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Sample records for address problems encountered

  1. Addressing Problems Encountered in Case-Based Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turgeon, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    TURF 436 (Case Studies in Turfgrass Management) is the capstone course for turfgrass science majors at the Pennsylvania State University. Students are introduced to problems and complex problematic situations encountered in the management of golf and sports turf and in professional lawn-care operations. Following completion of the orientation case…

  2. Problems Encountered by Novice Pair Programmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanks, Brian

    2008-01-01

    In a study of the types of problems encountered by students that led them to seek assistance, Robins et al. [2006] found that the most common problems were related to trivial mechanics. The students in this study worked by themselves on their programming exercises. This article discusses a replication of the Robins et al. study in which the…

  3. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems. PMID:21537142

  4. Some problems encountered in endodontic radiography.

    PubMed

    Lim, K C; Teo, C S

    1986-07-01

    This retrospective survey highlights some of the problems faced by undergraduate students using the bisecting angle technique in endodontic radiography. The radiographs of maxillary incisors and premolars were observed to suffer from a greater amount of distortion than radiographs of the corresponding mandibular teeth. Further, the presence of rubber dam equipment affected the accuracy of the radiographs, and this was more apparent on the radiographs of the maxillary incisors and premolars compared to the mandibular incisors and premolars. Other problems identified included superimposition, indistinct and missed root apices. Methods to overcome these problems are suggested. PMID:3777839

  5. Addressing the Challenges Encountered during a Developmental Evaluation: Implications for Evaluation Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poth, Cheryl-Anne; Pinto, Dorothy; Howery, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This article describes three challenges encountered during a developmental evaluation and explains how these were addressed from the evaluators' perspective. The evaluation was conducted to support the implementation of a three-year educational technology leadership project funded by the Alberta provincial government. The developmental evaluation…

  6. Initiative Addresses Subsurface Energy and Environment Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Majer, Ernest L.; Wang, Joseph S. Y.; Colwell, Frederick; Redden, George

    2006-01-01

    Members of the geoscience community are cooperating in conceptualizing fundamental, crosscutting research to address major obstacles to solving energy and environmental problems related to the subsurface, through the SECUREarth initiative, which began in 2004. Addressing problems, such as reliable nuclear waste storage and safe carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration, are critical to maintaining an economical and safe energy supply and clean environment. A recent workshop in Golden, Colo., helped to further the development of the SECUREarth (Scientific Energy/Environmental Crosscutting Underground Research for Urgent Solutions to Secure the Earth's Future) initiative by identifying the key scientific challenges in the geosciences, as well as to target possible approaches for overcoming roadblocks.

  7. Autocheck: Addressing the Problem of Rural Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Guy A.

    This paper describes a project implemented by a social worker from the Glynn County School District in rural Georgia to address transportation problems experienced by students and their families. The project aims to assist families who are unable to keep appointments or attend other important events due to unreliable transportation. A county needs…

  8. Problem Solvers: Solutions--The Inaugural Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dause, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Fourth graders in Miss Dause's and Mrs. Hicks's mathematics classes at South Mountain Elementary School in Dillsburg, Pennsylvania, worked with the data from the Inauagural Address problem that was previously published published in the February 2013 issue of "Teaching Children Mathematics". This activity allowed students to…

  9. Problems encountered during impact calculations using analytic equations of state

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrisk, J.F.; Harvey, W.B.

    1997-02-01

    During modeling of the impact of a projectile on a target or other calculations that bring materials together at high velocities, computer simulations of materials being shocked to high pressure and then releasing to low pressure are performed. Depending on the circumstances, the release to low pressure is often accompanied by release to a very low density. Numerical problems leading to very large sound speeds (and thus small time steps) or to negative Lagrangian volumes have been encountered during MESA-2D calculations of this nature. These problems can be traced to the behavior of the equation of state (EOS) in the limit as the density becomes much less than the normal or reference density. Although analytic solutions for expansion isentropes may show acceptable behavior in the low-density limit, numerical solutions can show undesirable behavior. Examples of this undesirable behavior in the low-density regime are given for some simple, analytic equations of state that have closed-form solutions for isentropes. The behavior of three analytic EOSs that are frequently used in MESA-2D calculations are then discussed. These EOSs are the Los Alamos EOS, the MESA polynomial EOS, and a Mie-Gruneisen EOS based on a linear relation between shock and particle velocity. The problems in the low-density region can be corrected for the Los Alamos EOS and the MESA polynomial EOS by the proper choice of EOS coefficients in the expansion region (density less than the reference density). Problems with the Mie-Gruneisen EOS can be corrected if the functional relationship between the Gruneisen parameter ({Tau}) and density differs above and below the reference density.

  10. Evaluating minority retention programs: problems encountered and lessons learned from the Ohio science and engineering alliance.

    PubMed

    White, Jeffry L; Altschuld, James W; Lee, Yi-Fang

    2008-08-01

    The retention rates for African-Americans, Hispanics, and Native-Americans in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) are lower than those of White or Asian college students. In response, the National Science Foundation formed statewide partnerships of universities to develop programs to address this disparity. The deliberations and experiences in evaluating one such partnership are retrospectively reviewed. Problems and issues encountered during conceptualization and implementation are presented. Lessons learned from this endeavor should generalize to similar situations and provide guidance for others new to or interested in evaluating STEM retention programs as well as those evaluating collaborative endeavors. PMID:18486208

  11. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems.

    PubMed

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin's dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber's structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure. PMID:27345617

  12. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin’s dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber’s structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure.

  13. School Nurses' Perceived Prevalence and Competence to Address Student Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…

  14. Hardware problems encountered in solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, M.

    1978-01-01

    Numerous problems in the design, production, installation, and operation of solar energy systems are discussed. Described are hardware problems, which range from simple to obscure and complex, and their resolution.

  15. Emotional Congruence in Learning and Health Encounters in Medicine: Addressing an Aspect of the Hidden Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to draw attention to and provide insights into an area that is of educational significance for clinical teachers, namely the need to acknowledge and respond appropriately to the emotional context of both learning and health encounters in order to improve the outcomes of both. This need has been highlighted by recent calls for more…

  16. Problems encountered in solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, M.

    1979-01-01

    Report discussing various experiences of workers at Marshall Space Flight Center in developing solar heating and cooling systems is presented. Presents compilation of problems and their resolutions which can assist designers of solar-energy systems and prevent repetition of errors.

  17. An Interdisciplinary Program in Technical Communications: Problems Encountered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Martha

    The need for experts in technical communication is growing significantly while the number of college graduates in the field accounts for less than one percent of the need. Three major types of problems should be considered in trying to establish a technical communication program: those involving society's need for better technical communicators,…

  18. Addressing the call-back problem

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, R.

    1985-08-01

    Service recalls or call-backs are one of the costliest and most persistent of service management problems. Although all service industries have call-back problems each time the oilburner breaks down, the customer has what could be a costly inconvenience. Every customer complaint reduces loyalty and makes the industry more and more vulnerable to competition, not just from each other but, from the utilities and the discounters. A customer who gets prompt, capable service will usually stay with his present company and, just as importantly, he stays with fuel oil. If the industry were to place the blame for call-backs on a particular person or area it would probably be in the individual serviceman. The lack of training, lack of motivation, lack of compassion for the customer or lack of company spirit, is discussed.

  19. [Cataract in China: research and development direction and problems encountered].

    PubMed

    Yao, Ke

    2015-04-01

    Cataract is the major cause of blindness in China. After efforts of generations, there were tremendous progresses in cataract diagnosis and treatment. With the popularity of microincision cataract surgery, the rise of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery, and the application of advanced intraocular lens, cataract surgery has been gradually changed from visual rehabilitation to refractive surgery. But there are still some problems such as the lower surgery coverage, the large discrepancy of the diagnosis and treatment between urban and rural areas, and the imperfect treatment standard. In future work, cataract study group combining with other ophthalmic institutes will continue to find and solve problems for upgrading the overall level of cataract treatments in China. PMID:26081227

  20. Development of countermeasures for medical problems encountered in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Rummel, John D.; Leveton, Lauren; Teeter, Ron

    1992-01-01

    Past experience with piloted space missions is reviewed to develop potential countermeasures to the medical problems associated with a long-duration space flight. Particular attention is given to the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Program, which is aimed at ensuring crew health and safety on Space Shuttle missions; Soviet experience with long-duration space flights; and a variety of countermeasures including physiological, psychological, environmental health, radiation protection, and artificial gravity countermeasures.

  1. Practical problems which women encounter with available contraception in Australia.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, E

    1994-06-01

    Australian women face major difficulties with contraception because of the limited range of choices, the need for meticulous attention to compliance with most available methods and because of cost limitations for a significant minority of the population. The most commonly used methods are oral contraceptive pills and barrier methods, and each has substantial compliance problems which can be minimized with care and counselling. There is an urgent need for a wider range of options in Australia and for good information and publicity about them. Present progress in this direction gives some hope for the near future. PMID:7848207

  2. Problems encountered in welding Inconel 625 bridgewire material

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, T.G.

    1982-05-10

    Welding problems occurred while resistance welding Inconel 625 to Inconel 600 pins in the MC3462A header at Unidynamics/Phoenix (UPI). The bridgewire showed transverse and longitudinal cracks, a condition called hot cracking, at the weld area. Welding studies at Mound confirmed a best effort could not produce welds without hot cracking. Two new bridgewire materials, Tophet C and Alloy 800, were then introduced to replace Inconel 625. Samples of both bridgewired headers welded at Unidynamics were studied at Mound to determine which was the better material. Results showed that Alloy 800 was subject to the same hot cracking phenomenon as Inconel 625, whereas all samples of Tophet C except one showed no cracks. The only Tophet C sample showing cracks showed only minor cracks. Langley tests performed with Tophet C as the bridgewire showed that the no-fire characteristics can be met. Tophet C was therefore chosen to replace Inconel 625.

  3. Mold and mycotoxin problems encountered during malting and brewing.

    PubMed

    Wolf-Hall, Charlene E

    2007-10-20

    Fusarium infections in grains can have severe effects on malt and beer. While some degree of Fusarium mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol, present in infected barley may be lost during steeping, the Fusarium mold is still capable of growth and mycotoxin production during steeping, germination and kilning. Therefore, detoxification of grain before malting may not be practical unless further growth of the mold is also prevented. Methods to reduce the amount of mold growth during malting are needed. Physical, chemical and biological methods are reviewed. Irradiation looks very promising as a means to prevent Fusarium growth during malting, but the effect on the surviving mold to produce mycotoxins and the effect on malt quality needs further study. Chemical treatments such as ozonation, which would not leave residual chemical in the beer also appear to be promising. Although biological control methods may be desirable, due to the use of "natural" inhibition, the effects of these inhibitors on malt and beer quality requires further investigation. It may also be possible to incorporate detoxifying genes into fermentation yeasts, which would result in detoxification of the wort when mold growth is no longer a problem. Development of these types of technological interventions should help improve the safety of products, such as beer, made from Fusarium infected grain. PMID:17727998

  4. The Significance of Problems Addressed in Recent Vocational Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucel, David J.

    1983-01-01

    This article examines the significance of problems addressed in recent vocational education research published in volumes 4 and 5 of the "Journal of Vocational Education Research" and volumes 16 and 17 of the "Journal of Industrial Teacher Education." (SSH)

  5. Addressing Sexual Problems in HIV Primary Care: Experiences from Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Collier, Kate L.; Grossberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that sexual problems are common among people living with HIV and may be related to sexual risk taking and treatment adherence. This study explored the extent to which sexual problems experienced by people with HIV are addressed in primary care as well as how primary care responses to sexual problems are experienced by patients. Structured interviews were conducted with 60 patients at an urban HIV clinic. The average age of the participants (37 male, 23 female) was 45.8 years (SD = 7.9). Sexual problems were common. The most common sexual problem experienced in the past year was a lack of interest in sex (53.3 % reported) and the least common problem was painful intercourse (reported by 20 %). There were no gender differences in reports of sexual problems, except that painful intercourse was more frequently reported by women than men. Relatively few individuals who experienced sexual problems had discussed them with their provider, but these individuals were generally pleased with the counseling they had received and could identify several factors that facilitated a positive patient-provider interaction. Those who offer primary care services to people with HIV should be aware of sexual problems their patients may be experiencing and should feel confident in their ability to successfully address these problems. Providers may need additional training in order to adequately address sexual problems among people with HIV in primary care settings. PMID:22965768

  6. Mothers' Perceptions of Citizenship, Practices for Developing Citizenship Conscience of Their Children and Problems They Encountered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ersoy, A. Figen

    2012-01-01

    Family plays an important role in the development of citizenship awareness of children. The purpose of the present study is to figure out the citizenship perceptions of mothers, their practices for developing citizenship conscience of their children and to explore the problems they have encountered. In this study, critical case sampling method has…

  7. Identifying the Problems That Finnish and Estonian Teachers Encounter in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugaste, Aino; Niikko, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe Finnish and Estonian preschool teachers' thoughts on the problems they encounter in their pedagogical work in the preschool context. The study involved interviews with 80 preschool teachers (40 in each country). The theoretical framework of the study is based on quality as a pedagogical phenomenon, whereby…

  8. Problems encountered by parents and guardians of elementary school-age children in obtaining immunizations.

    PubMed

    Schmalz, K; Larwa, L

    1997-02-01

    This study surveyed 265 parents of children in kindergarten through third grade in an urban New Jersey public school to determine problems encountered in obtaining regular immunizations. The most frequent reasons parents failed to obtain immunizations were cost, lesser use of WIC and AFDC, and lower perceived susceptibility of child to consequences of disease. PMID:9146212

  9. Problems encountered in operating salt gradient solar ponds in the Arabian Gulf region

    SciTech Connect

    Hassab, M.A.; Tag, I.A.; Kamal, W.A. ); Al-Noaimi, F.M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper highlights the main problems encountered in operating salt gradient solar ponds in the Arabian Gulf region, characterized by hot, windy, and dusty environment. These problems are excessive erosion of the gradient zone, the formation of sizeable localized convective zones, the deterioration of pond water clarity and the high rates of surface evaporation. These weather-related problems severely impair the pond operation, as they lead to a serious drop in its collection and storage efficiency, and an excessive increase in salt consumption. Experience gained from operating a 1,600 m{sup 2} pond and a small-scale experimental pond is presented.

  10. Problems Encountered by Religious Vocational Secondary School and Other Secondary School Students in Physical Education and Sports Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar, Mustafa; Yaman, Menzure Sibel; Hergüner, Gülten

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to determine problems encountered by Religious Vocational Secondary School and other Secondary School students in physical education and sports activities and to compare these problems according to school type and gender. A questionnaire named "Problems encountered in attending to physical education and sports activities"…

  11. Identification of technical problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, D.G.; Epler, J.S.; Rose, R.R.

    1980-03-01

    A review of problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes has been made in support of the technical aspects of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being administered by the Low-Level Waste Management Program Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The operating histories of burial sites at six major DOE and five commercial facilities in the US have been examined and several major problems identified. The problems experienced st the sites have been grouped into general categories dealing with site development, waste characterization, operation, and performance evaluation. Based on this grouping of the problem, a number of major technical issues have been identified which should be incorporated into program plans for further research and development. For each technical issue a discussion is presented relating the issue to a particular problem, identifying some recent or current related research, and suggesting further work necessary for resolving the issue. Major technical issues which have been identified include the need for improved water management, further understanding of the effect of chemical and physical parameters on radionuclide migration, more comprehensive waste records, improved programs for performance monitoring and evaluation, development of better predictive capabilities, evaluation of space utilization, and improved management control.

  12. Time to address the problems at the neural interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Dominique M.; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Krames, Elliot

    2014-04-01

    interface with the CNS. In 2013, two symposia were held independently to discuss this problem: one was held at the International Neuromodulation Society's 11th World Congress in Berlin and supported by the International Neuromodulation Society1 and the other at the 6th International Neural Engineering conference in San Diego2 and was supported by the NSF. Clearly, the neuromodulation and the neural engineering communities are keen to solve this problem. Experts from the field were assembled to discuss the problems and potential solutions. Although many important points were raised, few emerged as key issues. (1) The ability to access remotely and reliably internal neural signals . Although some of the technological problems have already been solved, this ability to access neural signals is still a significant problem since reliable and robust transcutaneous telemetry systems with large numbers of signals, each with wide bandwidth, are not readily available to researchers. (2) A translation strategy taking basic research to the clinic . The lack of understanding of the biological response to implanted constructs and the inability to monitor the sites and match the mechanical properties of the probe to the neural tissue properties continue to be an unsolved problem. In addition, the low levels of collaboration among neuroscientists, clinicians, patients and other stakeholders throughout different phases of research and development were considered to be significant impediments to progress. (3) Fundamental tools development procedures for neural interfacing . There are many laboratories testing various devices with different sets of criteria, but there is no consensus on the failure modes. The reliability, robustness of metrics and testing standards for such devices have not been established, either in academia or in industry. To start addressing this problem, the FDA has established a laboratory to test the reliability of some neural devices. Although the discussion was mostly

  13. Problems encountered during the use of ammonium-contaminated fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Brugghen, F.W. van der; Gast, C.H.; Berg, J.W. van den

    1996-01-01

    The most extensively used technology for flue gas treatment to reduce NO{sub x}-emission is selective reduction with ammonia, either at 1000{degrees}C in the gas phase (SNCR) or at 350{degrees}C in the presence of a catalyst (SCR). Operational problems that are encountered during application of these processes are mainly caused by the slip of unreacted ammonia through the reaction zone or the catalyst. This ammonia slip can lead to the formation and deposition of ammonium salts in colder parts of the installation. In coal fired boilers contamination of the fly ash with ammonium salts is possible, which can restrict re-use, especially because of the ammonia smell during application. Results will be described of laboratory tests with the preparation of mortars containing fly ash with 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg ammonium. Ammonia concentrations were continuously measured in ambient air during concrete mortar preparation and the pouring of concrete floors. Furthermore, the compressive strength and the ammonium content of the hardened concrete were followed. Other tests were carried out at a production facility for sintered artificial gravel. Fly ash with 300 mg/kg ammonium was used during these tests. Effects on working conditions, product quality, ammonia emission and operational problems of the installation were established and will be described.

  14. Lunar scout missions: Galileo encounter results and application to scientific problems and exploration requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W.; Belton, M.; Greeley, R.; Pieters, C.; Mcewen, A.; Neukum, G.; Mccord, T.

    1993-01-01

    The Lunar Scout Missions (payload: x-ray fluorescence spectrometer, high-resolution stereocamera, neutron spectrometer, gamma-ray spectrometer, imaging spectrometer, gravity experiment) will provide a global data set for the chemistry, mineralogy, geology, topography, and gravity of the Moon. These data will in turn provide an important baseline for the further scientific exploration of the Moon by all-purpose landers and micro-rovers, and sample return missions from sites shown to be of primary interest from the global orbital data. These data would clearly provide the basis for intelligent selection of sites for the establishment of lunar base sites for long-term scientific and resource exploration and engineering studies. The two recent Galileo encounters with the Moon (December, 1990 and December, 1992) illustrate how modern technology can be applied to significant lunar problems. We emphasize the regional results of the Galileo SSI to show the promise of geologic unit definition and characterization as an example of what can be done with the global coverage to be obtained by the Lunar Scout Missions.

  15. Time to address the problems at the neural interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Dominique M.; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Krames, Elliot

    2014-04-01

    interface with the CNS. In 2013, two symposia were held independently to discuss this problem: one was held at the International Neuromodulation Society's 11th World Congress in Berlin and supported by the International Neuromodulation Society1 and the other at the 6th International Neural Engineering conference in San Diego2 and was supported by the NSF. Clearly, the neuromodulation and the neural engineering communities are keen to solve this problem. Experts from the field were assembled to discuss the problems and potential solutions. Although many important points were raised, few emerged as key issues. (1) The ability to access remotely and reliably internal neural signals . Although some of the technological problems have already been solved, this ability to access neural signals is still a significant problem since reliable and robust transcutaneous telemetry systems with large numbers of signals, each with wide bandwidth, are not readily available to researchers. (2) A translation strategy taking basic research to the clinic . The lack of understanding of the biological response to implanted constructs and the inability to monitor the sites and match the mechanical properties of the probe to the neural tissue properties continue to be an unsolved problem. In addition, the low levels of collaboration among neuroscientists, clinicians, patients and other stakeholders throughout different phases of research and development were considered to be significant impediments to progress. (3) Fundamental tools development procedures for neural interfacing . There are many laboratories testing various devices with different sets of criteria, but there is no consensus on the failure modes. The reliability, robustness of metrics and testing standards for such devices have not been established, either in academia or in industry. To start addressing this problem, the FDA has established a laboratory to test the reliability of some neural devices. Although the discussion was mostly

  16. First steps of laparoscopic surgery in Lubumbashi: problems encountered and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Arung, Willy; Dinganga, Nathalie; Ngoie, Emmanuel; Odimba, Etienne; Detry, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    For many reasons, laparoscopic surgery has been performed worldwide. Due to logistical constraints its first steps occurred in Lubumbashi only in 2008. The aim of this presentation was to report authors' ten-month experience of laparoscopic surgery at Lubumbashi Don Bosco Missionary Hospital (LDBMH): problems encountered and preliminary results. The study was a transsectional descriptive work with a convenient sampling. It only took in account patients with abdominal surgical condition who consented to undergo laparoscopic surgery and when logistical constraints of the procedure were found. Independent variables were patients' demographic parameters, staff, equipments and consumable. Dependent parameters included surgical abdominal diseases, intra-operative circumstances and postoperative short term mortality and morbidity. Between 1(st)April 2009 and 28(th) February 2010, 75 patients underwent laparoscopic surgery at the LDBMH making 1.5% of all abdominal surgical activities performed at this institution. The most performed procedure was appendicectomy for acute appendicitis (64%) followed by exploratory laparoscopy for various abdominal chronic pain (9.3%), adhesiolysis for repeated periods of subacute intestinal obstruction in previously laparotomised patients (9.3%), laparoscopic cholecystectomy for post acute cholecystitis on gall stone (5.3%) and partial colectomy for symptomatic redundant sigmoid colon (2.7%). There were 4% of conversion to laparotomy. Laparoscopic surgery consumed more time than laparotomy, mostly when dealing with appendicitis. However, postoperatively, patients did quite well. There was no death in this series. Nursing care was minimal with early discharge. These results are encouraging to pursue laparoscopic surgery with DRC Government and NGO's supports. PMID:26448805

  17. First steps of laparoscopic surgery in Lubumbashi: problems encountered and preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Arung, Willy; Dinganga, Nathalie; Ngoie, Emmanuel; Odimba, Etienne; Detry, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    For many reasons, laparoscopic surgery has been performed worldwide. Due to logistical constraints its first steps occurred in Lubumbashi only in 2008. The aim of this presentation was to report authors’ ten-month experience of laparoscopic surgery at Lubumbashi Don Bosco Missionary Hospital (LDBMH): problems encountered and preliminary results. The study was a transsectional descriptive work with a convenient sampling. It only took in account patients with abdominal surgical condition who consented to undergo laparoscopic surgery and when logistical constraints of the procedure were found. Independent variables were patients’ demographic parameters, staff, equipments and consumable. Dependent parameters included surgical abdominal diseases, intra-operative circumstances and postoperative short term mortality and morbidity. Between 1stApril 2009 and 28th February 2010, 75 patients underwent laparoscopic surgery at the LDBMH making 1.5% of all abdominal surgical activities performed at this institution. The most performed procedure was appendicectomy for acute appendicitis (64%) followed by exploratory laparoscopy for various abdominal chronic pain (9.3%), adhesiolysis for repeated periods of subacute intestinal obstruction in previously laparotomised patients (9.3%), laparoscopic cholecystectomy for post acute cholecystitis on gall stone (5.3%) and partial colectomy for symptomatic redundant sigmoid colon (2.7%). There were 4% of conversion to laparotomy. Laparoscopic surgery consumed more time than laparotomy, mostly when dealing with appendicitis. However, postoperatively, patients did quite well. There was no death in this series. Nursing care was minimal with early discharge. These results are encouraging to pursue laparoscopic surgery with DRC Government and NGO's supports. PMID:26448805

  18. Evidence-Based Practices for Addressing Classroom Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hye-Suk Lee; Lynch, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers of young children can plan proactively so that they avoid some of the serious problem behaviors in the classroom. The strategies presented in this article are part of a problem solving approach to challenging behavior based on the principles of positive behavioral support. Although these methods presented here have research-based…

  19. Problems Encountered during the Implementations of Resource-Based Teaching in Pre-Service History Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the problems encountered during the resource-based teaching implementations carried out with pre-service history teachers along with their reasons and suggest solutions. The study was a qualitative study using a case study design. The population of the study consisted of 5th grade pre-service history teachers continuing…

  20. Dismantling of Radium-226 Coal Level Gauges: Encountered Problems and How to Solve

    SciTech Connect

    Punnachaiya, M.; Nuanjan, P.; Moombansao, K.; Sawangsri, T.; Pruantonsai, P.; Srichom, K.

    2006-07-01

    previously a leakage on inner source housing. Thus, during manufacturing the filled-lead for shielding passed through this small hole and fixed the deformed spring together with the source. The circular surface of inner hole was measured and slowly drilled at a diameter 2.2 cm behind shielding, till the spring and the fixed lead sheet were cut, therefore the source could be finally hammered out. The surface dose rate of coal level gauges before weld cutting was 10-15 mR/hr and the highest dose rate at the position of the weld cutter was 2.5 mR/hr. The total time for each weld cutting and automatic sawing was 2-3 minutes and 1 minute, respectively. The source was individually and safely transferred to store in lead safe box using a 1-meter length tong and a light container with 1 meter length handle. The total time for Ra-226 (70 pieces) dismantling, including the encountered problems and their troubles shooting took 4 days operation in which the total dose obtained by 18 operators were ranged from 1-38 {mu}Sv. The dismantling team safely completed the activities within the effective dose limit for occupational exposure of 20 mSv/year (80 {mu}Sv/day). (authors)

  1. Selective Prevention: Addressing Vulnerability to Problem Drug Use in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Gregor; Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Bo, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Following the 2003 publication of the European Union (EU) Council Recommendations and the 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 EU Drugs Action Plans, increasing attention has been given in EU member states' drug policies to populations that are vulnerable to problem drug use (PDU). Monitoring data reported to the EMCDDA by designated agencies from 30 countries…

  2. Stressed Stream Analysis--Addressing Environmental Problems in Local Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Uses environmental impact analysis as a unifying theme to provide students with real problem-solving experiences without neglecting the principles and theories of the basic scientific disciplines undergirding environmental science. Provides information about stressed stream analysis, which connects environmental impact analysis and Great Lakes…

  3. An effective way to address global environmental and energy problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrienko, O.; Garelina, S.; Gysev, A.; Zakharyan, R.; Kazaryan, M.; Sachkov, V.

    2015-12-01

    This work scales the present globalism of ecological and energetic problems. The ecological problem is connected with environment pollution by polymeric waste. The energetic problem - with traditional approaches of modern energetic, in particular, use of fossil fuel for energy production and concentration of capacities for ensuring overall performance of global power supply systems that doesn't guarantee a sustainable development of power for long prospect, doesn't provide power safety of the country. The second part of work is devoted to a choice of the most effective solutions of the present global problems. The authors have proposed the plasma-chemical method of the polymer waste processing and developed a schematic diagram of the reactor. The paper contains the results of the theoretical calculation of the polymer waste processing products. The reagents, allowing to obtain hydrogen and other liquid products from polymer waste are selected. It is proposed to use rare elements for increasing the efficiency of hydrogen production from polymer waste. The results of the calculation of the efficiency of hydrogen production from polymer waste using molybdenum are revealed in the paper.

  4. How Do Medical Teachers Address the Problem of Transfer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laksov, Klara Bolander; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Clinical teachers often complain that medical students have forgotten or somehow "lost" knowledge that has been taught at pre-clinical levels at the time of entering the clinical part of education. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore, whether transfer of knowledge was identified as a problem by the teaching staff of anatomy and…

  5. Air toxics risk standards: are we addressing the real problems?

    SciTech Connect

    Laurie Miller; Richard Becker; Ted Cromwell

    2005-06-01

    Cost-effective risk reductions from major stationary emission sources have seen significant progress. EPA and state data demonstrate that their programs have dramatically reduced emissions and risk from these sources. Analyses indicate that the next generation of risk reductions for stationary sources will be provide little risk reduction, but will be much more costly and more challenging from a policy perspective. Facing these tough choices, EPA and state regulators should, with stakeholder input, be developing scientifically driven and cost-effective approaches to provide the public with honest answers and results. Air toxics risk policies and programs must prioritize and address significant remaining air toxics risks, educate and communicate to the public about the decision alternatives, build support for a holistic approach and openly communicate results. 6 refs.

  6. Addressing the Pilot security problem with gLExec

    SciTech Connect

    Sfiligoi, I.; Koeroo, O.; Venekamp, G.; Yocum, D.; Groep, D.; Petravick, D.; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    The Grid security mechanisms were designed under the assumption that users would submit their jobs directly to the Grid gatekeepers. Many groups are however starting to use pilot-based infrastructures, where users submit jobs to a centralized queue and are successively transferred to the Grid resources by the pilot infrastructure. While this approach greatly improves the user experience, it does introduce several security and policy issues, the more serious being the lack of system level protection between the users and the inability for Grid sites to apply fine grained authorization policies. One possible solution to the problem is provided by gLExec, a X.509 aware suexec derivative. By using gLExec, the pilot workflow becomes as secure as any traditional one.

  7. Safety management in multiemployer worksites in the manufacturing industry: opinions on co-operation and problems encountered.

    PubMed

    Nenonen, Sanna; Vasara, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Co-operation between different parties and effective safety management play an important role in ensuring safety in multiemployer worksites. This article reviews safety co-operation and factors complicating safety management in Finnish multiemployer manufacturing worksites. The paper focuses on the service providers' opinions; however, a comparison of the customers' views is also presented. The results show that safety-related co-operation between providers and customers is generally considered as successful but strongly dependent on the partner. Safety co-operation is provided through, e.g., training, orientation and risk analysis. Problems encountered include ensuring adequate communication, identifying hazards, co-ordinating work tasks and determining responsibilities. The providers and the customers encounter similar safety management problems. The results presented in this article can help companies to focus their efforts on the most problematic points of safety management and to avoid common pitfalls. PMID:23759189

  8. Applied social and behavioral science to address complex health problems.

    PubMed

    Livingood, William C; Allegrante, John P; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Clark, Noreen M; Windsor, Richard C; Zimmerman, Marc A; Green, Lawrence W

    2011-11-01

    Complex and dynamic societal factors continue to challenge the capacity of the social and behavioral sciences in preventive medicine and public health to overcome the most seemingly intractable health problems. This paper proposes a fundamental shift from a research approach that presumes to identify (from highly controlled trials) universally applicable interventions expected to be implemented "with fidelity" by practitioners, to an applied social and behavioral science approach similar to that of engineering. Such a shift would build on and complement the recent recommendations of the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research and require reformulation of the research-practice dichotomy. It would also require disciplines now engaged in preventive medicine and public health practice to develop a better understanding of systems thinking and the science of application that is sensitive to the complexity, interactivity, and unique elements of community and practice settings. Also needed is a modification of health-related education to ensure that those entering the disciplines develop instincts and capacities as applied scientists. PMID:22011425

  9. The clinical encounter revisited.

    PubMed

    Schattner, Ami

    2014-04-01

    The patient-physician encounter is the pivotal starting point of any healthcare delivery, but it is subject to multiple process breakdowns and prevalent suboptimal performance. An overview of the techniques and components of a successful encounter valid for every setting and readily applicable is presented, stressing 7 rules: (1) ensuring optimal environment, tools, and teamwork; (2) viewing each encounter not only as a cognitive/biomedical challenge, but also as a personal one, and a learning opportunity; (3) adopting an attitude of curiosity, concentration, compassion, and commitment, and maintaining a systematic, orderly approach; (4) "simple is beautiful"-making the most of the basic clinical data and their many unique advantages; (5) minding "the silent dimension"-being attentive to the patient's identity and emotions; (6) following the "Holy Trinity" of gathering all information, consulting databases/colleagues, and tailoring gained knowledge to the individual patient; and (7) using the encounter as a "window of opportunity" to further the patient's health-not just the major problem, by addressing screening and prevention; promoting health literacy and shared decision-making; and establishing proper follow-up. Barriers to implementation identified can be overcome by continuous educational interventions. A high-quality encounter sets a virtuous cycle of patient-provider interaction and results in increasing satisfaction, adherence, and improved health outcomes. PMID:24333201

  10. Evaluating Minority Retention Programs: Problems Encountered and Lessons Learned from the Ohio Science and Engineering Alliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jeffry L.; Altschuld, James W.; Lee, Yi-Fang

    2008-01-01

    The retention rates for African-Americans, Hispanics, and Native-Americans in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) are lower than those of White or Asian college students. In response, the National Science Foundation formed statewide partnerships of universities to develop programs to address this disparity. The deliberations…

  11. Problems encountered in the use of neutron methods for elemental analysis on planetary surfaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.; Philbin, P.; Moxham, R.; Boynton, G.; Trombka, J.

    1974-01-01

    From experimental studies of gamma rays from fast and thermal neutron reactions in hydrogeneous and non-hydrogeneous, semi-infinite samples and from Monte Carlo calculations on soil of a composition which might typically be encountered on planetary surfaces, it is found that gamma rays from fast or inelastic scattering reactions would dominate the observed spectra. With the exception of gamma rays formed by inelastically scattered neutrons on oxygen, useful spectra would be limited to energies below 3 MeV. Other experiments were performed which show that if a gamma-ray detector were placed within 6 m of an isotopic neutron source in a spacecraft, it would be rendered useless for gamma-ray spectrometry below 3 MeV because of internal activation produced by neutron exposure during space travel. Adequate shielding is not practicable because of the size and weight constraints for planetary missions. Thus, it is required that the source be turned off or removed to a safe distance during non-measurement periods. In view of these results an accelerator or an off-on isotopic source would be desirable for practical gamma-ray spectral analysis on planetary surfaces containing but minor amounts of hydrogen. ?? 1974.

  12. Capillary electrophoresis for regulatory analysis: is it ready? Problems encountered during an interlaboratory study utilizing capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mopper, B; Sciacchitano, C J

    1997-01-01

    Recently, the Northeast Regional Laboratory of the Food and Drug Administration conducted a collaborative study on the method to determine histamine in tuna by capillary electrophoresis. This study, under the guidance of the AOAC International, was the first of its kind involving the use of CE and was undertaken to establish official monograph status. The results of the collaborative study, however, were highly variable. Percent recovery data obtained by 11 collaborators ranged from 54 to 281%, with an average of 111%. In this paper, problems with reproducibility, and factors such as low sensitivity, noisy baselines, and variable migration times encountered by collaborators using various commercial capillary electrophoresis units are discussed. PMID:9624572

  13. Use of the Rasch Model to Solve Data Problems Encountered by the California Assessment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Richard K.

    Four problems faced by the staff of the California Assessment Program (CAP) were solved by applying Rasch scaling techniques: (1) item cultural bias in the Entry Level Test (ELT) given to all first grade pupils; (2) nonlinear regression analysis of the third grade Reading Test scores; (3) comparison of school growth from grades two to three, using…

  14. Elementary Science and Technology Teachers' Views on Problems Encountered in the Instructional Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gecer, Aynur; Ozel, Ruhan

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to explore the problems that teacher have experienced their opinion towards effectives and and functionality of teaching-learning process of Primary Science and Technology curriculum started to be implemented in 2004-2005 academic year in Turkey. The qualitative research design is used in this study. Research data are collected…

  15. Investigation of the Perceived Causes of Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Problems Encountered in School Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Körhasan, Nilüfer Didis; Didis, M. Gözde

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates a group of pre-service physics teachers' perceptions about the causes of problems in school experience through the attribution theory. The participants were thirteen pre-service physics teachers from a public university in Turkey. Data were collected through the interviews by requesting the participants to reflect their own…

  16. Perceptions of Practice Problems Encountered by Family Physicians, Pediatricians, and Orthopedic Surgeons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Gang; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Information about practice problems was solicited through a structured questionnaire completed by 59 family physicians, 101 pediatricians, and 102 orthopedic surgeons. Across all three groups, a lack of personal time was the major concern. Practice concerns vary among the specialties, a finding of interest to physician education. (SLD)

  17. Examples of Cross-Cultural Problems Encountered by Americans Working Overseas; An Instructor's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Robert J.

    Intended mainly as a source book for instructors in area training programs, this handbook contains summary accounts of events illustrating problems frequently met by Americans working overseas, especially those providing technical assistance in developing nations. Examples are drawn from case studies, interviews, anthropology texts, and other…

  18. Investigation on Legal Problems Encountered by Emergency Medicine Physicians in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kayipmaz, Afsin Emre; Giray, Tufan Akin; Yesilagac, Hasan; Ozel, Betul Akbuga; Celikel, Elif; Karagun, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    Background Medicine is a profession that carries certain risks. One risky area of practice is the emergency department. Emergency physicians diagnose and treat a high volume of patients, and are also responsible for preparing reports for forensic cases. In this study, we aim to investigate emergency physicians’ legal-administrative problems and reveal their level of understanding on forensic cases. Methods An electronic questionnaire form was prepared after the approval of an ethical committee. This form was sent to the residents, specialists and academicians of emergency medicine by e-mail. The physicians were asked to fill out the form online. All the gathered data was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were presented as frequency percentages with mean and standard deviation. Chi-square tests were used to compare the groups. Correlation between number of complaint cases and age, sex, career, institution, and duration of service in emergency department were investigated. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results 294 physicians participated in the questionnaire. According to the questionnaire, 170 of the physicians were reported to the patient communication units due to medical malpractice. Mean number of compliant reports was 3.20±3.5. 29 of the physicians received administrative penalties. 42 of the physicians were judged in the court for medical malpractice. 1 physician was fined 5000 Turkish Liras as a result of these judgments. Conclusion We found that the number of complaint reports is negatively correlated with duration of service in emergency medicine and age. There was a significant difference between number of complaint reports and career (p<0.05). The physicians’ level of awareness on forensic cases was found to be insufficient. Lack of legislation knowledge may be an important cause of complaint reports concerning emergency physicians, who have a high load of patients. Thus, we think that increasing the frequency of post

  19. Incorporating Natural Helpers to Address Service Disparities for Young Children with Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Polakovich, I. David; Niec, Larissa N.; Barnet, Miya L.; Bell, Katrina M.

    2013-01-01

    In response to the high levels of unmet need among historically underserved young children with conduct problems, this paper outlines some of the key issues involved in incorporating natural helpers into the delivery of parenting interventions for the treatment of conduct problems among historically underserved children. Strategies for the selection and training of natural helpers are discussed along with challenges that might be encountered in these processes. Directions for future research are also highlighted. With appropriate selection and training procedures in place, natural helpers may increase the accessibility of services for children and families and foster the reduction of service disparities. PMID:24729649

  20. Achieving Success with More Students: Addressing the Problem of Students At Risk, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    This resource book was developed to provide information that state and local leaders can use to stimulate discussion of the problem of students at risk and support the planning of initiatives that address the problem. An overview defines students at risk, summarizes the content of the book, and lists recent reports and publications on the problem…

  1. A Problem-Solving Approach to Addressing Current Global Challenges in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Judith D.; Aspin, David N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper begins with an analysis of global problems shaping education, particularly as they impact upon learning and life chances. In addressing these problems a range of philosophical positions and controversies are considered, including: traditional romantic and institutional views of schooling; and more recent maximalist, neo-liberal,…

  2. An Approach for Addressing the Multiple Testing Problem in Social Policy Impact Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.

    2009-01-01

    In social policy evaluations, the multiple testing problem occurs due to the many hypothesis tests that are typically conducted across multiple outcomes and subgroups, which can lead to spurious impact findings. This article discusses a framework for addressing this problem that balances Types I and II errors. The framework involves specifying…

  3. Beating the Odds: Preparing Graduates to Address Gambling-Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Rafael J.; Bechtold, Jody; Kim, Yoonmi; Mulvaney, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    As gambling opportunities proliferate, social workers are likely to see clients with gambling-related problems, but they often lack the expertise to address these concerns. This descriptive study assessed the inclusion of content on gambling-related problems in graduate social work curricula. Responses to an online survey from 86 (43.7%) of the…

  4. Routing and Addressing Problems in Large Metropolitan-Scale Internetworks. ISI Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Gregory G.

    This report discusses some of the problems and limitations in existing internetwork design for the connection of packet-switching networks of different technologies and presents an algorithm that has been shown to be suitable for internetworks of unbounded size. Using a new form of address and a flat routing mechanism called Cartesian routing,…

  5. Measuring Sixth-Grade Students' Problem Solving: Validating an Instrument Addressing the Mathematics Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostic, Jonathan David; Sondergeld, Toni A.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development of a problem-solving instrument intended for classroom use that addresses the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. In this study, 137 students completed the assessment, and their responses were analyzed. Evidence for validity was collected and examined using the current standards for educational and…

  6. Addressing the Missing Instructional Data Problem: Using a Teacher Log to Document Tier 1 Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Alexander; Elliott, Stephen N.; Roach, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Response-to-intervention (RTI) systems posit that Tier 1 consists of high-quality general classroom instruction using evidence-based methods to address the needs of most students. However, data on the extent to which general education teachers provide such instruction are rarely collected. This missing instructional data problem may result in RTI…

  7. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…

  8. Families and Positive Behavior Support: Addressing Problem Behavior in Family Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucyshyn, Joseph M., Ed.; Dunlap, Glen, Ed.; Albin, Richard W., Ed.

    The 19 chapters of this volume address theory, research, and practice concerning positive behavior support with families of children and youth with developmental disabilities and problem behavior. The chapters are: (1) "Positive Behavior Support with Families" (Joseph Lucyshyn and others); (2) "Finding Positive Behavior Support One Piece at a…

  9. On Using Meta-Modeling and Multi-Modeling to Address Complex Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu Jbara, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Models, created using different modeling techniques, usually serve different purposes and provide unique insights. While each modeling technique might be capable of answering specific questions, complex problems require multiple models interoperating to complement/supplement each other; we call this Multi-Modeling. To address the syntactic and…

  10. Exploring the role of Natural Helpers in efforts to address disparities for children with conduct problems

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Polakovich, I. David; Niec, Larissa N.; Barnett, Miya L.; Bell, Katrina M.; Aguilar, Gerardo; Vilca, Jeanette; Abbenante-Honold, Emily S.; Christian, Allison S.; Peer, Samuel O.

    2014-01-01

    The incorporation of natural helpers into services has been suggested as an innovative strategy to address disparities for historically underserved children with conduct problems. In order to inform incorporation efforts, this study examined the perceptions of natural helpers serving one U.S. Latina/o community regarding need for services for children with conduct problems, their reactions to a specific parent training intervention, and the training and support needed to deliver this intervention successfully. Participants identified a need for culturally-responsive services for children with conduct problems, and felt that parent training would be appropriate for the families they serve. Participants further identified specific training and support that they would require in order to deliver parent training with fidelity and effectiveness. Findings support the suggestion that natural helpers have the potential to address service disparities among Latina/o children with conduct problems. Recommendations from natural helpers should guide the development of culturally-adapted preventive interventions that help address existing service disparities. PMID:24910488

  11. The Children's Evaluation of Everyday Social Encounters Questionnaire: Comprehensive Assessment of Children's Social Information Processing and Its Relation to Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Debora J.; Luebbe, Aaron M.; Swenson, Lance P.; Allwood, Maureen A.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies describe the development of a comprehensive, vignette-based measure of social information processing (SIP) particularly relevant for children with internalizing problems. Study 1 (N = 219 3rd-6th graders) describes the creation of the Children's Evaluation of Everyday Social Encounters Questionnaire (ChEESE-Q) and evidence for its…

  12. On the inherent data fitting problems encountered in modeling retention behavior of analytes with dual retention mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tyteca, Eva; Desmet, Gert

    2015-07-17

    Some valuable insights have been obtained in the inherent fitting problems when trying to predict the retention time of complex, multi-modal retention modes such as encountered in HILIC and SFC. In this study, we used mathematical models with known input parameters to generate different sets of numerical test curves representative for systems exhibiting a complex, non-LSS dual retention behavior. Subsequently, we tried to fit these data sets using some popular (non-linear) literature models. Even in cases where a physical fitting model exists (e.g., the mixed model in case of pure additive adsorptive and partitioning retention), the fitting quality can only be expected to be relatively good (prediction errors expressed in terms of a normalized resolution error ɛRs) when carefully selecting the scouting runs and the appropriate starting values for the fitting algorithm. The latter can best be done using a comprehensive grid search scanning a wide range of different starting values. This becomes even more important when no good physical model is available and one has to use a non-physical fitting model, such as the empirical Neue-model. The use of higher-order models is found to be quasi indispensable to keep the prediction errors on the order of some ΔRs=0.05. Also, the choice of the scouting runs becomes even more important using these higher-order models. For highly retained compounds we recommend using scouting runs with long tG/t0-values or to include a run with a higher fraction of eluting solvent at the start of the gradient. When trying to predict gradient retention, errors with which the isocratic retention behavior is fitted are much less important for high retention factors k than errors made in the range of k near the one at the point of elution. The results obtained with a so-called segmented Neue-model (containing 7 parameters) were less good and thus practically not interesting (because of the high number of initial runs). PMID:26044381

  13. What is occupational therapy's role in addressing sleep problems among older adults?

    PubMed

    Leland, Natalie E; Marcione, Nicole; Schepens Niemiec, Stacey L; Kelkar, Kaivalya; Fogelberg, Don

    2014-01-01

    Sleep problems, prevalent among older adults, are associated with poor outcomes and high health care costs. In 2008, rest and sleep became its own area of occupation in the American Occupational Therapy Association's Occupational Therapy Practice Framework. The current scoping review examined a broad context of sleep research to highlight efficacious interventions for older adults that fall within the occupational therapy scope of practice and present an agenda for research and practice. Four sleep intervention areas clearly aligned with the practice framework, including cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, physical activity, multicomponent interventions, and other interventions. Occupational therapy is primed to address sleep problems by targeting the context and environment, performance patterns, and limited engagement in evening activities that may contribute to poor sleep. Occupational therapy researchers and clinicians need to work collaboratively to establish the evidence base for occupation-centered sleep interventions to improve the health and quality of life of older adults. PMID:24844879

  14. In Situ Airborne Instrumentation: Addressing and Solving Measurement Problems in Ice Clouds

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Kok, Greg; Avallone, L.; Bansemer, A.; Borrmann, S.; Brown, P.; Bundke, U.; Chuang, P. Y.; Cziczo, D.; Field, P.; et al

    2012-02-01

    A meeting of 31 international experts on in situ measurements from aircraft was held to identify unresolved questions concerning ice formation and evolution in ice clouds, assess the current state of instrumentation that can address these problems, introduce emerging technology that may overcome current measurement issues and recommend future courses of action that can improve our understanding of ice cloud microphysical processes and their impact on the environment. The meeting proceedings and outcome has been described in detail in a manuscript submitted to the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) on March 24, 2011. This paper is currently undermore » review. The remainder of this summary, in the following pages, is the text of the BAMS article. A technical note that will be published by the National Center for Atmospheric Research is currently underway and is expected to be published before the end of the year.« less

  15. In Situ Airborne Instrumentation: Addressing and Solving Measurement Problems in Ice Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Kok, Greg; Avallone, L.; Bansemer, A.; Borrmann, S.; Brown, P.; Bundke, U.; Chuang, P. Y.; Cziczo, D.; Field, P.; Gallagher, M.; Gayet, J. -F.; Korolev, A.; Kraemer, M.; McFarquhar, G.; Mertes, S.; Moehler, O.; Lance, S.; Lawson, P.; Petters, M. D.; Pratt, K.; Roberts, G.; Rogers, D.; Stetzer, O.; Stith, J.; Strapp, W.; Twohy, C.; Wendisch, M.

    2012-02-01

    A meeting of 31 international experts on in situ measurements from aircraft was held to identify unresolved questions concerning ice formation and evolution in ice clouds, assess the current state of instrumentation that can address these problems, introduce emerging technology that may overcome current measurement issues and recommend future courses of action that can improve our understanding of ice cloud microphysical processes and their impact on the environment. The meeting proceedings and outcome has been described in detail in a manuscript submitted to the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) on March 24, 2011. This paper is currently under review. The remainder of this summary, in the following pages, is the text of the BAMS article. A technical note that will be published by the National Center for Atmospheric Research is currently underway and is expected to be published before the end of the year.

  16. Interpreting Perceived Effectiveness: Understanding and Addressing the Problem of Mean Validity.

    PubMed

    Dillard, James Price; Ha, Yerheen

    2016-09-01

    Research has shown that perceived message effectiveness (PE) correlates reasonably well with indices of actual effectiveness, but little attention has been given to how to interpret mean PE. This article describes the problem of mean validity and presents a research design that can be used to address it. Participants (N = 195) viewed messages that advocated being screened for colorectal cancer. The results showed downward bias in PE among members of the non-target audience (persons younger than 50) and upward bias as the referent for the judgment became more abstract/distant (self vs. persons older than 50 vs. general). The need for more research on mean validity is discussed. For applied researchers, recommendations for preferred indices of PE are offered. PMID:27565189

  17. The Views of the Teachers Related to the Problems the Nursery Class Teachers Encounter in Personnel Services and General Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertör, Eren; Akan, Durdagi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to analyze the problems that the nursery school teachers, who worked in primary schools of Ministry of National Education in Agri city center in 2014-2015 academic years, experience in personnel services and general services according to the views of the teachers. In the direction of this purpose, phenomenology design,…

  18. Potential effects of the introduction of the discrete address beacon system data link on air/ground information transfer problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    This study of Aviation Safety Reporting System reports suggests that benefits should accure from implementation of discrete address beacon system data link. The phase enhanced terminal information system service is expected to provide better terminal information than present systems by improving currency and accuracy. In the exchange of air traffic control messages, discrete address insures that only the intended recipient receives and acts on a specific message. Visual displays and printer copy of messages should mitigate many of the reported problems associated with voice communications. The problems that remain unaffected include error in addressing the intended recipient and messages whose content is wrong but are otherwise correct as to format and reasonableness.

  19. Activity Theory as a Tool to Address the Problem of Chemistry's Lack of Relevance in Secondary School Chemical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Aalsvoort, Joke

    2004-01-01

    In a previous article, the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary chemical education was analysed using logical positivism as a tool. This article starts with the hypothesis that the problem can be addressed by means of activity theory, one of the important theories within the sociocultural school. The reason for this expectation is…

  20. Encountering an Alien Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sproull, Lee S.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Applies a cultural perspective to the problem of introducing novices to computing. Presents a model of initial socialization composed of reality shock, confusion, and attempts at control. Describes a survey of college students' first encounters with computers and suggests that the social contexts of introductory courses encourage feelings of…

  1. Multidimensional Family Therapy: Addressing Co-Occurring Substance Abuse and Other Problems among Adolescents with Comprehensive Family-Based Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Adolescent substance abuse rarely occurs without other psychiatric and developmental problems, yet it is often treated and researched as if it can be isolated from comorbid conditions. Few comprehensive interventions are available that effectively address the range of co-occurring problems associated with adolescent substance abuse. This article reviews the clinical interventions and research evidence supporting the use of Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) for adolescents with substance abuse and co-occurring problems. MDFT is uniquely suited to address adolescent substance abuse and related disorders given its comprehensive interventions that systematically target the multiple interacting risk factors underlying many developmental disruptions of adolescence. PMID:20682221

  2. First Encounters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shauck, Barry

    2005-01-01

    Professional development through the advanced planning of themed exhibitions provides art instructors in Howard County, Maryland, the impetus for many of the ideas that may become artful problems presented to students. In this installment of the series Artful Collaborations, Stacey McKenna and Gino Molfino share their response for the spring 2001…

  3. Addressing the Spectrum of Adolescent Weight-Related Problems: Engaging Parents and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    Weight-related problems, including eating disorders, disordered eating, and obesity, are prevalent among adolescents. School and community-based educators and health care providers have an important role to play in the prevention of weight-related problems in youth. This article includes: 1) a brief overview of weight-related problems in…

  4. Preferred Psychological Internet Resources for Addressing Anxiety Disorders, Parenting Problems, Eating Disorders, and Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Laura; Doran, Matt; Simonin, Danielle; Smith, Allyson; Maloney, Colleen; Wright, Cara; Underwood, Michelle; Hoppel, Andrea; O'Donnell, Shannon; Chambliss, Catherine

    Although the Internet offers information about psychological problems and support resources for behavioral health problems, the quality of this information varies widely. So as to offer guidance in this area, preferred sites pertaining to anxiety disorders, parenting problems, eating disorders, and chemical dependency were analyzed. A total of 365…

  5. Phylogenomic approaches to common problems encountered in the analysis of low copy repeats: The sulfotransferase 1A gene family example

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Michael E; Benner, Steven A

    2005-01-01

    Background Blocks of duplicated genomic DNA sequence longer than 1000 base pairs are known as low copy repeats (LCRs). Identified by their sequence similarity, LCRs are abundant in the human genome, and are interesting because they may represent recent adaptive events, or potential future adaptive opportunities within the human lineage. Sequence analysis tools are needed, however, to decide whether these interpretations are likely, whether a particular set of LCRs represents nearly neutral drift creating junk DNA, or whether the appearance of LCRs reflects assembly error. Here we investigate an LCR family containing the sulfotransferase (SULT) 1A genes involved in drug metabolism, cancer, hormone regulation, and neurotransmitter biology as a first step for defining the problems that those tools must manage. Results Sequence analysis here identified a fourth sulfotransferase gene, which may be transcriptionally active, located on human chromosome 16. Four regions of genomic sequence containing the four human SULT1A paralogs defined a new LCR family. The stem hominoid SULT1A progenitor locus was identified by comparative genomics involving complete human and rodent genomes, and a draft chimpanzee genome. SULT1A expansion in hominoid genomes was followed by positive selection acting on specific protein sites. This episode of adaptive evolution appears to be responsible for the dopamine sulfonation function of some SULT enzymes. Each of the conclusions that this bioinformatic analysis generated using data that has uncertain reliability (such as that from the chimpanzee genome sequencing project) has been confirmed experimentally or by a "finished" chromosome 16 assembly, both of which were published after the submission of this manuscript. Conclusion SULT1A genes expanded from one to four copies in hominoids during intra-chromosomal LCR duplications, including (apparently) one after the divergence of chimpanzees and humans. Thus, LCRs may provide a means for amplifying

  6. Case studies of unique problems and events encountered during design, construction, and operation of three large commercial-scale fuel ethanol plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper summarizes the unique problems and events encountered during the design, construction, start-up, and operation phases of three differently constructed alcohol fuel projects. These projects were awarded cost sharing contracts (Cooperative Agreements) as part of the Department of Energy's effort to expedite ethanol production on a commercial scale. The scope of the projects included final design, economic and financial analysis, market analysis, environmental analysis, facility construction, and plant start-up operation. The three ethanol plants are a 20-million gallon per year (MMGPY) new-construction or grass roots facility; a 60-MMGPY plant constructed using refurbished equipment at a decommissioned ammonia fertilizer facility; and a 10-MMGPY retrofitted brewery. A comparison of the case histories of these projects clearly points out the advantages and disadvantages of each type of design and construction.

  7. A Case Study of Team-Initiated Problem Solving Addressing Student Behavior in One Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Anne W.; Horner, Robert H.; Berry, Dorothy; Sanders, Carol; Bugni, Michelle; Currier, Allison; Potts, Nicky; Newton, J. Stephen; Algozzine, Bob; Algozzine, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) is an approach for organizing school team meetings to improve identification of targeted problems, use of data in the development of solutions, and development of implemented action plans. TIPS has been demonstrated in single-case and randomized controlled trial studies to improve the effectiveness of teams to…

  8. Addressing the Intercultural via Task-Based Language Teaching: Possibility or Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A frequent weakness of communicative approaches to foreign language teaching is a neglect of the intercultural dimension. Cultural knowledge is often treated as an addendum which focuses on learning facts about the target country. This article explores whether task-based language teaching (TBLT) can successfully address the intercultural…

  9. "Who Are You Calling a Problem?": Addressing Transphobia and Homophobia through School Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loutzenheiser, Lisa W.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a detailed analysis of two school board-level policies in British Columbia, Canada that address the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer and transgender, Two Spirit (LGBQ and TT) youth to demonstrate how the language of the policy holds meaning and re/produces particular knowledges. Rather than offer an analysis that…

  10. Efforts to Empower Teachers in Ethiopia to Address Local Environmental Problems: Achievements and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalelo, Aklilu

    2009-01-01

    It is believed that the possibilities of integrating environmental issues into the formal and nonformal education programs depend on the capacity of teachers who put such programs into effect. A pilot project, aimed at building the capacity of schools in Ethiopia to address key environmental issues, was initiated in 2004. Among the major…

  11. A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun D.; Martinez, Joanne; Schatz, Bruce R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an algorithmic approach to addressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biology domain as an example. A cognitive study and a follow-up document retrieval study were conducted using first a conjoined fly-worm thesaurus and then an actual worm database and the conjoined…

  12. An electronic encounter log's failure to scale.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Walton; Asaro, Phil; Asaro, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a series of Electronic Student Encounter Log (ESEL) programs intended to introduce medical students to promising medical informatics concepts. We attempted to expand ESELs scope from ambulatory settings to all hospital venues and to track progress toward educational goals. Students were confused and frustrated by a previously fast interface and delayed feedback. Numerous scaling problems emerged. Our attempt to address these problems in an extensive revision, developed for the latest affordable hardware and operating system, failed due to new data-corrupting crashes. Risks of scaling up and other familiar software development lessons are reinforced. PMID:18998815

  13. Addressing Problems of Conceptualization and Construct Validity in Researching Teachers' Job Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Ambiguity in the meaning of job satisfaction has caused construct validity problems in research. A series of small-scale studies of teachers suggested a distinction between job fulfillment and job comfort as well as a need for understanding how job satisfaction is interpreted by researchers. (SK)

  14. Addressing Cultural Diversity: Effects of a Problem-Based Intercultural Learning Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Vera; Krause, Ulrike-Marie

    2015-01-01

    This article explores to what extent a problem-based learning unit in combination with cooperative learning and affectively oriented teaching methods facilitates intercultural learning. As part of the study, students reflected on critical incidents, which display misunderstandings or conflicts that arise as a result of cultural differences. In…

  15. Ecosystem services and cooperative fisheries research to address a complex fishery problem

    EPA Science Inventory

    The St. Louis River represents a complex fishery management problem. Current fishery management goals have to be developed taking into account bi-state commercial, subsistence and recreational fisheries which are valued for different characteristics by a wide range of anglers, as...

  16. Addressing Students' Difficulties with Faraday's Law: A Guided Problem Solving Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuza, Kristina; Almudí, José-Manuel; Leniz, Ane; Guisasola, Jenaro

    2014-01-01

    In traditional teaching, the fundamental concepts of electromagnetic induction are usually quickly analyzed, spending most of the time solving problems in a more or less rote manner. However, physics education research has shown that the fundamental concepts of the electromagnetic induction theory are barely understood by students. This article…

  17. Analysis of Arguments Constructed by First-Year Engineering Students Addressing Electromagnetic Induction Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almudi, Jose Manuel; Ceberio, Mikel

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the quality of arguments used by first-year engineering university students enrolled in a traditional physics course dealing with electromagnetic induction and related problem solving where they had to assess whether the electromagnetic induction phenomenon would occur. Their conclusions were analyzed for the relevance of the…

  18. Addressing Bullying Problems in Irish Schools and in Cyberspace: A Challenge for School Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Lucie; Mc Guckin, Conor

    2014-01-01

    Background: School management, in Ireland and also internationally, are currently faced with the problem of peer aggression among students both in a traditional school context and in a cyber context. Although Irish school principals are obliged to implement policy and procedures to counter bullying among students, there is a need for guidance that…

  19. Addressing the Wicked Problem of Quality in Higher Education: Theoretical Approaches and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Kerri-Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the wicked problem of quality in higher education, arguing for a more robust theorising of the subject at national, institutional and local department level. The focus of the discussion rests on principles for theorising in more rigorous ways about the multidimensional issue of quality. Quality in higher education is proposed…

  20. Promoting Health by Addressing Basic Needs: Effect of Problem Resolution on Contacting Health Referrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Boyum, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Members of vulnerable populations have heightened needs for health services. One advantage of integrating health risk assessment and referrals into social service assistance systems such as 2-1-1 is that such systems help callers resolve problems in other areas (e.g., housing). Callers to 2-1-1 in Missouri (N = 1,090) with at least one behavioral…

  1. Scientific problems addressed by the Spektr-UV space project (world space Observatory—Ultraviolet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyarchuk, A. A.; Shustov, B. M.; Savanov, I. S.; Sachkov, M. E.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Mashonkina, L. I.; Wiebe, D. Z.; Shematovich, V. I.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.; Ryabchikova, T. A.; Chugai, N. N.; Ivanov, P. B.; Voshchinnikov, N. V.; Gomez de Castro, A. I.; Lamzin, S. A.; Piskunov, N.; Ayres, T.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Jeffrey, S.; Zwintz, S. K.; Shulyak, D.; Gérard, J.-C.; Hubert, B.; Fossati, L.; Lammer, H.; Werner, K.; Zhilkin, A. G.; Kaigorodov, P. V.; Sichevskii, S. G.; Ustamuich, S.; Kanev, E. N.; Kil'pio, E. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a review of scientific problems and methods of ultraviolet astronomy, focusing on perspective scientific problems (directions) whose solution requires UV space observatories. These include reionization and the history of star formation in the Universe, searches for dark baryonic matter, physical and chemical processes in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disks, the physics of accretion and outflows in astrophysical objects, from Active Galactic Nuclei to close binary stars, stellar activity (for both low-mass and high-mass stars), and processes occurring in the atmospheres of both planets in the solar system and exoplanets. Technological progress in UV astronomy achieved in recent years is also considered. The well advanced, international, Russian-led Spektr-UV (World Space Observatory—Ultraviolet) project is described in more detail. This project is directed at creating a major space observatory operational in the ultraviolet (115-310 nm). This observatory will provide an effective, and possibly the only, powerful means of observing in this spectral range over the next ten years, and will be an powerful tool for resolving many topical scientific problems.

  2. Dual-Use Partnership Addresses Performance Problems with "Y" Pattern Control Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, John W.

    2004-01-01

    A Dual-Use Cooperative Agreement between the Propulsion Test Directorate (PTD) at Stennis Space Center (SSC) and Oceaneering Reflange, Inc. of Houston, TX has produced an improved 'Y' pattern split-body control valve for use in the propulsion test facilities at Stennis Space Center. The split-body, or clamped bonnet technology, provides for a 'cleaner' valve design featuring enhanced performance and increased flow capacity with extended life expectancy. Other points addressed by the partnership include size, weight and costs. Overall size and weight of each valve will be reduced by 50% compared to valves currently in use at SSC. An initial procurement of two 10 inch valves will result in an overall cost reduction of 15% or approximately $50,000 per valve.

  3. Study of effects of uncertainties of comet and asteroid encounter and contact guidance requirements. Part 2: Tumbling problem studies. [development of navigation and guidance techniques for space rendezvous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, J. E., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of determining the rotational motion of a tumbling celestial body of the asteroid type using spacecraft-acquired data is addressed. The rotational motion of the body is modeled by free-Eulerian motion of a triaxial, rigid body and its translational motion with respect, to a nonrotating, observing spacecraft, which is not thrusting, is assumed to be uniform during the time observations are made. The mathematical details which form the basis for a digital simulation of the motion and observations are presented. Two algorithms for determining the motion from observations for the special case of uniform rotational motion are given.

  4. Engaging science in a climate of values: tools for animal scientists tasked with addressing ethical problems.

    PubMed

    Croney, C C; Anthony, R

    2010-04-01

    In the United States, escalating concerns about current farm animal science and production methods have resulted not only in increased food animal protection policies, but also in animal welfare legislation. Animal scientists and industry leaders are apprehensive that such policies may be driven primarily by emotion and a lack of scientific understanding, and thus may have unforeseen consequences. However, decisions about animal care, and particularly animal welfare, cannot be made solely on the basis of science because the potential effects on producers, animals, and concerned citizens and the implications for the environment and on food prices must also be considered. Balancing the interests and values of all stakeholders in regard to animal welfare problems has presented a considerable challenge. Ethical accounting processes, such as the Ethical Matrix and the ethics assessment process by Campbell, offer models to combine socioethical concerns with relevant factual information, thereby facilitating decision making that is ethically responsible and that offers viable solutions. A case study is used to illustrate application of the ethics assessment process by Campbell that includes identification of the ethical problems, the embedded values, the relevant facts, and moral tests that can be applied. Awareness of these emerging ways of examining ethics that offer real solutions to conflicts of interests and not merely "one size fits all" answers should be an asset to animal and poultry scientists. PMID:19854996

  5. Some problems encountered in the development of a virtual reality system for evaluating human performance during emergency power-off aircraft landings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, David F.; Morris, Bradley E.; Matson, Kris; Hogan, Richard C.; Mershon, Donald H.; Mayer, Celeste M.; Lim, Ray; Holmes, Michael; Tomlinson, Jay

    2001-06-01

    A flight simulator was developed for studying the behavior of pilots in power-off aircraft landing situations. The simulation environment includes a 5-meter hemispherical dome in which the authors have installed a cockpit from a Cessna aircraft. The dome manufacturers provided their version of OPEN GL 1.1. The graphics rendering software has undergone constant modification because of computer and projection hardware changes and a lack of knowledge and understanding of the manufacturer's undocumented version of OPEN GL. The development team was led to believe that real time rendering of photographic quality images from 3D models was possible using the existing hardware and software. This was not true even for very simple environments. Flat surfaces must undergo major tessellation to project correctly on a hemispherical dome. The number of polygons to be rendered is increased by orders of magnitude. The tessellation also reverses some depth relationships, which causes parts of objects to disappear and reappear during the simulation. In addition, aliasing artifacts are severe because of the limited resolution and lack of antialiasing capabilities of the hardware. The authors document their experiences and their solutions to some of the rendering problems encountered.

  6. Brown Superfund Basic research Program: a multistakeholder partnership addresses real-world problems in contaminated communities.

    PubMed

    Senier, Laura; Hudson, Benjamin; Fort, Sarah; Hoover, Elizabeth; Tillson, Rebecca; Brown, Phil

    2008-07-01

    The NIEHS funds several basic and applied research programs, many of which also require research translation or outreach. This paper reports on a project by the Brown University Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP), in which outreach and research translation teams collaborated with state regulatory agency personnel and community activists on a legislative initiative to mitigate the financial impacts of living in a contaminated community. The Environmentally Compromised Home Ownership (ECHO) program makes home equity loans of up to $25,000 available to qualified applicants. This collaboration provides a case study in community engagement and demonstrates how research translation and outreach activities that are clearly differentiated yet well-integrated can improve a suite of basic and applied research. Although engaging diverse constituencies can be difficult community-engaged translation and outreach have the potential to make research findings more useful to communities, address some of the social impacts of contamination, and empower stakeholders to pursue their individual and collectively held goals for remediation. The NIEHS has recently renewed its commitment to community-engaged research and advocacy, making this an optimal time to reflect on how basic research programs that engage stakeholders through research translation and outreach can add value to the overall research enterprise. PMID:18677987

  7. Can Go address the multicore issues of today and the manycore problems of tomorrow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binet, Sébastien

    2012-06-01

    Current High Energy and Nuclear Physics (HENP) libraries and frameworks were written before multicore systems became widely deployed and used. From this environment, a 'single-thread' processing model naturally emerged but the implicit assumptions it encouraged are greatly impairing our abilities to scale in a multicore/manycore world. While parallel programming - still in an intensive phase of R&D despite the 30+ years of literature on the subject - is an obvious topic to consider, other issues (build scalability, code clarity, code deployment and ease of coding) are worth investigating when preparing for the manycore era. Moreover, if one wants to use another language than C++, a language better prepared and tailored for expressing concurrency, one also needs to ensure a good and easy reuse of already field-proven libraries. We present the work resulting from such investigations applied to the Go programming language. We first introduce the concurrent programming facilities Go is providing and how its module system addresses the build scalability and dependency hell issues. We then describe the process of leveraging the many (wo)man-years put into scientific Fortran/C/C++ libraries and making them available to the Go ecosystem. The ROOT data analysis framework, the C-BLAS library and the Herwig-6 MonteCarlo generator will be taken as examples. Finally, performances of the tools involved in a small analysis written in Go and using ROOT I/O library will be presented.

  8. Addressing behavior problems among school-aged children: traditional and controversial approaches.

    PubMed

    Wolraich, M L

    1997-08-01

    Managing children's behaviors is primarily the responsibility of parents, but pediatricians can help parents be more effective managers, especially when the child involved is presenting a particular challenge. Such help can range from providing reading material and brief counseling to referring the family to mental health clinicians. First, the pediatrician must be able to identify and judge the severity of the problems to refer appropriately. Behavioral interventions, commonly based on the principles of behavior modification with an emphasis on improving the positive and reinforcing aspects of parent-child relationships, can be effective. In addition, pediatricians need to be aware of unconventional therapies in the categories of dietary and exercise interventions. They need to know what motivates parents to seek such therapies, how to judge the efficacy of these approaches, and how to help parents become better-informed consumers. PMID:9255992

  9. Iron deficiency anemia among children: Addressing a global public health problem within a Canadian context.

    PubMed

    Christofides, Anna; Schauer, Claudia; Zlotkin, Stanley H

    2005-12-01

    Despite current Canadian pre- and perinatal nutrition programs, the prevalence of both iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is very high among young Aboriginal children from Canada's remote north. The major risk factors for IDA include prolonged consumption of evaporated cow's milk, chronic infection and prolonged exclusive breastfeeding. In the present article, the authors discuss IDA as a significant public health problem in Canadian Aboriginal communities. Whereas the prevalence of IDA in Canadian children is between 3.5% and 10.5% in the general population, in two Northern Ontario First Nations communities and one Inuit community, the anemia rate was 36%, with 56% having depleted iron stores. Traditional methods of preventing IDA, including targeted fortification, dietary diversification and supplementation, have not solved the problem. The authors' research group at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario, conceived of the strategy of 'home fortification' with 'Sprinkles' - single-dose sachets containing micronutrients in a powder form, which are easily sprinkled onto any foods prepared in the household. In Sprinkles, the iron (ferrous fumarate) is encapsulated within a thin lipid layer to prevent the iron from interacting with food. Sprinkles have been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of anemia in many developing countries. Their use in Aboriginal communities to treat and prevent anemia is described in the present paper. The authors believe that children in Aboriginal communities across Canada would potentially benefit if Sprinkles were incorporated into Health Canada's current distribution system, in combination with a social marketing strategy to encourage their use. PMID:19668671

  10. What kind of curriculum can better address community needs? Problems arisen by hypothetical-deductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Haeri, A; Hemmati, P; Yaman, H

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify problems arisen by conventional curricula, the guidelines for development of an appropriate educational model for 21st century, and the advantages and disadvantages of the last two curricular models. The medical education literature published from 1995 through 2002 of four reputable journals in medical education were searched (Academic Medicine, Teaching and Learning in Medicine, Medical Education, and Medical Teacher). First the possibly best articles were identified. During the second screening process 76 of 180 articles were found to be highly relevant to our questions. A review of the chosen articles revealed a concept map which starts from currently applied hypothetical-deductive reasoning (HDR)-based curricula in many medical schools all around the world. Results revelaed that continuing cyclical process might be time consuming, enhance burden of faculty and might be stressful for students involved. Current issues in health care system are possibly attributable to current HDR-based curricular models including PBL. Advantages of reiterative PBL theory can not be denied, but it appears that its limited application should be mainly seen in some academic classes to develop some generic transferable skills simultaneously with other teaching methods. Therefore vast application of HDR in clinical settings is not recommended according to our study. However the relationships demonstrated between factors and outcomes mentioned in the concept map can be used to run some new studies to test some hypotheses. PMID:17622019

  11. Addressing the issue of cataloging and making chiropractic literature accessible: Part I: Defining the problem.

    PubMed

    Curl, D D; Antovich, T J

    1990-06-01

    Health science journals are a principle source of new knowledge for chiropractors, chiropractic faculty and students. Regrettably, clinically or educationally relevant articles (appearing in the nearly 20,000 journals annually) are often overlooked due to access difficulties. Innovations are needed to assist the reader to select articles relevant to chiropractic and reduce the time spent sorting through the volumes of literature. A review of the literature shows there is a trend toward database management for cataloging and accessibility of other, nonchiropractic, literature. Most notable of these is an endeavor by National Technical Information Service, commonly referred to as MEDLARS (Medline). It is interesting to note that a computer-assisted library database program does not exist on any chiropractic campus. This is in contrast with the trend on campuses of other health care fields. Manual search strategies within the chiropractic literature are time consuming, subject to a high failure rate, and even if the search produces citations, there is no assurance the journal can be accessed unless a chiropractic campus is nearby. Furthermore, difficulties exist when a chiropractic literature search is attempted in any computerized database, e.g., MEDLARS (Medline). Journals/articles that are unique to chiropractic (national, international or on the state level) are not specifically included in these computerized databases. Aside from these difficulties, there exists the problem of finding those articles that contain valid and relevant information from among those that are less valid or informative. PMID:2198323

  12. Activity theory as a tool to address the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary school chemical education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Aalsvoort, Joke

    In a previous article, the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary chemical education was analysed using logical positivism as a tool. This article starts with the hypothesis that the problem can be addressed by means of activity theory, one of the important theories within the sociocultural school. The reason for this expectation is that, while logical positivism creates a divide between science and society, activity theory offers a model of society in which science and society are related. With the use of this model, a new course for grade nine has been constructed. This results in a confirmation of the hypothesis, at least at a theoretical level. A comparison with the Salters' approach is made in order to demonstrate the relative merits of a mediated way of dealing with the problem of the lack of relevance of chemistry in chemical education.

  13. Cospatial [O III] emission with Herschel and Hubble to address the nebular abundance discrepancy problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Robert

    2012-10-01

    There exist planetary nebulae {PNe} whose heavy element C, N, O, and Ne abundances as derived from optical recombination lines {ORLs} are a factor more than 5 higher than those derived from the traditional method based on collisionally excited lines {CELs}. This ratio is called the abundance discrepancy factor {adf}. A promising proposition to explain this long-standing nebular abundance problem posits that these nebulae contain {at least} two distinct regions - one of "normal" electron temperature, Te { 10000 K} and chemical composition { solar} and another of very low Te {< 1000} that is H-deficient, thus having high metal abundances relative to H. The latter component emits strong heavy element ORLs and IR fine-structure {FS} CELs, but essentially no optical/UV CELs. Efforts to directly detect these inclusions in PNe have been unsuccessful to date. However, there is mounting circumstantial evidence for their existence, such as presented in our recent paper that modeled the high-adf PN NGC 6153 using a 3-D photoionization code. The models that included the low Te, H-deficient knots fit most observations far better than did those models without the clumps. It has been shown that the adf varies with position in a PN and is highest close to the central star. The very low Te inclusions must be cooled predominantly by FS mid-IR lines. We propose to use HST archival images to derive [O III] 5007 A flux maps to compare with the [O III] 88 micron fluxes from our Herschel observations of four PNe - NGC 2392, NGC 2440, NGC 6720 and NGC 7009 - all on the largest adf list, to find if the IR line flux relative to the cospatial optical forbidden line flux peaks where the adf peaks.

  14. A roadmap for climate change adaptation in Sweden's forests: addressing wicked problems using adaptive management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rist, L.; Felton, A.; Samuelsson, L.; Marald, E.; Karlsson, B.; Johansson, U.; Rosvall, O.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have significant direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems. Forests will have to adapt not only to changes in mean climate variables but also to increased climatic variability and altered disturbance regimes. Rates of change will likely exceed many forests capabilities to naturally adapt and many of today's trees will be exposed to the climates of 2090. In Sweden the effects are already being seen and more severe impacts are expected in the future. Exacerbating the challenge posed by climate change, a large proportion of Sweden's forests are, as a consequence of dominant production goals, greatly simplified and thus potentially more vulnerable to the uncertainties and risks associated with climate change. This simplification also confers reduced adaptive capacity to respond to potential impacts. Furthermore, many adaptation measures themselves carry uncertainties and risks. Future changes and effects are thus uncertain, yet forest managers, policymakers, scientists and other stakeholders must act. Strategies that build social and ecological resilience in the face of multiple interacting unknowns and surprises are needed. Adaptive management aims to collect and integrate knowledge about how a managed system is likely to respond to alternative management schemes and changing environmental conditions within a continuous decision process. There have been suggestions that adaptive management is not well suited to the large complex uncertainties associated with climate change and associated adaptation measures. However, more recently it has been suggested that adaptive management can handle such wicked problems, given adequate resources and a suitable breakdown of the targeted uncertainties. Here we test this hypothesis by evaluating how an adaptive management process could be used to manage the uncertainties and risks associated with securing resilient, biodiverse and productive forests in Sweden in the face of climate change. We

  15. Lattice Boltzmann Methods to Address Fundamental Boiling and Two-Phase Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Uddin, Rizwan

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the progress made during the fourth (no cost extension) year of this three-year grant aimed at the development of a consistent Lattice Boltzmann formulation for boiling and two-phase flows. During the first year, a consistent LBM formulation for the simulation of a two-phase water-steam system was developed. Results of initial model validation in a range of thermo-dynamic conditions typical for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) were shown. Progress was made on several fronts during the second year. Most important of these included the simulation of the coalescence of two bubbles including the surface tension effects. Work during the third year focused on the development of a new lattice Boltzmann model, called the artificial interface lattice Boltzmann model (AILB model) for the 3 simulation of two-phase dynamics. The model is based on the principle of free energy minimization and invokes the Gibbs-Duhem equation in the formulation of non-ideal forcing function. This was reported in detail in the last progress report. Part of the efforts during the last (no-cost extension) year were focused on developing a parallel capability for the 2D as well as for the 3D codes developed in this project. This will be reported in the final report. Here we report the work carried out on testing the AILB model for conditions including the thermal effects. A simplified thermal LB model, based on the thermal energy distribution approach, was developed. The simplifications are made after neglecting the viscous heat dissipation and the work done by pressure in the original thermal energy distribution model. Details of the model are presented here, followed by a discussion of the boundary conditions, and then results for some two-phase thermal problems.

  16. Data Movement Dominates: Advanced Memory Technology to Address the Real Exascale Power Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, Keren

    2014-08-28

    Energy is the fundamental barrier to Exascale supercomputing and is dominated by the cost of moving data from one point to another, not computation. Similarly, performance is dominated by data movement, not computation. The solution to this problem requires three critical technologies: 3D integration, optical chip-to-chip communication, and a new communication model. The central goal of the Sandia led "Data Movement Dominates" project aimed to develop memory systems and new architectures based on these technologies that have the potential to lower the cost of local memory accesses by orders of magnitude and provide substantially more bandwidth. Only through these transformational advances can future systems reach the goals of Exascale computing with a manageable power budgets. The Sandia led team included co-PIs from Columbia University, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, and the University of Maryland. The Columbia effort of Data Movement Dominates focused on developing a physically accurate simulation environment and experimental verification for optically-connected memory (OCM) systems that can enable continued performance scaling through high-bandwidth capacity, energy-efficient bit-rate transparency, and time-of-flight latency. With OCM, memory device parallelism and total capacity can scale to match future high-performance computing requirements without sacrificing data-movement efficiency. When we consider systems with integrated photonics, links to memory can be seamlessly integrated with the interconnection network-in a sense, memory becomes a primary aspect of the interconnection network. At the core of the Columbia effort, toward expanding our understanding of OCM enabled computing we have created an integrated modeling and simulation environment that uniquely integrates the physical behavior of the optical layer. The PhoenxSim suite of design and software tools developed under this effort has enabled the co-design of and performance evaluation photonics-enabled OCM

  17. Addressing the sexual problems of Iranian women in a primary health care setting: A quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Rostamkhani, Fatemeh; Jafari, Fatemeh; Ozgoli, Giti; Shakeri, Masomeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization emphasizes on integration of sexual health into primary health care services, educating people and health care workers about sexuality, and promoting optimal sexual health. Despite the high prevalence of sexual problems, these problems are poorly managed in primary health care services. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of the first two steps of PLISSIT (Permission, Limited Information, Specific Suggestions, Intensive Treatment) model for handling of women sexual problems in a primary health care setting. Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study that was carried out in Zanjan, northwest of Iran. Eighty women who had got married in the past 5 years and had sexual problem were randomly assigned to control and intervention groups. The intervention group received consultation based on PLISSIT model by a trained midwife and the control group received routine services. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire was used for assessing and tracking any changes in sexual function. Data were collected at three points: Before consultation and 2 and 4 weeks after consultation. Paired t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) test were used for comparison of scores within groups. Results: Significant improvement was found in FSFI sub-domain scores, including sexual desire (P < 0.0001), arousal (P < 0.0001), lubrication (P < 0.0001), orgasm (P = 0.005), satisfaction (P = 0.005), pain (P < 0.0001), and FSFI total score (P < 0.0001) in the intervention group compared to the control group. Conclusions: This study showed that PLISSIT model can meet the sexual health needs of clients in a primary health care setting and it can be used easily by health workers in this setting for addressing sexual complaints and dysfunctions. PMID:25709703

  18. The 2003 ASBMB-Avanti Award in Lipids Address: Applications of novel synthetic lipids to biological problems.

    PubMed

    Bittman, Robert

    2004-05-01

    This paper is an overview of the 2003 Avanti Award in Lipids address that was presented by Robert Bittman at the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) Annual Meeting held in San Diego, CA in conjunction with meetings of five other FASEB Societies, April 15, 2003. The theme of the lecture is: "How can the chemical synthesis of unnatural lipids provide insights into problems ranging from cell biology to biophysics?" The following examples are presented: (1) novel ceramide analogs as experimental anticancer agents, (2) photoactivatable sphingosine 1-phosphate analogs as probes of protein targets of this bioactive lipid, (3) a 13C-enriched cerebroside as a quantitative probe of glycosphingolipid (GSL) transbilayer distribution in bilayers with and without sphingomyelin, (4) cis and trans unsaturated sphingomyelin analogs as modulators of the existence of cholesterol-enriched microdomains (rafts) that may facilitate fusion of alphaviruses with target membranes, (5) ceramide as an indirect enhancer of the permeabilization of membranes induced by cholesterol-specific cytolysins, (6) fluorescent GSL analogs of widely disparate structure as probes of the molecular features responsible for the selective internalization of GSLs in caveolae of living mammalian cells, (7) enantiomeric lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) analogs as probes of receptor subtypes that mediate LPA signaling, and (8) phosphonocholine analogs of the antitumor ether lipid ET-18-OCH3 as tools for discerning the primary targets that are critical for cytotoxic activity in tumor cells. PMID:15081855

  19. [To encounter oneself, to encounter each other].

    PubMed

    Kogan, A A

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to elucidate the concept of encounter within the realm of psycotherapy, either individual or group, with its inter and intrapersonal connotations. Its importance is emphasized and means for its achievement are suggested. A double course is followed to attain this end: on the one hand, the tracing of the concept in the contemporary philosophic anthropology (the positions of M. Buber and of K. Jaspers are briefly examined) and in the views of several psychotherapists who have placed it as a significant issue in their treatments (the therapists considered are K. Binswanger, C. Rogers, J. L. Moreno and E. Pichon-Rivière), and on the other hand, some clinical means, and very special attitudes, are indicated as particularly favourable for the promotion of that enlargement of subjectivity leading to the encounter of one-self as well as the other person. Some fragments of sessions are presented demonstrating that in general the "how" of the attitude prevailing in the therapeutic relation is more effective than the "what" of the specific technical resources employed. However, some of these are commendable as a more direct way to bring about the experience of encounter. This leads me to psychodrama, with its techniques of the double, the inversion of roles, the mirror, and most of all with the general group sharing that closes the sessions, and to the gestalt methods, which involve in many instances physical contacts with other people, with the precise object of achieving a maximum insight, or, in the already classical expression, awareness, which is basically an encounter with oneself. Implicit in all the above considerations lies the conviction that man must share his existence with others not only for biological reasons; it is an indispensable requirement for his full development as an individual, a requirement for being himself. If one of the goals of psychological treatments is to promote personal growth and proximity to oneself, an

  20. 'How to deal with this, that and the other?' An orthopaedic surgeon's unexpected encounter with a trio of problems in an elderly man.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongsheng; Singh, Amritpal; Long, Yiling Angeline; Chee, Yu Han

    2014-01-01

    This is the first clinical report of a psoas abscess encountered during a routine hemiarthroplasty surgery for a femoral neck fracture in a man with a recent urinary tract infection. There were no prior symptoms to suggest a psoas abscess, which was present on the same side as the hip fracture, apart from a history of recurrent urinary tract infection. The surgery had to be altered intraoperatively to that of an excision arthroplasty of the displaced non-viable femoral head along with insertion of an antibiotic-impregnated cement spacer into the hip joint. Relevant microbiological studies confirmed a methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus psoas abscess with bacteraemia in addition to Staphylococcus bacteriuria, so 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics were started. A planned second-stage hemiarthroplasty was undertaken and the patient recovered fully without complications. Primary infection of the urinary tract by S. aureus is rare. This case serves to remind clinicians that caution must be exercised in patients with recurrent infections, especially when such infections affect organs or areas close to the intended surgery site. This warrants thorough evaluation for an occult source of infection. A psoas abscess is an unusual cause of hip pain and accurate diagnosis relies on a high index of suspicion. The antibiotic-impregnated articulating cement spacer is a useful surgical adjunct after excision arthroplasty, it not only elutes a high concentration of antibiotics in the infected field, but also facilitates second-stage arthroplasty surgery by preventing muscle and soft tissue contractures from developing. PMID:25385563

  1. Marriage Encounter Casualties: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, William J.; Walker, Brian J.

    1982-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between participation in Marriage Encounter and subsequent marital or family distress. An analysis of 13 case reports suggested that Marriage Encounter weekends can cause marital or family deterioration through increased marital conflict, avoidance of constructive problem solving, or marital enmeshment at the expense…

  2. Guidance and Research Centers (GRC) Managers' Perceptions of Problems Encountered in the Identification, Placement-Follow up, Individualized Education Program (IEP) Development and Integration Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avcioglu, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine of the Guidance and Research Center (GRC) managers' opinions about unexpected problems of identification, placement-follow up, IEP development, and integration practicing. Being a descriptive study, the research data are collected from 116 managers of GRC. The inquiry form, which is developed by the researcher,…

  3. Angry Birds Space Encounter

    NASA Video Gallery

    At NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida, a grand opening celebration was held for the new Angry Birds Space Encounter, March 22. Finland-based Rovio Entertainment, the creator of ...

  4. [Encounters with strangers].

    PubMed

    Lindner, W V

    1990-01-01

    Beginning with three episodes about the encounter with the alien (from a working group, a therapeutic group and from the actual public discussion about aliens) it is pointed out, why the encounter with the alien is both, fascinating and frightening. From the psychoanalytic point of view this is explained with the concept of the representation of the alien, especially under the genetic, adaptive and topic aspects. Finally from the initial examples conclusions for counseling and psychotherapy are drawn. PMID:2399213

  5. A Radio Model: A Community Strategy To Address the Problems and Needs of Mexican American Women Farmworkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Trevino, Maria Elena

    Interviews with 60 Mexican-American female farmworkers in the Coachella Valley (California) identified their major problems, needs, and suggestions of topics to be presented in a community-based educational radio program. Two major problems identified by these women were low wages and occupational exposure to pesticides. Contrary to cultural…

  6. Indoor Air Quality: Federal and State Actions To Address the Indoor Air Quality Problems of Selected Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Peter F.

    U.S. House of Representative members requested that the General Accounting Office determine what federal and state actions have been taken in addressing indoor air quality (IAQ) concerns raised in certain school, state, and federal buildings within Vermont, Maryland, and the District of Columbia. This report responds to this request and describes…

  7. Why Has It Taken So Long to Address the Problems Created by Uranium Mining in the Navajo Nation?

    PubMed

    Brugge, Doug

    2016-02-01

    Following the start of uranium mining after World War II, progress toward addressing the hazards it created for workers and nearby communities was slow, taking many decades. This essay asks why it took so long and suggests several factors that might have contributed. PMID:26463258

  8. ASRS Reports on Wake Vortex Encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda J.; Taube, Elisa Ann; Drew, Charles Robert; Barclay, Tommy Earl

    2010-01-01

    ASRS is conducting a structured callback research project of wake vortex incidents reported to the ASRS at all US airports, as well as wake encounters in the enroute environment. This study has three objectives: (1) Utilize the established ASRS supplemental data collection methodology and provide ongoing analysis of wake vortex encounter reports; (2) Document event dynamics and contributing factors underlying wake vortex encounter events; and (3) Support ongoing FAA efforts to address pre-emptive wake vortex risk reduction by utilizing ASRS reporting contributions.

  9. Adult Illiteracy in Canada: Identifying and Addressing the Problem = L'analphabetisme chez les adultes au Canada: definition et traitement de la question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Council of Ministers of Education, Toronto (Ontario).

    This statement of the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada, focuses on the approaches that provincial ministers have taken to address the problem of adult illiteracy. First, it sets out concisely the nature and extent of functional illiteracy in Canada. Second, it describes a sample of the initiatives already under way to create effective…

  10. Difficulties encountered removing locked plates

    PubMed Central

    Raja, S; Imbuldeniya, AM; S, Garg; Groom, G

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Locked plates are commonly used to obtain fixation in periarticular and comminuted fractures. Their use has also gained popularity in repairing fractures in osteoporotic bone. These plates provide stable fixation and promote biological healing. Over the last 3 years, we have used over 150 locked plates with varying success to fix periarticular fractures involving mainly the knee and ankle. In this study, we report our clinical experience and the difficulties encountered when removing locked plates in adult patients with a variety of indications including implant failure, infection, non-union and a palpable symptomatic implant. METHODS A retrospective analysis was performed of patients enrolled prospectively into a database. Included in the study were 36 consecutive adult patients who each underwent the procedure of locked plate removal in a single inner city level 1 trauma centre. Data collected included primary indication for fixation, indication for implant removal, time of the implant in situ, grade of operating surgeon and difficulties encountered during the procedure. RESULTS Implant removal was associated with a complication rate of 47%. The major problems encountered were difficulty in removing the locked screws and the implant itself. A total of ten cold welded screws were found in eight cases. Removal was facilitated by high speed metal cutting burrs and screw removal sets in all but one case, where a decision was made to leave the plate in situ. CONCLUSIONS The majority of studies investigating implant removal and problems encountered in doing so report a relatively high complication rate. With the advent of locking plates and their growing popularity, difficulties are now being seen intra-operatively when removing them. There is a paucity of data, however, specifically directed at locking plate removal. We recommend that surgeons should be aware of the potential complications while removing locked plates. Fluoroscopic control and all

  11. Impaired Control over Alcohol Use: An Under-Addressed Risk Factor for Problem Drinking in Young Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Patock-Peckham, Julie A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    Impaired control over alcohol use may be defined as “a breakdown of an intention to limit consumption in a particular situation” (Heather, Tebbutt, Mattick, & Zamir, 1993, p. 701) and has long been considered an important feature of alcohol dependence. Evidence suggests impaired control is highly relevant to young adult problem drinking. In the natural history of problem drinking, impaired control tends to develop early and may predict alcohol-related problems prospectively in undergraduates. Impaired control over alcohol use may be a facet of generalized behavioral under-control specifically related to drinking. In particular, impaired control is theoretically and empirically related to impulsivity. The question of whether impaired control represents a facet of impulsivity or a related but separate construct requires further study. However, theoretical arguments and empirical evidence suggest that there are unique qualities to the constructs. Specifically, existing data suggest that self-report measures of impaired control and impulsivity over alcohol use relate distinctly to problem drinking indices in young adults. Several lines of future research concerning impaired control are suggested, using the impulsivity literature as a guide. We conclude that impaired control is a valuable construct to the study of young adult problem drinking and that measures of impaired control should be included in more young adult alcohol studies. The extent to which impaired control over the use of other substances and impaired control over engagement in other addictive behaviors are clinically relevant constructs requires additional study. PMID:22182417

  12. Galileo's Encounter with Amalthea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T. V.; Anderson, J. D.

    2003-04-01

    Galileo's last science periapsis encounter with Jupiter before impact was on orbit 34. One of the main scientific goals of this encounter was a close, targeted flyby of the satellite Amalthea. Although two-way Doppler tracking was lost near closest approach, one-way data were obtained throughout the encounter. Together with solid two-way data before and after the encounter period, there is enough information to constrain the mass of the satellite. Together with previously determined shape and volume information these data yield a useful value for the density of this highly non-spherical moon. Preliminary analyses have been presented indicating a bulk density near 1 gm/cc, considerably lower than was expected from the satellite's dark albedo and anticipated rocky composition. Low-density rock or rock/ice mixtures combined with a high porosity, similar to that inferred from recent small asteroid data, are suggested as the most likely explanation. Refined estimates of mass and density as well as uncertainties will be presented and the implications for Amalthea's composition and porosity discussed.

  13. A Lakatosian Encounter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chick, Helen

    2010-01-01

    There is much to be learned and pondered by reading "Proofs and Refutations," by Imre Lakatos. It highlights the importance of mathematical definitions, and how definitions evolve to capture the essence of the object they are defining. It also provides an exhilarating encounter with the ups and downs of the mathematical reasoning process, where…

  14. Encounters with Protostellar Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, Clayton H.

    1992-12-01

    A numerical study of encounters between stars with circumstellar disks has bee completed. Cross sections and rates for disk tilt, disk disruption, and binary formation are estimated using a large data base of encounter simulations. The consequences of these results for star-forming regions and our solar system are discussed. A numerical code is developed which is capable of evolving a mixture of stars and gas in three dimensions. The algorithm is based on the method of smoothed-particle hydrodynamics combined with the heirarchical tree method of computing gravitational forces. The code is tested by simulating the collision between two sheets of gas and the radial pulsations of a polytropic gas sphere. A protostellar-disk model is developed based on simple assumptions. Test encounters are performed to determine the sensitivity of measured quantities on algorithm parameters, such as the gravitational tolerance and viscosity. It is shown that the solar system could have had an encounter shortly after its formation of sufficient strength to generate the observed obliquity yet retain enough mass and radial extent to form the planetary system. For the Orion B clusters as a whole, it is estimated that during a one-million-year period of time a few percent of the stars will experience an enoucnter that results in a disk tilt of 7 degrees or greater. For the central regions of NGC 2024 and the Trapezium cluster values of 24% and 39% are obtained, respectively. Encounters between equal-mass stars with periastra of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 disk radii will retain on average about 15%, 40%, 55%, and 75% of the disk mass, respectively. For encounters that do not penetrate the disk a minimum of 15% of the mass is retained. Even in dense environments the characteristic lifetime of a disk due to disruptive encounters can be many millions of years. On average, an encounter that penetrates the disk will dissipate an amount of orbital energy equal to approximately 50% of the initial

  15. Megacities in the coastal zone: Using a driver-pressure-state-impact-response framework to address complex environmental problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekovski, Ivan; Newton, Alice; Dennison, William C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elaborate on the role of coastal megacities in environmental degradation and their contribution to global climate change. Although only less than 4 percent of the total world's population resides in coastal megacities, their impact on environment is significant due to their rapid development, high population densities and high consumption rate of their residents. This study was carried out by implementing a Drivers-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses (DPSIR) framework. This analytical framework was chosen because of its potential to link the existing data, gathered from various previous studies, in causal relationship. In this text, coastal megacities have been defined as cities exceeding 10 million inhabitants, situated in "near-coastal zone". Their high rates of the consumption of food, water, space and energy were observed and linked to the high performance rates of related economic activities (industry, transportation, power generation, agriculture and water extraction). In many of the studied coastal megacities, deteriorated quality of air and water was perceived, which can, in combination with global warming, lead to health problems and economic and social disturbance among residents. The extent of problems varied between developing and developed countries, showing higher rates of population growth and certain harmful emissions in megacities of developing countries, as well as more problems regarding food and water shortages, sanitation, and health care support. Although certain projections predict slowdown of growth in most coastal megacities, their future impact on environment is still unclear due to the uncertainties regarding future climate change and trajectories of consumption patterns.

  16. Recommendations on frequently encountered relief requests

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, R.S.; Ransom, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is based on the review of a large database of requests for relief from enservice testing (1ST) requirements for pumps and valves. From the review, the paper identifies areas where enhancements to either the relief request process or the applicable test codes can improve IST of pumps and valves. Certain types of requests occur frequently. The paper examines some frequent requests and considers possible changes to the requirements to determine if the frequent requests can be eliminated. Recommended changes and their bases will be discussed. IST of safety-related pumps and valves at commercial nuclear power plants is done according to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section XI. Because of the design and function of some safety systems in nuclear plants, performing Code testing of certain pumps and valves is impractical or a hardship without a compensating increase in the level of safety. Deviations from the Code are allowed by law, as reviewed and approved by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), through the relief request process. Because of similarities in plant design and system function, many problems encountered in testing components are similar from plant to plant. Likewise, there are often common problems associated with test methods or equipment. Therefore, many relief requests received by the NRC from various plants are similar. Identifying and addressing the root causes for these common requests will greatly improve IST.

  17. Recommendations on frequently encountered relief requests

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, R.S.; Ransom, C.B.

    1992-09-01

    This paper is based on the review of a large database of requests for relief from enservice testing (1ST) requirements for pumps and valves. From the review, the paper identifies areas where enhancements to either the relief request process or the applicable test codes can improve IST of pumps and valves. Certain types of requests occur frequently. The paper examines some frequent requests and considers possible changes to the requirements to determine if the frequent requests can be eliminated. Recommended changes and their bases will be discussed. IST of safety-related pumps and valves at commercial nuclear power plants is done according to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section XI. Because of the design and function of some safety systems in nuclear plants, performing Code testing of certain pumps and valves is impractical or a hardship without a compensating increase in the level of safety. Deviations from the Code are allowed by law, as reviewed and approved by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), through the relief request process. Because of similarities in plant design and system function, many problems encountered in testing components are similar from plant to plant. Likewise, there are often common problems associated with test methods or equipment. Therefore, many relief requests received by the NRC from various plants are similar. Identifying and addressing the root causes for these common requests will greatly improve IST.

  18. Information and meaning revisiting Shannon's theory of communication and extending it to address todays technical problems.

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Travis LaDell

    2009-12-01

    This paper has three goals. The first is to review Shannon's theory of information and the subsequent advances leading to today's statistics-based text analysis algorithms, showing that the semantics of the text is neglected. The second goal is to propose an extension of Shannon's original model that can take into account semantics, where the 'semantics' of a message is understood in terms of the intended or actual changes on the recipient of a message. The third goal is to propose several lines of research that naturally fall out of the proposed model. Each computational approach to solving some problem rests on an underlying model or set of models that describe how key phenomena in the real world are represented and how they are manipulated. These models are both liberating and constraining. They are liberating in that they suggest a path of development for new tools and algorithms. They are constraining in that they intentionally ignore other potential paths of development. Modern statistical-based text analysis algorithms have a specific intellectual history and set of underlying models rooted in Shannon's theory of communication. For Shannon, language is treated as a stochastic generator of symbol sequences. Shannon himself, subsequently Weaver, and at least one of his predecessors are all explicit in their decision to exclude semantics from their models. This rejection of semantics as 'irrelevant to the engineering problem' is elegant and combined with developments particularly by Salton and subsequently by Latent Semantic Analysis, has led to a whole collection of powerful algorithms and an industry for data mining technologies. However, the kinds of problems currently facing us go beyond what can be accounted for by this stochastic model. Today's problems increasingly focus on the semantics of specific pieces of information. And although progress is being made with the old models, it seems natural to develop or extend information theory to account for

  19. ICE encounter operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanelli, N.; Morris, D.

    1986-01-01

    The operations encompassing the International Cometary Explorer's (ICE) encounter with the Comet Giacobini-Zinner on September 11, 1985 are documented. The ICE mission presented new challenges for the Deep Space Network (DSN) 64 meter subnetwork. Because of poor telemetry link margin predicted for Giacobini-Zinner (GZ) encounter, supplemental support by the Japanese Institute for Space and Astronautical Sciences 64-meter antenna at Usuda, Japan and the 305-meter Arecibo Radio Observatory in Puerto Rico was required. To improve the 64 meter subnetwork telemetry performance the following were also implemented: (1) Real time antenna array of 64 meter and 34 meter at a single complex and the required performance testing; and (2) Nonreal time antenna array of two complexes was implemented as a backup in the event of ground or spacecraft failure.

  20. Voyager: Neptune Encounter Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Voyager encounter data are presented in computer animation (CA) and real (R) animation. The highlights include a view of 2 full rotations of Neptune. It shows spacecraft trajectory 'diving' over Neptune and intercepting Triton's orbit, depicting radiation and occulation zones. Also shown are a renegade orbit of Triton and Voyager's encounter with Neptune's Magnetopause. A model of the spacecraft's complex maneuvers during close encounters of Neptune and Triton is presented. A view from Earth of Neptune's occulation experiment is is shown as well as a recreation of Voyager's final pass. There is detail of Voyager's Image Compensation technique which produces Voyager images. Eighteen images were produced on June 22 - 23, 1989, from 57 million miles away. A 68 day sequence which provides a stroboscopic view - colorization approximates what is seen by the human eye. Real time images recorded live from Voyager on 8/24/89 are presented. Photoclinometry produced the topography of Triton. Three images are used to create a sequence of Neptune's rings. The globe of Neptune and 2 views of the south pole are shown as well as Neptune rotating. The rotation of a scooter is frozen in images showing differential motion. There is a view of rotation of the Great Dark Spot about its own axis. Photoclinometry provides a 3-dimensional perspective using a color mosaic of Triton images. The globe is used to indicate the orientation of Neptune's crescent. The east and west plumes on Triton are shown.

  1. The Brown Superfund Basic Research Program: A Multistakeholder Partnership Addresses Real-World Problems in Contaminated Communities

    PubMed Central

    Senier, Laura; Hudson, Benjamin; Fort, Sarah; Hoover, Elizabeth; Tillson, Rebecca; Brown, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The NIEHS funds several basic and applied research programs, many of which also require research translation or outreach. This paper reports on a project by the Brown University Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP), in which outreach and research translation teams collaborated with state regulatory agency personnel and community activists on a legislative initiative to mitigate the financial impacts of living in a contaminated community. The Environmentally Compromised Home Ownership (ECHO) program makes home equity loans of up to $25,000 available to qualified applicants. This collaboration provides a case study in community engagement and demonstrates how research translation and outreach activities that are clearly differentiated yet well integrated can improve a suite of basic and applied research. Although engaging diverse constituencies can be difficult, community-engaged translation and outreach have the potential to make research findings more useful to communities, address some of the social impacts of contamination, and empower stakeholders to pursue their individual and collectively-held goals for remediation. The NIEHS has recently renewed its commitment to community-engaged research and advocacy, making this an optimal time to reflect on how basic research programs that engage stakeholders through research translation and outreach can add value to the overall research enterprise. PMID:18677987

  2. Opening addresses.

    PubMed

    Chukudebelu, W O; Lucas, A O; Ransome-kuti, O; Akinla, O; Obayi, G U

    1988-01-01

    The theme of the 3rd International Conference of the Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Nigeria (SOGON) held October 26, 1986 in Enugu was maternal morbidity and mortality in Africa. The opening addresses emphasize the high maternal mortality rate in Africa and SOGON's dedication to promoting women's health and welfare. In order to reduce maternal mortality, the scope of this problem must be made evident by gathering accurate mortality rates through maternity care monitoring and auditing. Governments, health professionals, educators, behavioral scientists, and communication specialists have a responsibility to improve maternal health services in this country. By making the population aware of this problem through education, measures can be taken to reduce the presently high maternal mortality rates. Nigerian women are physically unprepared for childbirth; therefore, balanced diets and disease prevention should be promoted. Since about 40% of deliveries are unmanaged, training for traditional birth attendants should be provided. Furthermore, family planning programs should discourage teenage pregnancies, encourage birth spacing and small families, and promote the use of family planning techniques among men. The problem of child bearing and rearing accompanied by hard work should also be investigated. For practices to change so that maternal mortality rates can be reduced, attitudes must be changed such that the current rates are viewed as unacceptable. PMID:12179275

  3. U.S. view of human problems to be addressed for long duration space flights. [physiological and psychological effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    The Russian and American space programs have consisted of several thousands of hours of exposure of man to the space environment. In spite of numerous biological phenomena of adaptation observed, the space travellers have displayed, after their return, no enduring pathological effect. Although the usable data remain too limited to reflect fully the effects of space flight, it is possible to sketch the biological responses in the absence of gravity and to define the work bases for the future. Beyond its basic physiological effects, weightlessness has operational consequences in the daily life of the astronauts. These consequences will be still more evident during missions of long duration. The conclusions drawn in flight as well as on the ground are reviewed, and future requirements concerning prolonged flights are outlined. The gaps in actual knowledge are discussed and solutions are suggested. The problems of habitability are considered, particularly those which remain at present without satisfactory solutions: psychological responses to a confined life, cleaning, hygiene, and used material.

  4. Rings from Close Encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    Weve recently discovered narrow sets of rings around two minor planets orbiting in our solar system. How did these rings form? A new study shows that they could be a result of close encounters between the minor planets and giants like Jupiter or Neptune.Unexpected Ring SystemsPositions of the centaurs in our solar system (green). Giant planets (red), Jupiter trojans (grey), scattered disk objects (tan) and Kuiper belt objects (blue) are also shown. [WilyD]Centaurs are minor planets in our solar system that orbit between Jupiter and Neptune. These bodies of which there are roughly 44,000 with diameters larger than 1 km have dynamically unstable orbits that cross paths with those of one or more giant planets.Recent occultation observations of two centaurs, 10199 Chariklo and 2060 Chiron, revealed that these bodies both host narrow ring systems. Besides our four giant planets, Chariklo and Chiron are the only other bodies in the solar system known to have rings. But how did these rings form?Scientists have proposed several models, implicating collisions, disruption of a primordial satellite, or dusty outgassing. But a team of scientists led by Ryuki Hyodo (Paris Institute of Earth Physics, Kobe University) has recently proposed an alternative scenario: what if the rings were formed from partial disruption of the centaur itself, after it crossed just a little too close to a giant planet?Tidal Forces from a GiantHyodo and collaborators first used past studies of centaur orbits to estimate that roughly 10% of centaurs experience close encounters (passing within a distance of ~2x the planetary radius) with a giant planet during their million-year lifetime. The team then performed a series of simulations of close encounters between a giant planet and a differentiated centaur a body in which the rocky material has sunk to form a dense silicate core, surrounded by an icy mantle.Some snapshots of simulation outcomes (click for a closer look!) for different initial states of

  5. Raisonnements arithmetiques et algebriques dans un contexte de resolution des problemes: difficultes rencontrees par les futurs enseignants (Arithmetic and Algebra Teaching within a Problem-Solving Context: Difficulties Encountered by Future Instructors).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Sylvine; Bednarz, Nadine

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties observed in the transition from teaching arithmetic to teaching algebra. Future teachers (n=164) were questioned regarding to what extent they were able to shift back and forth between teaching methods within the context of problem solving. Interviews were conducted individually and in a dyad format. (AIM)

  6. History-Enriched Spaces for Shared Encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konomi, Shin'ichi; Sezaki, Kaoru; Kitsuregawa, Masaru

    We discuss "history-enriched spaces" that use historical data to support shared encounters. We first examine our experiences with DeaiExplorer, a social network display that uses RFID and a historical database to support social interactions at academic conferences. This leads to our discussions on three complementary approaches to addressing the issues of supporting social encounters: (1) embedding historical data in embodied interactions, (2) designing for weakly involved interactions such as social navigation, and (3) designing for privacy. Finally, we briefly describe a preliminary prototype of a proxemics-based awareness tool that considers these approaches.

  7. Marriage Encounter: A Critical Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, William J; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates the marriage encounter movement from theoretical and clinical perspectives. While aknowledging that the marriage encounter responds to a need among many couples for greater marital closeness, the authors raise concerns about potentially destructive and illusory effects of the marriage encounter experience.…

  8. Teacher Educators Using Encounter Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Danné E.; Kellinger, Janna Jackson

    2014-01-01

    Many prospective teachers are unaware of the encounters that Black, heterosexual women or White lesbians face. Here, we present encounter stories--individual narratives of poignant encounters and interactions that we have experienced with people unlike us--to identify with and ultimately draw on their experiences. Subsequently, the narratives…

  9. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Problem-Solving Intervention Addressing Barriers to Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Behaviors in 3 Underserved Populations: Colorado, North Carolina, West Virginia, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Lucinda L.; Leary, Janie M.; Vu, Maihan B.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D.; McMilin, Colleen R.; Keyserling, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In low-income and underserved populations, financial hardship and multiple competing roles and responsibilities lead to difficulties in lifestyle change for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. To improve CVD prevention behaviors, we adapted, pilot-tested, and evaluated a problem-solving intervention designed to address barriers to lifestyle change. Methods The sample consisted of 81 participants from 3 underserved populations, including 28 Hispanic or non-Hispanic white women in a western community (site 1), 31 African-American women in a semirural southern community (site 2), and 22 adults in an Appalachian community (site 3). Incorporating focus group findings, we assessed a standardized intervention involving 6-to-8 week group sessions devoted to problem-solving in the fall of 2009. Results Most sessions were attended by 76.5% of participants, demonstrating participant adoption and engagement. The intervention resulted in significant improvement in problem-solving skills (P < .001) and perceived stress (P < .05). Diet, physical activity, and weight remained stable, although 72% of individuals reported maintenance or increase in daily fruit and vegetable intake, and 67% reported maintenance or increase in daily physical activity. Conclusion Study results suggest the intervention was acceptable to rural, underserved populations and effective in training them in problem-solving skills and stress management for CVD risk reduction. PMID:24602586

  10. Israeli Adolescents and Military Service: Encounters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Amihay; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Asserts that inadequate attention has been paid to the problems of the young soldier entering army life in Israel. Delineates some areas of friction and vulnerability between the worlds of the youth and the military. Describes the systematization of these encounters into groups, creating the "Binary Model," which helps in locating and treating…

  11. Locating Problems with Quality Circles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Donald D.; Bednar, David A.

    1985-01-01

    Five categories of common quality circles problems are identified to help firms anticipate difficulties and avert circle failures. These categories include encountered internal problems, encountered external problems, created internal problems, created external problems, and interface problems. Solutions are suggested. (CT)

  12. Sequencing Voyager II for the Uranus encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    The process of developing the programmed sequence of events necessary for the Voyager 2 spacecraft to return desired data from its Uranus encounter is discussed. The major steps in the sequence process are reviewed, and the elements of the Mission Sequence Software are described. The design phase and the implementation phase of the sequence process are discussed, and the Computer Command Subsystem architecture is examined in detail. The software's role in constructing the sequences and converting them into onboard programs is elucidated, and the problems unique to the Uranus encounter sequences are considered.

  13. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  14. Universalist ethics in extraterrestrial encounter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, Seth D.

    2010-02-01

    If humanity encounters an extraterrestrial civilization, or if two extraterrestrial civilizations encounter each other, then the outcome may depend not only on the civilizations' relative strength to destroy each other but also on what ethics are held by one or both civilizations. This paper explores outcomes of encounter scenarios in which one or both civilizations hold a universalist ethical framework. Several outcomes are possible in such scenarios, ranging from one civilization destroying the other to both civilizations racing to be the first to commit suicide. Thus, attention to the ethics of both humanity and extraterrestrials is warranted in human planning for such an encounter. Additionally, the possibility of such an encounter raises profound questions for contemporary human ethics, even if such an encounter never occurs.

  15. Stream Lifetimes Against Planetary Encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valsecchi, G. B.; Lega, E.; Froeschle, Cl.

    2011-01-01

    We study, both analytically and numerically, the perturbation induced by an encounter with a planet on a meteoroid stream. Our analytical tool is the extension of pik s theory of close encounters, that we apply to streams described by geocentric variables. The resulting formulae are used to compute the rate at which a stream is dispersed by planetary encounters into the sporadic background. We have verified the accuracy of the analytical model using a numerical test.

  16. A Bayesian Maximum Entropy approach to address the change of support problem in the spatial analysis of childhood asthma prevalence across North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Yeatts, Karin B; Serre, Marc L

    2009-01-01

    The spatial analysis of data observed at different spatial observation scales leads to the change of support problem (COSP). A solution to the COSP widely used in linear spatial statistics consists in explicitly modeling the spatial autocorrelation of the variable observed at different spatial scales. We present a novel approach that takes advantage of the non-linear Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) extension of linear spatial statistics to address the COSP directly without relying on the classical linear approach. Our procedure consists in modeling data observed over large areas as soft data for the process at the local scale. We demonstrate the application of our approach to obtain spatially detailed maps of childhood asthma prevalence across North Carolina (NC). Because of the high prevalence of childhood asthma in NC, the small number problem is not an issue, so we can focus our attention solely to the COSP of integrating prevalence data observed at the county-level together with data observed at a targeted local scale equivalent to the scale of school-districts. Our spatially detailed maps can be used for different applications ranging from exploratory and hypothesis generating analyses to targeting intervention and exposure mitigation efforts. PMID:20300553

  17. A Bayesian Maximum Entropy approach to address the change of support problem in the spatial analysis of childhood asthma prevalence across North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    LEE, SEUNG-JAE; YEATTS, KARIN; SERRE, MARC L.

    2009-01-01

    The spatial analysis of data observed at different spatial observation scales leads to the change of support problem (COSP). A solution to the COSP widely used in linear spatial statistics consists in explicitly modeling the spatial autocorrelation of the variable observed at different spatial scales. We present a novel approach that takes advantage of the non-linear Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) extension of linear spatial statistics to address the COSP directly without relying on the classical linear approach. Our procedure consists in modeling data observed over large areas as soft data for the process at the local scale. We demonstrate the application of our approach to obtain spatially detailed maps of childhood asthma prevalence across North Carolina (NC). Because of the high prevalence of childhood asthma in NC, the small number problem is not an issue, so we can focus our attention solely to the COSP of integrating prevalence data observed at the county-level together with data observed at a targeted local scale equivalent to the scale of school-districts. Our spatially detailed maps can be used for different applications ranging from exploratory and hypothesis generating analyses to targeting intervention and exposure mitigation efforts. PMID:20300553

  18. Successful I.D. Encounters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poorman, Margaret J.

    Instructional Development (I.D.) encounters are dependent for success on such variables as power, politics, promotion, and organizational placement. I.D. consultants must be aware of power bases or orientation of other personnel and clients, e.g., these four "power personalities" which affect their efforts in managing I.D. encounters: the gate…

  19. Pioneer 11 Encounter. [with Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Pioneer 11's encounter with Jupiter is discussed in detail. The scientific experiments carried out on the probe are described along with the instruments used. Tables are included which provide data on the times of experiments, encounters, and the distances from Jupiter. Educational study projects are also given.

  20. The National Historic Preservation Act is Not Your Problem, But How You are Addressing it for Your CERCLA Project May Be - 12344

    SciTech Connect

    Cusick, Lesley T.

    2012-07-01

    The 1995 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joint 'Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under CERCLA was developed so that decommissioning could occur in a manner that ensures protection of worker and public health and the environment, that is consistent with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), that provides for stakeholder involvement, and that achieves risk reduction without unnecessary delay'. The source of the 'unnecessary delays' the joint policy intended to avert could be attributed to numerous factors such as obtaining permits, conducting administrative activities, or implementing regulatory processes that could yield, among other things, differing preferred alternatives. Why, you might ask, more than fifteen years later, does DOE continue to struggle through CERCLA projects with unnecessary delays? From problem identification, to determination of nature and extent, to alternative analysis and ultimately remedy selection and implementation, reaching a compliant and effective clean-up end-point can be a process that seems to mimic geologic timescales. The source of these delays is often the failure to use all of the tools the CERCLA process offers. As one example, renewed commitment to follow the CERCLA process to address the regulatory reviews pursuant to the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) is called for. Project managers implementing CERCLA actions in any agency, not only DOE, do not need to be apprehensive about using the CERCLA process for NHPA review but should welcome it. It is critical that methods are used that address substantive NHPA requirements clearly and consistently, and that they are shared and communicated as frequently as needed to interested and questioning stakeholders. (author)

  1. The Rings of Chariklo under Close Encounters with the Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, R. A. N.; Sfair, R.; Winter, O. C.

    2016-06-01

    The Centaur population is composed of minor bodies wandering between the giant planets that frequently perform close gravitational encounters with these planets, leading to a chaotic orbital evolution. Recently, the discovery of two well-defined narrow rings was announced around the Centaur 10199 Chariklo. The rings are assumed to be in the equatorial plane of Chariklo and to have circular orbits. The existence of a well-defined system of rings around a body in such a perturbed orbital region poses an interesting new problem. Are the rings of Chariklo stable when perturbed by close gravitational encounters with the giant planets? Our approach to address this question consisted of forward and backward numerical simulations of 729 clones of Chariklo, with similar initial orbits, for a period of 100 Myr. We found, on average, that each clone experiences during its lifetime more than 150 close encounters with the giant planets within one Hill radius of the planet in question. We identified some extreme close encounters that were able to significantly disrupt or disturb the rings of Chariklo. About 3% of the clones lose their rings and about 4% of the clones have their rings significantly disturbed. Therefore, our results show that in most cases (more than 90%), the close encounters with the giant planets do not affect the stability of the rings in Chariklo-like systems. Thus, if there is an efficient mechanism that creates the rings, then these structures may be common among these kinds of Centaurs.

  2. Galaxy Transformation from Flyby Encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Christina

    2016-05-01

    Galaxy flybys are transient encounters where two halos interpenetrate and later detach forever. Although these encounters are surprisingly common—even outnumbering galaxy mergers for massive halos at the present epoch—their dynamical effects have been largely ignored. Using idealized collisionless N-body simulations of flyby encounters, it has been shown that a galaxy flyby can excite a bar and spin up the halo. Here, we compare the structural properties of recent flybys to that of recent mergers and isolated systems within the Illustris Simulation.

  3. Using the World Health Organization's 4S-Framework to Strengthen National Strategies, Policies and Services to Address Mental Health Problems in Adolescents in Resource-Constrained Settings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most adolescents live in resource-constrained countries and their mental health has been less well recognised than other aspects of their health. The World Health Organization's 4-S Framework provides a structure for national initiatives to improve adolescent health through: gathering and using strategic information; developing evidence-informed policies; scaling up provision and use of health services; and strengthening linkages with other government sectors. The aim of this paper is to discuss how the findings of a recent systematic review of mental health problems in adolescents in resource-constrained settings might be applied using the 4-S Framework. Method Analysis of the implications of the findings of a systematic search of the English-language literature for national strategies, policies, services and cross-sectoral linkages to improve the mental health of adolescents in resource-constrained settings. Results Data are available for only 33/112 [29%] resource-constrained countries, but in all where data are available, non-psychotic mental health problems in adolescents are identifiable, prevalent and associated with reduced quality of life, impaired participation and compromised development. In the absence of evidence about effective interventions in these settings expert opinion is that a broad public policy response which addresses direct strategies for prevention, early intervention and treatment; health service and health workforce requirements; social inclusion of marginalised groups of adolescents; and specific education is required. Specific endorsed strategies include public education, parent education, training for teachers and primary healthcare workers, psycho-educational curricula, identification through periodic screening of the most vulnerable and referral for care, and the availability of counsellors or other identified trained staff members in schools from whom adolescents can seek assistance for personal, peer and family

  4. Voyager Encounters Saturn: Scientific Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Observations generated by Voyager 1's encounter with Saturn are disclosed. Atmospheric conditions, the rings, new moons and the five inner moons are described. Titan, Hyperion and Iapetus are discussed in detail, as is Saturn's magnetosphere.

  5. The Voyager 2 Neptune encounter

    SciTech Connect

    Tsurutani, B.T. )

    1989-10-01

    The findings made by the Voyager 2 Neptune encounter are reviewed. Data on the bowshock, magnetic field, magnetosphere, rings, plasma sheet, aurora, moons, and dust of Neptune are discussed. Findings made concerning Triton are summarized.

  6. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  7. Content-addressable read/write memories for image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. E.; Savage, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    The commonly encountered image analysis problems of region labeling and clustering are found to be cases of search-and-rename problem which can be solved in parallel by a system architecture that is inherently suitable for VLSI implementation. This architecture is a novel form of content-addressable memory (CAM) which provides parallel search and update functions, allowing speed reductions down to constant time per operation. It has been proposed in related investigations by Hall (1981) that, with VLSI, CAM-based structures with enhanced instruction sets for general purpose processing will be feasible.

  8. Parental Knowledge of Behavioral Principles Following Training to Address Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Kylan

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems are a common occurrence among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In addition to the challenges that sleep problems present for children's neurodevelopment, learning, and daytime behaviors, sleep problems in children present significant challenges for the entire family. Research studies on behavioral interventions to…

  9. Dialogic Encounters as Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Adetty Perez

    2010-01-01

    Although educators believe in the importance of dialogue and dialogic encounters, and often propose to engage their students in "discussion," dialogic communication is rarely used in the classroom. Rather than through relational and substantive conversation, most educational dialogue in public schools is limited to telling, asking one-way…

  10. A Lakatosian Encounter with Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chick, Helen

    2010-01-01

    There is much to be learned and pondered by reading "Proofs and Refutations" by Imre Lakatos (Lakatos, 1976). It highlights the importance of mathematical definitions, and how definitions evolve to capture the essence of the object they are defining. It also provides an exhilarating encounter with the ups and downs of the mathematical reasoning…

  11. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  12. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  13. Opening clinical encounters in an adult musculoskeletal setting.

    PubMed

    Chester, Emily C; Robinson, Natalie C; Roberts, Lisa C

    2014-08-01

    Effective communication between healthcare professionals and their patients is crucial for successful consultations, and can profoundly affect patients' adherence to treatment. Despite this evidence, communication within the physiotherapy profession is still underexplored, in particular, how 'best' to open clinical encounters. This study explores the issue by seeking the preferences of physiotherapists for opening encounters in the adult musculoskeletal outpatient setting. Initially, 42 consultations and 17 first follow-up encounters were observed between qualified physiotherapists and patients with back pain. These encounters were audio-recorded, analysed and used to develop a questionnaire to determine clinicians' preferences for opening encounters. From these findings, a synopsis of the questionnaire was posted on the four most-relevant professional networks of the national, interactive Chartered Society of Physiotherapy (iCSP) website, to canvass opinion more widely. Among the 43 physiotherapists who responded, the preferred 'key clinical question' for an initial encounter was: "Do you want to just tell me a little bit about [your 'problem presentation'] first of all?"; and for follow-up encounters: 'How have you been since I last saw you?' These results provide an important and novel contribution to the profession, as debate on this issue has not previously been published. Although the sample size in this study is small, the aim of this paper is to generate reflection and debate among clinicians on their preferences for opening patient encounters and optimising the non-specific treatment effects. PMID:24809241

  14. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  15. Principles of Positive Behaviour Supports: Using the FBA as a Problem-Solving Approach to Address Challenging Behaviours beyond Special Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Gerardo; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2011-01-01

    The Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA) is an investigative process that examines the context of challenging behaviours in the classroom. Information gleaned from the FBA process is used to develop a behaviour intervention plan to address the challenging behaviour and teach a socially acceptable replacement behaviour. However, the FBA has…

  16. School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Can It Help Address the Problem of Disproportionate Minority Representation in the Emotional Disturbance Disability Category?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Jodi Abraham

    2012-01-01

    This research project investigated the possibility of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) as a way to address racial/ethnic disproportionality in the Emotional Disturbance (ED) category. The sample consisted of 114 elementary schools from a suburban school district in the Mid-Atlantic region. There were 57 SWPBS schools and 57 non-SWPBS…

  17. Voyager 1: Encounter with Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panagakos, N.

    1980-01-01

    The history of the Voyager Project is reviewed as well as known facts about Saturn and its satellites. Important results of encounters with Jupiter are summarized. Scientific objectives of the flyby of Saturn involve the planet's atmosphere, rings, and magnetic field interactions with the solar wind and satellites. The search for additional satellites, and various aspects of Titan, Rhea, Dione, Mimas, Iapetus, Hyperion, and Enceladas are also of interest. The instruments developed to obtain these goals are described.

  18. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Alexander, P C

    1994-07-01

    Total world population is growing at the annual rate of 2%. While this rate of growth represents a decline from the annual growth rate of 2.5% during the early 1960s, world population still continues to grow rapidly in absolute terms as a result of the already enormous population base. Experts predict world population to grow to 12-14 billion before it stabilizes. Most of this growth will be due to high fertility amid declining mortality in developing countries; 80% of world population by the year 2000 will be in developing countries. India, for example, had a population of 358 million people in 1950. That population, however, should grow to more than one billion by the year 2000. The author, governor of Maharashtra, congratulates all who have successfully completed courses at the International Institute for Population Sciences during the year and voices his expectation that graduates will use their newfound knowledge and expertise in research and teaching as well as in developing meaningful and effective population policies in their respective countries. He also describes some of India's current population-related problems and future prospects. India has thus far kept its rate of food production above the rate of population growth. Even so, the average caloric intake in India needs to be increased by at least 50% in order for the population to maintain adequate health standards. The current scarcity of additional arable land, the need to halt further deforestation, and the ongoing absolute growth in population, however, suggest that India will be unable to raise the level of caloric intake for its people. India may even become dependent upon other countries to provide food for its population. PMID:12346131

  19. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  20. What Are Our Expectations Telling Us?: Encounters with the NMAI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Gwyneira

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to move beyond issues of representation and to address how museum meanings are made on the ground in ongoing encounters between displays and the ideational worlds their audiences bring with them into the museum space. In particular, the author explores how contrasting expectations about exhibits can serve as an…

  1. Listen-Identify-Brainstorm-Reality-Test-Encourage (LIBRE) Problem-Solving Model: Addressing Special Education Teacher Attrition through a Cognitive-Behavioral Approach to Teacher Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Norma S.; Hernandez, Art; Hector, Alison M.; Crosby, Shane

    2015-01-01

    Special education teacher attrition rates continue to challenge the profession. A cognitive-behavioral problem-solving approach was used to examine three alternative certification program special education teachers' professional development through a series of 41 interviews conducted over a 2-year period. Beginning when they were novice special…

  2. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution. PMID:24758452

  3. Convectively Induced Turbulence Encountered During NASA's Fall-2000 Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, David W.; Proctor, Fred H.

    2002-01-01

    Aircraft encounters with atmospheric turbulence are a leading cause of in-flight injuries aboard commercial airliners and cost the airlines millions of dollars each year. Most of these injuries are due to encounters with turbulence in and around convection. In a recent study of 44 turbulence accident reports between 1990 and 1996, 82% of the cases were found to be near or within convective activity (Kaplan et al. 1999). According to NTSB accident reports, pilots' descriptions of these turbulence encounters include 'abrupt', 'in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC)', 'saw nothing on the weather radar', and 'the encounter occurred while deviating around' convective activity. Though the FAA has provided guidelines for aircraft operating in convective environments, turbulence detection capability could decrease the number of injuries by alerting pilots of a potential encounter. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, through its Aviation Safety Program, is addressing turbulence hazards through research, flight experiments, and data analysis. Primary focus of this program element is the characterization of turbulence and its environment, as well as the development and testing of hazard estimation algorithms for both radar and in situ detection. The ultimate goal is to operationally test sensors that will provide ample warning prior to hazardous turbulence encounters. In order to collect data for support of these activities, NASA-Langley's B-757 research aircraft was directed into regions favorable for convectively induced turbulence (CIT). On these flights, the airborne predictive wind shear (PWS) radar, augmented with algorithms designed for turbulence detection, was operated in real time to test this capability. In this paper, we present the results of two research flights when turbulence was encountered. Described is an overview of the flights, the general radar performance, and details of four encounters with severe turbulence.

  4. COMET ENCOUNTERS AND CARBON 14

    SciTech Connect

    Eichler, David; Mordecai, David

    2012-12-20

    The {sup 14}C production of shock-accelerated particles is calculated in terms of the total energy released in energetic particles. The recently reported 1.2% jump in the {sup 14}C content of the atmosphere in the year C.E. 775, it is found, would require {approx}> 10{sup 34} erg in energetic particles, less than first estimates but far more than any known solar flare on record. It is noted that the superflare from a large comet (comparable to C/Hale-Bopp) colliding with the sun could produce shock-accelerated GeV cosmic rays in the solar corona and/or solar wind, and possibly account for the C.E. 775 event. Several additional predictions of cometary encounters with the sun and other stars may be observable in the future.

  5. Analysis of vortex wake encounter upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. A.; Teper, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of an airplane being upset by encountering the vortex wake of a large transport on takeoff or landing is currently receiving considerable attention. This report describes the technique and results of a study to assess the effectiveness of automatic control systems in alleviating vortex wake upsets. A six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear digital simulation was used for this purpose. The analysis included establishing the disturbance input due to penetrating a vortex wake from an arbitrary position and angle. Simulations were computed for both a general aviation airplane and a commercial jet transport. Dynamic responses were obtained for the penetrating aircraft with no augmentation, and with various command augmentation systems, as well as with human pilot control. The results of this preliminary study indicate that attitude command augmentation systems can provide significant alleviation of vortex wake upsets; and can do it better than a human pilot.

  6. Altered body image: managing social encounters.

    PubMed

    Price, B

    2000-04-01

    For terminally ill people who are still active within the community, altered body image can pose significant problems. Patients may have an obvious change in appearance or function, but be unsure how to present a positive image to others. Moreover, lay supporters are often equally unsure how to react to the changed appearance of the dying person. Changes in physical appearance and function associated with disease processes (and sometimes treatment) need to be integrated into the interaction that occurs between patients and lay carers. This is likely to be a difficult matter to facilitate, taxing the ingenuity of the palliative care nurse who hopes to assist the patient in this regard. This article uses a case study from the community-based palliative care setting to introduce steps that nurses and patients might consider as the patient sets out to manage such social encounters. PMID:11143644

  7. Development and Initial Evaluation of a Telephone-Delivered, Behavioral Activation and Problem-solving Treatment Program to Address Functional Goals of Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Kathleen D.; Hull, Jay G.; Kaufman, Peter A.; Li, Zhongze; Seville, Janette L.; Ahles, Tim A.; Kornblith, Alice B.; Hegel, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and pilot test an intervention to optimize functional recovery for breast cancer survivors. Over two studies, 31 women enrolled in a goal-setting program via telephone. All eligible women enrolled (37% of those screened) and 66% completed all study activities. Completers were highly satisfied with the intervention, using it to address, on average, four different challenging activities. The longitudinal analysis showed a main effect of time for overall quality of life (F(5, 43.1) = 5.1, p = 0.001) and improvements in active coping (F (3, 31.7) = 4.9, p = 0.007), planning (F (3, 36.0) = 4.1, p = 0.01), reframing (F (3, 29.3) = 8.5, p < 0.001), and decreases in self-blame (F (3,31.6) = 4.3, p = 0.01). The intervention is feasible and warrants further study to determine its efficacy in fostering recovery and maximizing activity engagement after cancer treatment. PMID:25668509

  8. Engineering Encounters: The Tightrope Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Bill

    2014-01-01

    In order to prepare students to become the next innovators, teachers need to provide real-world challenges that allow children to exercise their innovation muscles. Innovation starts with a problem and innovators work to solve a problem by planning, creating, and testing. The real-world innovation process does not happen on a worksheet, and it…

  9. Reading the Other: Ethics of Encounter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Most scholarly fields, at least in the humanities, have been asking the same questions about the politics of encounter for hundreds of years: Should we try to find a way to encounter an other without appropriating it, without imposing ourselves on it? Is encountering-without-appropriating even possible? These questions are profuse and taken up…

  10. Participation during First Social Encounters in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Lavelle, Mary; Healey, Patrick G. T.; McCabe, Rosemarie

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia are socially excluded. The aim of this study was to investigate how patients participate in first encounters with unfamiliar healthy participants, who are unaware of their diagnosis. Methods Patterns of participation were investigated during interactions involving three-people. Three conversation roles were analysed: (i) speaker, (ii) primary recipient- focus of the speaker’s attention and (iii) secondary recipient- unaddressed individual. Twenty patient interactions (1 patient, 2 healthy controls) and 20 control interactions (3 healthy participants) were recorded and motion captured in 3D. The participation of patients and their partners, in each conversation role, was compared with controls at the start, middle and end of the interaction. The relationship between patients’ participation, their symptoms and the rapport others experienced with them was also explored. Results At the start of the interaction patients spoke less (ß = −.639, p = .02) and spent more time as secondary recipient (ß = .349, p = .02). Patients’ participation at the middle and end of the interaction did not differ from controls. Patients’ partners experienced poorer rapport with patients who spent more time as a primary recipient at the start of the interaction (Rho(11) = −.755, p<.01). Patients’ participation was not associated with symptoms. Conclusion Despite their increased participation over time, patients’ initial participation appears to be associated with others’ experience of rapport with them. Thus, the opening moments of patients’ first encounters appear to be interpersonally significant. Further investigation of patient and others’ behaviour during these critical moments is warranted in order to understand, and possibly develop interventions to address, the difficulties schizophrenia patients experience here. PMID:24465363

  11. Unethical Behaviours Preservice Teachers Encounter on Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deveci Topal, Arzu; Kolburan Gecer, Aynur

    2015-01-01

    The development of web 2.0 technology has resulted in an increase in internet sharing. The scope of this study is social networking, which is one of the web 2.0 tools most heavily used by internet users. In this paper, the unethical behaviours that preservice teachers encounter on social networks and the ways to deal with these problems are…

  12. Diseases encountered during war and rebuilding: lessons from past conflicts.

    PubMed

    Elston, Dirk M

    2003-07-01

    As we face the task of helping to rebuild Iraq, it is worthwhile to review our experience with past humanitarian aid missions and past conflicts. These efforts serve as models for the types of problems we may encounter today. It also is critical to review available data concerning the unique aspects of cutaneous diseases in that part of the world. PMID:12889713

  13. Tips for Novice Researchers: Operational Difficulties Encountered in Underdeveloped Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher El-Nahhas, Susan M.

    This paper provides a general overview of the type of problems encountered in the field of research so that individuals who are contemplating conducting research in an underdeveloped country for the first time are better prepared, and hence, better able to complete their research. The paper recounts a female researcher's personal experiences in…

  14. Icing Encounter Duration Sensitivity Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Lee, Sam

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a study performed to investigate how aerodynamic performance degradation progresses with time throughout an exposure to icing conditions. It is one of the first documented studies of the effects of ice contamination on aerodynamic performance at various points in time throughout an icing encounter. Both a 1.5 and 6 ft chord, two-dimensional, NACA-23012 airfoils were subjected to icing conditions in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel for varying lengths of time. At the end of each run, lift, drag, and pitching moment measurements were made. Measurements with the 1.5 ft chord model showed that maximum lift and pitching moment degraded more rapidly early in the exposure and degraded more slowly as time progressed. Drag for the 1.5 ft chord model degraded more linearly with time, although drag for very short exposure durations was slightly higher than expected. Only drag measurements were made with the 6 ft chord airfoil. Here, drag for the long exposures was higher than expected. Novel comparison of drag measurements versus an icing scaling parameter, accumulation parameter times collection efficiency was used to compare the data from the two different size model. The comparisons provided a means of assessing the level of fidelity needed for accurate icing simulation.

  15. Lifetime of binary asteroids versus gravitational encounters and collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chauvineau, Bertrand; Farinella, Paolo; Mignard, F.

    1992-01-01

    We investigate the effect on the dynamics of a binary asteroid in the case of a near encounter with a third body. The dynamics of the binary is modeled as a two-body problem perturbed by an approaching body in the following ways: near encounters and collisions with a component of the system. In each case, the typical value of the two-body energy variation is estimated, and a random walk for the cumulative effect is assumed. Results are applied to some binary asteroid candidates. The main conclusion is that the collisional disruption is the dominant effect, giving lifetimes comparable to or larger than the age of the solar system.

  16. A Handbook of Environmental Encounters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This handbook has been designed as a teaching resource to be used in the development of student attitudes and competencies, reflecting an awareness of the environment, and a motivation to work toward solutions to its problems. Listed activities are to be adapted to the abilities and interests of students, school locale, and teaching situation.…

  17. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  18. Understanding metropolitan patterns of daily encounters.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng

    2013-08-20

    Understanding of the mechanisms driving our daily face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her daily behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in daily life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes. PMID:23918373

  19. A MULTIRATE STOeRMER ALGORITHM FOR CLOSE ENCOUNTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Grazier, K. R.; Newman, W. I.; Sharp, P. W. E-mail: win@ucla.edu

    2013-04-15

    We present, analyze, and test a multirate Stoermer-based algorithm for integrating close encounters when performing N-body simulations of the Sun, planets, and a large number of test particles. The algorithm is intended primarily for accurate simulations of the outer solar system. The algorithm uses stepsizes H and h{sub i} , i = 1, ..., N{sub p} , where h{sub i} << H and N{sub p} is the number of planets. The stepsize H is used for the integration of the orbital motion of the Sun and planets at all times. H is also used as the stepsize for the integration of the orbital motion of test particles when they are not undergoing a close encounter. The stepsize h{sub i} is used to integrate the orbital motion of test particles during a close encounter with the ith planet. The position of the Sun and planets during a close encounter is calculated using Hermite interpolation. We tested the algorithm on two contrasting problems, and compared its performance with the existing method which uses the same stepsize for all bodies (this stepsize must be significantly smaller than H to ensure the close encounters are integrated accurately). Our tests show that the integration error for the new and existing methods are comparable when the stepsizes are chosen to minimize the error, and that for this choice of stepsizes the new method requires considerably less CPU time than the existing method.

  20. Addressing the Problems of Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph F.; Tobin, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Homeless adolescents, known as "unaccompanied youth," constitute a small but important portion of the overall homeless population, one that needs particular attention at school. In this article, we review existing literature to provide a background for educational leaders, researchers, and policymakers hoping to understand the phenomenon of…

  1. Development of countermeasures for medical problems encountered in space flight.

    PubMed

    Nicogossian, A E; Rummel, J D; Leveton, L; Teeter, R

    1992-01-01

    By the turn of this century, long-duration space missions, either in low Earth orbit or for got early planetary missions, will become commonplace. From the physiological standpoint, exposure to the weightless environment results in changes in body function, some of which are adaptive in nature and some of which can be life threatening. Important issues such as environmental health, radiation protection, physical deconditioning, and bone and muscle loss are of concern to life scientists and mission designers. Physical conditioning techniques such as exercise are not sufficient to protect future space travellers. A review of past experience with piloted missions has shown that gradual breakdown in bone and muscle tissue, together with fluid losses, despite a vigorous exercise regimen can ultimately lead to increased evidence of renal stones, musculoskeletal injuries, and bone fractures. Biological effects of radiation can, over long periods of time increase the risk of cancer development. Today, a vigorous program of study on the means to provide a complex exercise regimen to the antigravity muscles and skeleton is under study. Additional evaluation of artificial gravity as a mechanism to counteract bone and muscle deconditioning and cardiovascular asthenia is under study. New radiation methods are being developed. This paper will deal with the results of these studies. PMID:11536975

  2. Development of countermeasures for medical problems encountered in space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Rummel, John D.; Leveton, Lauren; Teeter, Ron

    1992-08-01

    By the turn of this century, long-duration space missions, either in low Earth orbit or for got early planetary missions, will become commonplace. From the physiological standpoint, exposure to the weightless environment results in changes in body function, some of which are adaptive in nature and some of which can be life threatening. Important issues such as environmental health, radiation protection, physical deconditioning, and bone and muscle loss are of concern to life scientists and mission designers. Physical conditioning techniques such as exercise are not sufficient to protect future space travellers. A review of past experience with piloted missions has shown that gradual breakdown in bone and muscle tissue, together with fluid losses, despite a vigorous exercise regimen can ultimately lead to increased evidence of renal stones, musculoskeletal injuries, and bone fractures. Biological effects of radiation can, over long periods of time increase the risk of cancer development. Today, a vigorous program of study on the means to provide a complex exercise regimen to the antigravity muscles and skeleton is under study. Additional evaluation of artificial gravity as a mechanism to counteract bone and muscle deconditioning and cardiovascular asthenia is under study. New radiation methods are being developed. This paper will deal with the results of these studies.

  3. Problems encountered when defining Arctic amplification as a ratio

    PubMed Central

    Hind, Alistair; Zhang, Qiong; Brattström, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    In climate change science the term ‘Arctic amplification’ has become synonymous with an estimation of the ratio of a change in Arctic temperatures compared with a broader reference change under the same period, usually in global temperatures. Here, it is shown that this definition of Arctic amplification comes with a suite of difficulties related to the statistical properties of the ratio estimator itself. Most problematic is the complexity of categorizing uncertainty in Arctic amplification when the global, or reference, change in temperature is close to 0 over a period of interest, in which case it may be impossible to set bounds on this uncertainty. An important conceptual distinction is made between the ‘Ratio of Means’ and ‘Mean Ratio’ approaches to defining a ratio estimate of Arctic amplification, as they do not only possess different uncertainty properties regarding the amplification factor, but are also demonstrated to ask different scientific questions. Uncertainty in the estimated range of the Arctic amplification factor using the latest global climate models and climate forcing scenarios is expanded upon and shown to be greater than previously demonstrated for future climate projections, particularly using forcing scenarios with lower concentrations of greenhouse gases. PMID:27461918

  4. Flight Research: Problems Encountered and What They Should Teach Us

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Milton O.; Hunley, J. D.; Launius, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The document by Milt Thompson that is reproduced here was an untitled rough draft found in Thompson's papers in the Dryden Historical Reference Collection. Internal evidence suggests that it was written around 1974. I have not attempted to second guess what Milt might have done in revising the paper, but I have made some minor stylistic changes to make it more readable without changing the sense of what Milt initially wrote. For the most part, I have not attempted to bring his comments up to date. For readers who may not be familiar with the history of what is today the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and of its predecessor organizations, I have added a background section.

  5. Problems encountered in fluctuating flame temperature measurements by thermocouple.

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A. Burl; Lucero, Ralph E.; Gill, Walter; Yilmaz, Nadir

    2008-11-01

    Some thermocouple experiments were carried out in order to obtain sensitivity of thermocouple readings to fluctuations in flames and to determine if the average thermocouple reading was representative of the local volume temperature for fluctuating flames. The thermocouples considered were an exposed junction thermocouple and a fully sheathed thermocouple with comparable time constants. Either the voltage signal or indicated temperature for each test was recorded at sampling rates between 300-4,096 Hz. The trace was then plotted with respect to time or sample number so that time variation in voltage or temperature could be visualized and the average indicated temperature could be determined. For experiments where high sampling rates were used, the signal was analyzed using Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) to determine the frequencies present in the thermocouple signal. This provided a basic observable as to whether or not the probe was able to follow flame oscillations. To enhance oscillations, for some experiments, the flame was forced. An analysis based on thermocouple time constant, coupled with the transfer function for a sinusoidal input was tested against the experimental results.

  6. Problems encountered when defining Arctic amplification as a ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hind, Alistair; Zhang, Qiong; Brattström, Gudrun

    2016-07-01

    In climate change science the term ‘Arctic amplification’ has become synonymous with an estimation of the ratio of a change in Arctic temperatures compared with a broader reference change under the same period, usually in global temperatures. Here, it is shown that this definition of Arctic amplification comes with a suite of difficulties related to the statistical properties of the ratio estimator itself. Most problematic is the complexity of categorizing uncertainty in Arctic amplification when the global, or reference, change in temperature is close to 0 over a period of interest, in which case it may be impossible to set bounds on this uncertainty. An important conceptual distinction is made between the ‘Ratio of Means’ and ‘Mean Ratio’ approaches to defining a ratio estimate of Arctic amplification, as they do not only possess different uncertainty properties regarding the amplification factor, but are also demonstrated to ask different scientific questions. Uncertainty in the estimated range of the Arctic amplification factor using the latest global climate models and climate forcing scenarios is expanded upon and shown to be greater than previously demonstrated for future climate projections, particularly using forcing scenarios with lower concentrations of greenhouse gases.

  7. Perceived Problems Encountered by First Year Virginia Secondary Marketing Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Betty; Price, William T., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A study involved 10 randomly selected first-year marketing education teachers in Virginia with nominal group technique to collect information that will assist in (1) improving the relevance of teacher education programs, (2) identifying needed areas of inservice training, and (3) developing a research model. (JOW)

  8. Technical problems encountered with the LALA-1 flying laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swidzinski, J.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of structural design changes necessitated by the conversion of the An-2R agricultural support aircraft into a flying test bed to be used in feasibility studies evaluating jet engines in agricultural support aircraft. The entire rear of the fuselage was radically modified to permit mounting of the Al-25 jet engine directly behind the trailing edge of the upper wing. The standard piston engine was retained to permit comparison between the two types of power plants in typical agricultural support operations.

  9. Problems encountered when defining Arctic amplification as a ratio.

    PubMed

    Hind, Alistair; Zhang, Qiong; Brattström, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    In climate change science the term 'Arctic amplification' has become synonymous with an estimation of the ratio of a change in Arctic temperatures compared with a broader reference change under the same period, usually in global temperatures. Here, it is shown that this definition of Arctic amplification comes with a suite of difficulties related to the statistical properties of the ratio estimator itself. Most problematic is the complexity of categorizing uncertainty in Arctic amplification when the global, or reference, change in temperature is close to 0 over a period of interest, in which case it may be impossible to set bounds on this uncertainty. An important conceptual distinction is made between the 'Ratio of Means' and 'Mean Ratio' approaches to defining a ratio estimate of Arctic amplification, as they do not only possess different uncertainty properties regarding the amplification factor, but are also demonstrated to ask different scientific questions. Uncertainty in the estimated range of the Arctic amplification factor using the latest global climate models and climate forcing scenarios is expanded upon and shown to be greater than previously demonstrated for future climate projections, particularly using forcing scenarios with lower concentrations of greenhouse gases. PMID:27461918

  10. Problems Encountered in Fluctuating Flame Temperature Measurements by Thermocouple

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Nadir; Gill, Walt; Donaldson, A. Burl; Lucero, Ralph E.

    2008-01-01

    Some thermocouple experiments were carried out in order to obtain sensitivity of thermocouple readings to fluctuations in flames and to determine if the average thermocouple reading was representative of the local volume temperature for fluctuating flames. The thermocouples considered were an exposed junction thermocouple and a fully sheathed thermocouple with comparable time constants. Either the voltage signal or indicated temperature for each test was recorded at sampling rates between 300-4,096 Hz. The trace was then plotted with respect to time or sample number so that time variation in voltage or temperature could be visualized and the average indicated temperature could be determined. For experiments where high sampling rates were used, the signal was analyzed using Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) to determine the frequencies present in the thermocouple signal. This provided a basic observable as to whether or not the probe was able to follow flame oscillations. To enhance oscillations, for some experiments, the flame was forced. An analysis based on thermocouple time constant, coupled with the transfer function for a sinusoidal input was tested against the experimental results.

  11. Screening-Based Translation of Public Research Encounters Painful Problems

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Whether identified through high throughput screening or in silico screening, and whether target-based or phenotypic, sets of hits will contain chemical con artists. Such pan-assay interference compounds (PAINS) and other subversive compounds continue to pollute the scientific literature. There are several angles of attack to aid identification of such nonprogressable molecules. One of these rules above all, and this is a demonstration of genuine structure–activity relationships. Recognition of this, which will require a greater effort in medicinal chemistry, will be of general benefit. PMID:25941544

  12. Clinical encounters with internet pornography.

    PubMed

    Kalman, Thomas P

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Pornography, if understood to involve the depiction of sexual activity, organs, and experiences, is perhaps as old as human civilization itself. Historically linked to various technological innovations, pornography viewing in the Internet age has reached epic proportions, with large numbers of individuals taking advantage of ease of access, affordability, and presumed anonymity to explore sexual material online. Within the mental health professions substantial research exists on the effects of viewing general pornography; however, the distinctive effects of the marriage of pornography and cyberspace is only beginning to be examined. In addition to reviewing some historical and statistical material about pornography and the relevant psychiatric and psychoanalytic literature, four detailed clinical vignettes are presented to illustrate the types of problems related to Internet pornography use that are being presented to practicing psychotherapists. PMID:19113956

  13. Casebook: a system for tracking clinical encounters.

    PubMed

    Kahn, J A; Piggins, J; Blewett, D R; Hassan, L; Raila, W; Link, D; Oliver, D E; Barnett, G O

    1991-01-01

    Casebook is a clinically oriented database, written in MUMPS, and designed for recording the clinical encounters of medical students at Harvard Medical School. Its main goals are to 1) increase student use of computer technology, 2) help faculty evaluate the diversity of clinical experiences on their service, 3) provide data to the faculty on the "typical" experience of medical students on their service to aid in the evaluation of the curriculum and, 4) provide report-generation capabilities for the students to improve dialog with their preceptors. Students are able to enter information on "Problems" and "Procedures" selecting from a pop-up menu of medical terms or by entering free text. Casebook is currently in use in the Medicine, OB/GYN, Pediatric and Ambulatory rotations. At sites where the faculty take an active interest in the use of Casebook students perceive it to be valuable and subsequently use it more frequently. It is currently being expanded for use by medical students in their second, third, and fourth years of school. PMID:1807697

  14. Encounter with Jupiter. [Pioneer 10 space probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Pioneer 10 space probe's encounter with the Jupiter is discussed in detail. Tables are presented which include data on the distances during the encounter, times of crossing satellite orbits, important events in the flight near Jupiter, and time of experiments. Educational study projects are also included.

  15. Encountering Death: Structured Activities for Death Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Ira David; And Others

    This book is intended to be used as a supplement to standard textbooks on death and dying for college students. Chapter 1 "Encountering Death in the Self" builds the foundation for increased self-awareness for the study of death and dying. Chapter 2 "Encountering Death in the Family" provides activities which are appropriate for a wide variety of…

  16. Encountering! The Arts Part of Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City. Curriculum Div.

    This publication contains an "Encountering Model" and model lessons for integrating arts experiences into the basic curriculum at the elementary and junior high school levels. The model uses a three-phase learning sequence in which each phase is labeled an "encounter." The first phase is "exploration," when students are provided with certain ideas…

  17. Accurate orbit propagation with planetary close encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baù, Giulio; Milani Comparetti, Andrea; Guerra, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    We tackle the problem of accurately propagating the motion of those small bodies that undergo close approaches with a planet. The literature is lacking on this topic and the reliability of the numerical results is not sufficiently discussed. The high-frequency components of the perturbation generated by a close encounter makes the propagation particularly challenging both from the point of view of the dynamical stability of the formulation and the numerical stability of the integrator. In our approach a fixed step-size and order multistep integrator is combined with a regularized formulation of the perturbed two-body problem. When the propagated object enters the region of influence of a celestial body, the latter becomes the new primary body of attraction. Moreover, the formulation and the step-size will also be changed if necessary. We present: 1) the restarter procedure applied to the multistep integrator whenever the primary body is changed; 2) new analytical formulae for setting the step-size (given the order of the multistep, formulation and initial osculating orbit) in order to control the accumulation of the local truncation error and guarantee the numerical stability during the propagation; 3) a new definition of the region of influence in the phase space. We test the propagator with some real asteroids subject to the gravitational attraction of the planets, the Yarkovsky and relativistic perturbations. Our goal is to show that the proposed approach improves the performance of both the propagator implemented in the OrbFit software package (which is currently used by the NEODyS service) and of the propagator represented by a variable step-size and order multistep method combined with Cowell's formulation (i.e. direct integration of position and velocity in either the physical or a fictitious time).

  18. First-Year Principal Encounters Homophobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retelle, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    A 1st-year principal encounters homonegativity and an ethical dilemma when she attempts to terminate a teacher because of the teacher's inadequate and ineffective teaching. The teacher responds by threatening to "out" Ms. L. to the parents.

  19. Pioneer to encounter Saturn on September 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The encounter of the Pioneer 11 Spacecraft with Saturn, designed to provide information on the evolution of the Sun and its planets, is described. Photographs and measurements of Saturn, its rings, and several of its 10 satellites, including Titan, to be taken by Pioneer instruments, are emphasized. The encounter sequence and spacecraft trajectory are discussed. A description of Saturn and its atmosphere is included. Onboard instruments and experiments are also described.

  20. Encounters between binaries and neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, M. B.; Benz, W.; Hills, J. G.

    1993-01-01

    We simulated encounters between a neutron star and primordial and tidal-capture binaries. In the case of encounters involving a tidal-capture binary, comprising a white dwarf and a main-sequence star, we find that most exchange encounters will produce a single merged object with the white dwarf and neutron star engulfed in a common envelope of gas donated by the main-sequence primary of the original binary. A small fraction of exchanges induce a merger of the white dwarf and main-sequence star, with this object being unbound to the neutron star, and the two objects having a large relative speed at infinity. For encounters involving a primordial binary, fewer encounters require the inclusion of hydrodynamical effects. Those involving collisions or close encounters tend to produce a binary comprised of the two merged stars (now forming one star) and the third star. The binaries produced typically have large enough separations to prevent the formation of a single merged object until subsequent stellar evolution of one of the components causes it to fill its Roche lobe. Clean exchanges produce binaries with large eccentricities; they are typically sufficiently wide to avoid circularization.

  1. Large-volume, high-horsepower submersible pumping problems in water source wells

    SciTech Connect

    Hoestenbach, R.D.

    1982-10-01

    Little has been written concerning problems that can be encountered in, or compounded by, installing large volume, high-horsepower submersible pumping equipment in water source wells in the range of 30,000 to 90,000 BWPD at 320 to 1,020 hp. This report addresses many problems of the past 12 years in Shell Oil Co.'s west Texas water supply system and the solutions that subsequently were applied. We feel that the majority of these problems are encountered in almost any project of this type. Motor, pump, and protector anomalies, accessory equipment, surface production facilities, and the protective schemes to optimize equipment life are discussed in detail.

  2. Awards and Addresses Summary

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Each year at the annual ASHG meeting, addresses are given in honor of the society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the next pages, we have printed the Presidential Address and the addresses for the William Allan Award. The other addresses, accompanied by pictures of the speakers, can be found at www.ashg.org.

  3. NEAs' Satellites Under Close Encounters with Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Rosana; Winter, O. C.

    2012-10-01

    In the present work we took into account the gravitational effects experienced by a NEA (Near-Earth Asteroid), during a close encounter with Earth, in order to estimate the stability regions of NEAs' satellites as a function of the encounter conditions and for different primary-satellite mass ratio values. Initially, the methodology consisted on numerically simulating a system composed by the Sun, the planets of the Solar System, and samples of NEAs belonging to the groups Apollo, Atens and Amor, for a period of 10 Myr. All encounters with Earth closer than 100 Earth's radius were registered. The next step consisted on simulating all those registered close encounters considering the Earth, the asteroid that perform the close encounter, and a cloud of satellites around the asteroid. We considered no-interacting satellites with circular orbits, random values for the inclination, longitude of the ascending node and true anomaly, and with radial distribution going from 0.024 to 0.4 Hill's radius of the asteroid. The largest radial distance for which all the satellites survive (no collision or ejection) is defined as the critical radius. We present a statistical analysis of the registered encounters and the critical radius found, defining the stable regions as a function of the impact parameter - d, and of the relative velocity - V. For the case of massless satellites, we found that all satellites survived for encounters with d>0.3 Earth Hill's radius. For impact parameter d<0.13 Earth Hill's radius, we found that particles with radial distance greater than 0.24 Hill's radius of the asteroid, are unstable, for any relative velocity. The results for the other considered cases will be presented and discussed. We also discuss the implications of the regions found, specially in the NEAs-binary scenarios.

  4. Optimizing the Encounter Rate in Biological Interactions: Lévy versus Brownian Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartumeus, F.; Catalan, J.; Fulco, U. L.; Lyra, M. L.; Viswanathan, G. M.

    2002-03-01

    An important application involving two-species reaction-diffusion systems relates to the problem of finding the best statistical strategy for optimizing the encounter rate between organisms. We investigate the general problem of how the encounter rate depends on whether organisms move in Lévy or Brownian random walks. By simulating a limiting generalized searcher-target model (e.g., predator-prey, mating partner, pollinator-flower), we find that Lévy walks confer a significant advantage for increasing encounter rates when the searcher is larger or moves rapidly relative to the target, and when the target density is low.

  5. Magnetic content addressable memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenye

    Content Addressable Memories are designed with comparison circuits built into every bit cell. This parallel structure can increase the speed of searching from O(n) (as with Random Access Memories) to O(1), where n is the number of entries being searched. The high cost in hardware limits the application of CAM within situations where higher searching speed is extremely desired. Spintronics technology can build non-volatile Magnetic RAM with only one device for one bit cell. There are various technologies involved, like Magnetic Tunnel Junctions, off-easy-axis programming method, Synthetic Anti-Ferromagnetic tri-layers, Domain Wall displacement, Spin Transfer Torque tri-layers and etc. With them, particularly the Tunnel Magneto-Resistance variation in MTJ due to difference in magnetization polarity of the two magnets, Magnetic CAM can be developed with reduced hardware cost. And this is demonstrated by the discussion in this dissertation. Six MCAM designs are discussed. In the first design, comparand (C), local information (S) and their complements are stored into 4 MTJs connected in XOR gate pattern. The other five designs have one or two stacks for both information storage and comparison, and full TMR ratio can be taken advantage of. Two challenges for the five are specifically programming C without changing S and selectively programming a cell out of an array. The solutions to specific programming are: by confining the programming field for C in a ring structure design; by using field programming and spin polarized current programming respectively for C and S in the SAF+DW and SAF+STT tri-layer design; by making use of the difference in thresholds between direct mode and toggle mode switching in the SAF+SAF design. The problem of selective programming is addressed by off-easy-axis method and by including SAF tri-layers. Cell with STT tri-layers for both C and S can completely avoid the problems of specific and selective programming, but subject to the limit of

  6. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  7. Satellite ephemerides for the Voyager Neptune encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the latest fits of both analytical theory and numerically integrated Neptunian satellite orbits to Earth-based astrometric observations. Ephemerides based on the integrated orbits will be used by the Voyager project for pre-encounter planning and analysis until late 1988 when the final pre-encounter ephemerides will be produced. As a by-product of the orbit fits, new estimates of the Neptune mass, the second zonal harmonic of Neptune, and the pole orientation of Neptune are obtained. The theory and integrated orbits are compared with each other and with orbits obtained by previous investigators.

  8. Identification of commonly encountered Pratylenchus in Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pratylenchus species are commonly encountered in soil samples collected from a diversity of economically important crops in Oregon, including potato and small fruits. Proper identification is critical to the selection of an appropriate management strategy since, in many cases, populations are an as...

  9. Minor satellites and the Gaspra encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanflandern, Thomas C.

    1992-01-01

    Observational evidence, especially from occultations and radar, indicate that satellites of minor planets are numerous and commonplace. This leads to the prediction that the Galileo spacecraft will find many such 'minor satellites' at the upcoming close encounter with minor planet 951 Gaspra. If such objects are found, this argues strongly against the current theory of minor planet origin from the primeval solar nebula.

  10. Domestic Violence Encountered among Kurdish Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Sirwan Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective; There is growing recognition that violence against women has a large public health impact, in addition to being a gross violation of women's human rights. The study's aims were: To show the types of domestic abuse encountered by Kurdish women, and study the relationship between them. Methods; The study conducted in the…

  11. Moral Relations in Encounters with Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Karin; Öhman, Johan

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of this article is to develop in-depth knowledge about the connection between outdoor experiences and moral attitudes towards nature. The study focuses on processes in which moral relations are at stake in encounters between students and nature. The purpose is to identify such events, describe their specific circumstances and…

  12. Sensitivity Training and Group Encounter, an Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siroka, Robert W., Ed.; And Others

    "Sensitivity Training and Group Encounter" attempts to explore group interaction on many levels--verbal, sensory, and physical. It can be utilized as a model for dealing with various forms of interpersonal relations, from ongoing social issues to the isolation, alienation, and distrust felt by the members of a group. Presented as a guide to this…

  13. Entering a Crack: An Encounter with Gossip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Linda

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I enter a crack to think otherwise about the concept "gossip". Drawing on previous scholarship engaging with Deleuzian concepts to inform research methodologies, this paper builds on this body of work. Following Deleuze and Guattari, the paper undertakes a mapping of gossip, subsequent to an encounter with a crack.…

  14. Disk Galaxy Warp Formation via Close Encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeonghwan; Peirani, S.; Kim, S.; Yoon, S.

    2012-01-01

    Warped disks appear to be ubiquitous among spiral galaxies. We present a new scenario for the warp formation, in which galactic fly-by encounters are main drivers of the warp structure. Based on N-body simulation using a publicly available code Gadget2, we investigate morphological and kinematical structures of disk galaxies while the galaxies are undergoing fly-by encounters with adjacent dark matter halos. In this study, we find that warps can be excited by impulsive encounters and sustained for a few billion years. We also find that encounters cause the initially spherical halos to deform into intricate shape halos at the inner regions where warps are generated. Most of the warps from the simulation show inclination angles that are comparable to the observations. The creation of warps, their inclination and their lifetimes are governed primarily by the following three parameters: the impact parameter (the minimum distance between two halos), the mass ratio between two galaxies, and the incoming angle of the intruder. We discuss pros and cons about our alternative scenario in comparison with existing explanations.

  15. Close encounters of the stellar kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.

    2015-03-01

    Stars which pass close to the Sun can perturb the Oort cloud, injecting comets into the inner solar system where they may collide with the Earth. Using van Leeuwen's re-reduction of the Hipparcos data complemented by the original Hipparcos and Tycho-2 catalogues, along with recent radial velocity surveys, I integrate the orbits of over 50 000 stars through the Galaxy to look for close encounters. The search uses a Monte Carlo sampling of the covariance of the data in order to properly characterize the uncertainties in the times, distances, and speeds of the encounters. I show that modelling stellar encounters by assuming instead a linear relative motion produces, for many encounters, inaccurate and biased results. I find 42, 14, and 4 stars which have encounter distances below 2, 1, and 0.5 pc respectively, although some of these stars have questionable data. Of the 14 stars coming within 1 pc, 5 were found by at least one of three previous studies (which found a total of 7 coming within 1 pc). The closest encounter appears to be Hip 85605, a K or M star, which has a 90% probability of coming between 0.04 and 0.20 pc between 240 and 470 kyr from now (90% Bayesian confidence interval). However, its astrometry may be incorrect, in which case the closest encounter found is the K7 dwarf GL 710, which has a 90% probability of coming within 0.10-0.44 pc in about 1.3 Myr. A larger perturbation may have been caused by gamma Microscopii, a G6 giant with a mass of about 2.5 M⊙, which came within 0.35-1.34 pc (90% confidence interval) around 3.8 Myr ago. Full Table 3 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/575/A35

  16. Mobbing behaviors encountered by nurse teaching staff.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Dilek; Yildirim, Aytolan; Timucin, Arzu

    2007-07-01

    The term 'mobbing' is defined as antagonistic behaviors with unethical communication directed systematically at one individual by one or more individuals in the workplace. This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted for the purpose of determining the mobbing behaviors encountered by nursing school teaching staff in Turkey, its effect on them, and their responses to them. A large percentage (91%) of the nursing school employees who participated in this study reported that they had encountered mobbing behaviors in the institution where they work and 17% that they had been directly exposed to mobbing in the workplace. The academic staff who had been exposed to mobbing behaviors experienced various physiological, emotional and social reactions. They frequently 'worked harder and [were] more organized and worked very carefully to avoid criticism' to escape from mobbing. In addition, 9% of the participants stated that they 'thought about suicide occasionally'. PMID:17562724

  17. Richard Zaner's phenomenology of the clinical encounter.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Osborne P; Schwartz, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    The "clinical ethics" propounded by Richard Zaner is unique. Partly because of his phenomenological orientation and partly because of his own daily practice as a clinical ethicist in a large university hospital, Zaner focuses on the particular concrete situations in which patients and their families confront illness and injury and struggle toward workable ways for dealing with them. He locates ethical reality in the "clinical encounter." This encounter encompasses not only patient and physician but also the patient's family and friends and indeed the entire "lifeworld" in which the patient is still striving to live. In order to illuminate the central moral constituents of such human predicaments, Zaner discusses the often-overlooked features of disruption and crisis, the changed self, the patient's dependence and the physician's power, the violation of personal boundaries and their necessary reconfiguring, and the art of listening. PMID:15850044

  18. Voyager 1 encounters new region of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-10-01

    Voyager 1, which left Earth in 1977 and is now about 10 billion miles away, has entered a region of space with strange anomalies, according to project scientist Ed Stone, former director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The spacecraft has encountered magnetic potholes and bumps-areas where the magnetic field of the heliosheath either nearly vanishes or doubles, respectively. It also has encountered `anomalous cosmic rays' that are less energetic, and thus less dangerous, than galactic cosmic rays. In addition, the solar wind in the heliosheath has been slower than scientists had expected, only about 54,700 kilometers per hour compared with the predicted 322,000-483,000 kilometers per hour. Voyager 1 is expected to reach the edge of the heliosheath in about 10 years.

  19. Winnicott and Lacan: a missed encounter?

    PubMed

    Vanier, Alain

    2012-04-01

    Winnicott was able to say that Lacan's paper on the mirror stage "had certainly influenced" him, while Lacan argued that he found his object a in Winnicott's transitional object. By following the development of their personal relations, as well as of their theoretical discussions, it is possible to argue that this was a missed encounter--yet a happily missed one, since the misunderstandings of their theoretical exchanges allowed each of them to clarify concepts otherwise difficult to discern. PMID:22768481

  20. Numerical Study of a Convective Turbulence Encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Bowles, Roland L.

    2002-01-01

    A numerical simulation of a convective turbulence event is investigated and compared with observational data. The specific case was encountered during one of NASA's flight tests and was characterized by severe turbulence. The event was associated with overshooting convective turrets that contained low to moderate radar reflectivity. Model comparisons with observations are quite favorable. Turbulence hazard metrics are proposed and applied to the numerical data set. Issues such as adequate grid size are examined.

  1. Predicting the Earth encounters of (99942) Apophis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giorgini, Jon D.; Benner, Lance A. M.; Ostro, Steven J.; Nolan, Michael C.; Busch, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    Arecibo delay-Doppler measurements of (99942) Apophis in 2005 and 2006 resulted in a five standard-deviation trajectory correction to the optically predicted close approach distance to Earth in 2029. The radar measurements reduced the volume of the statistical uncertainty region entering the encounter to 7.3% of the pre-radar solution, but increased the trajectory uncertainty growth rate across the encounter by 800% due to the closer predicted approach to the Earth. A small estimated Earth impact probability remained for 2036. With standard-deviation plane-of-sky position uncertainties for 2007-2010 already less than 0.2 arcsec, the best near-term ground-based optical astrometry can only weakly affect the trajectory estimate. While the potential for impact in 2036 will likely be excluded in 2013 (if not 2011) using ground-based optical measurements, approximations within the Standard Dynamical Model (SDM) used to estimate and predict the trajectory from the current era are sufficient to obscure the difference between a predicted impact and a miss in 2036 by altering the dynamics leading into the 2029 encounter. Normal impact probability assessments based on the SDM become problematic without knowledge of the object's physical properties; impact could be excluded while the actual dynamics still permit it. Calibrated position uncertainty intervals are developed to compensate for this by characterizing the minimum and maximum effect of physical parameters on the trajectory. Uncertainty in accelerations related to solar radiation can cause between 82 and 4720 Earth-radii of trajectory change relative to the SDM by 2036. If an actionable hazard exists, alteration by 2-10% of Apophis' total absorption of solar radiation in 2018 could be sufficient to produce a six standard-deviation trajectory change by 2036 given physical characterization; even a 0.5% change could produce a trajectory shift of one Earth-radius by 2036 for all possible spin-poles and likely masses

  2. Globalization, migration health, and educational preparation for transnational medical encounters

    PubMed Central

    Koehn, Peter H

    2006-01-01

    Unprecedented migration, a core dimension of contemporary globalization, challenges population health. In a world of increasing human mobility, many health outcomes are shaped by transnational interactions among care providers and care recipients who meet in settings where nationality/ethnic match is not an option. This review article explores the value of transnational competence (TC) education as preparation for ethnically and socially discordant clinical encounters. The relevance of TC's five core skill domains (analytic, emotional, creative, communicative, and functional) for migration health and the medical-school curriculum is elaborated. A pedagogical approach that prepares for the transnational health-care consultation is presented, with a focus on clinical-clerkship learning experiences. Educational preparation for contemporary medical encounters needs to include a comprehensive set of patient-focused interpersonal skills, be adaptable to a wide variety of service users and global practice sites, and possess utility in addressing both the quality of patient care and socio-political constraints on migration health. PMID:16441899

  3. Understanding L2 Speaking Problems: Implications for ESL Curriculum Development in a Teacher Training Institution in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Zhengdong

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the result of a study that aimed to identify the problems with oral English skills of ESL (English as a second language) students at a tertiary teacher training institution in Hong Kong. The study, by way of semi-structured interview, addresses the gap in our understanding of the difficulties ESL students encountered in their…

  4. The Glass Is Half Full: Geriatric Precepting Encounters in Family Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Lisa K.; Martirosian, Tovia; Gazewood, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 19% to 20% of all family medicine office visits involve care to patients older than age 65, yet limited research addresses family medicine geriatric education in the outpatient setting. This study explored how geriatric content is incorporated into resident/attending precepting encounters, using direct observation. An observer…

  5. Spaces of Spiritual Citizenship: Children's Relational and Emotional Encounters with the Everyday School Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemming, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of children's spiritual, relational and emotional encounters with the primary school environment, with reference to concepts and theories from both education studies and human geography. Drawing on mixed-method qualitative research in two case study institutions, the article examines pupils' photographed "special…

  6. Issues encountered in recent attempts to develop novel antidepressant agents.

    PubMed

    Schatzberg, Alan F

    2015-05-01

    The development of new antidepressants has had mixed results over the past decade, with several notable failures. This paper reviews a number of major initiatives in the development of new antidepressant agents. Traditional strategies to build on agents that have monoaminergic effects at the synapse (e.g., vilazodone and ketamine) have been complemented with efforts that have emphasized devices and brain circuits (e.g., deep brain stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation) or chemical agents that modulate neuroendocrine systems (e.g., glucocorticoid antagonists, mixed melatonin agonists/serotonin type-2 receptor antagonists). Interestingly, chemical agents, such as onabotulinumtoxin A, may affect brain circuits as well. We present data from recent studies in drug and device development--reviewing progress made, stumbling blocks encountered, and issues that need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:25762133

  7. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  8. Earth imaging results from Galileo's second encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, R.; Belton, M.; Dejong, E.; Ingersoll, A.; Klaasen, K.; Geissler, P.; Moersch, J.; Thompson, W. R.

    1993-01-01

    The recent flyby of the Galileo spacecraft en route to Jupiter contributes a unique perspective to our view of our home planet. Imaging activities conducted during the second Earth encounter provide an important opportunity to assess new methods and approaches on familiar territory. These include unique multispectral observations, low light-level imaging (searches for aurorae, lightning and artificial lights on the nightside) and experiments with multiple exposure times to extend the effective radiometric resolution and dynamic range of the camera system. Galileo imaging data has the potential to make important contributions to terrestrial remote sensing. This is because the particular set of filters included in the Solid State Imaging system are not presently incorporated in any currently operating Earth-orbiting sensor system. The visible/near-infrared bandpasses of the SSI filters are well suited to remote sensing of geological, glaciological, botanical, and meteorological phenomena. Data from this and the previous Earth encounter may provide an extremely valuable reference point in time for comparison with similar data expected from EOS or other systems in the future, contributing directly to our knowledge of global change. The highest resolution imaging (0.2 km/pixel) during the December, 1992 encounter occurred over the central Andes; a five filter mosaic of visible and near infrared bands displays the remarkable spectral heterogeneity of this geologically diverse region. As Galileo departed the Earth, cooperative imaging with the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) instrument targeted Antarctica, Australia, and Indonesia at 1.0 to 2.5 km/pixel resolutions in the early morning local times near the terminator. The Antarctic data are of particular interest, potentially allowing ice grain size mapping using the 889 and 968 nm filters and providing an important means of calibrating the technique for application to the Galilean satellites. As the spacecraft

  9. The intriguing encounters of Pavlov and Cushing.

    PubMed

    Shahlaie, Kiarash; Watson, Joseph C; Benson, Daniel R

    2004-03-01

    Ivan Petrovich Pavlov and Harvey William Cushing were two of the most prominent neuroscientists of the early 20th century. Their contributions helped advance the understanding of the brain and its disorders, and propelled neuroscience into a new era of research and treatment. Although separated geographically and culturally, Pavlov and Cushing exchanged letters and followed one another's careers from afar. They met only a few times, during international scientific gatherings in the US and abroad. These encounters were captured in journal entries, letters, and photographs, and provide a glimpse into the lives of these two great men and the history of neuroscience at the turn of the last century. PMID:15035298

  10. First spacecraft encounter with an asteroid approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tholen, David J.

    1991-01-01

    During the course of the Galileo spacecraft's journey to Jupiter it will make two excursions through the steroid belt situated between Mars and Jupiter. The first excursion involves an encounter with the asteroid 951 Gaspra, which will take place on October 29, 1991. Gaspra is a small (about 15 km diameter) asteroid near the outer edge of the main asteroid belt. It's spectral classification is S, suggesting a composition similar to those of stony-iron meteorites. A figure is given showing the brightness of this asteroid as a function of time.

  11. Caring and uncaring encounters within nursing and health care from the cancer patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Halldórsdóttir, S; Hamrin, E

    1997-04-01

    The aim of this phenomenological study was to explore caring and uncaring encounters with nurses and other health professionals from the perspective of the person who has been diagnosed and treated for cancer. Through thematic analysis of in-depth dialogues with five women and four men in the remission or recovery phase of cancer, three major categories regarding caring and uncaring encounters were identified. The essential structure of a caring encounter was found to be threefold: 1. the nurse/health professional perceived as caring: an indispensable companion on the cancer trajectory; 2. the resulting mutual trust and caring connection; and 3. the perceived effect of the caring encounter: a sense of solidarity, empowerment, well-being, and healing. The essential structure of an uncaring encounter is also threefold: 1. the nurse/health professional perceived as uncaring: an unfortunate hindrance to the perception of well-being and healing; 2. the resulting sense of mistrust and disconnection; and 3. the perceived effect of the uncaring encounter: a sense of uneasiness, discouragement, and a sense of being broken down. The findings emphasize the primacy of competence in professional caring, as well as that of genuine concern, openness and a willingness to connect with others. The often devastating effects of uncaring encounters on the recipient of nursing and health care raises the question whether uncaring as an ethical and a professional problem should perhaps be dealt with as malpractice in nursing and health care. PMID:9145561

  12. Envisioning invertebrates and other aquatic encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, Eva

    2007-12-01

    To "envision" animals is to visualize, to experience, to figure, to image, kinds of species, discourses, representations, institutions, histories, epistemologies; and, to "imagine possible" a set of material and ethical relationships between species. This dissertation explores the "envisioning of animals" that takes place through/across/between the interfaces of seawater/visuality/experience/biology/technology/phyla---as illustrated in the documentary works of Jean Painleve (scientist and filmmaker), Genevieve Hamon (filmmaker and set-designer), Leni Riefenstahl (filmmaker and photographer), and David Powell (scientist and aquarist). In each case, aesthetic conceptions of beauty and/or ambiguity coupled with biological epistemology and phenomenology of the organisms themselves compete over "what gets to count as culture and nature," and in doing so, construct a host of hybridized and enmeshed "encounters." In the process the following questions are raised: What is the role of the ocean---it's ecosystems and semiotics---in the production of "envisioning"? How are animals used---and in turn shape and reshape the users---to construct tropes of encounter? What theories can be used to understand the phenomenological, semiotic, material, and rhetorical use/miss-use of animals in the articulation of history, economy, biology, narrativity, and representation? How does this motley crew of documentarians answer differently "the animal question," and challenge and/or reinforce anthropocentrism? Divided into two parts, the dissertation first develops a set of methodological questions derived from critical appraisal of "envisioning," encountering, and embodying through science studies, as well as an account of the use and misuse of animals as only "stand ins" for human intentionality; secondly, the dissertation analyses the work of the documentarians in question. Jean Painleve and Genevieve Hamon are shown to critique traditions of representation in nature/science films

  13. Energy Problems and Environmental Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Train, Russell E.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses problems encountered in energy extraction and consumption, involving nuclear power plant construction, environmental consequences of energy systems, and energy conservation ethics. Indicates that the increasing concern over environmental quality is not the true cause of present energy problems. (CC)

  14. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  15. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  16. Address of the President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Frederic W.

    1976-01-01

    The president of the Association of American Colleges addresses at the 62nd annual meeting the theme of the conference: "Looking to the Future--Liberal Education in a Radically Changing Society." Contributions to be made by AAC are examined. (LBH)

  17. Space sciences - Keynote address

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Joseph K.

    1990-01-01

    The present status and projected future developments of the NASA Space Science and Applications Program are addressed. Emphasis is given to biochemistry experiments that are planned for the Space Station. Projects for the late 1990s which will study the sun, the earth's magnetosphere, and the geosphere are briefly discussed.

  18. Problems of Assessing the New Curricula Being Introduced in African Countries. Keynote address for the Annual Meeting of the International Association for Educational Assessment (9th, Malawi, Blantyre, June 13-17, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boma, A. N.

    The state of the art of assessment is viewed in light of practical and realistic options. The classical terminologies of achievement, validity, reliability, internal and external assessment, prediction, and formative and summative evaluation, are often referred to in the address, with the realization that those presenting later papers would not be…

  19. Address on the Occasion of the Meeting of the Second Committee of Governmental Experts on Problems in the Field of Copyright and of the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations Raised by Transmission via Space Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maheu, Rene

    These opening remarks by the Director General of Unesco briefly discuss that organization's activities in the area of copyright within the field of satellite communication. They were addressed to members of a committee whose purpose is to determine whether the protection of signals transmitted by communications satellites does or does not require…

  20. Voyager Briefing: Expectations of the Neptune Encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This NASA KSC video release presents a news briefing held Aug. 4, 1989 at NASA Headquarters three weeks after Voyager 2's official "encounter" with Neptune began. The video is comprised of two slide presentations followed by a short question and answer period. The press conference is moderated by Charles Redmond, (NASA Public Affairs), includes an introduction by Dr. Geoffrey A Briggs (Dir., Solar System Exploration Div.), and features Norman R. Haynes (Voyager Project Manager, JPL) and Dr. Edward C. Stone (Voyager Project Scientist, Cal Tech). Mr. Haynes' presentation centers on Voyager's history, engineering changes, and spacecraft trajectories while Dr. Stone presents the scientific aspects of Voyager, including the 11 scientific investigations planned for the mission, instruments used, and imaging techniques.

  1. Brief encounters: Assembling cosmetic surgery tourism.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Ruth; Bell, David; Cheung, Olive; Jones, Meredith; Probyn, Elspeth

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a large-scale, multi-disciplinary, mixed methods project which explores empirically and theoretically the rapidly growing but poorly understood (and barely regulated) phenomenon of cosmetic surgery tourism (CST). We explore CST by drawing on theories of flows, networks and assemblages, aiming to produce a fuller and more nuanced account of - and accounting for - CST. This enables us to conceptualise CST as an interplay of places, people, things, ideas and practices. Through specific instances of assembling cosmetic surgery that we encountered in the field, and that we illustrate with material from interviews with patients, facilitators and surgeons, our analysis advances understandings and theorisations of medical mobilities, globalisation and assemblage thinking. PMID:24985788

  2. Numerical Simulation of a Convective Turbulence Encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Bowles, Roland L.

    2002-01-01

    A numerical simulation of a convective turbulence event is investigated and compared with observational data. The numerical results show severe turbulence of similar scale and intensity to that encountered during the test flight. This turbulence is associated with buoyant plumes that penetrate the upper-level thunderstorm outflow. The simulated radar reflectivity compares well with that obtained from the aircraft's onboard radar. Resolved scales of motion as small as 50 m are needed in order to accurately diagnose aircraft normal load accelerations. Given this requirement, realistic turbulence fields may be created by merging subgrid-scales of turbulence to a convective-cloud simulation. A hazard algorithm for use with model data sets is demonstrated. The algorithm diagnoses the RMS normal loads from second moments of the vertical velocity field and is independent of aircraft motion.

  3. Spider behaviors include oral sexual encounters.

    PubMed

    Gregorič, Matjaž; Šuen, Klavdija; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kralj-Fišer, Simona; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2016-01-01

    Several clades of spiders whose females evolved giant sizes are known for extreme sexual behaviors such as sexual cannibalism, opportunistic mating, mate-binding, genital mutilation, plugging, and emasculation. However, these behaviors have only been tested in a handful of size dimorphic spiders. Here, we bring another lineage into the picture by reporting on sexual behavior of Darwin's bark spider, Caerostris darwini. This sexually size dimorphic Madagascan species is known for extreme web gigantism and for producing the world's toughest biomaterial. Our field and laboratory study uncovers a rich sexual repertoire that predictably involves cannibalism, genital mutilation, male preference for teneral females, and emasculation. Surprisingly, C. darwini males engage in oral sexual encounters, rarely reported outside mammals. Irrespective of female's age or mating status males salivate onto female genitalia pre-, during, and post-copulation. While its adaptive significance is elusive, oral sexual contact in spiders may signal male quality or reduce sperm competition. PMID:27126507

  4. Spider behaviors include oral sexual encounters

    PubMed Central

    Gregorič, Matjaž; Šuen, Klavdija; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kralj-Fišer, Simona; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2016-01-01

    Several clades of spiders whose females evolved giant sizes are known for extreme sexual behaviors such as sexual cannibalism, opportunistic mating, mate-binding, genital mutilation, plugging, and emasculation. However, these behaviors have only been tested in a handful of size dimorphic spiders. Here, we bring another lineage into the picture by reporting on sexual behavior of Darwin’s bark spider, Caerostris darwini. This sexually size dimorphic Madagascan species is known for extreme web gigantism and for producing the world’s toughest biomaterial. Our field and laboratory study uncovers a rich sexual repertoire that predictably involves cannibalism, genital mutilation, male preference for teneral females, and emasculation. Surprisingly, C. darwini males engage in oral sexual encounters, rarely reported outside mammals. Irrespective of female’s age or mating status males salivate onto female genitalia pre-, during, and post-copulation. While its adaptive significance is elusive, oral sexual contact in spiders may signal male quality or reduce sperm competition. PMID:27126507

  5. EVIDENCE OF AN ASTEROID ENCOUNTERING A PULSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Brook, P. R.; Karastergiou, A.; Buchner, S.; Roberts, S. J.; Keith, M. J.; Johnston, S.; Shannon, R. M.

    2014-01-10

    Debris disks and asteroid belts are expected to form around young pulsars due to fallback material from their original supernova explosions. Disk material may migrate inward and interact with a pulsar's magnetosphere, causing changes in torque and emission. Long-term monitoring of PSR J0738–4042 reveals both effects. The pulse shape changes multiple times between 1988 and 2012. The torque, inferred via the derivative of the rotational period, changes abruptly from 2005 September. This change is accompanied by an emergent radio component that drifts with respect to the rest of the pulse. No known intrinsic pulsar processes can explain these timing and radio emission signatures. The data lead us to postulate that we are witnessing an encounter with an asteroid or in-falling debris from a disk.

  6. Voyager Briefing: Expectations of the Neptune Encounter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-08-01

    This NASA KSC video release presents a news briefing held Aug. 4, 1989 at NASA Headquarters three weeks after Voyager 2's official "encounter" with Neptune began. The video is comprised of two slide presentations followed by a short question and answer period. The press conference is moderated by Charles Redmond, (NASA Public Affairs), includes an introduction by Dr. Geoffrey A Briggs (Dir., Solar System Exploration Div.), and features Norman R. Haynes (Voyager Project Manager, JPL) and Dr. Edward C. Stone (Voyager Project Scientist, Cal Tech). Mr. Haynes' presentation centers on Voyager's history, engineering changes, and spacecraft trajectories while Dr. Stone presents the scientific aspects of Voyager, including the 11 scientific investigations planned for the mission, instruments used, and imaging techniques.

  7. Automated design of multiple encounter gravity-assist trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longuski, James M.; Williams, Steve N.

    1990-01-01

    Given a range of initial launch dates and a set of target planets, a new approach to planetary mission design is developed, using an automated method for finding all conic solutions. Each point on the diagrams reproduced represents a single ballistic trajectory and is computed by modeling the trajectory as a conic section and solving the corresponding Lambert problem for each set of launch and arrival dates. An example which prescribes a launch period of 1975-2050 and target planets Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, Neptune and Pluto is described whereby, all possible grand tour missions of this class are found, including the Voyager II trajectory. It is determined that this automated design tool may be applied to a variety of multiple encounter gravity-assist trajectories that are being considered for future missions.

  8. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  9. Galileo post-Gaspra cruise and Earth-2 encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, P. E.; Andrews, M. M.

    1993-01-01

    This article documents DSN support for the Galileo cruise after the Oct. 1991 encounter with the asteroid Gaspra. This article also details the Earth-2 encounter and the special non-DSN support provided during the Earth-2 closest approach.

  10. Guest-Host Encounters in Diaspora-Heritage Tourism: The Taglit-Birthright Israel Mifgash (Encounter)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasson, Theodore; Mittelberg, David; Hecht, Shahar; Saxe, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    More than 300,000 diaspora Jewish young adults and tens of thousands of their Israeli peers have participated in structured, cross-cultural encounters--"mifgashim"--in the context of an experiential education program known as Taglit-Birthright Israel. Drawing on field observations, interviews, and surveys, the formal and informal components of the…

  11. Voyager program. Voyager 1 encounter at Jupiter, 5 March 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Highlights of Voyager 1 activity during the observatory and far-encounter phases are summarized. Daily sequence of events for the spacecraft during the period of greatest encounter activity (Feb. 26 through Mar. 7) the near-encounter phase is given. Times shown designate the time of signal reception at Deep Space Network stations. Events listed emphasize activities pertaining to the four remote sensing instruments on the scan platforms. However, the other 7 experiments will continuously collect data throughout the encounter period.

  12. Marriage Encounter Weekends: Couples Who Win and Couples Who Lose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, William J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Fifty couples who had the most positive or negative reactions in a group of Marriage Encounter couples were interviewed. Results indicated nine couples experienced significant negative changes related to Marriage Encounter, suggesting that distressed couples who attend Marriage Encounters are susceptible to further marital deterioration.…

  13. Excerpts from keynote address

    SciTech Connect

    Creel, G.C.

    1995-06-01

    Excerpts from the keynote principally address emissions issues in the fossil power industry as related to heat rate improvements. Stack emissions of both sulfur and nitrogen oxides are discussed, and a number of examples are given: (1) PEPCO`s Potomac River Station, and (2) Morgantown station`s NOX reduction efforts. Circulating water emissions are also briefly discussed, as are O & M costs of emission controls.

  14. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  15. Selective Information Seeking after a Single Encounter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitneva, Stanka A.; Dunfield, Kristen A.

    2010-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors examined whether a single act of testimony can inform children's subsequent information seeking. In Experiment 1, participants saw one informant give a correct and another informant give an incorrect answer to a question, assessed who was "right" ("wrong"), and decided to whom to address a 2nd question. Adults and…

  16. Encounters with Transcendence in Adventure Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    Problem solving in adventure programs contains physical, social, philosophical, and transcendent (insightful) elements. Through transcendent experiences students reach a high level of performance, tolerance, and understanding. Instructors often attempt to facilitate transcendent experiences through such activities as the Native American…

  17. Solar Probe: Close Encounter with the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, E. C., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The Solar Probe Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) recently completed a detailed study of the Solar Probe Mission based on an earliest launch date of October 2014. Solar Probe, when implemented, will be the first close encounter by a spacecraft with a star (i.e., 3 Rs above the Sun s photosphere). The report and its executive summary were published by NASA (NASA/TM-2005-212786) in September 2005 and can be found at the website http://solarprobe.gsfc.nasa.gov/. A description of the science is being prepared for publication in Reviews of Geophysics by McComas et al. [2006]. For this talk, we will be presenting the consensus view of the STDT including a brief description of the scientific goals, a description of the overall mission, including trajectory scenarios, spacecraft description and proposed scientific payload. We will discuss all these topics and the importance of flying the Solar Probe mission both with regard to understanding fundamental issues of solar wind acceleration and coronal heating near the Sun and Solar Probe s unique role in understanding the acceleration of Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs), which is critical to future Human Exploration.

  18. Close Encounters of the Stellar Kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has confirmed that close encounters between stars form X-ray emitting, double-star systems in dense globular star clusters. These X-ray binaries have a different birth process than their cousins outside globular clusters, and should have a profound influence on the cluster's evolution. A team of scientists led by David Pooley of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge took advantage of Chandra's unique ability to precisely locate and resolve individual sources to determine the number of X-ray sources in 12 globular clusters in our Galaxy. Most of the sources are binary systems containing a collapsed star such as a neutron star or a white dwarf star that is pulling matter off a normal, Sun-like companion star. "We found that the number of X-ray binaries is closely correlated with the rate of encounters between stars in the clusters," said Pooley. "Our conclusion is that the binaries are formed as a consequence of these encounters. It is a case of nurture not nature." A similar study led by Craig Heinke of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. confirmed this conclusion, and showed that roughly 10 percent of these X-ray binary systems contain neutron stars. Most of these neutron stars are usually quiet, spending less than 10% of their time actively feeding from their companion. NGC 7099 NGC 7099 A globular cluster is a spherical collection of hundreds of thousands or even millions of stars buzzing around each other in a gravitationally-bound stellar beehive that is about a hundred light years in diameter. The stars in a globular cluster are often only about a tenth of a light year apart. For comparison, the nearest star to the Sun, Proxima Centauri, is 4.2 light years away. With so many stars moving so close together, interactions between stars occur frequently in globular clusters. The stars, while rarely colliding, do get close enough to form binary star systems or cause binary stars to

  19. Viking first encounter of phobos: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Tolson, R H; Duxbury, T C; Born, G H; Christensen, E J; Diehl, R E; Farless, D; Hildebrand, C E; Mitchell, R T; Molko, P M; Morabito, L A; Palluconi, F D; Reichert, R J; Taraji, H; Veverka, J; Neugebauer, G; Findlay, J T

    1978-01-01

    During the last 2 weeks of February 1977, an intensive scientific investigation of the martian satellite Phobos was conducted by the Viking Orbiter-1 (VO-1) spacecraft. More than 125 television pictures were obtained during this period and infrared observations were made. About 80 percent of the illuminated hemisphere was imaged at a resolution of about 30 meters. Higher resolution images of limited areas were also obtained. Flyby distances within 80 kilometers of the surface were achieved. An estimate of the mass of Phobos (GM) was obtained by observing the effect of Phobos's gravity on the orbit of VO-1 as sensed by Earth-based radiometric tracking. Preliminary results indicate a value of GM of 0.00066 +/- 0.00012 cubic kilometer per second squared (standard deviation of 3) and a mean density of about 1.9 +/- 0.6 gram per cubic centimeter (standard deviation of 3). This low density, together with the low albedo and the recently determined spectral reflectance, suggest that Phobos is compositionally similar to type I carbonaceous chondrites. Thus, either this object formed in the outer part of the asteroid belt or Lewis's theory that such material cannot condense at 1.5 astronomical units is incorrect. The data on Phobos obtained during this first encounter period are comparable in quantity to all of the data on Mars returned by Mariner flights 4, 6, and 7. PMID:17841954

  20. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  1. Internet advertisements for public sexual encounters among men who have sex with men: are safe behaviors communicated?

    PubMed

    Downing, Martin J

    2011-09-01

    Public and commercial sex venues typically provide easy access to sexual encounters that are often anonymous and, therefore, may facilitate HIV/STD transmission among those men who attend. Recently, researchers have suggested that men who have sex with men may be using the Internet to search for sexual encounters to occur within sex venues. The current study explored the extent to which men who advertise for public or commercial sexual encounters initially communicate to potential partners their safe-sex intentions. Advertisements for sexual encounters (n = 99) were collected from a publicly accessible website and examined for content related to venue type, sexual behavior, and indications of sexual safety or risk. Word frequencies were calculated to provide a closer investigation of how individuals negotiate safe sex within these communications. The findings revealed that approximately half of the men who advertised for sex in a public or commercial sex venue failed to communicate to potential partners in their initial advertisement a desire to be safe during sexual encounters involving oral and anal practices. Additionally, a small percentage of men advertised specifically for risky encounters (e.g., barebacking). Together, these findings suggest that men do use the Internet to coordinate public sexual encounters, some of which may be unprotected from HIV/STD transmission. Future research should address the process of condom negotiation among men who initially meet their male sex partners on the Internet for subsequent encounters in sex venues. PMID:20798144

  2. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  3. PRACTICAL PROBLEMS REDUCING RADON IN HOUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses practical problems encountered during efforts to reduce radon concentrations in houses. The 10 problems identified represent only a few of the many daily problems encountered by diagnosticians and mitigators. Nonetheless, they are some of the current common pr...

  4. Otoplasty: the problem of the deep conchal bowl.

    PubMed

    Beasley, N J; Jones, N S

    1996-09-01

    The correction of prominent ears requires a logical approach to address each of the anatomical defects present while bearing in mind the overall shape of the ear. The two most common problems encountered are the lack of an antihelix and a deep conchal bowl. We describe a method of reducing the depth of the conchal bowl which avoids some of the problems previously encountered such as occlusion of the external auditory meatus and visible irregularity on the external surface of the pinna. Resection of the inferomedial part of the conchal bowl and thinning of the ponticulus allow realignment of the ear and prevent prominence of the antitragus. The ear is then secured with concha-mastoid sutures and the scapha-conchal angle can then be corrected to form an antihelix if necessary. PMID:8949299

  5. Orthopaedic Problems of the Mentally Retarded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSweeney, Anthony

    1972-01-01

    Problems encountered by orthopedic surgeons treating the mentally retarded are identified, and cooperation among pediatricians, psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and orthopedic surgeons is recommended. (GW)

  6. Collisionless encounters and the origin of the lunar inclination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlevan, Kaveh; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    The Moon is generally thought to have formed from the debris ejected by the impact of a planet-sized object with the proto-Earth towards the end of planetary accretion. Models of the impact process predict that the lunar material was disaggregated into a circumplanetary disk and that lunar accretion subsequently placed the Moon in a near-equatorial orbit. Forward integration of the lunar orbit from this initial state predicts a modern inclination at least an order of magnitude smaller than the lunar value -- a long-standing discrepancy known as the lunar inclination problem. Here we show that the modern lunar orbit provides a sensitive record of gravitational interactions with Earth-crossing planetesimals that were not yet accreted at the time of the Moon-forming event. The currently observed lunar orbit can naturally be reproduced via interaction with a small quantity of mass (corresponding to 0.0075-0.015 Earth masses eventually accreted to the Earth) carried by a few bodies, consistent with the constraints and models of late accretion. Although the encounter process has a stochastic element, the observed value of the lunar inclination is among the most likely outcomes for a wide range of parameters. The excitation of the lunar orbit is most readily reproduced via collisionless encounters of planetesimals with the Earth-Moon system with strong dissipation of tidal energy on the early Earth. This mechanism obviates the need for previously proposed (but idealized) excitation mechanisms, places the Moon-forming event in the context of the formation of Earth, and constrains the pristineness of the dynamical state of the Earth-Moon system.

  7. Collisionless encounters and the origin of the lunar inclination.

    PubMed

    Pahlevan, Kaveh; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2015-11-26

    The Moon is generally thought to have formed from the debris ejected by the impact of a planet-sized object with the proto-Earth towards the end of planetary accretion. Models of the impact process predict that the lunar material was disaggregated into a circumplanetary disk and that lunar accretion subsequently placed the Moon in a near-equatorial orbit. Forward integration of the lunar orbit from this initial state predicts a modern inclination at least an order of magnitude smaller than the lunar value--a long-standing discrepancy known as the lunar inclination problem. Here we show that the modern lunar orbit provides a sensitive record of gravitational interactions with Earth-crossing planetesimals that were not yet accreted at the time of the Moon-forming event. The currently observed lunar orbit can naturally be reproduced via interaction with a small quantity of mass (corresponding to 0.0075-0.015 Earth masses eventually accreted to the Earth) carried by a few bodies, consistent with the constraints and models of late accretion. Although the encounter process has a stochastic element, the observed value of the lunar inclination is among the most likely outcomes for a wide range of parameters. The excitation of the lunar orbit is most readily reproduced via collisionless encounters of planetesimals with the Earth-Moon system with strong dissipation of tidal energy on the early Earth. This mechanism obviates the need for previously proposed (but idealized) excitation mechanisms, places the Moon-forming event in the context of the formation of Earth, and constrains the pristineness of the dynamical state of the Earth-Moon system. PMID:26607544

  8. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  9. Bax: Addressed to kill.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Manon, Stéphen

    2011-09-01

    The pro-apoptototic protein Bax (Bcl-2 Associated protein X) plays a central role in the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. In healthy mammalian cells, Bax is essentially cytosolic and inactive. Following a death signal, the protein is translocated to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it promotes a permeabilization that favors the release of different apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c. The regulation of Bax translocation is associated to conformational changes that are under the control of different factors. The evidences showing the involvement of different Bax domains in its mitochondrial localization are presented. The interactions between Bax and its different partners are described in relation to their ability to promote (or prevent) Bax conformational changes leading to mitochondrial addressing and to the acquisition of the capacity to permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:21641962

  10. Parkes radio science system design and testing for Voyager Neptune encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebold, T. A.; Weese, J. F.

    1989-01-01

    The Radio Science System installed at Parkes, Australia for the Voyager Neptune encounter was specified to meet the same stringent requirements that were imposed upon the Deep Space Network Radio Science System. The system design and test methodology employed to meet these requirements at Parkes are described, and data showing the measured performance of the system are presented. The results indicate that the system operates with a comfortable margin on the requirements. There was a minor problem with frequency-dependent spurious signals which could not be fixed before the encounter. Test results characterizing these spurious signals are included.

  11. Active Participation in the Literary Encounter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twining, James E.

    A child's sense of involvement in story and desire to meaningfully experience literature must be sustained and promoted if the problem of "literacy" is to be resolved. Four activities, designed as a series of stages, can enhance the literary experience of children. The first activity is reading to children--exposing them to the language…

  12. Engineering Encounters: Catch Me if You Can!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Kimberly; Wallin, Mark; Roghaar, Deborah; Price, Tyson

    2013-01-01

    A science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) activity is any activity that integrates the use of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics to solve a problem. Traditionally, STEM activities are highly engaging and may involve competition among student teams. Young children are natural engineers and often times spontaneously build…

  13. The Therapeutic Stage Encounters the Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imholz, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Clinical research in expressive therapies, psychodrama in particular, offer education researchers and software designers descriptive analyses and evidence-based impact studies on attitudinal shifts and enhanced problem solving abilities for patients and students who participate in psychodrama role-play. Gaming environments and virtual worlds that…

  14. Selecting and implementing scientific objectives. [for Voyager 1 and 2 planetary encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, E. D.; Stembridge, C. H.; Doms, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    The procedures used to select and implement scientific objectives for the Voyager 1 and 2 planetary encounters are described. Attention is given to the scientific tradeoffs and engineering considerations must be addressed at various stages in the mission planning process, including: the limitations of ground and spacecraft communications systems, ageing of instruments in flight, and instrument calibration over long distances. The contribution of planetary science workshops to the definition of scientific objectives for deep space missions is emphasized.

  15. Non-Parametric Collision Probability for Low-Velocity Encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell

    2007-01-01

    An implicit, but not necessarily obvious, assumption in all of the current techniques for assessing satellite collision probability is that the relative position uncertainty is perfectly correlated in time. If there is any mis-modeling of the dynamics in the propagation of the relative position error covariance matrix, time-wise de-correlation of the uncertainty will increase the probability of collision over a given time interval. The paper gives some examples that illustrate this point. This paper argues that, for the present, Monte Carlo analysis is the best available tool for handling low-velocity encounters, and suggests some techniques for addressing the issues just described. One proposal is for the use of a non-parametric technique that is widely used in actuarial and medical studies. The other suggestion is that accurate process noise models be used in the Monte Carlo trials to which the non-parametric estimate is applied. A further contribution of this paper is a description of how the time-wise decorrelation of uncertainty increases the probability of collision.

  16. Are encounters between negative and positive streamers likely to produce X-rays?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celestin, Sebastien; Tholin, Fabien; Bonaventura, Zdenek; Bourdon, Anne

    2013-04-01

    The underlying processes responsible for the production of high-energy radiation (X- and gamma rays) recently discovered in thunderstorms are not fully understood [e.g., Dwyer et al., Space Sci. Rev., 2012]. In particular, it has been shown that stepped leaders produce X-ray bursts synchronized with the occurrence of new steps [Dwyer et al., GRL, 32, L01803, 2005]. However, as the physical processes responsible for the mechanism of stepping are also unknown, the complete causal chain between leader propagation and X-ray production is not established yet. Laboratory studies of spark and leader discharges and their associated X-ray production are performed precisely to address this point. A consensus exists that in the case of production by leaders, X-rays are due to bremsstrahlung emission from thermal runaway electrons. Thermal runaway electrons are produced through the acceleration of thermal electrons by extreme electric fields (E>250 kV/cm at ground pressure). These electric fields could be produced over short durations at the tips of streamer discharges [Moss et al., JGR, 111, A02307, 2006; Celestin and Pasko, JGR, 116, A03315, 2011]. Some authors have recently suggested that encounters between negative and positive streamers could strongly enhance the electric field, and hence would be responsible for X-ray production [Cooray et al., JASTP, 71,1890, 2009; Kochkin et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 45, 425202, 2012]. Moreover, encounters of streamers with different polarities are very common. Indeed, during the formation of a new leader step, the negative streamer zone around the tip of a negative leader and the positive streamers initiated from the positive part of a bidirectional space leader strongly interact. In laboratory sparks, when positive streamers are approaching a sharp cathode, negative streamers are initiated from the cathode and collide with the positive streamers. Given that positive and negative streamers carry positive and negative charges at

  17. SHATTERING FLARES DURING CLOSE ENCOUNTERS OF NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, David

    2013-11-10

    We demonstrate that resonant shattering flares can occur during close passages of neutron stars in eccentric or hyperbolic encounters. We provide updated estimates for the rate of close encounters of compact objects in dense stellar environments, which we find are substantially lower than given in previous works. While such occurrences are rare, we show that shattering flares can provide a strong electromagnetic counterpart to the gravitational wave bursts expected from such encounters, allowing triggered searches for these events to occur.

  18. Faculty encounters with uncivil nursing students: an overview.

    PubMed

    Luparell, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The critical incident technique (CIT) was used to explore faculty experiences with uncivil nursing students. Twenty-one nursing faculty with various years of experience in teaching were interviewed to ascertain what they considered critical incidents of uncivil encounters with nursing students and what effect those encounters had on them. Thirty-six encounters were described by the faculty. Of the 36 encounters, 33 occurred with individual students and 3 occurred with groups of students. Twenty-three encounters occurred in the context of poor student performance requiring constructive criticism or resulting in course failure. A battlefield metaphor is used to describe the incidents, their antecedents, and their consequences. The encounters were precipitated by a period of escalating tensions and effort by the faculty to diffuse the situation. The faculty were surprised and caught off guard by the encounters, which ranged in severity from mild to highly aggressive. The faculty often perceived significant threats to well-being of self, loved ones, job security, and/or possessions. The aftermath of the encounters included physical and emotional tolls on faculty, decreased self-esteem and loss of confidence in teaching ability, significant time expenditures, and negative consequences to the educational process. Three of the faculty left teaching in part due to encounters with students. PMID:15011194

  19. On stellar encounters and their effect on cometary orbits in the Oort cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafin, R. A.; Grothues, H.-G.

    2002-03-01

    We systematically investigate the encounters between the Sun and neighbouring stars and their effects on cometary orbits in the Oort cloud, including the intrinsic one with the star Gl 710 (HIP 89 825), with some implications to stellar and cometary dynamics. Our approach is principally based on the combination of a Keplerian-rectilinear model of stellar passages and the Hipparcos Catalogue (ESA 1997). Beyond the parameters of encounter, we pay particular attention to the observational errors in parallaxes and stellar velocities, and their propagation in time. Moreover, as a special case of this problem, we consider the collision probability of a star passing very closely to the Sun, taking also into account the mutual gravitational attraction between the stars. In the part dealing with the influence of stellar encounters on the orbital elements of Oort cloud comets, we derive new simple formulae calculating the changes in the cometary orbital elements, expressed as functions of the Jeans impulse formula. These expressions are then applied to calculate numerical values of the element changes caused by close encounters of neighbouring stars with some model comets in the Oort cloud. Moreover, the general condition for an ejection of comets from the cloud effected by a single encounter is derived and discussed.

  20. Addressing the municipal market

    SciTech Connect

    Mullin, R.

    1993-05-12

    Most municipalities employ simple, fairly inexpensive water treatment regimes, which is why some large industrial treatment firms stay away from the municipal market, despite rapid growth in the sector. Of the $625 million/year spent for US wastewater treatment, 46% is for municipalities, up 14.5% from 1987. Waste treatment in general grew by 12% in that period, according to Kline Co. (Fairfield, NJ). Some of the challenges facing municipalities in the Clean Water Act reauthorization bills are metals-contaminated sediments and storm water containment and treatment. Bill Tullos, business manager for chlor-alkali at Elf Atochem North America, does not foresee a phaseout of chlorine-based products used as disinfectant in drinking water treatment by municipalities, or as a wastewater treatment in municipal and industrial use. [open quotes]Alternatives are not as effective and are more expensive,[close quotes] says Tullos. [open quotes]There was some promise with ozone, but unfortunately it tends to tear apart your corrosion and scale inhibitors. Chlorine also provides residual protection from contamination all along the water line system.[close quotes] Tullos adds that the formation of tetrahydromethane-one of the problems of using chlorine-based products-can be avoided by screening out the hydrocarbons first and then adding chlorine.

  1. Methodological Encounters with the Phenomenal Kind

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Block’s well-known distinction between phenomenal consciousness and access consciousness has generated a large philosophical literature about putative conceptual connections between the two. The scientific literature about whether they come apart in any actual cases is rather smaller. Empirical evidence gathered to date has not settled the issue. Some put this down to a fundamental methodological obstacle to the empirical study of the relation between phenomenal consciousness and access consciousness. Block (2007) has drawn attention to the methodological puzzle and attempted to answer it. While the evidence Block points to is relevant and important, this paper puts forward a more systematic framework for addressing the puzzle. To give it a label, the approach is to study phenomenal consciousness as a natural kind. The approach allows consciousness studies to move beyond initial means of identifying instances of the kind like verbal report, and to find its underlying nature. It is well-recognised that facts about an underlying kind may allow identification of instances of the kind that do not match the initial means of identification (cp. non-liquid samples of water). This paper shows that the same method can be deployed to investigate phenomenal consciousness independently of access consciousness. PMID:22654148

  2. Latitude and Longitude. AIR Presidential Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    This speech addresses the problem of higher education's response to the forces of change and argues for a reinventing of higher education rather than repeatedly amending core teaching and research activities to fit new social and economic situations. Three higher education organizational dynamics (recruitment, budgeting, and handling outside…

  3. Satellite orbital conjunction reports assessing threatening encounters in space (SOCRATES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, T. S.; Alfano, S.

    2006-05-01

    While many satellite operators are aware of the possibility of a collision between their satellite and another object in earth orbit, most seem unaware of the frequency of near misses occurring each day. Until recently, no service existed to advise satellite operators of an impending conjunction of a satellite payload with another satellite, putting the responsibility for determining these occurrences squarely on the satellite operator's shoulders. This problem has been further confounded by the lack of a timely, comprehensive data set of satellite orbital element sets and computationally efficient tools to provide predictions using industry-standard software. As a result, hundreds of conjunctions within 1 km occur each week, with little or no intervention, putting billions of dollars of space hardware at risk, along with their associated missions. As a service to the satellite operator community, the Center for Space Standards & Innovation (CSSI) offers SOCRATES-Satellite Orbital Conjunction Reports Assessing Threatening Encounters in Space. Twice each day, CSSI runs a list of all satellite payloads on orbit against a list of all objects on orbit using the catalog of all unclassified NORAD two-line element sets to look for conjunctions over the next seven days. The runs are made using STK/CAT-Satellite Tool Kit's Conjunction Analysis Tools-together with the NORAD SGP4 propagator in STK. This paper will discuss how SOCRATES works and how it can help satellite operators avoid undesired close approaches through advanced mission planning.

  4. Analyzing Service Encounters Cross-Culturally: Methodological Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalaja, Paula

    Two approaches to analyzing service encounters (instances of face-to-face interaction between a server designated in a particular area and a customer receiving service from the server) are examined. Some linguists view service encounters as business transaction texts. The two approaches are the "top-down" approach, in which linguists make direct…

  5. Improving Collaborative Learning by Supporting Casual Encounters in Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, Juan; Llamas, Rafael; Vizcaino, Aurora; Vavela, Jesus

    Casual encounters in a learning environment are very useful in reinforcing previous knowledge and acquiring new knowledge. Such encounters are very common in traditional learning environments and can be used successfully in social environments in which students can discover and construct knowledge through a process of dialogue, negotiation, or…

  6. Voyager 2 to make closest encounter with Saturn in August

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The planned Voyager 2 Saturn mission is described. Information about Saturn obtained from the Voyager 1 encounter is summarized. Data on the satellites and rings of Saturn are tabulated. The video programming schedule for the Voyager 2 Saturn encounter is given. The Voyager science team is listed.

  7. Do Values Change in an Encounter Group? An Empirical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annis, Lawrence V.

    Encounter groups represent an attempt to apply group methods for the enhancement of personal awareness and the acceleration of personal growth among "normal" people. The extent to which an individual's moral values are modified by disclosure and discussion of these values in an encounter group setting was investigated with a group of nine…

  8. BINARY ASTEROID ENCOUNTERS WITH TERRESTRIAL PLANETS: TIMESCALES AND EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Julia; Margot, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-15

    Many asteroids that make close encounters with terrestrial planets are in a binary configuration. Here, we calculate the relevant encounter timescales and investigate the effects of encounters on a binary's mutual orbit. We use a combination of analytical and numerical approaches with a wide range of initial conditions. Our test cases include generic binaries with close, moderate, and wide separations, as well as seven well-characterized near-Earth binaries. We find that close approaches (<10 Earth radii) occur for almost all binaries on 1-10 million year timescales. At such distances, our results suggest substantial modifications to a binary's semimajor axis, eccentricity, and inclination, which we quantify. Encounters within 30 Earth radii typically occur on sub-million year timescales and significantly affect the wider binaries. Important processes in the lives of near-Earth binaries, such as tidal and radiative evolution, can be altered or stopped by planetary encounters.

  9. GASP cloud encounter statistics - Implications for laminar flow control flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasperson, W. H.; Nastrom, G. D.; Davis, R. E.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    The cloud observation archive from the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is analyzed in order to derive the probability of cloud encounter at altitudes normally flown by commercial airliners, for application to a determination of the feasability of Laminar Flow Control (LFC) on long-range routes. The probability of cloud encounter is found to vary significantly with season. Several meteorological circulation features are apparent in the latitudinal distribution of cloud cover. The cloud encounter data are shown to be consistent with the classical midlatitude cyclone model with more clouds encountered in highs than in lows. Aircraft measurements of route-averaged time-in-clouds fit a gamma probability distribution model which is applied to estimate the probability of extended cloud encounter, and the associated loss of LFC effectiveness along seven high-density routes. The probability is demonstrated to be low.

  10. Features of encounters of small bodies with planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emel'yanenko, N. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    A kinematic approach is developed to qualitative analysis of characteristics of a low-speed encounter of a small body with a planet. A classification of encounters of small bodies with planets based on the magnitude of planetocentric speed is proposed. The concept of the points of low-speed quasi-tangency of orbits of small bodies and planets is introduced. Based on this concept, the definitions of the point of minimum planetocentric speed, a quasi-tangent low-velocity segment on the orbit of a small body, low-velocity and high-velocity encounters are formulated. A classification of encounters of small bodies with planets according to the global minimum of the function of planetocentric distance is also proposed. The classification is based on the concepts of the gravity sphere of action and the Hill sphere of the planet. The definitions of an area and duration of low-speed and high-speed encounters are given.

  11. Medical device development: managing conflicts of interest encountered by physicians.

    PubMed

    Baim, Donald S; Donovan, Aine; Smith, John J; Briefs, Nancy; Geoffrion, Richard; Feigal, David; Kaplan, Aaron V

    2007-04-01

    New technologies introduced over the past three decades have transformed medical diagnosis and treatment, and significantly improved patient outcomes. These changes have been mediated by the introduction of new medical devices, particularly for the treatment of cardiovascular, orthopedic, and ophthalmic disorders. These devices, in turn, have created large markets and spawned a burgeoning medical device industry, including six Fortune 500 companies whose combined market capitalization now exceeds 400 billion dollars. This success story, which has unquestionably benefited patients and society alike, has been dependent upon an intense collaboration among industry, clinicians, and regulatory authorities. However, when physicians actively involved in patient care participate in such collaborations, they are increasingly vulnerable to creating potential conflicts between these two (clinical and device development) roles. Such conflicts, which may ultimately erode public trust, have important consequences not only for the individual physicians, but also for their parent institutions, their patients, sponsoring companies, and the entire clinical research enterprise that makes the development and introduction of new devices possible. The third Dartmouth Device Development Symposium held in October 2005 brought together thought leaders within the medical device community, including academicians, clinical investigators, regulators from the Food and Drug Administration and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), large and small device manufacturers and the financial (venture capital and investment banks) community. The Symposium examined the conflicts of interest encountered during the early development and commercialization of a medical device. The goal of these discussions was to (1) identify and characterize the conflicts that arise and (2) provide strategies to address these conflicts. This manuscript was prepared by a writing committee to provide a summary

  12. NEAs' Binaries and Planetary Close Encounters -Stability and Lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Rosana; Winter, O.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): In the present work we considered the effects of close encounters, suffered by hypothetical NEAs binaries, with Earth, Mercury and Venus, in order to determine the stability of their satellites as a function of the encounter conditions. In addition, knowing the conditions that leads to the loss (by ejection or collisions) of the most internal satellites, we are able to estimate the frequency of such encounters, and thus, determine the expected lifetime of the NEAs binaries. The methodology consisted on numerically simulate a system composed by the Sun, the planets of the Solar System, and a sample of 2100 NEAs, for a period of 10 Myr (predict NEAs' lifetime). All close encounters with the planets closer than 100 planet's radius were registered. The next step consisted on simulate a representative sample of those registered close encounters, through numerical integration, considering the planet, the asteroid that perform the close encounter, and a cloud of satellites around the asteroid. The largest radial distance for which all the satellites survive (no collision or ejection) was defined as the critical radius - Rc, given as a function of the encounter parameters (relative velocity and impact parameter). For the Earth, we found that the close encounters with impact parameter and relative velocity capable to remove the most internal satellites of the NEAs (Rc < 5 km), are very frequent. We found that 93% of the asteroids of the group Atens suffer an encounter within this limit in 10 Myrs, and that 50% of these encounters happen in approximately 330.000 years. For the Apollos we found that 60% of the asteroids suffer such encounters, and that 50% of then happen in approximately 700.000 years. Such results indicate that, in fact, the lifetime of the binaries is strongly influencied by the planetary close encounters, proving to be significantly shorter than the predicted lifetime of the NEAs. The contribution of the planets Mercury

  13. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications. PMID:21193369

  14. Mass transfer between debris discs during close stellar encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jílková, Lucie; Hamers, Adrian S.; Hammer, Michael; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2016-04-01

    We study mass transfers between debris discs during stellar encounters. We carried out numerical simulations of close flybys of two stars, one of which has a disc of planetesimals represented by test particles. We explored the parameter space of the encounters, varying the mass ratio of the two stars, their pericentre and eccentricity of the encounter, and its geometry. We find that particles are transferred to the other star from a restricted radial range in the disc and the limiting radii of this transfer region depend on the parameters of the encounter. We derive an approximate analytic description of the inner radius of the region. The efficiency of the mass transfer generally decreases with increasing encounter pericentre and increasing mass of the star initially possessing the disc. Depending on the parameters of the encounter, the transfer particles have a specific distribution in the space of orbital elements (semimajor axis, eccentricity, inclination, and argument of pericentre) around their new host star. The population of the transferred particles can be used to constrain the encounter through which it was delivered. We expect that many stars experienced transfer among their debris discs and planetary systems in their birth environment. This mechanism presents a formation channel for objects on wide orbits of arbitrary inclinations, typically having high eccentricity but possibly also close to circular (eccentricities of about 0.1). Depending on the geometry, such orbital elements can be distinct from those of the objects formed around the star.

  15. Microfluidic experiments to quantify microbes encountering oil water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Jian; Jalali, Maryam; Molaei, Mehdi

    2015-11-01

    It is known that marine microbes are one of the components of biodegradation of crude oil. Biodegradation of crude oil is initiated by microbes encountering the droplet. To elucidate the key processes involved in bacterial encountering the rising oil droplets we have established microfluidic devices with hydrophilic surfaces to create micro oil droplets with controlled sizes. To quantify effect of motility of bacteria on their encounter rate, using high speed microscopy, we simultaneously tracked motile bacteria and solid particles with equivalent sizes encountering oil droplets. The results show that in the advection dominant regime, where the droplet size and the rising velocity are large, bacterial motility plays no role in the encountering rate; however, in the diffusion dominant regime, where the swimming velocity of the cells are comparable with rising velocity and Peclet number of particles is small, motility of the cells increases their encounter rate. Ongoing analysis focus on developing a mathematical model to predict the encounter rate of the cells based on their size, swimming speed, and dispersion rate and the size of oil droplets. GoMRI.

  16. Brain systems underlying encounter expectancy bias in spider phobia.

    PubMed

    Aue, Tatjana; Hoeppli, Marie-Eve; Piguet, Camille; Hofstetter, Christoph; Rieger, Sebastian W; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2015-06-01

    Spider-phobic individuals are characterized by exaggerated expectancies to be faced with spiders (so-called encounter expectancy bias). Whereas phobic responses have been linked to brain systems mediating fear, little is known about how the recruitment of these systems relates to exaggerated expectancies of threat. We used fMRI to examine spider-phobic and control participants while they imagined visiting different locations in a forest after having received background information about the likelihood of encountering different animals (spiders, snakes, and birds) at these locations. Critically, imagined encounter expectancies modulated brain responses differently in phobics as compared with controls. Phobics displayed stronger negative modulation of activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and visual cortex by encounter expectancies for spiders, relative to snakes or birds (within-participants analysis); these effects were not seen in controls. Between-participants correlation analyses within the phobic group further corroborated the hypothesis that these phobia-specific modulations may underlie irrationality in encounter expectancies (deviations of encounter expectancies from objective background information) in spider phobia; the greater the negative modulation a phobic participant displayed in the lateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and visual cortex, the stronger was her bias in encounter expectancies for spiders. Interestingly, irrationality in expectancies reflected in frontal areas relied on right rather than left hemispheric deactivations. Our data accord with the idea that expectancy biases in spider phobia may reflect deficiencies in cognitive control and contextual integration that are mediated by right frontal and parietal areas. PMID:25694215

  17. Earth and Moon encounters by the Galileo Jupiter orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, T. C.

    1988-01-01

    The Galileo Venus-Earth-Earth-Gravity-Assist trajectory to Jupiter is discussed. It includes two encounters from deep space with the Earth and the Earth-Moon system. Fortuitous and unique opportunities therefore exist to observe and study the Earth and Earth's moon during both of these encounters. Given the Galileo science payload, a candidate set of Earth and Moon science objectives is presented. The conditions and constraints of the Earth and Moon encounters, which define the observing opportunity, and which bound the objectives, are reviewed.

  18. Interagency telemetry arraying for Voyager-Neptune encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. W.; Brundage, W. D.; Ulvestad, J. S.; Kent, S. S.; Bartos, K. P.

    1990-01-01

    The reception capability of the Deep Space Network (DSN) has been improved over the years by increasing both the size and number of antennas at each complex to meet spacecraft-support requirements. However, even more aperture was required for the final planetary encounters of the Voyager 2 spacecraft. This need was met by arraying one radio astronomy observatory with the DSN complex in the United States and another with the complex in Australia. Following a review of augmentation for the Uranus encounter, both the preparation at the National Radio Astronomy (NRAO) Very Large Array (VLA) and the Neptune encounter results for the Parkes-Canberra and VLA-Goldstone arrays are presented.

  19. 2014 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  20. 2013 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the Presidential Address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  1. More Americans Engaging in Same-Sex Encounters

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159139.html More Americans Engaging in Same-Sex Encounters And the number ... June 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The number of Americans who say they've had sexual activity with ...

  2. Simulating tidal evolution and encounters with mass-spring models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quillen, Alice C.; Frouard, Julien; Ebinger, Cynthia; Giannella, David; Efroimsky, Michael; Shaw, John

    2016-05-01

    We have recently found that we can directly simulate tidal spin down of viscoelastic objects using damped springs within an N-body code. But there is a 30% discrepancy between the torque analytically predicted and that numerically measured and we still have not identified the cause!Close tidal encounters among large planetesimals and moons were more common than impacts. Using a mass spring model within an N-body simulation, we simulate the deformation of the surface caused by a close tidal encounter and find tidal encounters can induce sufficient stress on the surface to cause brittle failure of an icy crust. Simulated fractures can extend a large fraction of the radius of body. Strong tidal encounters may be responsible for the formation of long graben complexes and chasmata in ancient terrain of icy moons such as Dione, Tethys, Ariel and Charon.

  3. Close encounters of nearly parabolic comets and planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomanov, V. P.

    2016-03-01

    An overview is given of close encounters of nearly parabolic comets (NPCs; with periods of P > 200 years and perihelion distances of q > 0.1 AU; the number of the comets is N = 1041) with planets. The minimum distances Δmin between the cometary and planetary orbits are calculated to select comets whose Δmin are less than the radius of the planet's sphere of influence. Close encounters of these comets with planets are identified by numerical integration of the comets' equations of motion over an interval of ±50 years from the time of passing the perihelion. Close encounters of NPCs with Jupiter in 1663-2011 are reported for seven comets. An encounter with Saturn is reported for comet 2004 F2 (in 2001).

  4. Geological Mapping of the Encounter Hemisphere on Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, O. L.; Moore, J. M.; Stern, S. A.; Weaver, H. A.; Olkin, C. B.; Ennico, K.; Young, L. A.; Cheng, A. F.; New Horizons GGI Theme Team

    2016-06-01

    We present mapping of Pluto's encounter hemisphere performed to date (focusing on Sputnik Planum and the immediately surrounding area) and offer preliminary descriptions of terrains further afield that will be the subject of future mapping.

  5. Crustal failure on icy Moons from a strong tidal encounter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quillen, Alice C.; Giannella, David; Shaw, John G.; Ebinger, Cynthia

    2016-09-01

    Close tidal encounters among large planetesimals and Moons should have been more common than grazing or normal impacts. Using a mass spring model within an N-body simulation, we simulate the deformation of the surface of an elastic spherical body caused by a close parabolic tidal encounter with a body that has similar mass as that of the primary body. Such an encounter can induce sufficient stress on the surface to cause brittle failure of an icy crust and simulated fractures can extend a large fraction of the radius of body. Strong tidal encounters may be responsible for the formation of long graben complexes and chasmata in ancient terrain of icy Moons such as Dione, Tethys, Ariel and Charon.

  6. Single Close Encounters do not make Eccentric Planetary Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J. I.

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of a planet in an orbit with eccentricity e = 0.63 +/- 0.08 around the solar-type star 16 Cyg B, together with earlier discoveries of other planets in orbits of significant eccentricity, raises the question of the origin of these orbits, so unlike the nearly circular orbits of our solar system. In this paper I consider close encounters between two planets, each initially in a nearly circular orbit (but with sufficient eccentricity to permit the encounter). Such encounters are described by a two-body approximation, in which the effect of the attracting star is neglected, and by the approximation that their separation vector follows a nearly parabolic path. A single encounter cannot produce the present state of these systems, in which one planet is in an eccentric orbit and the other has apparently been lost. Even if the requirement that the second planet be lost is dropped, nearly circular orbits cannot scatter into eccentric ones.

  7. Teachers' Engagement with Published Research: Addressing the Knowledge Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increased interest in research impact, there is very little empirical evidence that educational research can inform practice directly, and furthermore, a body of literature which suggests that this is, in principle, impossible. This paper reports on a study in which secondary school teachers were given research findings about teaching…

  8. Addressing the Problem of Service Teaching Introductory Economics Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Enrolments in undergraduate economics programs have been falling constantly since the early 1990s. This trend coincides with the increasing popularity of business and management degrees. Consequently, the major activity of many, if not most economics departments and schools in Australia is service teaching of introductory economics to first year…

  9. Customization of cutting blocks: Can this address the problem?

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Adolph V; Frye, Benjamin M

    2012-12-01

    Recent literature has challenged the notion that neutral coronal alignment is a requirement for long-term survivorship of TKAs. However a preponderance of classic and contemporary evidence supports increased failure rates with malalignment, especially varus. Patient-specific custom cutting guides are an attractive alternative to traditional instrumentation and computer navigation in achieving accurate alignment of total knee arthroplasties. The logistical benefits include possible decreased operating room time, decreased turnover time, less time spent sterilizing and preparing trays, less inventory, less strain on surgical technicians and nurses, and no capital cost associated with computer navigation. Patient benefits include potentially less tourniquet time, less surgical exposure, no requirement of intramedullary canal preparation, and improved mechanical alignment, which may translate to increased implant longevity. Surgeon benefits include potentially more accurate landmark registration than computer navigation, more efficient surgery, decreased intraoperative stress due to less required decision making, and the ability to perform more surgeries due to time saved. PMID:23054623

  10. New ways to develop biosensors towards addressing practical problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starodub, N. F.

    2013-11-01

    The main modern approaches which were realized at the development of new generation of biosensors intended for application in field of diagnostics, food quality control and environmental monitoring are presented. The main attention was paid to creation of the multi-parametrical and multi-functional enzymatic and immune biosensors which were realized for the complex diagnostics of diabetes, autoimmune state and for the control of process of sugar production. The label-free bioaffine devices based on the nano-porouse silicon (NPS) with the registration of specific formed signal by chemiluminescence (ChL) and photoresistivity and intended for the determination mycotoxins and diagnostics of retroviral bovine leukemia (RBL) are analyzed too. Improving of ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) through changing silicon nitride on the cerium oxide is discussed as perspective approach in case of micotoxins and Salmonella control. In the conclusion the possibility to replace biological sensitive elements by artificial ones is considered.

  11. [Collections of pathogenic viruses for addressing general biologic problems].

    PubMed

    Markin, V A

    2007-01-01

    Development of the theory and practice of building and maintenance of collections of reference cultures of pathogens strains is actual in conservation of a biodiversity, and as for maintenance with standardized superfine starting materials fundamental and applied researches in fields of microbiology, an immunology, biotechnology, ecology, and biosafety. Various approaches to taxonomy of viruses, and also definition of concepts "strain" and "species" are discussed in the article. Formulations of the concepts most conforming to museum collections activity are given. The methodology of collecting pathogens, including fifteen-year experience of maintenance of the National collection of hemorrhagic fever viruses belonging to group I of pathogenicity, is summarized. The systemic approach is suggested as a basis of methodology of collecting. Selection of pathogen species and their specific strains according to purpose and on the basis of complex study of their biological and other characteristics, as well as standardization and unification of methods of pathogens maintenance and preparing on their basis working materials, diagnostic kits and other preparations, create a real basis of optimization, unification and continuity of the subsequent applied researches. The offer about formation at the state level of a new independent direction--pathogens collecting with establishment of federal centers based on pathogens' classes has been made. PMID:18277545

  12. Orbital perturbations of the Galilean satellites during planetary encounters

    SciTech Connect

    Deienno, Rogerio; Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2014-08-01

    The Nice model of the dynamical instability and migration of the giant planets can explain many properties of the present solar system, and can be used to constrain its early architecture. In the jumping-Jupiter version of the Nice model, required from the terrestrial planet constraint and dynamical structure of the asteroid belt, Jupiter has encounters with an ice giant. Here, we study the survival of the Galilean satellites in the jumping-Jupiter model. This is an important concern because the ice-giant encounters, if deep enough, could dynamically perturb the orbits of the Galilean satellites and lead to implausible results. We performed numerical integrations where we tracked the effect of planetary encounters on the Galilean moons. We considered three instability cases from Nesvorný and Morbidelli that differed in the number and distribution of encounters. We found that in one case, where the number of close encounters was relatively small, the Galilean satellite orbits were not significantly affected. In the other two, the orbital eccentricities of all moons were excited by encounters, Callisto's semimajor axis changed, and, in a large fraction of trials, the Laplace resonance of the inner three moons was disrupted. The subsequent evolution by tides damps eccentricities and can recapture the moons in the Laplace resonance. A more important constraint is represented by the orbital inclinations of the moons, which can be excited during the encounters and not appreciably damped by tides. We find that one instability case taken from Nesvorný and Morbidelli clearly does not meet this constraint. This shows how the regular satellites of Jupiter can be used to set limits on the properties of encounters in the jumping-Jupiter model, and help us to better understand how the early solar system evolved.

  13. Studying the clinical encounter with the Adaptive Leadership framework

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Donald E; Docherty, Sharron L; Adams, Judith A; Carthron, Dana L; Corazzini, Kirsten; Day, Jennifer R; Neglia, Elizabeth; Thygeson, Marcus; Anderson, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the concept of leadership as a personal capability, not contingent on one's position in a hierarchy. This type of leadership allows us to reframe both the care-giving and organizational roles of nurses and other front-line clinical staff. Little research has been done to explore what leadership means at the point of care, particularly in reference to the relationship between health care practitioners and patients and their family caregivers. The Adaptive Leadership framework, based on complexity science theory, provides a useful lens to explore practitioners' leadership behaviors at the point of care. This framework proposes that there are two broad categories of challenges that patients face: technical and adaptive. Whereas technical challenges are addressed with technical solutions that are delivered by practitioners, adaptive challenges require the patient (or family member) to adjust to a new situation and to do the work of adapting, learning, and behavior change. Adaptive leadership is the work that practitioners do to mobilize and support patients to do the adaptive work. The purpose of this paper is to describe this framework and demonstrate its application to nursing research. We demonstrate the framework's utility with five exemplars of nursing research problems that range from the individual to the system levels. The framework has the potential to guide researchers to ask new questions and to gain new insights into how practitioners interact with patients at the point of care to increase the patient's ability to tackle challenging problems and improve their own health care outcomes. It is a potentially powerful framework for developing and testing a new generation of interventions to address complex issues by harnessing and learning about the adaptive capabilities of patients within their life contexts. PMID:24409083

  14. Studying the clinical encounter with the Adaptive Leadership framework.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Donald E; Docherty, Sharron L; Adams, Judith A; Carthron, Dana L; Corazzini, Kirsten; Day, Jennifer R; Neglia, Elizabeth; Thygeson, Marcus; Anderson, Ruth A

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we discuss the concept of leadership as a personal capability, not contingent on one's position in a hierarchy. This type of leadership allows us to reframe both the care-giving and organizational roles of nurses and other front-line clinical staff. Little research has been done to explore what leadership means at the point of care, particularly in reference to the relationship between health care practitioners and patients and their family caregivers. The Adaptive Leadership framework, based on complexity science theory, provides a useful lens to explore practitioners' leadership behaviors at the point of care. This framework proposes that there are two broad categories of challenges that patients face: technical and adaptive. Whereas technical challenges are addressed with technical solutions that are delivered by practitioners, adaptive challenges require the patient (or family member) to adjust to a new situation and to do the work of adapting, learning, and behavior change. Adaptive leadership is the work that practitioners do to mobilize and support patients to do the adaptive work. The purpose of this paper is to describe this framework and demonstrate its application to nursing research. We demonstrate the framework's utility with five exemplars of nursing research problems that range from the individual to the system levels. The framework has the potential to guide researchers to ask new questions and to gain new insights into how practitioners interact with patients at the point of care to increase the patient's ability to tackle challenging problems and improve their own health care outcomes. It is a potentially powerful framework for developing and testing a new generation of interventions to address complex issues by harnessing and learning about the adaptive capabilities of patients within their life contexts. PMID:24409083

  15. Two-particle problem in comblike structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliari, Elena; Cassi, Davide; Cattivelli, Luca; Sartori, Fabio

    2016-05-01

    Encounters between walkers performing a random motion on an appropriate structure can describe a wide variety of natural phenomena ranging from pharmacokinetics to foraging. On homogeneous structures the asymptotic encounter probability between two walkers is (qualitatively) independent of whether both walkers are moving or one is kept fixed. On infinite comblike structures this is no longer the case and here we deepen the mechanisms underlying the emergence of a finite probability that two random walkers will never meet, while one single random walker is certain to visit any site. In particular, we introduce an analytical approach to address this problem and even more general problems such as the case of two walkers with different diffusivity, particles walking on a finite comb and on arbitrary bundled structures, possibly in the presence of loops. Our investigations are both analytical and numerical and highlight that, in general, the outcome of a reaction involving two reactants on a comblike architecture can strongly differ according to whether both reactants are moving (no matter their relative diffusivities) or only one is moving and according to the density of shortcuts among the branches.

  16. The meaningful encounter: patient and next-of-kin stories about their experience of meaningful encounters in health-care.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Lena-Karin; Snellma, Ingrid; Gustafsson, Christine

    2013-12-01

    This study focuses on the meaningful encounters of patients and next of kin, as seen from their perspective. Identifying the attributes within meaningful encounters is important for increased understanding of caring and to expand and develop earlier formulated knowledge about caring relationships. Caring theory about the caring relationship provided a point of departure to illuminate the meaningful encounter in healthcare contexts. A qualitative explorative design with a hermeneutic narrative approach was used to analyze and interpret written narratives. The phases of the analysis were naïve interpretation, structure analysis on two different levels (narrative structure, and deep structure through metaphors) and finally a dialectic interpretation. The narratives revealed the meaning of the meaningful encounter as sharing, a nourishing fellowship, common responsibility and coming together, experienced as safety and warmth, that gives, by extension, life-changing moments, a healing force and dissipated insight. The meaningful encounter can be seen as a complex phenomenon with various attributes. Understanding the meaningful encounter will enable nurses to plan and provide professional care, based on caring science, focusing on patient and next-of-kin experiences. PMID:23181930

  17. Kin encounter rate and inbreeding avoidance in canids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geffen, E.; Kam, M.; Hefner, R.; Hersteinsson, P.; Angerbjorn, A.; Dalen, L.; Fuglei, E.; Noren, K.; Adams, J.R.; Vucetich, J.; Meier, T.J.; Mech, L.D.; Vonholdt, B.M.; Stahler, D.R.; Wayne, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    Mating with close kin can lead to inbreeding depression through the expression of recessive deleterious alleles and loss of heterozygosity. Mate selection may be affected by kin encounter rate, and inbreeding avoidance may not be uniform but associated with age and social system. Specifically, selection for kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance may be more developed in species that live in family groups or breed cooperatively. To test this hypothesis, we compared kin encounter rate and the proportion of related breeding pairs in noninbred and highly inbred canid populations. The chance of randomly encountering a full sib ranged between 1-8% and 20-22% in noninbred and inbred canid populations, respectively. We show that regardless of encounter rate, outside natal groups mates were selected independent of relatedness. Within natal groups, there was a significant avoidance of mating with a relative. Lack of discrimination against mating with close relatives outside packs suggests that the rate of inbreeding in canids is related to the proximity of close relatives, which could explain the high degree of inbreeding depression observed in some populations. The idea that kin encounter rate and social organization can explain the lack of inbreeding avoidance in some species is intriguing and may have implications for the management of populations at risk. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Kin encounter rate and inbreeding avoidance in canids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geffen, Eli; Kam, Michael; Hefner, Reuven; Hersteinsson, Pall; Angerbjorn, Anders; Dalen, Love; Fuglei, Eva; Noren, Karin; Adams, Jennifer R.; Vicetich, John; Meier, Thomas J.; Mech, L.D.; VonHoldt, Bridgett M.; Stahler, Daniel R.; Wayne, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    Mating with close kin can lead to inbreeding depression through the expression of recessive deleterious alleles and loss of heterozygosity. Mate selection may be affected by kin encounter rate, and inbreeding avoidance may not be uniform but associated with age and social system. Specifically, selection for kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance may be more developed in species that live in family groups or breed cooperatively. To test this hypothesis, we compared kin encounter rate and the proportion of related breeding pairs in noninbred and highly inbred canid populations. The chance of randomly encountering a full sib ranged between 1–8% and 20–22% in noninbred and inbred canid populations, respectively. We show that regardless of encounter rate, outside natal groups mates were selected independent of relatedness. Within natal groups, there was a significant avoidance of mating with a relative. Lack of discrimination against mating with close relatives outside packs suggests that the rate of inbreeding in canids is related to the proximity of close relatives, which could explain the high degree of inbreeding depression observed in some populations. The idea that kin encounter rate and social organization can explain the lack of inbreeding avoidance in some species is intriguing and may have implications for the management of populations at risk.

  19. Calculating the probability of injected carbon dioxide plumes encountering faults

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, P.D.

    2011-04-01

    One of the main concerns of storage in saline aquifers is leakage via faults. In the early stages of site selection, site-specific fault coverages are often not available for these aquifers. This necessitates a method using available fault data to estimate the probability of injected carbon dioxide encountering and migrating up a fault. The probability of encounter can be calculated from areal fault density statistics from available data, and carbon dioxide plume dimensions from numerical simulation. Given a number of assumptions, the dimension of the plume perpendicular to a fault times the areal density of faults with offsets greater than some threshold of interest provides probability of the plume encountering such a fault. Application of this result to a previously planned large-scale pilot injection in the southern portion of the San Joaquin Basin yielded a 3% and 7% chance of the plume encountering a fully and half seal offsetting fault, respectively. Subsequently available data indicated a half seal-offsetting fault at a distance from the injection well that implied a 20% probability of encounter for a plume sufficiently large to reach it.

  20. Effects of information on perceived crowding and encounter norms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Oh; Shelby, Bo

    2011-05-01

    People receive information about visiting places from a variety of sources, and it is important to understand how information affects recreation experiences. This study examines how different information treatments describing a recreation place influence perceived crowding and encounter norms. The study location was the Jungmoeri area of Mudeungsan Provincial Park (MPP) in Korea. Data were collected from 50 college students utilizing a series of simulated moving pictures in a laboratory setting. Respondents were given information describing three different types of conditions and experiences (nature preserve, transition/buffer, and developed area), plus a no information control. Results showed that information influenced perceived crowding and encounter norms. For the range of encounter numbers depicted in the photos, the nature preserve treatment produced higher crowding ratings and lower tolerances for encounters, the developed area treatment produced lower crowding ratings and higher tolerances, and the transition/buffer and the control were in between. Information treatments also influence the perceived importance of encounter numbers, and importance was highest for the nature preserve. Management implications are discussed. PMID:21416374

  1. Acts of Attention: An Exploration of Teacher Candidates' Attention to Educational Encounters, and How It Relates to Task Formulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    This study begins with the belief that the ways in which teachers see and attend to educational encounters matter for their actions in classrooms. Using microethnography as a framework, this dissertation explores the relationship between teacher candidate attention, problem formulation, and action. Through analysis of the M.Ed. inquiry reports of…

  2. Microaggressions and the reproduction of social inequalities in medical encounters in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Smith-Oka, Vania

    2015-10-01

    This article examines the role of microaggressions in the interactions between biomedical personnel and marginalized patients to addresses the constitutive property of medical interactions and their contribution to a class-differentiated and discriminatory local social world. Based on ethnographic fieldwork over the course of three months (2008-2011) the study examined the clinical relationships between obstetric patients and clinicians in a public hospital in the city of Puebla, Mexico. It reveals four factors present in the social hierarchies in Mexico that predispose clinicians to callous interactions toward "problematic others" in society, resulting in microaggressions within clinical encounters: (a) perceptions of suitability for good motherhood; (b) moralized versions of modern motherhood inscribed on patient bodies; (c) a priori assumptions about the hypersexuality of low-income women; and (d) clinician frustration exacerbated by overwork resulting in corporeal violence. This work concludes by questioning the efforts for universal health rights that do not address underlying social and economic inequities. PMID:26331863

  3. Learning Impasses in Problem Solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, J. P. E.

    1992-01-01

    Problem Solving systems customarily use backtracking to deal with obstacles that they encounter in the course of trying to solve a problem. This paper outlines an approach in which the possible obstacles are investigated prior to the search for a solution. This provides a solution strategy that avoids backtracking.

  4. Value Encounters - Modeling and Analyzing Co-creation of Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, Hans

    Recent marketing and management literature has introduced the concept of co-creation of value. Current value modeling approaches such as e3-value focus on the exchange of value rather than co-creation. In this paper, an extension to e3-value is proposed in the form of a “value encounter”. Value encounters are defined as interaction spaces where a group of actors meet and derive value by each one bringing in some of its own resources. They can be analyzed from multiple strategic perspectives, including knowledge management, social network management and operational management. Value encounter modeling can be instrumental in the context of service analysis and design.

  5. Police Encounters, Mental Illness and Injury: An Exploratory Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Amy N.; Morabito, Melissa; Watson, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    Police encounters are believed to be particularly dangerous for people with mental illness and police officers. Despite widespread concern among advocates, researchers and police professionals, little is known about the details of these interactions including the occurrence of injuries. In the current study, we explore injuries to people with mental illness and officers to determine the extent to which situational and individual factors predict injuries. Findings suggest that injuries during police calls involving persons with mental illness are infrequent and rarely require medical attention. Predictors of injuries in these calls are similar to those in police encounters with the general population. PMID:21113331

  6. Cloud encounter and particle density variabilities from GASP data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nastrom, G. D.; Holdeman, J. D.; Davis, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Summary statistics and variability studies are presented for cloud encounter and particle number density data as part of the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) aboard commercial Boeing 747 airliners. On the average, cloud encounter is shown on about 15% of the 52,164 data samples available; this value varies with season, latitude, synoptic weather situation, and distance from the tropopause. The number density of particles (diameter greater than 3 microns) also varies with time and location, and depends on the horizontal extent of cloudiness.

  7. Preliminary science results of Voyager 1 Saturn encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bane, D.

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary science results of the Voyager 1 encounter of the planet Saturn are reported. On August 22, 1980, the spacecraft was 109 million km (68 million mi) from Saturn. Closest approach to Saturn took place on November 12, at 3:46 p.m. (PDT), when the spacecraft passed 126,000 km (78,000 mi) from the cloud tops. Measurements of the atmosphere, wind speed, radiation, six surrounding rings, and the planet's old and newly found satellites were recorded. The encounter ended December 15, 1980. The spacecraft took more than 17,500 photographs of Saturn and its satellites.

  8. Room with a View: Ethical Encounters in Room 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grube, Vicky

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes ethical encounters in Room 13, a schoolroom where children made what they wanted, posed their own questions, and ran an art room like a small business. In Room 13 children had the responsibility to maintain all aspects of the art studio. Specific decisions fell to an annually elected management team, a small…

  9. Grassroots Leadership: Encounters with Power Dynamics and Oppression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the nature of power dynamics that faculty and staff grassroots leaders encounter as they attempt to create change. I identified five distinctive types of power dynamics--"oppression," "silencing," "controlling," "inertia," and "micro-aggressions" from the most overt to more subtle and covert forms. Staff experience multiple…

  10. Beyond Dramatic Truth: Theatre within the Therapeutic Encounter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendle, Andy; Rowe, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Recorded footage of counselling sessions with real clients can be a valuable educational resource that gives training counsellors the opportunity to analyse the theories and practices they encounter in their education. However, the use of such material raises complex ethical issues: what are the safeguards against the misuse of the material? Can…

  11. Potential for Inclusion of Information Encountering within Information Literacy Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdelez, Sanda; Basic, Josipa; Levitov, Deborah D.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Information encountering (finding information while searching for some other information), is a type of opportunistic discovery of information that complements purposeful approaches to finding information. The motivation for this paper was to determine if the current models of information literacy instruction refer to information…

  12. Intergenerational Educational Encounters: Part 2--Counseling Implications of the Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamliel, Tova; Reichental, Yael; Eyal, Nitza

    2007-01-01

    This second paper commences where Part 1 concluded in volume 33, number 1, 2006. The paper describes the relations reflected in the Model-of-Knowledge between all partners of the intergenerational encounters at school--children, old adults, and teachers. The Model-of-Knowledge represents a relatively balanced approach toward the generations'…

  13. Children's Encounters with Things: Schooling the Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Liz

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on work around matter and the material in order to examine how (extra)ordinary "things" are used to (re)produce formulaic and predictable performances within the context of an early years classroom. Using ethnographic data I focus on a series of encounters where oscillations between (in)animate objects and the child…

  14. Cross-Cultural Encounters as a Way of Overcoming Xenophobia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheunpflug, Annette

    1997-01-01

    Examines the educational potential of cross-cultural travel to overcome xenophobia, stating that international encounters must not be a replacement for dealing with the conditions that create societal prejudice. Asserts that a precondition for change in a person's perception of foreign peoples and cultures lies in the alteration of that person's…

  15. One-to-One Encounters: Facilitators, Participants, and Friendship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Lee

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I explore the claim that one-to-one encounters between community music facilitators and music participants can be described as friendships. By exploring the relational structure through the call and the welcome, I make some general comments on friendship before finally tackling the question lying at the heart of this article: How…

  16. Supervision Challenges Encountered during Kenyan University Students' Practicum Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kathuri-Ogola, Lucy; VanLeeuwen, Charlene; Kabaria-Muriithi, Joan; Weeks, Lori E.; Kieru, Jane; Ndayala, Phoebe

    2015-01-01

    There is little published research that examines the supervision experience of field attachment supervisors in Kenya. In this study, we identify the challenges encountered by field supervisors during student field attachments with community organizations. Fifteen organizations that had hosted third year students from the Department of Community…

  17. Numerical Modeling of Cometary Meteoroid Streams Encountering Mars and Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christou, A. A.; Vaubaillon, J.

    2011-01-01

    We have simulated numerically the existence of meteoroid streams that encounter the orbits of Mars and Venus, potentially producing meteor showers at those planets. We find that 17 known comets can produce such showers, the intensity of which can be determined through observations. Six of these streams contain dense dust trails capable of producing meteor outbursts.

  18. Exploring Festival Performance as a State of Encounter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O’Grady, Alice; Kill, Rebekka

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines the activities of the research network "Festival Performance as a State of Encounter", which was funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council as part of the Beyond Text strategic programme. The network was formulated in 2008, and a range of different events were organized over the course of two years to explore the…

  19. Technology Mediated Information Sharing (Monitor Sharing) in Primary Care Encounters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asan, Onur

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation study was to identify and describe the use of electronic health records (EHRs) for information sharing between patients and clinicians in primary-care encounters and to understand work system factors influencing information sharing. Ultimately, this will promote better design of EHR technologies and effective training…

  20. The Classroom as a Service Encounter: Suggestions for Value Creation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Ed; McLarney, Carolan

    2000-01-01

    Conceives of the classroom as a service encounter between marketer (instructor) and stakeholders (students), making stakeholder satisfaction the key to meeting learning goals. Suggests ways to create value in the classroom: understanding what stakeholders need and want, efficiently delivering services, and demonstrating product leadership. (SK)

  1. The Validation of an Encounter Group Outcome Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadish, William R.; Zarle, Thomas

    1979-01-01

    This study further investigates the validity of the McMillan Affective Relationship Scale (MARS) by (1) examining its relationship to other commonly used scales; (2) determining whether it was sensitive to change over time for encounter group participants; and (3) attempting to determine whether pretesting on MARS was a possible source of…

  2. Storying Practices of Witnessing: Refiguring Quality in Everyday Pedagogical Encounters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nxumalo, Fikile

    2016-01-01

    This article seeks to contribute towards an unsettling of dominant framings of quality pedagogical practices. The author puts to work the figure of the modest witness as a way of storying everyday pedagogical encounters in childhood settings that might refigure quality in practice as materialized more-than-human becomings. Working within the…

  3. Identifying Satisfied/Dissatisfied Service Encounters in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chahal, Hardeep; Devi, Pinkey

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore satisfactory and dissatisfactory service encounters in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: The data are collected through the well established critical incident technique (CIT) method. All the satisfied and dissatisfied critical incidents are then grouped on the basis of Bitner et al.'s…

  4. Reconsidering Children's Encounters with Nature and Place Using Posthumanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This article explores and reconsiders the view of children's encounters with place as central to a place-based pedagogy that seeks to dismantle rather than support constructions of a nature-culture binary. I unpack the current fervour for reinserting the child in nature and nature-based education as a significant phenomenon in environmental and…

  5. Couples' Long-Term Evaluations of Their Marriage Encounter Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Mary Ellen; Doherty, William J.

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed 189 couples to see how they felt about their Marriage Encounter experience four years later. Results indicated that about 80 percent of the couples reported a totally positive experience. The most frequently cited positive aspect was the "dialogue." A significant minority of couples experienced negative consequences. (Author/JAC)

  6. Fertile Zones of Cultural Encounter in Computer Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolikant, Yifat Ben-David; Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2008-01-01

    We explain certain learning difficulties in computer science education as resulting from a clash between the students' culture as computer users and the professional computing culture. We propose the concept of fertile zones of cultural encounter as a way of overcoming these learning difficulties. This pedagogical approach aims to bridge the gap…

  7. Automated Scheduling of Science Activities for Titan Encounters by Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Trina L.; Knight, Russel L.; Mohr, Dave

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to demonstrate the efficacy of automated planning and scheduling techniques for large missions, we have adapted ASPEN (Activity Scheduling and Planning Environment) [1] and CLASP (Compressed Large-scale Activity Scheduling and Planning) [2] to the domain of scheduling high-level science goals into conflict-free operations plans for Titan encounters by the Cassini spacecraft.

  8. In "the Event" That Art and Teaching Encounter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garoian, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    In this writing, I explore the performative correspondences between the complex, disparate, and disjunctive encounters, alliances, and movements that characterize the making of art and the making of teaching that--according to philosophers Deleuze and Guattari--are constituted by the "plane of consistency," "zone of…

  9. The Aboriginal-White Encounter: Towards Better Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Margaret S.

    The research reported here seeks to explain communication failure between Whites and Aboriginals in Australia, based on an examination of fundamental concepts underlying the world view of each group. The research arose from the observation that in Aboriginal-White encounters, each group had different expectations of and conclusions about the same…

  10. Development of a Behavioral Affective Relationship Scale for Encounter Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadish, William R., Jr.; Zarle, Thomas

    The paper outlines several studies over a two-year period to develop a self-report and observer-rating measure of sensitivity/encounter group outcome. The initial form of the scale was taken from McMillan (1971) who developed a measure of 16 categories of group outcome; McMillan's work indicated the scale had high reliability. Subsequent study…

  11. Encounters with patients from Somalia: experience among vocational trainees in Swedish general practice

    PubMed Central

    Mattsson, Bengt; Lepp, Margret

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to describe how vocational trainees in general medical practice in Sweden experienced encounters with refugee patients from Somalia. Methods Sixteen vocational trainees in general medical practice in Sweden were interviewed in focus groups. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed according to a phenomenographic approach. Results Three categories with subcategories emerged. In the first category, “meeting the patient”, the family diversity among the patients was noted. Further, the informants noted that few patients presented psychiatric problems. In the second category, “obstacles in the encounter”, the vocational trainees noted difficulties in talking through an interpreter, who often seemed to have an extended dialogue with the patient. Obtaining a medical history was considered a challenge. The third category dealt with how to develop different strategies in the encounter. Conclusions To improve the encounter with patients from Somalia and other minority groups, the importance of curiosity, trust and continuity of care should be discussed in medical education. Health care´s own ways of working and thinking in relation to matters of diversity must be observed in medical training.

  12. Parent development in clinical child neurological assessment process: encounters with the assimilation model.

    PubMed

    Tikkanen, Soile; Stiles, William B; Leiman, Mikael

    2011-09-01

    Child neurological diagnostic procedures involve extensive encounters with a multi-professional team and may have therapeutic effects. This study explored the therapeutic potential of the diagnostic process using the assimilation model as the conceptual frame of reference. The process of assimilation was tracked across nine consecutive encounters during the assessment of a 4-year-old girl who was referred to the child neurological team due to contact and communication problems. All parent-professional dialogues were transcribed and analyzed using dialogical sequence analysis, which yielded a core problematic reciprocal pattern that was named "controlling in relation to defiant and uncontrolled." Parent development in finding alternative patterns to excessive control was traced using the assimilation model. We could identify assimilation stages in parent development, from disowning the impact of their own actions and mainly seeing the problem as belonging to the child into a more flexible and self-related understanding of the problem. The parents also described more accommodating ways of managing the child at the follow-up. Benefits and limitations in applying the assimilation model in a non-therapy context are discussed. PMID:21767079

  13. Problems Encountered by Future Teachers in Community Service Practices Course and Solution Offers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yücelsin-Tas, Yaprak Türkan

    2014-01-01

    The course titled ?"Community Service Practices"? has been taught since 2006 to 2007 academic year in all of the faculties of education in Turkey. At Marmara University, future teachers of the French Language Teaching Section of the Department of Foreign Language Teaching at the Atatürk Faculty of Education take this course in the first…

  14. Reusable data in public health data-bases-problems encountered in Danish Children's Database.

    PubMed

    Høstgaard, Anna Marie; Pape-Haugaard, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Denmark have unique health informatics databases e.g. "The Children's Database", which since 2009 holds data on all Danish children from birth until 17 years of age. In the current set-up a number of potential sources of errors exist - both technical and human-which means that the data is flawed. This gives rise to erroneous statistics and makes the data unsuitable for research purposes. In order to make the data usable, it is necessary to develop new methods for validating the data generation process at the municipal/regional/national level. In the present ongoing research project, two research areas are combined: Public Health Informatics and Computer Science, and both ethnographic as well as system engineering research methods are used. The project is expected to generate new generic methods and knowledge about electronic data collection and transmission in different social contexts and by different social groups and thus to be of international importance, since this is sparsely documented in the Public Health Informatics perspective. This paper presents the preliminary results, which indicate that health information technology used ought to be subject for redesign, where a thorough insight into the work practices should be point of departure. PMID:22874263

  15. Particular problems encountered in trace metal analysis of plant material by atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoenig, M.; de Borger, R.

    Various mineralization methods for plant material analysis by AAS are presented and their advantages and limits are discussed. Wet digestion by H 2SO 4HNO 3H 2O 2 mixture appears as a very rapid method which gives good recovery of trace elements and is thus suitable for routine analysis. Determination of relatively high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr, Co, Cd, Pb, As, Sb and Tl is carried out by flame AAS with a good analytical speed and without noticeable interferences. Pb, Cd, As, Sb and Tl appear generally in very low concentrations in plants so that electrothermal atomization is necessary. Various interferences are observed in this case. They are discussed and methods are presented for their correction.

  16. Some Operating Experience and Problems Encountered During Operation of a Free-jet Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaulay, John E; Prince, William R

    1957-01-01

    During a free-jet investigation of a 28-inch ram-jet engine at a Mach number of 2.35, flow pulsation at the engine inlet were discovered which proved to have an effect on the engine performance and operational characteristics, particularly the engine rich blowout limits. This report discusses the finding of the flow pulsations, their elimination, and effect. Other facility characteristics, such as the establishment of flow simulation and the degree of subcritical operation of the diffuser, are also explained.

  17. Overview of heat transfer and fluid flow problem areas encountered in Stirling engine modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tew, Roy C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center has been managing Stirling engine development programs for over a decade. In addition to contractual programs, this work has included in-house engine testing and development of engine computer models. Attempts to validate Stirling engine computer models with test data have demonstrated that engine thermodynamic losses need better characterization. Various Stirling engine thermodynamic losses and efforts that are underway to characterize these losses are discussed.

  18. Overview of heat transfer and fluid flow problem areas encountered in stirling engine modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tew, R.C. Jr.

    1988-02-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center has been managing Stirling engine development programs for over a decade. In addition to contractual programs, this work has included in-house engine testing and development of engine computer models. Attempts to validate Stirling engine computer models with test data have demonstrated that engine thermodynamic losses need better characterization. Various Stirling engine thermodynamic losses and efforts that are underway to characterize these losses are discussed.

  19. Inversion of very large matrices encountered in large scale problems of photogrammetry and photographic astrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. C.

    1971-01-01

    The simultaneous adjustment of very large nets of overlapping plates covering the celestial sphere becomes computationally feasible by virtue of a twofold process that generates a system of normal equations having a bordered-banded coefficient matrix, and solves such a system in a highly efficient manner. Numerical results suggest that when a well constructed spherical net is subjected to a rigorous, simultaneous adjustment, the exercise of independently established control points is neither required for determinancy nor for production of accurate results.

  20. Problems Encountered During the Recertification of the GLORY Solar Array Dual Axis Gimbal Drive Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Marc; Schepis, Jospeh P.; Bruckner, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The Glory observatory is the current incarnation of the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission spacecraft bus. The VCL spacecraft bus, having been cancelled for programmatic reasons in 2000, was nearly integrated when it was put into storage for possible future use. The Glory mission was a suitable candidate for using this spacecraft and in 2006 an effort to recertify the two axis solar array gimbal drive after its extended storage was begun. What was expected to be a simple performance validation of the two dual axis gimbal stepper motors became a serious test, diagnosis and repair task once questions arose on the flight worthiness of the hardware. A significant test program logic flow was developed which identified decisions that could be made based on the results of individual recertification tests. Without disassembling the bi-axial gimbals, beginning with stepper motor threshold voltage measurements and relating these to powered drive torque measurements, both performed at the spacecraft integrator s facility, a confusing picture of the health of the actuators came to light. Tests at the gimbal assembly level and tests of the disassembled actuators were performed by the manufacturer to validate our results and torque discrepancies were noted. Further disassembly to the component level of the actuator revealed the source of the torque loss.

  1. Some of the Problems Children Encounter in Learning a School's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnett, Katherine

    1984-01-01

    Learning disabled students need assistance in mastering self-organizing behaviors that will allow them to focus more time and energy on the learning process. The "get-it-together" (GIT) curriculum is described as a practical approach to helping these students master routines, get started on assignments, and move from one activity to the next. (JW)

  2. Problems of communicative competence in multi-cultural medical encounters in South African health services.

    PubMed

    Grant, T

    2006-11-01

    Research in health communication shows communicative competence to be an important aspect of successful health-care. Definitions of competence involve more than the participants, however; the position and status of these participants in terms of the medical hierarchy and accepted paradigm, the language of choice, educational levels and a host of other variables affect relationships and perceptions of competence. This article grapples with a number of issues that impact on communicative competence in the health-care professions, given the multi-lingual and -cultural society within South Africa as well as emerging shifts that foreground this debate. In particular, the thorny question around language use, the hegemonies of the past regarding a dominant lingua franca and subsequent issues involving translation and interpretation are discussed. PMID:17310745

  3. Problems encountered by BA Cur graduates and recommendations for enhancing learner support.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, V

    2000-12-01

    Distance education is becoming ever more important in providing continuing post basic, and especially postgraduate, education to practising professional persons, including nurses. As more and more institutions in the Republic of South Africa offer distance education courses to nurses, it is essential to take note of the positive and negative experiences of successful graduates of these programmes, in order to enhance the learning opportunities, and the success rate of nurses pursuing such distance education courses. A brief historical overview is provided about the University of South Africa (Unisa) and about the Department of Advanced Nursing Sciences at this distance education university. This background information should assist the reader in contextualising the research findings. Questionnaires were posted to all Unisa's 1998 BA Cur graduates. The research report focuses on the 1998 BA Cur (nursing) graduates' biographic data, their experiences of pursuing distance education post basic nursing courses, their positive and negative perceptions of these experiences and their recommendations for enhancing other students' success. PMID:11949290

  4. There's Trouble in Paradise: Problems with Educational Metadata Encountered during the MALTED Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monthienvichienchai, Rachada; Sasse, M. Angela; Wheeldon, Richard

    This paper investigates the usability of educational metadata schemas with respect to the case of the MALTED (Multimedia Authoring Language Teachers and Educational Developers) project at University College London (UCL). The project aims to facilitate authoring of multimedia materials for language learning by allowing teachers to share multimedia…

  5. Problems Encountered in Teaching/Learning Integrated Photosynthesis: A Case of Ineffective Pedagogical Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Sriwattanarothai, Namkang

    2008-01-01

    In this article we recount our experiences of teaching photosynthesis in an integrated way to secondary school students and teachers, science undergraduates and postgraduates. Conceptual questions were posed to investigate learners' fundamental understanding of simple light-dependent and light-independent processes taught to most students at…

  6. A Task Force to Address Bullying.

    PubMed

    Keller, Ronald; Budin, Wendy C; Allie, Tammy

    2016-02-01

    Bullying in the workplace can create a dysfunctional environment that is associated with serious physical and psychological harm to the person being bullied. Nurses' experience with bullying has gained considerable attention in recent years, and warrants further discussion. Nurse leaders need to develop and implement effective bullying prevention initiatives that will foster the functioning of a professional and productive staff in a healthy work environment. The aim of this article is to review workplace bullying as experienced by nurses, and describe how nurses at a Magnet-designated academic medical center developed and implemented a bullying task force to address the problem. PMID:26817556

  7. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  8. Communities Address Barriers to Connectivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Rural areas lag behind urban areas in access to information technologies. Public institutions play a critical role in extending the benefits of information technologies to those who would not otherwise have access. The most successful rural telecommunications plans address barriers to use, such as unawareness of the benefits, technophobia, the…

  9. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  10. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2013-03-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  11. State of the Lab Address

    SciTech Connect

    King, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  12. Aquarium Problems: How To Solve Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFilippo, Shirley

    1975-01-01

    Presents some solutions to problems commonly encountered in maintaining a classroom aquarium: pH control, overfeeding, overcrowding of tank populations, incorrect temperature settings, faulty introduction of fish into the tank, and the buildup of too many nitrogenous wastes. (PB)

  13. Promoting Interdisciplinary Collaboration: Trainees Addressing Siloed Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitts, Robert Li; Christodoulou, Joanna; Goldman, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Professional siloing within medical institutions has been identified as a problem in medical education, including resident training. The authors discuss how trainees from different disciplines can collaborate to address this problem. Method: A group of trainees from psychiatry, developmental medicine, neurology, and education came…

  14. Superkicks in hyperbolic encounters of binary black holes.

    PubMed

    Healy, James; Herrmann, Frank; Hinder, Ian; Shoemaker, Deirdre M; Laguna, Pablo; Matzner, Richard A

    2009-01-30

    Generic inspirals and mergers of binary black holes produce beamed emission of gravitational radiation that can lead to a gravitational recoil or kick of the final black hole. The kick velocity depends on the mass ratio and spins of the binary as well as on the dynamics of the binary configuration. Studies have focused so far on the most astrophysically relevant configuration of quasicircular inspirals, for which kicks as large as approximately 3300 km s;(-1) have been found. We present the first study of gravitational recoil in hyperbolic encounters. Contrary to quasicircular configurations, in which the beamed radiation tends to average during the inspiral, radiation from hyperbolic encounters is plunge dominated, resulting in an enhancement of preferential beaming. As a consequence, it is possible in highly relativistic scatterings to achieve kick velocities as large as 10 000 km s;(-1). PMID:19257409

  15. Estimating the encounter rate variance in distance sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fewster, R.M.; Buckland, S.T.; Burnham, K.P.; Borchers, D.L.; Jupp, P.E.; Laake, J.L.; Thomas, L.

    2009-01-01

    The dominant source of variance in line transect sampling is usually the encounter rate variance. Systematic survey designs are often used to reduce the true variability among different realizations of the design, but estimating the variance is difficult and estimators typically approximate the variance by treating the design as a simple random sample of lines. We explore the properties of different encounter rate variance estimators under random and systematic designs. We show that a design-based variance estimator improves upon the model-based estimator of Buckland et al. (2001, Introduction to Distance Sampling. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 79) when transects are positioned at random. However, if populations exhibit strong spatial trends, both estimators can have substantial positive bias under systematic designs. We show that poststratification is effective in reducing this bias. ?? 2008, The International Biometric Society.

  16. Resurrecting the buried self: fairy tales and the analytic encounter.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Linda

    2011-12-01

    The author uses the lens of myth and fairy tales to examine the narratives generated by the analytic experience. Fairy tales are understood as representing fundamental developmental conflicts, accounting for their enduring power over time. The analytic encounter is seen as an analogue of the fairy tale in which the hidden self, damaged by loss and abandonment, reemerges only through the redemptive power of [an] other's love. Clinical material is presented in which hidden parts of the patient's self are projected into the analyst for safekeeping; these hidden parts resonate with the analyst's own lost, unrealized potential and form an intersubjective experience which the author believes is transformative. The patient's dormant powers emerge in a newly experienced atmosphere of recognition, and in this way, the analytic encounter resembles the fairy tale in providing an identificatory bond and a protective space for the patient's hidden vitality. PMID:22221045

  17. Paramedics' experiences and coping strategies when encountering critical incidents.

    PubMed

    Avraham, Nira; Goldblatt, Hadass; Yafe, Eli

    2014-02-01

    Paramedics frequently encounter critical incidents (CIs). Their emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to these encounters present them with a variety of difficulties on the way to, during, and after events. The aim of our study was to examine how paramedics working in a large emergency service organization in Israel experienced CIs and the coping strategies they used to deal with these experiences. We interviewed 15 paramedics from this organization. Through data analysis, we revealed two main themes: (1) between connection and detachment and (2) between control and lack of control of the situation. Paramedics, who connected with their feelings regarding the patient and/or the family in different CIs, as well as those who sensed a lack of control, experienced difficult and negative emotions. To achieve detachment, they used a variety of coping strategies. Those who experienced cognitive and functional control of the situation reported a positive and empowering experience. PMID:24495988

  18. Preliminary imaging results from the second Mercury encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, R. G.; Murray, B. C.; Belton, M. J. S.; Danielson, G. E.; Davies, M. E.; Gault, D. E.; Hapke, B.; Oleary, B.; Trask, N.; Guest, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The second Mercury encounter has resulted in the acquisition of about 360 pictures of the south polar regions which provide a reliable cartographic and geologic tie between the two sides of the planet photographed on the first encounter. Stereoscopic coverage of large areas of the southern hemisphere was obtained by combining Mercury 1 and 2 pictures taken at different viewing angles. The south polar regions consist of heavily cratered terrain and intercrater plains interspersed with patches of smooth plains. No large areas of smooth plains similar to those surrounding Caloris occur in the south polar regions. No new types of terrain have been recognized, but lobate scarps are common. The second largest basin seen by Mariner 10 has been confirmed on the new photography. At high solar elevations the surface displays an abundance of rays and rayed craters.

  19. Characterizing the initial encounter complex in cadherin adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Sivasankar, Sanjeevi; Zhang, Yunxiang; Nelson, W. James; Chu, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Summary Cadherins are Ca2+-dependent cell-cell adhesion proteins with an extracellular region of five domains (EC1 to EC5). Adhesion is mediated by “strand-swapping” of a conserved tryptophan residue in position 2 between EC1 domains of opposing cadherins, but the formation of this structure is not well understood. Using single molecule Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) and single molecule force measurements with the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), we demonstrate that cadherins initially interact via EC1 domains without swapping tryptophan-2 to form a weak Ca2+ dependent initial encounter complex that has 25% of the bond strength of a strand-swapped dimer. We suggest that cadherin dimerization proceeds via an induced fit mechanism where the monomers first form a tryptophan-2 independent initial encounter complex and then undergo subsequent conformational changes to form the final strand-swapped dimer. PMID:19646884

  20. Medical encounters and exchange in early Canadian missions.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The exchange of medical and pharmaceutical knowledge was an important facet of the encounter between native and newcomer in early Canada. Throughout New France Récollet and Jesuit missionaries were given privileged access both to indigenous peoples and indigenous plants. Curiously, however, when it came to describing medical treatments, it was people, rather than medicinal plants, that were targets of what might be called "the descriptive enterprise." Attempting to divide suspect shamanic remedies from those deemed natural, missionary observers carefully documented the context of medical treatments rather than simply the specific remedy applied for treatment. Using records left by early Canadian missionaries this paper will look at the peculiar character of medical exchange in the missions of seventeenth and eighteenth-century New France to look at the interpersonal encounters that formed a constitutive element of colonial botany and framed the way in which indigenous knowledge was represented to metropolitan audiences. PMID:19569387

  1. Voyager Saturn encounter attitude and articulation control experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlisle, G.; Hill, M.

    1981-01-01

    The Voyager attitude and articulation control system is designed for a three-axis stabilized spacecraft; it uses a biasable sun sensor and a Canopus Star Tracker (CST) for celestial control, as well as a dry inertial reference unit, comprised of three dual-axis dry gryos, for inertial control. A series of complex maneuvers was required during the first of two Voyager spacecraft encounters with Saturn (November 13, 1980); these maneuvers involved rotating the spacecraft simultaneously about two or three axes while maintaining accurate pointing of the scan platform. Titan and Saturn earth occulation experiments and a ring scattering experiment are described. Target motion compensation and the effects of celestial sensor interference are also considered. Failure of the CST, which required an extensive reevaluation of the star reference and attitude control mode strategy, is discussed. Results analyzed thus far show that the system performed with high accuracy, gathering data deeper into Saturn's atmosphere than on any previous planetary encounter.

  2. Extra-solar Oort cloud encounters and planetary impact rates

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, A.

    1987-01-01

    Upper limits are estimated to the number density of extra-solar Oort clouds (ESOC) through which the solar system might pass and to the probable number of attendant planetary impacts by comets. All stars are assumed to have Oort clouds. The model is based on the observed stellar spatial density and the ratio of the total number density to the observed number density. It is estimated that 486 close stellar passages and 12,160 ESOC encounters may have occurred. Each encounter would have produced a shower of hyperbolic comets, with the results of 1-3 ESOC impacts with the earth. It is concluded that the great majority of terrestrial cratering events by comets have and will come from solar Oort cloud comets. 19 references.

  3. Kinetics of Diffusing Polymer Encounter in Confined Cellular Microdomains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amitai, A.; Kupka, I.; Holcman, D.

    2013-12-01

    We study the mean first time that two monomers, located on the same polymer, encounter in a confined microdomain. Approximating the confined geometry by a harmonic potential well, we obtain an asymptotic expression for the mean first encounter time (MFETC) as a function of the radius ɛ around one monomer. By studying the end-to-end distance of the polymer in a ball using the Edwards' formalism, we derive an other estimation of the MFETC. We validate the asymptotic formulas using Brownian simulations and derive their range of validity in terms of the polymer length. We apply the present models to compute the mean time for a gene located far away from a promoter site to be activated during looping in confined genomic territories.

  4. Hotspots on Io During the Ganymede 2 Encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) on the Galileo spacecraft imaged Io at high spectral resolution at a range of 439,000 km (275,000 miles) during the G2 encounter on 6 September 1996. This image shows, on the right, Io as seen by NIMS, centered on 150 W longitude. The image on the left shows the same view point from Voyager data (from the encounters in 1979 and 1980). The NIMS image can be compared to the NIMS hotspot image from the G1 orbit (June 1996) to monitor changes on Io. The most dramatic feature of the G2 image is the hotspot at Malik Patera. Preliminary analysis of the data yields a temperature of at least 1000 K (727 C) for this hotspot, an increase of more than 300 K from the G1 encounter. In the overlap area of the G1 and G2 images all the hotspots seen during the G1 encounter are also seen in the G2 image. Other hotspots were seen, including one at the Pele plume origin site. This image is at the 4 micron band to best view the Malik hotspot. Most of the other hotspots are best seen at longer wavelengths. NIMS is continuing to observe Io to monitor volcanic activity throughout the Galileo mission.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  5. An Overview of MESSENGER's First Encounter with Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Slavin, J. A.; Acuna, M. H.; Korth, H.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Raines, J. M.; Gloecker, G.; Gold, R. E.; Ho, G. C.; Krimigis, S. M.; Livi, S. A.; Baker, D. N.; Schriver, D.; Travnicek, P.; Benna, M.; Boardsen, S. A.; McNutt, R. L.; Solomon, S. C.

    2008-05-01

    As the MESSENGER spacecraft performed a gravity assist at Mercury on 14 January 2008, observations were made of Mercury's magnetic field, plasma, and energetic particle environment, including the first-ever ion observations at the planet. Mercury's magnetosphere presents a particularly stiff test of theories of the solar wind interaction with magnetized bodies because both the spatial and temporal kinetic and fluid scales overlap to a considerable degree. This overview provides the context for detailed analyses of the many varied phenomena observed as well as quantitative comparisons with fluid and hybrid simulations of Mercury's magnetosphere for this encounter. The magnetosphere was not as dynamic for MESSENGER's first encounter as it was for the comparable Mariner 10 encounter I. The MESSENGER trajectory passed through the system from the nightside dusk flank, across midnight near the planet, and through the bow shock in the morning sector. The inbound shock crossing was typical of flank shocks at smaller obstacles, but there was a prolonged period of intense magnetic turbulence in the sheath prior to the magnetopause crossing, including multiple flux rope signatures. The inbound magnetopause transit occurred near the center of the tail and included structures indicative of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability at the flank magnetopause. Multiple inclusions of proton plasmas were found close to the planet. Three distinct transitions were observed on the outbound trajectory. The first is attributed to an outer layer of solar wind plasma within the magnetosphere. This was followed by a well-defined magnetopause and subsequently by an encounter with a shock displaying many features of a dynamic re-formation typical of quasi- parallel shocks.

  6. Scientific misconduct encountered by APAME journals: an online survey.

    PubMed

    Looi, Lai-Meng; Wong, Li Xuan; Koh, Cing Chai

    2015-12-01

    In June 2015, invitations were sent by email to 151 APAME journals to participate in an online survey with an objective of gaining insight into the common publication misconduct encountered by APAME editors. The survey, conducted through SurveyMonkey over a 20-day-period, comprised 10 questions with expansions to allow anecdotes limited to 400 characters, estimated to take less than 10 minutes to complete. Only one invitation was issued per journal, targeting (in order of priority) editors, editorial board members and editorial staff, and limited by email availability. 54 (36%) journals responded. 98% of respondents held Editor or Editorial Board positions. All respondent journals have editorial policies on publication ethics and 96% provide instructions related to ethics. 45% use anti-plagiarism software to screen manuscripts, the most popular being iThenticate, CrossCheck and Turnitin. Up to 50% of journals had encountered studies without IRB approval. Author misconduct encountered were (in rank order): plagiarism (75%), duplicate publication (58%), unjustified authorship (39%), authorship disputes (33%), data falsification (29%), data/image manipulation (27%), conflict of interest (25%), copyright violation (17%) and breach of confidentiality (10%). Reviewer misconduct encountered were: conflict of interest (19%), plagiarism (17%), obstructive behavior (17%), abusive language (13%) and breach of confidentiality (13%). Notwithstanding the limitations of the survey and the response rate, a few insights have been gained: (1) the need for strengthening the ethical culture of researchers/authors and reviewers, (2) anti-plagiarism software can improve plagiarism detection by about 15%, and (3) the need for technical support to detect plagiarism, duplicate publication and image manipulation. PMID:26712665

  7. Effects of Soundscapes on Perceived Crowding and Encounter Norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Oh; Shelby, Bo

    2011-07-01

    Soundscapes in recreation settings are becoming an important issue, but there are few studies of the effects of sounds on recreation experiences, especially crowding perceptions and encounter norms. This study compared effects of six types of sounds (an airplane, a truck engine, children playing, birds, water, and a control) on perceived crowding (PC) and encounter norms for hikers. Data were collected from 47 college students through lab experiments using simulated images, with moving hikers inserted in the original photo taken in the Jungmeori area of Mudeungsan Provincial Park in Korea. Overall, the motor-made sounds of the airplane and truck engine increased PC and decreased acceptability ratings, and the natural sounds of birds and water decreased PC and increased acceptability ratings. Ratings of the sound of children playing were similar to those in the control (i.e., no sound). In addition, as numbers of hikers increased, the overall effects of sounds decreased, and there were few significant differences in PC or acceptability ratings at the highest encounter levels. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed.

  8. Stellar encounters involving neutron stars in globular cluster cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, M. B.; Benz, W.; Hills, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Encounters between a 1.4 solar mass neutron star and a 0.8 solar mass red giant (RG) and between a 1.4 solar mass neutron star (NS) and an 0.8 solar mass main-sequence (MS) star have been successfully simulated. In the case of encounters involving an RG, bound systems are produced when the separation at periastron passage R(MIN) is less than about 2.5 R(RG). At least 70 percent of these bound systems are composed of the RG core and NS forming a binary engulfed in a common envelope of what remains of the former RG envelope. Once the envelope is ejected, a tight white dwarf-NS binary remains. For MS stars, encounters with NSs will produce bound systems when R(MIN) is less than about 3.5 R(MS). Some 50 percent of these systems will be single objects with the NS engulfed in a thick disk of gas almost as massive as the original MS star. The ultimate fate of such systems is unclear.

  9. Chatting behavior and patient satisfaction in the outpatient encounter.

    PubMed Central

    Daaleman, Timothy P.; Mueller, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Communication studies suggest that patient sociodemographic factors are embedded within medical encounters and impact patient expectations, judgments, and outcomes, such as satisfaction. Physician chatting has been suggested as one way to enhance patient satisfaction; however, little is known about chatting within the context of the clinical encounter or of the interaction of chatting with patient sociodemographic factors and patient satisfaction. The study's purpose was to determine the prevalence and patterns of chatting, and to examine the association of chatting with patient sociodemographic factors and patient satisfaction with their physician. A convenience sample of adult outpatients from an urban family practice underwent an exit interview. A total of 105 patients participated; 63 (61%) reported chatting from their recent encounter. No sociodemographic differences were observed between patients reporting chatting and those reporting no chatting. Chatting behavior pertaining to the patient's family or friends was the predominant topic, and more nonwhite (30%) than white (13%) patients reported this activity (p<0.001). There was no significant difference in satisfaction scores between patients that reported chatting behavior and those that did not (23.73 vs. 22.79, p=0.076). In addition, there was no difference in patient satisfaction scores for physician personal manner, technical skill, visit explanation, time spent with the physician, and overall visit between the chatting and nonchatting groups. PMID:15160982

  10. Viral video: Live imaging of virus-host encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Kwangmin; Guasto, Jeffrey S.; Cubillos-Ruiz, Andres; Chisholm, Sallie W.; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Stocker, Roman

    2014-11-01

    Viruses are non-motile infectious agents that rely on Brownian motion to encounter and subsequently adsorb to their hosts. Paradoxically, the viral adsorption rate is often reported to be larger than the theoretical limit imposed by the virus-host encounter rate, highlighting a major gap in the experimental quantification of virus-host interactions. Here we present the first direct quantification of the viral adsorption rate, obtained using live imaging of individual host cells and viruses for thousands of encounter events. The host-virus pair consisted of Prochlorococcus MED4, a 800 nm small non-motile bacterium that dominates photosynthesis in the oceans, and its virus PHM-2, a myovirus that has a 80 nm icosahedral capsid and a 200 nm long rigid tail. We simultaneously imaged hosts and viruses moving by Brownian motion using two-channel epifluorescent microscopy in a microfluidic device. This detailed quantification of viral transport yielded a 20-fold smaller adsorption efficiency than previously reported, indicating the need for a major revision in infection models for marine and likely other ecosystems.

  11. Human collective dynamics: Two groups in adversarial encounter. [melete code

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, D.L.; Harlow, F.H.; Genin, K.E.

    1988-04-01

    The behavior of a group of people depends strongly on the interaction of personal (individual) traits with the collective moods of the group as a whole. We have developed a computer program to model circumstances of this nature with recognition of the crucial role played by such psychological properties as fear, excitement, peer pressure, moral outrage, and anger, together with the distribution among participants of intrinsic susceptibilities to these emotions. This report extends previous work to consider two groups of people in adversarial encounter, for example, two platoons in battle, a SWAT team against rioting prisoners, or opposing mobs of different ethnic backgrounds. Closely related applications of the modeling include prowling groups of predatory animals interacting with herds of prey, and even the ''slow-mob'' behavior of social or political units in their response to legislative or judicial activities. Examples in this present study emphasize battlefield encounters, with each group characterizzed by its susceptibilities, skills, and other manifestions of both intentional and accidental circumstances. Specifically, we investigate the relative importance of leadership, camaraderie, training level (i.e. skill in firing weapons), bravery, excitability, and dedication in the battle performance of personnel with random or specified distributions of capabilities and susceptibilities in these various regards. The goal is to exhibit the probable outcome of these encounters in circumstances involving specified battle goals and distributions of terrain impediments. A collateral goal is to provide a real-time hands-on battle simulator into which a leadership trainee can insert his own interactive command.

  12. GIOTTO-Halley encounter - When was the large nutation generated?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetzold, M.; Bird, M. K.; Volland, H.

    1991-04-01

    It is generally believed that a very large dust particle with mass greater than 100 mg hit the GIOTTO spacecraft 7.6 sec before encounter, induced the switchover from the primary X-band amplifier (TWT) the redundant unit, generated the observable post-encounter nutation of about 1 deg and was responsible for the 22 sec telemetry loss during the phase of closest approach to Comet Halley. Using the data of the GIOTTO Radio-Science Experiment (GRE), it is shown that the signal loss was caused by an off-pointing of the antenna dish. The drop in signal level, however, is not consistent with the spacecraft having a nutation of 1 deg at this time. It is concluded that the off-pointing of the antenna dish is most likely due to an error in the High Gain Antenna (HGA) Design Control System resulting from an electrical discharge at t(0) - 8 sec and that the large nutation was generated during the telemetry blackout by the impacts of several large dust particles in the interval from 2 sec before to 18 sec after encounter.

  13. Lessons Learned During Solutions of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Suna N.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Hopkins, Dale A.; Lavelle, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    Optimization research at NASA Glenn Research Center has addressed the design of structures, aircraft and airbreathing propulsion engines. During solution of the multidisciplinary problems several issues were encountered. This paper lists four issues and discusses the strategies adapted for their resolution: (1) The optimization process can lead to an inefficient local solution. This deficiency was encountered during design of an engine component. The limitation was overcome through an augmentation of animation into optimization. (2) Optimum solutions obtained were infeasible for aircraft and air-breathing propulsion engine problems. Alleviation of this deficiency required a cascading of multiple algorithms. (3) Profile optimization of a beam produced an irregular shape. Engineering intuition restored the regular shape for the beam. (4) The solution obtained for a cylindrical shell by a subproblem strategy converged to a design that can be difficult to manufacture. Resolution of this issue remains a challenge. The issues and resolutions are illustrated through six problems: (1) design of an engine component, (2) synthesis of a subsonic aircraft, (3) operation optimization of a supersonic engine, (4) design of a wave-rotor-topping device, (5) profile optimization of a cantilever beam, and (6) design of a cvlindrical shell. The combined effort of designers and researchers can bring the optimization method from academia to industry.

  14. The molecular matching problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kincaid, Rex K.

    1993-01-01

    Molecular chemistry contains many difficult optimization problems that have begun to attract the attention of optimizers in the Operations Research community. Problems including protein folding, molecular conformation, molecular similarity, and molecular matching have been addressed. Minimum energy conformations for simple molecular structures such as water clusters, Lennard-Jones microclusters, and short polypeptides have dominated the literature to date. However, a variety of interesting problems exist and we focus here on a molecular structure matching (MSM) problem.

  15. Low encounter speed comet COMA sample return missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, P.; Yen, C. W.; Albee, A. L.

    1994-01-01

    Comets, being considered the most primitive bodies in the solar system, command the highest priority among solar-system objects for studying solar nebula evolution and the evolution of life through biogenic elements and compounds. The study of comets, and more especially, of material from them, provides an understanding of the physical, chemical, and mineralogical processes operative in the formation and earliest development of the solar systems. These return samples will provide valuable information on comets and serve as a rosetta stone for the analytical studies conducted on interplanetary dust particles over the past two decades, and will provide much needed extraterrestrial samples for the planetary materials community since the Apollo program. Lander sample return missions require rather complex spacecraft, intricate operations, and costly propulsion systems. By contrast, it is possible to take a highly simplified approach for sample capture and return in the case of a comet. In the past, we have considered Earth free-return trajectory to the comet, in which passive collectors intercept dust and volatiles from the cometary coma. However, standard short period cometary free-return trajectories results in the comet to the spacecraft encounter speeds in the range of 10 km/s. At these speeds the kinetic energy of the capture process can render significant modification of dust structure, change of solid phase as well as the lost of volatiles components. This paper presents a class of new missions with trajectories with significant reduction of encounter speeds by incorporating gravity assists and deep space maneuvering. Low encounter speed cometary flyby sample return will enable a marked increase in the value of the return science. Acquiring thousands of samples from a known comet and thousands of images of a comet nucleus would be space firsts. Applying new approach in flight mechanics to generate a new class of low encounter speed cometary sample return

  16. Managing uncertainty: a grounded theory of stigma in transgender health care encounters.

    PubMed

    Poteat, Tonia; German, Danielle; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2013-05-01

    A growing body of literature supports stigma and discrimination as fundamental causes of health disparities. Stigma and discrimination experienced by transgender people have been associated with increased risk for depression, suicide, and HIV. Transgender stigma and discrimination experienced in health care influence transgender people's health care access and utilization. Thus, understanding how stigma and discrimination manifest and function in health care encounters is critical to addressing health disparities for transgender people. A qualitative, grounded theory approach was taken to this study of stigma in health care interactions. Between January and July 2011, fifty-five transgender people and twelve medical providers participated in one-time in-depth interviews about stigma, discrimination, and health care interactions between providers and transgender patients. Due to the social and institutional stigma against transgender people, their care is excluded from medical training. Therefore, providers approach medical encounters with transgender patients with ambivalence and uncertainty. Transgender people anticipate that providers will not know how to meet their needs. This uncertainty and ambivalence in the medical encounter upsets the normal balance of power in provider-patient relationships. Interpersonal stigma functions to reinforce the power and authority of the medical provider during these interactions. Functional theories of stigma posit that we hold stigmatizing attitudes because they serve specific psychological functions. However, these theories ignore how hierarchies of power in social relationships serve to maintain and reinforce inequalities. The findings of this study suggest that interpersonal stigma also functions to reinforce medical power and authority in the face of provider uncertainty. Within functional theories of stigma, it is important to acknowledge the role of power and to understand how stigmatizing attitudes function to maintain

  17. How Ministers Understand and Address Emotional and Sexual Pressures in Ministry Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Genise Aria

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of ministers in regard to how they understand and address emotional and sexual pressures encountered in ministry work. The research was guided by four questions: How do practicing ministers in the Church of Antioch describe and understand pressures in their work settings that they see as emotional or sexual in…

  18. Study of the Mutual Interaction Between a Wing Wake and an Encountering Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walden, A. B.; vanDam, C. P.

    1996-01-01

    In an effort to increase airport productivity, several wind-tunnel and flight-test programs are currently underway to determine safe reductions in separation standards between aircraft. These programs are designed to study numerous concepts from the characteristics and detection of wake vortices to the wake-vortex encounter phenomenon. As part of this latter effort, computational tools are being developed and utilized as a means of modeling and verifying wake-vortex hazard encounters. The objective of this study is to assess the ability of PMARC, a low-order potential-flow panel method, to predict the forces and moments imposed on a following business-jet configuration by a vortex interaction. Other issues addressed include the investigation of several wake models and their ability to predict wake shape and trajectory, the validity of the velocity field imposed on the following configuration, modeling techniques and the effect of the high-lift system and the empennage. Comparisons with wind-tunnel data reveal that PMARC predicts the characteristics for the clean wing-body following configuration fairly well. Non-linear effects produced by the addition of the high-lift system and empennage, however, are not so well predicted.

  19. Modulation of Pleurodeles waltl DNA polymerase mu expression by extreme conditions encountered during spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Schenten, Véronique; Guéguinou, Nathan; Baatout, Sarah; Frippiat, Jean-Pol

    2013-01-01

    DNA polymerase µ is involved in DNA repair, V(D)J recombination and likely somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes. Our previous studies demonstrated that spaceflight conditions affect immunoglobulin gene expression and somatic hypermutation frequency. Consequently, we questioned whether Polμ expression could also be affected. To address this question, we characterized Polμ of the Iberian ribbed newt Pleurodeles waltl and exposed embryos of that species to spaceflight conditions or to environmental modifications corresponding to those encountered in the International Space Station. We noted a robust expression of Polμ mRNA during early ontogenesis and in the testis, suggesting that Polμ is involved in genomic stability. Full-length Polμ transcripts are 8-9 times more abundant in P. waltl than in humans and mice, thereby providing an explanation for the somatic hypermutation predilection of G and C bases in amphibians. Polμ transcription decreases after 10 days of development in space and radiation seem primarily involved in this down-regulation. However, space radiation, alone or in combination with a perturbation of the circadian rhythm, did not affect Polμ protein levels and did not induce protein oxidation, showing the limited impact of radiation encountered during a 10-day stay in the International Space Station. PMID:23936065

  20. Problem solving in health services organizations.

    PubMed

    Rakich, J S; Krigline, A B

    1996-01-01

    Health services organization managers at all levels are constantly confronted with problems. Conditions encountered that initiate the need for problem solving are opportunity, threat, crisis, deviation, and improvement. A general problem-solving model presenting an orderly process by which managers can approach this important task is described. An example of the model applied to the current strategic climate is presented. PMID:10158720

  1. Motion/visual cueing requirements for vortex encounters during simulated transport visual approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, R. V.; Bowles, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper addresses the issues of motion/visual cueing fidelity requirements for vortex encounters during simulated transport visual approaches and landings. Four simulator configurations were utilized to provide objective performance measures during simulated vortex penetrations, and subjective comments from pilots were collected. The configurations used were as follows: fixed base with visual degradation (delay), fixed base with no visual degradation, moving base with visual degradation (delay), and moving base with no visual degradation. The statistical comparisons of the objective measures and the subjective pilot opinions indicated that although both minimum visual delay and motion cueing are recommended for the vortex penetration task, the visual-scene delay characteristics were not as significant a fidelity factor as was the presence of motion cues. However, this indication was applicable to a restricted task, and to transport aircraft. Although they were statistically significant, the effects of visual delay and motion cueing on the touchdown-related measures were considered to be of no practical consequence.

  2. Respect in final-year student nurse–patient encounters – an interpretative phenomenological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Clucas, Claudine; Chapman, Hazel M.

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known regarding health-care professionals' understanding and experiences of respect towards patients. The study aimed to explore student nurses' understanding and experiences of respect in their encounters with patients. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight final-year student nurses with practice placements across different health-care trusts in the UK. Transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Three super-ordinate themes were identified: understanding of what it means to show respect, negotiating role expectations and personal attitudes in practice, and barriers related to the performance of the nursing role. The factors identified should be investigated further and addressed as they are likely to influence patients' experiences of feeling respected in nurse–patient interactions and subsequently their well-being and health-related behaviours. PMID:25750810

  3. Addressing Bullying: Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Bradford C.

    2010-01-01

    Bullying can be a serious and damaging experience for students today. The children who bully are more likely to be truant; drop out of school; or engage in alcohol, tobacco, or other drug abuse, and children who are bullied are more likely to experience depression, low self-esteem, health problems, poor grades, and suicidal thoughts. In addition,…

  4. State of the Workforce Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dole, Elizabeth

    The U.S. work force is unready for the new jobs, unready for the new realities, unready for the new challenges of the 1990s. Across the board, jobs are demanding better reading, writing, and reasoning skills and more math and science. Statistics define the scope of the problem: 25 percent of young people drop out of high school; 70 percent of all…

  5. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  6. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  7. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  8. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  9. The Algorithm Selection Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, Steve; Allen, John; Deiss, Ron (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Work on NP-hard problems has shown that many instances of these theoretically computationally difficult problems are quite easy. The field has also shown that choosing the right algorithm for the problem can have a profound effect on the time needed to find a solution. However, to date there has been little work showing how to select the right algorithm for solving any particular problem. The paper refers to this as the algorithm selection problem. It describes some of the aspects that make this problem difficult, as well as proposes a technique for addressing it.

  10. Mathematical Metaphors: Problem Reformulation and Analysis Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the critical need for the development of intelligent or assisting software tools for the scientist who is working in the initial problem formulation and mathematical model representation stage of research. In particular, examples of that representation in fluid dynamics and instability theory are discussed. The creation of a mathematical model that is ready for application of certain solution strategies requires extensive symbolic manipulation of the original mathematical model. These manipulations can be as simple as term reordering or as complicated as discovery of various symmetry groups embodied in the equations, whereby Backlund-type transformations create new determining equations and integrability conditions or create differential Grobner bases that are then solved in place of the original nonlinear PDEs. Several examples are presented of the kinds of problem formulations and transforms that can be frequently encountered in model representation for fluids problems. The capability of intelligently automating these types of transforms, available prior to actual mathematical solution, is advocated. Physical meaning and assumption-understanding can then be propagated through the mathematical transformations, allowing for explicit strategy development.

  11. What is a medical decision? A taxonomy based on physician statements in hospital encounters: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ofstad, Eirik H; Frich, Jan C; Schei, Edvin; Frankel, Richard M; Gulbrandsen, Pål

    2016-01-01

    Objective The medical literature lacks a comprehensive taxonomy of decisions made by physicians in medical encounters. Such a taxonomy might be useful in understanding the physician-centred, patient-centred and shared decision-making in clinical settings. We aimed to identify and classify all decisions emerging in conversations between patients and physicians. Design Qualitative study of video recorded patient–physician encounters. Participants and setting 380 patients in consultations with 59 physicians from 17 clinical specialties and three different settings (emergency room, ward round, outpatient clinic) in a Norwegian teaching hospital. A randomised sample of 30 encounters from internal medicine was used to identify and classify decisions, a maximum variation sample of 20 encounters was used for reliability assessments, and the remaining encounters were analysed to test for applicability across specialties. Results On the basis of physician statements in our material, we developed a taxonomy of clinical decisions—the Decision Identification and Classification Taxonomy for Use in Medicine (DICTUM). We categorised decisions into 10 mutually exclusive categories: gathering additional information, evaluating test results, defining problem, drug-related, therapeutic procedure-related, legal and insurance-related, contact-related, advice and precaution, treatment goal, and deferment. Four-coder inter-rater reliability using Krippendorff's α was 0.79. Conclusions DICTUM represents a precise, detailed and comprehensive taxonomy of medical decisions communicated within patient–physician encounters. Compared to previous normative frameworks, the taxonomy is descriptive, substantially broader and offers new categories to the variety of clinical decisions. The taxonomy could prove helpful in studies on the quality of medical work, use of time and resources, and understanding of why, when and how patients are or are not involved in decisions. PMID:26868946

  12. Anomalous diffusion and multifractality enhance mating encounters in the ocean.

    PubMed

    Seuront, Laurent; Stanley, H Eugene

    2014-02-11

    For millimeter-scale aquatic crustaceans such as copepods, ensuring reproductive success is a challenge as potential mates are often separated by hundreds of body lengths in a 3D environment. At the evolutionary scale, this led to the development of remote sensing abilities and behavioral strategies to locate, to track, and to capture a mate. Chemoreception plays a crucial role in increasing mate encounter rates through pheromone clouds and pheromone trails that can be followed over many body lengths. Empirical evidence of trail following behavior is, however, limited to laboratory experiments conducted in still water. An important open question concerns what happens in the turbulent waters of the surface ocean. We propose that copepods experience, and hence react to, a bulk-phase water pheromone concentration. Here we investigate the mating behavior of two key copepod species, Temora longicornis and Eurytemora affinis, to assess the role of background pheromone concentration and the relative roles played by males and females in mating encounters. We find that both males and females react to background pheromone concentration and exhibit both innate and acquired components in their mating strategies. The emerging swimming behaviors have stochastic properties that depend on pheromone concentration, sex, and species, are related to the level of reproductive experience of the individual tested, and significantly diverge from both the Lévy and Brownian models identified in predators searching for low- and high-density prey. Our results are consistent with an adaptation to increase mate encounter rates and hence to optimize reproductive fitness and success. PMID:24469823

  13. Prevalence of abusive encounters in the workplace of family physicians

    PubMed Central

    Miedema, Baukje; Hamilton, Ryan; Lambert-Lanning, Anita; Tatemichi, Sue R.; Lemire, Francine; Manca, Donna; Ramsden, Vivian R.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine the career prevalence of abusive encounters for family physicians in Canada. DESIGN A 7-page cross-sectional mailed survey in English and French. SETTING Canada. PARTICIPANTS A total of 3802 randomly selected practising family physicians who were members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Demographic characteristics of survey participants, career prevalence of abusive encounters, and perpetrators of abuse. MAIN FINDINGS Twenty percent (20.4%) of the surveys (n = 774) were returned. Of the respondents, 44% were men and 56% were women. Most were in private practice in urban settings. The average number of years in practice was 15. The career prevalence of abusive encounters was divided into “minor,” “major,” and “severe” incidents. Of all the respondents, 98% had experienced at least 1 incident of minor abuse, 75% had experienced at least 1 incident of major abuse, and 39% had experienced at least 1 incident of severe abuse. Using χ2 analysis, a number of demographic variables were found to be significantly associated with abuse including the physician’s race and sex. Patients were the most common perpetrators of abuse. Ninety percent of family physicians surveyed reported that they had been abused by patients, while 70% reported that they had been abused by family members of patients. CONCLUSION Approximately 2 in 5 family physicians surveyed were subjected to a considerable amount of severe abuse during practice. Abuse in the office setting might have grave consequences for the health and well-being of the victimized physicians and might hinder service retention where the risk of abuse is greatest. PMID:20228289

  14. Encounters with Science at ULA, Venezuela: An Incentive for Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, P.

    2006-08-01

    In the School of Science of the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA), in Mérida, Venezuela, a very successful event focused on high school students and primary school students, was founded in 2000. The name of this event is "Encounters with Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, and Biology" (hereinafter "Encounters with Science"), and it integrates these disciplines as well as Astronomy. Its main purpose is that young minds can become familiar with the methods of science inquiry and reasoning, and can understand the concepts and processes of the sciences through thoroughly prepared experiences. This flourishing program is continuing to grow and to become strong. As a matter of fact, in its sixth edition (2005), the number of high and elementary school students coming from all over the country, has reached the outstanding number of nine thousand. Among all the experiences that the students could be engaged in were many involving Astronomy. These experiences were prepared by professors, together with graduate and undergraduate students, who are pursuing their degrees in all branches of science including astronomy. Although there is this incredible team of faculties and graduate and undergraduate students working together; the target is the students of the high and elementary schools. We certainly focus on the engaging and encouraging of students to experience scientific work first hand. Additionally, our professors have prepared an excellent didactic material that can, together with the hour/class teaching, prepare high school and elementary school students for a better understanding of science; particularly, helping in this way for a better education in Astronomy. The main event of the Encounters lasts five days in the School of Science of ULA, but subsidiary events are spread all over the year and around the country. As a successful program, it can be interesting to see if other countries can adopt this method to recruit or to trigger the interest of students to pursue their

  15. Excitation of the orbital inclination of Iapetus during planetary encounters

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Deienno, Rogerio; Walsh, Kevin J.

    2014-09-01

    Saturn's moon, Iapetus, has an orbit in a transition region where the Laplace surface is bending from the equator to the orbital plane of Saturn. The orbital inclination of Iapetus to the local Laplace plane is ≅ 8°, which is unexpected because the inclination should be ≅ 0 if Iapetus formed from a circumplanetary disk on the Laplace surface. It thus appears that some process has pumped up Iapetus's inclination while leaving its eccentricity near zero (e ≅ 0.03 at present). Here, we examined the possibility that Iapetus's inclination was excited during the early solar system instability when encounters between Saturn and ice giants occurred. We found that the dynamical effects of planetary encounters on Iapetus's orbit sensitively depend on the distance of the few closest encounters. In 4 out of 10 instability cases studied here, the orbital perturbations were too large to be plausible. In one case, Iapetus's orbit was practically unaffected. In the remaining five cases, the perturbations of Iapetus's inclination were adequate to explain its present value. In three of these cases, however, Iapetus's eccentricity was excited to >0.1-0.25, and it is not clear whether it could have been damped to its present value (≅ 0.03) by a subsequent process (e.g., tides and dynamical friction from captured irregular satellites do not seem to be strong enough). Our results therefore imply that only 2 out of 10 instability cases (∼20%) can excite Iapetus's inclination to its current value (∼30% of trials lead to >5°) while leaving its orbital eccentricity low.

  16. The multimessenger picture of compact object encounters: binary mergers versus dynamical collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosswog, S.; Piran, T.; Nakar, E.

    2013-04-01

    We explore the multimessenger signatures of encounters between two neutron stars (ns2) and between a neutron star and a stellar mass black hole (nsbh). We focus on the differences between gravitational-wave-driven binary mergers and dynamical collisions that occur, for example, in globular clusters. Our discussion is based on Newtonian hydrodynamics simulations that incorporate a nuclear equation of state and a multiflavour neutrino treatment. For both types of encounters we compare the gravitational wave and neutrino emission properties. We also calculate the rates at which nearly unbound mass is delivered back to the central remnant in a ballistic-fallback-plus-viscous-disc model and we analyse the properties of the dynamically ejected matter. Last but not least we address the electromagnetic transients that accompany each type of encounter. We find that dynamical collisions are at least as promising as binary mergers for producing (short) gamma-ray bursts, but they also share the same possible caveats in terms of baryonic pollution. All encounter remnants produce peak neutrino luminosities of at least ˜1053 erg s-1, some of the collision cases exceed this value by more than an order of magnitude. The canonical ns2 merger case ejects more than 1 per cent of a solar mass of extremely neutron-rich (Ye ˜ 0.03) material, an amount that is consistent with double neutron star mergers being a major source of r-process in the galaxy. nsbh collisions eject very large amounts of matter (˜0.15 M⊙) which seriously constrains their admissible occurrence rates. The compact object collision rate (sum of ns2 and nsbh) must therefore be less, likely much less, than 10 per cent of the ns2 merger rate. The radioactively decaying ejecta produce optical-ultraviolet `macronova' which, for the canonical merger case, peak after ˜0.4 d with a luminosity of ˜5 × 1041 erg s-1. ns2 (nsbh) collisions reach up to two (four) times larger peak luminosities. The dynamic ejecta deposit a

  17. Structure and Function of Transient Encounters of Redox Proteins.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander N

    2015-12-15

    Many biomolecular interactions proceed via lowly populated, transient intermediates. Believed to facilitate formation of a productive complex, these short-lived species are inaccessible to conventional biophysical and structural techniques and, until recently, could only be studied by theoretical simulations. Recent development of experimental approaches sensitive to the presence of minor species--in particular paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) NMR spectroscopy--has enabled direct visualization and detailed characterization of such lowly populated states. Collectively referred to as an encounter complex, the binding intermediates are particularly important in transient protein interactions, such as those orchestrating signaling cascades or energy-generating electron transfer (ET) chains. Here I discuss encounter complexes of redox proteins mediating biological ET reactions, which are essential for many vital cellular activities including oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis. In particular, this Account focuses on the complex of cytochrome c (Cc) and cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP), which is a paradigm of biomolecular ET and an attractive system for studying protein binding and enzymatic catalysis. The Cc-CcP complex formation proceeds via an encounter state, consisting of multiple protein-protein orientations sampled in the search of the dominant, functionally active bound form and exhibiting a broad spatial distribution, in striking agreement with earlier theoretical simulations. At low ionic strength, CcP binds another Cc molecule to form a weak ternary complex, initially inferred from kinetics experiments and postulated to account for the measured ET activity. Despite strenuous efforts, the ternary complex could not be observed directly and remained eagerly sought for the past two decades. Very recently, we have solved its structure in solution and shown that it consists of two binding forms: the dominant, ET-inactive geometry and an ensemble of

  18. Coincidence studies of diffraction structures in binary encounter electron spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C.; Hagmann, S.; Richard, P.

    1994-12-31

    The authors have measured binary encounter electron (BEe) production in collisions of 0.3 MeV/u Cu{sup q+} (q=4,12) projectiles on H{sub 2} targets from 0 to 70 degrees with respect to the beam direction. Prominent features are the appearance of the BEe peak splitting and a very strong forward peaked angular distribution which are attributed to the diffractive scattering of the quasifree target electrons in the short range potential of the projectile. Using electron-projectile final charge state coincidence techniques, different collision reaction channels can be separated. Measurements of this type are being pursued.

  19. Galilean satellite ephemeris improvement using Galileo tour encounter information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murrow, D. W.; Jacobson, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Accurate navigation of the satellite tour portion of the Galileo mission requires an accurate ephemeris of the Galilean satellites. The ephemeris is updated using radiometric and optical tracking data acquired during the satellite tour. The improved accuracy of the satellite ephemeris leads to improved targeting accuracy at subsequent encounters. The Galileo mission will benefit from improved targeting accuracy through reduced propellant costs and improved pointing accuracy. The predicted error in the updated ephemeris can be less than approximations inherent in the analytical theory used for the ephemeris, so an alternate numerical representation is applied. This alternate description shows promise but also raises questions of numerical stability.

  20. Challenges Encountered Using Ophthalmic Anesthetics in Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayuse, T.; Law, J.; Alexander, D.; Moynihan, S.; LeBlanc, C.; Langford, K.; Magalhaes, L.

    2015-01-01

    On orbit, ophthalmic anesthetics are used for tonometry and off-nominal corneal examinations. Proparacaine has been flown traditionally. However, the manufacturers recently changed its storage requirements from room temperature storage to refrigerated storage to preserve stability and prolong the shelf-life. Since refrigeration on orbit is not readily available and there were stability concerns about flying proparacaine unrefrigerated, tetracaine was selected as an alternative ophthalmic anesthetic in 2013. We will discuss the challenges encountered flying and using these anesthetics on the International Space Station.

  1. Vegetable Granuloma in Pindborg’s Tumor: A Rare Encounter

    PubMed Central

    Sowmya, S V; Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S

    2014-01-01

    Vegetable granuloma (VG) or pulse granuloma is an enigmatic lesion in terms of its designated nomenclature and etiopathogenesis. It is less often reported in the walls of inflammatory and developmental odontogenic cysts. It can present different histological characteristics, possibly related to the length of time in the tissue and its location. Due to its deceptive appearance, it can often mislead the pathologists. Here, we report an unusual encounter of VG in a Pindborg’s tumor, which is the first of its kind in the literature. PMID:25214745

  2. Vegetable Granuloma in Pindborg's Tumor: A Rare Encounter.

    PubMed

    Sowmya, S V; Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S

    2014-07-01

    Vegetable granuloma (VG) or pulse granuloma is an enigmatic lesion in terms of its designated nomenclature and etiopathogenesis. It is less often reported in the walls of inflammatory and developmental odontogenic cysts. It can present different histological characteristics, possibly related to the length of time in the tissue and its location. Due to its deceptive appearance, it can often mislead the pathologists. Here, we report an unusual encounter of VG in a Pindborg's tumor, which is the first of its kind in the literature. PMID:25214745

  3. Trailing Vortex-Induced Loads During Close Encounters in Cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, Michael R.; Lesieutre, Daniel J; Kelly, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The trailing vortex induced aerodynamic loads on a Falcon 20G business jet flying in the wake of a DC-8 are predicted to provide a preflight estimate of safe trail distances during flight test measurements in the wake. Static and dynamic loads on the airframe flying in the near wake are shown at a matrix of locations, and the dynamic motion of the Falcon 20G during traverses of the DC-8 primary trailing vortex is simulated. Safe trailing distances for the test flights are determined, and optimum vortex traverse schemes are identified to moderate the motion of the trailing aircraft during close encounters with the vortex wake.

  4. Mercury's helium exosphere after Mariner 10's third encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, S. A.; Hartle, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    From Mariner 10 third encounter UV data, a value of .00045 was calculated as the fraction of the solar wind He++ flux intercepted and captured by Mercury's magnetosphere if the observed He atmosphere is maintained by the solar wind. If an internal source for He prevails, the corresponding upper bound for the global outgassing rate is estimated to be 4.5 x 10 to the 22nd power per sec. A surface temperature distribution was used which satisfies the heat equation over Mercury's entire surface using Mariner 10 determined mean surface thermal characteristics. The means stand off distance of Mercury's magnetopause averaged over Mercury's orbit was also used.

  5. Predicting close encounters between asteroids with the STB software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilly (Schunova), Eva; Jonas, Jeff; Srivatsa, Mudhakar; Ganti, Raghu; Agrawal, Dakshi; Denneau, Larry; Kratky, Martin; Wainscoat, Richard J.

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a method that can quickly and efficiently calculate close encounters between all known asteroids both in the past and the future. Only several hundred asteroids out of more than 690,000 have their masses currently known. The most accurate values are from direct measurements by in situ visits (e.g. Dawn at Ceres and Vesta (Russell et al. 2012, Science 336, 6082, pp. 684), Hayabusa at Itokawa (Abe et al. 2006, Science 312, 5778, pp. 1344-1349)) followed by measurements of binary systems and also from mutual orbit perturbations during close encounters between a handful of the largest MBAs.We used software called “Space Time Box” (STB) invented by IBM capable of efficiently determine co-located entities in 3D space and time. Orbits from the MPCORB.DAT database were placed into selected STB granularity with 1 day and 0.05 AU-wide bins. By determining and only tracking asteroids co-located within a selected minimal distance the computational requirements were significantly reduced. Selected instances of co-location were then provided as an input for a numerical integrator SWIFT with 8 planets as perturbers and were integrated until desired epoch with a 0.5 and 1 day timestep. We then used interpolation for the specified time window to check if the positions of asteroids intersect or are within a certain distance parameter.Using the STB optimization we calculated close encounters between years 2014 and 2039. These events offer the opportunity to search in the survey archives for potential collisions and carefully select the events for mass determination based on their minimal approach distance, angle and mass ratio of participating objects. A follow-up astrometric campaign would ensure improvement of the mass determination precision. Predicted future events can also be directly observed in the real time with optical and IR telescopes in search for collisions or mass loss.As an example we present one close encounter event observed with the University

  6. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  7. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  8. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  10. Efficient detection of contagious outbreaks in massive metropolitan encounter networks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Cebrian, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Physical contact remains difficult to trace in large metropolitan networks, though it is a key vehicle for the transmission of contagious outbreaks. Co-presence encounters during daily transit use provide us with a city-scale time-resolved physical contact network, consisting of 1 billion contacts among 3 million transit users. Here, we study the advantage that knowledge of such co-presence structures may provide for early detection of contagious outbreaks. We first examine the "friend sensor" scheme--a simple, but universal strategy requiring only local information--and demonstrate that it provides significant early detection of simulated outbreaks. Taking advantage of the full network structure, we then identify advanced "global sensor sets", obtaining substantial early warning times savings over the friends sensor scheme. Individuals with highest number of encounters are the most efficient sensors, with performance comparable to individuals with the highest travel frequency, exploratory behavior and structural centrality. An efficiency balance emerges when testing the dependency on sensor size and evaluating sensor reliability; we find that substantial and reliable lead-time could be attained by monitoring only 0.01% of the population with the highest degree. PMID:24903017

  11. Close Encounters of Asteroids and Comets to Planets

    SciTech Connect

    Hills, J.G.; Goda, M.P.; Solem, J.C.

    1999-07-09

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors find by numerical simulations that the elongated-potato shape that is characteristic of Earth-crossing asteroids (ECAs) is likely the result of previous close tidal encounters with Earth. Some meteoroids graze the atmosphere of Earth before returning to space (at reduced speed). They used a spherical atmospheric model to study such grazers to find the condition under which they are captured into gravitationally bound orbits around Earth. They find that for about every thousand iron asteroids that hit the Earth, one is captured into a gravitational-bound orbit. Some fraction of these captured objects will have their orbits stabilized for many revolutions by tidal encounters with the Moon and the sun. They have also studied how the damage produced by such grazing and near-grazing asteroids differs from that produced by asteroids that hit Earth more directly.

  12. Superkicks in ultrarelativistic encounters of spinning black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Sperhake, Ulrich; Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Pretorius, Frans; Yunes, Nicolas

    2011-01-15

    We study ultrarelativistic encounters of two spinning, equal-mass black holes through simulations in full numerical relativity. Two initial data sequences are studied in detail: one that leads to scattering and one that leads to a grazing collision and merger. In all cases, the initial black hole spins lie in the orbital plane, a configuration that leads to the so-called superkicks. In astrophysical, quasicircular inspirals, such kicks can be as large as {approx}3000 km/s; here, we find configurations that exceed {approx}15 000 km/s. We find that the maximum recoil is to a good approximation proportional to the total amount of energy radiated in gravitational waves, but largely independent of whether a merger occurs or not. This shows that the mechanism predominantly responsible for the superkick is not related to merger dynamics. Rather, a consistent explanation is that the ''bobbing'' motion of the orbit causes an asymmetric beaming of the radiation produced by the in-plane orbital motion of the binary, and the net asymmetry is balanced by a recoil. We use our results to formulate some conjectures on the ultimate kick achievable in any black hole encounter.

  13. Problems Facing Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, C. E.; And Others

    Problems facing rural Scottish schools range from short term consideration of daily operation to long term consideration of organizational alternatives. Addressed specifically, such problems include consideration of: (1) liaison between a secondary school and its feeder primary schools; (2) preservice teacher training for work in small, isolated…

  14. Problems in baryon spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Capstick, S.

    1994-04-01

    Current issues and problems in the physics of ground- and excited-state baryons are considered, and are classified into those which should be resolved by CEBAF in its present form, and those which may require CEBAF to undergo an energy upgrade to 8 GeV or more. Recent theoretical developments designed to address these problems are outlined.

  15. How is environmental conflict addressed by SIA?

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, C.J.

    2010-09-15

    The fields of Environmental Conflict Management (ECM), Environmental Conflict Resolution (ECR), and Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) have become well established; however, as yet there has not been much use of Social Impact Assessment (SIA) to manage environmental conflicts. ECM, ECR and PCIA are mainly undertaken when problems are advanced or, more likely, have run their course (post-conflict). This paper examines how conflict is addressed by SIA and whether there is potential to develop it for more proactive assessment of conflicts (pre-conflict or while things develop). SIA has the potential to identify and clarify the cause(s) of environmental and natural resources conflicts, and could possibly enable some avoidance or early mitigation. A promising approach may be for 'conflict-aware' SIA to watch for critical conflict stages or thresholds and to monitor stakeholders. Effective conflict-aware SIA might also significantly contribute to efforts to achieve sustainable development.

  16. Addressing Science Use Cases with HELIO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, R. D.; Aboudarham, J.; Csillaghy, A.; Jacquey, C.; Hapgood, M. A.; Messerotti, M.; Gallagher, P.; Bocchialini, K.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Roberts, D.; Sanchez Duarte, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Heliophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) is a new VO project funded under the EC's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). It includes thirteen partners scattered over six countries and is led by University College London. HELIO is designed to support the heliophysics community and is based on a Service Oriented Architecture. The services developed by and integrated into HELIO can be used to address a wide range of science problems; they can be used individually or as part of a work-flow driven search engine that can use a propagation (or other) model to help locate obervations that describe interesting phenomena. We will describe and discuss how the components of HELIO could be used to address science use cases, particularly how a user can adapt the work flow to their own science interests. Networking is one of the three Activities of the HELIO Integrated Infrastructure Initiatives (I3) project. Within this activity we plan to involve the community in all aspects of the design and testing of the HELIO system, including determining which data and metadata should be included, how the quality and content of metadata can be included, etc. We are investigating ways of making HELIO "domain-aware" so that researchers who are specialists in one of the communities that constitute heliophysics can easily identify, access and use data they need from the other communities. We will discuss how the community can help us develop this capability.

  17. Time for a change: addressing R&D and commercialization challenges for antibacterials

    PubMed Central

    Payne, David J.; Miller, Linda Federici; Findlay, David; Anderson, James; Marks, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial therapeutic area has been described as the perfect storm. Resistance is increasing to the point that our hospitals encounter patients infected with untreatable pathogens, the overall industry pipeline is described as dry and most multinational pharmaceutical companies have withdrawn from the area. Major contributing factors to the declining antibacterial industry pipeline include scientific challenges, clinical/regulatory hurdles and low return on investment. This paper examines these challenges and proposes approaches to address them. There is a need for a broader scientific agenda to explore new approaches to discover and develop antibacterial agents. Additionally, ideas of how industry and academia could be better integrated will be presented. While promising progress in the regulatory environment has been made, more streamlined regulatory paths are still required and the solutions will lie in global harmonization and clearly defined guidance. Creating the right incentives for antibacterial research and development is critical and a new commercial model for antibacterial agents will be proposed. One key solution to help resolve both the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and lack of new drug development are rapid, cost-effective, accurate point of care diagnostics that will transform antibacterial prescribing and enable more cost-effective and efficient antibacterial clinical trials. The challenges of AMR are too great for any one group to resolve and success will require leadership and partnerships among academia, industry and governments globally. PMID:25918443

  18. Time for a change: addressing R&D and commercialization challenges for antibacterials.

    PubMed

    Payne, David J; Miller, Linda Federici; Findlay, David; Anderson, James; Marks, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    The antibacterial therapeutic area has been described as the perfect storm. Resistance is increasing to the point that our hospitals encounter patients infected with untreatable pathogens, the overall industry pipeline is described as dry and most multinational pharmaceutical companies have withdrawn from the area. Major contributing factors to the declining antibacterial industry pipeline include scientific challenges, clinical/regulatory hurdles and low return on investment. This paper examines these challenges and proposes approaches to address them. There is a need for a broader scientific agenda to explore new approaches to discover and develop antibacterial agents. Additionally, ideas of how industry and academia could be better integrated will be presented. While promising progress in the regulatory environment has been made, more streamlined regulatory paths are still required and the solutions will lie in global harmonization and clearly defined guidance. Creating the right incentives for antibacterial research and development is critical and a new commercial model for antibacterial agents will be proposed. One key solution to help resolve both the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and lack of new drug development are rapid, cost-effective, accurate point of care diagnostics that will transform antibacterial prescribing and enable more cost-effective and efficient antibacterial clinical trials. The challenges of AMR are too great for any one group to resolve and success will require leadership and partnerships among academia, industry and governments globally. PMID:25918443

  19. Computation of the Mean First-Encounter Time Between the Ends of a Polymer Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amitai, A.; Kupka, I.; Holcman, D.

    2012-09-01

    Using a novel theoretical approach, we study the mean first-encounter time (MFET) between the two ends of a polymer. Previous approaches used various simplifications that reduced the complexity of the problem, leading, however, to incompatible results. We construct here for the first time a general theory that allows us to compute the MFET. The method is based on estimating the mean time for a Brownian particle to reach a narrow domain in the polymer configuration space. In dimension two and three, we find that the MFET depends mainly on the first eigenvalue of the associated Fokker-Planck operator and provide precise estimates that are confirmed by Brownian simulations. Interestingly, although many time scales are involved in the encounter process, its distribution can be well approximated by a single exponential, which has several consequences for modeling chromosome dynamics in the nucleus. Another application of our result is computing the mean time for a DNA molecule to form a closed loop (when its two ends meet for the first time).

  20. Cross-cultural encounters between careproviders: rabbis' referral letters to a psychiatric clinic in Israel.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Yehuda; Witztum, Eliezer

    2002-10-01

    This paper explores the meaning and social functions of referral letters sent to a mental health clinic in Israel by Haredi (ultra-orthodox) rabbis. The letters exemplify social mechanisms by which various institutions and individuals (careproviders, therapists, and other social actors) negotiate different therapies, advice, and interventions in cross-cultural encounters. We argue that beyond the practical functions of the letters, the rabbis-representatives of a "popular" and religious social sphere-use them to negotiate their position in relation to the psychiatric clinic as a representative of a professional and secular sphere. We show that the rabbis "submit" to the professional and secular therapists by using a local adaptation of Western psychological and psychiatric discourses (instead of a religious or mystical discourse), but also that by choosing a letter as their preferred medium of communication (instead of a personal visit to the clinic), they distance themselves from it. We suggest that the rabbis reconstitute, via the letters, social boundaries within their religious community and between their community and secular society. Hence, through analysis of discourses of mental illness in a cross-cultural encounter we examine ways in which illness is practically managed among diverse groups in society. Specifically, we analyze such discourses as part of a power relationship between careproviders who belong to different therapeutic social spheres, using a phenomenological exploration of how mental illness is perceived and constructed as both "a medical problem" and as "social deviance". PMID:12231011

  1. Estimates of trapped radiation encountered on low-thrust trajectories through the Van Allen belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karp, I. M.

    1973-01-01

    Estimates were made of the number of trapped protons and electrons encountered by vehicles on low-thrust trajectories through the Van Allen belts. The estimates serve as a first step in assessing whether these radiations present a problem to on-board sensitive components and payload. The integrated proton spectra and electron spectra are presented for the case of a trajectory described by a vehicle with a constant-thrust acceleration A sub c equal to 0.001 meter/sq sec. This value of acceleration corresponds to a trip time of about 54 days from low earth orbit to synchronous orbit. It is shown that the time spent in the belts and hence the radiation encountered vary nearly inversely with the value of thrust acceleration. Thus, the integrated spectral values presented for the case of A sub c = 0.001 meter/sq sec can be generalized for any other value of thrust acceleration by multiplying them by the factor 0.001/A sub c.

  2. Addressing concerns and achieving expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.

    1995-12-01

    Approximately 2-1/2 years ago many of us were gathered here in Prague at a similar conference with a similar name, {open_quotes}Energy and Environment: Transitions in Eastern Europe.{close_quotes} Over 300 professionals from 26 nations attended. The objective of the conference was to: Facilitate the Solution of Long and Short Term Energy and Environmental Problems in Eastern Europe by Bringing Together People, ideas and technologies which could be applied to specific problems in a logical step-by-step manner. It was conceded at the time that the long term solution would consist of thoughtfully integrated steps and that the conference was the first step. We are here in the Czech Republic again this week to continue what was started. As before, this conference continues to: (1) Provide a forum to identify and discuss cost-effective environmentally acceptable energy and environmental technology options and their associated socioeconomic issues. (2) Stimulate the Formation of business partnerships (3) Identify key barrier issues hindering technology applications and identify implementation pathways that eliminate or avoid obstacles to progress.

  3. The encounter with God in myth and madness

    PubMed Central

    Doerr, Otto; Velásquez, Óscar

    2007-01-01

    Background It is well known how often psychiatric patients report religious experiences. These are especially frequent in schizophrenic and epileptic patients as the subject of their delusions. The question we pose is: are there differences between this kind of religious experiences and those we find in religious texts or in the mythological tradition? Results An overview on famous mythological narratives, such as The Aeneid, allows us to establish that the divinities become recognizable to the human being at the moment of their departure. Thus, Aeneas does not recognise his mother, Venus, when she appears to him in the middle of the forest at the coast of Africa. A dialogue between the two takes place, and only at the end of the encounter, when she is going away and already with her back to Aeneas, she shows her son the signs of her divinity: the rose-flush emanating from her neck, her hair perfume and the majesty of her gait. Something analogous can be observed in the encounter of Moses with Yahweh on Mount Sinai. Moses asks God: "Show me your glory, I beg you". And God replies, among other things: "you shall see the back of me, but my face is not to be seen". In the same sense, the Emmaus disciples do not recognise Jesus till the moment of his disappearance ("but he had vanished from their sight"), and Saul of Tars falls off his horse just in the moment when he feels the divine presence. In short, the direct encounter with the divinity seems not to occur in the realm of myth or in religious tradition. The realm of madness is exactly the opposite. Our research on religious experiences in schizophrenic and epileptic patients leads us to conclude that God appears to them face to face, and the patient describes God the father, Jesus or the Virgin Mary in intimate detail, always in an everyday setting. So, the divinity is seen in the garden, or in the bedroom, or maybe above the wardrobe, without any of its majesty. The nearness to God also tends to be so extreme

  4. Modeling of Wake-vortex Aircraft Encounters. Appendix B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Sonya T.

    1999-01-01

    There are more people passing through the world's airports today than at any other time in history. With this increase in civil transport, airports are becoming capacity limited. In order to increase capacity and thus meet the demands of the flying public, the number of runways and number of flights per runway must be increased. In response to the demand, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in conjunction with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), airport operators, and the airline industry are taking steps to increase airport capacity without jeopardizing safety. Increasing the production per runway increases the likelihood that an aircraft will encounter the trailing wake-vortex of another aircraft. The hazard of a wake-vortex encounter is that heavy load aircraft can produce high intensity wake turbulence, through the development of its wing-tip vortices. A smaller aircraft following in the wake of the heavy load aircraft will experience redistribution of its aerodynamic load. This creates a safety hazard for the smaller aircraft. Understanding this load redistribution is of great importance, particularly during landing and take-off. In this research wake-vortex effects on an encountering 10% scale model of the B737-100 aircraft are modeled using both strip theory and vortex-lattice modeling methods. The models are then compared to wind tunnel data that was taken in the 30ft x 60ft wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Comparisons are made to determine if the models will have acceptable accuracy when parts of the geometry are removed, such as the horizontal stabilizer and the vertical tail. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to observe how accurately the models could match the experimental data if there was a 10% error in the circulation strength. It was determined that both models show accurate results when the wing, horizontal stabilizer, and vertical tail were a part of the geometry. When the horizontal

  5. ROV overcomes deepwater problems

    SciTech Connect

    Frisbie, F.R.; Hughes, E.W.

    1984-09-01

    The use of remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) in supportive drill ships operating in more than 200 meters of water poses severe technical and operational problems. Defining these problems beforehand and addressing them during design, manufacture, testing and installation ensures a functional and effective support capability. Such problems as the availability of desk space, and the subsequent installation, maintenance, and the launch/recovery of the system are described.

  6. Identification and Management of Information Problems by Emergency Department Staff

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Alison R.; Reddy, Madhu C.

    2014-01-01

    Patient-care teams frequently encounter information problems during their daily activities. These information problems include wrong, outdated, conflicting, incomplete, or missing information. Information problems can negatively impact the patient-care workflow, lead to misunderstandings about patient information, and potentially lead to medical errors. Existing research focuses on understanding the cause of these information problems and the impact that they can have on the hospital’s workflow. However, there is limited research on how patient-care teams currently identify and manage information problems that they encounter during their work. Through qualitative observations and interviews in an emergency department (ED), we identified the types of information problems encountered by ED staff, and examined how they identified and managed the information problems. We also discuss the impact that these information problems can have on the patient-care teams, including the cascading effects of information problems on workflow and the ambiguous accountability for fixing information problems within collaborative teams. PMID:25954457

  7. Gender: addressing a critical focus.

    PubMed

    Thornton, L; Wegner, M N

    1995-01-01

    The definition of gender was addressed at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China). After extensive debate, the definition developed by the UN Population Fund in 1995 was adopted: "a set of qualities and behaviors expected from a female or male by society." The sustainability of family planning (FP) programs depends on acknowledgment of the role gender plays in contraceptive decision-making and use. For example, programs must consider the fact that women in many cultures do not make FP decisions without the consent of their spouse. AVSC is examining providers' gender-based ideas about clients and the effects of these views on the quality of reproductive health services. Questions such as how service providers can encourage joint responsibility for contraception without requiring spousal consent or how they can make men feel comfortable about using a male method in a society where FP is considered a woman's issue are being discussed. Also relevant is how service providers can discuss sexual matters openly with female clients in cultures that do not allow women to enjoy their sexuality. Another concern is the potential for physical violence to a client as a result of the provision of FP services. PMID:12294397

  8. A multi-satellite orbit determination problem in a parallel processing environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deakyne, M. S.; Anderle, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    The Engineering Orbit Analysis Unit at GE Valley Forge used an Intel Hypercube Parallel Processor to investigate the performance and gain experience of parallel processors with a multi-satellite orbit determination problem. A general study was selected in which major blocks of computation for the multi-satellite orbit computations were used as units to be assigned to the various processors on the Hypercube. Problems encountered or successes achieved in addressing the orbit determination problem would be more likely to be transferable to other parallel processors. The prime objective was to study the algorithm to allow processing of observations later in time than those employed in the state update. Expertise in ephemeris determination was exploited in addressing these problems and the facility used to bring a realism to the study which would highlight the problems which may not otherwise be anticipated. Secondary objectives were to gain experience of a non-trivial problem in a parallel processor environment, to explore the necessary interplay of serial and parallel sections of the algorithm in terms of timing studies, to explore the granularity (coarse vs. fine grain) to discover the granularity limit above which there would be a risk of starvation where the majority of nodes would be idle or under the limit where the overhead associated with splitting the problem may require more work and communication time than is useful.

  9. Magnetic coordinates for the Pioneer 10 Jupiter encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mead, G. D.

    1974-01-01

    The magnetic coordinates of the Pioneer 10 spacecraft and the five innermost satellites are reported for the Jupiter encounter. The D sub 2 offset is used to make the calculations. Magnetic coordinates are needed for the interpretation of the trapped particle measurements, including the absorption effects of the satellites. Contours of constant field magnitude and magnetic latitude are given at the surface of Jupiter for the D sub 2 model. The system 3 longitude of a spacecraft at Jupiter is derived, and formulas given for the relationships between system 1, 2, and 3 longitudes. The longitude of the magnetic dipole increases by about 3 deg per year, due to the inaccurate rotation rate used to define system 3 longitude.

  10. Ethical Issues Encountered by Military Nurses During Wartime.

    PubMed

    Agazio, Janice; Goodman, Petra; Opanubi, Oluwakemi; McMullen, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Military nurses encounter similar issues as civilian nurses in daily practice situations; however, wartime and humanitarian missions may bring unique and difficult ethical dilemmas. While nursing has the American Nurses Association code of ethics to provide a framework to guide ethical practice decisions, conflicts may arise from the unique aspects of nursing within a wartime environment. Understanding those conflicts occuring within the military wartime scenario can provide nurses with experiential examples from which to derive strategies for personal coping and professional behavior and decision making. This chapter describes the research that has focused upon the identification of these issues, the effects from uresolved issues, and those directions for future research to better prepare miltiary nurses before and during deployment. PMID:26673384

  11. Close encounters and collisions of comets with the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Z.; Yeomans, D. K.

    1984-01-01

    A computer search for earth-approaching comets among those listed in Marsden's (1983) updated orbit catalog has identified 36 cases at which minimum separation distance was less than 2500 earth radii. A strong representation of short period comets in the sample is noted, and the constant rate of the close approaching comets in the last 300 years is interpreted to suggest the lack of long-period comets intrinsically fainter than an absolute magnitude of about 11. A comet-earth collision rate derived from the statistics of these close encounters implies an average period of 33-64 million years between any two events. This rate is comparable with the frequency of geologically recent global catastrophes which appear to be associated with extraterrestrial object impacts, such as the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction 65 million years ago and the late Eocene event 34 million years ago.

  12. The voyager 2 encounter with the neptunian system.

    PubMed

    Stone, E C; Miner, E D

    1989-12-15

    An overview of the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune is presented, including a brief discussion of the trajectory, the planned observations, and highlights of the results described in the 11 companion papers. Neptune's blue atmosphere has storm systems reminiscent of those in Jupiter's atmosphere. An optically thin methane ice cloud exists near the 1.5-bar pressure level, and an optically thick cloud exists below 3 bars. Neptune's magnetic field is highly tilted and offset from the planet's center; it rotates with a period of 16.11 hours. Two narrow and two broad rings circle the planet; the outermost of these rings has three optically thicker arc segments. Six new moons were discovered in circular prograde orbits, all well inside Triton's retrograde orbit. Triton has a highly reflective and geologically young surface, a thin nitrogen atmosphere, and at least two active geyser-like plumes. PMID:17755996

  13. The Voyager 2 encounter with the Neptunian system

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, E.C.; Miner, E.D. )

    1989-12-15

    An overview of the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune is presented, including a brief discussion of the trajectory, the planned observations, and highlights of the results described in the 11 companion papers. Neptune's blue atmosphere has storm systems reminiscent of those in Jupiter's atmosphere. An optically thin methane ice cloud exists near the 1.5-bar pressure level, and an optically thick cloud exists below 3 bars. Neptune's magnetic field is highly tilted and offset from the planet's center; it rotates with a period of 16.11 hours. Two narrow and two broad rings circle the planet; the outermost of these rings has three optically thicker arc segments. Six moons were discovered in circular prograde orbits, all well inside Triton's retrograde orbit. Triton has a highly reflective and geologically young surface, a thin nitrogen atmosphere, and at least two active geyser-like plumes.

  14. The Voyager 2 encounter with the Neptunian system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. C.; Miner, E. D.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune is presented, including a brief discussion of the trajectory, the planned observations, and highlights of the results described in the 11 companion papers. Neptune's blue atmosphere has storm systems reminiscent of those in Jupiter's atmosphere. An optically thin methane ice cloud exists near the 1.5-bar pressure level, and an optically thick cloud exists below 3 bars. Neptune's magnetic field is highly tilted and offset from the planet's center; it rotates with a period of 16.11 hours. Two narrow and two broad rings circle the planet; the outermost of these rings has three optically thicker arc segments. Six new moons were discovered in circular prograde orbits, all well inside Triton's retrograde orbit. Triton has a highly reflective and geologically young surface, a thin nitrogen atmosphere, and at least two active geyser-like plumes.

  15. Characterizing the Hazard of a Wake Vortex Encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D.; Brandon, Jay; Greene, George; Rivers, Robert; Shah, Gautam; Stewart, Eric; Stuever, Robert

    1998-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is conducting research with the goal of enabling safe improvements in the capacity of the nation's air transportation system. The wake vortex upset hazard is an important factor in establishing the minimum safe spacing between aircraft during landing and take-off operations, thus impacting airport capacity. Static and free-flight wind tunnel tests and flight tests have provided an extensive data set for improved understanding of vortex encounter dynamics and simulation. Piloted and batch simulation studies are also ongoing to establish a first-order hazard metric and determine the limits of an operationally acceptable wake induced upset. This paper outlines NASA's research in these areas.

  16. Intelligent guidance and control for wind shear encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The principal objective is to develop methods for assessing the likelihood of wind shear encounter, for deciding what flight path to pursue, and for using the aircraft's full potential for combating wind shear. This study requires the definition of both deterministic and statistical techniques for fusing internal and external information, for making go/no-go decisions, and for generating commands to the aircraft's cockpit displays and autopilot for both manually controlled and automatic flight. The program has begun with the development of a real-time expert system for pilot aiding that is based on the results of the FAA Windshear Training Aids Program. A two-volume manual that presents an overview, pilot guide, training program, and substantiating data provides guidelines for this initial development. The Expert System to Avoid Wind Shear (ESAWS) currently contains over 140 rules and is coded in the LISP programming language for implementation on a Symbolics 3670 LISP machine.

  17. Energetic ion observations during comet Giacobini-Zinner encounter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynds, R. J.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Richardson, I. G.; Sanderson, T. R.; Tranquille, C.

    The Energetic Particle Anisotropy Spectrometer (EPAS) on the ICE spacecraft observed large fluxes of energetic ions (E greater than 65-keV) for a period of one day prior to encounter with comet Giacobini-Zinner to several days afterwards. These observations permit the study of the way in which cometary atoms and molecules are 'picked-up' and accelerated by the solar wind flow, such that the flow becomes mass-loaded and slowed in the vicinity of the comet. The ion bulk flow within the mass-loaded region can also be studied together with the nature of the boundary between this region and the outer 'pick-up' region. Finally, it is also possible to study ion motion close to, and within, the induced magnetotail of the comet.

  18. Gravitational Encounters and the Evolution of Galactic Nuclei. I. Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, David

    2015-05-01

    An algorithm is described for evolving the phase-space density of stars or compact objects around a massive black hole at the center of a galaxy. The technique is based on numerical integration of the Fokker-Planck equation in energy-angular momentum space, f(E, L, t), and includes, for the first time, diffusion coefficients that describe the effects of both random and correlated encounters (“resonant relaxation”), as well as energy loss due to emission of gravitational waves. Destruction or loss of stars into the black hole is treated by means of a detailed boundary-layer analysis. Performance of the algorithm is illustrated by calculating two-dimensional, time-dependent, and steady-state distribution functions and their corresponding loss rates.

  19. The spiritual encounter within a complementary therapy treatment.

    PubMed

    Foster, Elizabeth

    2006-05-01

    Interest in both spirituality and complementary therapies is growing, with their inclusion in both daily life and in health care. The concept of spirituality and the delivery of a therapy have a certain synergy as they both espouse a view of the world that recognises the importance of the whole person. Increasingly, clients want their values and beliefs attended to, perhaps choosing a therapy as a pathway to nourish their sense of the spiritual. Consequently working in a holistic way the complementary therapist needs to acknowledge the spiritual dimension of the client. Integral to this is how the therapeutic encounter facilitates this engagement and how important it is that the therapist develops and explores their own spirituality and life values. This article is an exploration of how spirituality and complementary therapies can legitimately work together, creating a sacred space for both therapist and client. PMID:16648095

  20. Herpesviruses and Intermediate Filaments: Close Encounters with the Third Type

    PubMed Central

    Hertel, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Intermediate filaments (IF) are essential to maintain cellular and nuclear integrity and shape, to manage organelle distribution and motility, to control the trafficking and pH of intracellular vesicles, to prevent stress-induced cell death, and to support the correct distribution of specific proteins. Because of this, IF are likely to be targeted by a variety of pathogens, and may act in favor or against infection progress. As many IF functions remain to be identified, however, little is currently known about these interactions. Herpesviruses can infect a wide variety of cell types, and are thus bound to encounter the different types of IF expressed in each tissue. The analysis of these interrelationships can yield precious insights into how IF proteins work, and into how viruses have evolved to exploit these functions. These interactions, either known or potential, will be the focus of this review. PMID:21994768

  1. Europa's differentiated internal structure: inferences from four Galileo encounters.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J D; Schubert, G; Jacobson, R A; Lau, E L; Moore, W B; Sjogren, W L

    1998-09-25

    Radio Doppler data from four encounters of the Galileo spacecraft with the jovian moon Europa have been used to refine models of Europa's interior. Europa is most likely differentiated into a metallic core surrounded by a rock mantle and a water ice-liquid outer shell, but the data cannot eliminate the possibility of a uniform mixture of dense silicate and metal beneath the water ice-liquid shell. The size of a metallic core is uncertain because of its unknown composition, but it could be as large as about 50 percent of Europa's radius. The thickness of Europa's outer shell of water ice-liquid must lie in the range of about 80 to 170 kilometers. PMID:9748159

  2. Addressing Global Data Sharing Challenges.

    PubMed

    Alter, George C; Vardigan, Mary

    2015-07-01

    This issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics highlights the ethical issues that arise when researchers conducting projects in low- and middle-income countries seek to share the data they produce. Although sharing data is considered a best practice, the barriers to doing so are considerable and there is a need for guidance and examples. To that end, the authors of this article reviewed the articles in this special issue to identify challenges common to the five countries and to offer some practical advice to assist researchers in navigating this "uncharted territory," as some termed it. Concerns around informed consent, data management, data dissemination, and validation of research contributions were cited frequently as particularly challenging areas, so the authors focused on these four topics with the goal of providing specific resources to consult as well as examples of successful projects attempting to solve many of the problems raised. PMID:26297753

  3. Addressing Global Data Sharing Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Alter, George C.

    2015-01-01

    This issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics highlights the ethical issues that arise when researchers conducting projects in low- and middle-income countries seek to share the data they produce. Although sharing data is considered a best practice, the barriers to doing so are considerable and there is a need for guidance and examples. To that end, the authors of this article reviewed the articles in this special issue to identify challenges common to the five countries and to offer some practical advice to assist researchers in navigating this “uncharted territory,” as some termed it. Concerns around informed consent, data management, data dissemination, and validation of research contributions were cited frequently as particularly challenging areas, so the authors focused on these four topics with the goal of providing specific resources to consult as well as examples of successful projects attempting to solve many of the problems raised. PMID:26297753

  4. Ethical and Professional Challenges Encountered by Laboratory Genetic Counselors.

    PubMed

    Groepper, Daniel; McCarthy Veach, Patricia; LeRoy, Bonnie S; Bower, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    Laboratory-based genetic counseling is a growing and yet under researched specialty. In this study, 111 laboratory-based genetic counselors employed in various settings (commercial, academic, etc.) completed an online survey assessing demographics and frequency of encountering 16 domains of ethical and professional challenges encountered by clinical genetic counselors defined previously by McCarthy Veach et al. and validated by Bower et al. Forty-nine of the laboratory genetic counselors also provided anecdotes of particularly challenging situations and strategies for their resolution. Most respondents had less than 5 years' experience as laboratory counselors (71 %), worked full-time (75 %) in industry-based laboratories (91 %) with a focus on molecular diagnostics (84 %), and had limited patient contact (91 %). Similar to clinical counselors, every ethical and professional challenge was endorsed as occurring frequently by some respondents. The most common frequently occurring domains for the sample were: facing uncertainty, time and financial resource allocation, attaining and maintaining proficiency, and informed consent. Content analysis of respondents' anecdotes yielded themes that most commonly concerned: professional identity issues, value conflicts, confidentiality, and colleague error. One unique domain labeled professional communication (educating professionals with limited genetics knowledge), and three salient categories within the professional identity domain--gatekeeping, conflicts of interest, and professional image--were extracted from the anecdotes. The most prevalent strategy for resolving challenging situations was inform health care professional. Results suggest laboratory-based genetic counselors generally face similar ethical and professional challenges as clinical genetic counselors but their exact nature and relative frequency differ. These findings contribute to a greater understanding of common and unique experiences of genetic counselors

  5. Problems Implementing Problem-Based Learning by a Private Malaysian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tik, Chan Chang

    2014-01-01

    In this case study the focus is on lecturers' readiness in the design of PBL problems and to facilitate students' learning. This paper also looks into students' readiness in terms of acquiring metacognitive skills and collaborating in group to solve PBL problems. Problems encountered by both lecturers and students are discussed in the context of…

  6. Antiservice Within the Medical Service Encounter: Lessons for Radiologists Beyond Service Recovery.

    PubMed

    Hill, Paul Armstrong; Hill, Ronald Paul

    2015-12-01

    Recent modifications in the metrics for reimbursement have reinforced the importance of radiology service-delivery experiences of patients. Evaluating current radiology practices calls for reflection on the various touch points with patients, as well as their overall satisfaction. If problems occur during encounters, service failure, or lack of satisfactory medical experiences can be transformed through service recovery, whereby patients-as-customers are given chances to voice their concerns, and health care providers across the spectrum can work together to resolve problematic issues. This paper takes a systemic view of the patient experience as embedded in the care continuum, recognizing that different beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of members of the health care team can negatively affect or sabotage patient satisfaction. Although radiologists are only one of many roles in the care continuum, recommendations are discussed for how they can integrate service satisfaction as a pervasive communal goal among all health care team members. PMID:26212621

  7. Transcultural encounters in a medical ward in Sweden: experiences of health care practitioners.

    PubMed

    Dellenborg, Lisen; Skott, Carola; Jakobsson, Eva

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the approach adopted by health care practitioners when handling transcultural encounters. The study was performed by means of action research, a reflective process led by practitioners and researchers working together to improve practice and solve problems. Data were collected through participant observations at a coronary unit in Sweden and group discussions with the health care professionals and were analyzed and interpreted using a hermeneutic approach. The narratives in the interview text illustrated a switch between three levels of understanding human behavior: the individual level (personality), the collective or group level (what is termed culture), and the universal level (human nature), focusing on differences in the first two and similarities in the third. This study highlights the importance of practitioners comprehending the complex relationship between individuality and cultural context and understanding cultural identity as being fluid and coexisting with other differences, such as class, education, gender, and age. PMID:22802303

  8. Reservoir technology research at LBL addressing geysers issues

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1990-04-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division of the Department of Energy is redirecting a significant part of its Reservoir Technology funding to study problems now being experienced at The Geysers. These include excessive pressure drawdown and associated decline in well flow rates, corrosion due to high chloride concentration in the produced steam and high concentration of noncondensible gases in some parts of the field. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is addressing some of these problems through field, laboratory and theoretical studies. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  9. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  10. 45 CFR 162.1102 - Standards for health care claims or equivalent encounter information transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... encounter information transaction. 162.1102 Section 162.1102 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... encounter information transaction. The Secretary adopts the following standards for the health care claims or equivalent encounter information transaction: (a) For the period from October 16, 2003...

  11. 45 CFR 162.1102 - Standards for health care claims or equivalent encounter information transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... encounter information transaction. 162.1102 Section 162.1102 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... encounter information transaction. The Secretary adopts the following standards for the health care claims or equivalent encounter information transaction: (a) For the period from October 16, 2003...

  12. 45 CFR 162.1102 - Standards for health care claims or equivalent encounter information transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... encounter information transaction. 162.1102 Section 162.1102 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human... encounter information transaction. The Secretary adopts the following standards for the health care claims or equivalent encounter information transaction: (a) For the period from October 16, 2003...

  13. Educational Potentials of Encounters with Nature: Reflections from a Swedish Outdoor Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandell, Klas; Ohman, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Direct encounters with the natural environment have a long tradition in environmental education. Given that the role and character of these encounters are shaped by the approach taken to environmental or sustainability education, there is a risk that a shift towards pluralistic and political approaches will lead to a neglect of nature encounters.…

  14. 45 CFR 162.1102 - Standards for health care claims or equivalent encounter information transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... encounter information transaction. 162.1102 Section 162.1102 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... encounter information transaction. The Secretary adopts the following standards for the health care claims or equivalent encounter information transaction: (a) For the period from October 16, 2003...

  15. Problems pilots face involving wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melvin, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    Educating pilots and the aviation industry about wind shears presents a major problem associated with this meteorological phenomenon. The pilot's second most pressing problem is the need for a language to discuss wind shear encounters with other pilots so that the reaction of the aircraft to the wind shear encounter can be accurately described. Another problem is the flight director which gives a centered pitch command for a given angular displacement from the glide slope. It was suggested that they should instead be called flight path command and should not center unless the aircraft is actually correcting to the flight path.

  16. "Affective Encounters": Live Intermedial Spaces in Sites of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Jo

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses live intermediality as a tool for creative learning in the context of workshops carried out with young people in the town of Terezin, in the Czech Republic, site of the Nazi concentration camp, Theresienstadt. Live intermediality, as a mode of live media practice, involves the real time mixing and merging of sound, image,…

  17. Encountering the Foreign: Teaching and Learning with Difficult Artworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Kristan M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the author addresses one of the essential questions that face teachers today: How can we welcome the foreign into our lessons in an authentic way that makes education relevant to the ongoing social, cultural, and political dialogues through which diverse learners understand themselves and their worlds? In response to this question,…

  18. First Encounter: A Child Is Born, a Self Is Born.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeper, Annemarie

    1995-01-01

    This article considers the very early development of a self in the infant and young child, using theories of Sigmund Freud. The vital role of relationships, especially the mother-child relationship, for the developing self is stressed. Stages of learning trust and inner controls are also addressed. (DB)

  19. Encountering Difference: Images of Otherness in Contemporary Spanish Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrea Meador; Campbell, Sarah Cox

    2015-01-01

    Addressing the underrepresentation of films by female directors in Spanish language and culture classes, this work proposes the inclusion of two films, Chus Gutiérrez's "Retorno a Hansala" (2008) and Icíar Bollaín's "También la lluvia" (2010), in the curriculum of advanced or upper-level Spanish courses. Both films expand…

  20. Addressing the Developmental Issues of Lesbian and Gay College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marso, Joan L.

    This paper addresses the developmental stages and issues faced by lesbian and gay college students between the ages of 18 and 25. Over and above the developmental stages faced by all students, lesbian and gay students frequently struggle with their sexual identity and development and the range of problems and emotions associated with coming to…