; however, results were inconclusive. The levels of anti-double stranded DNA, cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody, and perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody were elevated and, at the end, splenic biopsy was performed. The splenic tissue PCR test detected the DNA of Leishmania infantum. The patient's condition improved with anti-Leishmania therapy, and the autoantibodies disappeared within the following four months. Clinical presentations and laboratory findings of VL and autoimmune diseases may overlap in some patients. PMID:27418985

  6. Potential and pitfalls of eukaryotic metagenome skimming: a test case for lichens.

    PubMed

    Greshake, Bastian; Zehr, Simonida; Dal Grande, Francesco; Meiser, Anjuli; Schmitt, Imke; Ebersberger, Ingo

    2016-03-01

    Whole-genome shotgun sequencing of multispecies communities using only a single library layout is commonly used to assess taxonomic and functional diversity of microbial assemblages. Here, we investigate to what extent such metagenome skimming approaches are applicable for in-depth genomic characterizations of eukaryotic communities, for example lichens. We address how to best assemble a particular eukaryotic metagenome skimming data, what pitfalls can occur, and what genome quality can be expected from these data. To facilitate a project-specific benchmarking, we introduce the concept of twin sets, simulated data resembling the outcome of a particular metagenome sequencing study. We show that the quality of genome reconstructions depends essentially on assembler choice. Individual tools, including the metagenome assemblers Omega and MetaVelvet, are surprisingly sensitive to low and uneven coverages. In combination with the routine of assembly parameter choice to optimize the assembly N50 size, these tools can preclude an entire genome from the assembly. In contrast, MIRA, an all-purpose overlap assembler, and SPAdes, a multisized de Bruijn graph assembler, facilitate a comprehensive view on the individual genomes across a wide range of coverage ratios. Testing assemblers on a real-world metagenome skimming data from the lichen Lasallia pustulata demonstrates the applicability of twin sets for guiding method selection. Furthermore, it reveals that the assembly outcome for the photobiont Trebouxia sp. falls behind the a priori expectation given the simulations. Although the underlying reasons remain still unclear, this highlights that further studies on this organism require special attention during sequence data generation and downstream analysis.

  7. Evaluating and interpreting cross-taxon congruence: Potential pitfalls and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioria, Margherita; Bacaro, Giovanni; Feehan, John

    2011-05-01

    Characterizing the relationship between different taxonomic groups is critical to identify potential surrogates for biodiversity. Previous studies have shown that cross-taxa relationships are generally weak and/or inconsistent. The difficulties in finding predictive patterns have often been attributed to the spatial and temporal scales of these studies and on the differences in the measure used to evaluate such relationships (species richness versus composition). However, the choice of the analytical approach used to evaluate cross-taxon congruence inevitably represents a major source of variation. Here, we described the use of a range of methods that can be used to comprehensively assess cross-taxa relationships. To do so, we used data for two taxonomic groups, wetland plants and water beetles, collected from 54 farmland ponds in Ireland. Specifically, we used the Pearson correlation and rarefaction curves to analyse patterns in species richness, while Mantel tests, Procrustes analysis, and co-correspondence analysis were used to evaluate congruence in species composition. We compared the results of these analyses and we described some of the potential pitfalls associated with the use of each of these statistical approaches. Cross-taxon congruence was moderate to strong, depending on the choice of the analytical approach, on the nature of the response variable, and on local and environmental conditions. Our findings indicate that multiple approaches and measures of community structure are required for a comprehensive assessment of cross-taxa relationships. In particular, we showed that selection of surrogate taxa in conservation planning should not be based on a single statistic expressing the degree of correlation in species richness or composition. Potential solutions to the analytical issues associated with the assessment of cross-taxon congruence are provided and the implications of our findings in the selection of surrogates for biodiversity are discussed.

  8. Potential pitfalls when denoising resting state fMRI data using nuisance regression.

    PubMed

    Bright, Molly G; Tench, Christopher R; Murphy, Kevin

    2016-12-23

    In resting state fMRI, it is necessary to remove signal variance associated with noise sources, leaving cleaned fMRI time-series that more accurately reflect the underlying intrinsic brain fluctuations of interest. This is commonly achieved through nuisance regression, in which the fit is calculated of a noise model of head motion and physiological processes to the fMRI data in a General Linear Model, and the "cleaned" residuals of this fit are used in further analysis. We examine the statistical assumptions and requirements of the General Linear Model, and whether these are met during nuisance regression of resting state fMRI data. Using toy examples and real data we show how pre-whitening, temporal filtering and temporal shifting of regressors impact model fit. Based on our own observations, existing literature, and statistical theory, we make the following recommendations when employing nuisance regression: pre-whitening should be applied to achieve valid statistical inference of the noise model fit parameters; temporal filtering should be incorporated into the noise model to best account for changes in degrees of freedom; temporal shifting of regressors, although merited, should be achieved via optimisation and validation of a single temporal shift. We encourage all readers to make simple, practical changes to their fMRI denoising pipeline, and to regularly assess the appropriateness of the noise model used. By negotiating the potential pitfalls described in this paper, and by clearly reporting the details of nuisance regression in future manuscripts, we hope that the field will achieve more accurate and precise noise models for cleaning the resting state fMRI time-series.

  9. Nuclear medicine in the acute clinical setting: indications, imaging findings, and potential pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Uliel, Livnat; Mellnick, Vincent M; Menias, Christine O; Holz, Andrew L; McConathy, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging provides valuable functional information that complements information obtained with anatomic imaging techniques in the evaluation of patients with specific acute clinical manifestations. Nuclear medicine studies are most often used in conjunction with other imaging modalities and as a problem-solving tool. Under certain circumstances a nuclear medicine study may be indicated as the first-line imaging modality, as in the case of renal scintigraphy for transplant dysfunction in the early postoperative period. Nuclear imaging may be preferred when a conventional first-line study is contraindicated or when it is important to minimize radiation exposure. The portability of nuclear imaging offers particular advantages for the evaluation of critically ill patients whose clinical condition is unstable and who cannot be safely transported out of the intensive care unit. The ability to visualize physiologic and pathophysiologic processes over relatively long time periods without adding to the patient's radiation exposure contributes to the high diagnostic sensitivity of several types of nuclear medicine studies. Viewing the acquired images in the cine mode adds to the value of these studies for diagnosing and characterizing dynamic abnormalities such as intermittent internal bleeding and bile or urine leakage. In this pictorial review, the spectrum of nuclear medicine studies commonly performed in the acute care setting is reviewed according to body systems and organs, with detailed descriptions of the indications, technical considerations, findings, and potential pitfalls of each type of study. Supplemental material available at http://radiographics.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/rg.332125098/-/DC1.

  10. On the Hydrologic Adjustment of Climate-Model Projections: The Potential Pitfall of Potential Evapotranspiration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, Paul C.D.; Dunne, Krista A.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrologic models often are applied to adjust projections of hydroclimatic change that come from climate models. Such adjustment includes climate-bias correction, spatial refinement ("downscaling"), and consideration of the roles of hydrologic processes that were neglected in the climate model. Described herein is a quantitative analysis of the effects of hydrologic adjustment on the projections of runoff change associated with projected twenty-first-century climate change. In a case study including three climate models and 10 river basins in the contiguous United States, the authors find that relative (i.e., fractional or percentage) runoff change computed with hydrologic adjustment more often than not was less positive (or, equivalently, more negative) than what was projected by the climate models. The dominant contributor to this decrease in runoff was a ubiquitous change in runoff (median -11%) caused by the hydrologic model’s apparent amplification of the climate-model-implied growth in potential evapotranspiration. Analysis suggests that the hydrologic model, on the basis of the empirical, temperature-based modified Jensen–Haise formula, calculates a change in potential evapotranspiration that is typically 3 times the change implied by the climate models, which explicitly track surface energy budgets. In comparison with the amplification of potential evapotranspiration, central tendencies of other contributions from hydrologic adjustment (spatial refinement, climate-bias adjustment, and process refinement) were relatively small. The authors’ findings highlight the need for caution when projecting changes in potential evapotranspiration for use in hydrologic models or drought indices to evaluate climate-change impacts on water.

  11. On the hydrologic adjustment of climate-model projections: The potential pitfall of potential evapotranspiration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.; Dunne, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrologic models often are applied to adjust projections of hydroclimatic change that come from climate models. Such adjustment includes climate-bias correction, spatial refinement ("downscaling"), and consideration of the roles of hydrologic processes that were neglected in the climate model. Described herein is a quantitative analysis of the effects of hydrologic adjustment on the projections of runoff change associated with projected twenty-first-century climate change. In a case study including three climate models and 10 river basins in the contiguous United States, the authors find that relative (i.e., fractional or percentage) runoff change computed with hydrologic adjustment more often than not was less positive (or, equivalently, more negative) than what was projected by the climate models. The dominant contributor to this decrease in runoff was a ubiquitous change in runoff (median 211%) caused by the hydrologic model's apparent amplification of the climate-model-implied growth in potential evapotranspiration. Analysis suggests that the hydrologic model, on the basis of the empirical, temperature-based modified Jensen-Haise formula, calculates a change in potential evapotranspiration that is typically 3 times the change implied by the climate models, which explicitly track surface energy budgets. In comparison with the amplification of potential evapotranspiration, central tendencies of other contributions from hydrologic adjustment (spatial refinement, climate-bias adjustment, and process refinement) were relatively small. The authors' findings highlight the need for caution when projecting changes in potential evapotranspiration for use in hydrologic models or drought indices to evaluate climatechange impacts on water. Copyright ?? 2011, Paper 15-001; 35,952 words, 3 Figures, 0 Animations, 1 Tables.

  12. A model for integrating clinical care and basic science research, and pitfalls of performing complex research projects for addressing a clinical challenge.

    PubMed

    Steck, R; Epari, D R; Schuetz, M A

    2010-07-01

    The collaboration of clinicians with basic science researchers is crucial for addressing clinically relevant research questions. In order to initiate such mutually beneficial relationships, we propose a model where early career clinicians spend a designated time embedded in established basic science research groups, in order to pursue a postgraduate qualification. During this time, clinicians become integral members of the research team, fostering long term relationships and opening up opportunities for continuing collaboration. However, for these collaborations to be successful there are pitfalls to be avoided. Limited time and funding can lead to attempts to answer clinical challenges with highly complex research projects characterised by a large number of "clinical" factors being introduced in the hope that the research outcomes will be more clinically relevant. As a result, the complexity of such studies and variability of its outcomes may lead to difficulties in drawing scientifically justified and clinically useful conclusions. Consequently, we stress that it is the basic science researcher and the clinician's obligation to be mindful of the limitations and challenges of such multi-factorial research projects. A systematic step-by-step approach to address clinical research questions with limited, but highly targeted and well defined research projects provides the solid foundation which may lead to the development of a longer term research program for addressing more challenging clinical problems. Ultimately, we believe that it is such models, encouraging the vital collaboration between clinicians and researchers for the work on targeted, well defined research projects, which will result in answers to the important clinical challenges of today.

  13. Positive Pitfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how Cahokia middle and high school students conduct inquiry-based science through a pitfall trap experiment. In a collaborative effort, students designed and conducted pitfall trap investigations that combined their interest in the natural world with their love of technology. The students set up their own experiments to…

  14. Visible and Invisible Trends in Black Men's Health: Pitfalls and Promises for Addressing Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Inequities in Health.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Keon L; Ray, Rashawn; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Shetty, Shivan; Baker, Elizabeth A; Elder, Keith; Griffith, Derek M

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been growing interest in improving black men's health and the health disparities affecting them. Yet, the health of black men consistently ranks lowest across nearly all groups in the United States. Evidence on the health and social causes of morbidity and mortality among black men has been narrowly concentrated on public health problems (e.g., violence, prostate cancer, and HIV/AIDS) and determinants of health (e.g., education and male gender socialization). This limited focus omits age-specific leading causes of death and other social determinants of health, such as discrimination, segregation, access to health care, employment, and income. This review discusses the leading causes of death for black men and the associated risk factors, as well as identifies gaps in the literature and presents a racialized and gendered framework to guide efforts to address the persistent inequities in health affecting black men.

  15. OVERVIEW, PRACTICAL TIPS AND POTENTIAL PITFALLS OF USING AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE CONTROL IN CT: SIEMENS CARE DOSE 4D.

    PubMed

    Söderberg, Marcus

    2016-06-01

    Today, computed tomography (CT) systems routinely use automatic exposure control (AEC), which modulates the tube current. However, for optimal use, there are several aspects of an AEC system that need to be considered. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the Siemens CARE Dose 4D AEC system, discuss practical tips and demonstrate potential pitfalls. Two adult anthropomorphic phantoms were examined using two different Siemens CT systems. When optimising the CT radiation dose and image quality, the projection angle of the localiser, patient centring, protocol selection, scanning direction and the use of protective devices requires special attention.

  16. Potential and pitfalls in establishing the provenance of Earth-related samples in forensic investigations.

    PubMed

    Rawlins, Barry G; Kemp, Simon J; Hodgkinson, Emily H; Riding, James B; Vane, Christopher H; Poulton, Catherine; Freeborough, Katy

    2006-07-01

    Earth scientists are often asked to establish or constrain the likely provenance of very small quantities of earth-related material as part of a forensic investigation. We tested the independent and collective interpretations of four experts with differing analytical skills in the prediction of sample provenance for three samples from different environmental settings. The methods used were X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, the assessment of pollen assemblages, and structural characterization of organic matter at the molecular level. Independent interpretations were less accurate than those where multiple techniques were combined. Collective interpretation was very effective in the assessment of provenance for two of the three sites where the mineralogy and plant communities were distinctive. At the other site, although the mineralogical analysis correctly identified the Triassic mudstone soil parent material, Carboniferous spores from domestic coal were initially interpreted as deriving directly from bedrock. Such an interpretation could be a common pitfall owing to anthropogenic redistribution of material such as coal.

  17. Linear Augmentation for Stabilizing Stationary Solutions: Potential Pitfalls and Their Application

    PubMed Central

    Karnatak, Rajat

    2015-01-01

    Linear augmentation has recently been shown to be effective in targeting desired stationary solutions, suppressing bistablity, in regulating the dynamics of drive response systems and in controlling the dynamics of hidden attractors. The simplicity of the procedure is the main highlight of this scheme but questions related to its general applicability still need to be addressed. Focusing on the issue of targeting stationary solutions, this work demonstrates instances where the scheme fails to stabilize the required solutions and leads to other complicated dynamical scenarios. Examples from conservative as well as dissipative systems are presented in this regard and important applications in dissipative predator—prey systems are discussed, which include preventative measures to avoid potentially catastrophic dynamical transitions in these systems. PMID:26544879

  18. GATA3 Positivity in Benign Radiated Prostate Glands: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall.

    PubMed

    Wobker, Sara E; Khararjian, Armen; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2017-04-01

    Histologic changes following radiation therapy to the prostate include multilayering of glands, atrophy, squamous metaplasia, and often marked random nuclear atypia. We have seen multiple consultation cases where the differential diagnosis of these radiated prostate glands included urothelial carcinoma, with multilayered to solid-appearing proliferations that were positive by immunohistochemistry for GATA3. To formally investigate this issue, 30 cases of benign prostate tissue with radiation atypia, from 1990 to 2015, were obtained from our institution. Cases were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for the prostate-specific markers prostate-specific antigen (PSA), P501S (Prostein), and NKX3.1 and urothelial markers GATA3 and uroplakin 2. GATA3 was positive in 100% of cases, with 70% showing moderately strong to strong staining in a mostly patchy manner within a gland. PSA was positive in 93.3% of cases, with 89.2% showing moderately strong to strong staining in a mostly diffuse manner. P501S was positive in 96.7% of cases, with 93.1% showing moderately strong to strong staining in a mostly patchy manner. NKX3.1 was positive in 82.8% of cases, with 33.3% showing moderately strong to strong staining in a mostly patchy manner. Uroplakin 2 was negative in 100% of cases. Our findings highlight that GATA3 is often positive in benign prostate glands with radiation atypia, which along with the morphologic features present a pitfall for the misdiagnosis of urothelial carcinoma. A combination of PSA and P501S is the best prostate-specific panel for use in radiated prostate, with the caveat that they are often patchy and do not stain all radiated glands.

  19. Hematogones With Lambda Light Chain Restriction in a 4-Year-Old Boy With Burkitt Lymphoma: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall.

    PubMed

    Guillory, Tesha; Li, Shiyong; Bergsagel, Daniel J; Weinzierl, Elizabeth; Bunting, Silvia T

    2016-05-01

    Hematogones are immature normal B cell precursors with a characteristic immunophenotype profile on flow cytometry that typically do not express surface immunoglobulin light chains. In this report, we describe a case in which the hematogones exhibit light chain restriction. Our patient was a 4-year-old boy with a complicated medical history involving treatment for a presumed bilateral Wilms tumor of the kidney that on later resection was diagnosed as Burkitt lymphoma. Flow cytometry analysis of his bone marrow revealed a small distinct population of cells expressing dim cluster of differentiation (CD)10, CD19, CD22, CD38, dim CD58, human leukocyte antigen-D related (HLA-DR), and dim CD45, which are characteristic of hematogones. These cells, however, demonstrated dim surface immunoglobulin lambda light-chain restriction. Molecular study results for immunoglobulin heavy and kappa light-chain gene rearrangements were negative. We present this case to raise awareness of the potential pitfalls of working up bone marrow for involvement by B cell lymphoproliferative disorder.

  20. Test-Based Accountability: Potential Benefits and Pitfalls of Science Assessment with Student Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall D.; Lee, Okhee

    2010-01-01

    Recent test-based accountability policy in the U.S. has involved annually assessing all students in core subjects and holding schools accountable for adequate progress of all students by implementing sanctions when adequate progress is not met. Despite its potential benefits, basing educational policy on assessments developed for a student…

  1. Nutritional assessment of elderly patients on dialysis: pitfalls and potentials for practice.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Juliana; Cuppari, Lilian; Campbell, Katrina L; Avesani, Carla Maria

    2017-03-22

    The chronic kidney disease (CKD) population is aging. Currently a high percentage of patients treated on dialysis are older than 65 years. As patients get older, several conditions contribute to the development of malnutrition, namely protein energy wasting (PEW), which may be compounded by nutritional disturbances associated with CKD and from the dialysis procedure. Therefore, elderly patients on dialysis are vulnerable to the development of PEW and awareness of the identification and subsequent management of nutritional status is of importance. In clinical practice, the nutritional assessment of patients on dialysis usually includes methods to assess PEW, such as the subjective global assessment, the malnutrition inflammation score, and anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Studies investigating measures of nutritional status specifically tailored to the elderly on dialysis are scarce. Therefore, the same methods and cutoffs used for the general adult population on dialysis are applied to the elderly. Considering this scenario, the aim of this review is to discuss specific considerations for nutritional assessment of elderly patients on dialysis addressing specific shortcomings on the interpretation of markers, in addition to providing clinical practice guidance to assess the nutritional status of elderly patients on dialysis.

  2. Venous Intravasation as a Complication and Potential Pitfall During Hysterosalpingography: Re-Emerging Study with a Novel Classification

    PubMed Central

    Dusak, Abdurrahim; Soydinc, Hatice E.; Onder, Hakan; Ekinci, Faysal; Görük, Neval Y.; Hamidi, Cihat; Bilici, Aslan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Presently, hysterosalpingography (HSG) is used as a means to evaluate women with infertility and repetitive pregnancy loss. Venous intravasation is a complication and potential pitfall during HSG and analogous procedures including hysteroscopy. The aim of our study was to assess the venous intravasation and to obtain critical information for more secure and more accurate procedures. In particular, the primary goal of the present study was to compare HSG without and with intravasation to identify differences seen on HSG and to assess the predisposing factors of intravasation. The secondary goal was to describe clinical- and imaging-based novel classification of intravasation. Materials and Methods: This study included a patient cohort of 569 patients who underwent HSG between 2008 and 2011 at our center in the absence (control group) or presence (study group) of intravasation. Intravasation classified from level 0 (no intravasation) to level 3 (severe intravasation) was compared with preprocedural (demographic and clinical) and procedural (HSG) data. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) statistical software. Results: Of the 569 patients undergoing HSG, 528 showed no intravasation and 41 (7.2%) patients showed intravasation when associated with preprocedural (leukocytes, menometrorrhagia, secondary infertility, ectopic pregnancy, abortus, polycystic ovaries, endometriosis, and interventions) and procedural (pain, scheduling, endometrial-uterine nature, and spillage) parameters. Moreover, intravasation was lower in women with smooth endometrium, triangular uterus, and homogeneous peritoneal spillage. No association was found between age, tubal patency, increased pressure, and intravasation. Conclusions: Using a novel classification method, intravasation can be observed in women during HSG and associates with preprocedural and procedural predisposing factors in subsumed conditions. This classification method will be useful

  3. Induced Insecurity: Understanding the Potential Pitfalls in Developing Theater Campaign Plans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-11

    epidemic of panic . 1 - B. H. Lidde/1-Hart The term stable environment is highly subjective and based on perception. The creation of new military...against a potential attack from Country "C". An alternate possibility, called bandwagoning, suggests that a country may choose to align with a...dominant state in a "hope to avoid an attack by diverting it elsewhere.Ś For example, Country "A’’ forms a military partnership with Country "C" so that

  4. Chromogranin A – unspecific neuroendocrine marker. Clinical utility and potential diagnostic pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Czarnywojtek, Agata; Fischbach, Jakub; Bączyk, Maciej; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna; Wrotkowska, Elżbieta; Gryczyńska, Maria; Ruchała, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Chromogranin A, despite a number of limitations, is still the most valuable marker of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Granins belong to the family of acidic proteins that constitute a major component of secretory granules of various endocrine and neuroendocrine cells, which are components of both the classical endocrine glands and the diffuse neuroendocrine system. These cells are a potential source of transformation into neuroendocrine tumors. The awareness of potential causes influencing the false results of its concentrations simplifies diagnosis and treatment. One of the disadvantages of this marker is its non-specificity and the existence of a number of pathological processes leading to an increase in its concentration, which often results in confusion and diagnostic difficulties. The molecular structure is characterized by a number of sites susceptible to the proteolytic activity of enzymes, resulting in the formation of a number of biologically active peptides. Presumably they act as precursors of active proteins. Chromogranin expression correlates with the amount of secretory vesicles in neuroendocrine cells. The peptide chain during biochemical changes becomes a precursor of biologically active proteins with a wide range of activities. There are a number of commercially available kits for the determination of chromogranin A, which differ in methodology. We present the evaluation of chromogranin A as a marker of neuroendocrine tumors in clinical practice and the possible factors that may affect the outcome of its concentration. PMID:26925113

  5. Managing the potential and pitfalls during clinical translation of emerging stem cell therapies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We are moving into a new era of stem cell research where many possibilities for treatment of degenerative, chronic and/or fatal diseases and injuries are becoming primed for clinical trial. These reports have led millions of people worldwide to hope that regenerative medicine is about to revolutionise biomedicine: either through transplantation of cells grown in the laboratory, or by finding ways to stimulate a patient’s intrinsic stem cells to repair diseased and damaged organs. While major contributions of stem cells to drug discovery, safety and efficacy testing, as well as modelling ‘diseases in a dish’ are also expected, it is the in vivo use of stem cells that has captured the general public’s attention. However, public misconceptions of stem cell potential and applications can leave patients vulnerable to the influences of profit driven entities selling unproven treatments without solid scientific basis or appropriate clinical testing or follow up. This review provides a brief history of stem cell clinical translation together with an overview of the properties, potential, and current clinical application of various stem cell types. In doing so it presents a clearer picture of the inherent risks and opportunities associated with stem cell research translation, and thus offers a framework to help realise invested expectations more quickly, safely and effectively. PMID:24949190

  6. Pitfalls in the performance and interpretation of clinical immunology tests.

    PubMed

    Lock, R J; Virgo, P F; Unsworth, D J

    2008-12-01

    A broad overview, with examples, of the potential pitfalls encountered in the clinical immunology laboratory is presented. Illustrative examples and case scenarios are provided from autoimmunity, immunochemistry and cellular immunology, looking at both technical and interpretative pitfalls.

  7. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma with intratumoral and nodal extramedullary megakaryopoiesis: a potential diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Sean R; Mast, Kelley J; Cheng, Liang; Idrees, Muhammad T

    2014-06-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma is occasionally associated with erythrocytosis, hypothesized to result from tumoral production of erythropoietin. Rarely, intratumoral erythropoiesis has been identified, although intratumoral megakaryopoiesis has not, to our knowledge, been previously described. We report the case of an 81-year-old man with myelofibrosis who underwent resection of a 9.8-cm clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Numerous megakaryocytes were present within the renal cell carcinoma; regional lymph nodes; and, to a lesser extent, the nonneoplastic kidney, glomeruli, and renal hilar soft tissue, in some areas associated with trilineage hematopoiesis. Immunohistochemistry verified the megakaryocytic lineage of the atypical cells (CD61, CD42b, and von Willebrand factor +; cytokeratin -). Intratumoral extramedullary megakaryopoiesis is a novel finding in clear cell renal cell carcinoma with potential to mimic high-grade carcinoma and involvement of lymph nodes. Careful attention to morphology, presence of other hematopoietic elements, and immunoprofile can facilitate recognition of this rare phenomenon.

  8. Mapping environmental injustices: pitfalls and potential of geographic information systems in assessing environmental health and equity.

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, Juliana

    2002-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used increasingly to map instances of environmental injustice, the disproportionate exposure of certain populations to environmental hazards. Some of the technical and analytic difficulties of mapping environmental injustice are outlined in this article, along with suggestions for using GIS to better assess and predict environmental health and equity. I examine 13 GIS-based environmental equity studies conducted within the past decade and use a study of noxious land use locations in the Bronx, New York, to illustrate and evaluate the differences in two common methods of determining exposure extent and the characteristics of proximate populations. Unresolved issues in mapping environmental equity and health include lack of comprehensive hazards databases; the inadequacy of current exposure indices; the need to develop realistic methodologies for determining the geographic extent of exposure and the characteristics of the affected populations; and the paucity and insufficiency of health assessment data. GIS have great potential to help us understand the spatial relationship between pollution and health. Refinements in exposure indices; the use of dispersion modeling and advanced proximity analysis; the application of neighborhood-scale analysis; and the consideration of other factors such as zoning and planning policies will enable more conclusive findings. The environmental equity studies reviewed in this article found a disproportionate environmental burden based on race and/or income. It is critical now to demonstrate correspondence between environmental burdens and adverse health impacts--to show the disproportionate effects of pollution rather than just the disproportionate distribution of pollution sources. PMID:11929725

  9. Harmonizing the international regulation of embryonic stem cell research: possibilities, promises and potential pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Angela; Nycum, Gillian

    2005-01-01

    Despite near unanimous global opposition to human reproductive cloning, the United Nations has been unable to reach a consensus as to how cloning practices should be regulated at the international level. As a result, the U.N. objective of establishing binding international regulations governing cloning and stem cell research has yet to be achieved. Given the lack of consensus that exists within the global community on this topic, it seems that any attempt to harmonize the international regulation of cloning and stem cell science will face important obstacles. This paper seeks to illuminate the particular challenges to harmonizing international laws and policies related to stem cell research and human cloning, and to investigate potential methods for overcoming these challenges. By drawing on two other areas in which regulatory harmonization has been attempted, namely: environmental and human safety aspects of international trade, and pharmaceutical research and development, we study approaches to global regulatory harmonization. We conclude that while the challenges to harmonization are diverse and important, so too are the benefits of establishing uniformity in approaches to stem cell research worldwide. This paper proposes a model for harmonizing the regulation of stem cell research that focuses on broader norms and principles rather than specific rules. It further recommends that such harmonization should occur through a process initiated and developed by an independent international agency marked by diversity, both in terms of the cultural identities and perspectives represented, and the interdisciplinary expertise of its members.

  10. Mapping environmental injustices: pitfalls and potential of geographic information systems in assessing environmental health and equity.

    PubMed

    Maantay, Juliana

    2002-04-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used increasingly to map instances of environmental injustice, the disproportionate exposure of certain populations to environmental hazards. Some of the technical and analytic difficulties of mapping environmental injustice are outlined in this article, along with suggestions for using GIS to better assess and predict environmental health and equity. I examine 13 GIS-based environmental equity studies conducted within the past decade and use a study of noxious land use locations in the Bronx, New York, to illustrate and evaluate the differences in two common methods of determining exposure extent and the characteristics of proximate populations. Unresolved issues in mapping environmental equity and health include lack of comprehensive hazards databases; the inadequacy of current exposure indices; the need to develop realistic methodologies for determining the geographic extent of exposure and the characteristics of the affected populations; and the paucity and insufficiency of health assessment data. GIS have great potential to help us understand the spatial relationship between pollution and health. Refinements in exposure indices; the use of dispersion modeling and advanced proximity analysis; the application of neighborhood-scale analysis; and the consideration of other factors such as zoning and planning policies will enable more conclusive findings. The environmental equity studies reviewed in this article found a disproportionate environmental burden based on race and/or income. It is critical now to demonstrate correspondence between environmental burdens and adverse health impacts--to show the disproportionate effects of pollution rather than just the disproportionate distribution of pollution sources.

  11. A study of potential numerical pitfalls in GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnoux, Vincent; Ozell, Benoît; Bonenfant, Éric; Després, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of numerical errors caused by the floating point representation of real numbers in a GPU-based Monte Carlo code used for dose calculation in radiation oncology, and to identify situations where this type of error arises. The program used as a benchmark was bGPUMCD. Three tests were performed on the code, which was divided into three functional components: energy accumulation, particle tracking and physical interactions. First, the impact of single-precision calculations was assessed for each functional component. Second, a GPU-specific compilation option that reduces execution time as well as precision was examined. Third, a specific function used for tracking and potentially more sensitive to precision errors was tested by comparing it to a very high-precision implementation. Numerical errors were found in two components of the program. Because of the energy accumulation process, a few voxels surrounding a radiation source end up with a lower computed dose than they should. The tracking system contained a series of operations that abnormally amplify rounding errors in some situations. This resulted in some rare instances (less than 0.1%) of computed distances that are exceedingly far from what they should have been. Most errors detected had no significant effects on the result of a simulation due to its random nature, either because they cancel each other out or because they only affect a small fraction of particles. The results of this work can be extended to other types of GPU-based programs and be used as guidelines to avoid numerical errors on the GPU computing platform.

  12. Lymph node extramedullary hematopoiesis in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy: a potential diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Granada, Carlos; Setia, Namrata; Otis, Christopher N

    2013-06-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) develops as a compensatory mechanism associated with hematologic processes but it may occur in association with chemotherapy. Three cases of EMH arising in axillary lymph nodes following neoadjuvant therapy for breast carcinoma are reported herein. Three women ranging in age from 41 to 47 years presented with unilateral breast masses measuring 0.6 to 4.0 cm in greatest dimension and were diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma, grade III by core needle biopsies. Two of the tumors were triple negative and one was estrogen receptor positive. All patients subsequently received neoadjuvant therapy followed by lumpectomies. No residual carcinoma was identified in postchemotherapy breast resection specimens. One patient underwent a sentinel lymph node procedure, the second patient an axillary lymph node dissection, and the third patient had a core biopsy of an enlarged axillary lymph node. The patient that underwent axillary lymph node dissection had metastatic carcinoma in one of her lymph nodes. Foci of EMH consisting of myeloid, erythroid, and megakaryocytic precursors were present within the nodal parenchyma and/or subcapsular sinuses of axillary lymph nodes of all three cases. Megakaryocytes were immunoreactive with factor VIII, erythroid elements with Glycophorin and myeloid precursors with myeloperoxidase. With increasing use of neoadjuvant therapy for breast carcinoma, EMH within lymph nodes is more likely to be encountered. Hematopoietic precursors present in lymph nodes may potentially be misdiagnosed as metastatic tumor cells, particularly as lobular carcinoma or metaplastic carcinoma. Therefore, caution should be exercised when evaluating axillary lymph nodes in the clinical setting of neoadjuvant therapy for breast carcinoma.

  13. A study of potential numerical pitfalls in GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculation.

    PubMed

    Magnoux, Vincent; Ozell, Benoît; Bonenfant, Éric; Després, Philippe

    2015-07-07

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of numerical errors caused by the floating point representation of real numbers in a GPU-based Monte Carlo code used for dose calculation in radiation oncology, and to identify situations where this type of error arises. The program used as a benchmark was bGPUMCD. Three tests were performed on the code, which was divided into three functional components: energy accumulation, particle tracking and physical interactions. First, the impact of single-precision calculations was assessed for each functional component. Second, a GPU-specific compilation option that reduces execution time as well as precision was examined. Third, a specific function used for tracking and potentially more sensitive to precision errors was tested by comparing it to a very high-precision implementation. Numerical errors were found in two components of the program. Because of the energy accumulation process, a few voxels surrounding a radiation source end up with a lower computed dose than they should. The tracking system contained a series of operations that abnormally amplify rounding errors in some situations. This resulted in some rare instances (less than 0.1%) of computed distances that are exceedingly far from what they should have been. Most errors detected had no significant effects on the result of a simulation due to its random nature, either because they cancel each other out or because they only affect a small fraction of particles. The results of this work can be extended to other types of GPU-based programs and be used as guidelines to avoid numerical errors on the GPU computing platform.

  14. Relationships between Endocrine Traits and Life Histories in Wild Animals: Insights, Problems, and Potential Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Dantzer, Ben; Westrick, Sarah E; van Kesteren, Freya

    2016-08-01

    The endocrine mechanisms causing variation and plasticity in life history traits (e.g., development time, mass at birth/hatching, rate of postnatal growth, age or size at sexual maturity, litter or clutch size, annual survival, and lifespan) or fitness (annual or lifetime reproductive success) have recently garnered considerable interest. We review three issues facing studies that quantify relationships between endocrine traits and life histories or measures of fitness and describe possible solutions using insights from evolutionary ecology. We focus in particular on the steroid hormones glucocorticoids that are involved in the vertebrate neuroendocrine stress response. First, context-dependent associations between endocrine traits and life histories or fitness are widespread, and therefore, it is important to quantify how intrinsic or extrinsic factors modify these relationships. Second, studies in evolutionary endocrinology may aspire to quantify patterns of natural selection on endocrine traits, but this may not tell us how they influence fitness. Studies that also identify the actual targets of selection that the endocrine traits are influencing will be very useful. Third, environmental or intrinsic factors can cause co-variance between endocrine traits and life histories or fitness. This is problematic for interpreting the potential evolutionary consequences of selection on endocrine traits, but it can also produce divergent answers for relationships between endocrine traits and life histories or fitness depending upon whether the data are analyzed in an among- or within-year framework. Future long-term studies following uniquely marked individuals over their lifetime (longitudinal individual-based approach) in combination with experimental manipulations of the endocrine traits or environmental factors influencing both endocrine traits and life histories or fitness may help to produce new insights in evolutionary endocrinology despite these issues. This is an

  15. Recurrent Mastoiditis Mimics IgG4 Related Disease: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Vikram; Zane, Nicolas A; Kraft, Stefan; Stone, John H; Faquin, William C

    2016-09-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized entity that causes progressive fibrosis and formation of mass lesions. IgG4-RD can be diagnosed histologically by its hallmarks of storiform fibrosis, prominent lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, and obliterative phlebitis, accompanied by the infiltration of excessive numbers of IgG4-positive plasma cells as well as elevations in serum IgG4 concentrations. A recent publication reported a case of IgG4-RD in the mastoid sinus, representing a new anatomic location for this disease. We report two additional cases of IgG4-RD occurring in the mastoid and causing clinical mastoiditis. The presenting symptoms were varied-tinnitus, hearing loss, and cranial nerve palsies. All three cases showed a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, storiform type fibrosis as well as elevated numbers of IgG4 positive plasma cells. The three patients responded to immunosuppressive therapy that included steroids and Rituximab. We further investigated 162 consecutive mastoiditis cases at our institution in order to determine the frequency of IgG4-RD as a previously unrecognized cause of mastoiditis. Within this latter cohort we identified nine cases of mastoiditis that had two of the histologic features of IgG4-RD, specifically storiform fibrosis and a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. Two of these cases showed >50 IgG4-positive plasma cells per high-power field with IgG4-IgG ratio of >40 %, thus fulfilling histological criteria for IgG4-RD. However, both were due to severe acute or chronic infection. In conclusion, we reaffirm IgG4 related mastoiditis as a distinct but uncommon cause of recurrent mastoiditis. The diagnosis of IgG4-related mastoiditis should be rendered with caution, and only after the exclusion of potential mimickers, particularly infection.

  16. Radioligand binding assays in the drug discovery process: potential pitfalls of high throughput screenings.

    PubMed

    Noël, F; Mendonça-Silva, D L; Quintas, L E

    2001-02-01

    these are potential hits because of their rational design. Therefore, the low throughput rate could be partially balanced by a higher performance when compared to what is done in a robotic high throughput screening where simplification of assay conditions can lead to false negative results.

  17. Black hole artifacts-a new potential pitfall for DXA accuracy?

    PubMed

    Morgan, Sarah L; Lopez-Ben, Robert; Nunnally, Nancy; Burroughs, Leandria; Fineberg, Naomi; Tubbs, R Shane; Yester, Michael V

    2008-01-01

    significantly decrease the L1-L4 spine BMD in a high-density spine specimen. In a low-density spine specimen, tantalum clips do have the potential to alter BMD of a single vertebral body and L1-L4. Attention should be paid to the possibility of black hole artifacts on DXA scans and the effect they may have on spine results. Viewing scans in the single-energy mode can be used to verify the presence of tantalum clips.

  18. Common System and Software Testing Pitfalls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-03

    Book or Supplement to 1st Edition Potential Testing Pitfalls Wiki 13Common System/SW Testing PitfallsDonald G. Firesmith, 3 November 2014 Goals and...changes and incorrect hidden assumptions are uncovered. • Testing is less effective and takes longer than necessary. 16Common System/SW Testing

  19. Pitfalls and Promises: The Use of Secondary Data Analysis in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Emma

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the use of secondary data analysis in educational research. It addresses some of the promises and potential pitfalls that influence its use and explores a possible role for the secondary analysis of numeric data in the "new" political arithmetic tradition of social research. Secondary data analysis is a relatively under-used…

  20. Motor neurone disease: diagnostic pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Williams, Timothy L

    2013-02-01

    The misdiagnosis of MND (particularly of the ALS phenotype), is uncommon. Atypical presentations, particularly of focal onset and with pure LMN or UMN signs, present a more difficult diagnostic challenge, although perhaps reassuringly, treatable mimics are rare. A working knowledge of potential alternative conditions and MND diagnostic pitfalls should help to reduce the misdiagnosis rate, particularly if the key points are considered.

  1. Diffuse glutamine synthetase overexpression restricted to areas of peliosis in a β-catenin-activated hepatocellular adenoma: a potential pitfall in glutamine synthetase interpretation.

    PubMed

    Berry, Ryan S; Gullapalli, Rama R; Wu, Jin; Morris, Katherine; Hanson, Joshua A

    2014-08-01

    Hepatocellular adenomas have recently been classified into four subtypes based on molecular findings: hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1α) inactivated, inflammatory/telangiectatic, β-catenin activated, and unclassifiable. β-catenin-activated adenomas have the potential for malignant transformation and are thus important to recognize. Diffuse glutamine synthetase immunohistochemical positivity has been shown to be a reliable surrogate marker for β-catenin activation, though variations in staining patterns may be difficult to interpret. We report a case of a peliotic adenoma that was morphologically consistent with a β-catenin wild-type hepatocellular adenoma but harbored a β-catenin mutation by molecular analysis. The tumor lacked nuclear β-catenin positivity and demonstrated a hitherto undescribed pattern of glutamine synthetase overexpression restricted to areas of peliosis with mostly negative staining in non-peliotic areas. This pattern was initially interpreted as physiologic and may represent a potential pitfall in glutamine synthetase interpretation.

  2. Pitfalls, Potentials, and Ethics of Online Survey Research: LGBTQ and Other Marginalized and Hard-to-Access Youths.

    PubMed

    McInroy, Lauren B

    2016-06-01

    Online research methodologies may serve as an important mechanism for population-focused data collection in social work research. Online surveys have become increasingly prevalent in research inquiries with young people and have been acknowledged for their potential in investigating understudied and marginalized populations and subpopulations, permitting increased access to communities that tend to be less visible-and thus often less studied-in offline contexts. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) young people are a socially stigmatized, yet digitally active, youth population whose participation in online surveys has been previously addressed in the literature. Many of the opportunities and challenges of online survey research identified with LGBTQ youths may be highly relevant to other populations of marginalized and hard-to-access young people, who are likely present in significant numbers in the online environment (for example, ethnoracialized youths and low-income youths). In this article, the utility of online survey methods with marginalized young people is discussed, and recommendations for social work research are provided.

  3. Potential pitfalls of mass spectrometry to uncover mutations in childhood soft tissue sarcoma: A report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lin; Wilson, Raphael A.; Laetsch, Theodore W.; Oliver, Dwight; Spunt, Sheri L.; Hawkins, Douglas S.; Skapek, Stephen X.

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based methods have been widely applied – often as the sole method – to detect mutations in human cancer specimens. We applied this approach to 52 childhood soft tissue sarcoma specimens in an attempt to identify potentially actionable mutations. This analysis revealed that 25% of the specimens harbored high-confidence calls for mutated alleles, including a mutation encoding FLT3I836M that was called in four cases. Given the surprisingly high frequency and unusual nature of some of the mutant alleles, we carried out ultra-deep next generation sequencing to confirm them. We confirmed only three mutations, which encoded NRASA18T, JAK3V722I and METR970C in three specimens. Beyond highlighting those mutations, our findings demonstrate potential pitfalls of primarily utilizing a mass spectrometry-based approach to broadly screen for DNA sequence variants in archived, clinical-grade tumor specimens. Duplicate mass spectrometric analyses and confirmatory next generation sequencing can help diminish false positive calls, but this does not ameliorate potential false negatives due in part to evaluating a limited panel of sequence variants. PMID:27642091

  4. Lost in Translation: Pitfalls in Deciphering Plant Alternative Splicing Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Brown, John W.S.; Simpson, Craig G.; Marquez, Yamile; Gadd, Geoffrey M.; Barta, Andrea; Kalyna, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Transcript annotation in plant databases is incomplete and often inaccurate, leading to misinterpretation. As more and more RNA-seq data are generated, plant scientists need to be aware of potential pitfalls and understand the nature and impact of specific alternative splicing transcripts on protein production. A primary area of concern and the topic of this article is the (mis)annotation of open reading frames and premature termination codons. The basic message is that to adequately address expression and functions of transcript isoforms, it is necessary to be able to predict their fate in terms of whether protein isoforms are generated or specific transcripts are unproductive or degraded. PMID:26286536

  5. Acquisition and analysis of cardiovascular signals on smartphones: potential, pitfalls and perspectives: by the Task Force of the e-Cardiology Working Group of European Society of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Bruining, Nico; Caiani, Enrico; Chronaki, Catherine; Guzik, Przemyslaw; van der Velde, Enno

    2014-11-01

    Smartphones, mobile applications ('apps'), social media, analytics, and the cloud are profoundly changing the practice of medicine and the way health decisions are made. With the constant progress of technology, the measurement of vital signals becomes easier, cheaper, and practically a standard approach in clinical practice. The interest in measuring vital signals goes beyond medical professionals to the general public, patients, informal caregivers, and healthy individuals, who frequently lack any formal medical training. On smartphone platforms such as iOS and Android, a proliferation of health or medical 'apps' acquire and analyse a variety of vital signs through embedded sensors, interconnected devices or peripherals utilising on occasion analytics and social media. Smartphone vendors compete with traditional medical device manufacturers in the grey area between health care, wellness, and fitness, as US and EU regulatory bodies are setting and revising rules for these new technologies. On the other hand, in the absence of robust validation results, clinicians are hesitant to trust measurements by apps or recommend specific apps to their patients, partly also due to lack of a cost reimbursement policy. This review focuses on the acquisition and analysis on smartphones of three important vital signs in the cardiovascular and respiratory field as well as in rehabilitation i.e. heart or pulse rate, blood pressure, and blood oxygenation. The potential, pitfalls, and perspectives on mobile devices and smartphone apps for health management by patients and healthy individuals are discussed.

  6. Metastatic pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma in a younger male with marked AFP production: A potential pitfall on fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Valente, Kari; Yacoub, George; Cappellari, James O; Parks, Graham

    2017-02-01

    A 30-year-old male presented to his doctor with complaints of abdominal pain and was found to have retroperitoneal as well as multiple hepatic masses. A serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level was significantly elevated (17,373 ng mL(-1) ), raising suspicions for a metastatic germ cell tumor. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the pancreatic lesion revealed atypical epithelioid cells with round nuclei, large prominent nucleoli, and granular cytoplasm. The morphologic differential diagnosis included pancreatic neoplasm, metastatic germ cell tumor, other metastatic carcinoma, and melanoma. An extensive panel of immunohistochemical stains confirmed the diagnosis of acinar cell carcinoma. The diagnosis of acinar cell carcinoma could be confounded by the markedly increased AFP level, particularly in the setting of a retroperitoneal mass in a younger male. The increased AFP level in the setting of an acinar cell tumor is a potential pitfall to correct diagnosis by cytology. As the treatment for these two entities differs considerably, acute awareness of the phenomenon is important. We present a case of pancreatic ACC with an increased AFP level diagnosed on a cytology specimen. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:133-136. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Employers and the exchanges under the small business health options program: examining the potential and the pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Jost, Timothy S

    2012-02-01

    The health insurance exchange is the centerpiece of the insurance reforms created by the Affordable Care Act. The Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP) is intended to create a marketplace for small, and perhaps eventually large, employers to purchase health insurance for their employees. This paper introduces a collection of articles that illuminate the need for small-business exchanges and discuss how they will function. The paper also describes the difficulties these exchanges will face, as well as the opportunities they will offer to states, employers, and individuals. The success or failure of small-business exchanges may well hinge on how states choose to address these challenges.

  8. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide and Hybrid Imaging in Infection and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Israel, Ora; Slart, Riemer H J A

    2015-11-01

    Both the referring clinician and the nuclear medicine specialist must be aware of the main known or potential pitfalls that can occur in infection and inflammation imaging. They must decide in consensus which tracer and which imaging protocol should be used for a specific indication. This article provides an overview of all the pitfalls and limitations of nuclear medicine techniques to image infections and inflammation. Both general pitfalls and pitfalls in specific clinical entities are discussed.

  9. 76 FR 14413 - Risk Mitigation Strategies To Address Potential Procoagulant Activity in Immune Globulin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ...) pathophysiology of arterial and venous thrombosis in this context; (3) research to identify specific procoagulant...) the role of activated Coagulation Factor XIa in IGIV-associated thrombosis; (6) test methods for... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Risk Mitigation Strategies To Address Potential...

  10. Technical Potential of Solar Energy to Address Energy Poverty and Avoid GHG Emissions in Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Cowlin, S. C.; Heimiller, D.; Bilello, D.; Renne, D.

    2008-01-01

    This analysis explores the technical potential of photovoltaics (PV) or concentrating solar power (CSP) to address energy poverty in Africa through a geographic information system (GIS) screening of solar resource data developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  11. Pitfalls and Potential of Secondary Data Analysis of the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada, National Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, W. Todd; Anderson, John O.; Klinger, Don A.; Dawber, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Large-scale scale testing agencies, which are generally located within provincial ministries of education and the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada, have called for secondary data analysis of test and survey data that link contextual and educational factors to student performance. First, the potential of secondary analyses is outlined,…

  12. Pitfalls of insulin pump clocks: technical glitches that may potentially affect medical care in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Aldasouqi, Saleh A; Reed, Amy J

    2014-11-01

    The objective was to raise awareness about the importance of ensuring that insulin pumps internal clocks are set up correctly at all times. This is a very important safety issue because all commercially available insulin pumps are not GPS-enabled (though this is controversial), nor equipped with automatically adjusting internal clocks. Special attention is paid to how basal and bolus dose errors can be introduced by daylight savings time changes, travel across time zones, and am-pm clock errors. Correct setting of insulin pump internal clock is crucial for appropriate insulin delivery. A comprehensive literature review is provided, as are illustrative cases. Incorrect setting can potentially result in incorrect insulin delivery, with potential harmful consequences, if too much or too little insulin is delivered. Daylight saving time changes may not significantly affect basal insulin delivery, given the triviality of the time difference. However, bolus insulin doses can be dramatically affected. Such problems may occur when pump wearers have large variations in their insulin to carb ratio, especially if they forget to change their pump clock in the spring. More worrisome than daylight saving time change is the am-pm clock setting. If this setting is set up incorrectly, both basal rates and bolus doses will be affected. Appropriate insulin delivery through insulin pumps requires correct correlation between dose settings and internal clock time settings. Because insulin pumps are not GPS-enabled or automatically time-adjusting, extra caution should be practiced by patients to ensure correct time settings at all times. Clinicians and diabetes educators should verify the date/time of insulin pumps during patients' visits, and should remind their patients to always verify these settings.

  13. Injectable biomaterials for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence: their potential and pitfalls as urethral bulking agents.

    PubMed

    Davis, Niall F; Kheradmand, F; Creagh, T

    2013-06-01

    Injectable urethral bulking agents composed of synthetic and biological biomaterials are minimally invasive treatment options for stress urinary incontinence (SUI). The development of an ideal urethral bulking agent remains challenging because of clinical concerns over biocompatibility and durability. Herein, the mechanical and biological features of injectable urethral biomaterials are investigated, with particular emphasis on their future potential as primary and secondary treatment options for SUI. A literature search for English language publications using the two online databases was performed. Keywords included "stress urinary incontinence", "urethral bulking agent" and "injectable biomaterial". A total of 98 articles were analysed, of which 45 were suitable for review based on clinical relevance and importance of content. Injectable biomaterials are associated with a lower cure rate and fewer postoperative complications than open surgery for SUI. They are frequently reserved as secondary treatment options for patients unwilling or medically unfit to undergo surgery. Glutaraldehyde cross-linked bovine collagen remains the most commonly injected biomaterial and has a cure rate of up to 53 %. Important clinical features of an injectable biomaterial are durability, biocompatibility and ease of administration, but achieving these requirements is challenging. In carefully selected patients, injectable biomaterials are feasible alternatives to open surgical procedures as primary and secondary treatment options for SUI. In future, higher cure rates may be feasible as researchers investigate alternative biomaterials and more targeted injection techniques for treating SUI.

  14. TH-C-BRF-01: The Promise and Potential Pitfalls of Deformable Image Registration in Clinical Practice

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, K; Oldham, M; Cai, J; Pouliot, J

    2014-06-15

    Accurate and robust deformable image registration (DIR) is a key enabling technique in the clinical realization of two approaches for advancing radiation therapy treatment efficacy: adaptive radiation therapy and treatment response assessment. Currently there are a wide variety of DIR methods including the categories of splines, optical/diffusion, free-form, and biomechanical algorithms. All methods aim to translate information between image sets (including multi-modal data) in the presence of spatial deformation of tissues. However, recent research has shown that different DIR algorithms can yield substantially different results for the same reference deformation, and that DIR performance can be site and application dependent. As a result, errors can occur, and subsequent patient treatment can be compromised. There is a clear need for greater understanding of appropriate use of DIR techniques, as well as effective methods of validation, evaluation, and improvement. In this session, we will review the state-of-the-art concerning DIR development, clinical application, and performance evaluation. Novel DIR methods and evaluating technologies will be reviewed. Learning Objectives: To understand the underlying principles and physics of current DIR techniques To explore potential clinical applications and areas of high impact for DIR To investigate sources of uncertainty, appropriate usage, and methods for validating and evaluating DIR performance.

  15. Immunohistochemical expression of SALL4 in hepatocellular carcinoma, a potential pitfall in the differential diagnosis of yolk sac tumors.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda; Katz, Betina; Chaux, Alcides; Sharma, Rajni; Munari, Enrico; Faraj, Sheila F; Illei, Peter B; Torbenson, Michael; Netto, George J

    2013-07-01

    SALL4 is a transcription factor that serves as a marker of yolk sac tumor. Yolk sac tumor and hepatocellular carcinoma share histologic, serologic, and immunohistochemical features. Previous studies have shown lack of SALL4 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma, suggesting utility in this differential diagnosis. Sixty-nine samples of hepatocellular carcinoma were retrieved from surgical pathology archives and used to construct 9 tissue microarrays. A germ cell tumor tissue microarray containing 10 yolk sac tumors was used for comparison. Extent, intensity, and pattern of nuclear SALL4 expression were assessed in each spot. Mean percentage of expression was calculated for each tumor and used during analysis. Optimal discriminatory extent of expression cutoff was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Other potential discriminatory markers including Hep Par1 were also evaluated. Forty-six percent (32/69) of hepatocellular carcinoma and all yolk sac tumors revealed at least focal expression of SALL4. A unique punctuate/clumped pattern of nuclear staining was present in 94% (30/32) of hepatocellular carcinoma, whereas all yolk sac tumors displayed a diffuse finely granular nuclear staining pattern. A 25% extent of SALL4 expression cutoff was found to be optimal for the distinction of yolk sac tumor from hepatocellular carcinoma yielding a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 92.8%, and a positive predictive value of 66.6% for yolk sac tumor diagnosis. The addition of Hep Par1 increased the specificity (99%) and positive predictive value (90%). This is the first report of SALL4 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma. Our finding should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and yolk sac tumor. The unique punctuate/clumped pattern seen in hepatocellular carcinoma cases could be of further discriminatory value.

  16. Nano-Scale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry: Potential And Pitfalls Of This Technique For Soil Organic Matter Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, A. M.

    2007-12-01

    The mechanisms by which organic matter is stabilized in soils are still poorly understood, and it is notable that some postulated mechanisms are currently only weakly supported by data. A major obstacle to progress is the lack of techniques of adequate sensitivity and resolution for data collection needed to further our understanding of soil organic matter stabilization at relevant scales. Nano-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (NanoSIMS) is a cutting edge technology linking high resolution microscopy with isotopic analysis, which allows precise, spatially-explicit, elemental and isotopic analysis at micro-and nanoscale. The power of NanoSIMS lies in the ability of the instrument to distinguish stable isotopes of elements with a high sensitivity, i.e. concentrations in parts per million can be detected. The level of spatial resolution achievable is better than 50 nm (133Cs+ primary beam) with NanoSIMS, a significant improvement on other SIMS instruments and on X-ray micro-analytical techniques. These instruments have been applied to studies of presolar materials from meteorites, in material science, geology and mineralogy as well as biology. Recently, the potential of NanoSIMS has been demonstrated to explore in situ the biophysical interface in soils (Herrmann et al., 2007). I will present recent findings illustrating the capacity of NanoSIMS to improve our fundamental understanding of soil processes at the nano- and micro-scale, along with my experiences in the methodological approaches that need consideration with respect to experimental design and sample preparation. Herrmann, AM, Clode, PL, Fletcher, IR, Nunan N, Stockdale, EA, O'Donnell, AG, Murphy, DV, 2007. A novel method for the study of the biophysical interface in soils using nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 21, 29-34.

  17. Seven PC Purchasing Pitfalls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarz, Nan

    1997-01-01

    Explores how to avoid common pitfalls when schools purchase computer equipment. Purchasing tips are provided in the areas of choosing multiple platforms, buying the cheapest model available, choosing a proprietary design, falling for untested technology, purchasing systems that are not upgradable, ignoring extended warranties, and failing to plan…

  18. The promise and pitfalls of sequence-based identification of plant-pathogenic fungi and oomycetes.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seogchan; Mansfield, Michele A; Park, Bongsoo; Geiser, David M; Ivors, Kelly L; Coffey, Michael D; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Martin, Frank N; Lévesque, C André; Blair, Jaime E

    2010-08-01

    Sequences of selected marker loci have been widely used for the identification of specific pathogens and the development of sequence-based diagnostic methods. Although such approaches offer several advantages over traditional culture-based methods for pathogen diagnosis and identification, they have their own pitfalls. These include erroneous and incomplete data in reference databases, poor or oversimplified interpretation of search results, and problems associated with defining species boundaries. In this letter, we outline the potential benefits and drawbacks of using sequence data for identification and taxonomic deduction of plant-pathogenic fungi and oomycetes, using phytophthora as a primary example. We also discuss potential remedies for these pitfalls and address why coordinated community efforts are essential to make such remedies more efficient and robust.

  19. Gradients in the carbon isotopic composition of Ordovician shallow water carbonates: A potential pitfall in estimates of ancient CO2 and O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltzman, Matthew R.; Edwards, Cole T.

    2017-04-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of the global dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) reservoir is best estimated from open ocean pelagic carbonate sediments (δ13Ccarb). However, this is not practical for most of geologic time because seafloor subduction has removed the pre-Jurassic record and these time periods may have lacked planktonic calcifying organisms, and therefore shallow water carbonate platform or periplatform sediments are utilized. Shallow water deposits are susceptible to a wide range of post-depositional alteration processes and syn-depositional controls on δ13Ccarb that include carbonate mineralogy, water mass restriction, and a host of related variables (e.g., pH, temperature, organic decomposition, evaporation and CO2 solubility) that can produce local gradients in DIC. The degree to which shallow water δ13C curves diverge from open marine deposits may be critical to understanding how well global carbon cycle isotope mass balance models can predict organic carbon burial rates, but documentation of such divergence is often hindered by factors that limit chronostratigraphic correlation in restricted water masses (e.g., endemic faunas). Here we integrate strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) stratigraphy and biostratigraphy to compare δ13C curves in a case study along a depth transect in Middle-Late Ordovician carbonate platform settings. The restricted tidal flat and more open marine deposits are offset by a maximum of ∼2‰ during sea level drop and ∼0‰ during highstand flooding of the platform. Global carbon cycle models such as GEOCARBSULF use published δ13Ccarb curves to drive organic carbon burial rates under the assumption that δ13Ccarb reflects a global seawater signal. We show here the potential pitfalls of using a published δ13Ccarb curve that violates this global assumption. For the 460 million year Middle-Late Ordovician time bin in GEOCARBSULF, improper usage of our locally depleted δ13C curve to drive global organic carbon burial would

  20. Exploring the potential of Web 2.0 to address health disparities.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, M Chris; Fleisher, Linda; Slamon, Rachel E; Bass, Sarah; Kandadai, Venk; Beck, J Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses use of the Internet and Web 2.0 technologies by racial and ethnic minorities and explores the potential opportunities and challenges in leveraging Web 2.0 approaches to impact health disparities. These opportunities and challenges include developing approaches and methods to (a) identify strategies for integrating social media into health promotion interventions focused on major health-related issues that affect members of medically underserved groups; (b) amalgamate techniques to leverage and connect social-media technologies to other evidence-informed online resources; (c) integrate health communication best practices, including addressing health literacy issues; (d) capitalize on social networking to enhance access and communication with health care providers; and (e) advance current efforts and ongoing expansion of research participation by individuals from underserved communities.

  1. The Challenges and Potential of Nuclear Energy for Addressing Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Son H.; Edmonds, James A.

    2007-10-24

    The response to climate change and the stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations has major implications for the global energy system. Stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations requires a peak and an indefinite decline of global CO2 emissions. Nuclear energy, along with other technologies, has the potential to contribute to the growing demand for energy without emitting CO2. Nuclear energy is of particular interest because of its global prevalence and its current significant contribution, nearly 20%, to the world’s electricity supply. We have investigated the value of nuclear energy in addressing climate change, and have explored the potential challenges for the rapid and large-scale expansion of nuclear energy as a response to climate change. The scope of this study is long-term and the modeling time frame extends out a century because the nature of nuclear energy and climate change dictate that perspective. Our results indicate that the value of the nuclear technology option for addressing climate change is denominated in trillions of dollars. Several-fold increases to the value of the nuclear option can be expected if there is limited availability of competing carbon-free technologies, particularly fossil-fuel based technologies that can capture and sequester carbon. Challenges for the expanded global use of nuclear energy include the global capacity for nuclear construction, proliferation, uranium availability, and waste disposal. While the economic costs of nuclear fuel and power are important, non-economic issues transcend the issues of costs. In this regard, advanced nuclear technologies and new vision for the global use of nuclear energy are important considerations for the future of nuclear power and climate change.

  2. Evaluating and Addressing Potential Hazards of Fuel Tanks Surviving Atmospheric Reentry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, R. L.; Johnson, N. L.

    2012-01-01

    In order to ensure reentering spacecraft do not pose an undue risk to the Earth's population, it is important to design satellites and rocket bodies with end-of-life considerations in mind. In addition to the possible consequences of deorbiting a vehicle, consideration must be given to the possible risks associated with a vehicle failing to become operational or to reach its intended orbit. Based on recovered space debris and numerous reentry survivability analyses, fuel tanks are of particular concern in both of these considerations. Most spacecraft utilize some type of fuel tank as part of their propulsion systems. These fuel tanks are most often constructed using stainless steel or titanium and are filled with potentially hazardous substances such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. For a vehicle that has reached its scheduled end-of mission, the contents of the tanks are typically depleted. In this scenario, the likely survival of a stainless steel or titanium tank during reentry poses a risk to people and property due to the high melting point and large heat-of-ablation of these materials. If a large portion of the fuel is not depleted prior to reentry, there is the added risk of a hazardous substance being released when the tank impacts the ground. This paper presents a discussion of proactive methods that have been utilized by NASA satellite projects to address the risks associated with fuel tanks reentering the atmosphere. In particular, it will address the design of a demiseable fuel tank, as well as the evaluation of fuel tank designs, which are selected based on whether they burst during reentry.

  3. Evaluating and Addressing Potential Hazards of Fuel Tanks Surviving Atmospheric Reentry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Robert L.; Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2011-01-01

    In order to ensure reentering spacecraft do not pose an undue risk to the Earth's population it is important to design satellites and rocket bodies with end of life considerations in mind. In addition to considering the possible consequences of deorbiting a vehicle, consideration must also be given to the possible risks associated with a vehicle failing to become operational or reach its intended orbit. Based on recovered space debris and numerous reentry survivability analyses, fuel tanks are of particular concern in both of these considerations. Most spacecraft utilize some type of fuel tank as part of their propulsion system. These fuel tanks are most often constructed using stainless steel or titanium and are filled with potentially hazardous substances such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. For a vehicle which has reached its scheduled end of mission the contents of the tanks are typically depleted. In this scenario the use of stainless steel and titanium results in the tanks posing a risk to people and property do to the high melting point and large heat of ablation of these materials leading to likely survival of the tank during reentry. If a large portion of the fuel is not depleted prior to reentry, there is the added risk of hazardous substance being released when the tank impact the ground. This paper presents a discussion of proactive methods which have been utilized by NASA satellite projects to address the risks associated with fuel tanks reentering the atmosphere. In particular it will address the design of a demiseable fuel tank as well as the evaluation of off the shelf designs which are selected to burst during reentry.

  4. Pitfalls in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Yvergneaux, J P; Kint, M; Kuppens, E

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of literature and of 475 laparoscopic cholecystectomies of the authors, some pitfalls are reviewed. The circumstances, the mechanism and the prevention of injuries were detailed together with the connected problem of postoperative bile leakage. Among the cholangiographic pitfalls the importance of detection of congenital and acquired anomalies of the biliary tree by means of preoperative ERCP or intraoperative trans-cystic cholangiograms was emphasized. A particular study was made of 3 pictures: Mirizzi syndrome; stone impaction in Vater's papilla; no retrograde flow of the common hepatic duct on intraoperative cholangiograms. Biliodigestive fistulas were briefly commented. The problems with cystic duct stones, particularly the treatment of stones in a long, low inserted cystic duct with retroduodenal course and the closing of thick-walled or wide cystic stumps, were explained. In patients with intraoperative residual common bile duct stones and with failed preoperative catheterization of the papilla, the authors advocate their double approach technique. This combined intraoperative laparoscopic and postoperative endoscopic procedure is carried out via the same transcystic polythene catheters as used for cholangiography and external biliary drainage of the common bile duct.

  5. 42 CFR 137.160 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to address potential conflicts of interest?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to address...-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Conflicts of Interest § 137.160 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to address potential conflicts of interest? Yes, self-Governance Tribes participating in...

  6. Addressing potential local adaptation in species distribution models: implications for conservation under climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hällfors, Maria Helena; Liao, Jishan; Dzurisin, Jason D. K.; Grundel, Ralph; Hyvärinen, Marko; Towle, Kevin; Wu, Grace C.; Hellmann, Jessica J.

    2016-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) have been criticized for involving assumptions that ignore or categorize many ecologically relevant factors such as dispersal ability and biotic interactions. Another potential source of model error is the assumption that species are ecologically uniform in their climatic tolerances across their range. Typically, SDMs to treat a species as a single entity, although populations of many species differ due to local adaptation or other genetic differentiation. Not taking local adaptation into account, may lead to incorrect range prediction and therefore misplaced conservation efforts. A constraint is that we often do not know the degree to which populations are locally adapted, however. Lacking experimental evidence, we still can evaluate niche differentiation within a species' range to promote better conservation decisions. We explore possible conservation implications of making type I or type II errors in this context. For each of two species, we construct three separate MaxEnt models, one considering the species as a single population and two of disjunct populations. PCA analyses and response curves indicate different climate characteristics in the current environments of the populations. Model projections into future climates indicate minimal overlap between areas predicted to be climatically suitable by the whole species versus population-based models. We present a workflow for addressing uncertainty surrounding local adaptation in SDM application and illustrate the value of conducting population-based models to compare with whole-species models. These comparisons might result in more cautious management actions when alternative range outcomes are considered.

  7. Avoiding pitfalls when implementing local area networks in hospital environments.

    PubMed

    Kaudewitz, G; Schulte, A

    1995-01-01

    This paper is intended to outline some of the most commonly encountered, but yet still underestimated pitfalls during the implementation of computer systems networks in hospitals and health care institutions and to give information technology planners and responsibles some practical hints for avoiding them. Pitfalls encountered during the difficult process of achieving consensus among all groups concerned on the necessity for electronic data processing in health care institutions will not be addressed here [1], though the authors believe that some major risks for project failure stem from shortcomings in this field. Instead, those pitfalls encountered during project initialization and project realization with the phases of analysis, design, contracting, installation, and maintenance will be discussed. The paper concludes with the authors' opinion that only the application of industry-proven project management and realization techniques will allow health care administrators to cope with the steadily increasing risks for failure of information technology projects in health care.

  8. Rational manipulation of digital EEG: pearls and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, Udaya

    2014-12-01

    The advent of digital EEG has provided greater flexibility and more opportunities in data analysis to optimize the diagnostic yield. Changing the filter settings, sensitivity, montages, and time-base are possible rational manipulations to achieve this goal. The options to use polygraphy, video, and quantification are additional useful features. Aliasing and loss of data are potential pitfalls in the use of digital EEG. This review illustrates some common clinical scenarios where rational manipulations can enhance the diagnostic EEG yield and potential pitfalls in the process.

  9. Addressing vaccine hesitancy: The potential value of commercial and social marketing principles and practices.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Glen J; Gellin, Bruce G; MacDonald, Noni E; Butler, Robb

    2015-08-14

    Many countries and communities are dealing with groups and growing numbers of individuals who are delaying or refusing recommended vaccinations for themselves or their children. This has created a need for immunization programs to find approaches and strategies to address vaccine hesitancy. An important source of useful approaches and strategies is found in the frameworks, practices, and principles used by commercial and social marketers, many of which have been used by immunization programs. This review examines how social and commercial marketing principles and practices can be used to help address vaccine hesitancy. It provides an introduction to key marketing and social marketing concepts, identifies some of the major challenges to applying commercial and social marketing approaches to immunization programs, illustrates how immunization advocates and programs can use marketing and social marketing approaches to address vaccine hesitancy, and identifies some of the lessons that commercial and non-immunization sectors have learned that may have relevance for immunization. While the use of commercial and social marketing practices and principles does not guarantee success, the evidence, lessons learned, and applications to date indicate that they have considerable value in fostering vaccine acceptance.

  10. Effects of pulsed potential on address electrode in a surface-discharge alternating-current plasma display panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jeong Chull; Shintani, Youichi; Tachibana, Kunihide; Sakai, Tetsuo; Kosugi, Naoki

    2003-06-01

    The influence of pulsed potential application onto the address electrode of an ac-type plasma display panel was investigated from the observation of front and side views of Xe atom densities in the metastable (1s5) and excited (2p) states in a unit discharge cell by using microscopic laser absorption spectroscopy and optical emission spectroscopy. It was seen that a predischarge occurs between the address electrode and one of the sustain electrode worked as a preceding anode, which is a similar effect found previously by applying a higher sustain voltage. The predischarge partially erases the surface charge accumulated in the preceding pulse, but it induces a faster main sustain discharge, bowing towards the address electrode, and enhances the production efficiency of Xe(1s5) atoms, if the applied potential is within an optimal range.

  11. Introduction: what are the issues in addressing the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods?

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Dean D

    2003-01-01

    There is growing concern among the general public and the scientific community regarding the potential toxicity of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The use of biotechnology to enhance pest resistance or nutritional value has raised a number of fundamental questions including the consequences of insertion of reporter genes, the spread of resistance genes to surrounding plants, and the use of suicide genes to prohibit reuse of seed from engineered plants. Of particular interest is the ability of proteins from GMOs to elicit potentially harmful immunologic responses, including allergic hypersensitivity. The lack of information of the potential toxicity of these products suggests a need to identify the critical issues and research needs regarding these materials and to develop testing strategies to examine the allergenicity of these compounds. PMID:12826482

  12. Introduction: what are the issues in addressing the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods?

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Dean D

    2003-06-01

    There is growing concern among the general public and the scientific community regarding the potential toxicity of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The use of biotechnology to enhance pest resistance or nutritional value has raised a number of fundamental questions including the consequences of insertion of reporter genes, the spread of resistance genes to surrounding plants, and the use of suicide genes to prohibit reuse of seed from engineered plants. Of particular interest is the ability of proteins from GMOs to elicit potentially harmful immunologic responses, including allergic hypersensitivity. The lack of information of the potential toxicity of these products suggests a need to identify the critical issues and research needs regarding these materials and to develop testing strategies to examine the allergenicity of these compounds.

  13. Public Policy for the 21st Century: Addressing Potential Conflicts in University-Industry Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Teresa Isabelle Daza

    1997-01-01

    A survey of 86 colleges and universities and 60 companies investigated whether industry representatives and academics, both involved and not involved in university-industry relationships, identified three categories of potential conflicts in collaboration (conflicts of interest, commitment, and internal equity). This paper discusses the…

  14. Identifying and addressing potential conflict of interest: a professional medical organization's code of ethics.

    PubMed

    Heim, Lori

    2010-01-01

    The new Consumer Alliance agreement between the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) and The Coca-Cola Company provides a valuable opportunity to illustrate AAFP's adherence to its ethical foundation, demonstrate the AAFP's commitment to serving physicians and the public, and maintain the trust Americans put in their family physicians and the organization that represents them. Throughout the development of this program, as well as in all business interactions, the AAFP consistently addresses possible conflict of interest openly and directly, sharing with our members and the public exactly what measures we take to ensure that, in fact, no unethical conduct or breach of trust would--or will in the future--occur. In this case, the AAFP saw a public health and education need that was both unmet and undermined by the barrage of marketing messages and confusing information, and acted to fill that need. In so doing, the AAFP hewed to its high ethical standards, its core values, and its mission in the decisions made and the actions that followed.

  15. REVIEW OF THE POTENTIAL OF NUCLEAR HYDROGEN FOR ADDRESSING ENERGY SECURITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien

    2010-06-01

    Nuclear energy has the potential to exert a major positive impact on energy security and climate change by coupling it to the transportation sector, primarily through hydrogen production. In the short term, this coupling will provide carbon-free hydrogen for upgrading increasingly lower quality petroleum resources such as oil sands, offsetting carbon emissions associated with steam methane reforming. In the intermediate term, nuclear hydrogen will be needed for large-scale production of infrastructure-compatible synthetic liquid fuels. In the long term, there is great potential for the use of hydrogen as a direct vehicle fuel, most likely in the form of light-duty pluggable hybrid hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. This paper presents a review of the potential benefits of large-scale nuclear hydrogen production for energy security (i.e. displacing imported petroleum) and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Lifecycle benefits of nuclear energy in this context are presented, with reference to recent major publications on this topic. The status of US and international nuclear hydrogen research programs are discussed. Industry progress toward consumer-grade hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are also be examined.

  16. Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia involving the ear from gout: a diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Kelly A; Garcia-Albea, Victoria; Goldberg, Lynne J

    2014-01-01

    The ear is a characteristic location for deposition of uric acid in patients with gout. Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia has not been described in this location. We report three patients with tophaceous gout on the ear whose biopsies exhibited epidermal hyperplasia mimicking squamous cell carcinoma, in order to call attention to this potential diagnostic pitfall.

  17. Evaluation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis potential for addressing radiological threats from a distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaona, I.; Serrano, J.; Moros, J.; Laserna, J. J.

    2014-06-01

    Although radioactive materials are nowadays valuable tools in nearly all fields of modern science and technology, the dangers stemming from the uncontrolled use of ionizing radiation are more than evident. Since preparedness is a key issue to face the risks of a radiation dispersal event, development of rapid and efficient monitoring technologies to control the contamination caused by radioactive materials is of crucial interest. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) exhibits appealing features for this application. This research focuses on the assessment of LIBS potential for the in-situ fingerprinting and identification of radioactive material surrogates from a safe distance. LIBS selectivity and sensitivity to detect a variety of radioactive surrogates, namely 59Co, 88Sr, 130Ba, 133Cs, 193Ir and 238U, on the surface of common urban materials at a distance of 30 m have been evaluated. The performance of the technique for nuclear forensics has been also studied on different model scenarios. Findings have revealed the difficulties to detect and to identify the analytes depending on the surface being interrogated. However, as demonstrated, LIBS shows potential enough for prompt and accurate gathering of essential evidence at a number of sites after the release, either accidental or intentional, of radioactive material. The capability of standoff analysis confers to LIBS unique advantages in terms of fast and safe inspection of forensic scenarios. The identity of the radioactive surrogates is easily assigned from a distance and the sensitivity to their detection is in the range of a few hundreds of ng per square centimeter.

  18. Information technology in health care: addressing promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Stanyon, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Health information technology (HIT) and electronic medical records systems are receiving much attention in health care though only a relatively small number of health care organizations and providers have embraced the technology. This article introduces important concepts and definitions and provides the risk manager with key elements to consider when incorporating HIT principles into a proactive risk management program. A checklist is offered to assist in the assessment of electronic records systems.

  19. Addressing geographic variability in the comparative toxicity potential of copper and nickel in soils.

    PubMed

    Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Rosenbaum, Ralph K; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Hauschild, Michael Z

    2013-04-02

    Comparative toxicity potentials (CTP), in life cycle impact assessment also known as characterization factors (CF), of copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) were calculated for a global set of 760 soils. An accessibility factor (ACF) that takes into account the role of the reactive, solid-phase metal pool in the soil was introduced into the definition of CTP. Geographic differences in fate, accessibility, bioavailability, and terrestrial toxicity were assessed by combining the USEtox characterization model, empirical regression models, and terrestrial biotic ligand models. The median CTPs for Cu and Ni with 95% geographic variability intervals are 1.4 × 10(3) (1.7 × 10(2) to 2.0 × 10(4)) and 1.7 × 10(3) (2.1 × 10(2) to 1.1 × 10(4)) m(3)/kg · day, respectively. The geographic variability of 3.5 orders of magnitude in the CTP of Cu is mainly associated with the variability in soil organic carbon and pH. They largely influence the fate and bioavailability of Cu in soils. In contrast, the geographic variability of 3 orders of magnitude in the CTP of Ni can mainly be explained by differences in pore water concentration of magnesium (Mg(2+)). Mg(2+) competes with Ni(2+) for binding to biotic ligands, influencing the toxicity. Our findings stress the importance of dealing with geographic variability in the calculation of CTPs for terrestrial ecotoxicity of metals.

  20. Pitfalls in Persuasion: How Do Users Experience Persuasive Techniques in a Web Service?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segerståhl, Katarina; Kotro, Tanja; Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila, Kaisa

    Persuasive technologies are designed by utilizing a variety of interactive techniques that are believed to promote target behaviors. This paper describes a field study in which the aim was to discover possible pitfalls of persuasion, i.e., situations in which persuasive techniques do not function as expected. The study investigated persuasive functionality of a web service targeting weight loss. A qualitative online questionnaire was distributed through the web service and a total of 291 responses were extracted for interpretative analysis. The Persuasive Systems Design model (PSD) was used for supporting systematic analysis of persuasive functionality. Pitfalls were identified through situations that evoked negative user experiences. The primary pitfalls discovered were associated with manual logging of eating and exercise behaviors, appropriateness of suggestions and source credibility issues related to social facilitation. These pitfalls, when recognized, can be addressed in design by applying functional and facilitative persuasive techniques in meaningful combinations.

  1. The Effects of "Math Pathways and Pitfalls" on Students' Mathematics Achievement: National Science Foundation Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Joan I.; Curtis, Deborah A.; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Verboncoeur, Carol J.

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the impact of "Mathematics Pathways and Pitfalls" ("MPP") on the mathematics that second-, fourth-, and sixth-grade students learn. The specific research questions that were addressed are: (a) What is the impact of "MPP" on students' knowledge of the mathematics topics addressed,…

  2. Potential pitfalls in the nuclear medicine imaging: Experimental models to evaluate the effect of natural products on the radiolabeling of blood constituents, bioavailability of radiopharmaceutical and on the survival of Escherichia coli strains submitted to the treatment with stannous ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Scheila F.; Brito, Lavínia C.; Souza, Deise E.; Bernardo, Luciana C.; Oliveira, Joelma F.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2006-12-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) allows studies of physiological or pathological processes. Red blood cells labeled with technetium-99m ( 99mTc-RBC) are used as a radiopharmaceutical in several evaluations. The radiolabeling efficiency and bioavailability of radiopharmaceuticals can be altered by natural/synthetic drugs and may induce pitfalls in the analysis of the nuclear medicine imaging. The labeling with 99mTc requires a reducing agent and stannous chloride (SnCl 2) is widely utilized. However, SnCl 2 presents a citotoxic and/or genotoxic potential in Escherichia coli ( E. coli) strains. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of aqueous extracts of Baccharis genistelloides (BG), Terminalia chebula (TC), Maytenus ilicifolia (MI), Cassia angustifolia (CA) and Equisetum arvense (EA) on (i) radiolabeling of blood constituents, (ii) bioavailability of sodium pertechnetate(Na 99mTcO 4) radiopharmaceutical, (iii) survival of E. coli. In vitro labeling of RBC was performed with blood ( Wistar rats) incubated with each extract, SnCl 2 and Na 99mTcO 4. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated, another aliquots precipitated and soluble (SF) and insoluble (IF) fractions isolated and counted. In the bioavailability of Na 99mTcO 4, Wistar rats were treated (7 days) with aqueous extract or with 0.9%NaCl, the radiopharmaceutical was administered, the animals sacrificed, the organs isolated, weighted and radioactivity counted. To evaluate the effect on the bacterial survival, E. coli was treated with: (a) SnCl 2; (b) 0.9% NaCl; (c) vegetal extract; or (d) SnCl 2 and vegetal extract. Radiolabeling efficiency showed a significantly decrease (ANOVA/Tukey post-test, p<0.05) after treatment with BG, TC, MI and CA extracts. The bioavailability results showed that the uptake of Na 99mTcO 4 was altered significantly (unpaired t-student test, p<0.05) in blood, lungs (CA/TC extracts), bone, heart, ovary (EA /TC), spleen, kidney (TC) , pancreas, thyroid

  3. A Tutorial Review of Functional Connectivity Analysis Methods and Their Interpretational Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, André M.; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory neuronal activity may provide a mechanism for dynamic network coordination. Rhythmic neuronal interactions can be quantified using multiple metrics, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. This tutorial will review and summarize current analysis methods used in the field of invasive and non-invasive electrophysiology to study the dynamic connections between neuronal populations. First, we review metrics for functional connectivity, including coherence, phase synchronization, phase-slope index, and Granger causality, with the specific aim to provide an intuition for how these metrics work, as well as their quantitative definition. Next, we highlight a number of interpretational caveats and common pitfalls that can arise when performing functional connectivity analysis, including the common reference problem, the signal to noise ratio problem, the volume conduction problem, the common input problem, and the sample size bias problem. These pitfalls will be illustrated by presenting a set of MATLAB-scripts, which can be executed by the reader to simulate each of these potential problems. We discuss how these issues can be addressed using current methods. PMID:26778976

  4. Windfalls and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Edge, Michael D.; Gorroochurn, Prakash; Rosenberg, Noah A.

    2013-01-01

    Association mapping can be viewed as an application of population genetics and evolutionary biology to the problem of identifying genes causally connected to phenotypes. However, some population-genetic principles important to the design and analysis of association studies have not been widely understood or have even been generally misunderstood. Some of these principles underlie techniques that can aid in the discovery of genetic variants that influence phenotypes (‘windfalls’), whereas others can interfere with study design or interpretation of results (‘pitfalls’). Here, considering examples involving genetic variant discovery, linkage disequilibrium, power to detect associations, population stratification and genotype imputation, we address misunderstandings in the application of population genetics to association studies, and we illuminate how some surprising results in association contexts can be easily explained when considered from evolutionary and population-genetic perspectives. Through our examples, we argue that population-genetic thinking—which takes a theoretical view of the evolutionary forces that guide the emergence and propagation of genetic variants—substantially informs the design and interpretation of genetic association studies. In particular, population-genetic thinking sheds light on genetic confounding, on the relationships between association signals of typed markers and causal variants, and on the advantages and disadvantages of particular strategies for measuring genetic variation in association studies. PMID:24481204

  5. A meta-analysis of evidence for hormesis in animal radiation carcinogenesis, including a discussion of potential pitfalls in statistical analyses to detect hormesis.

    PubMed

    Crump, Kenny S; Duport, Philippe; Jiang, Huixia; Shilnikova, Natalia S; Krewski, Daniel; Zielinski, Jan M

    2012-01-01

    , although the overlap prevented a formal statistical analysis. A comprehensive post hoc evaluation using a range of NOEL definitions and alternative ways of restricting the data entering the analysis did not produce materially different results. A second meta-analysis found that, in every possible low dose range ([0, d] for every dose, d) of each of the radiation types, the number of dose groups with significantly increased tumorigenic responses was either close to or exceeded the number showing significantly reduced responses. This meta-analysis was considered to be the more definitive one. Not only did it take dose into account by looking for consistent evidence of hormesis throughout defined low-dose ranges, it was also potentially less susceptible to limitations in experimental protocols that would cause individual animals to respond in a non-independent fashion. Overall, this study found little evidence in a comprehensive animal radiation database to support the hormesis hypothesis. However, the ability of the database to detect a hormetic effect was limited both by the small number of dose groups with doses below the range where positive effects have been found in epidemiological studies (≤ 0.1 Gy) and by the limited power of many of these dose groups for detecting a decrease in response.

  6. Potential Strategies to Address the Major Clinical Hurdles Facing Stem Cell Regenerative Therapy for Cardiovascular Disease: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Patricia K.; Neofytou, Evgenios; Rhee, June-Wha; Wu, Joseph C.

    2017-01-01

    Importance While progress continues to be made in the field of stem cell regenerative medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, significant barriers to clinical translation still exist that have thwarted the delivery of cell therapy to the bedside. Objective The purpose of this review is to summarize the major current hurdles for the clinical implementation of stem cell therapy and discuss potential strategies to overcome them. Evidence Review Information for this review was obtained through a search of PubMed and the Cochrane database for English language studies published between January 1, 2000 and June 15, 2016. Ten randomized clinical trials and eight systematic reviews were included in this review. Findings One of the major clinical hurdles facing the routine implementation of stem cell therapy is the limited and inconsistent benefit observed thus far. Reasons for this are unclear but may be due to poor cell retention and survival, as suggested by numerous preclinical studies and a handful of human studies incorporating cell fate imaging. Additional cell fate imaging studies in humans are needed to determine how these factors contribute to limited efficacy. Treatment strategies to address poor cell retention and survival are under investigation and include the following: 1) co-administering of immunosuppressive and pro-survival agents, 2) delivering cardioprotective factors packaged in exosomes rather than the cells themselves, and 3) using tissue engineering strategies to provide structural support for cells. If larger grafts are achieved using the aforementioned strategies, it will be imperative to carefully monitor the potential risks of tumorigenicity, immunogenicity, and arrhythmogenicity. Conclusions and Relevance Despite important achievements to date, stem cell therapy is not yet ready for routine clinical implementation. Significant research is still needed to address the clinical hurdles outlined herein before the next wave of large

  7. Chief Knowledge Officers? Perceptions, Pitfalls, & Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Mary; Jones, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    Argues that few librarians possess the needed competencies to fill the role of "chief knowledge officer" or "knowledge executive." Outlines executive competencies required: communications, leadership, experience, financial management, customer focus, entrepreneurial insight, and information technology grounding; examines gaps…

  8. The Virtual Library: Pitfalls, Promises, and Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooks, Dana

    1993-01-01

    Discusses components of the emerging virtual library. Highlights include adopting technology to enhance library services; navigation problems; shared resources and services; costs; implementation challenges, including library instruction programs; control over intellectual content; technical design issues; and a brief overview of current virtual…

  9. Potential pitfalls in the diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Harding, Jane L; Yeh, Michael W; Robinson, Bruce G; Delbridge, Leigh W; Sidhu, Stan B

    2005-06-20

    Six patients being evaluated for phaeochromocytoma had misleading investigative findings: all initially had raised urinary catecholamine levels, and five had adrenal masses on imaging studies. Adrenalectomy in these five patients revealed only one pathologically confirmed phaeochromocytoma. Tricyclic antidepressant use produced misleading elevations in urinary catecholamine levels in three patients. 24-hour urine studies should be performed at least twice, after eliminating confounding factors (stressors, medications).

  10. Raman Hyperspectral Imaging of Microfossils: Potential Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Olcott Marshall, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Initially, Raman spectroscopy was a specialized technique used by vibrational spectroscopists; however, due to rapid advancements in instrumentation and imaging techniques over the last few decades, Raman spectrometers are widely available at many institutions, allowing Raman spectroscopy to become a widespread analytical tool in mineralogy and other geological sciences. Hyperspectral imaging, in particular, has become popular due to the fact that Raman spectroscopy can quickly delineate crystallographic and compositional differences in 2-D and 3-D at the micron scale. Although this rapid growth of applications to the Earth sciences has provided great insight across the geological sciences, the ease of application as the instruments become increasingly automated combined with nonspecialists using this techique has resulted in the propagation of errors and misunderstandings throughout the field. For example, the literature now includes misassigned vibration modes, inappropriate spectral processing techniques, confocal depth of laser penetration incorrectly estimated into opaque crystalline solids, and a misconstrued understanding of the anisotropic nature of sp2 carbons. Key Words: Raman spectroscopy—Raman imaging—Confocal Raman spectroscopy—Disordered sp2 carbons—Hematite—Microfossils. Astrobiology 13, 920–931. PMID:24088070

  11. Pitfalls and Potential of Adversary Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthen, Blaine R.; Rogers, W. Todd

    1980-01-01

    The core of adversary evaluation is the existence of opposing viewpoints, not adherence to existing formats for presenting them. Suggests that evaluators develop adversary methods more appropriate for education. (Author/MLF)

  12. Antimicrobial food packaging: potential and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Bhanu; Keshwani, Anu; Kharkwal, Harsha

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays food preservation, quality maintenance, and safety are major growing concerns of the food industry. It is evident that over time consumers’ demand for natural and safe food products with stringent regulations to prevent food-borne infectious diseases. Antimicrobial packaging which is thought to be a subset of active packaging and controlled release packaging is one such promising technology which effectively impregnates the antimicrobial into the food packaging film material and subsequently delivers it over the stipulated period of time to kill the pathogenic microorganisms affecting food products thereby increasing the shelf life to severe folds. This paper presents a picture of the recent research on antimicrobial agents that are aimed at enhancing and improving food quality and safety by reduction of pathogen growth and extension of shelf life, in a form of a comprehensive review. Examination of the available antimicrobial packaging technologies is also presented along with their significant impact on food safety. This article entails various antimicrobial agents for commercial applications, as well as the difference between the use of antimicrobials under laboratory scale and real time applications. Development of resistance amongst microorganisms is considered as a future implication of antimicrobials with an aim to come up with actual efficacies in extension of shelf life as well as reduction in bacterial growth through the upcoming and promising use of antimicrobials in food packaging for the forthcoming research down the line. PMID:26136740

  13. Potential application of population models in the European ecological risk assessment of chemicals. II. Review of models and their potential to address environmental protection aims.

    PubMed

    Galic, Nika; Hommen, Udo; Baveco, J M Hans; van den Brink, Paul J

    2010-07-01

    Whereas current chemical risk assessment (RA) schemes within the European Union (EU) focus mainly on toxicity and bioaccumulation of chemicals in individual organisms, most protection goals aim at preserving populations of nontarget organisms rather than individuals. Ecological models are tools rarely recommended in official technical documents on RA of chemicals, but are widely used by researchers to assess risks to populations, communities and ecosystems. Their great advantage is the relatively straightforward integration of the sensitivity of species to chemicals, the mode of action and fate in the environment of toxicants, life-history traits of the species of concern, and landscape features. To promote the usage of ecological models in regulatory risk assessment, this study tries to establish whether existing, published ecological modeling studies have addressed or have the potential to address the protection aims and requirements of the chemical directives of the EU. We reviewed 148 publications, and evaluated and analyzed them in a database according to defined criteria. Published models were also classified in terms of 5 areas where their application would be most useful for chemical RA. All potential application areas are well represented in the published literature. Most models were developed to estimate population-level responses on the basis of individual effects, followed by recovery process assessment, both in individuals and at the level of metapopulations. We provide case studies for each of the proposed areas of ecological model application. The lack of clarity about protection goals in legislative documents made it impossible to establish a direct link between modeling studies and protection goals. Because most of the models reviewed here were not developed for regulatory risk assessment, there is great potential and a variety of ecological models in the published literature.

  14. Measurement and monitoring needs, capabilities and potential for addressing reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation under REDD+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, Scott J.; Hansen, Matthew; Houghton, Richard A.; Walker, Wayne; Laporte, Nadine; Busch, Jonah

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the state of measurement and monitoring capabilities for forests in the context of REDD+ needs, with a focus on what is currently possible, where improvements are needed, and what capabilities will be advanced in the near-term with new technologies already under development. We summarize the role of remote sensing (both satellite and aircraft) for observational monitoring of forests, including measuring changes in their current and past extent for setting baselines, their carbon stock density for estimating emissions in areas that are deforested or degraded, and their regrowth dynamics following disturbance. We emphasize the synergistic role of integrating field inventory measurements with remote sensing for best practices in monitoring, reporting and verification. We also address the potential of remote sensing for enforcing safeguards on conservation of natural forests and biodiversity. We argue that capabilities exist now to meet operational needs for REDD+ measurement, reporting, and verification and reference levels. For some other areas of importance for REDD+, such as safeguards for natural forests and biodiversity, monitoring capabilities are approaching operational in the near term. For all REDD+ needs, measurement capabilities will rapidly advance in the next few years as a result of new technology as well as advances in capacity building both within and outside of the tropical forest nations on which REDD+ is primarily focused.

  15. Data interpretation in breath biomarker research: pitfalls and directions.

    PubMed

    Miekisch, Wolfram; Herbig, Jens; Schubert, Jochen K

    2012-09-01

    Most--if not all--potential diagnostic applications in breath research involve different marker concentrations rather than unique breath markers which only occur in the diseased state. Hence, data interpretation is a crucial step in breath analysis. To avoid artificial significance in breath testing every effort should be made to implement method validation, data cross-testing and statistical validation along this process. The most common data analysis related problems can be classified into three groups: confounding variables (CVs), which have a real correlation with both the diseased state and a breath marker but lead to the erroneous conclusion that disease and breath are in a causal relationship; voodoo correlations (VCs), which can be understood as statistically true correlations that arise coincidentally in the vast number of measured variables; and statistical misconceptions in the study design (SMSD). CV: Typical confounding variables are environmental and medical history, host factors such as gender, age, weight, etc and parameters that could affect the quality of breath data such as subject breathing mode, effects of breath sampling and effects of the analytical technique itself. VC: The number of measured variables quickly overwhelms the number of samples that can feasibly be taken. As a consequence, the chances of finding coincidental 'voodoo' correlations grow proportionally. VCs can typically be expected in the following scenarios: insufficient number of patients, (too) many measurement variables, the use of advanced statistical data mining methods, and non-independent data for validation. SMSD: Non-prospective, non-blinded and non-randomized trials, a priori biased study populations or group selection with unrealistically high disease prevalence typically represent misconception of study design. In this paper important data interpretation issues are discussed, common pitfalls are addressed and directions for sound data processing and interpretation

  16. CT pulmonary angiography of adult pulmonary vascular diseases: Technical considerations and interpretive pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Taslakian, Bedros; Latson, Larry A; Truong, Mylene T; Aaltonen, Eric; Shiau, Maria C; Girvin, Francis; Alpert, Jeffrey B; Wickstrom, Maj; Ko, Jane P

    2016-11-01

    Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has become the primary imaging modality for evaluating the pulmonary arteries. Although pulmonary embolism is the primary indication for CTPA, various pulmonary vascular abnormalities can be detected in adults. Knowledge of these disease entities and understanding technical pitfalls that can occur when performing CTPA are essential to enable accurate diagnosis and allow timely management. This review will cover a spectrum of acquired abnormalities including pulmonary embolism due to thrombus and foreign bodies, primary and metastatic tumor involving the pulmonary arteries, pulmonary hypertension, as well as pulmonary artery aneurysms and stenoses. Additionally, methods to overcome technical pitfalls and interventional treatment options will be addressed.

  17. Using demographic data to better interpret pitfall trap catches

    PubMed Central

    Matalin, Andrey V.; Makarov, Kirill V.

    2011-01-01

    assessment of the migratory/residential status of particular carabid species are potential ways of increasing the reliability of pitfall trap information. PMID:21738415

  18. Potential effects of the introduction of the discrete address beacon system data link on air/ground information transfer problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    This study of Aviation Safety Reporting System reports suggests that benefits should accure from implementation of discrete address beacon system data link. The phase enhanced terminal information system service is expected to provide better terminal information than present systems by improving currency and accuracy. In the exchange of air traffic control messages, discrete address insures that only the intended recipient receives and acts on a specific message. Visual displays and printer copy of messages should mitigate many of the reported problems associated with voice communications. The problems that remain unaffected include error in addressing the intended recipient and messages whose content is wrong but are otherwise correct as to format and reasonableness.

  19. Ecoinformatics (Big Data) for Agricultural Entomology: Pitfalls, Progress, and Promise.

    PubMed

    Rosenheim, Jay A; Gratton, Claudio

    2017-01-31

    Ecoinformatics, as defined in this review, is the use of preexisting data sets to address questions in ecology. We provide the first review of ecoinformatics methods in agricultural entomology. Ecoinformatics methods have been used to address the full range of questions studied by agricultural entomologists, enabled by the special opportunities associated with data sets, nearly all of which have been observational, that are larger and more diverse and that embrace larger spatial and temporal scales than most experimental studies do. We argue that ecoinformatics research methods and traditional, experimental research methods have strengths and weaknesses that are largely complementary. We address the important interpretational challenges associated with observational data sets, highlight common pitfalls, and propose some best practices for researchers using these methods. Ecoinformatics methods hold great promise as a vehicle for capitalizing on the explosion of data emanating from farmers, researchers, and the public, as novel sampling and sensing techniques are developed and digital data sharing becomes more widespread.

  20. Common Pitfalls in Exposure and Response Prevention (EX/RP) for OCD

    PubMed Central

    Gillihan, Seth J.; Williams, Monnica T.; Malcoun, Emily; Yadin, Elna; Foa, Edna B.

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a highly debilitating disorder. Fortunately there are treatments that help the majority of OCD sufferers. The behavioral treatment with the most empirical support for its efficacy is exposure and response prevention (EX/RP). Over the years in our supervision meetings and in our clinical practice we have noted a number of relatively common therapist pitfalls that decrease the effectiveness of EX/RP. These pitfalls include not encouraging patients to approach the most distressing situations, doing imaginal exposure when in vivo is called for (and vice versa), encouraging distraction during exposure, providing reassurance, failing to address the core fear, ineffective handling of mental compulsions, and difficulty working with close others in the patient’s life. In the current article we describe these common pitfalls and how to avoid them. PMID:22924159

  1. Pitfalls in RECIST Data Extraction for Clinical Trials: Beyond the Basics.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Richard G; McGhee, Carrie R; Lakomkin, Nikita; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2015-06-01

    Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) is a standardized methodology for determining therapeutic response to anticancer therapy using changes in lesion appearance on imaging studies. Many radiologists are now using RECIST in their routine clinical workflow, as part of consultative arrangements, or within dedicated imaging core laboratories. Although basic RECIST methodology is well described in published articles and online resources, inexperienced readers may encounter difficulties with certain nuances and subtleties of RECIST. This article illustrates a set of pitfalls in RECIST assessment considered to be "beyond the basics." These pitfalls were uncovered during a quality improvement review of a recently established cancer imaging core laboratory staffed by radiologists with limited prior RECIST experience. Pitfalls are presented in four categories: (1) baseline selection of lesions, (2) reassessment of target lesions, (3) reassessment of nontarget lesions, and (4) identification of new lesions. Educational and operational strategies for addressing these pitfalls are suggested. Attention to these pitfalls and strategies may improve the overall quality of RECIST assessments performed by radiologists.

  2. TU-D-BRD-01: Image Guided SBRT II: Challenges ' Pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Z; Yin, F; Cho, J

    2014-06-15

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has been effective treatment for the management of various diseases, which often delivers high radiation dose in a single or a few fractions. SBRT therefore demands precise treatment delivery to the tumor while sparing adjacent healthy tissue. Recent developments in image guidance enable target localization with increased accuracy. With such improvements in localization, image-guided SBRT has been widely adopted into clinical practice. In SBRT, high radiation dose is generally delivered with small fields. Therefore, it is crucial to accurately measure dosimetric data for the small fields during commissioning. In addition, image-guided SBRT demands accurate image localization to ensure safety and quality of patient care. Lately, the reports of AAPM TG 142 and TG 104 have been published and added recommendations for imaging devices that are integrated with the linear accelerator for SBRT. Furthermore, various challenges and potential pitfalls lie in the clinical implementation of image-guided SBRT. In this lecture, these challenges and pitfalls of image-guided SBRT will be illustrated and discussed from dosimetric, technical and clinical perspectives.Being a promising technique, image-guided SBRT has shown great potentials, and will lead to more accurate and safer SBRT treatments. Learning Objectives: To understand dosimetric challenges and pitfalls for IGRT application in SBRT. To understand major clinical challenges and pitfalls for IGRT application in SBRT. To understand major technical challenges and pitfalls for IGRT application in SBRT.

  3. Bed bug (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) attraction to pitfall traps baited with carbon dioxide, heat, and chemical lure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Gibb, Timothy; Bennett, Gary W; McKnight, Susan

    2009-08-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), heat, and chemical lure (1-octen-3-ol and L-lactic acid) were tested as attractants for bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Heteroptera: Cimicidae), by using pitfall traps. Both CO2 and heat were attractive to bed bugs. CO2 was significantly more attractive to bed bugs than heat. Traps baited with chemical lure attracted more bed bugs but at a statistically nonsignificant level. In small arena studies (56 by 44 cm), pitfall traps baited with CO2 or heat trapped 79.8 +/- 6.7 and 51.6 +/- 0.9% (mean +/- SEM) of the bed bugs after 6 h, respectively. Traps baited with CO2 + heat, CO, + chemical lure, or CO2 + heat + chemical lure captured > or = 86.7% of the bed bugs after 6 h, indicating baited pitfall traps were highly effective in attracting and capturing bed bugs from a short distance. In 3.1- by 1.8-m environmental chambers, a pitfall trap baited with CO, + heat + chemical lure trapped 57.3 +/- 6.4% of the bed bugs overnight. The pitfall trap was further tested in four bed bug-infested apartments to determine its efficacy in detecting light bed bug infestations. Visual inspections found an average of 12.0 +/- 5.4 bed bugs per apartment. The bed bugs that were found by visual inspections were hand-removed during inspections. A pitfall trap baited with CO2 and chemical lure was subsequently placed in each apartment with an average of 15.0 +/- 6.4 bed bugs collected per trap by the next morning. We conclude that baited pitfall traps are potentially effective tools for evaluating bed bug control programs and detecting early bed bug infestations.

  4. [Pitfalls in the treatment of periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Casteyde, J P; Occhiminuti, M A; Achache, S; Netter, J C

    1984-01-01

    The author point out that periodontitis is a disease of multiple aetiology and indicate two types of pitfall: traps in conceiving the plan of treatment and traps in carrying out treatment. The treatment plan may be incomplete. The authors show that the deepest types of vertical alveolysis are always related to occlusal or functional imbalance and that treatment based only upon hygiene and periodontal surgery represents a pitfall. They stress the importance of functional treatment. However such complex functional treatment itself has a number of pitfalls when it is being carried out. It is essential to restore balance of the oro-facial musculature before any treatment of occlusion. These are also types of non-occlusal musculo-dental imbalance which may plan an important role in the course of periodontitis. In conclusion, the authors note that functional treatment of the manducatory apparatus is as important as controlling inflammation. This must not be underestimated nor be allowed to go unrecognised.

  5. Toxicology: pearls and pitfalls in the use of antidotes.

    PubMed

    Smollin, Craig G

    2010-02-01

    Although most poisonings require only supportive care, the emergency physician must recognize when the use of an antidote is required, and understand the risks and benefits of the treatment rendered. Although the more commonly instituted specific therapy in acute poisoning is the administration of intravenous fluids followed by the administration of oxygen, in certain circumstances prompt administration of a specific antidote may be required, and failure to identify these circumstances may lead to significant morbidity or mortality. This article describes select antidotes, and discusses their indications and potential pitfalls.

  6. How group practices can avoid managed care contracting pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Gosfield, A G

    1999-07-01

    When negotiating contracts with managed care organizations, group practices should understand the potential pitfalls involved. The basic issues to be aware of are understanding the relative parties' negotiating positions, the business significance of fundamental terms, and the actual contract provisions. The most important clauses in contracts concern compensation and termination. Group practices should require that their contracts include clauses that provide the physicians with protection should utilization assumptions not be met. They also should be realistic about their ability to fulfill contract terms. In addition, contract terms should be clearly written, well-defined, and time-limited.

  7. Pitfalls in ictal EEG interpretation: critical care and intracranial recordings.

    PubMed

    Gaspard, Nicolas; Hirsch, Lawrence J

    2013-01-01

    EEG is the cornerstone examination for seizure diagnosis, especially nonconvulsive seizures in the critically ill, but is still subject to many errors that can lead to a wrong diagnosis and unnecessary or inadequate treatment. Many of these pitfalls to EEG interpretation are avoidable. This article reviews common errors in EEG interpretation, focusing on ictal or potentially ictal recordings obtained in critically ill patients. Issues discussed include artifacts, nonepileptic events, equivocal EEG patterns seen in comatose patients, and quantitative EEG artifacts. This review also covers some difficulties encountered with intracranial EEG recordings in patients undergoing epilepsy surgery, including issues related to display resolution.

  8. Common problems and pitfalls in gear design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Dennis P.

    1986-01-01

    There are several pitfalls and problems associated with the successful design of a new gear transmission. A new design will require the knowledge and experience of several technical areas of engineering. Most of the pitfalls and problems associated with a new design are related to an inadequate evaluation of several areas, such as, the lubrication and cooling requirements, complete static and dynamic load analysis, evaluation of materials and heat treatment and the latest manufacturing technology. Some of the common problems of the gear design process are discussed with recommendations made for avoiding these conditions.

  9. Addressing the stimulant treatment gap: A call to investigate the therapeutic benefits potential of cannabinoids for crack-cocaine use.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Benedikt; Kuganesan, Sharan; Gallassi, Andrea; Malcher-Lopes, Renato; van den Brink, Wim; Wood, Evan

    2015-12-01

    Crack-cocaine use is prevalent in numerous countries, yet concentrated primarily - largely within urban contexts - in the Northern and Southern regions of the Americas. It is associated with a variety of behavioral, physical and mental health and social problems which gravely affect users and their environments. Few evidence-based treatments for crack-cocaine use exist and are available to users in the reality of street drug use. Numerous pharmacological treatments have been investigated but with largely disappointing results. An important therapeutic potential for crack-cocaine use may rest in cannabinoids, which have recently seen a general resurgence for varied possible therapeutic usages for different neurological diseases. Distinct potential therapeutic benefits for crack-cocaine use and common related adverse symptoms may come specifically from cannabidiol (CBD) - one of the numerous cannabinoid components found in cannabis - with its demonstrated anxiolytic, anti-psychotic, anti-convulsant effects and potential benefits for sleep and appetite problems. The possible therapeutic prospects of cannabinoids are corroborated by observational studies from different contexts documenting crack-cocaine users' 'self-medication' efforts towards coping with crack-cocaine-related problems, including withdrawal and craving, impulsivity and paranoia. Cannabinoid therapeutics offer further benefits of being available in multiple formulations, are low in adverse risk potential, and may easily be offered in community-based settings which may add to their feasibility as interventions for - predominantly marginalized - crack-cocaine user populations. Supported by the dearth of current therapeutic options for crack-cocaine use, we are advocating for the implementation of a rigorous research program investigating the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabinoids for crack-cocaine use. Given the high prevalence of this grave substance use problem in the Americas, opportunities for

  10. Addressing Potential Cumulative Impacts of Development on Threatened Species: The Case of the Endangered Black-Throated Finch

    PubMed Central

    Vanderduys, Eric Peter; Reside, April E.; Grice, Anthony; Rechetelo, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Where threatened biodiversity is adversely affected by development, policies often state that "no net loss" should be the goal and biodiversity offsetting is one mechanism available to achieve this. However, developments are often approved on an ad hoc basis and cumulative impacts are not sufficiently examined. We demonstrate the potential for serious threat to an endangered subspecies when multiple developments are planned. We modelled the distribution of the black-throated finch (Poephila cincta cincta) using bioclimatic data and Queensland's Regional Ecosystem classification. We overlaid granted, extant extractive and exploratory mining tenures within the known and modelled ranges of black-throated finches to examine the level of incipient threat to this subspecies in central Queensland, Australia. Our models indicate that more than half of the remaining P. cincta cincta habitat is currently under extractive or exploratory tenure. Therefore, insufficient habitat exists to offset all potential development so "no net loss" is not possible. This has implications for future conservation of this and similarly distributed species and for resource development planning, especially the use of legislated offsets for biodiversity protection. PMID:26934622

  11. Addressing potential role of magnesium dyshomeostasis to improve treatment efficacy for epilepsy: A reexamination of the literature.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Katie E; Shytle, R Douglas; Frontera, Alfred T; Soble, Jason R; Schoenberg, Mike R

    2016-03-01

    Magnesium (Mg(2+) ) is an abundant mineral in the body serving many biochemical functions. Magnesium supplementation has been shown to raise seizure threshold in animal and human studies, but the etiological contribution of magnesium deficiency to the onset and maintenance of epilepsy, as well as the degree to which it impacts antiepileptic drug efficacy, remains poorly understood. This may be due, at least in part, to the inherent limitations of commonly used serum levels as a measure of functional magnesium status, as well as insufficient data regarding relative bioavailabilities of various magnesium salts and chelates for use with humans. To date, 1 randomized clinical trial has been conducted assessing Mg(2+) supplementation in epilepsy, and findings yielded promising results. Yet a notable dearth in the literature remains, and more studies are needed. To better understand the potential role of magnesium deficiency as a causal factor in epilepsy, more convenient and accurate measurement methods should to be developed and employed in randomized, controlled trials of oral magnesium supplementation in epilepsy. Findings from such studies have the potential to facilitate far-reaching clinical and economic improvements in epilepsy treatment standards.

  12. Addressing Potential Cumulative Impacts of Development on Threatened Species: The Case of the Endangered Black-Throated Finch.

    PubMed

    Vanderduys, Eric Peter; Reside, April E; Grice, Anthony; Rechetelo, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Where threatened biodiversity is adversely affected by development, policies often state that "no net loss" should be the goal and biodiversity offsetting is one mechanism available to achieve this. However, developments are often approved on an ad hoc basis and cumulative impacts are not sufficiently examined. We demonstrate the potential for serious threat to an endangered subspecies when multiple developments are planned. We modelled the distribution of the black-throated finch (Poephila cincta cincta) using bioclimatic data and Queensland's Regional Ecosystem classification. We overlaid granted, extant extractive and exploratory mining tenures within the known and modelled ranges of black-throated finches to examine the level of incipient threat to this subspecies in central Queensland, Australia. Our models indicate that more than half of the remaining P. cincta cincta habitat is currently under extractive or exploratory tenure. Therefore, insufficient habitat exists to offset all potential development so "no net loss" is not possible. This has implications for future conservation of this and similarly distributed species and for resource development planning, especially the use of legislated offsets for biodiversity protection.

  13. Best Laid Plans and Pitfalls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstetter, Janet; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Three articles provide tips for remodeling or building a school media center. Topics addressed include computer workstations; furnishings; packing, moving, and reshelving books; handicapped accessibility; advisory committees; documentation; design elements to increase the comfort of librarians and students; and miscellaneous considerations such as…

  14. Big data in sleep medicine: prospects and pitfalls in phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Matt T; Russo, Kathryn; Gabbidon, Harriett; Smith, Tiaundra; Goparaju, Balaji; Westover, M Brandon

    2017-01-01

    Clinical polysomnography (PSG) databases are a rich resource in the era of "big data" analytics. We explore the uses and potential pitfalls of clinical data mining of PSG using statistical principles and analysis of clinical data from our sleep center. We performed retrospective analysis of self-reported and objective PSG data from adults who underwent overnight PSG (diagnostic tests, n=1835). Self-reported symptoms overlapped markedly between the two most common categories, insomnia and sleep apnea, with the majority reporting symptoms of both disorders. Standard clinical metrics routinely reported on objective data were analyzed for basic properties (missing values, distributions), pairwise correlations, and descriptive phenotyping. Of 41 continuous variables, including clinical and PSG derived, none passed testing for normality. Objective findings of sleep apnea and periodic limb movements were common, with 51% having an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) >5 per hour and 25% having a leg movement index >15 per hour. Different visualization methods are shown for common variables to explore population distributions. Phenotyping methods based on clinical databases are discussed for sleep architecture, sleep apnea, and insomnia. Inferential pitfalls are discussed using the current dataset and case examples from the literature. The increasing availability of clinical databases for large-scale analytics holds important promise in sleep medicine, especially as it becomes increasingly important to demonstrate the utility of clinical testing methods in management of sleep disorders. Awareness of the strengths, as well as caution regarding the limitations, will maximize the productive use of big data analytics in sleep medicine.

  15. The Union County Hydrogeology Project: Addressing Potential Imbalances by Integrating Science and Communities in Northeastern New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeigler, K. E.; Podzemny, B.; Peacock, G.; Yuhas, A.; Williams, S.; Yuhas, E.

    2013-12-01

    The area around the town of Clayton, in northeastern New Mexico, was not a declared groundwater basin until September of 2005. In the years leading up to 2005, battles over groundwater use and attempts to stop drilling of additional water wells for irrigation and stock use led to multiple lawsuits in the community. Because there were no regulations in place and the geology of the area had not been studied in a hydrologic framework since the 1960s, there was no basic information for decisions to be made with regards to drilling new wells and use of groundwater, leading to the potential for severe imbalances in groundwater recharge versus usage in the region. In 2006, the Northeast Soil and Water Conservation District (NESWCD), based in Clayton, decided that a large scale hydrogeology project was needed to help develop community guidelines for groundwater development. In 2010, Zeigler Geologic Consulting and the NM Bureau of Geology partnered with the NESWCD to help develop this project. The Union County Hydrogeology Project (UCHP) is unique in that this project was initially undertaken by members of the community who developed a program of biannual static water level measurements in wells across the county. In addition, the project has support from the majority of land owners in Union County and the scientists working on the project have worked closely with local community leaders to integrate this large project into everyday activities. Community integration efforts include presenting data at the Annual Producers Meeting and at the county fair, as well as other regional conferences on water use and development. Previous assumptions were that the primary aquifers being utilized were the Tertiary Ogallala Formation and the Upper Cretaceous Dakota Group. However, evaluation of surface bedrock exposures and well cuttings from petroleum exploration wells drilled in eastern Union County demonstrate that the subsurface geology is more complex than might be expected. This

  16. Teaching Digital Natives: Promoting Information Literacy and Addressing Instructional Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    Technology must be used as a teaching and learning tool to help students succeed. However, educators must be proactive in identifying some of the pitfalls of technology, such as information illiteracy. The phenomenological study covers how English instructors from Indianapolis, who teach first year students, address information literacy and the…

  17. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system.

  18. Immunohistochemistry for Pathologists: Protocols, Pitfalls, and Tips

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So-Woon; Roh, Jin; Park, Chan-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an important auxiliary method for pathologists in routine diagnostic work as well as in basic and clinical research including exploration of biomarkers, as IHC allows confirmation of target molecule expressions in the context of microenvironment. Although there has been a considerable progress in automation and standardization of IHC, there are still many things to be considered in proper optimization and appropriate interpretation. In this review, we aim to provide possible pitfalls and useful tips for practicing pathologists and residents in pathology training. First, general procedure of IHC is summarized, followed by pitfalls and tips in each step and a summary of troubleshooting. Second, ways to an accurate interpretation of IHC are discussed, with introduction to general quantification and analysis methods. This review is not intended to provide complete information on IHC, but to be used as a basic reference for practice and publication. PMID:27809448

  19. Pitfalls of predicting complex traits from SNPs

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Naomi R.; Yang, Jian; Hayes, Ben J.; Price, Alkes L.; Goddard, Mike E.; Visscher, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    The success of genome-wide association studies has led to increasing interest in making predictions of complex trait phenotypes including disease from genotype data. Rigorous assessment of the value of predictors is critical before implementation. Here we discuss some of the limitations and pitfalls of prediction analysis and show how naïve implementations can lead to severe bias and misinterpretation of results. PMID:23774735

  20. Exploring the Potential of Indigenous Foods to Address Hidden Hunger: Nutritive Value of Indigenous Foods of Santhal Tribal Community of Jharkhand, India

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Singh, Archna; Magsumbol, Melina S.; Kamboj, Preeti; Goldberg, Gail

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traditional foods of indigenous communities can be explored as a sustainable means of addressing undernutrition. Our study aimed at identifying indigenous foods of the Santhal tribal community of Godda district of Jharkhand, India, assessing their nutritive value, and appraising their potential role in addressing hidden hunger. A cross-sectional survey using qualitative methods like focus group discussions with women of childbearing age (15–49 years), adult males, and elderly people was conducted for food identification. This was followed by taxonomic classification and quantitative estimate of nutritive value of the identified foods either in a certified laboratory or from secondary data. The community was well aware of the indigenous food resources in their environment. More than 100 different types of indigenous foods including a number of green leafy vegetables were identified. Taxonomic classification was available for 25 food items and an additional 26 food items were sent for taxonomic classification. Many indigenous foods (more than 50% of which were green leafy vegetables) were found to be rich sources of micronutrients like calcium, iron, vitamin A as beta carotene, and folate. Maximizing utilization of indigenous foods can be an important and sustainable dietary diversification strategy for addressing hidden hunger in this indigenous community. PMID:27867449

  1. Exploring the Potential of Indigenous Foods to Address Hidden Hunger: Nutritive Value of Indigenous Foods of Santhal Tribal Community of Jharkhand, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Singh, Archna; Magsumbol, Melina S; Kamboj, Preeti; Goldberg, Gail

    2016-10-01

    Traditional foods of indigenous communities can be explored as a sustainable means of addressing undernutrition. Our study aimed at identifying indigenous foods of the Santhal tribal community of Godda district of Jharkhand, India, assessing their nutritive value, and appraising their potential role in addressing hidden hunger. A cross-sectional survey using qualitative methods like focus group discussions with women of childbearing age (15-49 years), adult males, and elderly people was conducted for food identification. This was followed by taxonomic classification and quantitative estimate of nutritive value of the identified foods either in a certified laboratory or from secondary data. The community was well aware of the indigenous food resources in their environment. More than 100 different types of indigenous foods including a number of green leafy vegetables were identified. Taxonomic classification was available for 25 food items and an additional 26 food items were sent for taxonomic classification. Many indigenous foods (more than 50% of which were green leafy vegetables) were found to be rich sources of micronutrients like calcium, iron, vitamin A as beta carotene, and folate. Maximizing utilization of indigenous foods can be an important and sustainable dietary diversification strategy for addressing hidden hunger in this indigenous community.

  2. Procedures for addressing uncertainty and variability in exposure to characterize potential health risk from trichloroethylene contaminated groundwater at Beale Air Force Base in California

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K T; Daniels, J I; Hall, L C

    1999-09-01

    This study was designed to accomplish two objectives. The first was to provide to the US Air Force and the regulatory community quantitative procedures that they might want to consider using for addressing uncertainty and variability in exposure to better characterize potential health risk. Such methods could be used at sites where populations may now or in the future be faced with using groundwater contaminated with low concentrations of the chemical trichloroethylene (TCE). The second was to illustrate and explain the application of these procedures with respect to available data for TCE in ground water beneath an inactive landfill site that is undergoing remediation at Beale Air Force Base in California. The results from this illustration provide more detail than the more traditional conservative deterministic, screening-level calculations of risk, also computed for purposes of comparison. Application of the procedures described in this report can lead to more reasonable and equitable risk-acceptability criteria for potentially exposed populations at specific sites.

  3. Avoiding Title V permitting pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Laswell, D.L.

    1993-04-01

    Title V of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments requires states to implement new air operating permit programs. States have a great deal of flexibility in developing their permit programs. Industry should work now to ensure that state programs contain the favorable aspects of the federal regulations and do not contain more stringent requirements that are not required under the Clean Air Act. This article outlines areas of the permit program that have the potential to handicap industry`s ability to expand.

  4. Reproducibility Issues: Avoiding Pitfalls in Animal Inflammation Models.

    PubMed

    Laman, Jon D; Kooistra, Susanne M; Clausen, Björn E

    2017-01-01

    In light of an enhanced awareness of ethical questions and ever increasing costs when working with animals in biomedical research, there is a dedicated and sometimes fierce debate concerning the (lack of) reproducibility of animal models and their relevance for human inflammatory diseases. Despite evident advancements in searching for alternatives, that is, replacing, reducing, and refining animal experiments-the three R's of Russel and Burch (1959)-understanding the complex interactions of the cells of the immune system, the nervous system and the affected tissue/organ during inflammation critically relies on in vivo models. Consequently, scientific advancement and ultimately novel therapeutic interventions depend on improving the reproducibility of animal inflammation models. As a prelude to the remaining hands-on protocols described in this volume, here, we summarize potential pitfalls of preclinical animal research and provide resources and background reading on how to avoid them.

  5. The Head-fixed Behaving Rat—Procedures and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Cornelius; Hentschke, Harald; Butovas, Sergejus; Haiss, Florent; Stüttgen, Maik C; Gerdjikov, Todor V; Bergner, Caroline G; Waiblinger, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes experimental techniques with head-fixed, operantly conditioned rodents that allow the control of stimulus presentation and tracking of motor output at hitherto unprecedented levels of spatio-temporal precision. Experimental procedures for the surgery and behavioral training are presented. We place particular emphasis on potential pitfalls using these procedures in order to assist investigators who intend to engage in this type of experiment. We argue that head-fixed rodent models, by allowing the combination of methodologies from molecular manipulations, intracellular electrophysiology, and imaging to behavioral measurements, will be instrumental in combining insights into the functional neuronal organization at different levels of observation. Provided viable behavioral methods are implemented, model systems based on rodents will be complementary to current primate models—the latter providing highest comparability with the human brain, while the former offer hugely advanced methodologies on the lower levels of organization, for example, genetic alterations, intracellular electrophysiology, and imaging. PMID:20954892

  6. Extrapolation technique pitfalls in asymmetry measurements at colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colletti, Katrina; Hong, Ziqing; Toback, David; Wilson, Jonathan S.

    2016-09-01

    Asymmetry measurements are common in collider experiments and can sensitively probe particle properties. Typically, data can only be measured in a finite region covered by the detector, so an extrapolation from the visible asymmetry to the inclusive asymmetry is necessary. Often a constant multiplicative factor is advantageous for the extrapolation and this factor can be readily determined using simulation methods. However, there is a potential, avoidable pitfall involved in the determination of this factor when the asymmetry in the simulated data sample is small. We find that to obtain a reliable estimate of the extrapolation factor, the number of simulated events required rises as the inverse square of the simulated asymmetry; this can mean that an unexpectedly large sample size is required when determining the extrapolation factor.

  7. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  8. Pitfalls of Insulin Pump Clocks

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to raise awareness about the importance of ensuring that insulin pumps internal clocks are set up correctly at all times. This is a very important safety issue because all commercially available insulin pumps are not GPS-enabled (though this is controversial), nor equipped with automatically adjusting internal clocks. Special attention is paid to how basal and bolus dose errors can be introduced by daylight savings time changes, travel across time zones, and am-pm clock errors. Correct setting of insulin pump internal clock is crucial for appropriate insulin delivery. A comprehensive literature review is provided, as are illustrative cases. Incorrect setting can potentially result in incorrect insulin delivery, with potential harmful consequences, if too much or too little insulin is delivered. Daylight saving time changes may not significantly affect basal insulin delivery, given the triviality of the time difference. However, bolus insulin doses can be dramatically affected. Such problems may occur when pump wearers have large variations in their insulin to carb ratio, especially if they forget to change their pump clock in the spring. More worrisome than daylight saving time change is the am-pm clock setting. If this setting is set up incorrectly, both basal rates and bolus doses will be affected. Appropriate insulin delivery through insulin pumps requires correct correlation between dose settings and internal clock time settings. Because insulin pumps are not GPS-enabled or automatically time-adjusting, extra caution should be practiced by patients to ensure correct time settings at all times. Clinicians and diabetes educators should verify the date/time of insulin pumps during patients’ visits, and should remind their patients to always verify these settings. PMID:25355713

  9. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Kakodkar, A

    1999-07-01

    This convocation addressed by Dr. Anil Kakodkar focuses on the challenges faced by graduating students. In his speech, he emphasized the high level of excellence achieved by the industrial sector; however, he noted that there has been a loss of initiative in maximizing value addition, which was worsened by an increasing population pressure. In facing a stiff competition in the external and domestic markets, it is imperative to maximize value addition within the country in a competitive manner and capture the highest possible market share. To achieve this, high-quality human resources are central. Likewise, family planning programs should become more effective and direct available resources toward national advantage. To boost the domestic market, he suggests the need to search for strengths to achieve leadership position in those areas. First, an insight into the relationship between the lifestyles and the needs of our people and the natural resource endowment must be gained. Second, remodeling of the education system must be undertaken to prepare the people for adding the necessary innovative content in our value addition activities. Lastly, Dr. Kakodkar emphasizes the significance of developing a strong bond between parents and children to provide a sound foundation and allow the education system to grow upon it.

  10. Pitfalls of Personal Development Plans--The User Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grohnert, Therese; Beausaert, Simon; Segers, Mien

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate which pitfalls users of personal development plans (PDPs) perceive in business and governmental organisations with mandatory PDP use. Hundred and thirty-one written statements of PDP users across three Dutch organisations were analysed and categorised into nine pitfalls. Next to an overall lack of use and…

  11. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours.

    PubMed

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-02-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown.

  12. Pitfalls and variants in pediatric chest imaging.

    PubMed

    García Asensio, D; Fernández Martín, M

    2016-05-01

    Most pitfalls in the interpretation of pediatric chest imaging are closely related with the technique used and the characteristics of pediatric patients. To obtain a quality image that will enable the correct diagnosis, it is very important to use an appropriate technique. It is important to know how technical factors influence the image and to be aware of the possible artifacts that can result from poor patient cooperation. Moreover, radiologists need to be familiar with the normal anatomy in children, with the classic radiologic findings, and with the anatomic and developmental variants to avoid misinterpreting normal findings as pathological.

  13. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  14. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  15. A model of integrated health care in a poverty-impacted community in New York City: Importance of early detection and addressing potential barriers to intervention implementation.

    PubMed

    Acri, Mary C; Bornheimer, Lindsay A; O'Brien, Kyle; Sezer, Sara; Little, Virna; Cleek, Andrew F; McKay, Mary M

    2016-04-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) are chronic, impairing, and costly behavioral health conditions that are four times more prevalent among children of color living in impoverished communities as compared to the general population. This disparity is largely due to the increased exposure to stressors related to low socioeconomic status including community violence, unstable housing, under supported schools, substance abuse, and limited support systems. However, despite high rates and greater need, there is a considerably lower rate of mental health service utilization among these youth. Accordingly, the current study aims to describe a unique model of integrated health care for ethnically diverse youth living in a New York City borough. With an emphasis on addressing possible barriers to implementation, integrated models for children have the potential to prevent ongoing mental health problems through early detection and intervention.

  16. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  17. Big data in sleep medicine: prospects and pitfalls in phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Matt T; Russo, Kathryn; Gabbidon, Harriett; Smith, Tiaundra; Goparaju, Balaji; Westover, M Brandon

    2017-01-01

    Clinical polysomnography (PSG) databases are a rich resource in the era of “big data” analytics. We explore the uses and potential pitfalls of clinical data mining of PSG using statistical principles and analysis of clinical data from our sleep center. We performed retrospective analysis of self-reported and objective PSG data from adults who underwent overnight PSG (diagnostic tests, n=1835). Self-reported symptoms overlapped markedly between the two most common categories, insomnia and sleep apnea, with the majority reporting symptoms of both disorders. Standard clinical metrics routinely reported on objective data were analyzed for basic properties (missing values, distributions), pairwise correlations, and descriptive phenotyping. Of 41 continuous variables, including clinical and PSG derived, none passed testing for normality. Objective findings of sleep apnea and periodic limb movements were common, with 51% having an apnea–hypopnea index (AHI) >5 per hour and 25% having a leg movement index >15 per hour. Different visualization methods are shown for common variables to explore population distributions. Phenotyping methods based on clinical databases are discussed for sleep architecture, sleep apnea, and insomnia. Inferential pitfalls are discussed using the current dataset and case examples from the literature. The increasing availability of clinical databases for large-scale analytics holds important promise in sleep medicine, especially as it becomes increasingly important to demonstrate the utility of clinical testing methods in management of sleep disorders. Awareness of the strengths, as well as caution regarding the limitations, will maximize the productive use of big data analytics in sleep medicine. PMID:28243157

  18. Imaging Spectrum and Pitfalls of 11C-Methionine Positron Emission Tomography in a Series of Patients with Intracranial Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Kubota, Kazoo

    2016-01-01

    11C-methionine (Met) positron emission tomography (PET) is one of the most commonly used PET tracers for evaluating brain tumors. However, few reports have described tips and pitfalls of 11C-Met PET for general practitioners. Physiological 11C-Met uptake, anatomical variations, vascular disorders, non-tumorous lesions such as inflammation or dysplasia, benign brain tumors and patient condition during 11C-Met PET examination can potentially affect the image interpretation and cause false positives and negatives. These pitfalls in the interpretation of 11C-Met PET images are important for not only nuclear medicine physicians but also general radiologists. Familiarity with the spectrum and pitfalls of 11C-Met images could help prevent unfavorable clinical results caused by misdiagnoses. PMID:27134530

  19. Some reflections on a few of the pitfalls in the world of foundation grant making.

    PubMed

    Billings, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper offers some reflections on the grant-making process from a former foundation executive. Some of the opportunities, challenges, and pitfalls inherent in the foundation world are described, and one approach to grant making, the "call for proposals," is examined as an example of the need for greater attention to and investment in the science of grant making itself, to maximize the potential return from philanthropy.

  20. Procedures for addressing uncertainty and variability in exposure to characterize potential health risk from trichloroethylene contaminated ground water at Beale Air Force Base in California

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J I; Bogen, K T; Hall, L C

    1999-10-05

    Conservative deterministic, screening-level calculations of exposure and risk commonly are used in quantitative assessments of potential human-health consequences from contaminants in environmental media. However, these calculations generally are based on multiple upper-bound point estimates of input parameters, particularly for exposure attributes, and can therefore produce results for decision makers that actually overstate the need for costly remediation. Alternatively, a more informative and quantitative characterization of health risk can be obtained by quantifying uncertainty and variability in exposure. This process is illustrated in this report for a hypothetical population at a specific site at Beale Air Force Base in California, where there is trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated ground water and a potential for future residential use. When uncertainty and variability in exposure were addressed jointly for this case, the 95th-percentile upper-bound value of individual excess lifetime cancer risk was a factor approaching 10 lower than the most conservative deterministic estimate. Additionally, the probability of more than zero additional cases of cancer can be estimated, and in this case it is less than 0.5 for a hypothetical future residential population of up to 26,900 individuals present for any 7.6-y interval of a 70-y time period. Clearly, the results from application of this probabilistic approach can provide reasonable and equitable risk-acceptability criteria for a contaminated site.

  1. Single subject prediction of brain disorders in neuroimaging: Promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Arbabshirani, Mohammad R; Plis, Sergey; Sui, Jing; Calhoun, Vince D

    2017-01-15

    Neuroimaging-based single subject prediction of brain disorders has gained increasing attention in recent years. Using a variety of neuroimaging modalities such as structural, functional and diffusion MRI, along with machine learning techniques, hundreds of studies have been carried out for accurate classification of patients with heterogeneous mental and neurodegenerative disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. More than 500 studies have been published during the past quarter century on single subject prediction focused on a multiple brain disorders. In the first part of this study, we provide a survey of more than 200 reports in this field with a focus on schizophrenia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), depressive disorders, autism spectrum disease (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Detailed information about those studies such as sample size, type and number of extracted features and reported accuracy are summarized and discussed. To our knowledge, this is by far the most comprehensive review of neuroimaging-based single subject prediction of brain disorders. In the second part, we present our opinion on major pitfalls of those studies from a machine learning point of view. Common biases are discussed and suggestions are provided. Moreover, emerging trends such as decentralized data sharing, multimodal brain imaging, differential diagnosis, disease subtype classification and deep learning are also discussed. Based on this survey, there is extensive evidence showing the great potential of neuroimaging data for single subject prediction of various disorders. However, the main bottleneck of this exciting field is still the limited sample size, which could be potentially addressed by modern data sharing models such as the ones discussed in this paper. Emerging big data technologies and advanced data-intensive machine learning methodologies such as deep learning have coincided with an increasing need

  2. Advantages and pitfalls in the application of mixed-model association methods.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; Zaitlen, Noah A; Goddard, Michael E; Visscher, Peter M; Price, Alkes L

    2014-02-01

    Mixed linear models are emerging as a method of choice for conducting genetic association studies in humans and other organisms. The advantages of the mixed-linear-model association (MLMA) method include the prevention of false positive associations due to population or relatedness structure and an increase in power obtained through the application of a correction that is specific to this structure. An underappreciated point is that MLMA can also increase power in studies without sample structure by implicitly conditioning on associated loci other than the candidate locus. Numerous variations on the standard MLMA approach have recently been published, with a focus on reducing computational cost. These advances provide researchers applying MLMA methods with many options to choose from, but we caution that MLMA methods are still subject to potential pitfalls. Here we describe and quantify the advantages and pitfalls of MLMA methods as a function of study design and provide recommendations for the application of these methods in practical settings.

  3. Massively Multiplayer Online Games as Living Laboratories: Opportunities and Pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducheneaut, Nicolas

    The digital nature of online games makes them particularly amenable to large-scale, automated data collection and analysis; so researchers have begun to use them as living laboratories to test or refine the existing theories of human behavior. On the basis of several years of intensive data collection in several massively multiplayer online games, this chapter addresses three problems concerning validity and generalizability that must be taken into account. First, each game has a set of laws that steer player behavior, thereby introducing confounding factors that have to be taken into account by the researcher. Second, games attract skewed samples of players, and players may adopt transformed personalities inside the game world, which puts into question the validity of extending findings from observations in the digital realm into the physical one. Third, the lack of a clear boundary defining the "game space," illustrated by the many websites and forums for popular games, raises the question of whether online games themselves capture the totality of the user's experience. The problematic mapping between "real-world" behaviors and those in online games presents research opportunities as well as pitfalls that need to be avoided.

  4. Genetics of Type 2 Diabetes—Pitfalls and Possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Rashmi B.; Groop, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex disease that is caused by a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. While the major environmental factors, diet and activity level, are well known, identification of the genetic factors has been a challenge. However, recent years have seen an explosion of genetic variants in risk and protection of T2D due to the technical development that has allowed genome-wide association studies and next-generation sequencing. Today, more than 120 variants have been convincingly replicated for association with T2D and many more with diabetes-related traits. Still, these variants only explain a small proportion of the total heritability of T2D. In this review, we address the possibilities to elucidate the genetic landscape of T2D as well as discuss pitfalls with current strategies to identify the elusive unknown heritability including the possibility that our definition of diabetes and its subgroups is imprecise and thereby makes the identification of genetic causes difficult. PMID:25774817

  5. Pitfalls in the characterization of nanoporous and nanosized materials.

    PubMed

    Weidenthaler, Claudia

    2011-03-01

    With the advent of highly sophisticated analytical tools, numerous physical methods are nowadays available for comprehensive characterization of inorganic matter and, as special cases, of porous and nanosized materials. Intelligent experimental setup and correct evaluation of the experimental data can provide helpful insights into the chemical and physical properties of such materials. However, scanning of literature reports shows that in many cases evaluation and interpretation of experimental data are erroneous. As a result, the description of a new material can be useless or even worse, misleading. Wrong evaluation is even more critical if mechanistic theories are based on such data. Characterization of porous and/or nanosized materials is mainly performed by gas adsorption, X-ray powder diffraction, electron microscopy and surface spectroscopy. For correct interpretation of experimental data one should be aware of certain pitfalls. The present paper summarizes prominent faults and may show how they can be avoided. It is supposed to provide some hand-on knowledge on correct analysis of materials. Addressed are primarily non-experts and researchers being new to the field of characterization of inorganic nanosized or nanoporous materials.

  6. Writing midwives' history: problems and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Allotey, Janette C

    2011-04-01

    As more midwives are becoming interested in the history of midwifery and carrying out historical research, it is opportune to consider some of the problems and pitfalls of this approach. The study and writing of history initially involves the collection of evidence, followed by its critical analysis and interpretation. The scarcity and reliability of sources poses the first problem. Even with the greatest of insight, it is impossible to fully reconstruct the past and eliminate bias. Evidence is open to manipulation and distortion, affecting the way in which findings are presented to a readership. This paper, aimed at novice researchers in the field, focuses on some of the fundamental principles of good research, and contains examples of ways in which the past may be misinterpreted or changed. The nature and construction of professional knowledge will also be briefly examined to establish whether objectivity is possible within historical research.

  7. The EXIT procedure: principles, pitfalls, and progress.

    PubMed

    Marwan, Ahmad; Crombleholme, Timothy M

    2006-05-01

    Although performing procedures on a fetus before severing the umbilical cord has previously been reported, the principles of the ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure were first fully developed for reversing tracheal occlusion in fetuses with severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The EXIT procedure offers the advantage of insuring uteroplacental gas exchange while on placental support. The lessons learned in the development of the principles that underlie the EXIT procedure have improved outcomes when applied in other conditions, most notably in cases of airway obstruction. The range of indications for the EXIT procedure has expanded and currently includes giant fetal neck masses, lung or mediastinal tumors, congenital high airway obstruction syndrome, and EXIT to ECMO (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation), among others. This review summarizes the underlying principles of the EXIT procedure, the expanding indications for its use, the pitfalls of management, and the progress that has been made in its successful application.

  8. Teaching Child Development Via the Internet: Opportunities and Pitfalls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Theresa A.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development and implementation of a cross-listed undergraduate and graduate-level child psychology course taught over the Internet. Describes course content and instructional goals. Outlines the opportunities and pitfalls of teaching in a virtual classroom. (CMK)

  9. Tackling Health Inequalities in the United Kingdom: The Progress and Pitfalls of Policy

    PubMed Central

    Exworthy, Mark; Blane, David; Marmot, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Goal Assess the progress and pitfalls of current United Kingdom (U.K.) policies to reduce health inequalities. Objectives (1) Describe the context enabling health inequalities to get onto the policy agenda in the United Kingdom. (2) Categorize and assess selected current U.K. policies that may affect health inequalities. (3) Apply the “policy windows” model to understand the issues faced in formulating and implementing such policies. (4) Examine the emerging policy challenges in the U.K. and elsewhere. Data Sources Official documents, secondary analyses, and interviews with policymakers. Study Design Qualitative, policy analysis. Data Collection 2001–2002. The methods were divided into two stages. The first identified policies which were connected with individual inquiry recommendations. The second involved case-studies of three policies areas which were thought to be crucial in tackling health inequalities. Both stages involved interviews with policy-makers and documentary analysis. Principal Findings (1) The current U.K. government stated a commitment to reducing health inequalities. (2) The government has begun to implement policies that address the wider determinants. (3) Some progress is evident but many indicators remain stubborn. (4) Difficulties remain in terms of coordinating policies across government and measuring progress. (5) The “policy windows” model explains the limited extent of progress and highlights current and possible future pitfalls. (6) The U.K.'s experience has lessons for other governments involved in tackling health inequalities. Conclusions Health inequalities are on the agenda of U.K. government policy and steps have been made to address them. There are some signs of progress but much remains to be done including overcoming some of the perverse incentives at the national level, improving joint working, ensuring appropriate measures of performance/progress, and improving monitoring arrangements. A conceptual policy model aids

  10. Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, Gerta; Treml, Franz; Gödel, Marion

    2013-06-01

    The social force model of Helbing and Molnár is one of the best known approaches to simulate pedestrian motion, a collective phenomenon with nonlinear dynamics. It is based on the idea that the Newtonian laws of motion mostly carry over to pedestrian motion so that human trajectories can be computed by solving a set of ordinary differential equations for velocity and acceleration. The beauty and simplicity of this ansatz are strong reasons for its wide spread. However, the numerical implementation is not without pitfalls. Oscillations, collisions, and instabilities occur even for very small step sizes. Classic solution ideas from molecular dynamics do not apply to the problem because the system is not Hamiltonian despite its source of inspiration. Looking at the model through the eyes of a mathematician, however, we realize that the right hand side of the differential equation is nondifferentiable and even discontinuous at critical locations. This produces undesirable behavior in the exact solution and, at best, severe loss of accuracy in efficient numerical schemes even in short range simulations. We suggest a very simple mollified version of the social force model that conserves the desired dynamic properties of the original many-body system but elegantly and cost efficiently resolves several of the issues concerning stability and numerical resolution.

  11. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Planar and Hybrid Bone Imaging.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Marafi, Fahad; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Van der Wall, Hans; Fogelman, Ignac

    2015-09-01

    The radionuclide (99m)Tc-MDP bone scan is one of the most commonly performed nuclear medicine studies and helps in the diagnosis of different pathologies relating to the musculoskeletal system. With its increasing utility in clinical practice, it becomes more important to be aware of various limitations of this imaging modality to avoid false interpretation. It is necessary to be able to recognize various technical, radiopharmaceutical, and patient-related artifacts that can occur while carrying out a bone scan. Furthermore, several normal variations of tracer uptake may mimic pathology and should be interpreted cautiously. There is an important limitation of a bone scan in metastatic disease evaluation as the inherent mechanism of tracer uptake is not specific for tumor but primarily relies on an osteoblastic response. Thus, it is crucial to keep in mind uptake in benign lesions, which can resemble malignant pathologies. The utility of a planar bone scan in benign orthopedic diseases, especially at sites with complex anatomy, is limited owing to lack of precise anatomical information. SPECT/CT has been significantly helpful in these cases. With wider use of PET/CT and reintroduction of the (18)F-fluoride bone scan, increasing knowledge of potential pitfalls on an (18)F-fluoride bone scan and (18)F-FDG-PET/CT will help in improving the accuracy of clinical reports.

  12. [Diagnosis pitfalls and emergencies in children with cancer].

    PubMed

    Orbach, Daniel; Gajdos, Vincent; André, Nicolas

    2014-11-01

    Childhood cancers are rare diseases with about 1700 cases below 15 years of age diagnosed in France each year. Although more than 80% of patients are now surviving more than 5 years, cancer remains the leading cause of fatal diseases between the ages of 1 and 15 years. The difficulty of diagnosis is partly due to their rarity but also the apparent banality of initial common symptoms. In industrialized countries, it is rare that an extension of time before diagnosis is associated with decreased survival; at the opposite, this period may be associated with the need for more extensive treatments leading to a greater risk of sequelae. Such delays also have a negative impact on the trust of the child and family with the medical community that may sound on the quality of essential therapeutic alliance. Learn how to diagnose these diseases, prescribe or repeat further explorations in case of persistent symptoms and suggestive signs and possibly refer these patients to a specialized paediatric oncology team is necessary to avoid excessive delay before diagnosis. In addition, it is also important not to ignore situations where these cancers are discovered in emergency situations: vital distress may require concerted management between intensive care and specialized paediatric oncology teams. Authors propose a focus on potential diagnostic pitfalls and emergencies during the initial management of children with cancer and the consequences of any diagnosis delays.

  13. Intracarotid Delivery of Drugs: The Potential and the Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Shailendra; Meyers, Phillip M.; Ornstein, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    The major efforts to selectively deliver drugs to the brain in the last decade have relied on smart molecular techniques to penetrate the blood brain barrier while intraarterial drug delivery has drawn relatively little attention. In the last decade there have been rapid advances in endovascular techniques. Modern endovascular procedures can permit highly targeted drug delivery by intracarotid route. Intracarotid drug delivery can be the primary route of drug delivery or it could be used to facilitate the delivery of smart-neuropharmaceuticals. There have been few attempts to systematically understand the kinetics of intracarotid drugs. Anecdotal data suggests that intracarotid drug delivery is effective in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm, thromboembolic strokes, and neoplasms. Neuroanesthesiologists are frequently involved in the care of such high-risk patients. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the applications of intracarotid drug delivery and the unusual kinetics of intracarotid drugs. PMID:18719453

  14. Future of computing technology in physics - the potentials and pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, A.E.

    1984-02-01

    The impact of the developments of modern digital computers is discussed, especially with respect to physics research in the future. The effects of large data processing capability and increasing rates at which data can be acquired and processed are considered. (GHT)

  15. Herbicide-resistant crop biotechnology: potential and pitfalls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbicide-resistant crops are an important agricultural biotechnology that can enable farmers to effectively control weeds without harming their crops. Glyphosate-resistant (i.e. Roundup Ready) crops have been the most commercially successful varieties of herbicide-resistant crops and have been plan...

  16. ELISA in the multiplex era: potentials and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Patrick J; Ryder, Richard R; Todd, Ian; Fairclough, Lucy C

    2015-04-01

    Multiplex immunoassays confer several advantages over widely adopted singleplex immunoassays including increased efficiency at a reduced expense, greater output per sample volume ratios and higher throughput predicating more resolute, detailed diagnostics and facilitating personalised medicine. Nonetheless, to date, relatively few protein multiplex immunoassays have been validated for in vitro diagnostics in clinical/point-of-care settings. This review article will outline the challenges, which must be ameliorated prior to the widespread integration of multiplex immunoassays in clinical settings: (i) biomarker validation; (ii) standardisation of immunoassay design and quality control (calibration and quantification); (iii) availability, stability, specificity and cross-reactivity of reagents; (iv) assay automation and the use of validated algorithms for transformation of raw data into diagnostic results. A compendium of multiplex immunoassays applicable to in vitro diagnostics and a summary of the diagnostic products currently available commercially are included, along with an analysis of the relative states of development for each format (namely planar slide based, suspension and planar/microtitre plate based) with respect to the aforementioned issues.

  17. Becoming a Principal in Indonesia: Possibility, Pitfalls and Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumintono, Bambang; Sheyoputri, Elslee Y. A.; Jiang, Na; Misbach, Ifa H.; Jumintono

    2015-01-01

    The preparation and development of school leaders is now considered to be fundamental to school and system improvement. In the pursuit of educational change and reform, the leadership of the principal is deemed to be of critical importance. This qualitative study is part of a large scale research project that is exploring principal preparation and…

  18. Integrating Neuropsychology and School Psychology: Potential and Pitfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantz, Paul B.; Plotts, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    The neurological basis of learning disabilities (LD), and other handicapping conditions commonly found in school-age children, makes the integration of neuropsychology and school psychology plausible. However, there has been longstanding debate over the required level of education, training, supervision, and credentialing needed for the practice…

  19. Digital Development in Rural Areas: Potentials and Pitfalls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malecki, Edward J.

    2003-01-01

    Data on rural-urban differences in access to telecommunications technology suggest that the U.S. "digital divide" is diminishing. However, major shortcomings in telecommunications infrastructure persist in rural America, and more serious barriers to rural development are related to human capital shortages. These may be resolved in some…

  20. Measuring Thermokarst Subsidence Using InSAR: Potential and Pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Schaefer, K. M.; Chen, A. C.; Gusmeroli, A.; Zebker, H. A.; Zhang, T.

    2014-12-01

    Thawing of ice-rich permafrost results in irregular, depressed landforms known as thermokarst terrain. The significant subsidence leading to thermokarst features can expand lakes, drain lakes, accelerate thaw, disturb the soil column, and promote erosion. Consequently, it affects many permafrost-region processes including vegetation succession, hydrology, and carbon storage and cycling. Many remote sensing studies identify thermokarst landforms and catalog their ever-changing areas. Yet the intrinsic dynamic thermokarst process, namely surface subsidence, remains a challenge to map and is seldom examined using remote sensing methods. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a remote sensing technique that uses a time-series of satellite SAR images to measure cm-level land surface deformation. We demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of space-borne InSAR data to map thermokarst subsidence at a site located near Prudhoe Bay, on the North Slope of Alaska. A pipeline access road was constructed at this site in the 1970s, and is likely to have triggered the thawing of the region's permafrost, causing subsequent expansion of thermokarst-landform terrain. Our InSAR analysis using ALOS PALSAR images reveals that the thermokarst landforms in this region have undergone up to 10 cm of surface subsidence each summer from 2007 to 2010. This pilot study demonstrates the application of InSAR to map localized mass movement in permafrost terrain. We also illustrate how the effectiveness and accuracy of InSAR measurements are limited by several factors such as loss of interferometric coherence due to fast changes of ground surface conditions, spatial and temporal resolutions of InSAR data, and difficulty separating long-term and seasonal deformation signals.

  1. Disease management programs for CKD patients: the potential and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Michael V

    2009-03-01

    Disease management describes the use of a number of approaches to identify and treat patients with chronic health conditions, especially those that are expensive to treat. Disease management programs have grown rapidly in the United States in the past several years. These programs have been established for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but some have been discontinued because of the high cost of the program. Disease management programs for CKD face unique challenges. Identification of patients with CKD is hampered by incomplete use of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for CKD by physicians and the less than universal use of estimated glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine measurements to identify patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). CKD affects multiple organ systems. Thus, a comprehensive disease management program will need to manage each of these aspects of CKD. These multiple interventions likely will make a CKD disease management program more costly than similar disease management programs designed for patients with diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, or other chronic diseases. The lack of data that can be used to develop effective disease management programs in CKD makes it difficult to determine goals for the management of each organ system affected by CKD. Finally, long periods of observation will be needed to determine whether a particular disease management program is effective in not only improving patient outcomes, but also decreasing both resource use and health care dollars. This long-term observation period is contrary to how most disease management contracts are written, which usually are based on meeting goals during a 1- to 3-year period. Until these challenges are resolved, it likely will be difficult to maintain effective disease management programs for CKD.

  2. Genetically manipulated mouse models of lung disease: potential and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Alexander J. S.; Owen, Caroline A.; Choi, Augustine M. K.

    2012-01-01

    Gene targeting in mice (transgenic and knockout) has provided investigators with an unparalleled armamentarium in recent decades to dissect the cellular and molecular basis of critical pathophysiological states. Fruitful information has been derived from studies using these genetically engineered mice with significant impact on our understanding, not only of specific biological processes spanning cell proliferation to cell death, but also of critical molecular events involved in the pathogenesis of human disease. This review will focus on the use of gene-targeted mice to study various models of lung disease including airways diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and parenchymal lung diseases including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, pneumonia, and acute lung injury. We will attempt to review the current technological approaches of generating gene-targeted mice and the enormous dataset derived from these studies, providing a template for lung investigators. PMID:22198907

  3. Potential pitfall in CT and sonographic evaluation of suspected lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Creed, L.; Reger, K.; Pond, G.D.; Aapro, M.

    1982-09-01

    Radiographic imaging of the retroperitoneum was limited until the advent of sonography and computed tomography (CT). They are efficacious for detecting retroperitoneal adenopathy, previously evaluated only by lymphangiography. A patient is discussed who, by the clinical picture, sonography, and CT, was believed to have lymphoma. Surgery, however, demonstrated the retroperitoneal masses were retroperitoneal varices.

  4. Potential pitfall of DMSA scintigraphy in patients with ureteral duplication

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, F.; Snow, B.; Taylor, A. Jr.

    1986-07-01

    A 5-wk-old male presented with radiographic findings of a duplicated collecting system. A (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA scan was requested to evaluate cortical function. Images obtained immediately. postinjection showed activity restricted to the upper poles; in contrast, delayed images at 4 hr showed activity in the bladder and throughout both kidneys. Catheterizing the patient drained the activity from the bladder but had little effect on the refluxed renal activity. The early (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA images were critical in making the proper interpretation. Technetium-99m DMSA is excreted into the urine and this fact needs to be considered when interpreting scans of patients with possible reflux or obstruction. When DMSA scans are obtained in pediatric patients with possible reflux, catheterization prior to the study and early images prior to the appearance of DMSA in the collecting system are recommended.

  5. Adding value to grafted watermelon: Novel benefits and potential pitfalls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grafted watermelons are commonly used in Asia and areas of Europe but are not widely used in the United States. The traditional reason for grafting watermelons has been for resistance to soil borne diseases such as Fusarium. We began to explore novel benefits which might make grafted watermelons m...

  6. Evaluating programs that address ideological issues: ethical and practical considerations for practitioners and evaluators.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Lisa D; Fagen, Michael C; Neiger, Brad L

    2014-03-01

    There are important practical and ethical considerations for organizations in conducting their own, or commissioning external, evaluations and for both practitioners and evaluators, when assessing programs built on strongly held ideological or philosophical approaches. Assessing whether programs "work" has strong political, financial, and/or moral implications, particularly when expending public dollars, and may challenge objectivity about a particular program or approach. Using a case study of the evaluation of a school-based abstinence-until-marriage program, this article discusses the challenges, lessons learned, and ethical responsibilities regarding decisions about evaluation, specifically associated with ideologically driven programs. Organizations should consider various stakeholders and views associated with their program to help identify potential pitfalls in evaluation. Once identified, the program or agency needs to carefully consider its answers to two key questions: Do they want the answer and are they willing to modify the program? Having decided to evaluate, the choice of evaluator is critical to assuring that ethical principles are maintained and potential skepticism or criticism of findings can be addressed appropriately. The relationship between program and evaluator, including agreements about ownership and eventual publication and/or promotion of data, should be addressed at the outset. Programs and organizations should consider, at the outset, their ethical responsibility when findings are not expected or desired. Ultimately, agencies, organizations, and programs have an ethical responsibility to use their data to provide health promotion programs, whether ideologically founded or not, that appropriately and effectively address the problems they seek to solve.

  7. Principles and pitfalls of free hormone measurements.

    PubMed

    Faix, James D

    2013-10-01

    The free hormone hypothesis states that a hormone's physiological effects depend on the free hormone concentration, not the total hormone concentration. Although the in vivo relationship between free hormone and protein-bound hormone is complex, most experts have applied this view to the design of assays used to assess the free hormone concentration in the blood sampled for testing in vitro. The history of the measurement of free thyroxine, probably the most frequently requested free hormone determination, offers a good example of the approaches that have been taken. Methods that require physical separation of the free hormone from the protein-bound hormone must address both the potential disturbance in the equilibrium between the two, as well as the challenge of quantifying small levels of hormone accurately and precisely. The implementation of mass spectrometry in the clinical laboratory has helped to develop proposed reference measurement procedures. These must be utilized to standardize the variety of immunoassay approaches that currently represent options commercially available to the routine clinical laboratory. Practicing endocrinologists should discuss the details of the free hormone assays offered by the clinical laboratory they utilize for patient result reporting, and clinical laboratories should implement the recommendations of published guidelines to ensure that free hormone results using commercially available immunoassays are as accurate and precise as possible.

  8. Cat-Scratch Disease: A Pitfall for Lymphoma Evaluation by FDG-PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Dubreuil, Julien; Dony, Arthur; Salles, Gilles; Traverse-Glehen, Alexandra; Giammarile, Francesco; Skanjeti, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    FDG-PET/CT is a standard of care in staging and response assessment of Hodgkin lymphoma. Hence, it is important to recognize pitfalls owing to the potential therapeutic impact. We report a case of a 29-year-old woman affected by stage III bulky Hodgkin lymphoma. The interim FDG-PET/CT showed a complete metabolic response. After three new cycles of chemotherapy, the patient showed fever and lymphadenopathy at clinic examination, PET/CT revealed several FDG uptakes at lymph nodes in inguinal and iliac region. Pathologic analyses, after biopsy and serologic examinations, led to the diagnosis of cat-scratch disease.

  9. How to avoid the ten most frequent EMS pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, W.

    1982-04-19

    It pays to do your homework before investing in an energy management system if you want to avoid the 10 most common pitfalls listed by users, consultants, and manufacturers as: oversimplification, improper maintenance, failure to involve operating personnel, inaccurate savings estimates, failure to include monitoring capability, incompetent or fradulent firms, improper load control, not allowing for a de-bugging period, failure to include manual override, and software problems. The article describes how each of these pitfalls can lead to poor decisions and poor results. (DCK)

  10. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Renal Imaging in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Biassoni, Lorenzo

    2015-09-01

    The article presents common pitfalls encountered in pediatric radionuclide renography, illustrated with clinical cases. It is important to recognize normal variants. A good acquisition technique is essential. Correlation with other imaging techniques, with the clinical background and symptoms, is critical. A clear clinical question is essential: based on the question and knowing the strengths and weaknesses of each test, the test which can best answer the question can be selected. Awareness of the pitfalls of radionuclide renography helps avoid errors of interpretation and allows the selection of the most helpful test for clinical management.

  11. Pitfalls and Limitations in the Interpretation of Geophysical Images for Hydrologic Properties and Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day-Lewis, F. D.

    2014-12-01

    Geophysical imaging (e.g., electrical, radar, seismic) can provide valuable information for the characterization of hydrologic properties and monitoring of hydrologic processes, as evidenced in the rapid growth of literature on the subject. Geophysical imaging has been used for monitoring tracer migration and infiltration, mapping zones of focused groundwater/surface-water exchange, and verifying emplacement of amendments for bioremediation. Despite the enormous potential for extraction of hydrologic information from geophysical images, there also is potential for misinterpretation and over-interpretation. These concerns are particularly relevant when geophysical results are used within quantitative frameworks, e.g., conversion to hydrologic properties through petrophysical relations, geostatistical estimation and simulation conditioned to geophysical inversions, and joint inversion. We review pitfalls to interpretation associated with limited image resolution, spatially variable image resolution, incorrect data weighting, errors in the timing of measurements, temporal smearing resulting from changes during data acquisition, support-volume/scale effects, and incorrect assumptions or approximations involved in modeling geophysical or other jointly inverted data. A series of numerical and field-based examples illustrate these potential problems. Our goal in this talk is to raise awareness of common pitfalls and present strategies for recognizing and avoiding them.

  12. Report: EPA Should Update Guidance to Address the Release of Potentially Harmful Quantities of Asbestos That Can Occur Under EPA’s Asbestos Demolition Standard

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #15-P-0168, June 16, 2015. Under the EPA's asbestos demolition standard, demolishing buildings that are structurally unsound and in imminent danger of collapse can release enough asbestos into the environment to pose a potential risk to human health

  13. E-Content Development for Languages: Success Factors and Pitfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Paepe, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the success factors and pitfalls in development of e-content for languages. The factors discussed draw on several years of experience in developing and implementing 95% distance courses for Dutch as a second language in the adult education sector in Flanders and on PhD research at VUB. The CEFR [Common European Framework of…

  14. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Imaging in Endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Esmail, Abdulredha A H; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Navalkissoor, Shaunak; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Fogelman, Ignac

    2015-09-01

    Several different techniques, radiopharmaceuticals, and imaging modalities are commonly used in nuclear medicine for studies of endocrine organs. Nuclear medicine is used in the management of benign and malignant thyroid, parathyroid, and neuroendocrine disorders. Thus, it is essential to acknowledge pitfalls and the limitations of nuclear medicine imaging for accurate diagnosis and patient management.

  15. The Pitfalls of Testing in the Quest of Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Coleen R.

    This document presents five scenarios, each referring to a means of assessing learning. These examples are then used to discuss pitfalls faced when tests are used to assess learning, and the conclusion is reached that testing should play a supportive role only, not a major role in the quest for excellence. Effective schools research shows that…

  16. The Pitfalls and Triumphs of Launching a Charter School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Linda; Levine, Mark

    1996-01-01

    A principal of a charter school in Colorado Springs, Colorado, recounts the triumphs and pitfalls of the school's first year. The school charter lacked a clear-cut avenue for making changes. Intending to create a parent-run school, the founding board (themselves parents) made drastic curricular changes without consulting other parents. Passionate…

  17. Proposal Pitfalls Plaguing Researchers: Can Technical Communicators Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemanski, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The facts bear out that the odds are against most scientific researchers and scholars--especially those just starting out--in their attempts to win funding for their research projects through their grant proposals. In this article, the author takes a close look at some of the proposal-related problems and pitfalls that have historically challenged…

  18. The ILR Oral Interview: Origins, Applications, Pitfalls, and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Pardee, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the original FSI oral interview and the ACTFL/ETS modifications. Discusses: (1) the characteristics of the test, (2) some possible pitfalls in application and their remedies, and (3) some possible long range effects of the oral interview on second language teaching and testing. Provisional generic descriptions for speaking and…

  19. Cases on Global E-Learning Practices: Successes and Pitfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Ramesh C., Ed.; Mishra, Sanjaya, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Cases on Global E-Learning Practices: Successes and Pitfalls" looks into global practices of e-learning, examining the successes and failures of e-learning professionals. It provides a judicious mix of practical experiences and research in the form of case studies. Written by experts from all over the globe, this book shows how to…

  20. DEVELOPING HUMAN POTENTIAL THROUGH INDUSTRIAL ARTS, ADDRESSES AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL ARTS ASSOCIATION (27TH, TULSA, 1965).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Industrial Arts Association, Washington, DC.

    SPEECHES PRESENTED AT THE CONFERENCE ARE INCLUDED--(1) "TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIAL CHANGE" BY J.H. HOLLOMON, (2) "DEVELOPING HUMAN POTENTIAL IN SPACE" BY J.F. SHEA, (3) "CURRICULUM--INNOVATIONS AND ISSUES, 1965" BY K. WILES, (4) "OPPORTUNITIES FOR INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION" BY W.C. MEIERHENRY, AND (5) "AND AFTER THE…

  1. Indexing moiré patterns of metal-supported graphene and related systems: strategies and pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, Patrick; Ma, Xinzhou; Günther, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    We report on strategies for characterizing hexagonal coincidence phases by analyzing the involved spatial moiré beating frequencies of the pattern. We derive general properties of the moiré regarding its symmetry and construct the spatial beating frequency {K}\\text{moir{\\'e}} as the difference between two reciprocal lattice vectors {k}i of the two coinciding lattices. Considering reciprocal lattice vectors {k}{i}, with lengths of up to n times the respective (1, 0) beams of the two lattices, readily increases the number of beating frequencies of the nth-order moiré pattern. We predict how many beating frequencies occur in nth-order moirés and show that for one hexagonal lattice rotating above another the involved beating frequencies follow circular trajectories in reciprocal-space. The radius and lateral displacement of such circles are defined by the order n and the ratio x of the two lattice constants. The question of whether the moiré pattern is commensurate or not is addressed by using our derived concept of commensurability plots. When searching potential commensurate phases we introduce a method, which we call cell augmentation, and which avoids the need to consider high-order beating frequencies as discussed using the reported (6\\sqrt{3}× 6\\sqrt{3}){R}{30^\\circ } moiré of graphene on SiC(0001). We also show how to apply our model for the characterization of hexagonal moiré phases, found for transition metal-supported graphene and related systems. We explicitly treat surface x-ray diffraction-, scanning tunneling microscopy- and low-energy electron diffraction data to extract the unit cell of commensurate phases or to find evidence for incommensurability. For each data type, analysis strategies are outlined and avoidable pitfalls are discussed. We also point out the close relation of spatial beating frequencies in a moiré and multiple scattering in electron diffraction data and show how this fact can be explicitly used to extract high

  2. Ground-foraging ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and rainfall effect on pitfall trapping in a deciduous thorn woodland (caatinga), Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Francyregis A; Segundo, Glauco B Martins; Vasconcelos, Yuri B; Azevedo, Raul; Quinet, Yves

    2011-12-01

    abundance (R2 = 0.68). A similar negative linear correlation was found for species occurrences against rainfall (R2 = 0.71), and for mean number of species per pitfall trap against rainfall (R2 = 0.71). However, some species showed equal abundance, occurrence and mean number of individuals per pitfall trap in both seasons, while others showed a much higher abundance and occurrence during the rainy season. Pitfall trapping as a method to sample ground-foraging ant assemblage of the Caatinga biome and potential factors responsible for lower pitfall trap performance during rainy season are discussed.

  3. Herpetological Monitoring Using a Pitfall Trapping Design in Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Robert; Stokes, Drew; Rochester, Carlton; Brehme, Cheryl; Hathaway, Stacie; Case, Ted

    2008-01-01

    The steps necessary to conduct a pitfall trapping survey for small terrestrial vertebrates are presented. Descriptions of the materials needed and the methods to build trapping equipment from raw materials are discussed. Recommended data collection techniques are given along with suggested data fields. Animal specimen processing procedures, including toe- and scale-clipping, are described for lizards, snakes, frogs, and salamanders. Methods are presented for conducting vegetation surveys that can be used to classify the environment associated with each pitfall trap array. Techniques for data storage and presentation are given based on commonly use computer applications. As with any study, much consideration should be given to the study design and methods before beginning any data collection effort.

  4. Taming Healthcare Costs: Promise and Pitfalls for Women's Health

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Amy; MacKenzie, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Abstract When it comes to healthcare, women are often the primary decision makers for their families. Therefore, focusing on women and their health needs can have a profound effect on health reform efforts to control costs and improve quality for all segments of the population. The promise and pitfalls of cost containment reform in Massachusetts can serve as an informative case study for policymakers at the local, state, and federal levels as they attempt to reduce costs while maintaining quality of care. Massachusetts cost containment law, Chapter 224, seeks to control the healthcare cost growth through innovative approaches to increase efficiency and transparency including the adoption of new delivery system models, investments in wellness and prevention programs, and implementation of standard quality and evaluation measures. In this paper, we outline four approaches to delivering on the promise of cost containment reform to maximize women's access to comprehensive, quality healthcare while avoiding the pitfalls of cost containment's adverse impact on women's health. PMID:26488183

  5. Pitfalls to avoid when using phage display for snake toxins.

    PubMed

    Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard; Lauridsen, Line Præst; Lomonte, Bruno; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Lohse, Brian

    2017-02-01

    Antivenoms against bites and stings from snakes, spiders, and scorpions are associated with immunological side effects and high cost of production, since these therapies are still derived from the serum of hyper-immunized production animals. Biotechnological innovations within envenoming therapies are thus warranted, and phage display technology may be a promising avenue for bringing antivenoms into the modern era of biologics. Although phage display technology represents a robust and high-throughput approach for the discovery of antibody-based antitoxins, several pitfalls may present themselves when animal toxins are used as targets for phage display selection. Here, we report selected critical challenges from our own phage display experiments associated with biotinylation of antigens, clone picking, and the presence of amber codons within antibody fragment structures in some phage display libraries. These challenges may be detrimental to the outcome of phage display experiments, and we aim to help other researchers avoiding these pitfalls by presenting their solutions.

  6. Off-pump coronary artery bypass: techniques, pitfalls, and results.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to advance the surgical treatment of coronary artery disease, surgeons sought a way to offer the proven benefits of coronary revascularization and avoid the side effects of cardiopulmonary bypass by performing revascularization in the beating heart (off-pump coronary artery bypass). This review will describe the development and refinement of the technique, pitfalls to its widespread adoption, and an up-to-date assessment of current results.

  7. Problems and pitfalls in a clinical research data management system.

    PubMed

    Brower, R W; ten Katen, H J; Meester, G T

    1984-01-01

    The problems and pitfalls encountered in the computerized data bank for the Netherlands Coronary Surgery (NCS) study are reviewed. This study involved 848 patients seen before coronary artery surgery and at 1 and 3 yr after surgery. Nineteen data forms were used resulting in maximally 1142 variables per patient. The importance of quality control is emphasized as well as the efficient transfer of information from data bank to statistical processing.

  8. Colorectal cancer diagnosis: Pitfalls and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Pablo; Valentín, Fátima; Cubiella, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health problem in the Western world. The diagnostic process is a challenge in all health systems for many reasons: There are often no specific symptoms; lower abdominal symptoms are very common and mostly related to non-neoplastic diseases, not CRC; diagnosis of CRC is mainly based on colonoscopy, an invasive procedure; and the resource for diagnosis is usually scarce. Furthermore, the available predictive models for CRC are based on the evaluation of symptoms, and their diagnostic accuracy is limited. Moreover, diagnosis is a complex process involving a sequence of events related to the patient, the initial consulting physician and the health system. Understanding this process is the first step in identifying avoidable factors and reducing the effects of diagnostic delay on the prognosis of CRC. In this article, we describe the predictive value of symptoms for CRC detection. We summarize the available evidence concerning the diagnostic process, as well as the factors implicated in its delay and the methods proposed to reduce it. We describe the different prioritization criteria and predictive models for CRC detection, specifically addressing the two-week wait referral guideline from the National Institute of Clinical Excellence in terms of efficacy, efficiency and diagnostic accuracy. Finally, we collected information on the usefulness of biomarkers, specifically the faecal immunochemical test, as non-invasive diagnostic tests for CRC detection in symptomatic patients. PMID:26690833

  9. Clip migration after vacuum-assisted stereotactic breast biopsy: a pitfall in preoperative wire localization.

    PubMed

    Bernaerts, A; De Schepper, A; Van Dam, P; Pouillon, M

    2007-01-01

    Vacuum-assisted stereotactic breast biopsy has become an irreplaceable instrument in the management of suspicious mammographic lesions. If the initial mammographic lesion becomes obscured or absent following the biopsy, a clip is commonly placed by interventional breast radiologists at the biopsy site. This enables future wire localization if atypical or malignant histology warrants excision. Currently, clip malposition or migration has become increasingly recognized in the literature as a possible complication of stereotactic breast biopsy. As in this case, recognition of migration of the clip was crucial in the planning of the patient's subsequent wire localization procedure. This article aims to increase the awareness of radiologists and surgeons of this potential pitfall to prevent false-negative biopsies and minimize positive surgical margins after wire-guided breast conservation surgery. Routine evaluation of pre- and postbiopsy mammograms and prospective identification of inaccurate clip placement before stereotactic wire localization and excision should be performed.

  10. Pitfalls in establishing the diagnosis of deep venous thrombophlebitis by indium-111 platelet scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Seabold, J.E.; Conrad, G.R.; Kimball, D.A.; Ponto, J.A.; Bricker, J.A.

    1988-07-01

    Forty-seven /sup 111/In-platelet scintigraphs (In-PS) were analyzed retrospectively to identify sources of diagnostic error and to optimize the diagnostic criteria for active deep venous thrombophlebitis (DVT). The results of In-PS were compared with contrast venography, additional diagnostic studies, and clinical outcome. Three patterns of platelet localization emerged as the best predictors of active DVT: (a) focal or (b) linear 4-hr localization, or (c) an asymmetric blood-pool pattern on 4-hr imaging that evolved into a focal or linear pattern by 16 to 24 hr. All false-positive studies had abnormal patterns confined to the inguinal region at 24 hr. All patients with false-negative studies had received heparin between 4 and 24 hr. The potential pitfalls encountered in the evaluation of the iliac, femoral, and popliteal veins are reviewed and the importance of delayed imaging in selected cases is emphasized.

  11. Judging whether a patient is actually improving: more pitfalls from the science of human perception.

    PubMed

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Dickinson, Victoria M

    2012-09-01

    Fallible human judgment may lead clinicians to make mistakes when assessing whether a patient is improving following treatment. This article provides a narrative review of selected studies in psychology that describe errors that potentially apply when a physician assesses a patient's response to treatment. Comprehension may be distorted by subjective preconceptions (lack of double blinding). Recall may fail through memory lapses (unwanted forgetfulness) and tacit assumptions (automatic imputation). Evaluations may be further compromised due to the effects of random chance (regression to the mean). Expression may be swayed by unjustified overconfidence following conformist groupthink (group polarization). An awareness of these five pitfalls may help clinicians avoid some errors in medical care when determining whether a patient is improving.

  12. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  13. Drug Infusion Systems: Technologies, Performance, and Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Kim, Uoo R; Peterfreund, Robert A; Lovich, Mark A

    2017-02-16

    This review aims to broadly describe drug infusion technologies and raise subtle but important issues arising from infusion therapy that can potentially lead to patient instability and morbidity. Advantages and disadvantages of gravity-dependent drug infusion are described and compared with electromechanical approaches for precise control of medication infusion, including large-volume peristaltic and syringe pumps. This review discusses how drugs and inert carriers interact within infusion systems and outlines several complexities and potential sources of drug error. Major topics are (1) the importance of the infusion system dead volume; (2) the quantities of coadministered fluid and the concept of microinfusion; and (3) future directions for drug infusion.The infusion system dead volume resides between the point where drug and inert carrier streams meet and the patient's blood. The dead volume is an often forgotten reservoir of drugs, especially when infusion flows slow or stop. Even with medications and carriers flowing, some mass of drug always resides within the dead volume. This reservoir of drug can be accidentally delivered into patients. When dose rate is changed, there can be a significant lag between intended and actual drug delivery. When a drug infusion is discontinued, drug delivery continues until the dead volume is fully cleared of residual drug by the carrier. When multiple drug infusions flow together, a change in any drug flow rate transiently affects the rate of delivery of all the others. For all of these reasons, the use of drug infusion systems with smaller dead volumes may be advantageous.For critically ill patients requiring multiple infusions, the obligate amount of administered fluid can contribute to volume overload. Recognition of the risk of overload has given rise to microinfusion strategies wherein drug solutions are highly concentrated and infused at low rates. However, potential risks associated with the dead volume may be magnified

  14. Pitfalls in the Treatment of Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Lars-Kristofer N; Chase, Karin

    2017-02-01

    Sepsis is a challenging, dynamic, pathophysiology requiring expertise in diagnosis and management. Controversy exists as to the most sensitive early indicators of sepsis and sepsis severity. Patients presenting to the emergency department often lack complete history or clinical data that would point to optimal management. Awareness of these potential knowledge gaps is important for the emergency provider managing the septic patient. Specific areas of management including the initiation and management of mechanical ventilation, the appropriate disposition of the patient, and consideration of transfer to higher levels of care are reviewed.

  15. Payoffs and Pitfalls of a Minority Outreach Program: An Alaskan Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanks, C. L.; Fowell, S. J.; Wartes, D.; Owens, G.

    2004-12-01

    The Rural Alaska Honors Institute (RAHI) is a summer bridging program for college-bound high school students from remote Alaskan communities. In the 20+ years since its initiation, more than 50% of RAHI graduates eventually obtained post-secondary degrees. The success of the RAHI program provides insights into how an outreach program can achieve its goals and avoid potential pitfalls. Instrumental to the success of the RAHI program are: longevity; small size (40-45 students per summer); support from the Alaska Native community; academic rigor; aggressive recruiting; establishment of a sense of community amongst participants; and individual mentoring and support. Potential pitfalls include: overextending the program to include too many students; failure to maintain academic rigor in all courses; recruitment of students and staff who do not embrace the program's methods and goals; and attempts to evaluate the program on the basis of short-term results. Alaska Natives in Geosciences introduces college-bound Alaska Native students to the geosciences by teaching a college-level introductory geoscience class as a RAHI elective. By collaborating with RAHI, Alaska Natives in Geosciences takes advantage of RAHI's effective recruitment efforts and proven mentoring program. However, maintaining scientific rigor has been difficult due to large differences in the students' scientific backgrounds, the demands of other courses in the RAHI program and the brevity of the summer session. Immediate post-course survey responses suggest that many RAHI students thought the geoscience class was interesting but too difficult and much too time-consuming. However, surveys of RAHI geoscience students a year later suggest that many found the course a very positive experience. An unanticipated result was that RAHI students who did not take the class also gained some insight into the geosciences.

  16. Atomic clusters with addressable complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, David J.

    2017-02-01

    A general formulation for constructing addressable atomic clusters is introduced, based on one or more reference structures. By modifying the well depths in a given interatomic potential in favour of nearest-neighbour interactions that are defined in the reference(s), the potential energy landscape can be biased to make a particular permutational isomer the global minimum. The magnitude of the bias changes the resulting potential energy landscape systematically, providing a framework to produce clusters that should self-organise efficiently into the target structure. These features are illustrated for small systems, where all the relevant local minima and transition states can be identified, and for the low-energy regions of the landscape for larger clusters. For a 55-particle cluster, it is possible to design a target structure from a transition state of the original potential and to retain this structure in a doubly addressable landscape. Disconnectivity graphs based on local minima that have no direct connections to a lower minimum provide a helpful way to visualise the larger databases. These minima correspond to the termini of monotonic sequences, which always proceed downhill in terms of potential energy, and we identify them as a class of biminimum. Multiple copies of the target cluster are treated by adding a repulsive term between particles with the same address to maintain distinguishable targets upon aggregation. By tuning the magnitude of this term, it is possible to create assemblies of the target cluster corresponding to a variety of structures, including rings and chains.

  17. Principles and Pitfalls: a Guide to Death Certification

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Erin G.; Reed, Kurt D.

    2015-01-01

    Death certificates serve the critical functions of providing documentation for legal/administrative purposes and vital statistics for epidemiologic/health policy purposes. In order to satisfy these functions, it is important that death certificates be filled out completely, accurately, and promptly. The high error rate in death certification has been documented in multiple prior studies, as has the effectiveness of educational training interventions at mitigating errors. The following guide to death certification is intended to illustrate some basic principles and common pitfalls in electronic death registration with the goal of improving death certification accuracy. PMID:26185270

  18. Grant-Writing Pearls and Pitfalls: Maximizing Funding Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jeffrey C; Pynnonen, Melissa A; St John, Maie; Rosenthal, Eben L; Couch, Marion E; Schmalbach, Cecelia E

    2016-02-01

    This invited article reviews the grant process to include the following objectives: (1) to provide an understanding of otolaryngology funding mechanisms in the context of career progression; (2) to outline key components of a well-written grant; (3) to highlight vital members of a successful research team, with emphasis on the mentor-mentee relationship; and (4) to clarify grant scoring with emphasis on common pitfalls to avoid. Current otolaryngology funding mechanisms and up-to-date resources are provided. The review is aimed to assist otolaryngology residents, faculty new to the grant process, as well as experienced researchers striving to improve their grant review scores.

  19. Cultural diversity in nursing education: perils, pitfalls, and pearls.

    PubMed

    Bednarz, Hedi; Schim, Stephanie; Doorenbos, Ardith

    2010-05-01

    Increasing diversity in the classroom challenges nursing educators to identify issues that complicate teaching (perils), analyze barriers for themselves and their students (pitfalls), and select new strategies for working with nontraditional students (pearls). This article identifies concerns arising from attitudes and values within nursing and common approaches to diversity education, and then discusses key issues in nursing education that relate to human nature, culture, faculty workload, and student demographics. Finally, some strategies are proposed for increasing the effectiveness of professional preparation with diverse students through a focus on culturally congruent education and development of faculty cultural competence.

  20. The seven common pitfalls of customer service in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Rene T

    2015-01-01

    Operating simultaneously like a repair shop, prison, and hotel, hospitals are prone to seven common pitfalls in customer service. Patient care is often fragmented, inscrutable, inflexible, insensitive, reactive, myopic, and unsafe. Hospitals are vying to be more high-tech, rather than high-touch even though staff engagement with patients rather than facilities and equipment strongly influence patient satisfaction. Unless processes, policies, and people are made customer-centered, the high quality of the hospital's human and hardware resources will not translate into high patient satisfaction and patient loyalty.

  1. Cultural Diversity in Nursing Education: Perils, Pitfalls, and Pearls

    PubMed Central

    Bednarz, Hedi; Schim, Stephanie; Doorenbos, Ardith

    2010-01-01

    Increasing diversity in the classroom challenges nursing educators to identify issues that complicate teaching (perils), analyze barriers for themselves and their students (pitfalls), and select new strategies for working with nontraditional students (pearls). This article identifies concerns arising from attitudes and values within nursing and common approaches to diversity education, and then discusses key issues in nursing education that relate to human nature, culture, faculty workload, and student demographics. Finally, some strategies are proposed for increasing the effectiveness of professional preparation with diverse students through a focus on culturally congruent education and development of faculty cultural competence. PMID:20143759

  2. Dropped gallstones: spectrum of imaging findings, complications and diagnostic pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Nayak, L; Menias, C O; Gayer, G

    2013-08-01

    Spillage of gallstones into the abdominal cavity, referred to as "dropped gallstones" (DGs), occurs commonly during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The majority of these spilled stones remain clinically silent; however, if uncomplicated DGs are not correctly identified on subsequent imaging, they may mimic peritoneal implants and cause unduly concern. A small percentage of DGs cause complications, including abscess and fistula formation. Recognising the DG within the abscess is critical for definitive treatment. This pictorial review illustrates the imaging appearances and complications of DGs on CT, MRI and ultrasound and emphasises pitfalls in diagnosis.

  3. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Hepatobiliary and Gastrointestinal System Imaging.

    PubMed

    Low, Chen Sheng; Ahmed, Haseeb; Notghi, Alp

    2015-11-01

    Radionuclide imaging for the hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal system covers a wide range of different indications and imaging techniques. This wide variety allows the different functional assessments of both systems. Therefore, the understanding of each technique and its indications is essential. Cholescintigraphy is a well-established method in the assessment of acute and chronic cholecystitis. It also has a role in the detection of biliary atresia. The assessment of gastrointestinal transit is also well-established in radionuclide imaging for functional investigation of the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, detection of acute gastrointestinal bleeding with radionuclide imaging is also standard practice. This article aims to review the pitfalls and limitations in all of these areas.

  4. Interpretation of EMG changes with fatigue: facts, pitfalls, and fallacies.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, N A; Dimitrov, G V

    2003-02-01

    Failure to maintain the required or expected force, defined as muscle fatigue, is accompanied by changes in muscle electrical activity. Although studied for a long time, reasons for EMG changes in time and frequency domain have not been clear until now. Many authors considered that theory predicted linear relation between the characteristic frequencies and muscle fibre propagation velocity (MFPV), irrespective of the fact that spectral characteristics can drop even without any changes in MFPV, or in proportion exceeding the MFPV changes. The amplitude changes seem to be more complicated and contradictory since data on increased, almost unchanged, and decreased amplitude characteristics of the EMG, M-wave or motor unit potential (MUP) during fatigue can be found in literature. Moreover, simultaneous decrease and increase in amplitude of MUP and M-wave, detected with indwelling and surface electrodes, were referred to as paradoxical. In spite of this, EMG amplitude characteristics are predominantly used when causes for fatigue are analysed. We aimed to demonstrate theoretical grounds for pitfalls and fallacies in analysis of experimental results if changes in intracellular action potential (IAP), i.e. in peripheral factors of muscle fatigue, were not taken into consideration. We based on convolution model of potentials produced by a motor unit and detected by a point or rectangular plate electrode in a homogeneous anisotropic infinite volume conductor. Presentation of MUP in the convolution form gave us a chance to consider power spectrum (PS) of MUP as a product of two terms. The first one, PS of the input signal, represented PS of the first temporal derivative of intracellular action potential (IAP). The second term, PS of the impulse response, took into account MFPV, differences in instants of activation of each fibre, MU anatomy, and MU position in the volume conductor in respect to the detecting electrode. PS presentation through product means that not only

  5. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  6. Pitfalls in optical on-line monitoring for high-throughput screening of microbial systems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background New high-throughput screening systems for microbial systems, e.g. the BioLector technology, are simple to handle and offer various options of optical online measurements. The parallelization and small scale in microtiter plates allow economical high throughput and, hence, to screen many parameters in reasonable time. Fluorescent proteins as fluorescent tags made the tracking of cellular proteins in-vivo a routine task. All these tools significantly contribute to the understanding of bioprocesses. But, there are some pitfalls which might mislead the user of such techniques. Results In this work the bacterium E. coli and the yeast K. lactis expressing the recombinant fluorescent proteins GFP, YFP, FbFP and mCherry were investigated. Cultivations were performed applying special microtiter plates with optodes for dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) and pH measurement in the BioLector system. In this way, microbial growth, protein formation, DOT and pH were monitored on-line via optical signals. During these studies it became obvious that fluorescent proteins can interfere with the optical signals leading to incorrect results. In this work these effects are characterized in detail and possibilities are presented how such adverse effects can be corrected or minimized by mathematical procedures or modification of the measuring method. Additionally, it is shown that morphological changes of cells can affect the biomass on-line monitoring via scattered light. Conclusions The here reported phenomena refer to typical experiments in biotechnological labs. For this reason these aspects are highlighted in this work to make operators of such valuable techniques as the BioLector aware for potential pitfalls and resulting misinterpretations. With the right approach it is possible to minimize existing problems and deal with them. PMID:24725602

  7. Pitfalls of CITES implementation in Nepal: a policy gap analysis.

    PubMed

    Dongol, Yogesh; Heinen, Joel T

    2012-08-01

    Implementation of policy involves multiple agencies operating at multiple levels in facilitating processes and actions to accomplish desired results. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was developed and implemented to regulate and control international wildlife trade, but violations of the agreement are widespread and growing worldwide, including in Nepal. This study attempts to understand how domestic CITES policies are translated into action and what effect actions and processes have on compliance. In doing so, this study provides insights into the implementation and enforcement pitfalls of national legislation that explain CITES violations in Nepal. Primarily, we used 26 key informants interviews to learn opinions of experts, and the grounded theory approach for further qualitative data analysis. In addition, we used Najman's (1995) policy implementation analysis framework to explain gaps. Many interrelated variables in the content of the policy, commitment and capacity of the agencies, the roles of clients and coalitions and contextual issues were observed. Variables that emerged suggest pitfalls in the regulatory policy represented by low probability of detection, arrest and punishment. Moreover, redistributive policies in buffer zones of protected areas are needed into perpetuity to benefit locals. Also, conservation organizations' support for building public and political salience is imperative.

  8. Pitfalls of CITES Implementation in Nepal: A Policy Gap Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongol, Yogesh; Heinen, Joel T.

    2012-08-01

    Implementation of policy involves multiple agencies operating at multiple levels in facilitating processes and actions to accomplish desired results. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was developed and implemented to regulate and control international wildlife trade, but violations of the agreement are widespread and growing worldwide, including in Nepal. This study attempts to understand how domestic CITES policies are translated into action and what effect actions and processes have on compliance. In doing so, this study provides insights into the implementation and enforcement pitfalls of national legislation that explain CITES violations in Nepal. Primarily, we used 26 key informants interviews to learn opinions of experts, and the grounded theory approach for further qualitative data analysis. In addition, we used Najman's (1995) policy implementation analysis framework to explain gaps. Many interrelated variables in the content of the policy, commitment and capacity of the agencies, the roles of clients and coalitions and contextual issues were observed. Variables that emerged suggest pitfalls in the regulatory policy represented by low probability of detection, arrest and punishment. Moreover, redistributive policies in buffer zones of protected areas are needed into perpetuity to benefit locals. Also, conservation organizations' support for building public and political salience is imperative.

  9. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  10. Invitational Addresses, 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Arthur I.; And Others

    The full texts of invitational addresses given at the 1965 International Reading Association (IRA) Convention in Detroit, Michigan, by six recipients of IRA citation awards are presented. Gates suggests steps IRA should take to revive and redirect reading research. McCallister discusses the implications of the changing and expanding vocabulary of…

  11. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  12. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  13. Broadband wide-angle dispersion measurements: Instrumental setup, alignment, and pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhang, A.; Abasahl, B.; Dutta-Gupta, S.; Lovera, A.; Mandracci, P.; Descrovi, E.; Martin, O. J. F.

    2013-03-01

    The construction, alignment, and performance of a setup for broadband wide-angle dispersion measurements, with emphasis on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements, are presented in comprehensive detail. In contrast with most SPR instruments working with a monochromatic source, this setup takes advantage of a broadband/white light source and has full capability for automated angle vs. wavelength dispersion measurements for any arbitrary nanostructure array. A cylindrical prism is used rather than a triangular one in order to mitigate refraction induced effects and allow for such measurements. Although seemingly simple, this instrument requires use of many non-trivial methods in order to achieve proper alignment over all angles of incidence. Here we describe the alignment procedure for such a setup, the pitfalls introduced from the finite beam width incident onto the cylindrical prism, and deviations in the reflected/transmitted beam resulting from the finite thickness of the sample substrate. We address every one of these issues and provide experimental evidences on the success of this instrument and the alignment procedure used.

  14. Merits and Pitfalls of Currently Used Diagnostic Tools in Mycetoma

    PubMed Central

    van de Sande, Wendy W. J.; Fahal, Ahmed H.; Goodfellow, Michael; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; Welsh, Oliverio; Zijlstra, Ed E.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of mycetoma depends on the causative organism and since many organisms, both actinomycetes (actinomycetoma) and fungi (eumycetoma), are capable of producing mycetoma, an accurate diagnosis is crucial. Currently, multiple diagnostic tools are used to determine the extent of infections and to identify the causative agents of mycetoma. These include various imaging, cytological, histopathological, serological, and culture techniques; phenotypic characterisation; and molecular diagnostics. In this review, we summarize these techniques and identify their merits and pitfalls in the identification of the causative agents of mycetoma and the extent of the disease. We also emphasize the fact that there is no ideal diagnostic tool available to identify the causative agents and that future research should focus on the development of new and reliable diagnostic tools. PMID:24992636

  15. Artifacts and pitfalls in MR imaging of the pelvis.

    PubMed

    Zand, Khashayar Rafat; Reinhold, Caroline; Haider, Masoom A; Nakai, Asako; Rohoman, Laurian; Maheshwari, Sharad

    2007-09-01

    Artifacts are intimately intertwined with MRI. For the practicing radiologist, effective supervision, troubleshooting, and interpretation of diagnostic MR studies require a solid knowledge of the pertinent artifacts. This article seeks to familiarize the reader with commonly encountered artifacts and pitfalls in pelvic imaging, the mechanism behind their generation, and methods of minimizing their negative impact or maximizing their diagnostic yield. It also serves as an exciting tool to learn many aspects of basic and advanced MR physics. Artifacts are categorized into patient- and sequence-related artifacts. Various manifestations of motion and vascular artifacts, susceptibility, altered tissue contrast, blurring, chemical shift artifact, volume averaging, and gadolinium (Gd) pseudolayering are explained, along with their proposed remedies.

  16. Visual, Physiological, and Aesthetic Factors and Pitfalls in Asian Blepharoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Chen, William Pai-Dei

    2016-01-01

    Double eyelid surgery to create an upper-lid crease in Asian patients is one of the more popular aesthetic surgeries among people of Asian descent. Much has been written about the myriad methods, but little has been written about the underlying factors that predispose a patient to complications and suboptimal results. This article touches on some of the possible errors in placement of crease height in upper blepharoplasty and the pitfalls that can be associated with permanent placement of nondissolvable sutures that encircle the complex layers of the upper eyelid, as well as the ideal eyelid crease wound closure and its biodynamics. One should consider these factors in any form of upper eyelid procedure, as they are not merely applicable to upper blepharoplasty. PMID:26673576

  17. Multi-criteria decision analysis: Limitations, pitfalls, and practical difficulties

    SciTech Connect

    Kujawski, Edouard

    2003-02-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics women's figure skating competition is used as a case study to illustrate some of the limitations, pitfalls, and practical difficulties of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA). The paper compares several widely used models for synthesizing the multiple attributes into a single aggregate value. The various MCDA models can provide conflicting rankings of the alternatives for a common set of information even under states of certainty. Analysts involved in MCDA need to deal with the following challenging tasks: (1) selecting an appropriate analysis method, and (2) properly interpreting the results. An additional trap is the availability of software tools that implement specific MCDA models that can beguile the user with quantitative scores. These conclusions are independent of the decision domain and they should help foster better MCDA practices in many fields including systems engineering trade studies.

  18. The Tips and Pitfalls of Meniscus Allograft Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Rak; Nam, Sang Wook

    2012-01-01

    When faced with an irrepairable meniscus or a patient who has had a total or subtotal meniscectomy, meniscus allograft transplantation (MAT) is the preferred modality to restore biomechanical function of the meniscus. The indications for meniscus allograft transplantation are yet to be established. However, currently, MAT has previously been indicated for symptomatic patients who have mild or early osteoarthritis, are younger than 50 years of age, and present with an Outerbridge grade II or lower. The short- to intermediate-term results confirmed noteworthy clinical improvements and consistent objective findings. On the other hand, the successful outcome would be reduced by various complications. Therefore, long-term observation required to evaluate the longevity of these results. The purpose of this article is to review the current research of concerns on the results of MAT, and to describe the technical tips and pitfalls so as to successful clinical results. PMID:22977790

  19. The neuroaesthetics of prose fiction: pitfalls, parameters and prospects.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michael

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of neuroaesthetic studies on prose fiction. This is in contrast to the very many impressive studies that have been conducted in recent times on the neuroaesthetics of sister arts such as painting, music and dance. Why might this be the case, what are its causes and, of greatest importance, how can it best be resolved? In this article, the pitfalls, parameters and prospects of a neuroaesthetics of prose fiction will be explored. The article itself is part critical review, part methodological proposal and part opinion paper. Its aim is simple: to stimulate, excite and energize thinking in the discipline as to how prose fiction might be fully integrated in the canon of neuroaesthetics and to point to opportunities where neuroimaging studies on literary discourse processing might be conducted in collaborative work bringing humanists and scientists together.

  20. Scrum and Global Delivery: Pitfalls and Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadun, Cristiano

    Two trends are becoming widespread in software development work—agile development processes and global delivery, both promising sizable benefits in productivity, capacity and so on. Combining the two is a highly attractive possibility, even more so in fast-paced and constrained commercial software engineering projects. However, a degree of conflict exists between the assumptions underlying the two ideas, leading to pitfalls and challenges in agile/distributed projects which are new, both with respect to traditional development and agile or distributed efforts adopted separately. Succeeding in commercial agile/distributed projects implies recognizing these new challenges, proactively planning for them, and actively put in place solutions and methods to overcome them. This chapter illustrates some of the typical challenges that were met during real-world commercial projects, and how they were solved.

  1. Imaging in axial spondyloarthritis: diagnostic problems and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Baraliakos, Xenofon; Hermann, Kay-Geert A; Braun, Jürgen

    2012-08-01

    Magnetic Structural changes in axial Spondyloarthritis (axSpA) are best identified by conventional radiographs, while magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the gold standard for assessment of inflammatory changes. Imaging of the axial skeleton is crucial for the diagnosis but also for classification to non-radiographic axSpA according to the 2009 ASAS classification criteria. Despite the existing definitions for a positive MRI for the sacroiliac joints and the spine, these predefined lesions can also be seen in other conditions, representing pitfalls and false-positive conclusions in patients with similar clinical symptoms who do not have SpA. Diagnosis of SpA should result from the combination of clinical, laboratory and imaging findings.

  2. Diagnostic pitfalls in spine surgery: masqueraders of surgical spine disease.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Brian P; Coumans, Jean-Valery C E; Kahle, Kristopher T

    2011-10-01

    Disorders of the spine are common in clinical medicine, and spine surgery is being performed with increasing frequency in the US. Although many patients with an established diagnosis of a true surgically treatable lesion are referred to a neurosurgeon, the evaluation of patients with spinal disorders can be complex and fraught with diagnostic pitfalls. While "common conditions are common," astute clinical acumen and vigilance are necessary to identify lesions that masquerade as surgically treatable spine disease that can lead to erroneous diagnosis and treatment. In this review, the authors discuss musculoskeletal, peripheral nerve, metabolic, infectious, inflammatory, and vascular conditions that mimic the syndromes produced by surgical lesions. It is possible that nonsurgical and surgical conditions coexist at times, complicating treatment plans and natural histories. Awareness of these diagnoses can help reduce diagnostic error, thereby avoiding the morbidity and expense associated with an unnecessary operation.

  3. The neuroaesthetics of prose fiction: pitfalls, parameters and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Michael

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of neuroaesthetic studies on prose fiction. This is in contrast to the very many impressive studies that have been conducted in recent times on the neuroaesthetics of sister arts such as painting, music and dance. Why might this be the case, what are its causes and, of greatest importance, how can it best be resolved? In this article, the pitfalls, parameters and prospects of a neuroaesthetics of prose fiction will be explored. The article itself is part critical review, part methodological proposal and part opinion paper. Its aim is simple: to stimulate, excite and energize thinking in the discipline as to how prose fiction might be fully integrated in the canon of neuroaesthetics and to point to opportunities where neuroimaging studies on literary discourse processing might be conducted in collaborative work bringing humanists and scientists together. PMID:26283953

  4. Herbal hepatotoxicity: Challenges and pitfalls of causality assessment methods

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury (HILI) represents a particular clinical and regulatory challenge with major pitfalls for the causality evaluation. At the day HILI is suspected in a patient, physicians should start assessing the quality of the used herbal product, optimizing the clinical data for completeness, and applying the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale for initial causality assessment. This scale is structured, quantitative, liver specific, and validated for hepatotoxicity cases. Its items provide individual scores, which together yield causality levels of highly probable, probable, possible, unlikely, and excluded. After completion by additional information including raw data, this scale with all items should be reported to regulatory agencies and manufacturers for further evaluation. The CIOMS scale is preferred as tool for assessing causality in hepatotoxicity cases, compared to numerous other causality assessment methods, which are inferior on various grounds. Among these disputed methods are the Maria and Victorino scale, an insufficiently qualified, shortened version of the CIOMS scale, as well as various liver unspecific methods such as the ad hoc causality approach, the Naranjo scale, the World Health Organization (WHO) method, and the Karch and Lasagna method. An expert panel is required for the Drug Induced Liver Injury Network method, the WHO method, and other approaches based on expert opinion, which provide retrospective analyses with a long delay and thereby prevent a timely assessment of the illness in question by the physician. In conclusion, HILI causality assessment is challenging and is best achieved by the liver specific CIOMS scale, avoiding pitfalls commonly observed with other approaches. PMID:23704820

  5. Content Addressable Memory Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    The Content Addressable M1-emory Project consists of the development of several experimental software systems on an AMT Distributed Array Processor...searching (database) compiler algorithms memory management other systems software) Linear C is an unlovely hybrid language which imports the CAM...memory from AMT’s operating system for the DAP; how- ever, other than this limitation, the memory management routines work exactly as their C counterparts

  6. The value and pitfalls of speculation about science and technology in bioethics: the case of cognitive enhancement.

    PubMed

    Racine, Eric; Martin Rubio, Tristana; Chandler, Jennifer; Forlini, Cynthia; Lucke, Jayne

    2014-08-01

    In the debate on the ethics of the non-medical use of pharmaceuticals for cognitive performance enhancement in healthy individuals there is a clear division between those who view "cognitive enhancement" as ethically unproblematic and those who see such practices as fraught with ethical problems. Yet another, more subtle issue, relates to the relevance and quality of the contribution of scholarly bioethics to this debate. More specifically, how have various forms of speculation, anticipatory ethics, and methods to predict scientific trends and societal responses augmented or diminished this contribution? In this paper, we use the discussion of the ethics of cognitive enhancement to explore the positive and negative contribution of speculation in bioethics scholarship. First, we review and discuss how speculation has relied on different sets of assumptions regarding the non-medical use of stimulants, namely: (1) terminology and framing; (2) scientific aspects such as efficacy and safety; (3) estimates of prevalence and consequent normalization; and (4) the need for normative reflection and regulatory guidelines. Second, three methodological guideposts are proposed to alleviate some of the pitfalls of speculation: (1) acknowledge assumptions more explicitly and identify the value attributed to assumptions; (2) validate assumptions with interdisciplinary literature; and (3) adopt a broad perspective to promote more comprehensive reflection. We conclude that, through the examination of the controversy about cognitive enhancement, we can employ these methodological guideposts to enhance the value of contributions from bioethics and minimize potential epistemic and practical pitfalls in this case and perhaps in other areas of bioethical debate.

  7. Pitfalls in the use of whole slide imaging for the diagnosis of central nervous system tumors: A pilot study in surgical neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Pekmezci, Melike; Uysal, Sanem Pinar; Orhan, Yelda; Tihan, Tarik; Lee, Han Sung

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whole slide imaging (WSI) finds increasingly higher value in everyday surgical pathology in addition to its well-established use for educational and research purposes. However, its diagnostic utility, especially in subspecialty settings such as neuropathology, is not fully validated. Neuropathology practice is unique with smaller overall tissue size and frequent need for high-power evaluation. In addition, tumor grade is an integral part of the initial diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility of primary pathology diagnosis of surgical neuropathology specimens using WSI. Materials and Methods: We reviewed consecutive surgical neuropathology cases diagnosed in our institution during a 2-month period and identified a single diagnostic slide, which was scanned at 40× magnification. Two neuropathologists who were blinded to the original diagnoses reviewed the whole slide image and rendered a diagnosis including tumor grade when applicable. They reviewed the single diagnostic slide after a wash-out period. Intra- and inter-observer discrepancies, as well as reasons for discrepancies, were evaluated. Results: The concordance rates were 94.9% and 88% for two neuropathologists. Two critical issues leading to discrepancies were identified: (1) identification of mitoses and (2) recognition of nuclear details. Conclusions: Given the current study is exclusively for surgical neuropathology cases, an all-encompassing conclusion about the utility of WSI for diagnostic purposes may not be available. Nevertheless, pathologists should be aware of the potential pitfalls due to identification of mitotic figures and nuclear details. We recommend independent validation for each subspecialty of pathology to identify subspecialty-specific concerns, so they can be properly addressed. PMID:27217975

  8. Musculoskeletal pitfalls and pseudotumours in the pelvis: a pictorial review for body imagers

    PubMed Central

    Ghazizadeh, S; Didier, R; Fung, A; Panicek, D M; Coakley, F V

    2014-01-01

    Many musculoskeletal abnormalities in the pelvis are first seen by body imagers while reviewing pelvic cross-sectional studies, and some of these abnormalities may mimic malignancy or another aggressive process. This article describes nine musculoskeletal pseudotumours and interpretative pitfalls that may be seen on CT, MRI and ultrasound imaging of the pelvis. Awareness of these pitfalls and pseudotumours may help avoid misdiagnosis and prevent inappropriate intervention or management. PMID:25096891

  9. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  10. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  11. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  12. Imaging of cartilage and bone: promises and pitfalls in clinical trials of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, F; Guermazi, A; Gold, G; Duryea, J; Hellio Le Graverand, M-P; Wirth, W; Miller, C G

    2014-10-01

    Imaging in clinical trials is used to evaluate subject eligibility, and/or efficacy of intervention, supporting decision making in drug development by ascertaining treatment effects on joint structure. This review focusses on imaging of bone and cartilage in clinical trials of (knee) osteoarthritis. We narratively review the full-text literature on imaging of bone and cartilage, adding primary experience in the implementation of imaging methods in clinical trials. Aims and constraints of applying imaging in clinical trials are outlined. The specific uses of semi-quantitative and quantitative imaging biomarkers of bone and cartilage in osteoarthritis trials are summarized, focusing on radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Studies having compared both imaging methodologies directly and those having established a relationship between imaging biomarkers and clinical outcomes are highlighted. To make this review of practical use, recommendations are provided as to which imaging protocols are ideal for capturing specific aspects of bone and cartilage tissue, and pitfalls in their usage are highlighted. Further, the longitudinal sensitivity to change, of different imaging methods is reported for various patient strata. From these power calculations can be accomplished, provided the strength of the treatment effect is known. In conclusion, current imaging methodologies provide powerful tools for scoring and measuring morphological and compositional aspects of most articular tissues, capturing longitudinal change with reasonable to excellent sensitivity. When employed properly, imaging has tremendous potential for ascertaining treatment effects on various joint structures, potentially over shorter time scales than required for demonstrating effects on clinical outcomes.

  13. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  14. The value of positive psychology for health psychology: progress and pitfalls in examining the relation of positive phenomena to health.

    PubMed

    Aspinwall, Lisa G; Tedeschi, Richard G

    2010-02-01

    The growth of the "positive psychology" movement reflects increased scientific and lay interest in the relation of positive phenomena to mental and physical health and the corresponding potential for interventions that promote positive feelings, thoughts, and experiences to improve health and well-being. In this article, we (1) consider research on optimism, sense of coherence, and posttraumatic growth that predates the contemporary emphasis on positive psychology, but has clear and increasingly well-supported connections to health psychology, (2) examine several potential mechanisms through which such positive phenomena may influence the etiology, progression, and management of illness, (3) identify four pervasive but misleading assumptions about positive phenomena that may limit both scientific research and practical application, and (4) caution against serious pitfalls of popular views of positive thinking, such as its promotion as a cure for cancer and other diseases. We conclude with recommendations for the balanced scientific investigation and application of positive phenomena.

  15. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  16. Methods for Addressing Uncertainty and Variability to Characterize Potential Health Risk from Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Ground Water at Beale Air Force Base in California:Integration of Uncertainty and Variability in Pharmacokinetics and Dose-Response

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K T

    2001-05-24

    Traditional estimates of health risk are typically inflated, particularly if cancer is the dominant endpoint and there is fundamental uncertainty as to mechanism(s) of action. Risk is more realistically characterized if it accounts for joint uncertainty and interindividual variability within a systematic probabilistic framework to integrate the joint effects on risk of distributed parameters of all (linear as well as nonlinear) risk-extrapolation models involved. Such a framework was used to characterize risks to potential future residents posed by trichloroethylene (TCE) in ground water at an inactive landfill site on Beale Air Force Base in California. Variability and uncertainty were addressed in exposure-route-specific estimates of applied dose, in pharmacokinetically based estimates of route-specific metabolized fractions of absorbed TCE, and in corresponding biologically effective doses estimated under a genotoxic/linear (MA{sub G}) vs. a cytotoxic/nonlinear (MA{sub c}) mechanistic assumption for TCE-induced cancer. Increased risk conditional on effective dose was estimated under MA{sub G} based on seven rodent-bioassay data sets, and under MA{sub c} based on mouse hepatotoxicity data. Mean and upper-bound estimates of combined risk calculated by the unified approach were <10{sup -6} and 10{sup -4}, respectively, while corresponding estimates based on traditional deterministic methods were >10{sup -5} and 10{sup -4}, respectively. It was estimated that no TCE-related harm is likely to occur due to any plausible residential exposure scenario involving the site. The systematic probabilistic framework illustrated is particularly suited to characterizing risks that involve uncertain and/or diverse mechanisms of action.

  17. Methods for Addressing Uncertainty and Variability to Characterize Potential Health Risk From Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Ground Water Beale Air Force Base in California: Integration of Uncertainty and Variability in Pharmacokinetics and Dose-Response

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K.T.

    1999-09-29

    Traditional estimates of health risk are typically inflated, particularly if cancer is the dominant endpoint and there is fundamental uncertainty as to mechanism(s) of action. Risk is more realistically characterized if it accounts for joint uncertainty and interindividual variability after applying a unified probabilistic approach to the distributed parameters of all (linear as well as nonlinear) risk-extrapolation models involved. Such an approach was applied to characterize risks to potential future residents posed by trichloroethylene (TCE) in ground water at an inactive landfill site on Beale Air Force Base in California. Variability and uncertainty were addressed in exposure-route-specific estimates of applied dose, in pharmacokinetically based estimates of route-specific metabolized fractions of absorbed TCE, and in corresponding biologically effective doses estimated under a genotoxic/linear (MA{sub g}) vs. a cytotoxic/nonlinear (MA{sub c}) mechanistic assumption for TCE-induced cancer. Increased risk conditional on effective dose was estimated under MA{sub G} based on seven rodent-bioassay data sets, and under MA, based on mouse hepatotoxicity data. Mean and upper-bound estimates of combined risk calculated by the unified approach were <10{sup -6} and <10{sup -4}, respectively, while corresponding estimates based on traditional deterministic methods were >10{sup -5} and >10{sup -4}, respectively. It was estimated that no TCE-related harm is likely occur due any plausible residential exposure scenario involving the site. The unified approach illustrated is particularly suited to characterizing risks that involve uncertain and/or diverse mechanisms of action.

  18. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  19. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Renal Imaging in Adults.

    PubMed

    Keramida, Georgia; James, Jacqueline M; Prescott, Mary C; Peters, Adrien Michael

    2015-09-01

    To understand pitfalls and limitations in adult renography, it is necessary to understand firstly the physiology of the kidney, especially the magnitude and control of renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate and tubular fluid flow rate, and secondly the pharmacokinetics and renal handling of the three most often used tracers, Tc-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3), Tc-99m-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and Tc-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). The kidneys may be imaged dynamically with Tc-99m-MAG3 or Tc-99m-DTPA, with or without diuretic challenge, or by static imaging with Tc-99m-DMSA. Protocols are different according to whether the kidney is native or transplanted. Quantitative analysis of dynamic data includes measurement of renal vascularity (important for the transplanted kidney), absolute tracer clearance rates, differential renal function (DRF) and response to diuretic challenge. Static image reveals functional renal parenchymal damage, both focal and global, is useful in the clinical management of obstructive uropathy, renal stone disease and hypertension (under angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition), and is the preferred technique for determining DRF. Diagnosis based on morphological appearances is important in transplant management. Even though nuclear medicine is now in the era of hybrid imaging, renal imaging remains an important subspecialty in nuclear medicine and requires a sound basing in applied physiology, the classical supporting discipline of nuclear medicine.

  20. Satellite Verification Planning: Best Practices and Pitfalls Related to Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosney, William F.; Pavlica, S.

    2004-08-01

    Satellite system verification planning is an intensive system engineering process requiring a highly disciplined and coordinated effort among the system engineers involved in requirements generation and flowdown, and engineers involved in the design, test and evaluation, and overall program planning functions. With the recent resurgence in the space industry of more disciplined acquisition and development practices, this paper discusses critical elements of a disciplined verification planning process, as embodied in a variety of space industry specifications, standards, and best practices, with an emphasis on the test planning function. Included in this paper is a look at the criticality of understanding mission operations in verification planning activities. This includes an emphasis on rigorously assessing the need for operational scenario testing under simulated environmental conditions. With increases in satellite complexity, assessing the role of modeling and simulation early in the verification planning process has become a key part of assuring a successful test plan during development. Best practices aimed at avoiding downstream design, production and operational problems are discussed along with common pitfalls and suggestions for improving the technical rigor in the verification planning process, testing execution, and programmatic policies aimed at improving development schedule realism and ultimately, improving mission success.

  1. Computed Tomography Angiography in Microsurgery: Indications, Clinical Utility, and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gordon K.; Fox, Paige M.; Riboh, Jonathan; Hsu, Charles; Saber, Sepideh; Rubin, Geoffrey D.; Chang, James

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) can be used to obtain 3-dimensional vascular images and soft-tissue definition. The goal of this study was to evaluate the reliability, usefulness, and pitfalls of CTA in preoperative planning of microvascular reconstructive surgery. Methods: A retrospective review of patients who obtained preoperative CTA in preparation for planned microvascular reconstruction was performed over a 5-year period (2001–2005). The influence of CTA on the original operative plan was assessed for each patient, and CTA results were correlated to the operative findings. Results: Computed tomographic angiography was performed on 94 patients in preparation for microvascular reconstruction. In 48 patients (51%), vascular abnormalities were noted on CTA. Intraoperative findings correlated with CTA results in 97% of cases. In 42 patients (45%), abnormal CTA findings influenced the original operative plan, such as the choice of vessels, side of harvest, or nature of the reconstruction (local flap instead of free tissue transfer). Technical difficulties in performing CTA were encountered in 5 patients (5%) in whom interference from external fixation devices was the main cause. Conclusions: This large study of CTA obtained for preoperative planning of reconstructive microsurgery at both donor and recipient sites study demonstrates that CTA is safe and highly accurate. Computed tomographic angiography can alter the surgeon's reconstructive plan when abnormalities are noted preoperatively and consequently improve results by decreasing vascular complication rates. The use of CTA should be considered for cases of microsurgical reconstruction where the vascular anatomy may be questionable. PMID:24023972

  2. Gene therapy for PIDs: progress, pitfalls and prospects.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sayandip; Thrasher, Adrian J

    2013-08-10

    Substantial progress has been made in the past decade in treating several primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) with gene therapy. Current approaches are based on ex-vivo transfer of therapeutic transgene via viral vectors to patient-derived autologous hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) followed by transplantation back to the patient with or without conditioning. The overall outcome from all the clinical trials targeting different PIDs has been extremely encouraging but not without caveats. Malignant outcomes from insertional mutagenesis have featured prominently in the adverse events associated with these trials and have warranted intense pre-clinical investigation into defining the tendencies of different viral vectors for genomic integration. Coupled with issues pertaining to transgene expression, the therapeutic landscape has undergone a paradigm shift in determining safety, stability and efficacy of gene therapy approaches. In this review, we aim to summarize the progress made in the gene therapy trials targeting ADA-SCID, SCID-X1, CGD and WAS, review the pitfalls, and outline the recent advancements which are expected to further enhance favourable risk benefit ratios for gene therapeutic approaches in the future.

  3. Navigating the pitfalls and promise of landscape genetics.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jonathan L; Brady, Steven P; Wang, Ian J; Spear, Stephen F

    2016-02-01

    The field of landscape genetics has been evolving rapidly since its emergence in the early 2000s. New applications, techniques and criticisms of techniques appear like clockwork with each new journal issue. The developments are an encouraging, and at times bewildering, sign of progress in an exciting new field of study. However, we suggest that the rapid expansion of landscape genetics has belied important flaws in the development of the field, and we add an air of caution to this breakneck pace of expansion. Specifically, landscape genetic studies often lose sight of the fundamental principles and complex consequences of gene flow, instead favouring simplistic interpretations and broad inferences not necessarily warranted by the data. Here, we describe common pitfalls that characterize such studies, and provide practical guidance to improve landscape genetic investigation, with careful consideration of inferential limits, scale, replication, and the ecological and evolutionary context of spatial genetic patterns. Ultimately, the utility of landscape genetics will depend on translating the relationship between gene flow and landscape features into an understanding of long-term population outcomes. We hope the perspective presented here will steer landscape genetics down a more scientifically sound and productive path, garnering a field that is as informative in the future as it is popular now.

  4. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of multiple sulfatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mancini, G M; van Diggelen, O P; Huijmans, J G; Stroink, H; de Coo, R F

    2001-02-01

    Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD, OMIM 272200) is an autosomal recessive leukodystrophy associated with the deficiency of several, in total seven, sulfatases. The disorder is clinically and biochemically variable. The clinical picture combines features of mucopolysaccharidosis and metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD, OMIM 250100) in a variable spectrum. Here we report a 3-year old Iranian girl with an MLD-like presentation of MSD. Arylsulfatase A deficiency and sulfatide excretion were found. Differently from what was previously reported in the literature, this girl never showed abnormal mucopolysaccharide excretion in the urine. There were no additional visceral or skeletal signs. She was originally diagnosed as having MLD. Only when she developed ichthyosis were seven additional sulfatases measured. In leukocytes, arylsulfatase A, steroid sulfatase and N-acetylglucosamine-6 sulfatase were profoundly deficient, while iduronate-2 sulfatase and arylsulfatase B were moderately reduced. In fibroblasts, N-acetylglucosamine-6 sulfatase was deficient, while arylsulfatase A was moderately reduced. This case illustrates the possible pitfalls in the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of MSD.

  5. Data Science Careers: A Sampling of Successful Strategies, Pitfalls, and Persistent Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocks, K. I.; Duerr, R.; Wyborn, L. A.; Yarmey, L.

    2015-12-01

    Data Scientists do not have a single career trajectory or preparatory pathway. Successful data scientists have come from domain sciences, computer science, library science, and other diverse fields. They have worked up from entry-level staff positions, have started as academics with doctoral degrees, and have established themselves as management professionals. They have positions in government, industry, academia, and NGO's, and their responsibilities range from highly specialized, to generalists, to high-level leadership. This presents a potentially confusing landscape for students interested in the field: how to decide among the varied options to have the best chance at fulfilling employment? What are the mistakes to avoid? Many established data scientist, both old-timers and early career professionals, expressed interest in presenting in this session but were unable to justify using their one AGU abstract for something other than their funded projects. As the session chairs we interviewed them, plus our extended network of colleagues, to ask for their best advice on what was most critical to their success in their current position, what pitfalls to avoid, what ongoing challenges they see, and what advice they would give themselves, if they could do it all over again starting now. Here we consolidate those interviews with our own perspectives to present some of the common themes and standout advice.

  6. Pitfalls in diagnosing psychogenic nonepileptic seizures in a sexually abused child.

    PubMed

    Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Yamashita, Yushiro; Ohya, Takashi; Shibuya, Ikuhiko; Komatsu, Hiroko; Matsuoka, Michiko; Ohzono, Shuichi; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2011-08-01

    A six-year-old girl living in a residential care facility because of previous sexual abuse at home showed intractable seizures with epileptic discharges on interictal EEG. The features of the attacks were sudden impaired consciousness, only in daytime while eating, studying, and walking, with no motor acts and continuing for several minutes to one hour. She could not recall the attacks, and anticonvulsants showed no effects. She gradually became irritated and antisocial, exhibiting impulsive and hyperactive behavior. Interictal EEG repeatedly showed diffuse irregular spikes and wave complexes. The attacks continued sporadically for more than two years and ceased after disclosure of repeated sexual abuse by a boy at the residential care facility. In this case, delayed diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures was associated with diagnostic difficulty of dissociative symptoms in a child, the presence of epileptiform EEG in an abused child, and undetected sexual abuse in a residential care facility, the potential for which pediatric neurologists should be aware. These pitfalls are discussed in the context of previous related literature.

  7. Breaking the sound barrier? Pitfalls and benefits of acoustic cough monitoring.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Lesley A; Smith, Jaclyn A

    2012-12-01

    Traditionally push-button and symptom diaries have been used to document cough events, especially when examining temporal associations between cough and reflux events. More recently, acoustic devices have allowed more accurate recording of cough events, and compared with the latter traditional techniques reported 6-18 times more coughing. Whether the differences reported between these techniques represents disparities in subject groups or cough detection and quantification methods is unknown. In this issue of the American Journal of Gastroenterology, Kavitt et al. show that listeners of such recordings have a 4-fold increase in odds of recording cough events compared with patients using push-button techniques, and that even when using a 5-min window to assess temporal concordance/discordance, over 70% of coughs were not reported by the patients. These observations have potential significant implications when assessing temporal associations between cough and reflux, and thus any clinical decision making based on these data. This editorial examines both the findings of Kavitt et al. and discusses the pitfalls and benefits of validated accurate documentation of cough.

  8. Perils, pitfalls, and benefits of a surgeon as a health system employee: the contracting process.

    PubMed

    Graebner, Nancy K

    2011-06-01

    One would be hard pressed today to find a general surgeon or subspecialty-trained general surgeon who has not been approached by a health system to discuss employment. The majority of physicians find these initial discussions with a hospital administrator daunting at best regardless of whether they are just finishing residency or fellowship training or have had many successful years of private practice under their belt. Just as real estate has the mantra of "location, location, location," I would suggest that physician employment by a health system should have the mantra of "relationship, relationship, relationship." The following tips provide guidance on how to better understand the potential perils, pitfalls, and benefits of specific content sections of a standard template employment agreement between a health system and a physician. Physicians should review, understand, and be ready to engage in dialogue with the hospital administrator before involving attorneys. My experience is that if the dialogue begins with the attorneys representing each party, the opportunity to fully develop a partnership relationship between the parties is either lost or at minimum severely delayed in its development.

  9. Percutaneous Transpedicular Fixation: Technical tips and Pitfalls of Sextant and Pathfinder Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ahmed Salah Aldin

    2016-01-01

    Study Design The efficacy of the operative techniques, possible benefits as well as pitfalls and limitations of the techniques are discussed. Potential drawbacks are also detected. Purpose This study aims to report indications, techniques, and our experience with the use of the Sextant and PathFinder percutaneous transpedicular screw fixation systems. Overview of Literature Percutaneous pedicle screw insertion is a novel technique. Successful percutaneous placement of pedicle screws requires surgical skill and experience because of lack of anatomic surface landmarks. Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous placement of pedicle screws is effective. Many systems are now available. Methods We conducted a prospective operative and postoperative analysis of 40 patients with absolute indication for thoracic or lumbar instability between January 2009 and June 2013. All procedures were performed with the Sextant (group A) and PathFinder (group B) systems under fluoroscopic guidance. Operative techniques are discussed and the results compared. Results Percutaneous transpedicular screw fixation minimizes the morbidity associated with open techniques without compromising the quality of fixation. A total of 190 screws were inserted. There was no additional morbidity. Postoperative computed tomography images and plain X-rays were analyzed. Reduction of visual analog scale scores of back pain was evident. Conclusions Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous pedicular screws are feasible and can be safely done. Current systems allow multi-segmental fixation with significantly less difficulties. The described techniques have acceptable intra- and postoperative complication rates, and overall sufficient pain control with early mobilization of patients. PMID:26949466

  10. New variants, challenges and pitfalls in DMD genotyping: implications in diagnosis, prognosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rosário; Gonçalves, Ana; Oliveira, Jorge; Vieira, Emília; Vieira, José Pedro; Evangelista, Teresinha; Moreno, Teresa; Santos, Manuela; Fineza, Isabel; Bronze-da-Rocha, Elsa

    2014-08-01

    Molecular characterization of patients with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophies is essential for establishing a differential diagnosis, allowing appropriate clinical follow-up, patient management and genetic counseling. In light of the recent mutation-based therapeutic approaches, DMD gene analysis has gained further relevance. Owing to the size and complexity of the DMD gene and the diversity of mutation types, molecular analysis is not always a straightforward task requiring the combination of several methodologies. Our national genetic diagnostic service genetically characterized 308 dystrophinopathy patients (284 unrelated families), leading to the identification of 175 distinct mutations, including 39 unpublished variants. These studies revealed several potential diagnostic pitfalls (because of technical limitations or related with DMD's genetic heterogeneity) that may be overlooked even considering the international disease-specific diagnostic guidelines. Comprehensive analysis involved expression studies at the mRNA level, the identification of splicing changes and ultimately providing evidence for apparent exceptions to the reading-frame rule. Besides increasing the mutation detection rate, this detailed molecular characterization is indispensable for the identification of suitable candidates for the new mutation-centered therapies. As patient registries are internationally recognized as essential for clinical trial recruitment, this led us to develop the Portuguese Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy registry in collaboration with the Translational Research in Europe-Assessment and Treatment of Neuromuscular Diseases network.

  11. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  12. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  13. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Regulatory Models and the Environment: Practice, Pitfalls, and Prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, K. John; Graham, Judith A.; McKone, Thomas; Whipple, Chris

    2008-06-01

    Computational models support environmental regulatory activities by providing the regulator an ability to evaluate available knowledge, assess alternative regulations, and provide a framework to assess compliance. But all models face inherent uncertainties, because human and natural systems are always more complex and heterogeneous than can be captured in a model. Here we provide a summary discussion of the activities, findings, and recommendations of the National Research Council's Committee on Regulatory Environmental Models, a committee funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency to provide guidance on the use of computational models in the regulatory process. Modeling is a difficult enterprise even outside of the potentially adversarial regulatory environment. The demands grow when the regulatory requirements for accountability, transparency, public accessibility, and technical rigor are added to the challenges. Moreover, models cannot be validated (declared true) but instead should be evaluated with regard to their suitability as tools to address a specific question. The committee concluded that these characteristics make evaluation of a regulatory model more complex than simply comparing measurement data with model results. Evaluation also must balance the need for a model to be accurate with the need for a model to be reproducible, transparent, and useful for the regulatory decision at hand. Meeting these needs requires model evaluation to be applied over the"life cycle" of a regulatory model with an approach that includes different forms of peer review, uncertainty analysis, and extrapolation methods than for non-regulatory models.

  15. Androgens and doping tests: genetic variation and pit-falls

    PubMed Central

    Rane, Anders; Ekström, Lena

    2012-01-01

    The large variation in disposition known for most drugs is also true for anabolic androgenic steroids. Genetic factors are probably the single most important cause of this variation. Further, there are reasons to believe that there is a corresponding variation in efficacy of doping agents. Doped individuals employ a large variety of doping strategies in respect of choice of substance, dose, dose interval, duration of treatment and use of other drugs for enforcement of effects or correction of side effects. Metabolic steps up-stream and down-stream of testosterone are genetically variable and contribute substantially to the variation in disposition of testosterone, the most common doping agent in sports and in society. Large inter- and intra-ethnic variation in testosterone glucuronidation and excretion is described as well as the pit-falls in evaluation of testosterone doping test results. The hydrolysis and bioactivation of testosterone enanthate is also genetically variable yielding a 2–3 fold variation in excretion rate and serum concentration, thereby implicating a substantial variation in ‘efficacy’ of testosterone. Given this situation it is logical to adopt the new findings in the doping control programme. The population based cut-off level for the testosterone : epitestosterone ratio should be replaced by a Bayesian interpretation of consecutive tests in the same individual. When combined with the above genetic information the sensitivity of the test is considerably improved. The combination of the three approaches should reduce the rate of falsely negative or positive results and the number of expensive follow-up tests, stipulated by the World Anti-Doping Agency. PMID:22506612

  16. US of the Knee: Scanning Techniques, Pitfalls, and Pathologic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Alves, Timothy I; Girish, Gandikota; Kalume Brigido, Monica; Jacobson, Jon A

    2016-10-01

    Pain and other disorders of the knee are a common presenting complaint in the ambulatory setting. Although the cornerstones of imaging evaluation of the knee are radiographs and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, ultrasonography (US) is less expensive than MR imaging, easily available, and of comparable accuracy in the evaluation of certain pathologic conditions of the knee. The benefits of US include portability, low cost, high spatial resolution, dynamic imaging, and ability to guide percutaneous interventions when indicated. US also allows direct patient contact, facilitating immediate clinical correlation and the ability to compare with the contralateral knee. US evaluation of the knee can be targeted to a specific region on the basis of the complaint or be a comprehensive review. For comprehensive evaluation, the knee is divided into anterior, medial, lateral, and posterior compartments for structured evaluation of the tendons, ligaments, joint space, osseous structures, as well as peripheral nerves and vasculature. US is particularly well suited for evaluating injuries of the quadriceps and patellar tendons, injuries of the medial and lateral collateral ligaments, joint effusions, and fluid collections around the knee. There is additional utility in evaluation of the distal hamstrings tendons, the iliotibial tract, the superficial patellar cortex, the common peroneal nerve, the popliteal vessels, and juxta-articular cystic collections including Baker cyst. In-depth appreciation of relevant sonographic anatomy, common pathologic conditions, knowledge of important pitfalls, and mastery of US technique will allow one to effectively use this powerful bedside tool for the evaluation of a wide variety of knee disorders. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  17. Addressing the insider threat

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-05-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  18. Addressing the insider threat

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  19. Commercialization of Seizure Prediction Technology Promises and Pitfalls of Biosignal Analysis: Seizure Prediction and Management (A case study);

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    biosignals utilizing computationally intensive algorithms are useful and provide no limitation for clinical Commercialization of Seizure Prediction...Technology Promises and Pitfalls of Biosignal Analysis: Seizure Prediction and Management (A case study); Mark T. Rise, Ph.D. Technical Fellow...Title and Subtitle Commercialization of Seizure Prediction Technology Promises and Pitfalls of Biosignal Analysis: Seizure Prediction and

  20. Computed tomography guidance for spinal intervention: basics of technique, pearls, and avoiding pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Timpone, Vincent M; Hirsch, Joshua A; Gilligan, Christopher J; Chandra, Ronil V

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of spinal interventional pain techniques has grown rapidly over the last decade. However, practitioners use widely different techniques in these procedures, particularly in the use of image guidance. The importance of image guidance was highlighted by the fact that in recent systematic reviews on therapeutic effectiveness of epidural steroid injections and facet joint interventions, only studies that used image guidance were included. The choice of image guidance remains a matter of physician preference with conventional fluoroscopic or Computed Tomography (CT) guidance most common. There are many advantages to CT guidance for certain spinal interventional pain procedures, mainly due to increased needle tip positioning accuracy. CT guidance provides greater anatomical detail that facilitates accurate needle trajectory planning, monitoring and final placement. Unlike conventional fluoroscopy that may be hindered by tissue overlap and lack of surrounding anatomical detail CT guidance offers direct visualization of the entire needle trajectory and the surrounding soft tissue and bone structures. Large osteophytes and adjacent vascular structures can be identified and safely avoided. The goals of this narrative review are to provide a basic overview of CT techniques available for spinal interventional pain procedures, to discuss the potential advantages and disadvantages of CT guidance, to provide a simple step-by-step approach to use of CT guidance, to share technical pearls, and to discuss methods to avoid potential pitfalls. This review will provide interventional pain physicians with knowledge of relevant CT image acquisition techniques and appropriate radiation dose reduction strategies. This will contribute to increased technical success rates while reducing radiation dose to the patient and staff.

  1. Pitfalls in animal reproduction research: how the animal guards nature's secrets.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J

    2013-08-01

    The estrous cycles of heifers and mares are used for illustrating pitfalls at the animal level in research in reproductive biology. Infrequent monitoring for characterizing the change in hormone concentrations or for detecting a reproductive event can be a pitfall when the interval for obtaining data exceeds the interval between events. For example, hourly collection of blood samples has shown that the luteolytic period (decreasing progesterone) encompasses 24 hours in heifers and mares. Collection of samples every 6-24 hours results in the illusion that luteolysis requires 2-3 days, owing to the occurrence of luteolysis on different days in individuals. A single treatment with PGF2α that causes complete regression of the corpus luteum is an example of an overdose pitfall. A nonphysiological progesterone increase occurs and will be misleading if used for making interpretations on the nature of luteolysis. A pitfall can also occur if a chosen reference point or end point is a poor representation of a physiological event. For example, if on a selected day after ovulation the animals in treatment A are closer on average to luteolysis than animals in treatment B, treatment A will appear to have had an earlier luteolytic effect. Among the techniques that are used directly in the animal, ultrasonography appears to be most prone to research pitfalls. Research during a given month can be confounded by seasonal effects, even in species that ovulate throughout the year. The presence of unknown factors or complex interactions among factors and the sensitivity of the animal to a research procedure separate from the direct effect of a treatment are also research challenges. A hidden factor should be considered nature's challenge to open-minded biologists but a pitfall for the close-minded.

  2. The Reach Address Database (RAD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores reach address information for each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams, lakes, etc) in the National Hydrology Database (NHD) Plus dataset.

  3. Pitfalls in the diagnosis and management of Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Vivek; El Asmar, Nadine; Selman, Warren R; Arafah, Baha M

    2015-02-01

    .g., malabsorption, celiac disease) and by the concurrent use of medications that interfere with its metabolism (e.g., inducers and inhibitors of the P450 enzyme system). In this review, the authors aim to review the pitfalls commonly encountered in the workup of patients suspected to have hypercortisolism. The optimal diagnosis and therapy for patients with Cushing's disease require the thorough and close coordination and involvement of all members of the management team.

  4. Geochemical databases: minding the pitfalls to avoid the pratfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, S. L.; Hofmann, A. W.

    2011-12-01

    The field of geochemistry has been revolutionized in recent years by the advent of databases (PetDB, GEOROC, NAVDAT, etc). A decade ago, a geochemical synthesis required major time investments in order to compile relatively small amounts of fragmented data from large numbers of publications, Now virtually all of the published data on nearly any solid Earth topic can be downloaded to nearly any desktop computer with a few mouse clicks. Most solid Earth talks at international meetings show data compilations from these databases. Applications of the data are playing an increasingly important role in shaping our thinking about the Earth. They have changed some fundamental ideas about the compositional structure of the Earth (for example, showing that the Earth's "trace element depleted upper mantle" is not so depleted in trace elements). This abundance of riches also poses new risks. Until recently, important details associated with data publication (adequate metadata and quality control information) were given low priority, even in major journals. The online databases preserve whatever has been published, irrespective of quality. "Bad data" arises from many causes, here are a few. Some are associated with sample processing, including incomplete dissolution of refractory trace minerals, or inhomogeneous powders, or contamination of key elements during preparation (for example, this was a problem for lead when gasoline was leaded, and for niobium when tungsten-carbide mills were used to powder samples). Poor analytical quality is a continual problem (for example, when elemental abundances are at near background levels for an analytical method). Errors in published data tables (more common than you think) become bad data in the databases. The accepted values of interlaboratory standards change with time, while the published data based on old values stay the same. Thus the pitfalls associated with the new data accessibility are dangerous in the hands of the inexperienced

  5. Pitfalls in Fractal Time Series Analysis: fMRI BOLD as an Exemplary Case

    PubMed Central

    Eke, Andras; Herman, Peter; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Mukli, Peter; Nagy, Zoltan

    2012-01-01

    This article will be positioned on our previous work demonstrating the importance of adhering to a carefully selected set of criteria when choosing the suitable method from those available ensuring its adequate performance when applied to real temporal signals, such as fMRI BOLD, to evaluate one important facet of their behavior, fractality. Earlier, we have reviewed on a range of monofractal tools and evaluated their performance. Given the advance in the fractal field, in this article we will discuss the most widely used implementations of multifractal analyses, too. Our recommended flowchart for the fractal characterization of spontaneous, low frequency fluctuations in fMRI BOLD will be used as the framework for this article to make certain that it will provide a hands-on experience for the reader in handling the perplexed issues of fractal analysis. The reason why this particular signal modality and its fractal analysis has been chosen was due to its high impact on today’s neuroscience given it had powerfully emerged as a new way of interpreting the complex functioning of the brain (see “intrinsic activity”). The reader will first be presented with the basic concepts of mono and multifractal time series analyses, followed by some of the most relevant implementations, characterization by numerical approaches. The notion of the dichotomy of fractional Gaussian noise and fractional Brownian motion signal classes and their impact on fractal time series analyses will be thoroughly discussed as the central theme of our application strategy. Sources of pitfalls and way how to avoid them will be identified followed by a demonstration on fractal studies of fMRI BOLD taken from the literature and that of our own in an attempt to consolidate the best practice in fractal analysis of empirical fMRI BOLD signals mapped throughout the brain as an exemplary case of potentially wide interest. PMID:23227008

  6. Wnt signaling during tooth replacement in zebrafish (Danio rerio): pitfalls and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Huysseune, Ann; Soenens, Mieke; Elderweirdt, Fien

    2014-01-01

    The canonical (β-catenin dependent) Wnt signaling pathway has emerged as a likely candidate for regulating tooth replacement in continuously renewing dentitions. So far, the involvement of canonical Wnt signaling has been experimentally demonstrated predominantly in amniotes. These studies tend to show stimulation of tooth formation by activation of the Wnt pathway, and inhibition of tooth formation when blocking the pathway. Here, we report a strong and dynamic expression of the soluble Wnt inhibitor dickkopf1 (dkk1) in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) tooth germs, suggesting an active repression of Wnt signaling during morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation of a tooth, and derepression of Wnt signaling during start of replacement tooth formation. To further analyse the role of Wnt signaling, we used different gain-of-function approaches. These yielded disjunct results, yet none of them indicating enhanced tooth replacement. Thus, masterblind (mbl) mutants, defective in axin1, mimic overexpression of Wnt, but display a normally patterned dentition in which teeth are replaced at the appropriate times and positions. Activating the pathway with LiCl had variable outcomes, either resulting in the absence, or the delayed formation, of first-generation teeth, or yielding a regular dentition with normal replacement, but no supernumerary teeth or accelerated tooth replacement. The failure so far to influence tooth replacement in the zebrafish by perturbing Wnt signaling is discussed in the light of (i) potential technical pitfalls related to dose- or time-dependency, (ii) the complexity of the canonical Wnt pathway, and (iii) species-specific differences in the nature and activity of pathway components. Finally, we emphasize the importance of in-depth knowledge of the wild-type pattern for reliable interpretations. It is hoped that our analysis can be inspiring to critically assess and elucidate the role of Wnt signaling in tooth development in polyphyodonts. PMID

  7. Pitfalls of Establishing DNA Barcoding Systems in Protists: The Cryptophyceae as a Test Case

    PubMed Central

    Hoef-Emden, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    A DNA barcode is a preferrably short and highly variable region of DNA supposed to facilitate a rapid identification of species. In many protistan lineages, a lack of species-specific morphological characters hampers an identification of species by light or electron microscopy, and difficulties to perform mating experiments in laboratory cultures also do not allow for an identification of biological species. Thus, testing candidate barcode markers as well as establishment of accurately working species identification systems are more challenging than in multicellular organisms. In cryptic species complexes the performance of a potential barcode marker can not be monitored using morphological characters as a feedback, but an inappropriate choice of DNA region may result in artifactual species trees for several reasons. Therefore a priori knowledge of the systematics of a group is required. In addition to identification of known species, methods for an automatic delimitation of species with DNA barcodes have been proposed. The Cryptophyceae provide a mixture of systematically well characterized as well as badly characterized groups and are used in this study to test the suitability of some of the methods for protists. As species identification method the performance of blast in searches against badly to well-sampled reference databases has been tested with COI-5P and 5′-partial LSU rDNA (domains A to D of the nuclear LSU rRNA gene). In addition the performance of two different methods for automatic species delimitation, fixed thresholds of genetic divergence and the general mixed Yule-coalescent model (GMYC), have been examined. The study demonstrates some pitfalls of barcoding methods that have to be taken care of. Also a best-practice approach towards establishing a DNA barcode system in protists is proposed. PMID:22970104

  8. Diagnostic pitfalls associated with a large true posterior communicating artery aneurysm: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nagatani, Kimihiro; Otani, Naoki; Seno, Soichiro; Takeuchi, Satoru; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2013-10-01

    True posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm is an aneurysm that originates from the PCoA, and large or giant true PCoA aneurysms are rare. We report a case of a large true PCoA aneurysm successfully clipped after anterior clinoidectomy and discuss the diagnostic pitfalls associated with this rare clinical entity.

  9. The Pitfalls of Mobile Devices in Learning: A Different View and Implications for Pedagogical Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Yu-Liang

    2012-01-01

    Studies have been devoted to the design, implementation, and evaluation of mobile learning in practice. A common issue among students' responses toward this type of learning concerns the pitfalls of mobile devices, including small screen, limited input options, and low computational power. As a result, mobile devices are not always perceived by…

  10. Two new planthopper species (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Caliscelidae) collected in pitfall traps in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Chmurova, Lucia; Webb, Michael D

    2016-08-22

    Two new species of planthoppers in the family Caliscelidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) are described from Zambia, i.e., Afronaso spinosa sp. n. and Calampocus zambiaensis sp. n. All specimens are flightless males and nearly all were collected from baited pitfall traps (except for one specimen collected from a yellow pan trap), suggesting that they live near to or on the ground.

  11. The Pitfalls of Valenced Labels and the Benefits of Properly Calibrated Psychological Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, James K.; Fincham, Frank D.

    2012-01-01

    Replies to comments by Sonja Lyubomirsky (see record 2012-27130-008), Riva Guiseppe (see record 2012-27130-009), and Alan S. Waterman (see record 2012-27130-010) on the original article by McNulty and Fincham (see record 2011-15476-001) regarding the pitfalls of valenced labels and the benefits of properly calibrated psychological flexibility.

  12. Evaluation of pitfall trapping in northwestern forests: trap arrays with drift fences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bury, R. Bruce; Corn, Paul Stephen

    1987-01-01

    We operated pitfall arrays with 5-m drift fences at 30 stands in western Oregon and Washington for 180 days. Pitfall arrays had a pronounced removal effect on small mammals (but not on the herpetofauna) during the 1st 60 days of trapping. Conventional short (10-day) trapping periods were only adequate to detect the most common mammals. About 60 days were needed to compile a relatively complete species list (>85% of species captured) at each site. Reptiles were caught almost exclusively in the summer; amphibian captures were correlated with increased precipitation in the fall. Short (2.5-m) drift fences were less effective than the standard length of 5 m. Funnel traps captured few forest vertebrates. Pitfalls captured more insectivorous mammals than did snap traps, but snap traps were more effective for a few cricetid rodents. Pitfall arrays are adaptable to many habitats and can help assess the presence of small vertebrates, such as shrews and amphibians, that are undersampled by other techniques.

  13. Analysis of Factors Enhancing Pitfall in Research and Teaching of the Nigerian University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Tafida; Umar, Kasim; Paul, Chima

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses factors enhancing pitfall in research and teaching in the Nigerian university system. Using data generated from secondary sources, it was found that so many factors are responsible for the constant decay in teaching and research in the Nigerian universities. The paper however found from literature that the high rate of pitfalls…

  14. Empathy and Social-Emotional Learning: Pitfalls and Touchstones for School-Based Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Bruce; DesRoches, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This chapter identifies three common pitfalls in the use of the concept of empathy in formal social-emotional learning interventions: (1) not distinguishing between affective and cognitive empathy ("equivocation"); (2) overestimating the role of the imagination in empathizing ("Piaget's fallacy"); and (3) not accommodating the developmental and…

  15. Benefits and Pitfalls: Simple Guidelines for the Use of Social Networking Tools in K-12 Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The article will outline a framework for the use of social networking tools in K-12 education framed around four thought provoking questions: 1) what are the benefits and pitfalls of using social networking tools in P-12 education, 2) how do we plan effectively for the use of social networking tool, 3) what role does professional development play…

  16. CONTENT-ADDRESSABLE MEMORY SYSTEMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The utility of content -addressable memories (CAM’s) within a general purpose computing system is investigated. Word cells within CAM may be...addressed by the character of all or a part of cell contents . Multimembered sets of word cells may be addressed simultaneously. The distributed logical...package is developed which allows simulation of CAM commands within job programs run on the IBM 7090 and derives tallies of execution times corresponding to a particular realization of a CAM system . (Author)

  17. On pitfalls in the construction of family-based models of population growth: a note.

    PubMed

    Kondo, H

    1986-04-01

    Recently, several attempts have been made to construct an economic theory of population based on a formal theory of the family of the type developed by Becker in 1981, but there are serious limitations in all such efforts. The typical family's problem may have no solution, even with a well-behaved concave utility function. Moreover, even when the family's maximum problem has a unique solution, the phase diagram for the stock of capital may contain no steady state other than the origin. Finally, even when there exists a nontrivial steady state for the stock of capital, the community nevertheless may be destined for extinction. The first of these pitfalls concerns the internal consistency of the models, while the second and third concern the compatibility of the models with some gross facts of life. The pitfalls can be avoided, within the Becker framework by suitably restricting the family's utility and production functions, but the restrictions required are severe. This paper shows that, alternatively, the pitfalls sometimes can be avoided by going slightly outside the Becker framework, specifically, by modifying the typical family's budget constraint to allow explicitly for the cost of raising children. In particular, it is shown that, by this means, the pitfalls can be avoided even when the famil's utility function is log-linear, the example adduced by Kemp et al. In 1984 to demonstrate the existence of pitfalls. More precisely, it is shown that the family's maximum problem has a unique solution; that nontrival steady state exists; that, even if the steady state is locally unstable, the optimal trajectory tends neither to zero nor to infinity but to a 2-period limit cycle; and that survival is possible with quite general production functions. Thus, the end product is a logically consistent and reasonable model of economic development, with both population growth and capital accumulation firmly rooted in life-cycle family planning.

  18. Burn prevention mechanisms and outcomes: pitfalls, failures and successes.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Costagliola, Michel; Hayek, Shady N

    2009-03-01

    -risk groups. Depending on the population of the country, burns prevention could be a national programme. This can ensure sufficient funds are available and lead to proper coordination of district, regional, and tertiary care centres. It could also provide for compulsory reporting of all burn admissions to a central registry, and these data could be used to evaluate strategies and prevention programmes that should be directed at behavioural and environmental changes which can be easily adopted into lifestyle. Particularly in LMICs, the emphasis in burn prevention should be by advocating change from harmful cultural practices. This needs to be done with care and sensitivity. The present review is a summary of what has already been accomplished in terms of burn prevention highlighting some of the successes but above all the numerous pitfalls and failures. Recognizing these failures is the first step towards development of more effective burn prevention strategies particularly in LMICs in which burn injury remains endemic and associated with a high mortality rate. Burn prevention is not easy, but easy or not, we have no options; burns must be prevented.

  19. TH-E-202-01: Pitfalls and Remedies in PET/CT Imaging for RT Planning.

    PubMed

    Pan, T

    2016-06-01

    PET/CT is a very important imaging tool in the management of oncology patients. PET/CT has been applied for treatment planning and response evaluation in radiation therapy. This educational session will discuss: 1. Pitfalls and remedies in PET/CT imaging for RT planning 2. The use of hypoxia PET imaging for radiotherapy 3. PET for tumor response evaluation The first presentation will address the issue of mis-registration between the CT and PET images in the thorax and the abdomen. We will discuss the challenges of respiratory gating and introduce an average CT technique to improve the registration for dose calculation and image-guidance in radiation therapy. The second presentation will discuss the use of hypoxia PET Imaging for radiation therapy. We will discuss various hypoxia radiotracers, the choice of clinical acquisition protocol (in particular a single late static acquisition versus a dynamic acquisition), and the compartmental modeling with different transfer rate constants explained. We will demonstrate applications of hypoxia imaging for dose escalation/de-escalation in clinical trials. The last presentation will discuss the use of PET/CT for tumor response evaluation. We will discuss anatomic response assessment vs. metabolic response assessment, visual evaluation and semi-quantitative evaluation, and limitations of current PET/CT assessment. We will summarize clinical trials using PET response in guiding adaptive radiotherapy. Finally, we will summarize recent advancements in PET/CT radiomics and non-FDG PET tracers for response assessment.

  20. Instrumentation: Analyzing Chemical Data with Computers: Errors and Pitfalls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukla, Shyam S.; Rusling, James F.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses how computational errors arise in analysis of data and how they can be minimized. Shows that all computations are subject to roundoff/truncation errors and how such errors are propagated and influence the stability and condition of a reaction. Applications to procedures used in analytical chemistry are addressed. (JN)

  1. Pitfalls of rare earth imaging: conquering the three Ps.

    PubMed

    Lam, R W; Price, S C

    1992-01-01

    Rare earth technology has become the standard in radiographic imaging, but misapplication and insufficient comprehension of the variables of usage create practical problems. Special problem areas are pediatrics, portable radiography and phototimed exposures. These problems, as well as possible solutions, are addressed in this article.

  2. Multidimensional Assessment of Criminal Recidivism: Problems, Pitfalls, and Proposed Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrieze, Scott I.; Grove, William M.

    2010-01-01

    All states have statutes in place to civilly commit individuals at high risk for violence. The authors address difficulties in assessing such risk but use as an example the task of predicting sexual violence recidivism; the principles espoused here generalize to predicting all violence. As part of the commitment process, mental health…

  3. Social Media Use and Social Connectedness in Adolescents: The Positives and the Potential Pitfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kelly A.; Ryan, Tracii; Gray, DeLeon L.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Waters, Lea

    2014-01-01

    As social media use is rising among adolescents, the issue of whether this use leads to positive or negative outcomes warrants greater understanding. This article critically reviews the literature related to this important topic. Specifically, we examine how social media use affects social connectedness in terms of three elements of adolescent…

  4. Potential pitfalls of the PTV concept in dose-to-medium planning optimization.

    PubMed

    Sterpin, E

    2016-09-01

    In typical treatment planning of 3D IMRT, the incident energy fluence is optimized to achieve a homogeneous dose distribution to the PTV. The PTV includes the tumour but also healthy tissues that may have a different dose response for the same incident energy fluence, like bony structures included in the PTV (mandibles in head and neck tumours or femoral bones in sarcomas). Dose to medium optimization compensates for this heterogeneous response, leading to a non-homogeneous energy fluence in the PTV and a non-homogeneous dose in the CTV in the presence of geometric errors. We illustrate qualitatively this statement in a cylindrical geometry where the PTV includes a CTV (7cm diameter) made of water surrounded by ICRU compact bone (1.2cm thickness); such configuration was chosen to exaggerate the aforementioned effect. Optimization was performed assuming dose equals photon energy fluence times mass energy absorption coefficient. Bone has a 4% lower dose response in a 6 MV flattening filter free spectrum. After optimization either in medium or assuming everything as water composition, the geometry was shifted by 1.2cm and dose recomputed. As expected, compensating for the under-response of the bone material during optimization in medium leads to an overdosage of the CTV when patient geometric errors are taken into account. Optimization in dose assuming everything as water composition leads to a uniform coverage. Robust optimization or forcing a uniform atomic composition in the PTV margin may resolve this incompatibility between the PTV concept and dose to medium optimization.

  5. Engaging First-Year University Students in Research: Promise, Potentials, and Pitfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangster, Sarah L.; Loy, Kara L.; Mills, Sheryl D.; Lawson, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the Undergraduate Research Initiative at the University of Saskatchewan implemented a pilot project to organize, support, and promote curriculum-based research experience as an integral aspect of participating first-year courses. The framework for the course-based initiative was the research arc; usually in groups, students in these…

  6. Next generation sequencing of CLU, PICALM and CR1: pitfalls and potential solutions.

    PubMed

    Lord, Jenny; Turton, James; Medway, Christopher; Shi, Hui; Brown, Kristelle; Lowe, James; Mann, David; Pickering-Brown, Stuart; Kalsheker, Noor; Passmore, Peter; Morgan, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    CLU, PICALM and CR1 were identified as genetic risk factors for late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) in two large genome wide association studies (GWAS) published in 2009, but the variants that convey this alteration in disease risk, and how the genes relate to AD pathology is yet to be discovered. A next generation sequencing (NGS) project was conducted targeting CLU, CR1 and PICALM, in 96 AD samples (8 pools of 12), in an attempt to discover rare variants within these AD associated genes. Inclusion of repetitive regions in the design of the SureSelect capture lead to significant issues in alignment of the data, leading to poor specificity and a lower than expected depth of coverage. A strong positive correlation (0.964, p<0.001) was seen between NGS and 1000 genome project frequency estimates. Of the ~170 "novel" variants detected in the genes, seven SNPs, all of which were present in multiple sample pools, were selected for validation by Sanger sequencing. Two SNPs were successfully validated by this method, and shown to be genuine variants, while five failed validation. These spurious SNP calls occurred as a result of the presence of small indels and mononucleotide repeats, indicating such features should be regarded with caution, and validation via an independent method is important for NGS variant calls.

  7. Practical Paediatric Psychopharmacological Prescribing in Autism: The Potential and the Pitfalls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gringras, Paul

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the evidence behind two approaches to psychopharmacological management in children with autism: selecting and treating target symptoms or treatment or curing the primary social impairment underlying autism. The effectiveness of stimulants, antidepressants, melatonin, naltrexone, fenfluramine, and secretin is appraised. The…

  8. Multi-Point E-Conferencing with Initial Teacher Training Students in England: Pitfalls and Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Nick

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on attempts to initiate multi-point e-conferencing between English teacher education students on school placements, their host teachers and their university tutors. A sociocultural perspective is adopted in analysing the project, using the metaphor of a "professional knowledge landscape" [Clandinin, D. J., &…

  9. Annual Research Review: Hoarding Disorder-- Potential Benefits and Pitfalls of a New Mental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mataix-Cols, David; Pertusa, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background: The inclusion of a new mental disorder in the nomenclature is not a trivial matter. Many have highlighted the risks of an ever-increasing number of mental disorders and of overpathologizing human behaviour. Given the proposed inclusion of a new hoarding disorder (HD) in DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,…

  10. Potential pitfalls of relying on hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production to identify Salmonella in feed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella can be difficult to assess and isolate in poultry feed due to stress, uneven distribution and poor growth. Previous studies have shown that several strains of Salmonella can be affected by environmental changes, resulting in H2S-negative colonies. This is a major concern, as H2S productio...

  11. Endophytic malignant transformation within flat adenoma of the colon: a potential diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Bégin, L R; Gordon, P H; Alpert, L C

    1993-01-01

    A 74-year-old man was found to have a 1 cm, slightly elevated and flat, red mucosal lesion of the descending colon. An endoscopic biopsy showed a structure characteristic of a tubular adenoma. The surgical specimen revealed an inverted, transmural, solid and cystic lesion. The superficial (intra-mucosal) component of the neoplasm was histologically characteristic of a flat adenoma, showing epithelial dysplasia. However, the contiguous deep component was a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma extending to the serosa and demonstrating the unusual features of a circumscribed lobulated topography and the absence of an inflammatory/desmoplastic stromal reaction. Endophytic malignant transformation within a flat adenoma should be distinguished from conditions of misplaced glandular epithelium such as localized colitis cystica profunda. Complete and full mucosal thickness endoscopic snare removal is indicated in order to assess the degree of epithelial dysplasia and detect endophytic malignant transformation.

  12. The quenching effect of flavonoids on 4-methylumbelliferone, a potential pitfall in fluorimetric neuraminidase inhibition assays.

    PubMed

    Kongkamnerd, Jarinrat; Milani, Adelaide; Cattoli, Giovanni; Terregino, Calogero; Capua, Ilaria; Beneduce, Luca; Gallotta, Andrea; Pengo, Paolo; Fassina, Giorgio; Monthakantirat, Orawan; Umehara, Kaoru; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai; Miertus, Stanislav

    2011-08-01

    Many assays aimed to test the inhibitory effects of synthetic molecules, and naturally occurring products on the neuraminidase activity exploit the hydrolysis of 2'-O-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-N-acetylneuraminic acid (4-MUNANA). The amount of the released product, 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU), is then measured fluorimetrically. The authors attempted an analysis of the inhibitory properties of 35 naturally occurring flavonoids on neuraminidase N3, where only 29 of them were sufficiently soluble in the assay medium. During the analysis, the authors noticed a strong quenching effect due to the test compounds on the fluorescence of 4-MU. The quenching constants for the flavonoids were determined according to the Stern-Volmer approach. The extent of fluorescence reduction due to quenching and the magnitude of the fluorescence reduction measured in the inhibition assays were comparable: for 11 of 29 compounds, the two values were found to be coincident within the experimental uncertainty. These data were statistically analyzed for correlation by calculating the pertinent Pearson correlation coefficient. Inhibition and quenching were found to be positively correlated (r = 0.71, p(uncorr) = 1.5 × 10(-5)), and the correlation was maintained for the whole set of tested compounds. Altogether, the collected data imply that all of the tested flavonoids could produce false-positive results in the neuraminidase inhibition assay using 4-MUNANA as a substrate.

  13. Frequency of transient hypothyroxinaemia in low birthweight infants. Potential pitfall for neonatal screening programmes.

    PubMed Central

    Uhrmann, S; Marks, K H; Maisels, M J; Kulin, H E; Kaplan, M; Utiger, R

    1981-01-01

    Thyroid function was studied in 54 low birthweight infants during a 3-week period. Each infant was placed in one of three groups. Group 1 (n = 21), infants who were well and appropriately grown fro gestational age; group 2 (n = 23), infants who were appropriately grown but who had hyaline membrane disease; group 3 (n = 10), infants who were small-for-gestational-age. In group 1, 5 (24%) infants had at least one serum thyroxine value less than 3.0 micrograms/100 ml (39 nmol/l). There were 8 (35%) infants in group 2 who had similarly low serum thyroxine values as did 5 (50%) of the 10 infants in group 3. Serum thyrotropin levels and serum binding of the thyroid hormones, as measured by a T3-charcoal uptake test, were normal in all infants. In all instances but 2, serum thyroxine values were at least 4.0 micrograms/100 ml (51 nmol/l) by the end of the 3-week period. There is thus a high incidence of transient 'hypothyroxinaemia' in low birthweight infants, particularly if such infants have hyaline membrane disease or are small-for-gestational-age. These findings must be considered when interpreting results of screening programmes for congenital hypothyroidism and they lend further support to the use of a combination of serum thyroxine and thyrotropin determinations for optimum screening of such infants. PMID:7212760

  14. Potential Pitfalls in MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Abiotically Synthesized RNA Oligonucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burcar, Bradley T.; Cassidy, Lauren M.; Moriarty, Elizabeth M.; Joshi, Prakash C.; Coari, Kristin M.; McGown, Linda B.

    2013-06-01

    Demonstration of the abiotic polymerization of ribonucleotides under conditions consistent with conditions that may have existed on the prebiotic Earth is an important goal in "RNA world" research. Recent reports of abiotic RNA polymerization with and without catalysis rely on techniques such as HPLC, gel electrophoresis, and MALDI-TOF MS to analyze the reaction products. It is essential to understand the limitations of these techniques in order to accurately interpret the results of these analyses. In particular, techniques that rely on mass for peak identification may not be able to distinguish between a single, linear RNA oligomer and stable aggregates of smaller linear and/or cyclic RNA molecules. In the case of MALDI-TOF MS, additional complications may arise from formation of salt adducts and MALDI matrix complexes. This is especially true for abiotic RNA polymerization reactions because the concentration of longer RNA chains can be quite low and RNA, as a polyelectrolyte, is highly susceptible to adduct formation and aggregation. Here we focus on MALDI-TOF MS analysis of abiotic polymerization products of imidazole-activated AMP in the presence and absence of montmorillonite clay as a catalyst. A low molecular weight oligonucleotide standard designed for use in MALDI-TOF MS and a 3'-5' polyadenosine monophosphate reference standard were also run for comparison and calibration. Clay-catalyzed reaction products of activated GMP and UMP were also examined. The results illustrate the ambiguities associated with assignment of m/z values in MALDI mass spectra and the need for accurate calibration of mass spectra and careful sample preparation to minimize the formation of adducts and other complications arising from the MALDI process.

  15. Colitis cystica profunda indefinite for dysplasia in Crohn disease: a potential diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Prera, Juan Carlos; Polydorides, Alexandros D

    2014-12-01

    Colitis cystica profunda (CCP) is a nonneoplastic condition characterized by misplaced glands deep to the muscularis mucosae of the colon and may be difficult to differentiate from well-differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma. Absence of dysplasia in CCP usually aids in this distinction. We present a challenging case of CCP in the setting of Crohn disease (CD) containing foci of atypical epithelium. A right hemicolectomy from a 46-year-old woman contained a stricture associated with a proximal multilocular cystic lesion containing mucin-filled glands dissecting through the colonic wall. These glands had lobulated architecture with smooth contours surrounded by lamina propria and lacking desmoplastic stroma. The epithelium had focal nuclear crowding, enlargement, and hyperchromasia, with increased nucleus to cytoplasm ratio, but overall preserved polarity. Atypical cells were focally positive for CK7 and p53, with increased MIB-1 staining. These findings were interpreted as indefinite for dysplasia. Chronic transmural inflammation and mucosal regeneration probably facilitated epithelial misplacement, which secondarily developed cytologic atypia. However, the overall architecture and lack of dysplasia in the overlying mucosa argue against a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. Our case illustrates the difficult diagnosis of this uncommon but problematic phenomenon, awareness of which is paramount for pathologists and clinicians participating in the management of CD patients.

  16. Denosumab-Treated Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Its Histologic Spectrum and Potential Diagnostic Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Roitman, Pablo Daniel; Jauk, Federico; Farfalli, Germán Luis; Albergo, José Ignacio; Aponte-Tinao, Luis Alberto

    2017-02-21

    Giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) is a locally aggressive, rarely metastasizing primary bone neoplasm that occurs most frequently in the epiphysis of long bones of young adults. It is composed of round, oval or elongated mononuclear cells admixed with osteoclast-like giant cells that express receptor activator of nuclear factor- қB (RANK). The mononuclear stromal cells express RANK ligand (RANKL), a mediator of osteoclast activation. Denosumab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits RANKL reducing tumor-associated bone lysis, has been used to treat selected cases of GCT. We reviewed the clinical records and histologic slides of 9 patients with GCT that had received denosumab therapy and were subsequently surgically treated. There were 5 males and 4 females, aged 20 to 66 (mean 36). Duration of treatment varied from 2,5 to 13months (mean 5,9). In all cases, different degrees of ossification, fibrosis, depletion of giant cells and proliferation of mononuclear cells were seen. With this combination of changes, denosumab-treated GCT may mimick other lesions such as fibrous dysplasia, juvenile ossifying fibroma, nonossifying fibroma and osteoblastoma. Less frequent but more relevant is the presence of cellular atypia or patterns of ossification that resemble an undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, a conventional osteosarcoma or a low-grade central osteosarcoma. The presence of clinical and radiological response to denosumab along with the lack of high mitotic activity, atypical mitotic figures, extensive necrosis or a permeative pattern of growth, represent clues to achieve a correct diagnosis.

  17. Hb lepore/β0-thalassaemia with α+-thalassaemia interactions, a potential diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Alauddin, Hafiza; Mohamad Nasir, Suziana; Ahadon, Madzlifah; Raja Sabudin, Raja Zahratul Azma; Ithnin, Azlin; Hussin, Noor Hamidah; Alias, Hamidah; Loh, C-Khai; Abdul Latiff, Zarina; Abdul Murad, Nor Azian; Othman, Ainoon

    2015-12-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb) Lepore is a variant Hb consisting of two α-globin and two δβ-globin chains. In a heterozygote, it is associated with clinical findings of thalassaemia minor, but interactions with other haemoglobinopathies can lead to various clinical phenotypes and pose diagnostic challenges. We reported a pair of siblings from a Malay family, who presented with pallor and hepatosplenomegaly at the ages of 21 months and 14 months old. The red cell indices and peripheral blood smears of both patients showed features of thalassaemia intermedia. Other laboratory investigations of the patients showed conflicting results. However, laboratory investigation results of the parents had led to a presumptive diagnosis of compound heterozygote Hb Lepore/β-thalassaemia and co-inheritance α+-thalassaemia (-α3.7). Hb Lepore has rarely been detected in Southeast Asian countries, particularly in Malaysia. These two cases highlight the importance of family studies for accurate diagnosis, hence appropriate clinical management and genetic counseling.

  18. Modeling the elastic energy of alloys: Potential pitfalls of continuum treatments.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Arvind; Ratsch, Christian; Smereka, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Some issues that arise when modeling elastic energy for binary alloys are discussed within the context of a Keating model and density-functional calculations. The Keating model is a simplified atomistic formulation based on modeling elastic interactions of a binary alloy with harmonic springs whose equilibrium length is species dependent. It is demonstrated that the continuum limit for the strain field are the usual equations of linear elasticity for alloys and that they correctly capture the coarse-grained behavior of the displacement field. In addition, it is established that Euler-Lagrange equation of the continuum limit of the elastic energy will yield the same strain field equation. This is the same energy functional that is often used to model elastic effects in binary alloys. However, a direct calculation of the elastic energy atomistic model reveals that the continuum expression for the elastic energy is both qualitatively and quantitatively incorrect. This is because it does not take atomistic scale compositional nonuniformity into account. Importantly, this result also shows that finely mixed alloys tend to have more elastic energy than segregated systems, which is the exact opposite of predictions made by some continuum theories. It is also shown that for strained thin films the traditionally used effective misfit for alloys systematically underestimate the strain energy. In some models, this drawback is handled by including an elastic contribution to the enthalpy of mixing, which is characterized in terms of the continuum concentration. The direct calculation of the atomistic model reveals that this approach suffers serious difficulties. It is demonstrated that elastic contribution to the enthalpy of mixing is nonisotropic and scale dependent. It is also shown that such effects are present in density-functional theory calculations for the Si-Ge system. This work demonstrates that it is critical to include the microscopic arrangements in any elastic model to achieve even qualitatively correct behavior.

  19. Modeling the elastic energy of alloys: Potential pitfalls of continuum treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskaran, Arvind; Ratsch, Christian; Smereka, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Some issues that arise when modeling elastic energy for binary alloys are discussed within the context of a Keating model and density-functional calculations. The Keating model is a simplified atomistic formulation based on modeling elastic interactions of a binary alloy with harmonic springs whose equilibrium length is species dependent. It is demonstrated that the continuum limit for the strain field are the usual equations of linear elasticity for alloys and that they correctly capture the coarse-grained behavior of the displacement field. In addition, it is established that Euler-Lagrange equation of the continuum limit of the elastic energy will yield the same strain field equation. This is the same energy functional that is often used to model elastic effects in binary alloys. However, a direct calculation of the elastic energy atomistic model reveals that the continuum expression for the elastic energy is both qualitatively and quantitatively incorrect. This is because it does not take atomistic scale compositional nonuniformity into account. Importantly, this result also shows that finely mixed alloys tend to have more elastic energy than segregated systems, which is the exact opposite of predictions made by some continuum theories. It is also shown that for strained thin films the traditionally used effective misfit for alloys systematically underestimate the strain energy. In some models, this drawback is handled by including an elastic contribution to the enthalpy of mixing, which is characterized in terms of the continuum concentration. The direct calculation of the atomistic model reveals that this approach suffers serious difficulties. It is demonstrated that elastic contribution to the enthalpy of mixing is nonisotropic and scale dependent. It is also shown that such effects are present in density-functional theory calculations for the Si-Ge system. This work demonstrates that it is critical to include the microscopic arrangements in any elastic model to achieve even qualitatively correct behavior.

  20. Paget Disease: A Potential Pitfall in PSMA PET for Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Blazak, John Kenneth; Thomas, Paul

    2016-09-01

    We present a case of an 81-year-old man with multifocal Paget disease found on bone scan that was performed for incidentally diagnosed prostate cancer. The subsequent Ga-PSMA (HBED-CC) PET scan also displayed increased uptake in the same distribution. Multiple known tumors display increased Ga-PSMA uptake due to neovasculature. We postulate that increased Ga-PSMA uptake within the pagetoid bone relates to neovascularity known to occur in Paget disease. Such pagetic uptake could result in false-positive studies for bone metastases, particularly in the setting of less typical Paget disease.

  1. Immunohistochemical evaluation of FLI-1 in acute lymphoblastic lymphoma (ALL): a potential diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Lin, Oscar; Filippa, Daniel A; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie

    2009-10-01

    Cases of CD45-negative acute lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia (ALL) immunoreactive for CD99 and Friend Leukemia Integration-1 (FLI-1) can occur and may lead to a misdiagnosis of Ewing sarcoma/peripheral neuroectodermal tumor with critical clinical treatment management implications. The objective of this study was to evaluate a panel of antibodies that would allow greater diagnostic accuracy of ALL and evaluate the frequency of FLI-1 immunoreactivity in a series of ALL cases and an expanded series of T-cell lymphoma subtypes. Immunoreactivity for CD3 was seen in 12/20 (60%), CD20 in 5/20 (25%), CD43 in 19/20(95%), CD45 in 15/20(75%), CD99 in 15/20 (75%), FLI-1, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) in 17/20 (85%) cases. Two cases negative for leukocyte common antigen (LCA), CD20, and CD3 were positive for FLI-1, CD99, TdT, and CD43. Two other LCA-negative cases were positive for CD99 but negative for FLI-1. The majority of cases showed immunoreactivity for CD43 and/or TdT. Therefore, CD43 and/or TdT should be included in the immunohistochemical evaluation of small round blue cell tumors. Absence of immunoreactivity for LCA does not exclude ALL and immunoreactivity of FLI-1 is not restricted to Ewing sarcoma/peripheral neuroectodermal tumor. We also report FLI-1 expression in an expanded series of 75 cases of T-cell lymphoma and found high expression in anaplastic large cell lymphoma and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma.

  2. An unusual presentation of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans with pleomorphic sarcomatous transformation: potential pitfall and diagnostic strategy.

    PubMed

    Cesinaro, Anna Maria; Mataca, Ema; Gambini, Claudio; Kutzner, Heinz

    2016-07-01

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a low grade, superficial sarcoma characterized by a proliferation of monomorphous, spindle cells arranged in a storiform pattern and infiltrating the subcutaneous tissue. The tumor is typically CD34 positive, and shows the characteristic COL1A1-PDGFB fusion gene, detectable either by florescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We describe a case of DFSP with a focus of peculiar pleomorphic sarcomatous transformation. The focus constituted the entire bioptic tissue that was initially excised, raising considerable diagnostic problems for pathologist. The use of FISH as an ancillary technique allowed the right diagnosis.

  3. Motion Analysis of 100 Mediastinal Lymph Nodes: Potential Pitfalls in Treatment Planning and Adaptive Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Pantarotto, Jason R.; Piet, Anna H.M.; Vincent, Andrew; Soernsen de Koste, John R. van; Senan, Suresh

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: The motion of mediastinal lymph nodes may undermine local control with involved-field radiotherapy. We studied patterns of nodal and tumor motion in 41 patients with lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography planning scans were retrospectively evaluated to identify patients with clearly visible mediastinal lymph nodes. One hundred nodes from 14 patients with Stage I and 27 patients with Stage III were manually contoured in all 4D computed tomography respiratory phases. Motion was derived from changes in the nodal center-of-mass position. Primary tumors were also delineated in all phases for 16 patients with Stage III disease. Statistical analysis included a multivariate mixed-effects model of grouped data. Results: Average 3D nodal motion during quiet breathing was 0.68 cm (range, 0.17-1.64 cm); 77% moved greater than 0.5 cm, and 10% moved greater than 1.0 cm. Motion was greatest in the lower mediastinum (p = 0.002), and nodes measuring 2 cm or greater in diameter showed motion similar to that in smaller nodes. In 11 of 16 patients studied, at least one node moved more than the corresponding primary tumor. No association between 3D primary tumor motion and nodal motion was observed. For mobile primary tumors, phase offsets between the primary tumor and nodes of two or more and three or more phases were observed for 33% and 12% of nodes, respectively. Conclusions: Mediastinal nodal motion is common, with phase offsets seen between the primary tumor and different nodes in the same patient. Patient-specific information is needed to ensure geometric coverage, and adaptive strategies based solely on the primary tumor may be misleading.

  4. The Potentials and Pitfalls of Microarrays in Neglected Tropical Diseases: A Focus on Human Filarial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Kwarteng, Alexander; Ahuno, Samuel Terkper

    2016-01-01

    Data obtained from expression microarrays enables deeper understanding of the molecular signatures of infectious diseases. It provides rapid and accurate information on how infections affect the clustering of gene expression profiles, pathways and networks that are transcriptionally active during various infection states compared to conventional diagnostic methods, which primarily focus on single genes or proteins. Thus, microarray technologies offer advantages in understanding host-parasite interactions associated with filarial infections. More importantly, the use of these technologies can aid diagnostics and helps translate current genomic research into effective treatment and interventions for filarial infections. Studying immune responses via microarray following infection can yield insight into genetic pathways and networks that can have a profound influence on the development of anti-parasitic vaccines. PMID:27600086

  5. Temperature effects on pitfall catches of epigeal arthropods: a model and method for bias correction

    PubMed Central

    Saska, Pavel; van der Werf, Wopke; Hemerik, Lia; Luff, Martin L; Hatten, Timothy D; Honek, Alois; Pocock, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Carabids and other epigeal arthropods make important contributions to biodiversity, food webs and biocontrol of invertebrate pests and weeds. Pitfall trapping is widely used for sampling carabid populations, but this technique yields biased estimates of abundance (‘activity-density’) because individual activity – which is affected by climatic factors – affects the rate of catch. To date, the impact of temperature on pitfall catches, while suspected to be large, has not been quantified, and no method is available to account for it. This lack of knowledge and the unavailability of a method for bias correction affect the confidence that can be placed on results of ecological field studies based on pitfall data. Here, we develop a simple model for the effect of temperature, assuming a constant proportional change in the rate of catch per °C change in temperature, r, consistent with an exponential Q10 response to temperature. We fit this model to 38 time series of pitfall catches and accompanying temperature records from the literature, using first differences and other detrending methods to account for seasonality. We use meta-analysis to assess consistency of the estimated parameter r among studies. The mean rate of increase in total catch across data sets was 0·0863 ± 0·0058 per °C of maximum temperature and 0·0497 ± 0·0107 per °C of minimum temperature. Multiple regression analyses of 19 data sets showed that temperature is the key climatic variable affecting total catch. Relationships between temperature and catch were also identified at species level. Correction for temperature bias had substantial effects on seasonal trends of carabid catches. Synthesis and Applications. The effect of temperature on pitfall catches is shown here to be substantial and worthy of consideration when interpreting results of pitfall trapping. The exponential model can be used both for effect estimation and for bias correction of observed data. Correcting for

  6. Address tracing for parallel machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stunkel, Craig B.; Janssens, Bob; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1991-01-01

    Recently implemented parallel system address-tracing methods based on several metrics are surveyed. The issues specific to collection of traces for both shared and distributed memory parallel computers are highlighted. Five general categories of address-trace collection methods are examined: hardware-captured, interrupt-based, simulation-based, altered microcode-based, and instrumented program-based traces. The problems unique to shared memory and distributed memory multiprocessors are examined separately.

  7. Addressing case specific biogas plant tasks: industry oriented methane yields derived from 5L Automatic Methane Potential Test Systems in batch or semi-continuous tests using realistic inocula, substrate particle sizes and organic loading.

    PubMed

    Kolbl, Sabina; Paloczi, Attila; Panjan, Jože; Stres, Blaž

    2014-02-01

    The primary aim of the study was to develop and validate an in-house upscale of Automatic Methane Potential Test System II for studying real-time inocula and real-scale substrates in batch, codigestion and enzyme enhanced hydrolysis experiments, in addition to semi-continuous operation of the developed equipment and experiments testing inoculum functional quality. The successful upscale to 5L enabled comparison of different process configurations in shorter preparation times with acceptable accuracy and high-through put intended for industrial decision making. The adoption of the same scales, equipment and methodologies in batch and semi-continuous tests mirroring those at full scale biogas plants resulted in matching methane yields between the two laboratory tests and full-scale, confirming thus the increased decision making value of the approach for industrial operations.

  8. Promises, Pitfalls, and Basic Guidelines for Applying Machine Learning Classifiers to Psychiatric Imaging Data, with Autism as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Kassraian-Fard, Pegah; Matthis, Caroline; Balsters, Joshua H.; Maathuis, Marloes H.; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Most psychiatric disorders are associated with subtle alterations in brain function and are subject to large interindividual differences. Typically, the diagnosis of these disorders requires time-consuming behavioral assessments administered by a multidisciplinary team with extensive experience. While the application of Machine Learning classification methods (ML classifiers) to neuroimaging data has the potential to speed and simplify diagnosis of psychiatric disorders, the methods, assumptions, and analytical steps are currently opaque and not accessible to researchers and clinicians outside the field. In this paper, we describe potential classification pipelines for autism spectrum disorder, as an example of a psychiatric disorder. The analyses are based on resting-state fMRI data derived from a multisite data repository (ABIDE). We compare several popular ML classifiers such as support vector machines, neural networks, and regression approaches, among others. In a tutorial style, written to be equally accessible for researchers and clinicians, we explain the rationale of each classification approach, clarify the underlying assumptions, and discuss possible pitfalls and challenges. We also provide the data as well as the MATLAB code we used to achieve our results. We show that out-of-the-box ML classifiers can yield classification accuracies of about 60–70%. Finally, we discuss how classification accuracy can be further improved, and we mention methodological developments that are needed to pave the way for the use of ML classifiers in clinical practice. PMID:27990125

  9. Pitfalls and Pearls of Wisdom in 18F-FDG PET Imaging of Tumors.

    PubMed

    Britton, Tracey; Robinson, Nicholas

    2016-06-01

    (18)F-FDG PET imaging of tumors has pitfalls and pearls of wisdom that begin at the point of scheduling and continue through the patient interview, the resting phase, the scan itself, and the image review. Interviewing the patient at the time of scheduling, followed by placing a reminder phone call shortly before the appointment, can save a nuclear medicine department the financial loss of wasted doses and missed appointment slots in the schedule. The pitfalls and pearls of wisdom in tumor imaging are ever changing, and the technologist is in a constant state of inquiry about the patient's disease process and ability to comply. Consideration of each item on the worksheets in this article affects every scan. On completing this article, the reader will be able to identify questions that should be asked in the scheduling and preinjection patient interviews, interpret the answers to those questions, determine how the images may be affected, and adapt the scan.

  10. Effects of pitfall trap preservative on collections of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCravy, K.W.; Willand, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of six pitfall trap preservatives (5% acetic acid solution, distilled water, 70% ethanol, 50% ethylene glycol solution, 50% propylene glycol solution, and 10% saline solution) on collections of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were studied in a west-central Illinois deciduous forest from May to October 2005. A total of 819 carabids, representing 33 species and 19 genera, were collected. Saline produced significantly fewer captures than did acetic acid, ethanol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol, while distilled water produced significantly fewer captures than did acetic acid. Significant associations between numbers of captures and treatment were seen in four species: Amphasia interstitialis (Say), Calathus opaculus LeConte, Chlaenius nemoralis Say, and Cyclotrachelus sodalis (LeConte). Results of this study suggest that type of preservative used can have substantial effects on abundance and species composition of carabids collected in pitfall traps.

  11. Does diffusion MRI tell us anything about the white matter? An overview of methods and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Lauren J.; Pasternak, Ofer

    2014-01-01

    One key pitfall in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) clinical neuroimaging research is the challenge of understanding and interpreting the results of a complex analysis pipeline. The sophisticated algorithms employed by the analysis software, combined with the relatively non-specific nature of many diffusion measurements, lead to challenges in interpretation of the results. This paper is aimed at an intended audience of clinical researchers who are learning about dMRI or trying to interpret dMRI results, and who may be wondering “Does dMRI tell us anything about the white matter?” We present a critical review of dMRI methods and measures used in clinical neuroimaging research, focusing on the most commonly used analysis methods and the most commonly reported measures. We describe important pitfalls in every section, and provide extensive references for the reader interested in more detail. PMID:25278106

  12. Techniques and pitfalls with the Salto prosthesis: our experience of the first 15 years.

    PubMed

    Colombier, J A; Judet, Th; Bonnin, M; Gaudot, F

    2012-12-01

    The Salto total ankle replacement system has shown to be a viable alternative in the treatment of symptomatic arthritis. However, although outcomes after total ankle replacement are promising, an exact analysis of surgical technique could help to improve them. Based on a 15 years experience with the Salto Total Ankle replacement system, the uthors discuss the surgical technique and its pitfalls, its inications and limitations in current practice.

  13. Diagnostic pitfalls in fine-needle aspiration cytology of temporomandibular chondroblastoma: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Rafael Adame; Almeida, Margarida; Mendonça, M Evelina; Frable, W J

    2006-06-01

    Chondroblastoma is a benign bone neoplasm, which usually presents in the epiphysis of long bones, but can occur in unusual locations. This report describes the clinical, radiologic, and cytologic features on FNA of two chondroblastomas of the temporomandibular region that were only recognized by histopathologic study. This emphasizes the diagnostic pitfalls of this entity and expands the cytologic differential diagnosis of tumors of the parotid region.

  14. ROI, Pitfalls and Best Practices with an Enterprise Smart Card Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, Philip

    This paper will describe the highlights of the ActivIdentity sponsored Datamonitor study into Return On Investment (ROI) when implementing smart cards in the enterprise in the following areas: physical and logical access convergence, remote access when replacing OTP tokens and Enterprise Single Sign-On. It also provides additional information about the pitfalls to avoid when implementing smart cards and describes best practices for deployment.

  15. Estimating the difference limen in 2AFC tasks: pitfalls and improved estimators.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Rolf; Vorberg, Dirk

    2009-08-01

    Discrimination performance is often assessed by measuring the difference limen (DL; or just noticeable difference) in a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) task. Here, we show that the DL estimated from 2AFC percentage-correct data is likely to systematically under- or overestimate true discrimination performance if order effects are present. We show how pitfalls with the 2AFC task may be avoided and suggest a novel approach for analyzing 2AFC data.

  16. How many novel eukaryotic 'kingdoms'? Pitfalls and limitations of environmental DNA surveys

    PubMed Central

    Berney, Cédric; Fahrni, José; Pawlowski, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Background Over the past few years, the use of molecular techniques to detect cultivation-independent, eukaryotic diversity has proven to be a powerful approach. Based on small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene analyses, these studies have revealed the existence of an unexpected variety of new phylotypes. Some of them represent novel diversity in known eukaryotic groups, mainly stramenopiles and alveolates. Others do not seem to be related to any molecularly described lineage, and have been proposed to represent novel eukaryotic kingdoms. In order to review the evolutionary importance of this novel high-level eukaryotic diversity critically, and to test the potential technical and analytical pitfalls and limitations of eukaryotic environmental DNA surveys (EES), we analysed 484 environmental SSU rRNA gene sequences, including 81 new sequences from sediments of the small river, the Seymaz (Geneva, Switzerland). Results Based on a detailed screening of an exhaustive alignment of eukaryotic SSU rRNA gene sequences and the phylogenetic re-analysis of previously published environmental sequences using Bayesian methods, our results suggest that the number of novel higher-level taxa revealed by previously published EES was overestimated. Three main sources of errors are responsible for this situation: (1) the presence of undetected chimeric sequences; (2) the misplacement of several fast-evolving sequences; and (3) the incomplete sampling of described, but yet unsequenced eukaryotes. Additionally, EES give a biased view of the diversity present in a given biotope because of the difficult amplification of SSU rRNA genes in some taxonomic groups. Conclusions Environmental DNA surveys undoubtedly contribute to reveal many novel eukaryotic lineages, but there is no clear evidence for a spectacular increase of the diversity at the kingdom level. After re-analysis of previously published data, we found only five candidate lineages of possible novel high-level eukaryotic

  17. Accuracy of pitfall traps for monitoring populations of the amphipod Orchestia gammarella (Pallas 1766) in saltmarshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantzouki, Evanthia; Ysnel, Frédéric; Carpentier, Alexandre; Pétillon, Julien

    2012-11-01

    The intertidal amphipod Orchestia gammarella displays a key role in the functioning of sand and salt marsh habitats, mainly due to its role in decomposition processes and as a main prey item for fish and birds. This study evaluates the accuracy of two sampling methods for estimating population size, biomass and cohort composition. Pitfall trapping, a passive and easily displayed method, was compared with the depletion of quadrats, an active and time-consuming method, considered here as the reference method. Sampling took place in North-West European saltmarshes (Mont Saint-Michel Bay, France) during the summer, 2003 (64 replicates per method). Linear regression revealed that activity-densities (number of individuals per trap) were strongly and positively correlated with densities (number of individuals per quadrat). Dry biomasses obtained from the two sampling methods were also significantly and positively correlated, but with a low coefficient of correlation. Cohort composition differed between the methods, with proportionally less juveniles and more intermediates in pitfall traps. We conclude that pitfall traps can be used for easily monitoring changes in the size, and to a lesser extent for measuring the biomass, of an amphipod population, but not for estimating its cohort composition.

  18. Pitfalls associated with open reduction and internal fixation of fractured ribs.

    PubMed

    Sarani, Babak; Schulte, Leah; Diaz, Jose J

    2015-12-01

    Rib fracture is exceedingly common and remains a leading cause of death in patients with chest injury. Probability of death increases by 19% with each broken rib, and the probability of death increases further with age. Treatment is centered on pain control and early mobilization to provide adequate pulmonary hygiene. Multimodality interventions, such as incentive spirometry, postural changes, and coughing, are pivotal in minimizing the risk of pneumonia and death. Recently, many studies have found mortality benefit to operation fixation (ORIF) of ribs in select patients. However, this procedure remains underutilized partly due to lack of familiarity with its technique and pitfalls by trauma surgeons, in particular. Whereas there are publications on operative technique, there are no studies describing pitfalls associated with this procedure. The purpose of this paper is to describe pitfalls on the technical aspects of ORIF of the ribs based on the medical literature where possible and based on our experience in instances where peer reviewed evidence is lacking. The paper is not meant to serve as a protocol for managing rib fractures.

  19. Active Search on Carcasses versus Pitfall Traps: a Comparison of Sampling Methods.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, N I; Camina, R; Visciarelli, E C; Centeno, N D

    2016-04-01

    The study of insect succession in cadavers and the classification of arthropods have mostly been done by placing a carcass in a cage, protected from vertebrate scavengers, which is then visited periodically. An alternative is to use specific traps. Few studies on carrion ecology and forensic entomology involving the carcasses of large vertebrates have employed pitfall traps. The aims of this study were to compare both sampling methods (active search on a carcass and pitfall trapping) for each coleopteran family, and to establish whether there is a discrepancy (underestimation and/or overestimation) in the presence of each family by either method. A great discrepancy was found for almost all families with some of them being more abundant in samples obtained through active search on carcasses and others in samples from traps, whereas two families did not show any bias towards a given sampling method. The fact that families may be underestimated or overestimated by the type of sampling technique highlights the importance of combining both methods, active search on carcasses and pitfall traps, in order to obtain more complete information on decomposition, carrion habitat and cadaveric families or species. Furthermore, a hypothesis advanced on the reasons for the underestimation by either sampling method showing biases towards certain families. Information about the sampling techniques indicating which would be more appropriate to detect or find a particular family is provided.

  20. Surgery of the ear and the lateral skull base: pitfalls and complications

    PubMed Central

    Schick, Bernhard; Dlugaiczyk, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Surgery of the ear and the lateral skull base is a fascinating, yet challenging field in otorhinolaryngology. A thorough knowledge of the associated complications and pitfalls is indispensable for the surgeon, not only to provide the best possible care to his patients, but also to further improve his surgical skills. Following a summary about general aspects in pre-, intra-and postoperative care of patients with disorders of the ear/lateral skull base, this article covers the most common pitfalls and complications in stapes surgery, cochlear implantation and surgery of vestibular schwannomas and jugulotympanal paragangliomas. Based on these exemplary procedures, basic “dos and don’ts” of skull base surgery are explained, which the reader can easily transfer to other disorders. Special emphasis is laid on functional aspects, such as hearing, balance and facial nerve function. Furthermore, the topics of infection, bleeding, skull base defects, quality of life and indication for revision surgery are discussed. An open communication about complications and pitfalls in ear/lateral skull base surgery among surgeons is a prerequisite for the further advancement of this fascinating field in ENT surgery. This article is meant to be a contribution to this process. PMID:24403973

  1. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every…

  2. Agenda to address climate change

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This document looks at addressing climate change in the 21st century. Topics covered are: Responding to climate change; exploring new avenues in energy efficiency; energy efficiency and alternative energy; residential sector; commercial sector; industrial sector; transportation sector; communities; renewable energy; understanding forests to mitigate and adapt to climate change; the Forest Carbon budget; mitigation and adaptation.

  3. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  4. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  5. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2016-07-12

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  6. Research strategies for addressing uncertainties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busch, David E.; Brekke, Levi D.; Averyt, Kristen; Jardine, Angela; Welling, Leigh; Garfin, Gregg; Jardine, Angela; Merideth, Robert; Black, Mary; LeRoy, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Research Strategies for Addressing Uncertainties builds on descriptions of research needs presented elsewhere in the book; describes current research efforts and the challenges and opportunities to reduce the uncertainties of climate change; explores ways to improve the understanding of changes in climate and hydrology; and emphasizes the use of research to inform decision making.

  7. Infrared imaging of the crime scene: possibilities and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Gerda J; Hoveling, Richelle J M; Roos, Martin; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G

    2013-09-01

    All objects radiate infrared energy invisible to the human eye, which can be imaged by infrared cameras, visualizing differences in temperature and/or emissivity of objects. Infrared imaging is an emerging technique for forensic investigators. The rapid, nondestructive, and noncontact features of infrared imaging indicate its suitability for many forensic applications, ranging from the estimation of time of death to the detection of blood stains on dark backgrounds. This paper provides an overview of the principles and instrumentation involved in infrared imaging. Difficulties concerning the image interpretation due to different radiation sources and different emissivity values within a scene are addressed. Finally, reported forensic applications are reviewed and supported by practical illustrations. When introduced in forensic casework, infrared imaging can help investigators to detect, to visualize, and to identify useful evidence nondestructively.

  8. Concussion management in US college football: progress and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Kroshus, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the frequency and severity of concussions from sport is an important issue in public health currently addressed by a multifaceted approach. Given the large number of participants and the comparatively high risk of injury, American football is an important sport to consider when examining concussion management practices. Focusing on American football at the collegiate level, this manuscript describes current research regarding concussion epidemiology, policy, implementation of clinical diagnosis, management and return-to-play standards and athlete concussion education. Although American collegiate sports leagues have put forth concussion-related policies in recent years, the implementation of these policies and related effects on athlete concussion education, clinical management of concussion and ultimately athlete health outcomes are not well understood. Additional research is needed. PMID:27064258

  9. The Pitfalls of Bioterrorism Preparedness: the Anthrax and Smallpox Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Hillel W.; Gould, Robert M.; Sidel, Victor W.

    2004-01-01

    Bioterrorism preparedness programs have contributed to death, illness, and waste of public health resources without evidence of benefit. Several deaths and many serious illnesses have resulted from the smallpox vaccination program; yet there is no clear evidence that a threat of smallpox exposure ever existed. The anthrax spores released in 2001 have been linked to secret US military laboratories—the resultant illnesses and deaths might not have occurred if those laboratories were not in operation. The present expansion of bioterrorism preparedness programs will continue to squander health resources, increase the dangers of accidental or purposeful release of dangerous pathogens, and further undermine efforts to enforce international treaties to ban biological and chemical weapons. The public health community should acknowledge the substantial harm that bioterrorism preparedness has already caused and develop mechanisms to increase our public health resources and to allocate them to address the world’s real health needs. PMID:15451727

  10. Multidimensional assessment of criminal recidivism: problems, pitfalls, and proposed solutions.

    PubMed

    Vrieze, Scott I; Grove, William M

    2010-06-01

    All states have statutes in place to civilly commit individuals at high risk for violence. The authors address difficulties in assessing such risk but use as an example the task of predicting sexual violence recidivism; the principles espoused here generalize to predicting all violence. As part of the commitment process, mental health professionals, who are often psychologists, evaluate an individual's risk of sexual recidivism. It is common for professionals conducting these risk assessments to use several actuarial risk prediction instruments (i.e., psychological tests). These tests rarely demonstrate close agreement in the risk figures they provide. Serious epistemological and psychometric problems in the multivariate assessment of recidivism risk are pointed out. Sound psychometric, or in some cases heuristic, solutions to these problems are proffered, in the hope of improving clinical practice. The authors focus on how to make these tests' outputs commensurable and discuss various ways to combine them in coherent, justifiable fashions.

  11. Multidimensional Assessment of Criminal Recidivism: Problems, Pitfalls, and Proposed Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Vrieze, Scott I.; Grove, William M.

    2010-01-01

    All states have statutes in place to commit civilly individuals at high risk for violence. This note addresses difficulties in assessing such risk, but uses as an example the task of predicting sexual violence recidivism; the principles espoused here generalize to predicting all violence. As part of commitment process, mental health professionals, who are often psychologists, evaluate an individual’s risk of sexual recidivism. It is common for professionals conducting these risk assessments to use several actuarial risk prediction instruments (i.e., psychological tests). These tests rarely agree closely in the risk figures they provide. Serious epistemological and psychometric problems in the multivariate assessment of recidivism risk are pointed out. Sound psychometric, or in some cases heuristic, solutions to these problems are proffered, in hope of improving clinical practice. We focus on how to make these tests’ outputs commensurable, and discuss various ways to combine them in coherent, justifiable, fashions. PMID:20528065

  12. Preanalytical investigations of phlebotomy: methodological aspects, pitfalls and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Ialongo, Cristiano; Bernardini, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Phlebotomy is often addressed as a crucial process in the pre-analytical phase, in which a large part of laboratory errors take place, but to date there is not yet a consolidated methodological paradigm. Seeking literature, we found 36 suitable investigations issued between 1996 and 2016 (April) dealing with the investigation of pre-analytical factors related to phlebotomy. We found that the largest part of studies had a cohort of healthy volunteers (22/36) or outpatients (11/36), with the former group showing a significantly smaller median sample size (N = 20, IQR: 17.5-30 and N = 88, IQR: 54.5-220.5 respectively, P < 0.001). Moreover, the largest part investigated one pre-analytical factor (26/36) and regarded more than one laboratory test (29/36), and authors preferably used paired Student’s t-test (17/36) or Wilcoxon’s test (11/36), but calibration (i.e. sample size calculation for a detectable effect) was addressed only in one manuscript. The Bland-Altman plot was often the preferred method used to estimate bias (12/36), as well as the Passing-Bablok regression for agreement (8/36). However, often papers did assess neither bias (12/36) nor agreement (24/36). Clinical significance of bias was preferably assessed comparing to a database value (16/36), and it resulted uncorrelated with the size of the effect produced by the factor (P = 0.142). However, the median effect size (ES) resulted significantly larger if the associated factor was clinically significant instead of non-significant (ES = 1.140, IQR: 0.815-1.700 and ES = 0.349, IQR: 0.228-0.531 respectively, P < 0.001). On these evidences, we discussed some recommendations for improving methodological consistency, delivering reliable results, as well as ensuring accessibility to practical evidences.

  13. Can ecosystem-scale translocations mitigate the impact of climate change on terrestrial biodiversity? Promises, pitfalls, and possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Stéphane; Case, Bradley S.; Lefort, Marie-Caroline; Waterhouse, Benjamin R.; Wratten, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    Because ecological interactions are the first components of the ecosystem to be impacted by climate change, future forms of threatened-species and ecosystem management should aim at conserving complete, functioning communities rather than single charismatic species. A possible way forward is the deployment of ecosystem-scale translocation (EST), where above- and below-ground elements of a functioning terrestrial ecosystem (including vegetation and topsoil) are carefully collected and moved together. Small-scale attempts at such practice have been made for the purpose of ecological restoration. By moving larger subsets of functioning ecosystems from climatically unstable regions to more stable ones, EST could provide a practical means to conserve mature and complex ecosystems threatened by climate change. However, there are a number of challenges associated with EST in the context of climate change mitigation, in particular the choice of donor and receptor sites. With the aim of fostering discussion and debate about the EST concept, we  1) outline the possible promises and pitfalls of EST in mitigating the impact of climate change on terrestrial biodiversity and 2) use a GIS-based approach to illustrate how  potential source and receptor sites, where EST could be trialed and evaluated globally, could be identified. PMID:26989475

  14. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  15. Applying Machine Learning to Facilitate Autism Diagnostics: Pitfalls and Promises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bone, Daniel; Goodwin, Matthew S.; Black, Matthew P.; Lee, Chi-Chun; Audhkhasi, Kartik; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2015-01-01

    Machine learning has immense potential to enhance diagnostic and intervention research in the behavioral sciences, and may be especially useful in investigations involving the highly prevalent and heterogeneous syndrome of autism spectrum disorder. However, use of machine learning in the absence of clinical domain expertise can be tenuous and lead…

  16. Democratising Turkey through Student-Centred Pedagogy: Opportunities and Pitfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altinyelken, Hülya Kosar

    2015-01-01

    Global reform talk on pedagogy has been converging around student-centred pedagogy (SCP) in recent decades. One of the significant appeals of this pedagogical model is its democratisation potentials. This article seeks to empirically study SCP's role in democratising learning and promoting social democratisation by taking the case of Turkey, a…

  17. Pitfalls in radiology informatics when deploying an enterprise solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsköld, L.; Wintell, M.; Lundberg, N.

    2010-03-01

    In the Region Vastra Gotaland (VGR), Sweden, sharing of data from 4 PACS system has been done through the Radiology Information Infrastructure that where deployed in 2007, and during 2008 and 2009 also including the information obtained from three different RIS systems installed in the region. The RIS information stored in the Radiology Information Infrastructure is Structured Reports (SR) objects that derivatives from the regional information model. In practice, the Enterprise solution now offers new ways of social collaboration through information sharing within a region. Interoperability was developed according to the IHE mission, i.e. applying standards such as digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) and Health Level 7 (HL7) to address specific clinical communication needs and support optimal patient care. Applying standards and information has shown to be suitable for interoperability, but not appropriate for implementing social collaboration i.e. first and second opinion, as there is no user services related to the standards. The need for social interaction leads to a common negotiated interface and in contrary with interoperability the approach will be a common defined semantic model. Radiology informatics is the glue between the technical standards, information models,semantics, social ruleworks and regulations used within radiology and their customers to share information and services.

  18. Pharmacological traits of delta opioid receptors: pitfalls or opportunities?

    PubMed Central

    van Rijn, Richard M.; DeFriel, Julia N.; Whistler, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Delta opioid receptors (DORs) have been considered as a potential target to relieve pain as well as treat depression and anxiety disorders, and are known to modulate other physiological responses, including ethanol and food consumption. A small number of DOR selective drugs are in clinical trials, but no DOR selective drugs have been approved by the Federal Drug Administration and some candidates have failed in phase II clinical trials, highlighting current difficulties producing effective delta opioid based therapies. Recent studies have provided new insights into the pharmacology of the DOR, which is often complex and at times paradoxical. This review will discuss the existing literature focusing on four aspects: 1) Two DOR subtypes have been postulated based on differences in pharmacological effects of existing DOR-selective ligands 2) DORs are expressed ubiquitously throughout the body and central nervous system and are, thus, positioned to play a role in a multitude of diseases. 3) DOR expression is often dynamic, with many reports of increased expression during exposure to chronic stimuli, such as stress, inflammation, neuropathy, morphine, or changes in endogenous opioid tone. 4) A large structural variety in DOR ligands implies potential different mechanisms of activating the receptor. These combined features of DOR pharmacology illustrate the potential benefit of designing tailored or biased DOR ligands. PMID:23649885

  19. Effectiveness and biases of Winkler litter extraction and pitfall trapping for collecting ground-dwelling ants in northern temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Kaloyan; Keiper, Joe

    2009-12-01

    The sampling efficiency of pitfall traps and Winkler litter extraction in northern deciduous forests was compared using ants. Both techniques are among the most common methods used to measure the diversity of organisms active on the forest floor. During 2005-2006, 90 Winkler and 180 pitfall trap samples from urban forest fragments in northeastern Ohio obtained 9,203 ants representing 31 species. Winklers captured all 31 species, whereas pitfall traps collected a total of 24 species. Winkler samples accumulated species more rapidly than did pitfall traps and had greater total species richness and higher abundance of ants recorded. Consistent with other studies, Winkler sampling was found to catch a greater number of smaller ants, whereas pitfall trapping caught a greater number of large-bodied ants. According to estimates of expected species richness, the combination of the two sampling techniques allowed for the collection of approximately 90% of the ants expected in the surveyed area. Site variation had little effect on the inherent differences in sampling efficacy between the two methods. Either technique adequately collected samples for broad comparisons and documentation of the more typical and representative ant fauna, but Winkler extraction exhibited the advantage of a more complete inventory. The application of both techniques should be considered if the aims of a study require estimation of community properties, such as relative abundance.

  20. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: Pearls and Pitfalls of Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Humna Abid; Lin, C. Huie; Guha, Ashrith

    2016-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is characterized by chronic obstruction of major pulmonary arteries by organized thromboembolic material. Untreated CTEPH can result in pulmonary hypertension and eventually right heart failure, yet it is the only form of pulmonary hypertension that is potentially curable with surgical or catheter-based intervention. While early diagnosis is key to increasing the likelihood of successful treatment, CTEPH remains largely underdiagnosed. This article reviews the role of echocardiogram, ventilation/perfusion scan, and other available modalities in the diagnosis of CTEPH. PMID:28289494

  1. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  2. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance.

  3. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  4. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating.

  5. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  6. Promise and Pitfalls of Lu/Hf-Sm/Nd Garnet Geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, R. L.; Vervoort, J. D.; Kohn, M. J.; Zirakparvar, N. A.; Hart, G. L.; Corrie, S. L.; Cheng, H.

    2007-12-01

    Our ability to routinely measure Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotopes in garnet allows broad new applications in geochronology, petrology, and tectonics. However, applications of these data can be limited by challenges in interpreting the petrologic record and preparing garnets for analysis. Here, we examine petrologic and chemical pitfalls encountered in garnet geochronology. Petrologic factors influencing trace element compositions in garnet include reactions that modify REE availability and partitioning (1,2), kinetically limited transfer of REEs to garnet (3), and bulk compositional heterogeneities (4). Interpreting the effects of these processes on Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf ages requires characterizing REE zonation prior to isotope analysis and age interpretation. Because garnet fractions are traditionally picked from crushed samples without regard to intracrystalline origins or chemistries, isochrons will represent mixtures derived to varying degrees from all periods of garnet growth. While measured zoning might generally indicate what garnet portion dominates the Lu/Hf or Sm/Nd budget, traditional mineral separation will rarely realize the chronologic potential afforded by high precision Hf and Nd isotope measurements. The potential use of alternative techniques, such as microsampling, necessitates selective digestion and/or leaching to eliminate inclusions within garnet. For Sm/Nd geochronology, H2SO4 leaching removes LREE-rich phosphates (e.g. apatite), but not silicates (e.g. epidote), precluding Sm-Nd dating of some rocks. For Lu/Hf geochronology, ubiquitous zircon microinclusions (c. 1 μm) can significantly disrupt age determinations. Microinclusions cannot be detected optically or separated physically, requiring selective chemical digestion. If complete digestion methods, such as bomb digestion, are used for garnet fractions, then "common Hf" from zircon will be contained in final solutions. These mixed analyses are of dubious utility and will fall into one of two

  7. Bayesian Modeling of Population Variability -- Practical Guidance and Pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Dana L. Kelly; Corwin L. Atwood

    2008-05-01

    With the advent of easy-to-use open-source software for Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, hierarchical Bayesian analysis is gaining in popularity. This paper presents practical guidance for hierarchical Bayes analysis of typical problems in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The guidance is related to choosing parameterizations that accelerate convergence of the MCMC sampling and to illustrating the potential sensitivity of the results to the functional form chosen for the first-stage prior. This latter issue has significant ramifications because the mean of the average population variability curve (PVC) from hierarchical Bayes (or the mean of the point estimate distribution from empirical Bayes) can be very sensitive to this choice in cases where variability is large. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the issues discussed.

  8. Social networking for nurse education: Possibilities, perils and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Green, Janet; Wyllie, Aileen; Jackson, Debra

    2014-03-11

    Abstract In this paper, we consider the potential and implications of using social networking sites such as Facebook® in nurse education. The concept of social networking and the use of Facebook will be explored, as will the theoretical constructs specific to the use of online technology and web 2.0 tools. Theories around Communities of Inquiry (Garrison, Anderson & Archer 2000), Communities of Practice (Wenger 1998), Activity Theory (Daniels, Cole & Wertsch 2007) and Actor Network Theory (Latour 1997) will be briefly explored, as will the work of Vygotsky (1978), as applies to the social aspects of learning. Boundary issues, such as if and how faculty and students should or could be connected via social networking sites will also be explored.

  9. Industry Support of Medical Research: Important Opportunity or Treacherous Pitfall?

    PubMed

    Tierney, William M; Meslin, Eric M; Kroenke, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    Pharmaceutical and device manufacturers fund more than half of the medical research in the U.S. Research funding by for-profit companies has increased over the past 20 years, while federal funding has declined. Research funding from for-profit medical companies is seen as tainted by many academicians because of potential biases and prior misbehavior by both investigators and companies. Yet NIH is encouraging partnerships between the public and private sectors to enhance scientific discovery. There are instances, such as methods for improving drug adherence and post-marketing drug surveillance, where the interests of academician researchers and industry could be aligned. We provide examples of ethically performed industry-funded research and a set of principles and benchmarks for ethically credible academic-industry partnerships that could allow academic researchers, for-profit companies, and the public to benefit.

  10. Social networking for nurse education: Possibilities, perils and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Green, Janet; Wyllie, Aileen; Jackson, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we consider the potential and implications of using social networking sites such as Facebook® in nurse education. The concept of social networking and the use of Facebook will be explored, as will the theoretical constructs specific to the use of online technology and Web 2.0 tools. Theories around Communities of Inquiry (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000), Communities of Practice (Wenger, 1998), Activity Theory (Daniels, Cole, & Wertsch, 2007) and Actor-Network theory (Latour, 1997) will be briefly explored, as will the work of Vygotsky (1978), as applies to the social aspects of learning. Boundary issues, such as if and how faculty and students should or could be connected via social networking sites will also be explored.

  11. Promises and pitfalls of live attenuated pneumococcal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rosch, Jason W

    2014-01-01

    The pneumococcus is a remarkably adaptable pathogen whose disease manifestations range from mucosal surface infections such as acute otitis media and pneumonia to invasive infections such as sepsis and meningitis. Currently approved vaccines target the polysaccharide capsule, of which there are over 90 distinct serotypes, leading to rapid serotype replacement in vaccinated populations. Substantial progress has been made in the development of a universal pneumococcal vaccine, with efforts focused on broadly conserved and protective protein antigens. An area attracting considerable attention is the potential application of live attenuated vaccines to confer serotype-independent protection against mucosal and systemic infection. On the basis of recent work to understand the mucosal and systemic responses to nasal administration of pneumococci and to develop novel attenuation strategies, the prospect of a practical and protective live vaccine remains promising.

  12. The pitfalls of prescribing for family and friends

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Summary In most of Australia there is no legislation prohibiting medical practitioners from prescribing for family and friends. In South Australia it is prohibited to prescribe Schedule 8 drugs for family members unless it is a verifiable emergency. The Medical Board of Australia states medical practitioners should avoid providing medical care to anyone with whom they have a close personal relationship. Medical defence organisations may exclude treatment of family members from doctors’ insurance cover. Think very carefully before you prescribe for family and friends. It is only considered ethically and professionally appropriate to prescribe in exceptional circumstances, and there are potential risks to you and your family member or friend if you do. PMID:27041799

  13. Image Coding Based on Address Vector Quantization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yushu

    Image coding is finding increased application in teleconferencing, archiving, and remote sensing. This thesis investigates the potential of Vector Quantization (VQ), a relatively new source coding technique, for compression of monochromatic and color images. Extensions of the Vector Quantization technique to the Address Vector Quantization method have been investigated. In Vector Quantization, the image data to be encoded are first processed to yield a set of vectors. A codeword from the codebook which best matches the input image vector is then selected. Compression is achieved by replacing the image vector with the index of the code-word which produced the best match, the index is sent to the channel. Reconstruction of the image is done by using a table lookup technique, where the label is simply used as an address for a table containing the representative vectors. A code-book of representative vectors (codewords) is generated using an iterative clustering algorithm such as K-means, or the generalized Lloyd algorithm. A review of different Vector Quantization techniques are given in chapter 1. Chapter 2 gives an overview of codebook design methods including the Kohonen neural network to design codebook. During the encoding process, the correlation of the address is considered and Address Vector Quantization is developed for color image and monochrome image coding. Address VQ which includes static and dynamic processes is introduced in chapter 3. In order to overcome the problems in Hierarchical VQ, Multi-layer Address Vector Quantization is proposed in chapter 4. This approach gives the same performance as that of the normal VQ scheme but the bit rate is about 1/2 to 1/3 as that of the normal VQ method. In chapter 5, a Dynamic Finite State VQ based on a probability transition matrix to select the best subcodebook to encode the image is developed. In chapter 6, a new adaptive vector quantization scheme, suitable for color video coding, called "A Self -Organizing

  14. Science to operations: challenges, rewards, and pitfalls of converting algorithm science code to operational code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duda, James L.; Emch, Pamela G.

    2005-01-01

    The NGST/Raytheon Contractor Team selected to build and operate the system has responsibility for both hardware and algorithms . This paper describes the process being used by the NGST/Raytheon team to convert science-grade algorithm code to operational code. Also discussed are the challenges, rewards, and pitfalls associated with the process of converting an evolving science-grade algorithm code to pre-launch operational code. A major challenge is dealing with two simultaneous feedback loops; one between the NGST and the sensor vendor; another between NGST and its Raytheon partner to convert an evolving and immature science product to an operational product.

  15. Pitfalls and artifacts in the interpretation of oncologic PET/CT of the chest

    PubMed Central

    Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Capobianco, Julia; de Oliveira, Marco Antônio Condé

    2017-01-01

    PET/CT is widely used for the evaluation of patients with thoracic malignancies. Although the levels of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake are usually high in neoplastic diseases, they can also be physiological, due to artifacts. In addition, FDG uptake can occur in benign conditions such as infectious, inflammatory, and iatrogenic lesions. Furthermore, some malignant tumors, such as adenocarcinoma in situ (formerly known as bronchoalveolar carcinoma) and carcinoid tumors, may not show FDG uptake. Here, we illustrate the main pitfalls and artifacts in the interpretation of the results of oncologic PET/CT of the chest, outlining strategies for avoiding misinterpretation. PMID:28298733

  16. Sweating the small stuff: pitfalls in the use of radiation detection instruments.

    PubMed

    Prekeges, Jennifer Lynne

    2014-06-01

    Nuclear medicine technologists use nonimaging radiation detection instruments on a daily basis and routinely assess their performance in several ways. These instruments are simple to operate compared with imaging instruments but are also susceptible to misuse. After reviewing the theoretic basis for common mistakes and the importance of routine quality control, this continuing education article discusses pitfalls in the operation of dose calibrators, survey meters, scintillation detectors, and semiconductors. The article also reviews quality control procedures and ways in which these can be performed incorrectly. The goal of the article is to help technologists to spot and correct problems before they lead to errant results.

  17. Echocardiographic Evaluation of Left Atrial Mechanics: Function, History, Novel Techniques, Advantages, and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Leischik, Roman; Littwitz, Henning; Dworrak, Birgit; Garg, Pankaj; Zhu, Meihua; Sahn, David J.; Horlitz, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Left atrial (LA) functional analysis has an established role in assessing left ventricular diastolic function. The current standard echocardiographic parameters used to study left ventricular diastolic function include pulsed-wave Doppler mitral inflow analysis, tissue Doppler imaging measurements, and LA dimension estimation. However, the above-mentioned parameters do not directly quantify LA performance. Deformation studies using strain and strain-rate imaging to assess LA function were validated in previous research, but this technique is not currently used in routine clinical practice. This review discusses the history, importance, and pitfalls of strain technology for the analysis of LA mechanics. PMID:26236735

  18. SPECT-CT Assessment of Pseudarthrosis after Spinal Fusion: Diagnostic Pitfall due to a Broken Screw

    PubMed Central

    Rager, Olivier; Amzalag, Gaël; Varoquaux, Arthur; Schaller, Karl; Ratib, Osman; Tessitore, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    A 43-year-old drug addicted female was referred for a L5-S1 posterolateral in situ fixation with autologous graft because of an L5/S1 severe discopathy with listhesis. After six months, low back pain recurred. A Tc-99m HDP SPECT-CT diagnosed a pseudarthrosis with intense uptake of the L5-S1 endplates and a fracture of the right S1 screw just outside the metal-bone interface without any uptake or bone resorption around the screw. The absence of uptake around a broken screw is a pitfall that the physician should be aware of. PMID:24159394

  19. Benign phyllodes tumor with tubular adenoma-like epithelial component in FNAC: A diagnostic pitfall

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Kishori M

    2016-01-01

    Benign phyllodes tumor (BPT) is a biphasic neoplasm composed of bland stromal and epithelial elements. Cytologic diagnostic criteria of BPT, though documented in the literature, diagnostic pitfalls in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) may occur due to sampling error, high cellularity, ductal hyperplasia, paucity of stromal component, and occasional dissociation of epithelial cells. Here, we describe a case of BPT diagnosed by histology in a 19-year-old female, where FNAC features were inconclusive due to paucity of stromal component, predominance of tubular adenoma-like epithelial component, and due to the presence of other overlapping features with fibroadenoma. PMID:28028339

  20. Can artificial parthenogenesis sidestep ethical pitfalls in human therapeutic cloning? An historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fangerau, H

    2005-01-01

    The aim of regenerative medicine is to reconstruct tissue that has been lost or pathologically altered. Therapeutic cloning seems to offer a method of achieving this aim; however, the ethical debate surrounding human therapeutic cloning is highly controversial. Artificial parthenogenesis—obtaining embryos from unfertilised eggs—seems to offer a way to sidestep these ethical pitfalls. Jacques Loeb (1859–1924), the founding father of artificial parthogenesis, faced negative public opinion when he published his research in 1899. His research, the public's response to his findings, and his ethical foundations serve as an historical argument both for the communication of science and compromise in biological research. PMID:16319240

  1. The measurement of blood and plasma nitrite by chemiluminescence: pitfalls and solutions.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Mildred M; Kleinbongard, Petra; Ringwood, Lorna; Hito, Rania; Hunter, Christian J; Schechter, Alan N; Gladwin, Mark T; Dejam, André

    2006-08-15

    There are a number of difficulties involved in the quantification of nitrite in biological systems. These difficulties result from oxidation of nitrite (within minutes) by heme proteins, such as hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytoglobin, and neuroglobin; its low levels in vivo; and its ubiquitous presence in laboratory buffers and glassware. The goal of this review is to present an assay suitable for the sensitive and specific measurement of intravascular nitrite in mammals using the chemiluminescence-based nitric oxide analyzer and to inform the reader on how to evade the pitfalls pertinent to nitrite determination in biological matrices.

  2. Benign phyllodes tumor with tubular adenoma-like epithelial component in FNAC: A diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Panda, Kishori M

    2016-01-01

    Benign phyllodes tumor (BPT) is a biphasic neoplasm composed of bland stromal and epithelial elements. Cytologic diagnostic criteria of BPT, though documented in the literature, diagnostic pitfalls in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) may occur due to sampling error, high cellularity, ductal hyperplasia, paucity of stromal component, and occasional dissociation of epithelial cells. Here, we describe a case of BPT diagnosed by histology in a 19-year-old female, where FNAC features were inconclusive due to paucity of stromal component, predominance of tubular adenoma-like epithelial component, and due to the presence of other overlapping features with fibroadenoma.

  3. Affinity proteomics to study endogenous protein complexes: Pointers, pitfalls, preferences and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    LaCava, John; Molloy, Kelly R.; Taylor, Martin S.; Domanski, Michal; Chait, Brian T.; Rout, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Dissecting and studying cellular systems requires the ability to specifically isolate distinct proteins along with the co-assembled constituents of their associated complexes. Affinity capture techniques leverage high affinity, high specificity reagents to target and capture proteins of interest along with specifically associated proteins from cell extracts. Affinity capture coupled to mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic analyses has enabled the isolation and characterization of a wide range of endogenous protein complexes. Here, we outline effective procedures for the affinity capture of protein complexes, highlighting best practices and common pitfalls. PMID:25757543

  4. Can artificial parthenogenesis sidestep ethical pitfalls in human therapeutic cloning? An historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Fangerau, H

    2005-12-01

    The aim of regenerative medicine is to reconstruct tissue that has been lost or pathologically altered. Therapeutic cloning seems to offer a method of achieving this aim; however, the ethical debate surrounding human therapeutic cloning is highly controversial. Artificial parthenogenesis-obtaining embryos from unfertilised eggs-seems to offer a way to sidestep these ethical pitfalls. Jacques Loeb (1859-1924), the founding father of artificial parthenogenesis, faced negative public opinion when he published his research in 1899. His research, the public's response to his findings, and his ethical foundations serve as an historical argument both for the communication of science and compromise in biological research.

  5. Cataract Surgery in Eyes with Previous Glaucoma Surgery: Pearls and Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Dada, Tanuj; Bhartiya, Shibal; Begum Baig, Nafees

    2013-01-01

    The problem of cataract management in the patients of glaucoma who have undergone fltering surgery is a challenging proposition for any surgeon, as the surgery can lead to several complications in the already compromised eye. As glaucoma requires lifelong management, the development of cataract is a significant concern because its treatment may lead to loss of intraocular pressure (IOP) control. This review aims to highlight the intra- and postoperative measures that may increase the chances of bleb survival following cataract surgery. How to cite this article: Dada T, Bhartiya S, Baig NB. Cataract Surgery in Eyes with Previous Glaucoma Surgery: Pearls and Pitfalls. J Current Glau Prac 2013;7(3):99-105.

  6. Pitfalls in the Performance and Interpretation of Scintigraphic Imaging for Pleuroperitoneal Shunt.

    PubMed

    Covington, Matthew F; Choudhary, Gagandeep; Avery, Ryan J; Kuo, Phillip H

    2016-11-01

    Ascites can cause pleural effusions when the peritoneal fluid crosses the diaphragm through a pleuroperitoneal shunt in the setting of hepatic cirrhosis (hepatic hydrothorax) or malignant ascites. Scintigraphic imaging for pleuroperitoneal shunt requires intraperitoneal injection of Tc-SC or Tc-macroaggregated albumin followed by planar imaging of the chest and abdomen. Pleuroperitoneal shunt is confirmed by identifying radiotracer crossing the diaphragm from the peritoneal to pleural space. An atlas of pleuroperitoneal shunt imaging pitfalls is presented to facilitate optimal performance and interpretation of nuclear pleuroperitoneal shunt examinations. Examples include cases of nondiagnostic radiotracer injections, processing errors, and nontarget uptake.

  7. How is environmental conflict addressed by SIA?

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, C.J.

    2010-09-15

    The fields of Environmental Conflict Management (ECM), Environmental Conflict Resolution (ECR), and Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) have become well established; however, as yet there has not been much use of Social Impact Assessment (SIA) to manage environmental conflicts. ECM, ECR and PCIA are mainly undertaken when problems are advanced or, more likely, have run their course (post-conflict). This paper examines how conflict is addressed by SIA and whether there is potential to develop it for more proactive assessment of conflicts (pre-conflict or while things develop). SIA has the potential to identify and clarify the cause(s) of environmental and natural resources conflicts, and could possibly enable some avoidance or early mitigation. A promising approach may be for 'conflict-aware' SIA to watch for critical conflict stages or thresholds and to monitor stakeholders. Effective conflict-aware SIA might also significantly contribute to efforts to achieve sustainable development.

  8. Content-addressable holographic databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grawert, Felix; Kobras, Sebastian; Burr, Geoffrey W.; Coufal, Hans J.; Hanssen, Holger; Riedel, Marc; Jefferson, C. Michael; Jurich, Mark C.

    2000-11-01

    Holographic data storage allows the simultaneous search of an entire database by performing multiple optical correlations between stored data pages and a search argument. We have recently developed fuzzy encoding techniques for this fast parallel search and demonstrated a holographic data storage system that searches digital data records with high fidelity. This content-addressable retrieval is based on the ability to take the two-dimensional inner product between the search page and each stored data page. We show that this ability is lost when the correlator is defocussed to avoid material oversaturation, but can be regained by the combination of a random phase mask and beam confinement through total internal reflection. Finally, we propose an architecture in which spatially multiplexed holograms are distributed along the path of the search beam, allowing parallel search of large databases.

  9. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  10. Bedaquiline for the treatment of resistant tuberculosis: promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, Ashish Kumar; Dahiya, Neha

    2014-07-01

    Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is hindered by limited efficacy and significant toxicity of second-line drugs. The need for new therapeutic options is critical to combat the global MDR-TB epidemic. Bedaquiline is a novel oral diarylquinoline approved by Food and Drug administration (FDA) for the treatment of adults with pulmonary MDR-TB on the basis of Phase IIb trial data under the provisions of the accelerated approval regulations for serious or life-threatening conditions. The FDA advisory committee members voted unanimously on efficacy data based on surrogate measures, however they were split on the issues of safety of bedaquiline. Main safety concerns include QT interval prolongation, hepatic related adverse events, and excess mortality in bedaquiline treated patients. While bedaquiline approval is a story of many firsts and certainly a welcome addition to the existing arsenal of anti-TB agents, a cautiously optimistic approach is required to assess the risk benefit profile of the drug. Acceleration of further Phase III trials and clinical studies is imperative, as is timely analysis of emerging data on the real world use of the drug. This mini review outlines the clinical pharmacology of bedaquiline highlighting the potential promises and challenges that implicate the risk benefit profile of drug.

  11. The power and pitfalls of HIV phylogenetics in public health.

    PubMed

    Brooks, James I; Sandstrom, Paul A

    2013-07-25

    Phylogenetics is the application of comparative studies of genetic sequences in order to infer evolutionary relationships among organisms. This tool can be used as a form of molecular epidemiology to enhance traditional population-level communicable disease surveillance. Phylogenetic study has resulted in new paradigms being created in the field of communicable diseases and this commentary aims to provide the reader with an explanation of how phylogenetics can be used in tracking infectious diseases. Special emphasis will be placed upon the application of phylogenetics as a tool to help elucidate HIV transmission patterns and the limitations to these methods when applied to forensic analysis. Understanding infectious disease epidemiology in order to prevent new transmissions is the sine qua non of public health. However, with increasing epidemiological resolution, there may be an associated potential loss of privacy to the individual. It is within this context that we aim to promote the discussion on how to use phylogenetics to achieve important public health goals, while at the same time protecting the rights of the individual.

  12. Neuroimaging in Psychiatric Pharmacogenetics Research: The Promise and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, Mary; Smith, Ryan M; Chenoweth, Meghan J; Kumar Bhattacharjee, Abesh; Kelsoe, John R; Tyndale, Rachel F; Lerman, Caryn

    2013-01-01

    The integration of research on neuroimaging and pharmacogenetics holds promise for improving treatment for neuropsychiatric conditions. Neuroimaging may provide a more sensitive early measure of treatment response in genetically defined patient groups, and could facilitate development of novel therapies based on an improved understanding of pathogenic mechanisms underlying pharmacogenetic associations. This review summarizes progress in efforts to incorporate neuroimaging into genetics and treatment research on major psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and addiction. Methodological challenges include: performing genetic analyses in small study populations used in imaging studies; inclusion of patients with psychiatric comorbidities; and the extensive variability across studies in neuroimaging protocols, neurobehavioral task probes, and analytic strategies. Moreover, few studies use pharmacogenetic designs that permit testing of genotype × drug effects. As a result of these limitations, few findings have been fully replicated. Future studies that pre-screen participants for genetic variants selected a priori based on drug metabolism and targets have the greatest potential to advance the science and practice of psychiatric treatment. PMID:23793356

  13. Ethical dilemmas in scientific publication: pitfalls and solutions for editors.

    PubMed

    Gollogly, Laragh; Momen, Hooman

    2006-08-01

    Editors of scientific journals need to be conversant with the mechanisms by which scientific misconduct is amplified by publication practices. This paper provides definitions, ways to document the extent of the problem, and examples of editorial attempts to counter fraud. Fabrication, falsification, duplication, ghost authorship, gift authorship, lack of ethics approval, non-disclosure, 'salami' publication, conflicts of interest, auto-citation, duplicate submission, duplicate publications, and plagiarism are common problems. Editorial misconduct includes failure to observe due process, undue delay in reaching decisions and communicating these to authors, inappropriate review procedures, and confounding a journal's content with its advertising or promotional potential. Editors also can be admonished by their peers for failure to investigate suspected misconduct, failure to retract when indicated, and failure to abide voluntarily by the six main sources of relevant international guidelines on research, its reporting and editorial practice. Editors are in a good position to promulgate reasonable standards of practice, and can start by using consensus guidelines on publication ethics to state explicitly how their journals function. Reviewers, editors, authors and readers all then have a better chance to understand, and abide by, the rules of publishing.

  14. Increasing clinical presence of mobile communication technology: avoiding the pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Visvanathan, Akila; Gibb, Alan P; Brady, Richard R W

    2011-10-01

    Mobile communication technologies are employed in many diverse areas of healthcare delivery to provide improved quality and efficiency of communication and facilitate increased rapidity of data or information transfer. Mobile phones enable healthcare professionals to possess a portable platform from which to provide many healthcare-related applications and are a popular means to directly communicate with colleagues and patients. As involvement of mobile communication technology in healthcare delivery continues to rapidly expand, there are also important considerations of relevance to patient safety and security as a result. Here, we review the previous evidence of reported clinical risks associated with mobile communication technology, such as electromagnetic interference, confidentiality and data security, distraction/noise, infection control, and cross contamination. In conclusion, although mobile phones provide much putative potential improvement to healthcare delivery, further evaluation and research are required to both inform and protect health professionals and users of such technology in the healthcare environment and provide the evidence base to support the provision of clear and comprehensive guidelines.

  15. EEG source imaging in epilepsy--practicalities and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Kaiboriboon, Kitti; Lüders, Hans O; Hamaneh, Mehdi; Turnbull, John; Lhatoo, Samden D

    2012-09-01

    EEG source imaging (ESI) is a model-based imaging technique that integrates temporal and spatial components of EEG to identify the generating source of electrical potentials recorded on the scalp. Recent advances in computer technologies have made the analysis of ESI data less time-consuming, and have rekindled interest in this technique as a clinical diagnostic tool. On the basis of the available body of evidence, ESI seems to be a promising tool for epilepsy evaluation; however, the precise clinical value of ESI in presurgical evaluation of epilepsy and in localization of eloquent cortex remains to be investigated. In this Review, we describe two fundamental issues in ESI; namely, the forward and inverse problems, and their solutions. The clinical application of ESI in surgical planning for patients with medically refractory focal epilepsy, and its use in source reconstruction together with invasive recordings, is also discussed. As ESI can be used to map evoked responses, we discuss the clinical utility of this technique in cortical mapping-an essential process when planning resective surgery for brain regions that are in close proximity to eloquent cortex.

  16. Addressing Risks to Advance Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Iltis, Ana S.; Misra, Sahana; Dunn, Laura B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Campbell, Amy; Earll, Sarah A.; Glowinski, Anne; Hadley, Whitney B.; Pies, Ronald; DuBois, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk communication and management are essential to the ethical conduct of research, yet addressing risks may be time consuming for investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) may reject study designs that appear too risky. This can discourage needed research, particularly in higher risk protocols or those enrolling potentially vulnerable individuals, such as those with some level of suicidality. Improved mechanisms for addressing research risks may facilitate much needed psychiatric research. This article provides mental health researchers with practical approaches to: 1) identify and define various intrinsic research risks; 2) communicate these risks to others (e.g., potential participants, regulatory bodies, society); 3) manage these risks during the course of a study; and 4) justify the risks. Methods As part of a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded scientific meeting series, a public conference and a closed-session expert panel meeting were held on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. The expert panel reviewed the literature with a focus on empirical studies and developed recommendations for best practices and further research on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. IRB review was not required because there were no human subjects. The NIMH played no role in developing or reviewing the manuscript. Results Challenges, current data, practical strategies, and topics for future research are addressed for each of four key areas pertaining to management and disclosure of risks in clinical trials: identifying and defining risks, communicating risks, managing risks during studies, and justifying research risks. Conclusions Empirical data on risk communication, managing risks, and the benefits of research can support the ethical conduct of mental health research and may help investigators better conceptualize and confront risks and to gain IRB approval. PMID:24173618

  17. Pitfalls in brain death diagnosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ruess, Daniel; Rieger, Bernhard; Goldbrunner, Roland; Schlacke, Hans-Peter

    2013-05-01

    Although there are distinct guidelines in nearly all countries, a reliable secure assessment of brain death in cases with open head injury can be challenging. We present a case of a 32-year-old man with severe head injury after intracranial penetration of a grindstone fragment. As the injury led to destruction of nearly the whole greater wing of the right sphenoid bone and parts of the right orbit, the examination of brainstem reflexes and the confirmation of brain death was unfeasible. On day 2, all clinical criteria of brain death (coma, absence of brainstem reflexes, apnea) were fulfilled. In addition, there was an extinction of brainstem auditory (BAEP) and cerebral (N20) components of median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials, while electroencephalogram (EEG) activity was still present. In the following days, a persisting EEG activity was obtained. Thus, an irreversible loss of whole brain functions could not be proved. As the patient had agreed to organ donation in case of brain death several years ago, ancillary methods to test the cessation of cerebral blood flow were mandatory. However, in this patient these methods turned out either to be doubtful or unavailable. For example, values of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography are not reliable in cases with open head injury. Due to a progressive septic state, time was running out to get the radiopharmaceutical agent for a cerebral scintigraphy (delivery time about 7 days, as the radiopharmaceutical agent was not in stock). Referring to the actual German guidelines, we had no legitimating indication for a cerebral angiography. Finally, the patient died of sepsis. We discuss the widening of the German guidelines in assessing brain death with the fast and low-risk method of cerebral computed tomography-angiography (CTA) to confirm diagnosis of brain death.

  18. Nanowire Tunnel Field Effect Transistors: Prospects and Pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvia, Somaia Sarwat

    The tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) has the potential to operate at lower voltages and lower power than the field effect transistor (FET). The TFET can circumvent the fundamental thermal limit of the inverse subthreshold slope (S) by exploiting interband tunneling of non-equilibrium "cold" carriers. The conduction mechanism in the TFET is governed by band-to-band tunneling which limits the drive current. TFETs built with III-V materials like InAs and InSb can produce enough tunneling current because of their small direct bandgap. Our simulation results show that although they require highly degenerate source doping to support the high electric fields in the tunnel region, the devices achieve minimum inverse subthreshold slopes of 30 mV/dec. In subthreshold, these devices experience both regimes of voltage-controlled tunneling and cold-carrier injection. Numerical results based on a discretized 8-band k.p model are compared to analytical WKB theory. For both regular FETs and TFETs, direct channel tunneling dominates the leakage current when the physical gate length is reduced to 5 nm. Therefore, a survey of materials is performed to determine their ability to suppress the direct tunnel current through a 5 nm barrier. The tunneling effective mass gives the best indication of the relative size of the tunnel currents. Si gives the lowest overall tunnel current for both the conduction and valence band and, therefore, it is the optimum choice for suppressing tunnel current at the 5 nm scale. Our numerical simulation shows that the finite number, random placement, and discrete nature of the dopants in the source of an InAs nanowire (NW) TFET affect both the mean value and the variance of the drive current and the inverse subthreshold slope. The discrete doping model gives an average drive current and an inverse subthreshold slope that are less than those predicted from the homogeneous doping model. The doping density required to achieve a target drive current is

  19. DAAS: Defense Automatic Addressing System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    Optional Development. flOSS can be provided in the following two ways: a. Potential Scbscribers Use of Existing ADP System. If the PW country has an...series. (1) Features of the Turnkea estem. This menu driven system provides for easy system operation aW initial training. Another feature of the turnkey

  20. Development of the National Health Information Systems in Botswana: Pitfalls, prospects and lessons

    PubMed Central

    Seitio-Kgokgwe, Onalenna; Gauld, Robin D. C.; Hill, Philip C.; Barnett, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies evaluating development of health information systems in developing countries are limited. Most of the available studies are based on pilot projects or cross-sectional studies. We took a longitudinal approach to analysing the development of Botswana’s health information systems. Objectives: We aimed to: (i) trace the development of the national health information systems in Botswana (ii) identify pitfalls during development and prospects that could be maximized to strengthen the system; and (iii) draw lessons for Botswana and other countries working on establishing or improving their health information systems. Methods: This article is based on data collected through document analysis and key informant interviews with policy makers, senior managers and staff of the Ministry of Health and senior officers from various stakeholder organizations. Results: Lack of central coordination, weak leadership, weak policy and regulatory frameworks, and inadequate resources limited development of the national health information systems in Botswana. Lack of attention to issues of organizational structure is one of the major pitfalls. Conclusion: The ongoing reorganization of the Ministry of Health provides opportunity to reposition the health information system function. The current efforts including development of the health information management policy and plan could enhance the health information management system. PMID:26392841

  1. [Pleomorphic adenoma of salivary glands: diagnostic pitfalls and mimickers of malignancy].

    PubMed

    Skálová, A; Andrle, P; Hostička, L; Michal, M

    2012-10-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common salivary gland tumor, characterized by a complex biphasic proliferation of epithelial and myoepithelial cells intermingled with a mezenchymal component with frequent metaplastic changes and protean histomorphology of the cells. This review describes several unusual histological findings in pleomorphic adenoma that may mimic malignancy, and therefore they represent a diagnostic pitfall. Intravascular invasion of tumor cells is generally suspicious of malignancy; however, intravascular tumor deposits may be rarely found within the capsule of clinically benign salivary pleomorphic adenomas. It is important not to render a malignant diagnosis in such neoplasms, in the absence of other evidence of malignancy. Pleomorphic adenomas, particularly of minor glands of palate, may contain large areas of squamous and mucinous metaplasia suspicious of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC). In contrast to MEC, metaplastic pleomorphic adenomas do not harbour the distinctive translocations t(11;19) and t(11;15), they are not invasive, in contrast they reveal at least focally myxochondroid stroma. Cribriform structures in pleomorphic adenoma may mimic adenoid cystic carcinoma. Oncocytic metaplasia in cellular rich pleomorphic adenoma/myoepithelioma may be associated with significant nuclear polymorphism and hyperchromasia suspicious of malignancy. The most common pitfall in diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma is so called "atypical PA" that must be distinguished from early malignant transformation to in situ-carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma.

  2. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.

  3. Circumventing Antivector Immunity: Potential Use of Nonhuman Adenoviral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Podgorski, Iva I.; Downes, Nicholas; Alemany, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Adenoviruses are efficient gene delivery vectors based on their ability to transduce a wide variety of cell types and drive high-level transient transgene expression. While there have been advances in modifying human adenoviral (HAdV) vectors to increase their safety profile, there are still pitfalls that need to be further addressed. Preexisting humoral and cellular immunity against common HAdV serotypes limits the efficacy of gene transfer and duration of transgene expression. As an alternative, nonhuman AdV (NHAdV) vectors can circumvent neutralizing antibodies against HAdVs in immunized mice and monkeys and in human sera, suggesting that NHAdV vectors could circumvent preexisting humoral immunity against HAdVs in a clinical setting. Consequently, there has been an increased interest in developing NHAdV vectors for gene delivery in humans. In this review, we outline the recent advances and limitations of HAdV vectors for gene therapy and describe examples of NHAdV vectors focusing on their immunogenicity, tropism, and potential as effective gene therapy vehicles. PMID:24499174

  4. Circumventing antivector immunity: potential use of nonhuman adenoviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Gordo, Estrella; Podgorski, Iva I; Downes, Nicholas; Alemany, Ramon

    2014-04-01

    Adenoviruses are efficient gene delivery vectors based on their ability to transduce a wide variety of cell types and drive high-level transient transgene expression. While there have been advances in modifying human adenoviral (HAdV) vectors to increase their safety profile, there are still pitfalls that need to be further addressed. Preexisting humoral and cellular immunity against common HAdV serotypes limits the efficacy of gene transfer and duration of transgene expression. As an alternative, nonhuman AdV (NHAdV) vectors can circumvent neutralizing antibodies against HAdVs in immunized mice and monkeys and in human sera, suggesting that NHAdV vectors could circumvent preexisting humoral immunity against HAdVs in a clinical setting. Consequently, there has been an increased interest in developing NHAdV vectors for gene delivery in humans. In this review, we outline the recent advances and limitations of HAdV vectors for gene therapy and describe examples of NHAdV vectors focusing on their immunogenicity, tropism, and potential as effective gene therapy vehicles.

  5. Pitfalls in Inversion and Interpretation of Continuous Resistivity Profiling Data: Effects of Resolution Limitations and Measurement Error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, J. W.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Loke, M. H.; White, E. A.

    2005-12-01

    Water-borne continuous resistivity profiling (CRP), also called marine or streaming resistivity, increasingly is used to support hydrogeophysical studies in freshwater and saltwater environments. CRP can provide resistivity tomograms for delineation of focused ground-water discharge, identification of sediment types, and mapping the near-shore freshwater/saltwater interface. Data collection, performed with a boat-towed electrode streamer, is commonly fast and relatively straightforward. In contrast, data processing and interpretation are potentially time consuming and subject to pitfalls. Data analysis is difficult due to the underdetermined nature of the tomographic inverse problem and the poorly understood resolution of tomograms, which is a function of the measurement physics, survey geometry, measurement error, and inverse problem parameterization and regularization. CRP data analysis in particular is complicated by noise in the data, sources of which include water leaking into the electrode cable, inefficient data collection geometry, and electrode obstruction by vegetation in the water column. Preliminary modeling has shown that, as in other types of geotomography, inversions of CRP data tend to overpredict the extent of and underpredict the magnitude of resistivity anomalies. Previous work also has shown that the water layer has a strong effect on the measured apparent resistivity values as it commonly has a much lower resistivity than the subsurface. Here we use synthetic examples and inverted field data sets to (1) assess the ability of CRP to resolve hydrogeophysical targets of interest for a range of water depths and salinities; and (2) examine the effects of CRP streamer noise on inverted resistivity sections. Our results show that inversion and interpretation of CRP data should be guided by hydrologic insight, available data for bathymetry and water layer resistivity, and a reliable model of measurement errors.

  6. How the Irish Became CRT'd? "Greening" Critical Race Theory, and the Pitfalls of a Normative Atlantic State View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitching, Karl

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the transatlantic use of Critical Race Theory (CRT) frameworks to critically interpret racism in education internationally, and the possibilities and pitfalls this has for understanding racism in Ireland. It argues for the importance of CRT's framework on a number of grounds, but echoes cautions against the assumed, or sole…

  7. Advancing efforts to address youth violence involvement.

    PubMed

    Weist, M D; Cooley-Quille, M

    2001-06-01

    Discusses the increased public attention on violence-related problems among youth and the concomitant increased diversity in research. Youth violence involvement is a complex construct that includes violence experienced in multiple settings (home, school, neighborhood) and in multiple forms (as victims, witnesses, perpetrators, and through family members, friends, and the media). Potential impacts of such violence involvement are considerable, including increased internalizing and externalizing behaviors among youth and future problems in school adjustment and life-course development. This introductory article reviews key dimensions of youth-related violence, describes an American Psychological Association Task Force (Division 12) developed to advance relevant research, and presents examples of national resources and efforts that attempt to address this critical public health issue.

  8. Addressing the water budget with SMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Y. H.; AlBitar, A.; Tomer, S. K.; Merlin, O.; Pellarin, T.

    2012-12-01

    SMOS, a L Band radiometer using aperture synthesis to achieve a good spatial resolution, was successfully launched on November 2, 2009. It was developed and made under the leadership of the European Space Agency (ESA) as an Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. It is a joint program with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France and the Centro para el Desarrollo Teccnologico Industrial (CDTI) in Spain. SMOS carries a single payload, an L band 2D interferometric,radiometer in the 1400-1427 MHz h protected band. This wavelength penetrates well through the vegetation and the atmosphere is almost transparent enabling to infer both soil moisture and vegetation water content. SMOS achieves an unprecedented spatial resolution of 50 km at L-band maximum (43 km on average) with multi angular-dual polarized (or fully polarized) brightness temperatures over the globe and with a revisit time smaller than 3 days. SMOS as been now acquiring data for almost 2 years. The data quality exceeds what was expected, showing very good sensitivity and stability. The data is however very much impaired by man made emission in the protected band, leading to degraded measurements in several areas including parts of Europe and of China. However, many different international teams are now addressing cal val activities in various parts of the world, with notably large field campaigns either on the long time scale or over specific targets to address the specific issues. In parallel different teams are now starting addressing data use in various fields including hydrology. It requires coupling with other models and or disaggregation to address soil moisture distribution over watersheds. Significant new results were obtained for floods and drought events, together with new potential applications in terms of precipitation monitoring This paper thus gives an overview of the science goals of the SMOS mission, a description of its main elements, and a taste of the first results including

  9. Opportunities and challenges of using technology to address health disparities.

    PubMed

    Rivers, Brian M; Bernhardt, Jay M; Fleisher, Linda; Green, Bernard Lee

    2014-03-01

    During a panel presentation at the American Association for Cancer Research Cancer Health Disparities Conference titled 'Opportunities and challenges of using technology to address health disparities', the latest scientific advances in the application and utilization of mobile technology and/or mobile-health (mHealth) interventions to address cancer health disparities were discussed. The session included: an examination of overall population trends in the uptake of technology and the potential of addressing health disparities through such media; an exploration of the conceptual issues and challenges in the construction of mHealth interventions to address disparate and underserved populations; and a presentation of pilot study findings on the acceptability and feasibility of using mHealth interventions to address prostate cancer disparities among African-American men.

  10. USSOCOM’s Role in Addressing Human Trafficking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-02

    modern slavery . Its size, global scope, and potential to threaten national security warrants appropriate Department of Defense attention. However, the...manifests itself in slavery – indefensible abuse of the vulnerable by the more powerful. Addressing this issue will require a systemic and sustained... slavery today rivals that of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, that naïveté cannot prevent purposeful action to address the modern form of

  11. Defusion: A Behavior-Analytic Strategy for Addressing Private Events

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Katie; Lambert, Joseph; Twohig, Michael P

    2011-01-01

    Applied behavior analysts encounter situations in which private events hinder client progress, and additional techniques to address these issues are needed. By conceptualizing private events as verbal rules, we provide a behavior-analytic framework for understanding and addressing these events. Relational frame theory (RFT) is the basis for this conceptual foundation; the empirically based principles of RFT are presented along with direct implications for understanding private events. Defusion, an RFT-based technique for addressing private events, is then described and empirical studies that evaluate the effects of defusion are reviewed. Finally, potential clinical applications for practicing behavior analysts are offered. PMID:22649574

  12. Using neurophysiological signals that reflect cognitive or affective state: six recommendations to avoid common pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Zander, Thorsten O; van Erp, Jan B F; Korteling, Johannes E; Bronkhorst, Adelbert W

    2015-01-01

    Estimating cognitive or affective state from neurophysiological signals and designing applications that make use of this information requires expertise in many disciplines such as neurophysiology, machine learning, experimental psychology, and human factors. This makes it difficult to perform research that is strong in all its aspects as well as to judge a study or application on its merits. On the occasion of the special topic "Using neurophysiological signals that reflect cognitive or affective state" we here summarize often occurring pitfalls and recommendations on how to avoid them, both for authors (researchers) and readers. They relate to defining the state of interest, the neurophysiological processes that are expected to be involved in the state of interest, confounding factors, inadvertently "cheating" with classification analyses, insight on what underlies successful state estimation, and finally, the added value of neurophysiological measures in the context of an application. We hope that this paper will support the community in producing high quality studies and well-validated, useful applications.

  13. Lesson of the month 2: Catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy - pitfalls in diagnosis and medical management.

    PubMed

    Mamoojee, Yaasir; Arham, Munawar; Elsaify, Wael; Nag, Sath

    2016-04-01

    Cardiomyopathy as the initial presentation of phaeochromocytoma (PCA) is uncommon. Diagnostic work-up and perioperative management may be challenging within this context. We report three cases of PCA presenting with cardiomyopathy to illustrate the pitfalls in diagnosis and management. None of the patients had typical adrenergic symptoms and all three were established on beta-blockers prior to diagnosis. Their fractionated plasma catecholamine levels were elevated and the diagnosis of PCA was confirmed with various imaging modalities and post adrenalectomy. Interpretation of fractionated catecholamine levels in the context of established cardiomyopathy is difficult as cardiac failure of any aetiology generates an adrenergic response. Hence screening all patients with idiopathic cardiomyopathy is likely to generate a high false-positive rate. However, a high index of suspicion should prompt further diagnostic work-up in patients with idiopathic cardiomyopathy for occult PCAs. Peer-reviewed guidelines are required to guide the investigation and management of suspected catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy.

  14. Solitary Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the hard palate: a diagnostic pitfall

    PubMed Central

    Varsha, Dalal; Kaur, Manveen; Chaudhary, Neena; Siraj, Fouzia

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a relatively rare and unique disease characterized by an abnormal proliferation of immature dendritic cells. It is predominantly seen in children with adults showing less than ten times the incidence compared to childhood. The clinical presentation and organ involvement is highly variable. Oral manifestations generally consist of mucosal ulceration associated with lesions of the underlying bone. Lesions limited to the oral mucosa are rare. We present a case of a 45-year-old male who presented with an ulcer on the hard palate showing histopathologic features of LCH. The present case is a reminder of the possibility of occurrence of this unusual entity in the oral cavity. Appropriate use of immunohistochemistry is advocated to avoid diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:27703428

  15. In situ visualization of bacterial populations in coral tissues: pitfalls and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Naohisa; Pollock, Frederic J.; Willis, Bette L.; Ainsworth, Tracy; Mano, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    In situ visualization of microbial communities within their natural habitats provides a powerful approach to explore complex interactions between microorganisms and their macroscopic hosts. Specifically, the application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to simultaneously identify and visualize diverse microbial taxa associated with coral hosts, including symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium), Bacteria, Archaea, Fungi and protists, could help untangle the structure and function of these diverse taxa within the coral holobiont. However, the application of FISH approaches to coral samples is constrained by non-specific binding of targeted rRNA probes to cellular structures within the coral animal tissues (including nematocysts, spirocysts, granular gland cells within the gastrodermis and cnidoglandular bands of mesenterial filaments). This issue, combined with high auto-fluorescence of both host tissues and endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium), make FISH approaches for analyses of coral tissues challenging. Here we outline the major pitfalls associated with applying FISH to coral samples and describe approaches to overcome these challenges. PMID:27688961

  16. Pitfalls in diagnosis and problems in extraction of retained wooden foreign bodies in the foot.

    PubMed

    Sidharthan, Sujith; Mbako, Aloysius N

    2010-06-01

    The detection and removal of a radiolucent foreign body in soft tissues is a problem. It is further complicated when it is not radio-opaque and embedded in the deep layers of the foot. Despite advances in imaging techniques, the detection of retained wooden foreign bodies remains a difficult and challenging task. Although radiographs have been proven to be ineffective, it is often the first method used. Wood often splinters, causing incomplete removal and persistent symptoms. In such cases complete surgical extraction cannot be guaranteed in spite of our best efforts. Therefore, a post-procedure imaging to ensure the adequacy of extraction becomes crucial. The choice of imaging in such circumstances is a moot point to consider. This case report highlights the common pitfalls associated with retained wooden foreign bodies and demonstrates how ultrasonography could be used as a simple and effective tool in this regard.

  17. Pitfalls and Challenges of Lung Transplant in a Patient With Kartagener Syndrome and Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Yazicioglu, Alkin; Alici, Ibrahim Onur; Karaoglanoglu, Nurettin; Yekeler, Erdal

    2016-03-14

    We present a 22-year-old woman with Kartagener syndrome and scoliosis who died 112 days after single lung transplant. The classic thoracic involvement of situs inversus totalis and the asymmetric arrangement of the thoracic vascular structures might be a pitfall for surgeon. Anatomic obstacles have forced the surgeon to perform a single transplant. The period of primary graft dysfunction in a single transplanted lung patient was a challenge; supporting the patient with a high flow and long period of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation might lead to a vanishing bronchus. Immotile cilia, a feature of Kartagener syndrome, were another challenge and patient needed several daily aspiration bronchoscopies. Vanishing bronchus is a gradual process with high mortality rates; commonly, stenosis is at the non anastomotic bronchial tree because of insufficient nourishment of the bronchial cartilages. Several repeat bronchoscopic balloon dilatations accompanied with medical treatment were unsuccessful.

  18. Casting: Pearls and pitfalls learned while caring for children’s fractures

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Shawn; McDowell, Mitchell; Schlechter, John

    2016-01-01

    Casting is a routine procedure used for fracture care in the pediatric population. The purpose of this review is to provide pearls and pitfalls that our institution has learned from previous literature. When applying the cast, we recommend using cotton padding for the liner and fiberglass or plaster depending on how much swelling is expected. A well-molded cast must be applied in order to prevent further fracture displacement. Cast valving is a valuable technique that allows a decrease in pressure which prevents discomfort and complications like compartment syndrome. Preventing thermal injuries, skin complications, and a wet cast are other important considerations when caring for casts. Appropriate use of a cast saw, avoiding pressure spots, and properly covering the cast are ways to respectively prevent those complications. Lastly, patient education remains one of the most valuable tools in ensuring proper cast maintenance. PMID:27672566

  19. The pearls and pitfalls of magnetic resonance imaging for the spine.

    PubMed

    Elliott, James M; Flynn, Timothy W; Al-Najjar, Aiman; Press, Joel; Nguyen, Bao; Noteboom, J Timothy

    2011-11-01

    Musculoskeletal imaging of the spine can be an invaluable tool to inform clinical decision making in patients with spinal pain. An understanding of the technology involved in producing and interpreting high-resolution images produced from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the human spine is necessary to better appreciate which sequences can be used for, or tailored to, individual patients and their conditions. However, there is substantial variability in the clinical meaningfulness of some MRI findings of spinal tissues. For example, normal variants can often mimic significant musculoskeletal pathology, which could increase the risk of misinformed clinical decisions and, even worse, poor or adverse outcomes. This clinical commentary will highlight some of the pearls and pitfalls of MRI for the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions, and include cases to illustrate some of the common imaging artifacts and normal variants for MRI of the spine.

  20. Typical pitfalls in applications for marketing authorization of biotechnological products in Europe.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Christian K; Schäffner-Dallmann, Gabriele

    2008-11-01

    Although regulatory standards and procedures in Europe have improved following the establishment of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA), the number of major issues with marketing authorization applications for biotechnological products remains high. For example, the pivotal clinical trials of some late-stage failures have been found not to meet the regulatory guidelines of the European Union, and regulators are increasingly concerned that attempts to accelerate the process of biotechnological product development leads to the neglect of important issues. Based on the scientific decisions of the EMEA's major scientific committees, in this article we identify and discuss frequent concerns, and suggest approaches that might enable developers of biotechnological products to avoid these common pitfalls.

  1. Avoiding diagnostic pitfalls in mimics of neoplasia: the importance of a comprehensive diagnostic approach

    PubMed Central

    Samsudin, Ely Zarina; Kamarul, Tunku; Mansor, Azura

    2015-01-01

    Any medical diagnosis should take a multimodal approach, especially those involving tumour-like conditions, as entities that mimic neoplasms have overlapping features and may present detrimental outcomes if they are underdiagnosed. These case reports present diagnostic pitfalls resulting from overdependence on a single diagnostic parameter for three musculoskeletal neoplasm mimics: brown tumour (BT) that was mistaken for giant cell tumour (GCT), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis mistaken for osteosarcoma and a pseudoaneurysm mistaken for a soft tissue sarcoma. Literature reviews revealed five reports of BT simulating GCT, four reports of osteomyelitis mimicking osteosarcoma and five reports of a pseudoaneurysm imitating a soft tissue sarcoma. Our findings highlight the therapeutic dilemmas that arise with musculoskeletal mimics, as well as the importance of thorough investigation to distinguish mimickers from true neoplasms. PMID:26034328

  2. Conducting interdisciplinary research to promote healthy and safe employment in health care: promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed Central

    Slatin, Craig; Galizzi, Monica; Melillo, Karen Devereaux; Mawn, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Due to the complexity of human health, emphasis is increasingly being placed on the need for and conduct of multidisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary health research. Yet many academic and research organizations--and the discipline-specific associations and journals--may not yet be prepared to adopt changes necessary to optimally support interdisciplinary work. This article presents an ongoing interdisciplinary research project's efforts to investigate mechanisms and pathways that lead to occupational health disparities among healthcare workers. It describes the promises and pitfalls encountered during the research,and outlines effective strategies that emerged as a result. Lessons learned include: conflict resolution regarding theoretical and methodological differences; establishing a sense of intellectual ownership of the research, as well as guidelines for multiple authorship; and development and utilization of protocols, communication systems, and tools. This experience suggests a need for the establishment of supportive structures and processes to promote successful interdisciplinary research. PMID:15147650

  3. The Challenge of Reproducibility and Accuracy in Nutrition Research: Resources and Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Barbara C; Kuszak, Adam J; Williamson, John S; Hopp, D Craig; Betz, Joseph M

    2016-03-01

    Inconsistent and contradictory results from nutrition studies conducted by different investigators continue to emerge, in part because of the inherent variability of natural products, as well as the unknown and therefore uncontrolled variables in study populations and experimental designs. Given these challenges inherent in nutrition research, it is critical for the progress of the field that researchers strive to minimize variability within studies and enhance comparability between studies by optimizing the characterization, control, and reporting of products, reagents, and model systems used, as well as the rigor and reporting of experimental designs, protocols, and data analysis. Here we describe some recent developments relevant to research on plant-derived products used in nutrition research, highlight some resources for optimizing the characterization and reporting of research using these products, and describe some of the pitfalls that may be avoided by adherence to these recommendations.

  4. The Challenge of Reproducibility and Accuracy in Nutrition Research: Resources and Pitfalls1234

    PubMed Central

    Kuszak, Adam J; Williamson, John S; Hopp, D Craig; Betz, Joseph M

    2016-01-01

    Inconsistent and contradictory results from nutrition studies conducted by different investigators continue to emerge, in part because of the inherent variability of natural products, as well as the unknown and therefore uncontrolled variables in study populations and experimental designs. Given these challenges inherent in nutrition research, it is critical for the progress of the field that researchers strive to minimize variability within studies and enhance comparability between studies by optimizing the characterization, control, and reporting of products, reagents, and model systems used, as well as the rigor and reporting of experimental designs, protocols, and data analysis. Here we describe some recent developments relevant to research on plant-derived products used in nutrition research, highlight some resources for optimizing the characterization and reporting of research using these products, and describe some of the pitfalls that may be avoided by adherence to these recommendations. PMID:26980822

  5. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  6. Are sweep net sampling and pitfall trapping compatible with molecular analysis of predation?

    PubMed

    Harwood, James D

    2008-08-01

    Molecular analysis of predation enables accurate and reliable elucidation of trophic linkages in complex food webs, but identifying the strength of such interactions can be subject to error. Currently two techniques dominate: monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although the optimization and characterization of these systems ensures their sensitivity and specificity, predator collection protocols such as sweep-netting and vacuum sampling could overestimate feeding rates because of surface-level contamination, yielding positive reactivity or predation within the sampling device. Therefore, two sampling techniques (sweep-net sampling and hand collection) were compared within an alfalfa agroecosystem using a monoclonal antibody-based ELISA to test the hypothesis that cross-contamination is a source of error, i.e., significantly more predators (linyphiid spiders) would test positive for prey (Diptera) proteins. A concurrent study examining the viability of trapping predators into saline solution was also undertaken. No significant differences were found between the proportions of spiders screening positive for Diptera when collected by sweep-net versus hand collection, rejecting the hypothesis that sweep-netting predators for subsequent molecular gut content analysis overestimates predation frequency. ELISA was also capable of detecting prey proteins in predator guts from pitfall traps containing phosphate-buffered saline, indicating the suitability of this approach for the collection and analysis of epigeal predators. Although these results indicate that sweep netting and pitfall trapping into solution is appropriate in this predator-prey and ELISA analysis system, caution should be exercised with other interactions and PCR-based analysis. The likelihood for false-positive reactivity should therefore be considered on a case-by-case basis.

  7. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  8. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  9. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  10. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  11. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  12. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  13. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  14. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  15. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41... Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in an application... correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which an address is...

  16. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41... Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in an application... correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which an address is...

  17. 47 CFR 13.10 - Licensee address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee address. 13.10 Section 13.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.10 Licensee address. In accordance with § 1.923 of this chapter all applications must specify an address where...

  18. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  19. SkBQ - prooxidant addressed to mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Vyssokikh, M Y; Chernyak, B V; Domnina, L V; Esipov, D S; Ivanova, O Y; Korshunova, G A; Symonyan, R A; Skulachev, M V; Zinevich, T V; Skulachev, V P

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are the key links in the chain of development of pathologies associated with the violation of cellular energy metabolism. Development of mitochondria-addressed compounds highly specific for chemical processes is one of the most promising ways to develop approaches to the treatment of inherited and age-related diseases with mitochondrial etiology. Correlation of structure and chemical activity of the test compounds from a class of lipophilic cations revealed the key role of substituents in the aromatic ring of 1,4-benzoquinones in the manifestation of high antioxidant properties. In this work, it is shown that a synthesized benzoquinone derivative conjugated in position 6 with membrane-penetrating cation of decyltriphenylphosphonium and with substituents at position 2, 3, and 5 (SkBQ) has much lower antioxidant and significantly higher prooxidant activity in comparison with similar derivatives of plasto- and toluquinone SkQ1 and SkQT1 in experiments on isolated mitochondria. At the same time, SkBQ, like SkQ1 and SkQT1, can be reduced by the respiratory chain in the center i of complex III and decrease the mitochondrial membrane potential. In cell cultures of human fibroblasts, it was revealed that SkBQ does not protect cells from apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide. Under the same conditions, SkQ1 and SkQT1 exhibit a powerful protective effect. Thus, SkBQ can be seen as a mitochondria-addressed prooxidant. The possibility of using SkBQ as an anticancer drug for the treatment of cancers such as prostate cancer whose cells are sensitive to mitochondrial reactive oxygen species is discussed.

  20. OPENING ADDRESS: Heterostructures in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmeiss, Hermann G.

    1996-01-01

    value in putting together the program and suggesting speakers and potential participants. Moreover, I should like to thank Mrs. Medborg, Dr. Olajos, Dr. Mats Kleverman and in particular Dr. Ask who took care of all time-consuming negotiations and details. Without their help, the Symposium would not be what it is. The Nobel Foundation, the Nobel Committee for Physics, the Nobel Institute of Physics and the local organisers hope that you will enjoy the Symposium and I promise you, we will all do our best to make your stay as pleasant as possible and this Symposium a success. Once again welcome to Arild and the Symposium!

  1. Pesticides and reduced-risk insecticides, native bees and pantropical stingless bees: pitfalls and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Wagner F; Smagghe, Guy; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2015-08-01

    Although invertebrates generally have a low public profile, the honey bee, Apis mellifera L., is a flagship species whose popularity likely derives from the products it provides and its perceived ecological services. Therefore, the raging debate regarding honey bee decline has surpassed the realm of beekeepers, academia, industry and regulatory agencies and now also encompasses non-governmental agencies, media, fiction writers and the general public. The early interest and concern about honey bee colony collapse disorder (CCD) soon shifted to the bigger issue of pollinator decline, with a focus on the potential involvement of pesticides in such a phenomenon. Pesticides were previously recognised as the potential culprits of the reported declines, particularly the neonicotinoid insecticides owing to their widespread and peculiar use in agriculture. However, the evidence for the potential pivotal role of these neonicotinoids in honey bee decline remains a matter of debate, with an increased recognition of the multifactorial nature of the problem and the lack of a direct association between the noted decline and neonicotinoid use. The focus on the decline of honey bee populations subsequently spread to other species, and bumblebees became another matter of concern, particularly in Europe and the United States. Other bee species, ones that are particularly important in other regions of the world, remain the object of little concern (unjustifiably so). Furthermore, the continuous focus on neonicotinoids is also in need of revision, as the current evidence suggests that a broad spectrum of compounds deserve attention. Here we address both shortcomings.

  2. Two pitfalls of BOLD fMRI magnitude-based neuroimage analysis: non-negativity and edge effect.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince D

    2011-08-15

    BOLD fMRI is accepted as a noninvasive imaging modality for neuroimaging and brain mapping. A BOLD fMRI dataset consists of magnitude and phase components. Currently, only the magnitude is used for neuroimage analysis. In this paper, we show that the fMRI-magnitude-based neuroimage analysis may suffer two pitfalls: one is that the magnitude is non-negative and cannot differentiate positive from negative BOLD activity; the other is an edge effect that may manifest as an edge enhancement or a spatial interior dip artifact at a local uniform BOLD region. We demonstrate these pitfalls via numeric simulations using a BOLD fMRI model and also via a phantom experiment. We also propose a solution by making use of the fMRI phase image, the counterpart of the fMRI magnitude.

  3. The Value of Addressing Patient Preferences.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jeff D; Stewart, Mark D; Roberts, Samantha A; Sigal, Ellen V

    2017-02-01

    Recent scientific progress is, in some cases, leading to transformative new medicines for diseases that previously had marginal or even no treatment options. This offers great promise for people affected by these diseases, but it has also placed stress on the health care system in terms of the growing cost associated with some new interventions. Effort has been taken to create tools to help patients and health care providers assess the value of new medical innovations. These tools may also provide the basis for assessing the price associated with new medical products. Given the growing expenditures in health care, value frameworks present an opportunity to evaluate new therapeutic options in the context of other treatments and potentially lead to a more economically sustainable health care system. In summary, the contribution to meaningful improvements in health outcomes is the primary focus of any assessment of the value of a new intervention. A component of such evaluations, however, should factor in timely access to new products that address an unmet medical need, as well as the magnitude of that beneficial impact. To achieve these goals, value assessment tools should allow for flexibility in clinical end points and trial designs, incorporate patient preferences, and continually evolve as new evidence, practice patterns, and medical progress advance.

  4. Addressing social resistance in emerging security technologies.

    PubMed

    Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In their efforts to enhance the safety and security of citizens, governments and law enforcement agencies look to scientists and engineers to produce modern methods for preventing, detecting, and prosecuting criminal activities. Whole body scanners, lie detection technologies, biometrics, etc., are all being developed for incorporation into the criminal justice apparatus. Yet despite their purported security benefits these technologies often evoke social resistance. Concerns over privacy, ethics, and function-creep appear repeatedly in analyses of these technologies. It is argued here that scientists and engineers continue to pay insufficient attention to this resistance; acknowledging the presence of these social concerns yet failing to meaningfully address them. In so doing they place at risk the very technologies and techniques they are seeking to develop, for socially controversial security technologies face restrictions and in some cases outright banning. By identifying sources of potential social resistance early in the research and design process, scientists can both engage with the public in meaningful debate and modify their security technologies before deployment so as to minimize social resistance and enhance uptake.

  5. Addressing social resistance in emerging security technologies

    PubMed Central

    Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In their efforts to enhance the safety and security of citizens, governments and law enforcement agencies look to scientists and engineers to produce modern methods for preventing, detecting, and prosecuting criminal activities. Whole body scanners, lie detection technologies, biometrics, etc., are all being developed for incorporation into the criminal justice apparatus.1 Yet despite their purported security benefits these technologies often evoke social resistance. Concerns over privacy, ethics, and function-creep appear repeatedly in analyses of these technologies. It is argued here that scientists and engineers continue to pay insufficient attention to this resistance; acknowledging the presence of these social concerns yet failing to meaningfully address them. In so doing they place at risk the very technologies and techniques they are seeking to develop, for socially controversial security technologies face restrictions and in some cases outright banning. By identifying sources of potential social resistance early in the research and design process, scientists can both engage with the public in meaningful debate and modify their security technologies before deployment so as to minimize social resistance and enhance uptake. PMID:23970863

  6. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  7. Performance-based bundled payments: potential benefits and burdens.

    PubMed

    Satin, David J; Miles, Justin

    2009-10-01

    Performance-based bundled payments have emerged as the most recent iteration of pay for performance. These are programs in which providers are paid a single fee for a set of evidenced-based services related to a diagnosis. The payments are typically linked to outcomes as well as other quality measures. This paper reviews two prominent bundled payment programs--PROMETHEUS and ProvenCare--and discusses the potential pitfalls of these approaches.

  8. Effectiveness of Winkler Litter Extraction and Pitfall Traps in Sampling Ant Communities and Functional Groups in a Temperate Forest.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Michael B; Campbell, Kaitlin U; Crist, Thomas O

    2017-03-20

    Selection of proper sampling methods for measuring a community of interest is essential whether the study goals are to conduct a species inventory, environmental monitoring, or a manipulative experiment. Insect diversity studies often employ multiple collection methods at the expense of researcher time and funding. Ants (Formicidae) are widely used in environmental monitoring owing to their sensitivity to ecosystem changes. When sampling ant communities, two passive techniques are recommended in combination: pitfall traps and Winkler litter extraction. These recommendations are often based on studies from highly diverse tropical regions or when a species inventory is the goal. Studies in temperate regions often focus on measuring consistent community response along gradients of disturbance or among management regimes; therefore, multiple sampling methods may be unnecessary. We compared the effectiveness of pitfalls and Winkler litter extraction in an eastern temperate forest for measuring ant species richness, composition, and occurrence of ant functional groups in response to experimental manipulations of two key forest ecosystem drivers, white-tailed deer and an invasive shrub (Amur honeysuckle). We found no significant effect of sampling method on the outcome of the ecological experiment; however, we found differences between the two sampling methods in the resulting ant species richness and functional group occurrence. Litter samples approximated the overall combined species richness and composition, but pitfalls were better at sampling large-bodied (Camponotus) species. We conclude that employing both methods is essential only for species inventories or monitoring ants in the Cold-climate Specialists functional group.

  9. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function

    PubMed Central

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the “Hash_64” field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  10. Addressing the Skills Gap in Saudi Arabia: Does Vocational Education Address the Needs of Private Sector Employers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baqadir, Abdullah; Patrick, Fiona; Burns, George

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of data drawn from doctoral research on the extent to which recent changes in vocational training have addressed a perceived skills gap between the needs of private sector employers and potential workers in Saudi Arabia. While the Saudi government has made efforts to enhance the quality of vocational education,…

  11. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  12. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  13. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  14. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  15. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  16. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  17. 49 CFR 369.6 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS REPORTS OF MOTOR CARRIERS § 369.6 Address. The following address must be used by motor carriers when submitting a report, requesting an exemption from filing...

  18. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2... 20580, unless otherwise specifically directed. The Commission's Web site address is www.ftc.gov....

  19. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  20. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  1. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  2. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  3. History Forum Addresses Creation/Evolution Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinsberg, John

    1997-01-01

    A series of programs entitled Creationism and Evolution: The History of a Controversy was presented at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The controversy was addressed from an historical and sociological, rather than a scientific perspective. Speakers addressed the evolution of scientific creationism, ancient texts versus sedimentary rocks…

  4. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... litigation; (2) The account is assigned to the United States; or (3) The account is written off under §...

  5. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... litigation; (2) The account is assigned to the United States; or (3) The account is written off under §...

  6. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding…

  7. Image compression using address-vector quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu

    1990-12-01

    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  8. Automated measurement of printer effective addressability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Brian E.; Eid, Ahmed H.; Rippetoe, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    When evaluating printer resolution, addressability is a key consideration. Addressability defines the maximum number of spots or samples within a given distance, independent of the size of the spots when printed. Effective addressability is the addressability demonstrated by the final, printed output. It is the minimum displacement possible between the centers of printed objects. In this paper, we present a measurement procedure for effective addressability that offers an automated way to experimentally determine the addressability of the printed output. It requires printing, scanning, and measuring a test target. The effective addressability test target contains two types of elements, repeated to fill the page: fiducial lines and line segments. The fiducial lines serve as a relative reference for the incremental displacements of the individual line segments, providing a way to tolerate larger-scale physical distortions in the printer. An ordinary reflection scanner captures the printed test target. By rotating the page on the scanner, it is possible to measure effective addressability well beyond the scanner's sampling resolution. The measurement algorithm computes the distribution of incremental displacements, forming either a unimodal or bimodal histogram. In the latter case, the mean of the second (non-zero) peak indicates the effective addressability. In the former case, the printer successfully rendered the target's resolution, requiring another iteration of the procedure after increasing the resolution of the test target. The algorithm automatically estimates whether the histogram is unimodal or bimodal and computes parameters describing the quality of the measured histogram. Several experiments have refined the test target and measurement procedure, including two round-robin evaluations by the ISO WG4 committee. Results include an analysis of approximately 150 printed samples. The effective addressability attribute and measurement procedure are included in

  9. Pitfalls of invasive blood pressure monitoring using the caudal ventral artery in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Hiroki; Ohki, Takao; Kanaoka, Yuji; Koizumi, Makoto; Okano, Hirotaka J.

    2017-01-01

    During rodent experiments, the caudal ventral artery (CVA) is useful for blood pressure (BP) measurement. However, CVA measurements may not reflect the true BP. This study was performed to verify the site-specific accuracy of invasive arterial BP monitoring during surgery in rats. Invasive arterial BP was simultaneously measured in rats via the CVA and the common carotid artery (CCA). The BP values were analysed while the rats were subjected to cooling of the head or tail. Additionally, the rats underwent digital subtraction angiography and histological examination of these arteries. The pressure difference was more significant in the tail cooling group than in the head cooling group. Digital subtraction angiography revealed that angiospasms occurred more frequently in the CVA than in the CCA upon cooling. This phenomenon was supported by histological analysis, which showed that the tunica media area was significantly larger in the CVA than in the CCA. CVA pressure is susceptible to environmental changes and may not accurately reflect the true BP without a strictly controlled laboratory environment. Therefore, understanding the pitfalls of this method is necessary to avoid cooling of the tail during BP measurement. PMID:28198822

  10. Pseudoactinomycotic radiate granules of the gynaecological tract: review of a diagnostic pitfall

    PubMed Central

    Pritt, B; Mount, S L; Cooper, K; Blaszyk, H

    2006-01-01

    The filamentous bacterium actinomyces can cause serious gynaecological tract infections, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and tubo‐ovarian abscess. Thus, definitive diagnosis of actinomycotic granules (AMGs) in gynaecological specimens is clinically important. Non‐infectious pseudoactinomycotic radiate granules (PAMRAGs) can mimic the microscopic appearance of AMGs. PAMRAGs may be more common than actinomycotic infections in specimens from patients using intrauterine devices and may be seen in patients with PID. Although the composition and aetiology of PAMRAGs is unclear and variable, a panel of histochemical stains can aid in diagnosis. On haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections, AMGs show as distinct granules with basophilic peripheral radiating filaments and a dense central eosinophilic core, whereas H&E stained sections of PAMRAGs feature refractile granules with irregular club‐like peripheral projections and no central dense core. The filaments of AMGs are Gram positive on Brown and Brenn (B&B) stain and are highlighted with Gomori methenamine silver stain (GMS). They stain negatively with a modified acid fast bacillus (AFB) stain, aiding in the distinction of actinomyces from nocardia. PAMRAGs show negative or non‐specific staining with B&B, GMS, and AFB stains. Therefore, knowledge of these staining properties and the distinguishing characteristics of PAMRAGs and AMGs enables recognition of this important diagnostic pitfall. PMID:16394276

  11. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Post Embolotherapy: Imaging Appearances and Pitfalls on Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Rita Y W; Yap, Wan W; Patel, Roshni; Liu, David; Klass, Darren; Harris, Alison C

    2016-05-01

    Embolotherapies used in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) include bland embolization, conventional transarterial chemoembolization (cTACE) using ethiodol as a carrier, TACE with drug-eluting beads and super absorbent polymer microspheres (DEB-TACE), and selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT). Successfully treated HCC lesions undergo coagulation necrosis, and appear as nonenhancing hypoattenuating or hypointense lesions in the embolized region on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance. Residual or recurrent tumours demonstrate arterial enhancement with portal venous phase wash-out of contrast, features characteristic of HCC, in and/or around the embolized area. Certain imaging features that result from the procedure itself may limit assessment of response. In conventional TACE, the high-attenuating retained ethiodized oil may obscure arterially-enhancing tumours and limit detection of residual tumours; thus a noncontrast CT on follow-up imaging is important post-cTACE. Hyperenhancement within or around the treated zone can be seen after cTACE, DEB-TACE, or SIRT due to physiologic inflammatory response and may mimic residual tumour. Recognition of these pitfalls is important in the evaluation embolotherapy response.

  12. Pediatric cervical spine in emergency: radiographic features of normal anatomy, variants and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Adib, Omar; Berthier, Emeline; Loisel, Didier; Aubé, Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Injuries of the cervical spine are uncommon in children. The distribution of injuries, when they do occur, differs according to age. Young children aged less than 8 years usually have upper cervical injuries because of the anatomic and biomechanical properties of their immature spine, whereas older children, whose biomechanics more closely resemble those of adults, are prone to lower cervical injuries. In all cases, the pediatric cervical spine has distinct radiographic features, making the emergency radiological analysis of it difficult. Such features as hypermobility between C2 and C3, pseudospread of the atlas on the axis, pseudosubluxation, the absence of lordosis, anterior wedging of vertebral bodies, pseudowidening of prevertebral soft tissue and incomplete ossification of synchondrosis can be mistaken for traumatic injuries. The interpretation of a plain radiograph of the pediatric cervical spine following trauma must take into account the age of the child, the location of the injury and the mechanism of trauma. Comprehensive knowledge of the specific anatomy and biomechanics of the childhood spine is essential for the diagnosis of suspected cervical spine injury. With it, the physician can, on one hand, differentiate normal physes or synchondroses from pathological fractures or ligamentous disruptions and, on the other, identify any possible congenital anomalies that may also be mistaken for injury. Thus, in the present work, we discuss normal radiological features of the pediatric cervical spine, variants that may be encountered and pitfalls that must be avoided when interpreting plain radiographs taken in an emergency setting following trauma.

  13. Special article: Update on the magnetically controlled growing rod: tips and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Cahill, Patrick; Yaszay, Burt; Akbarnia, Behrooz A; Cheung, Kenneth M C

    2015-12-01

    Magnetically controlled growing rods (MCGR) have become an important treatment option in young patients with spinal deformities. This device allows for gradual lengthening on an outpatient setting with continuous neurological monitoring in an awake patient. With its growing popularity and interest, this study reports the tips, pitfalls, and complications of the MCGR for management of scoliosis. On 3 June 2015 at the University of Hong Kong, 32 participants from 16 regions shared their experience with MCGR. Current indications for surgery include early-onset scoliosis patients. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and congenital scoliosis patients have less favourable outcomes. The number of instrumented levels should be minimised, as all instrumented levels must be included in the definitive fusion surgery. Rod contouring is important and owing to the straight portion of the rod housing the magnet, there is limited proximal rod portion for proper contouring, which may predispose to proximal junctional kyphosis. There is currently no consensus on the rod configuration, timing, frequency, technique, and amount of distraction. Risk factors for distraction failure include larger patients, internal magnets too close to each other, and magnets too close to the apex of the major curve. Future studies should resolve the issues regarding the technique of distraction, optimal frequency and amount of distraction per session. More comprehensive cost analyses should be performed.

  14. Hidden Treasures and Secret Pitfalls: Application of the Capability Approach to ParkinsonNet.

    PubMed

    Canoy, Marcel; Faber, Marjan J; Munneke, Marten; Oortwijn, Wija; Nijkrake, Maarten J; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the largest health technology assessment (HTA) program funds mainly (cost-)effectiveness studies and implementation research. The cost-effectiveness studies are usually controlled clinical trials which simultaneously collect cost data. The success of a clinical trial typically depends on the effect size for the primary outcome, such as health gains or mortality rates. A drawback is that in case of a negative primary outcome, relevant other (and perhaps more implicit) benefits might be missed. Conversely, positive trials can contain adverse outcomes that may also remain hidden. The capability approach (developed by Nobel Prize winner and philosopher Sen) is an instrument that may reveal such "hidden treasures and secret pitfalls" that lie embedded within clinical trials, beyond the more traditional outcomes. Here, we exemplify the possible merits of the capability approach using a large clinical trial (funded by the HTA program in the Netherlands) that aimed to evaluate the ParkinsonNet concept, an innovative network approach for Parkinson patients. This trial showed no effects for the primary outcome, but the ParkinsonNet concept tested in this study was nevertheless met with great enthusiasm and was rapidly implemented throughout an entire country, and meanwhile also internationally. We applied the capability approach to the ParkinsonNet concept, and this analysis yielded additional benefits within several capability domains. These findings seems to substantiate the claim that richer policy debates may ensue by applying the capability approach to clinical trial data, in addition to traditional outcomes.

  15. Theory and applications of covalent docking in drug discovery: merits and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Kumalo, Hezekiel Mathambo; Bhakat, Soumendranath; Soliman, Mahmoud E S

    2015-01-27

    he present art of drug discovery and design of new drugs is based on suicidal irreversible inhibitors. Covalent inhibition is the strategy that is used to achieve irreversible inhibition. Irreversible inhibitors interact with their targets in a time-dependent fashion, and the reaction proceeds to completion rather than to equilibrium. Covalent inhibitors possessed some significant advantages over non-covalent inhibitors such as covalent warheads can target rare, non-conserved residue of a particular target protein and thus led to development of highly selective inhibitors, covalent inhibitors can be effective in targeting proteins with shallow binding cleavage which will led to development of novel inhibitors with increased potency than non-covalent inhibitors. Several computational approaches have been developed to simulate covalent interactions; however, this is still a challenging area to explore. Covalent molecular docking has been recently implemented in the computer-aided drug design workflows to describe covalent interactions between inhibitors and biological targets. In this review we highlight: (i) covalent interactions in biomolecular systems; (ii) the mathematical framework of covalent molecular docking; (iii) implementation of covalent docking protocol in drug design workflows; (iv) applications covalent docking: case studies and (v) shortcomings and future perspectives of covalent docking. To the best of our knowledge; this review is the first account that highlights different aspects of covalent docking with its merits and pitfalls. We believe that the method and applications highlighted in this study will help future efforts towards the design of irreversible inhibitors.

  16. A double-edged sword: Benefits and pitfalls of heterogeneous punishment in evolutionary inspection games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perc, Matjaž; Szolnoki, Attila

    2015-06-01

    As a simple model for criminal behavior, the traditional two-strategy inspection game yields counterintuitive results that fail to describe empirical data. The latter shows that crime is often recurrent, and that crime rates do not respond linearly to mitigation attempts. A more apt model entails ordinary people who neither commit nor sanction crime as the third strategy besides the criminals and punishers. Since ordinary people free-ride on the sanctioning efforts of punishers, they may introduce cyclic dominance that enables the coexistence of all three competing strategies. In this setup ordinary individuals become the biggest impediment to crime abatement. We therefore also consider heterogeneous punisher strategies, which seek to reduce their investment into fighting crime in order to attain a more competitive payoff. We show that this diversity of punishment leads to an explosion of complexity in the system, where the benefits and pitfalls of criminal behavior are revealed in the most unexpected ways. Due to the raise and fall of different alliances no less than six consecutive phase transitions occur in dependence on solely the temptation to succumb to criminal behavior, leading the population from ordinary people-dominated across punisher-dominated to crime-dominated phases, yet always failing to abolish crime completely.

  17. Pitfalls in drying oils identification in art objects by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tsakalof, Andreas K; Bairachtari, Kyriaki A; Chryssoulakis, Ioannis D

    2006-07-01

    Drying oils identification in art objects is an important step in the scientific investigation of the artifact which provides conservators and art historians with valuable information concerning materials used and painting techniques applied. The present communication is devoted to pitfalls and troubleshooting in drying oils identification by means of GC-MS analysis of fatty acids composition in a microsample of an art object. We demonstrate that in the case of nonlinear instrument response the ratios of palmitic to stearic (P/S), distinctive for each oil type and used for drying oil identification, depend on sample dilution so that different dilutions of the same sample can give different P/S ratios. This phenomenon can hinder drying oil identification and lead to erroneous interpretations. This is an important observation as nowadays very often the P/S ratio is calculated from the corresponding peak area ratios or by the use of one-point calibration method. In these approaches, the linearity of the instrument response is not controlled and ensured. In the case analyzed, the nonlinear instrument response was attributed to incomplete sample evaporation in the injector. Packing of the glass liner with deactivated glass wool improved the sample evaporation and ensured the linearity of the instrument response and independence of the P/S ratio from sample dilution.

  18. A Hidden Pitfall in the Preparation of Agar Media Undermines Microorganism Cultivability

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Tomohiro; Kawasaki, Kosei; Daimon, Serina; Kitagawa, Wataru; Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Michiko; Nakatsu, Cindy H.

    2014-01-01

    Microbiologists have been using agar growth medium for over 120 years. It revolutionized microbiology in the 1890s when microbiologists were seeking effective methods to isolate microorganisms, which led to the successful cultivation of microorganisms as single clones. But there has been a disparity between total cell counts and cultivable cell counts on plates, often referred to as the “great plate count anomaly,” that has long been a phenomenon that still remains unsolved. Here, we report that a common practice microbiologists have employed to prepare agar medium has a hidden pitfall: when phosphate was autoclaved together with agar to prepare solid growth media (PT medium), total colony counts were remarkably lower than those grown on agar plates in which phosphate and agar were separately autoclaved and mixed right before solidification (PS medium). We used a pure culture of Gemmatimonas aurantiaca T-27T and three representative sources of environmental samples, soil, sediment, and water, as inocula and compared colony counts between PT and PS agar plates. There were higher numbers of CFU on PS medium than on PT medium using G. aurantiaca or any of the environmental samples. Chemical analysis of PT agar plates suggested that hydrogen peroxide was contributing to growth inhibition. Comparison of 454 pyrosequences of the environmental samples to the isolates revealed that taxa grown on PS medium were more reflective of the original community structure than those grown on PT medium. Moreover, more hitherto-uncultivated microbes grew on PS than on PT medium. PMID:25281372

  19. Using neurophysiological signals that reflect cognitive or affective state: six recommendations to avoid common pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Zander, Thorsten O.; van Erp, Jan B. F.; Korteling, Johannes E.; Bronkhorst, Adelbert W.

    2015-01-01

    Estimating cognitive or affective state from neurophysiological signals and designing applications that make use of this information requires expertise in many disciplines such as neurophysiology, machine learning, experimental psychology, and human factors. This makes it difficult to perform research that is strong in all its aspects as well as to judge a study or application on its merits. On the occasion of the special topic “Using neurophysiological signals that reflect cognitive or affective state” we here summarize often occurring pitfalls and recommendations on how to avoid them, both for authors (researchers) and readers. They relate to defining the state of interest, the neurophysiological processes that are expected to be involved in the state of interest, confounding factors, inadvertently “cheating” with classification analyses, insight on what underlies successful state estimation, and finally, the added value of neurophysiological measures in the context of an application. We hope that this paper will support the community in producing high quality studies and well-validated, useful applications. PMID:25983676

  20. Primary cerebral echinoccocosis in a child: Case report – Surgical technique, technical pitfalls, and video atlas

    PubMed Central

    Altibi, Ahmed M. A.; Qarajeh, Raed A. H.; Belsuzarri, Telmo A. B.; Maani, Walid; Kanaan, Tareq M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hydatid disease is a life-threatening parasitic infestation caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Infection with E. granulosus typically results in the formation of hydatid cysts in the liver, lungs, kidney, and spleen. Primary intracranial hydatid cyst disease is extremely rare. Here, we are reporting an unusual case of Echinococcus, where the only identifiable lesion was a hydatid cyst in the brain without liver or lung involvement. We are also providing a description for the surgical technique used to remove the cyst, highlighting the possible surgical pitfalls. Case Description: The patient is a 13-year-old male with a history of progressive headache for 1 month. Intracranial hydatid cyst was suspected based on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings. The cyst was delivered without rupture using hydrostatic dissection (Dowling's technique), and pathological analysis confirmed the diagnosis. Postoperatively, the patient showed marked neurological improvement and all signs and symptoms resolved. Conclusion: Intracranial hydatid cyst is very rare. Nevertheless, it should always be considered as a differential diagnosis in cerebral cystic lesions, especially in children. The surgical technique used to remove the cyst appears to be safe. However, several precautions must be applied intraoperatively to avoid the catastrophe of cyst rupture. PMID:27999716

  1. The "not so simple" ankle fracture: avoiding problems and pitfalls to improve patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hak, David J; Egol, Kenneth A; Gardner, Michael J; Haskell, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Ankle fractures are among the most common injuries managed by orthopaedic surgeons. Many ankle fractures are simple, with straightforward management leading to successful outcomes. Some fractures, however, are challenging, and debate arises regarding the best treatment to achieve an optimal outcome. Some patients have medical comorbidities that increase the risk for complications or may require modifications to standard surgical techniques and fixation methods. Several recent investigations have highlighted the pitfalls in accurately reducing syndesmotic injuries. Controversy remains regarding the number and diameter of screws, the duration of weight-bearing limitations, and the need or timing of screw removal. Open reduction may allow more accurate reduction than standard closed methods. Direct fixation of associated posterior malleolus fractures may provide improved syndesmotic stability. Posterior malleolus fractures vary in size and can be classified based on the orientation of the fracture line. As the size of the posterior malleolus fracture fragment increases, the load pattern in the ankle is altered. Direct or indirect reduction and surgical fixation may be required to prevent posterior talar subluxation and restore articular congruency. The supination-adduction fracture pattern is also important to recognize. Articular depression of the medial tibial plafond may require reduction and bone grafting. Optimal fixation requires directing screws parallel to the ankle joint or using a buttress plate. Identifying ankle fractures that may present additional treatment challenges is essential to achieving a successful outcome. A careful review of radiographs and CT scans, a thorough patient assessment, and detailed preoperative planning are needed to improve patient outcomes.

  2. IMMUNO-SPIN TRAPPING FROM BIOCHEMISTRY TO MEDICINE: advances, challenges, and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Mejiba, Sandra E.; Zili, Zhai; Della-Vedova, Maria C.; Muñoz, Marcos D.; Chatterjee, Saurabh; Towner, Rheal A.; Hensley, Kenneth; Floyd, Robert A.; Mason, Ronald P.; Ramirez, Dario C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Immuno-spin trapping (IST) is based on the reaction of a spin trap with a free radical to form a stable nitrone adduct, followed by the use of antibodies, rather than traditional electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, to detect the nitrone adduct. IST has been successfully applied to mechanistic in vitro studies, and recently, macromolecule-centered radicals have been detected in models of drug-induced agranulocytosis, hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, and ischemia/reperfusion, as well as in models of neurological, metabolic and immunological diseases. SCOPE OF THE REVIEW To critically evaluate advances, challenges, and pitfalls as well as the scientific opportunities of IST as applied to the study of protein-centered free radicals generated in stressed organelles, cells, tissues and animal models of disease and exposure. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS Because the spin trap has to be present at high enough concentrations in the microenvironment where the radical is formed, the possible effects of the spin trap on gene expression, metabolism and cell physiology have to be considered in the use of IST and in the interpretation of results. These factors have not yet been thoroughly dealt with in the literature. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE The identification of radicalized proteins during cell/tissue response to stressors will help define their role in the complex cellular response to stressors and pathogenesis; however, the fidelity of spin trapping/ immuno-detection and the effects of the spin trap on the biological system should be considered. PMID:23644035

  3. EL2 and related defects in GaAs - Challenges and pitfalls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1985-01-01

    The incorporation process of nonequilibrium vacancies in melt-grown GaAs is strongly complicated by deviations from stoichiometry, and the presence of two sublattices. Many of the microdefects originating in these vacancies and their interactions introduce energy levels (shallow and deep) within the energy gap. The direct identification of the chemical or structural signature of these defects and its direct correlation to their electronic behavior is not generally possible. It is therefore necessary to rely on indirect methods and phenomenological models and be confronted with the associated pitfalls. EL2, a microdefect introducing a deep donor level, has been in the limelight in recent years because it is believed to be responsible for the semi-insulating behavior of undoped GaAs. Although much progress has been made towards understanding its origin and nature, some relevant questions remain unanswered. An attempt is made to assess the present status of understanding of EL2 in the light of the most recent results.

  4. Diffusion MRI: Pitfalls, literature review and future directions of research in mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Delouche, Aurélie; Attyé, Arnaud; Heck, Olivier; Grand, Sylvie; Kastler, Adrian; Lamalle, Laurent; Renard, Felix; Krainik, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a leading cause of disability in adults, many of whom report a distressing combination of physical, emotional and cognitive symptoms, collectively known as post-concussion syndrome, that persist after the injury. Significant developments in magnetic resonance diffusion imaging, involving voxel-based quantitative analysis through the measurement of fractional anisotropy or mean diffusivity, have enhanced our knowledge on the different stages of mTBI pathophysiology. Other diffusion imaging-derived techniques, including diffusion kurtosis imaging with multi-shell diffusion and high-order tractography models, have recently demonstrated their usefulness in mTBI. Our review starts by briefly outlining the physical basis of diffusion tensor imaging including the pitfalls for use in brain trauma, before discussing findings from diagnostic trials testing its usefulness in assessing brain structural changes in patients with mTBI. Use of different post-processing techniques for the diffusion imaging data, identified the corpus callosum as the most frequently injured structure in mTBI, particularly at sub-acute and chronic stages, and a crucial location for evaluating functional outcome. However, structural changes appear too subtle for identification using traditional diffusion biomarkers, thus disallowing expansion of these techniques into clinical practice. In this regard, more advanced diffusion techniques are promising in the assessment of this complex disease.

  5. Protein crystallography for aspiring crystallographers or how to avoid pitfalls and traps in macromolecular structure determination

    PubMed Central

    Wlodawer, Alexander; Minor, Wladek; Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    The number of macromolecular structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank now approaches 100 000, with the vast majority of them determined by crystallographic methods. Thousands of papers describing such structures have been published in the scientific literature, and 20 Nobel Prizes in chemistry or medicine have been awarded for discoveries based on macromolecular crystallography. New hardware and software tools have made crystallography appear to be an almost routine (but still far from being analytical) technique and many structures are now being determined by scientists with very limited experience in the practical aspects of the field. However, this apparent ease is sometimes illusory and proper procedures need to be followed to maintain high standards of structure quality. In addition, many noncrystallographers may have problems with the critical evaluation and interpretation of structural results published in the scientific literature. The present review provides an outline of the technical aspects of crystallography for less experienced practitioners, as well as information that might be useful for users of macromolecular structures, aiming to show them how to interpret (but not overinterpret) the information present in the coordinate files and in their description. A discussion of the extent of information that can be gleaned from the atomic coordinates of structures solved at different resolution is provided, as well as problems and pitfalls encountered in structure determination and interpretation. PMID:24034303

  6. A double-edged sword: Benefits and pitfalls of heterogeneous punishment in evolutionary inspection games.

    PubMed

    Perc, Matjaž; Szolnoki, Attila

    2015-06-05

    As a simple model for criminal behavior, the traditional two-strategy inspection game yields counterintuitive results that fail to describe empirical data. The latter shows that crime is often recurrent, and that crime rates do not respond linearly to mitigation attempts. A more apt model entails ordinary people who neither commit nor sanction crime as the third strategy besides the criminals and punishers. Since ordinary people free-ride on the sanctioning efforts of punishers, they may introduce cyclic dominance that enables the coexistence of all three competing strategies. In this setup ordinary individuals become the biggest impediment to crime abatement. We therefore also consider heterogeneous punisher strategies, which seek to reduce their investment into fighting crime in order to attain a more competitive payoff. We show that this diversity of punishment leads to an explosion of complexity in the system, where the benefits and pitfalls of criminal behavior are revealed in the most unexpected ways. Due to the raise and fall of different alliances no less than six consecutive phase transitions occur in dependence on solely the temptation to succumb to criminal behavior, leading the population from ordinary people-dominated across punisher-dominated to crime-dominated phases, yet always failing to abolish crime completely.

  7. Intraoperative rapid diagnosis of primary central nervous system lymphomas: advantages and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Yasuo; Terasaki, Mizuhiko; Nakashima, Shinji; Ohshima, Koichi; Morioka, Motohiro; Abe, Hideyuki

    2014-10-01

    To study the advantages and pitfalls of intraoperative rapid diagnosis (IRD) of primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL), pathology reports and frozen sections in our institution were reviewed. We examined 27 cases of PCNSL, one case of anaplastic glioma, and one case of metastatic brain tumor that were diagnosed on neuroimaging. Fifteen cases of intraoperative cytological preparations were also reviewed in a correlative manner. Among the 27 cases initially diagnosed as PCNSL, 18 were also diagnosed as PCNSL by IRD. However, IRD identified four of the 27 cases as gliosis, two as demyelination, one as atypical epithelial cells, one as malignant glioma and anaplastic astrocytoma. In addition, the case identified as metastatic brain tumor on neuroimaging was corrected to a diagnosis of PCNSL based on IRD. The final accuracy of IRD in the present study was 89.6% (26/29). After postoperative definitive diagnosis, two cases of anaplastic astrocytoma and one case of PCNSL by IRD were corrected to PCNSL, anaplastic oligodendroglioma and demyelination, respectively. PCNSL were sometimes histologically indistinguishable from malignant gliomas or demyelinating diseases in the present study, particularly in frozen sections. Notably, all cases for which both intraoperative cytology and frozen section were performed concomitantly were correctly diagnosed in the present study. In particular, lymphoglandular bodies were highly characteristic cytological findings of PCNSL. Both intraoperative cytology and frozen sections should therefore be performed concomitantly when PCNSL are suspected.

  8. Can ecosystem-scale translocations mitigate the impact of climate change on terrestrial biodiversity? Promises, pitfalls, and possibilities: Ecosystem-scale translocations.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Stéphane; Case, Bradley S; Lefort, Marie-Caroline; Waterhouse, Benjamin R; Wratten, Stephen D

    2016-01-01

    Because ecological interactions are the first components of the ecosystem to be impacted by climate change, future forms of threatened-species and ecosystem management should aim at conserving complete, functioning communities rather than single charismatic species. A possible way forward is the deployment of ecosystem-scale translocation (EST), where above- and below-ground elements of a functioning terrestrial ecosystem (including vegetation and topsoil) are carefully collected and moved together. Small-scale attempts at such practice have been made for the purpose of ecological restoration. By moving larger subsets of functioning ecosystems from climatically unstable regions to more stable ones, EST could provide a practical means to conserve mature and complex ecosystems threatened by climate change. However, there are a number of challenges associated with EST in the context of climate change mitigation, in particular the choice of donor and receptor sites. With the aim of fostering discussion and debate about the EST concept, we  1) outline the possible promises and pitfalls of EST in mitigating the impact of climate change on terrestrial biodiversity and 2) use a GIS-based approach to illustrate how  potential source and receptor sites, where EST could be trialed and evaluated globally, could be identified.

  9. USGS Science: Addressing Our Nation's Challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Tania M.

    2009-01-01

    With 6.6 billion people already living on Earth, and that number increasing every day, human influence on our planet is ever more apparent. Changes to the natural world combined with increasing human demands threaten our health and safety, our national security, our economy, and our quality of life. As a planet and a Nation, we face unprecedented challenges: loss of critical and unique ecosystems, the effects of climate change, increasing demand for limited energy and mineral resources, increasing vulnerability to natural hazards, the effects of emerging diseases on wildlife and human health, and growing needs for clean water. The time to respond to these challenges is now, but policymakers and decisionmakers face difficult choices. With competing priorities to balance, and potentially serious - perhaps irreversible - consequences at stake, our leaders need reliable scientific information to guide their decisions. As the Nation's earth and natural science agency, the USGS monitors and conducts scientific research on natural hazards and resources and how these elements and human activities influence our environment. Because the challenges we face are complex, the science needed to better understand and deal with these challenges must reflect the complex interplay among natural and human systems. With world-class expertise in biology, geology, geography, hydrology, geospatial information, and remote sensing, the USGS is uniquely capable of conducting the comprehensive scientific research needed to better understand the interdependent interactions of Earth's systems. Every day, the USGS helps decisionmakers to minimize loss of life and property, manage our natural resources, and protect and enhance our quality of life. This brochure provides examples of the challenges we face and how USGS science helps decisionmakers to address these challenges.

  10. Pseudo-postpacing interval of diastolic potential after entrainment pacing of remote bystander pathway in reentrant ventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Tadashi; Irie, Tadanobu; Igawa, Osamu; Iijima, Takafumi; Ota, Masaki; Tamura, Mio; Iizuka, Takashi; Tamura, Shuntaro; Saito, Akihiro; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2014-09-01

    After entrainment pacing, the postpacing interval of a diastolic potential may be misinterpreted if the distal tip of the ablation catheter captures a remote bystander pathway adjacent to the critical isthmus of a complex reentrant circuit in a structurally diseased heart. We discuss this possible pitfall of entrainment mapping of reentrant ventricular tachycardia, observed after a healed myocardial infarction.

  11. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma with Cystic Cervical Metastasis Masquerading as Branchial Cleft Cyst: A Potential Pitfall in Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Sai-Guan, Lum; Min-Han, Kong; Kah-Wai, Ngan; Mohamad-Yunus, Mohd-Razif

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Most metastatic lymph nodes from head and neck malignancy are solid. Cystic nodes are found in 33% - 61% of carcinomas arise from Waldeyer’s ring, of which only 1.8% - 8% originate are from the nasopharynx. Some cystic cervical metastases were initially presumed to be branchial cleft cyst. This case report aims to highlight the unusual presentation of cystic cervical metastasis secondary to nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a young adult. The histopathology, radiological features and management strategy were discussed. Case Report: A 36-year-old man presented with a solitary cystic cervical swelling, initially diagnosed as branchial cleft cyst. Fine needle aspiration yielded 18 ml of straw-coloured fluid. During cytological examination no atypical cells were observed. Computed tomography of the neck showed a heterogeneous mass with multiseptation medial to the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Histopathological examination of the mass, post excision, revealed a metastatic lymph node. A suspicious mucosal lesion at the nasopharynx was detected after repeated thorough head and neck examinations and the biopsy result confirmed undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Conclusion: Cystic cervical metastasis may occur in young patients under 40 years. The primary tumour may not be obvious during initial presentation because it mimicks benign branchial cleft cyst clinically. Retrospective review of the computed tomography images revealed features that were not characteristic of simple branchial cleft cyst. The inadequacy of assessment and interpretation had lead to the error in diagnosis and subsequent management. Metastatic head and neck lesion must be considered in a young adult with a cystic neck mass.

  12. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of breast adenomyoepithelioma: a potential false positive pitfall and presence of intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions.

    PubMed

    Saad, Reda S; Richmond, Lara; Nofech-Mozes, Sharon; Ghorab, Zeina

    2012-11-01

    Cytologic diagnosis of adenomyoepithelioma can be very challenging. We report fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) findings of a benign adenomyoepithelioma. The cytologic features are characterized by hypercellularity and the presence of numerous atypical dispersed cells with epithelioid morphology and intact cytoplasm. The nuclei showed stippled chromatin, irregular nuclear membrane, and prominent eosinophilic nucleoli. No necrosis or mitoses were seen. The presence of naked nuclei, and extensive intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions were identified and raised the possibility of adenomyoepithelioma. Immunohistochemically, the atypical cells showed strong positivity for myosin heavy chain, p63, and CK5/6, while the epithelial cells reacted with estrogen receptors. This immunophenotypic pattern supports the myoepithelial origin of the atypical cell proliferation and favors the diagnosis of benign adenomyoepithelioma. However, biopsy was recommended to exclude malignancy. Histologically, the tumor showed prominent myoepithelial cells with significant atypia, intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions, and dense cytoplasm. No evidence of malignancy was identified. In conclusion, we report a case of adenomyoepithelioma with a significant cytological atypia that may result in confusion with malignant breast tumors. The presence of intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions, naked nuclei, and expression of myoepithelial markers should provide clues to the right diagnosis and benign nature of this lesion. Cytopathologists should be familiarized with this entity to avoid a misdiagnosis of carcinoma.

  13. Potential pitfalls of reconstructing deep time evolutionary history with only extant data, a case study using the canidae (mammalia, carnivora).

    PubMed

    Finarelli, John A; Goswami, Anjali

    2013-12-01

    Reconstructing evolutionary patterns and their underlying processes is a central goal in biology. Yet many analyses of deep evolutionary histories assume that data from the fossil record is too incomplete to include, and rely solely on databases of extant taxa. Excluding fossil taxa assumes that character state distributions across living taxa are faithful representations of a clade's entire evolutionary history. Many factors can make this assumption problematic. Fossil taxa do not simply lead-up to extant taxa; they represent now-extinct lineages that can substantially impact interpretations of character evolution for extant groups. Here, we analyze body mass data for extant and fossil canids (dogs, foxes, and relatives) for changes in mean and variance through time. AIC-based model selection recovered distinct models for each of eight canid subgroups. We compared model fit of parameter estimates for (1) extant data alone and (2) extant and fossil data, demonstrating that the latter performs significantly better. Moreover, extant-only analyses result in unrealistically low estimates of ancestral mass. Although fossil data are not always available, reconstructions of deep-time organismal evolution in the absence of deep-time data can be highly inaccurate, and we argue that every effort should be made to include fossil data in macroevolutionary studies.

  14. Acoustic startle modification as a tool for evaluating auditory function of the mouse: Progress, pitfalls, and potential.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Amanda M; Behrens, Derik; Klump, Georg

    2017-03-19

    Acoustic startle response (ASR) modification procedures, especially prepulse inhibition (PPI), are increasingly used as behavioral measures of auditory processing and sensorimotor gating in rodents due to their perceived ease of implementation and short testing times. In practice, ASR and PPI procedures are extremely variable across animals, experimental setups, and studies, and the interpretation of results is subject to numerous caveats and confounding influences. We review considerations for modification of the ASR using acoustic stimuli, and we compare the sensitivity of PPI procedures to more traditional operant psychoacoustic techniques. We also discuss non-auditory variables that must be considered. We conclude that ASR and PPI measures cannot substitute for traditional operant techniques due to their low sensitivity. Additionally, a substantial amount of pilot testing must be performed to properly optimize an ASR modification experiment, negating any time benefit over operant conditioning. Nevertheless, there are some circumstances where ASR measures may be the only option for assessing auditory behavior, such as when testing mouse strains with early-onset hearing loss or learning impairments.

  15. Kaposi sarcoma in association with molluscum contagiosum: an uncommon diagnosis in a single biopsy and potential diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Prasad Busarla, Satya Vara; Sayed, Shahin; Nazarian, Rosalynn M; Gimbel, Devon C; Moloo, Zahir; Sohani, Aliyah R

    2012-02-01

    Molluscum contagiosum is a cutaneous poxviral infection that is rarely associated with other skin diseases, such as cutaneous neoplasms. Such associations are likely to be coincidental, except in immunocompromised patients. Kaposi sarcoma, an angioproliferative neoplasm derived from lymphatic endothelium, is mediated by human herpes virus-8 infection and occurs with increased frequency in immunocompromised individuals. We report an unusual case of molluscum contagiosum with underlying cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma diagnosed in a single skin biopsy of a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient. Our case highlights the importance of adequate sampling to avoid missing secondary diagnoses in histopathologic sections and alerts pathologists and dermatologists to the possibility of coinfection in high-risk patients by 2 virally-mediated skin conditions.

  16. Macrofollicular variant of papillary carcinoma, a potential diagnostic pitfall: A report of two cases including a review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Policarpio-Nicolas, Maria Luisa C.; Sirohi, Deepika

    2013-01-01

    Macrofollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (MFVPTC) is one of the rarest histologic types of papillary carcinoma. This tumor may mimic an adenomatoid/colloid nodule or follicular neoplasm (macrofollicular type) both on histology and cytology. There are very few articles describing the cytologic features of MFVPTC. We report the cytologic findings of two surgically confirmed MFVPTC. The first case showed abundant thin colloid with moderate amount of follicular cells arranged in a honeycombed and syncytial pattern. Some but not all the follicular cells showed enlarged round to ovoid nuclei, overlapping nuclei, few nuclear grooves and rare intranuclear inclusions. The second case showed abundant thin colloid and predominantly benign appearing follicular cells with few overlapping nuclei, enlarged round to ovoid nuclei and rare nuclear grooves. No intranuclear inclusions were identified. A review of the literature was done and the cytologic findings of MFVPTC including our two cases were tabulated. The cytologic findings showed moderate to abundant thin with focally thick colloid in 75% of cases and sheet like arrangement of follicular cells in 76%. Although nuclear features such as chromatin clearing, overlapping and grooves were present in majority of cases, the quantity varied from rare to focal. Small to prominent nucleoli were present in all of the evaluable cases. Intranuclear inclusions were seen only in 45% of patients. Hence, the cytologic features of macrofollicular variant of papillary carcinoma though present can be subtle and intranuclear inclusions may not be present always. PMID:24082912

  17. Addressing Your Child's Weight at the Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  18. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  19. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  20. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...