Science.gov

Sample records for address regulatory overlap

  1. Regulatory approaches for addressing dissolved oxygen concerns at hydropower facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Mark J.; Cada, Glenn F.; Sale, Michael J.; Eddlemon, Gerald K.

    2003-03-01

    Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are a common water quality problem downstream of hydropower facilities. At some facilities, structural improvements (e.g. installation of weir dams or aerating turbines) or operational changes (e.g., spilling water over the dam) can be made to improve DO levels. In other cases, structural and operational approaches are too costly for the project to implement or are likely to be of limited effectiveness. Despite improvements in overall water quality below dams in recent years, many hydropower projects are unable to meet state water quality standards for DO. Regulatory agencies in the U.S. are considering or implementing dramatic changes in their approach to protecting the quality of the Nation’s waters. New policies and initiatives have emphasized flexibility, increased collaboration and shared responsibility among all parties, and market-based, economic incentives. The use of new regulatory approaches may now be a viable option for addressing the DO problem at some hydropower facilities. This report summarizes some of the regulatory-related options available to hydropower projects, including negotiation of site-specific water quality criteria, use of biological monitoring, watershed-based strategies for the management of water quality, and watershed-based trading. Key decision points center on the health of the local biological communities and whether there are contributing impacts (i.e., other sources of low DO effluents) in the watershed. If the biological communities downstream of the hydropower project are healthy, negotiation for site-specific water quality standards or biocriteria (discharge performance criteria based on characteristics of the aquatic biota) might be pursued. If there are other effluent dischargers in the watershed that contribute to low DO problems, watershed-scale strategies and effluent trading may be effective. This report examines the value of regulatory approaches by reviewing their use in

  2. Quaking and PTB control overlapping splicing regulatory networks during muscle cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Megan P; Nagel, Roland J; Fagg, W Samuel; Shiue, Lily; Cline, Melissa S; Perriman, Rhonda J; Donohue, John Paul; Ares, Manuel

    2013-05-01

    Alternative splicing contributes to muscle development, but a complete set of muscle-splicing factors and their combinatorial interactions are unknown. Previous work identified ACUAA ("STAR" motif) as an enriched intron sequence near muscle-specific alternative exons such as Capzb exon 9. Mass spectrometry of myoblast proteins selected by the Capzb exon 9 intron via RNA affinity chromatography identifies Quaking (QK), a protein known to regulate mRNA function through ACUAA motifs in 3' UTRs. We find that QK promotes inclusion of Capzb exon 9 in opposition to repression by polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB). QK depletion alters inclusion of 406 cassette exons whose adjacent intron sequences are also enriched in ACUAA motifs. During differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes, QK levels increase two- to threefold, suggesting a mechanism for QK-responsive exon regulation. Combined analysis of the PTB- and QK-splicing regulatory networks during myogenesis suggests that 39% of regulated exons are under the control of one or both of these splicing factors. This work provides the first evidence that QK is a global regulator of splicing during muscle development in vertebrates and shows how overlapping splicing regulatory networks contribute to gene expression programs during differentiation.

  3. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 73 - U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Offices and Classified Mailing Addresses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Offices and Classified Mailing Addresses A Appendix A to Part 73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Pt. 73, App. A Appendix A to Part 73—U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 73 - U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Offices and Classified Mailing Addresses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Offices and Classified Mailing Addresses A Appendix A to Part 73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Pt. 73, App. A Appendix A to Part 73—U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 73 - U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Offices and Classified Mailing Addresses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Offices and Classified Mailing Addresses A Appendix A to Part 73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Pt. 73, App. A Appendix A to Part 73—U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 73 - U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Offices and Classified Mailing Addresses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Offices and Classified Mailing Addresses A Appendix A to Part 73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Pt. 73, App. A Appendix A to Part 73—U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 73 - U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Offices and Classified Mailing Addresses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Offices and Classified Mailing Addresses A Appendix A to Part 73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Pt. 73, App. A Appendix A to Part 73—U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...

  8. TUESDAY: EPA Administrator to Address National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON- On Tuesday, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Gina McCarthy will deliver remarks at the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners' Winter Committee Meetings in Washington, DC. Administrator McCarthy

  9. Transfer of a large gene regulatory apparatus to a new developmental address in echinoid evolution.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Davidson, Eric H

    2008-04-22

    Of the five echinoderm classes, only the modern sea urchins (euechinoids) generate a precociously specified embryonic micromere lineage that ingresses before gastrulation and then secretes the biomineral embryonic skeleton. The gene regulatory network (GRN) underlying the specification and differentiation of this lineage is now known. Many of the same differentiation genes as are used in the biomineralization of the embryo skeleton are also used to make the similar biomineral of the spines and test plates of the adult body. Here, we determine the components of the regulatory state upstream of these differentiation genes that are shared between embryonic and adult skeletogenesis. An abrupt "break point" in the micromere GRN is thus revealed, on one side of which most of the regulatory genes are used in both, and on the other side of which the regulatory apparatus is entirely micromere-specific. This reveals the specific linkages of the micromere GRN forged in the evolutionary process by which the skeletogenic gene batteries were caused to be activated in the embryonic micromere lineage. We also show, by comparison with adult skeletogenesis in the sea star, a distant echinoderm outgroup, that the regulatory apparatus responsible for driving the skeletogenic differentiation gene batteries is an ancient pleisiomorphic aspect of the echinoderm-specific regulatory heritage.

  10. Addressing Emerging Risks: Scientific and Regulatory Challenges Associated with Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Tammy R.; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Cormier, Stephania A.; Dellinger, Barry; Reams, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Airborne fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) are often generated through widely-used thermal processes such as the combustion of fuels or the thermal decomposition of waste. Residents near Superfund sites are exposed to PM through the inhalation of windblown dust, ingestion of soil and sediments, and inhalation of emissions from the on-site thermal treatment of contaminated soils. Epidemiological evidence supports a link between exposure to airborne PM and an increased risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. It is well-known that during combustion processes, incomplete combustion can lead to the production of organic pollutants that can adsorb to the surface of PM. Recent studies have demonstrated that their interaction with metal centers can lead to the generation of a surface stabilized metal-radical complex capable of redox cycling to produce ROS. Moreover, these free radicals can persist in the environment, hence their designation as Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFR). EPFR has been demonstrated in both ambient air PM2.5 (diameter < 2.5 µm) and in PM from a variety of combustion sources. Thus, low-temperature, thermal treatment of soils can potentially increase the concentration of EPFR in areas in and around Superfund sites. In this review, we will outline the evidence to date supporting EPFR formation and its environmental significance. Furthermore, we will address the lack of methodologies for specifically addressing its risk assessment and challenges associated with regulating this new, emerging contaminant. PMID:27338429

  11. Addressing Emerging Risks: Scientific and Regulatory Challenges Associated with Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Tammy R; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Cormier, Stephania A; Dellinger, Barry; Reams, Margaret

    2016-06-08

    Airborne fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) are often generated through widely-used thermal processes such as the combustion of fuels or the thermal decomposition of waste. Residents near Superfund sites are exposed to PM through the inhalation of windblown dust, ingestion of soil and sediments, and inhalation of emissions from the on-site thermal treatment of contaminated soils. Epidemiological evidence supports a link between exposure to airborne PM and an increased risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. It is well-known that during combustion processes, incomplete combustion can lead to the production of organic pollutants that can adsorb to the surface of PM. Recent studies have demonstrated that their interaction with metal centers can lead to the generation of a surface stabilized metal-radical complex capable of redox cycling to produce ROS. Moreover, these free radicals can persist in the environment, hence their designation as Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFR). EPFR has been demonstrated in both ambient air PM2.5 (diameter < 2.5 µm) and in PM from a variety of combustion sources. Thus, low-temperature, thermal treatment of soils can potentially increase the concentration of EPFR in areas in and around Superfund sites. In this review, we will outline the evidence to date supporting EPFR formation and its environmental significance. Furthermore, we will address the lack of methodologies for specifically addressing its risk assessment and challenges associated with regulating this new, emerging contaminant.

  12. In silico regenerative medicine: how computational tools allow regulatory and financial challenges to be addressed in a volatile market

    PubMed Central

    Geris, L.; Guyot, Y.; Schrooten, J.; Papantoniou, I.

    2016-01-01

    The cell therapy market is a highly volatile one, due to the use of disruptive technologies, the current economic situation and the small size of the market. In such a market, companies as well as academic research institutes are in need of tools to advance their understanding and, at the same time, reduce their R&D costs, increase product quality and productivity, and reduce the time to market. An additional difficulty is the regulatory path that needs to be followed, which is challenging in the case of cell-based therapeutic products and should rely on the implementation of quality by design (QbD) principles. In silico modelling is a tool that allows the above-mentioned challenges to be addressed in the field of regenerative medicine. This review discusses such in silico models and focuses more specifically on the bioprocess. Three (clusters of) examples related to this subject are discussed. The first example comes from the pharmaceutical engineering field where QbD principles and their implementation through the use of in silico models are both a regulatory and economic necessity. The second example is related to the production of red blood cells. The described in silico model is mainly used to investigate the manufacturing process of the cell-therapeutic product, and pays special attention to the economic viability of the process. Finally, we describe the set-up of a model capturing essential events in the development of a tissue-engineered combination product in the context of bone tissue engineering. For each of the examples, a short introduction to some economic aspects is given, followed by a description of the in silico tool or tools that have been developed to allow the implementation of QbD principles and optimal design. PMID:27051516

  13. In silico regenerative medicine: how computational tools allow regulatory and financial challenges to be addressed in a volatile market.

    PubMed

    Geris, L; Guyot, Y; Schrooten, J; Papantoniou, I

    2016-04-06

    The cell therapy market is a highly volatile one, due to the use of disruptive technologies, the current economic situation and the small size of the market. In such a market, companies as well as academic research institutes are in need of tools to advance their understanding and, at the same time, reduce their R&D costs, increase product quality and productivity, and reduce the time to market. An additional difficulty is the regulatory path that needs to be followed, which is challenging in the case of cell-based therapeutic products and should rely on the implementation of quality by design (QbD) principles. In silico modelling is a tool that allows the above-mentioned challenges to be addressed in the field of regenerative medicine. This review discusses such in silico models and focuses more specifically on the bioprocess. Three (clusters of) examples related to this subject are discussed. The first example comes from the pharmaceutical engineering field where QbD principles and their implementation through the use of in silico models are both a regulatory and economic necessity. The second example is related to the production of red blood cells. The described in silico model is mainly used to investigate the manufacturing process of the cell-therapeutic product, and pays special attention to the economic viability of the process. Finally, we describe the set-up of a model capturing essential events in the development of a tissue-engineered combination product in the context of bone tissue engineering. For each of the examples, a short introduction to some economic aspects is given, followed by a description of the in silico tool or tools that have been developed to allow the implementation of QbD principles and optimal design.

  14. MODEL EVALUATION SCIENCE TO MEET TODAY'S QUALITY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR REGULATORY USE: ADDRESSING UNCERTAINTY, SENSITIVITY, AND PARAMETERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA/ORD National Exposure Research Lab's (NERL) UA/SA/PE research program addresses both tactical and strategic needs in direct support of ORD's client base. The design represents an integrated approach in achieving the highest levels of quality assurance in environmental de...

  15. MEETING IN TUCSON: MODEL EVALUATION SCIENCE TO MEET TODAY'S QUALITY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR REGULATORY USE: ADDRESSING UNCERTAINTY, SENSITIVITY, AND PARAMETERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA/ORD National Exposure Research Lab's (NERL) UA/SA/PE research program addresses both tactical and strategic needs in direct support of ORD's client base. The design represents an integrated approach in achieving the highest levels of quality assurance in environmental dec...

  16. Regulatory approaches to obesity prevention: A systematic overview of current laws addressing diet-related risk factors in the European Union and the United States.

    PubMed

    Sisnowski, Jana; Handsley, Elizabeth; Street, Jackie M

    2015-06-01

    High prevalence of overweight and obesity remains a significant international public health problem. Law has been identified as a tool for obesity prevention and selected high-profile measures have been reported. However, the nature and extent of enacted legislation internationally are unclear. This research provides an overview of regulatory approaches enacted in the United States, the European Union, and EU Member States since 2004. To this end, relevant databases of primary and secondary legislation were systematically searched to identify and explore laws addressing dietary risk factors for obesity. Across jurisdictions, current regulatory approaches to obesity prevention are limited in reach and scope. Target groups are rarely the general population, but instead sub-populations in government-supported settings. Consumer information provision is preferred over taxation and marketing restrictions other than the regulation of health and nutrition claims. In the EU in particular, product reformulation with industry consent has also emerged as a popular small-scale measure. While consistent and widespread use of law is lacking, governments have employed a range of regulatory measures in the name of obesity prevention, indicating that there is, in principle, political will. Results from this study may serve as a starting point for future research and policy development.

  17. Molecular paleoecology: using gene regulatory analysis to address the origins of complex life cycles in the late Precambrian.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Ewan F; Moy, Vanessa N; Angerer, Lynne M; Angerer, Robert C; Morris, Robert L; Peterson, Kevin J

    2007-01-01

    Molecular paleoecology is the application of molecular data to test hypotheses made by paleoecological scenarios. Here, we use gene regulatory analysis to test between two competing paleoecological scenarios put forth to explain the evolution of complex life cycles. The first posits that early bilaterians were holobenthic, and the evolution of macrophagous grazing drove the exploitation of the pelagos by metazoan eggs and embryos, and eventually larvae. The alternative hypothesis predicts that early bilaterians were holopelagic, and new adult stages were added on when these holopelagic forms began to feed on the benthos. The former hypothesis predicts that the larvae of protostomes and deuterostomes are not homologous, with the implication that larval-specific structures, including the apical organ, are the products of convergent evolution, whereas the latter hypothesis predicts homology of larvae, specifically homology of the apical organ. We show that in the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, the transcription factors NK2.1 and HNF6 are necessary for the correct spatial expression profiles of five different cilia genes. All of these genes are expressed exclusively in the apical plate after the mesenchyme-blastula stage in cells that also express NK2.1 and HNF6. In addition, abrogation of SpNK2.1 results in embryos that lack the apical tuft. However, in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, NK2.1 and HNF6 are not expressed in any cells that also express these same five cilia genes. Nonetheless, like the sea urchin, the gastropod expresses both NK2.1 and FoxA around the stomodeum and foregut, and FoxA around the proctodeum. As we detected no similarity in the development of the apical tuft between the sea urchin and the abalone, these molecular data are consistent with the hypothesis that the evolution of mobile, macrophagous metazoans drove the evolution of complex life cycles multiple times independently in the late Precambrian.

  18. Mapping of PARK2 and PACRG overlapping regulatory region reveals LD structure and functional variants in association with leprosy in unrelated indian population groups.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Rupali; Ali, Shafat; Srivastava, Amit K; Aggarwal, Shweta; Kumar, Bhupender; Manvati, Siddharth; Kalaiarasan, Ponnusamy; Jena, Mamta; Garg, Vijay K; Bhattacharya, Sambit N; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Leprae, where the host genetic background plays an important role toward the disease pathogenesis. Various studies have identified a number of human genes in association with leprosy or its clinical forms. However, non-replication of results has hinted at the heterogeneity among associations between different population groups, which could be due to differently evolved LD structures and differential frequencies of SNPs within the studied regions of the genome. A need for systematic and saturated mapping of the associated regions with the disease is warranted to unravel the observed heterogeneity in different populations. Mapping of the PARK2 and PACRG gene regulatory region with 96 SNPs, with a resolution of 1 SNP per 1 Kb for PARK2 gene regulatory region in a North Indian population, showed an involvement of 11 SNPs in determining the susceptibility towards leprosy. The association was replicated in a geographically distinct and unrelated population from Orissa in eastern India. In vitro reporter assays revealed that the two significantly associated SNPs, located 63.8 kb upstream of PARK2 gene and represented in a single BIN of 8 SNPs, influenced the gene expression. A comparison of BINs between Indian and Vietnamese populations revealed differences in the BIN structures, explaining the heterogeneity and also the reason for non-replication of the associated genomic region in different populations.

  19. Mapping of PARK2 and PACRG Overlapping Regulatory Region Reveals LD Structure and Functional Variants in Association with Leprosy in Unrelated Indian Population Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Rupali; Aggarwal, Shweta; Kumar, Bhupender; Manvati, Siddharth; Kalaiarasan, Ponnusamy; Jena, Mamta; Garg, Vijay K.; Bhattacharya, Sambit N.; Bamezai, Rameshwar N. K.

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Leprae, where the host genetic background plays an important role toward the disease pathogenesis. Various studies have identified a number of human genes in association with leprosy or its clinical forms. However, non-replication of results has hinted at the heterogeneity among associations between different population groups, which could be due to differently evolved LD structures and differential frequencies of SNPs within the studied regions of the genome. A need for systematic and saturated mapping of the associated regions with the disease is warranted to unravel the observed heterogeneity in different populations. Mapping of the PARK2 and PACRG gene regulatory region with 96 SNPs, with a resolution of 1 SNP per 1 Kb for PARK2 gene regulatory region in a North Indian population, showed an involvement of 11 SNPs in determining the susceptibility towards leprosy. The association was replicated in a geographically distinct and unrelated population from Orissa in eastern India. In vitro reporter assays revealed that the two significantly associated SNPs, located 63.8 kb upstream of PARK2 gene and represented in a single BIN of 8 SNPs, influenced the gene expression. A comparison of BINs between Indian and Vietnamese populations revealed differences in the BIN structures, explaining the heterogeneity and also the reason for non-replication of the associated genomic region in different populations. PMID:23861666

  20. Overlapping clusters for distributed computation.

    SciTech Connect

    Mirrokni, Vahab; Andersen, Reid; Gleich, David F.

    2010-11-01

    Scalable, distributed algorithms must address communication problems. We investigate overlapping clusters, or vertex partitions that intersect, for graph computations. This setup stores more of the graph than required but then affords the ease of implementation of vertex partitioned algorithms. Our hope is that this technique allows us to reduce communication in a computation on a distributed graph. The motivation above draws on recent work in communication avoiding algorithms. Mohiyuddin et al. (SC09) design a matrix-powers kernel that gives rise to an overlapping partition. Fritzsche et al. (CSC2009) develop an overlapping clustering for a Schwarz method. Both techniques extend an initial partitioning with overlap. Our procedure generates overlap directly. Indeed, Schwarz methods are commonly used to capitalize on overlap. Elsewhere, overlapping communities (Ahn et al, Nature 2009; Mishra et al. WAW2007) are now a popular model of structure in social networks. These have long been studied in statistics (Cole and Wishart, CompJ 1970). We present two types of results: (i) an estimated swapping probability {rho}{infinity}; and (ii) the communication volume of a parallel PageRank solution (link-following {alpha} = 0.85) using an additive Schwarz method. The volume ratio is the amount of extra storage for the overlap (2 means we store the graph twice). Below, as the ratio increases, the swapping probability and PageRank communication volume decreases.

  1. Mechanism of araC autoregulation and the domains of two overlapping promoters, Pc and PBAD, in the L-arabinose regulatory region of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lee, N L; Gielow, W O; Wallace, R G

    1981-02-01

    The DNA-protein contact sites in the ara regulatory region, which contains the promoters for araBAD and araC, have been determined for araC protein, the cyclic AMP-binding protein, and RNA polymerase, by using the methylation protection and DNase I protection methods. The functional significance of binding was assessed by correlating the state of occupancy of these sites with promoter activity in transcription initiation. Our results suggest that the basis for araC autoregulation is that araC protein, in either its activator (P2) or repressor (P1) form, acts as a repressor for araC, by binding to the RNA polymerase attachment site at the araC promoter. We also found that the araC and araBAD promoters share a common site of positive control by the cyclic AMP-binding protein, located 90 bases from the araBAD and 60 bases from the araC transcriptional start points. A model for the mechanism of regulation of araBAD and araC expression by the catabolite gene-activator protein, P1, and Pe is proposed. An earlier model proposed by Ogden et al. [Ogden S., Haggerty, D., Stoner, C. M., Kolodrubetz, D. & Schleif, R. (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, USA 77, 3346-3350] is discussed in the light of the data presented in this paper.

  2. On the Path to SunShot. Utility Regulatory and Business Model Reforms for Addressing the Financial Impacts of Distributed Solar on Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Miller, John; Sigrin, Ben; Reiter, Emerson; Cory, Karlynn; McLaren, Joyce; Seel, Joachim; Mills, Andrew; Darghouth, Naim; Satchwell, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Net-energy metering (NEM) has helped drive the rapid growth of distributed PV (DPV) but has raised concerns about electricity cost shifts, utility financial losses, and inefficient resource allocation. These concerns have motivated real and proposed reforms to utility regulatory and business models. This report explores the challenges and opportunities associated with such reforms in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative. Most of the reforms to date address NEM concerns by reducing the benefits provided to DPV customers and thus constraining DPV deployment. Eliminating NEM nationwide, by compensating exports of PV electricity at wholesale rather than retail rates, could cut cumulative DPV deployment by 20% in 2050 compared with a continuation of current policies. This would slow the PV cost reductions that arise from larger scale and market certainty. It could also thwart achievement of the SunShot deployment goals even if the initiative's cost targets are achieved. This undesirable prospect is stimulating the development of alternative reform strategies that address concerns about distributed PV compensation without inordinately harming PV economics and growth. These alternatives fall into the categories of facilitating higher-value DPV deployment, broadening customer access to solar, and aligning utility profits and earnings with DPV. Specific strategies include utility ownership and financing of DPV, community solar, distribution network operators, services-driven utilities, performance-based incentives, enhanced utility system planning, pricing structures that incentivize high-value DPV configurations, and decoupling and other ratemaking reforms that reduce regulatory lag. These approaches represent near- and long-term solutions for preserving the legacy of the SunShot Initiative.

  3. On the Path to SunShot - Utility Regulatory Business Model Reforms forAddressing the Financial Impacts of Distributed Solar on Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2016-05-01

    Net-energy metering (NEM) with volumetric retail electricity pricing has enabled rapid proliferation of distributed photovoltaics (DPV) in the United States. However, this transformation is raising concerns about the potential for higher electricity rates and cost-shifting to non-solar customers, reduced utility shareholder profitability, reduced utility earnings opportunities, and inefficient resource allocation. Although DPV deployment in most utility territories remains too low to produce significant impacts, these concerns have motivated real and proposed reforms to utility regulatory and business models, with profound implications for future DPV deployment. This report explores the challenges and opportunities associated with such reforms in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy’s SunShot Initiative. As such, the report focuses on a subset of a broader range of reforms underway in the electric utility sector. Drawing on original analysis and existing literature, we analyze the significance of DPV’s financial impacts on utilities and non-solar ratepayers under current NEM rules and rate designs, the projected effects of proposed NEM and rate reforms on DPV deployment, and alternative reforms that could address utility and ratepayer concerns while supporting continued DPV growth. We categorize reforms into one or more of four conceptual strategies. Understanding how specific reforms map onto these general strategies can help decision makers identify and prioritize options for addressing specific DPV concerns that balance stakeholder interests.

  4. Steganalysis of overlapping images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, James M.; Ker, Andrew D.

    2015-03-01

    We examine whether steganographic images can be detected more reliably when there exist other images, taken with the same camera under the same conditions, of the same scene. We argue that such a circumstance is realistic and likely in practice. In `laboratory conditions' mimicking circumstances favourable to the analyst, and with a custom set of digital images which capture the same scenes with controlled amounts of overlap, we use an overlapping reference image to calibrate steganographic features of the image under analysis. Experimental results show that the analysed image can be classified as cover or stego with much greater reliability than traditional steganalysis not exploiting overlapping content, and the improvement in reliability depends on the amount of overlap. These results are curious because two different photographs of exactly the same scene, taken only a few seconds apart with a fixed camera and settings, typically have steganographic features that differ by considerably more than a cover and stego image.

  5. Illusion induced overlapped optics.

    PubMed

    Zang, XiaoFei; Shi, Cheng; Li, Zhou; Chen, Lin; Cai, Bin; Zhu, YiMing; Zhu, HaiBin

    2014-01-13

    The traditional transformation-based cloak seems like it can only hide objects by bending the incident electromagnetic waves around the hidden region. In this paper, we prove that invisible cloaks can be applied to realize the overlapped optics. No matter how many in-phase point sources are located in the hidden region, all of them can overlap each other (this can be considered as illusion effect), leading to the perfect optical interference effect. In addition, a singular parameter-independent cloak is also designed to obtain quasi-overlapped optics. Even more amazing of overlapped optics is that if N identical separated in-phase point sources covered with the illusion media, the total power outside the transformation region is N2I0 (not NI0) (I0 is the power of just one point source, and N is the number point sources), which seems violating the law of conservation of energy. A theoretical model based on interference effect is proposed to interpret the total power of these two kinds of overlapped optics effects. Our investigation may have wide applications in high power coherent laser beams, and multiple laser diodes, and so on.

  6. Distal tibiofibular radiological overlap

    PubMed Central

    Sowman, B.; Radic, R.; Kuster, M.; Yates, P.; Breidiel, B.; Karamfilef, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Overlap between the distal tibia and fibula has always been quoted to be positive. If the value is not positive then an injury to the syndesmosis is thought to exist. Our null hypothesis is that it is a normal variant in the adult population. Methods We looked at axial CT scans of the ankle in 325 patients for the presence of overlap between the distal tibia and fibula. Where we thought this was possible we reconstructed the images to represent a plain film radiograph which we were able to rotate and view in multiple planes to confirm the assessment. Results The scans were taken for reasons other than pathology of the ankle. We found there was no overlap in four patients. These patients were then questioned about previous injury, trauma, surgery or pain, in order to exclude underlying pathology. Conclusion We concluded that no overlap between the tibia and fibula may exist in the population, albeit in a very small proportion. PMID:23610666

  7. Overlap among Environmental Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Betty

    1981-01-01

    Describes the methodology and results of a study comparing the overlap of Enviroline, Pollution, and the Environmental Periodicals Bibliography files through searches on acid rain, asbestos and water, diesel, glass recycling, Lake Erie, Concorde, reverse osmosis wastewater treatment cost, and Calspan. Nine tables are provided. (RBF)

  8. Hospital mergers and market overlap.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, G R; Jones, V G

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To address two questions: What are the characteristics of hospitals that affect the likelihood of their being involved in a merger? What characteristics of particular pairs of hospitals affect the likelihood of the pair engaging in a merger? DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Hospitals in the 12 county region surrounding the San Francisco Bay during the period 1983 to 1992 were the focus of the study. Data were drawn from secondary sources, including the Lexis/Nexis database, the American Hospital Association, and the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development of the State of California. STUDY DESIGN: Seventeen hospital mergers during the study period were identified. A random sample of pairs of hospitals that did not merge was drawn to establish a statistically efficient control set. Models constructed from hypotheses regarding hospital and market characteristics believed to be related to merger likelihood were tested using logistic regression analysis. DATA COLLECTION: See Data Sources/Study Setting. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analysis shows that the likelihood of a merger between a particular pair of hospitals is positively related to the degree of market overlap that exists between them. Furthermore, market overlap and performance difference interact in their effect on merger likelihood. In an analysis of individual hospitals, conditions of rivalry, hospital market share, and hospital size were not found to influence the likelihood that a hospital will engage in a merger. CONCLUSIONS: Mergers between hospitals are not driven directly by considerations of market power or efficiency as much as by the existence of specific merger opportunities in the hospitals' local markets. Market overlap is a condition that enables a merger to occur, but other factors, such as the relative performance levels of the hospitals in question and their ownership and teaching status, also play a role in influencing the likelihood that a merger will in fact take place. PMID

  9. The Plate Overlap Technique.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-31

    INTRODUCTION 1 II. NOTATION 2 III. THE GNOMONIC PROJECTION 4 IV . THE PLATE OVERLAP TECHNIQUE 6 A. MOTIVATION 6 B. FORNULATION 9 C. ON STATISTICAL RIGOR 14 D...and new hardware. Since this aim was clearly recognized long ago, wherever possible in earlier documents or software development flexibility was...reader should see 1, 2, and 3. The procedures one should use to update stellar positions are discussed in 4 with applica- tions to the SAOC in 5. Non

  10. Overlapping Antisense Transcription in the Human Genome

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, M. E.; Moore, T. F.

    2002-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates an important role for non-coding RNA molecules in eukaryotic cell regulation. A small number of coding and non-coding overlapping antisense transcripts (OATs) in eukaryotes have been reported, some of which regulate expression of the corresponding sense transcript. The prevalence of this phenomenon is unknown, but there may be an enrichment of such transcripts at imprinted gene loci. Taking a bioinformatics approach, we systematically searched a human mRNA database (RefSeq) for complementary regions that might facilitate pairing with other transcripts. We report 56 pairs of overlapping transcripts, in which each member of the pair is transcribed from the same locus. This allows us to make an estimate of 1000 for the minimum number of such transcript pairs in the entire human genome. This is a surprisingly large number of overlapping gene pairs and, clearly, some of the overlaps may not be functionally significant. Nonetheless, this may indicate an important general role for overlapping antisense control in gene regulation. EST databases were also investigated in order to address the prevalence of cases of imprinted genes with associated non-coding overlapping, antisense transcripts. However, EST databases were found to be completely inappropriate for this purpose. PMID:18628857

  11. Overlaps and Accumulation in the Use of Rehabilitation Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulkki, Jutta M.; Rissanen, Pekka; Raitanen, Jani A.; Viitanen, Elina A.

    2011-01-01

    The Finnish rehabilitation system is considered fragmented and multisectoral, and thus it may produce "multiclients" receiving inefficient and overlapping services. This paper addresses the overlaps and accumulation in the delivery of rehabilitation services in Finnish rehabilitation subsystems. Data were drawn from several…

  12. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system.

  13. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  14. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Kakodkar, A

    1999-07-01

    This convocation addressed by Dr. Anil Kakodkar focuses on the challenges faced by graduating students. In his speech, he emphasized the high level of excellence achieved by the industrial sector; however, he noted that there has been a loss of initiative in maximizing value addition, which was worsened by an increasing population pressure. In facing a stiff competition in the external and domestic markets, it is imperative to maximize value addition within the country in a competitive manner and capture the highest possible market share. To achieve this, high-quality human resources are central. Likewise, family planning programs should become more effective and direct available resources toward national advantage. To boost the domestic market, he suggests the need to search for strengths to achieve leadership position in those areas. First, an insight into the relationship between the lifestyles and the needs of our people and the natural resource endowment must be gained. Second, remodeling of the education system must be undertaken to prepare the people for adding the necessary innovative content in our value addition activities. Lastly, Dr. Kakodkar emphasizes the significance of developing a strong bond between parents and children to provide a sound foundation and allow the education system to grow upon it.

  15. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  16. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  17. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  18. Regulatory RNAs in Planarians.

    PubMed

    Pawlicka, Kamila; Perrigue, Patrick M; Barciszewski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The full scope of regulatory RNA evolution and function in epigenetic processes is still not well understood. The development of planarian flatworms to be used as a simple model organism for research has shown a great potential to address gaps in the knowledge in this field of study. The genomes of planarians encode a wide array of regulatory RNAs that function in gene regulation. Here, we review planarians as a suitable model organism for the identification and function of regulatory RNAs.

  19. Recombining overlapping BACs into single large BACs.

    PubMed

    Kotzamanis, George; Kotsinas, Athanassios

    2015-01-01

    BAC clones containing the entire genomic region of a gene including the long-range regulatory elements are very useful for gene functional analysis. However, large genes often span more than the insert of a BAC clone, and single BACs covering the entire region of interest are not available. Here, we describe a general system for linking two or more overlapping BACs into a single clone. Two rounds of homologous recombination are used. In the first, the BAC inserts are subcloned into the pBACLink vectors. In the second, the two BACs are combined together. Multiple BACs in a contig can be combined by alternating use of the pBACLInk vectors, resulting in several BAC clones containing as much of the genomic region of a gene as required. Such BACs can then be used in gene expression studies and/or gene therapy applications.

  20. Select Biosolids Regulatory Processes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Historical Regulatory Development and activities EPA has undertaken to respond to statutory obligations, respond to the National Academy of Sciences, understand pollutants that may occur in sewage sludge, and address dioxins in sewage sludge.

  1. Seeding for pervasively overlapping communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Conrad; Reid, Fergal; McDaid, Aaron; Hurley, Neil

    2011-06-01

    In some social and biological networks, the majority of nodes belong to multiple communities. It has recently been shown that a number of the algorithms specifically designed to detect overlapping communities do not perform well in such highly overlapping settings. Here, we consider one class of these algorithms, those which optimize a local fitness measure, typically by using a greedy heuristic to expand a seed into a community. We perform synthetic benchmarks which indicate that an appropriate seeding strategy becomes more important as the extent of community overlap increases. We find that distinct cliques provide the best seeds. We find further support for this seeding strategy with benchmarks on a Facebook network and the yeast interactome.

  2. Clique graphs and overlapping communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, T. S.

    2010-12-01

    It is shown how to construct a clique graph in which properties of cliques of a fixed order in a given graph are represented by vertices in a weighted graph. Various definitions and motivations for these weights are given. The detection of communities or clusters is used to illustrate how a clique graph may be exploited. In particular a benchmark network is shown where clique graphs find the overlapping communities accurately while vertex partition methods fail.

  3. Characterizing Computation-Communication Overlap in Message-Passing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Bernholdt; Jarek Nieplocha; P. Sadayappan; Aniruddha G. Shet; Vinod Tipparaju

    2008-01-31

    Effective overlap of computation and communication is a well understood technique for latency hiding and can yield significant performance gains for applications on high-end computers. In this report, we describe an instrumentation framework developed for message-passing systems to characterize the degree of overlap of communication with computation in the execution of parallel applications. The inability to obtain precise time-stamps for pertinent communication events is a significant problem, and is addressed by generation of minimum and maximum bounds on achieved overlap. The overlap measures can aid application developers and system designers in investigating scalability issues. The approach has been used to instrument two MPI implementations as well as the ARMCI system. The implementation resides entirely within the communication library and thus integrates well with existing approaches that operate outside the library. The utility of the framework is demonstrated by analyzing communication-computation overlap for micro-benchmarks and the NAS benchmarks, and the insights obtained are used to modify the NAS SP benchmark, resulting in improved overlap.

  4. Characterizing Computation-Communication Overlap in Message-Passing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Bernholdt; Jarek Nieplocha; P. Sadayappan; Aniruddha G. Shet; Vinod Tipparaju

    2008-01-31

    Effective overlap of computation and communication is a well understood technique for latency hiding and can yield significant performance gains for applications on high-end computers. In this report, we describe an instrumentation framework developed for messagepassing systems to characterize the degree of overlap of communication with computation in the execution of parallel applications. The inability to obtain precise time-stamps for pertinent communication events is a significant problem, and is addressed by generation of minimum and maximum bounds on achieved overlap. The overlap measures can aid application developers and system designers in investigating scalability issues. The approach has been used to instrument two MPI implementations as well as the ARMCI system. The implementation resides entirely within the communication library and thus integrates well with existing approaches that operate outside the library. The utility of the framework is demonstrated by analyzing communication-computation overlap for micro-benchmarks and the NAS benchmarks, and the insights obtained are used to modify the NAS SP benchmark, resulting in improved overlap.

  5. Assessing the regulatory picture

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This article addresses the safety of the nation's drinking water supply and discusses compliance of the Clean Water Act. Right now, the shape of the regulatory future is uncertain. The results of the D-DBP regulatory negotiation are imminent. Congress is ready to begin debating reauthorization of the Safe Drinking Water Act, and utilities are trying to comply with the regulations while trying not to price water out of the reach of some of their customers.

  6. NRC regulatory initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.C.

    1989-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is addressing several low-level waste disposal issues that will be important to waste generators and to States and Compacts developing new disposal capacity. These issues include Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) waste, mixed waste, below regulatory concern (BRC) waste, and the low-level waste data base. This paper discusses these issues and their current status.

  7. Overlap in Facebook Profiles Reflects Relationship Closeness.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Araceli M; Wendel, Markie L; Crockett, Erin E

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the association between self-reported Inclusion of Other in the Self (IOS) and Facebook overlap. Ninety-two participants completed online measures of IOS and investment model constructs. Researchers then recorded Facebook data from participants' profile pages. Results from multilevel models revealed that IOS predicted Facebook overlap. Furthermore, Facebook overlap was associated with commitment and investment in ways comparable to self-reported IOS. These findings suggest that overlap in Facebook profiles can be used to measure relationship closeness.

  8. Quantifying and identifying the overlapping community structure in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi; Guo, Jia-Feng

    2009-07-01

    It has been shown that the communities of complex networks often overlap with each other. However, there is no effective method to quantify the overlapping community structure. In this paper, we propose a metric to address this problem. Instead of assuming that one node can only belong to one community, our metric assumes that a maximal clique only belongs to one community. In this way, the overlaps between communities are allowed. To identify the overlapping community structure, we construct a maximal clique network from the original network, and prove that the optimization of our metric on the original network is equivalent to the optimization of Newman's modularity on the maximal clique network. Thus the overlapping community structure can be identified through partitioning the maximal clique network using any modularity optimization method. The effectiveness of our metric is demonstrated by extensive tests on both artificial networks and real world networks with a known community structure. The application to the word association network also reproduces excellent results.

  9. An Investigation of Organizational and Regulatory Discourses of Workplace Bullying.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Susan L; Boutain, Doris M; Tsai, Jenny H-C; de Castro, Arnold B

    2015-10-01

    Organizations use policies to set standards for employee behaviors. Although many organizations have policies that address workplace bullying, previous studies have found that these policies affect neither workplace bullying for targets who are seeking assistance in ending the behaviors nor managers who must address incidents of bullying. This article presents the findings of a study that used critical discourse analysis to examine the language used in policies written by health care organizations and regulatory agencies to regulate workplace bullying. The findings suggest that the discussion of workplace bullying overlaps with discussions of disruptive behaviors and harassment. This lack of conceptual clarity can create difficulty for managers in identifying, naming, and disciplining incidents of workplace bullying. The documents also primarily discussed workplace bullying as a patient safety concern. This language is in conflict with organizations attending to worker well-being with regard to workplace bullying.

  10. Overlapping structures in sensory-motor mappings.

    PubMed

    Earland, Kevin; Lee, Mark; Shaw, Patricia; Law, James

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a biologically-inspired representation technique designed for the support of sensory-motor learning in developmental robotics. An interesting feature of the many topographic neural sheets in the brain is that closely packed receptive fields must overlap in order to fully cover a spatial region. This raises interesting scientific questions with engineering implications: e.g. is overlap detrimental? does it have any benefits? This paper examines the effects and properties of overlap between elements arranged in arrays or maps. In particular we investigate how overlap affects the representation and transmission of spatial location information on and between topographic maps. Through a series of experiments we determine the conditions under which overlap offers advantages and identify useful ranges of overlap for building mappings in cognitive robotic systems. Our motivation is to understand the phenomena of overlap in order to provide guidance for application in sensory-motor learning robots.

  11. Overlapping Structures in Sensory-Motor Mappings

    PubMed Central

    Earland, Kevin; Lee, Mark; Shaw, Patricia; Law, James

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a biologically-inspired representation technique designed for the support of sensory-motor learning in developmental robotics. An interesting feature of the many topographic neural sheets in the brain is that closely packed receptive fields must overlap in order to fully cover a spatial region. This raises interesting scientific questions with engineering implications: e.g. is overlap detrimental? does it have any benefits? This paper examines the effects and properties of overlap between elements arranged in arrays or maps. In particular we investigate how overlap affects the representation and transmission of spatial location information on and between topographic maps. Through a series of experiments we determine the conditions under which overlap offers advantages and identify useful ranges of overlap for building mappings in cognitive robotic systems. Our motivation is to understand the phenomena of overlap in order to provide guidance for application in sensory-motor learning robots. PMID:24392118

  12. Pin diode calibration - beam overlap monitoring for low energy cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, A.; Montag, C.; Thieberger, P.

    2015-09-30

    We were trying to address the question whether or not the Pin Diodes, currently installed approximately 1 meter downstream of the RHIC primary collimators, are suitable to monitor a recombination signal from the future RHIC low energy cooling section. A maximized recombination signal, with the Au+78 ions being lost on the collimator, will indicate optimal Au-electron beam overlap as well as velocity matching of the electron beam in the cooling section.

  13. Regulatory guidance document

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM`s evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7.

  14. Solving Partial Differential Equations on Overlapping Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Henshaw, W D

    2008-09-22

    We discuss the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs) on overlapping grids. This is a powerful technique for efficiently solving problems in complex, possibly moving, geometry. An overlapping grid consists of a set of structured grids that overlap and cover the computational domain. By allowing the grids to overlap, grids for complex geometries can be more easily constructed. The overlapping grid approach can also be used to remove coordinate singularities by, for example, covering a sphere with two or more patches. We describe the application of the overlapping grid approach to a variety of different problems. These include the solution of incompressible fluid flows with moving and deforming geometry, the solution of high-speed compressible reactive flow with rigid bodies using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), and the solution of the time-domain Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism.

  15. Finding overlapping communities using seed set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin-Xuan; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2017-02-01

    The local optimization algorithm using seed set to find overlapping communities has become more and more a significant method, but it is a great challenge how to choose a good seed set. In this paper, a new method is proposed to achieve the choice of candidate seed sets, and yields a new algorithm to find overlapping communities in complex networks. By testing in real world networks and synthetic networks, this method can successfully detect overlapping communities and outperform other state-of-the-art overlapping community detection methods.

  16. Overlap syndromes among autoimmune liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Rust, Christian; Beuers, Ulrich

    2008-06-07

    The three major immune disorders of the liver are autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Variant forms of these diseases are generally called overlap syndromes, although there has been no standardised definition. Patients with overlap syndromes present with both hepatitic and cholestatic serum liver tests and have histological features of AIH and PBC or PSC. The AIH-PBC overlap syndrome is the most common form, affecting almost 10% of adults with AIH or PBC. Single cases of AIH and autoimmune cholangitis (AMA-negative PBC) overlap syndrome have also been reported. The AIH-PSC overlap syndrome is predominantly found in children, adolescents and young adults with AIH or PSC. Interestingly, transitions from one autoimmune to another have also been reported in a minority of patients, especially transitions from PBC to AIH-PBC overlap syndrome. Overlap syndromes show a progressive course towards liver cirrhosis and liver failure without treatment. Therapy for overlap syndromes is empiric, since controlled trials are not available in these rare disorders. Anticholestatic therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid is usually combined with immunosuppressive therapy with corticosteroids and/or azathioprine in both AIH-PBC and AIH-PSC overlap syndromes. In end-stage disease, liver transplantation is the treatment of choice.

  17. 47 CFR 73.509 - Prohibited overlap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... operation would involve overlap of signal strength contours with any other station licensed by the... separation Contour of proposed station Contour of other station Co-channel 0.1mV/m (40 dBu)1 mV/m (60 dBu) 1... if the proposed operation would involve overlap of signal strength contours with any other station...

  18. 47 CFR 73.509 - Prohibited overlap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... operation would involve overlap of signal strength contours with any other station licensed by the... separation Contour of proposed station Contour of other station Co-channel 0.1mV/m (40 dBu)1 mV/m (60 dBu) 1... if the proposed operation would involve overlap of signal strength contours with any other station...

  19. 47 CFR 73.509 - Prohibited overlap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... operation would involve overlap of signal strength contours with any other station licensed by the... separation Contour of proposed station Contour of other station Co-channel 0.1mV/m (40 dBu)1 mV/m (60 dBu) 1... if the proposed operation would involve overlap of signal strength contours with any other station...

  20. 78 FR 44355 - Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... flexibility agenda. In addition, this document includes an agenda of regulatory actions the Commission expects... requirements of the Regulatory Flexibility Act and Executive Order 12866. DATES: The Commission welcomes... Secretary by July 31, 2013. ADDRESSES: Comments on the regulatory flexibility agenda should be...

  1. Neural overlap in processing music and speech.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Isabelle; Vuvan, Dominique; Lagrois, Marie-Élaine; Armony, Jorge L

    2015-03-19

    Neural overlap in processing music and speech, as measured by the co-activation of brain regions in neuroimaging studies, may suggest that parts of the neural circuitries established for language may have been recycled during evolution for musicality, or vice versa that musicality served as a springboard for language emergence. Such a perspective has important implications for several topics of general interest besides evolutionary origins. For instance, neural overlap is an important premise for the possibility of music training to influence language acquisition and literacy. However, neural overlap in processing music and speech does not entail sharing neural circuitries. Neural separability between music and speech may occur in overlapping brain regions. In this paper, we review the evidence and outline the issues faced in interpreting such neural data, and argue that converging evidence from several methodologies is needed before neural overlap is taken as evidence of sharing.

  2. Rationales for regulatory activity

    SciTech Connect

    Perhac, R.M.

    1997-02-01

    The author provides an outline which touches on the types of concerns about risk evaluation which are addressed in the process of establishing regulatory guides. Broadly he says regulatory activity serves three broad constituents: (1) Paternalism (private risk); (2) Promotion of social welfare (public risks); (3) Protection of individual rights (public risks). He then discusses some of the major issues encountered in reaching a decision on what is an acceptable level of risk within each of these areas, and how one establishes such a level.

  3. Two independent transcription initiation codes overlap on vertebrate core promoters.

    PubMed

    Haberle, Vanja; Li, Nan; Hadzhiev, Yavor; Plessy, Charles; Previti, Christopher; Nepal, Chirag; Gehrig, Jochen; Dong, Xianjun; Akalin, Altuna; Suzuki, Ana Maria; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Armant, Olivier; Ferg, Marco; Strähle, Uwe; Carninci, Piero; Müller, Ferenc; Lenhard, Boris

    2014-03-20

    A core promoter is a stretch of DNA surrounding the transcription start site (TSS) that integrates regulatory inputs and recruits general transcription factors to initiate transcription. The nature and causative relationship of the DNA sequence and chromatin signals that govern the selection of most TSSs by RNA polymerase II remain unresolved. Maternal to zygotic transition represents the most marked change of the transcriptome repertoire in the vertebrate life cycle. Early embryonic development in zebrafish is characterized by a series of transcriptionally silent cell cycles regulated by inherited maternal gene products: zygotic genome activation commences at the tenth cell cycle, marking the mid-blastula transition. This transition provides a unique opportunity to study the rules of TSS selection and the hierarchy of events linking transcription initiation with key chromatin modifications. We analysed TSS usage during zebrafish early embryonic development at high resolution using cap analysis of gene expression, and determined the positions of H3K4me3-marked promoter-associated nucleosomes. Here we show that the transition from the maternal to zygotic transcriptome is characterized by a switch between two fundamentally different modes of defining transcription initiation, which drive the dynamic change of TSS usage and promoter shape. A maternal-specific TSS selection, which requires an A/T-rich (W-box) motif, is replaced with a zygotic TSS selection grammar characterized by broader patterns of dinucleotide enrichments, precisely aligned with the first downstream (+1) nucleosome. The developmental dynamics of the H3K4me3-marked nucleosomes reveal their DNA-sequence-associated positioning at promoters before zygotic transcription and subsequent transcription-independent adjustment to the final position downstream of the zygotic TSS. The two TSS-defining grammars coexist, often physically overlapping, in core promoters of constitutively expressed genes to enable

  4. Two independent transcription initiation codes overlap on vertebrate core promoters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberle, Vanja; Li, Nan; Hadzhiev, Yavor; Plessy, Charles; Previti, Christopher; Nepal, Chirag; Gehrig, Jochen; Dong, Xianjun; Akalin, Altuna; Suzuki, Ana Maria; van Ijcken, Wilfred F. J.; Armant, Olivier; Ferg, Marco; Strähle, Uwe; Carninci, Piero; Müller, Ferenc; Lenhard, Boris

    2014-03-01

    A core promoter is a stretch of DNA surrounding the transcription start site (TSS) that integrates regulatory inputs and recruits general transcription factors to initiate transcription. The nature and causative relationship of the DNA sequence and chromatin signals that govern the selection of most TSSs by RNA polymerase II remain unresolved. Maternal to zygotic transition represents the most marked change of the transcriptome repertoire in the vertebrate life cycle. Early embryonic development in zebrafish is characterized by a series of transcriptionally silent cell cycles regulated by inherited maternal gene products: zygotic genome activation commences at the tenth cell cycle, marking the mid-blastula transition. This transition provides a unique opportunity to study the rules of TSS selection and the hierarchy of events linking transcription initiation with key chromatin modifications. We analysed TSS usage during zebrafish early embryonic development at high resolution using cap analysis of gene expression, and determined the positions of H3K4me3-marked promoter-associated nucleosomes. Here we show that the transition from the maternal to zygotic transcriptome is characterized by a switch between two fundamentally different modes of defining transcription initiation, which drive the dynamic change of TSS usage and promoter shape. A maternal-specific TSS selection, which requires an A/T-rich (W-box) motif, is replaced with a zygotic TSS selection grammar characterized by broader patterns of dinucleotide enrichments, precisely aligned with the first downstream (+1) nucleosome. The developmental dynamics of the H3K4me3-marked nucleosomes reveal their DNA-sequence-associated positioning at promoters before zygotic transcription and subsequent transcription-independent adjustment to the final position downstream of the zygotic TSS. The two TSS-defining grammars coexist, often physically overlapping, in core promoters of constitutively expressed genes to enable

  5. The Drosophila nuclear receptors DHR3 and betaFTZ-F1 control overlapping developmental responses in late embryos.

    PubMed

    Ruaud, Anne-Françoise; Lam, Geanette; Thummel, Carl S

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the onset of metamorphosis have identified an ecdysone-triggered transcriptional cascade that consists of the sequential expression of the transcription-factor-encoding genes DHR3, betaFTZ-F1, E74A and E75A. Although the regulatory interactions between these genes have been well characterized by genetic and molecular studies over the past 20 years, their developmental functions have remained more poorly understood. In addition, a transcriptional sequence similar to that observed in prepupae is repeated before each developmental transition in the life cycle, including mid-embryogenesis and the larval molts. Whether the regulatory interactions between DHR3, betaFTZ-F1, E74A and E75A at these earlier stages are similar to those defined at the onset of metamorphosis, however, is unknown. In this study, we turn to embryonic development to address these two issues. We show that mid-embryonic expression of DHR3 and betaFTZ-F1 is part of a 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E)-triggered transcriptional cascade similar to that seen in mid-prepupae, directing maximal expression of E74A and E75A during late embryogenesis. In addition, DHR3 and betaFTZ-F1 exert overlapping developmental functions at the end of embryogenesis. Both genes are required for tracheal air filling, whereas DHR3 is required for ventral nerve cord condensation and betaFTZ-F1 is required for proper maturation of the cuticular denticles. Rescue experiments support these observations, indicating that DHR3 has essential functions independent from those of betaFTZ-F1. DHR3 and betaFTZ-F1 also contribute to overlapping transcriptional responses during embryogenesis. Taken together, these studies define the lethal phenotypes of DHR3 and betaFTZ-F1 mutants, and provide evidence for functional bifurcation in the 20E-responsive transcriptional cascade.

  6. [Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap].

    PubMed

    Müller, Veronika; Gálffy, Gabriella; Tamási, Lilla

    2011-01-16

    Asthma bronchiale and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are the most prevalent lung diseases characterized by inflammation of the airways. International and Hungarian guidelines provide proper definitions for clinical symptoms, diagnostics and therapy of both diseases. However, in everyday clinical practice, overlap of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has become more frequent. As guidelines are mainly based on large, multicenter, randomized, controlled trials that exclude overlap patients, there is a lack of diagnostic and especially therapeutic strategies for these patients. This review summarizes clinical characteristics of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap, and provides daily practical examples for its management.

  7. Correlated edge overlaps in multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Gareth J.; Bianconi, Ginestra; da Costa, Rui A.; Dorogovtsev, Sergey N.; Mendes, José F. F.

    2016-07-01

    We develop the theory of sparse multiplex networks with partially overlapping links based on their local treelikeness. This theory enables us to find the giant mutually connected component in a two-layer multiplex network with arbitrary correlations between connections of different types. We find that correlations between the overlapping and nonoverlapping links markedly change the phase diagram of the system, leading to multiple hybrid phase transitions. For assortative correlations we observe recurrent hybrid phase transitions.

  8. Infrared lidar overlap function: an experimental determination.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Costa, Maria João; Bortoli, Daniele; Silva, Ana Maria; Lyamani, Hassan; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas

    2010-09-13

    The most recent works demonstrate that the lidar overlap function, which describes the overlap between the laser beam and the receiver field of view, can be determined experimentally for the 355 and 532 nm channels using Raman signals. Nevertheless, the Raman channels cannot be used to determine the lidar overlap for the infrared channel (1064 nm) because of their low intensity. In addition, many Raman lidar systems only provide inelastic signals with reasonable signal-to-noise ratio at nighttime. In view of this fact, this work presents a modification of that method, based on the comparison of attenuated backscatter profiles derived from lidar and ceilometer, to retrieve the overlap function for the lidar infrared channel. Similarly to the Raman overlap method, the approach presented here allows to derive the overlap correction without an explicit knowledge of all system parameters. The application of the proposed methodology will improve the potential of Raman lidars to investigate the aerosol microphysical properties in the planetary boundary layer, extending the information of 1064 nm backscatter profiles to the ground and allowing the retrieval of microphysical properties practically close to the surface.

  9. The Effect of Gene Overlapping on the Rate of RNA Virus Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Holmes, Edward C.; Pagán, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Gene overlapping is widely employed by RNA viruses to generate genetic novelty while retaining a small genome size. However, gene overlapping also increases the deleterious effect of mutations as they affect more than one gene, thereby reducing the evolutionary rate of RNA viruses and hence their adaptive capacity. Although there is general agreement on the benefits of gene overlapping as a mechanism of genomic compression for rapidly evolving organisms, its effect on the pace of RNA virus evolution remains a source of debate. To address this issue, we collected sequence data from 117 instances of gene overlapping across 19 families, 30 genera, and 55 species of RNA viruses. On these data, we analyzed how genetic distances, selective pressures, and the distribution of RNA secondary structures and conserved protein functional domains vary between overlapping (OV) and nonoverlapping (NOV) regions. We show that gene overlapping generally results in a decrease in the rate of RNA virus evolution through a reduction in the frequency of synonymous mutations. However, this effect is less pronounced in genes with a terminal rather than an internal gene overlap, which might result from a greater proportion of protein functional conserved domains in NOV than in OV regions, in turn reducing the number of nonsynonymous mutations in the former. Overall, our analyses clarify the role of gene overlapping as a modulator of the evolutionary rates exhibited by RNA viruses and shed light on the factors that shape the genetic diversity of this important group of pathogens. PMID:23686658

  10. Cross-Representational Interactions: Interface and Overlap Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Myachykov, Andriy; Chapman, Ashley J.; Fischer, Martin H.

    2017-01-01

    A crucial question facing cognitive science concerns the nature of conceptual representations as well as the constraints on the interactions between them. One specific question we address in this paper is what makes cross-representational interplay possible? We offer two distinct theoretical scenarios: according to the first scenario, co-activated knowledge representations interact with the help of an interface established between them via congruent activation in a mediating third-party general cognitive mechanism, e.g., attention. According to the second scenario, co-activated knowledge representations interact due to an overlap between their features, for example when they share a magnitude component. First, we make a case for cross-representational interplay based on grounded and situated theories of cognition. Second, we discuss interface-based interactions between distinct (i.e., non-overlapping) knowledge representations. Third, we discuss how co-activated representations may share their architecture via partial overlap. Finally, we outline constraints regarding the flexibility of these proposed mechanisms. PMID:28101073

  11. Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the overlap syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nakawah, Mohammad Obadah; Hawkins, Clare; Barbandi, Farouk

    2013-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are highly prevalent chronic diseases in the general population. Both are characterized by heterogeneous chronic airway inflammation and airway obstruction. In both conditions, chronic inflammation affects the whole respiratory tract, from central to peripheral airways, with different inflammatory cells recruited, different mediators produced, and thus differing responses to therapy. Airway obstruction is typically intermittent and reversible in asthma but is progressive and largely irreversible in COPD. However, there is a considerable pathologic and functional overlap between these 2 heterogeneous disorders, particularly among the elderly, who may have components of both diseases (asthma-COPD overlap syndrome). The definitions for asthma and COPD recommended by current guidelines are useful but limited because they do not illustrate the full spectrum of obstructive airway diseases that is encountered in clinical practice. Defining asthma and COPD as separate entities neglects a considerable proportion of patients with overlapping features and is largely based on expert opinion rather than on the best current evidence. The presence of different phenotypes or components of obstructive airway diseases, therefore, needs to be addressed to individualize and optimize treatment to achieve the best effect with the fewest side effects for the patient. Although specific interventions vary by disease, the treatment goals of obstructive airway diseases are similar and driven primarily by the need to control symptoms, optimize health status, and prevent exacerbations.

  12. Structural Design Strategies for Improved Small Overlap Crashworthiness Performance.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Becky C; Brethwaite, Andrew S; Zuby, David S; Nolan, Joseph M

    2014-11-01

    In 2012, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) began a 64 km/h small overlap frontal crash test consumer information test program. Thirteen automakers already have redesigned models to improve test performance. One or more distinct strategies are evident in these redesigns: reinforcement of the occupant compartment, use of energy-absorbing fender structures, and the addition of engagement structures to induce vehicle lateral translation. Each strategy influences vehicle kinematics, posing additional challenges for the restraint systems. The objective of this two-part study was to examine how vehicles were modified to improve small overlap test performance and then to examine how these modifications affect dummy response and restraint system performance. Among eight models tested before and after design changes, occupant compartment intrusion reductions ranged from 6 cm to 45 cm, with the highest reductions observed in models with the largest number of modifications. All redesigns included additional occupant compartment reinforcement, one-third added structures to engage the barrier, and two modified a shotgun load path. Designs with engagement structures produced greater glance-off from the barrier and exhibited lower delta Vs but experienced more lateral outboard motion of the dummy. Designs with heavy reinforcement of the occupant compartment had higher vehicle accelerations and delta V. In three cases, these apparent trade-offs were not well addressed by concurrent changes in restraint systems and resulted in increased injury risk compared with the original tests. Among the 36 models tested after design changes, the extent of design changes correlated to structural performance. Half of the vehicles with the lowest intrusion levels incorporated aspects of all three design strategies. Vehicle kinematics and dummy and restraint system characteristics were similar to those observed in the before/after pairs. Different combinations of structural

  13. Overlapping genetic codes for overlapping frameshifted genes in Testudines, and Lepidochelys olivacea as special case.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2012-12-01

    Mitochondrial genes code for additional proteins after +2 frameshifts by reassigning stops to code for amino acids, which defines overlapping genetic codes for overlapping genes. Turtles recode stops UAR → Trp and AGR → Lys (AGR → Gly in the marine Olive Ridley turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea). In Lepidochelys the +2 frameshifted mitochondrial Cytb gene lacks stops, open reading frames from other genes code for unknown proteins, and for regular mitochondrial proteins after frameshifts according to the overlapping genetic code. Lepidochelys' inversion between proteins coded by regular and overlapping genetic codes substantiates the existence of overlap coding. ND4 differs among Lepidochelys mitochondrial genomes: it is regular in DQ486893; in NC_011516, the open reading frame codes for another protein, the regular ND4 protein is coded by the frameshifted sequence reassigning stops as in other turtles. These systematic patterns are incompatible with Genbank/sequencing errors and DNA decay. Random mixing of synonymous codons, conserving main frame coding properties, shows optimization of natural sequences for overlap coding; Ka/Ks analyses show high positive (directional) selection on overlapping genes. Tests based on circular genetic codes confirm programmed frameshifts in ND3 and ND4l genes, and predicted frameshift sites for overlap coding in Lepidochelys. Chelonian mitochondria adapt for overlapping gene expression: cloverleaf formation by antisense tRNAs with predicted anticodons matching stops coevolves with overlap coding; antisense tRNAs with predicted expanded anticodons (frameshift suppressor tRNAs) associate with frameshift-coding in ND3 and ND4l, a potential regulation of frameshifted overlap coding. Anaeroby perhaps switched between regular and overlap coding genes in Lepidochelys.

  14. Engineering modular protein interaction switches by sequence overlap.

    PubMed

    Sallee, Nathan A; Yeh, Brian J; Lim, Wendell A

    2007-04-18

    Many cellular signaling pathways contain proteins whose interactions change in response to upstream inputs, allowing for conditional activation or repression of the interaction based on the presence of the input molecule. The ability to engineer similar regulation into protein interaction elements would provide us with powerful tools for controlling cell signaling. Here we describe an approach for engineering diverse synthetic protein interaction switches. Specifically, by overlapping the sequences of pairs of protein interaction domains and peptides, we have been able to generate mutually exclusive regulation over their interactions. Thus, the hybrid protein (which is composed of the two overlapped interaction modules) can bind to either of the two respective ligands for those modules, but not to both simultaneously. We show that these synthetic switch proteins can be used to regulate specific protein-protein interactions in vivo. These switches allow us to disrupt an interaction with the addition or activation of a protein input that has no natural connection to the interaction in question. Therefore, they give us the ability to make novel connections between normally unrelated signaling pathways and to rewire the input/output relationships of cellular behaviors. Our experiments also suggest a possible mechanism by which complex regulatory proteins might have evolved from simpler components.

  15. Automatic segmentation of overlapping and touching chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Renli; Yu, Chang

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes a technique to segment overlapping and touching chromosomes of human metaphase cells. Automated chromosome classification has been an important pattern recognition problem for decades, numerous attempts were made in the past to characterize chromosome band patterns. But successful separation between touching and overlapping chromosomes is vital for correct classification. Since chromosomes are non-rigid objects, common methods for separation between touching chromosomes are not usable. We proposed a method using shape concave and convex information, topology analysis information, and band pale paths for segmentation of touching and overlapping chromosomes. To detect shape concave and convex information, we should first pre-segment the chromosomes and get the edge of overlapping and touching chromosomes. After filtering the original image using edge-preserving filter, we adopt the Otsu's segmentation method and extract the boundary of chromosomes. Hence the boundary can be used for segment the overlapping and touching chromosomes by detecting the concave and convex information based on boundary information. Most of the traditional boundary-based algorithms detect corners based on two steps: the first step is to acquire the smoothed version of curvature at every point along the contour, and the second step is to detect the positions where curvature maximal occur and threshold the curvature as corner points. Recently wavelet transform has been adopted into corner detection algorithms. Since the metaphase overlapping chromosomes has multi-scale corners, we adopt a multi-scale corner detection method based on Hua's method for corner detection. For touching chromosomes, it is convenient to split them using pale paths. Starting from concave corner points, a search algorithm is represented. The searching algorithm traces three pixels into the object in the direction of the normal vector in order to avoid stopping at the initial boundary until it

  16. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  17. Phonon Overlaps in Molecular Quantum Dot Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Connie; Sethna, James

    2004-03-01

    We model the amplitudes and frequencies of the vibrational sidebands for the new molecular quantum dot systems. We calculate the Franck-Condon phonon overlaps in the 3N-dimensional configuration sapce. We solve the general case where the vibrational frequencies and eigenmodes change during the transition. We perform PM3 and DFT calculations for the case of the dumb bell-shaped C140 molecule. We find that the strongest amplitudes are associated with the 11 meV stretch mode, in agreement with experiment. The experimental amplitudes vary from molecule to molecule; indicating that the molecular overlaps are environment dependent. We explore overlaps in the presence of external electric fields from image charges and counter ions.

  18. Generating Composite Overlapping Grids on CAD Geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Henshaw, W.D.

    2002-02-07

    We describe some algorithms and tools that have been developed to generate composite overlapping grids on geometries that have been defined with computer aided design (CAD) programs. This process consists of five main steps. Starting from a description of the surfaces defining the computational domain we (1) correct errors in the CAD representation, (2) determine topology of the patched-surface, (3) build a global triangulation of the surface, (4) construct structured surface and volume grids using hyperbolic grid generation, and (5) generate the overlapping grid by determining the holes and the interpolation points. The overlapping grid generator which is used for the final step also supports the rapid generation of grids for block-structured adaptive mesh refinement and for moving grids. These algorithms have been implemented as part of the Overture object-oriented framework.

  19. Probing genetic overlap among complex human phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Rzhetsky, Andrey; Wajngurt, David; Park, Naeun; Zheng, Tian

    2007-07-10

    Geneticists and epidemiologists often observe that certain hereditary disorders cooccur in individual patients significantly more (or significantly less) frequently than expected, suggesting there is a genetic variation that predisposes its bearer to multiple disorders, or that protects against some disorders while predisposing to others. We suggest that, by using a large number of phenotypic observations about multiple disorders and an appropriate statistical model, we can infer genetic overlaps between phenotypes. Our proof-of-concept analysis of 1.5 million patient records and 161 disorders indicates that disease phenotypes form a highly connected network of strong pairwise correlations. Our modeling approach, under appropriate assumptions, allows us to estimate from these correlations the size of putative genetic overlaps. For example, we suggest that autism, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia share significant genetic overlaps. Our disease network hypothesis can be immediately exploited in the design of genetic mapping approaches that involve joint linkage or association analyses of multiple seemingly disparate phenotypes.

  20. [Application of the racial algorithm in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence overlapped spectrum analysis].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guo-Qiang; Luo, Yao-Yao; Ge, Liang-Quan; Zhang, Qing-Xian; Gu, Yi; Cheng, Feng

    2014-02-01

    In the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrum analysis, scintillation detector such as NaI (Tl) detector usually has a low energy resolution at around 8%. The low energy resolution causes problems in spectral data analysis especially in the high background and low counts condition, it is very limited to strip the overlapped spectrum, and the more overlapping the peaks are, the more difficult to peel the peaks, and the qualitative and quantitative analysis can't be carried out because we can't recognize the peak address and peak area. Based on genetic algorithm and immune algorithm, we build a new racial algorithm which uses the Euclidean distance as the judgment of evolution, the maximum relative error as the iterative criterion to be put into overlapped spectrum analysis, then we use the Gaussian function to simulate different overlapping degrees of the spectrum, and the racial algorithm is used in overlapped peak separation and full spectrum simulation, the peak address deviation is in +/- 3 channels, the peak area deviation is no more than 5%, and it is proven that this method has a good effect in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence overlapped spectrum analysis.

  1. Sub-Plate Overlap Code Documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taff, L. G.; Bucciarelli, B.; Zarate, N.

    1997-01-01

    An expansion of the plate overlap method of astrometric data reduction to a single plate has been proposed and successfully tested. Each plate is (artificially) divided into sub-plates which can then be overlapped. This reduces the area of a 'plate' over which a plate model needs to accurately represent the relationship between measured coordinates and standard coordinates. Application is made to non-astrographic plates such as Schmidt plates and to wide-field astrographic plates. Indeed, the method is completely general and can be applied to any type of recording media.

  2. Dynamics of overlapping structures in modular networks.

    PubMed

    Almendral, J A; Leyva, I; Li, D; Sendiña-Nadal, I; Havlin, S; Boccaletti, S

    2010-07-01

    Modularity is a fundamental feature of real networks, being intimately bounded to their functionality, i.e., to their capability of performing parallel tasks in a coordinated way. Although the modular structure of real graphs has been intensively studied, very little is known on the interactions between functional modules of a graph. Here, we present a general method based on synchronization of networking oscillators, that is able to detect overlapping structures in multimodular environments. We furthermore report the full analytical and theoretical description on the relationship between the overlapping dynamics and the underlying network topology. The method is illustrated by means of a series of applications.

  3. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  4. Australian University Libraries: Collections Overlap Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missingham, Roxanne; Walls, Robert

    2003-01-01

    In 2002, the Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST), Higher Education Information Infrastructure Advisory Committee commissioned the National Library of Australia to analyse the uniqueness and overlap of Australian university library collections, comparing library collections in each state, using the National Bibliographic Database…

  5. Stochastic Cooling with Schottky Band Overlap

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Valeri

    2006-03-20

    Optimal use of stochastic cooling is essential to maximize the antiproton stacking rate for Tevatron Run II. Good understanding and characterization of the cooling is important for the optimization. The paper is devoted to derivation of the Fokker-Plank equations justified in the case of near or full Schottky base overlap for both longitudinal and transverse coolings.

  6. Stochastic Cooling with Schottky Band Overlap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Valeri

    2006-03-01

    Optimal use of stochastic cooling is essential to maximize the antiproton stacking rate for Tevatron Run II. Good understanding and characterization of the cooling is important for the optimization. The paper is devoted to derivation of the Fokker-Plank equations justified in the case of near or full Schottky base overlap for both longitudinal and transverse coolings.

  7. 47 CFR 73.509 - Prohibited overlap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.509 Prohibited overlap. (a) An application for a new or modified NCE-FM station other than a Class D (secondary) station will not be accepted if the...

  8. 47 CFR 73.509 - Prohibited overlap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.509 Prohibited overlap. (a) An application for a new or modified NCE-FM station other than a Class D (secondary) station will not be accepted if the...

  9. Autism and ADHD: Overlapping and Discriminating Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Mayes, Rebecca D.; Molitoris, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Children with ADHD and autism have some similar features, complicating a differential diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the degree to which core ADHD and autistic symptoms overlap in and discriminate between children 2-16 years of age with autism and ADHD. Our study demonstrated that 847 children with autism were easily…

  10. The overlap syndromes of autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Czaja, Albert J

    2013-02-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis has two major variant phenotypes in which the features of classical disease are co-mingled with those of primary biliary cirrhosis or primary sclerosing cholangitis. These overlap syndromes lack codified diagnostic criteria, established pathogenic mechanisms, and confident management strategies. Their clinical importance relates mainly to the identification of patients who respond poorly to conventional corticosteroid treatment. Scoring systems that lack discriminative power have been used in their definition, and a clinical phenotype based on pre-defined laboratory and histological findings has not been promulgated. The frequency of overlap with primary biliary cirrhosis is 7-13 %, and the frequency of overlap with primary sclerosing cholangitis is 8-17 %. Patients with autoimmune hepatitis and features of cholestatic disease must be distinguished from patients with cholestatic disease and features of autoimmune hepatitis. Variants of the overlap syndromes include patients with small duct primary sclerosing cholangitis, antimitochondrial antibody-negative primary biliary cirrhosis, autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis, and immunoglobulin G4-associated disease. Conventional corticosteroid therapy alone or in conjunction with ursodeoxycholic acid (13-15 mg/kg daily) has been variably effective, and cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and budesonide have been beneficial in selected patients. The key cholestatic features that influence the prognosis of autoimmune hepatitis must be defined and incorporated into the definition of the syndrome rather than rely on designations that imply the co-mingling of different diseases with manifestations of variable clinical relevance. The overlap syndromes in autoimmune hepatitis are imprecise, heterogeneous, and unfounded, but they constitute a clinical reality that must be accepted, diagnosed, refined, treated, and studied.

  11. Name-Based Address Mapping for Virtual Private Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surányi, Péter; Shinjo, Yasushi; Kato, Kazuhiko

    IPv4 private addresses are commonly used in local area networks (LANs). With the increasing popularity of virtual private networks (VPNs), it has become common that a user connects to multiple LANs at the same time. However, private address ranges for LANs frequently overlap. In such cases, existing systems do not allow the user to access the resources on all LANs at the same time. In this paper, we propose name-based address mapping for VPNs, a novel method that allows connecting to hosts through multiple VPNs at the same time, even when the address ranges of the VPNs overlap. In name-based address mapping, rather than using the IP addresses used on the LANs (the real addresses), we assign a unique virtual address to each remote host based on its domain name. The local host uses the virtual addresses to communicate with remote hosts. We have implemented name-based address mapping for layer 3 OpenVPN connections on Linux and measured its performance. The communication overhead of our system is less than 1.5% for throughput and less than 0.2ms for each name resolution.

  12. 10 CFR 590.104 - Address for filing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Address for filing documents. 590.104 Section 590.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS General Provisions § 590.104 Address...

  13. 10 CFR 590.104 - Address for filing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Address for filing documents. 590.104 Section 590.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS General Provisions § 590.104 Address...

  14. 10 CFR 590.104 - Address for filing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Address for filing documents. 590.104 Section 590.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS General Provisions § 590.104 Address...

  15. 10 CFR 590.104 - Address for filing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Address for filing documents. 590.104 Section 590.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS General Provisions § 590.104 Address...

  16. 10 CFR 590.104 - Address for filing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Address for filing documents. 590.104 Section 590.104 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS General Provisions § 590.104 Address...

  17. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  18. Invitational Addresses, 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Arthur I.; And Others

    The full texts of invitational addresses given at the 1965 International Reading Association (IRA) Convention in Detroit, Michigan, by six recipients of IRA citation awards are presented. Gates suggests steps IRA should take to revive and redirect reading research. McCallister discusses the implications of the changing and expanding vocabulary of…

  19. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  20. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  1. A Preliminary Study on the Curriculum Overlap and Gap between LIS Education and Intelligence Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yejun

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the curriculum overlap and gap between LIS education and intelligence education by analyzing the content of the websites of the intelligence education programs and courses in 27 representative intelligence education universities in the United States, and the intelligence-related programs and courses in the 56 LIS programs in…

  2. Representation of the Speech Effectors in the Human Motor Cortex: Somatotopy or Overlap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takai, Osamu; Brown, Steven; Liotti, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Somatotopy within the orofacial region of the human motor cortex has been a central concept in interpreting the results of neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation studies of normal and disordered speech. Yet, somatotopy has been challenged by studies showing overlap among the effectors within the homunculus. In order to address this…

  3. 47 CFR 101.1309 - Regulatory status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regulatory status. 101.1309 Section 101.1309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Multiple Address Systems General Provisions § 101.1309 Regulatory status. (a) The Commission...

  4. 47 CFR 101.1309 - Regulatory status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regulatory status. 101.1309 Section 101.1309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Multiple Address Systems General Provisions § 101.1309 Regulatory status. (a) The Commission...

  5. Content Addressable Memory Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    The Content Addressable M1-emory Project consists of the development of several experimental software systems on an AMT Distributed Array Processor...searching (database) compiler algorithms memory management other systems software) Linear C is an unlovely hybrid language which imports the CAM...memory from AMT’s operating system for the DAP; how- ever, other than this limitation, the memory management routines work exactly as their C counterparts

  6. Imaging of autoimmune hepatitis and overlap syndromes.

    PubMed

    Malik, Neera; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an uncommon, chronic inflammatory, and relapsing liver disease of unknown origin that may lead to liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplantation, or death. AIH occurs in all age groups and races but can frequently manifest as acute fulminant hepatitis. Clinical presentation of AIH can have features similar to primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), and these diseases may coexist leading to overlap syndromes. Although histological diagnosis is necessary, imaging features often can demonstrate characteristics that may be helpful to distinguish these diseases. Imaging features of AIH are those of chronic liver disease, and imaging plays important role in detection of complications and ruling out other possible causes of chronic liver disease. Emerging techniques such as elastography provide non-invasive options for diagnosis of significant fibrosis and cirrhosis during clinical follow-up as well as assessment of response to treatment. In this study, we will describe imaging findings in AIH and overlap syndromes.

  7. A local immunization strategy for networks with overlapping community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghavian, Fatemeh; Salehi, Mostafa; Teimouri, Mehdi

    2017-02-01

    Since full coverage treatment is not feasible due to limited resources, we need to utilize an immunization strategy to effectively distribute the available vaccines. On the other hand, the structure of contact network among people has a significant impact on epidemics of infectious diseases (such as SARS and influenza) in a population. Therefore, network-based immunization strategies aim to reduce the spreading rate by removing the vaccinated nodes from contact network. Such strategies try to identify more important nodes in epidemics spreading over a network. In this paper, we address the effect of overlapping nodes among communities on epidemics spreading. The proposed strategy is an optimized random-walk based selection of these nodes. The whole process is local, i.e. it requires contact network information in the level of nodes. Thus, it is applicable to large-scale and unknown networks in which the global methods usually are unrealizable. Our simulation results on different synthetic and real networks show that the proposed method outperforms the existing local methods in most cases. In particular, for networks with strong community structures, high overlapping membership of nodes or small size communities, the proposed method shows better performance.

  8. Statistical mechanics of multiplex networks: Entropy and overlap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianconi, Ginestra

    2013-06-01

    There is growing interest in multiplex networks where individual nodes take part in several layers of networks simultaneously. This is the case, for example, in social networks where each individual node has different kinds of social ties or transportation systems where each location is connected to another location by different types of transport. Many of these multiplexes are characterized by a significant overlap of the links in different layers. In this paper we introduce a statistical mechanics framework to describe multiplex ensembles. A multiplex is a system formed by N nodes and M layers of interactions where each node belongs to the M layers at the same time. Each layer α is formed by a network Gα. Here we introduce the concept of correlated multiplex ensembles in which the existence of a link in one layer is correlated with the existence of a link in another layer. This implies that a typical multiplex of the ensemble can have a significant overlap of the links in the different layers. Moreover, we characterize microcanonical and canonical multiplex ensembles satisfying respectively hard and soft constraints and we discuss how to construct multiplexes in these ensembles. Finally, we provide the expression for the entropy of these ensembles that can be useful to address different inference problems involving multiplexes.

  9. "Overlapped" rhinitis: a real trap for rhinoallergologists.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, M

    2014-11-01

    Under the broad heading of "vasomotor" rhinitis two big groups can be distinguished: allergic rhinitis (IgE-mediated), and nonallergic rhinitis. Since they are two separate nosological entities, they can co-exist in the same patient, classifying themselves in the group of "overlapped" rhinitis (OR). Although not absolutely rare (indeed it is estimated a 15-20% incidence among all vasomotor rhinopathies), this condition is not investigated and diagnosed, with significant implications in the clinical-diagnostic and therapeutic field.

  10. Overlap of fibromyalgia with other medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lavín, M

    2001-08-01

    Fibromyalgia is a multisystem illness. One of its defining features, generalized pain, may also be present in other rheumatic entities. The diagnosis of fibromyalgia is not easy by any means, it requires a profound knowledge of internal medicine. This article discusses the different rheumatic and nonrheumatic diseases that overlap or are prone to be confused with fibromyalgia. It emphasizes the key points in the differential diagnosis.

  11. Overlaps between Frailty and Sarcopenia Definitions.

    PubMed

    Cederholm, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    Aging is characterized by the catabolism of muscles leading to sarcopenia and frailty. These are two geriatric syndromes with partly overlapping phenotypes. Primary sarcopenia, i.e. loss of muscle mass and function related to aging alone, usually precedes frailty. Thus, robustness passes from sarcopenia over frailty to disability leading eventually to a mortal outcome. Frailty (defined according to the phenotype model) encompasses states as exhaustion, weakness, and slowness, whereas sarcopenia, combining mass and function, is more strictly focused on muscles. Frailty is age related, whereas sarcopenia is also related to disease, starvation, and disuse. In general, the criteria for the two conditions overlap, but frailty requires weight loss, whereas sarcopenia requires muscle loss. Both gait speed and hand grip strength are suggested to be used as diagnostic measures for the two conditions since muscle function is crucial for any of the two syndromes. It is suggested that frailty screening should be part of the geriatric comprehensive assessment starting with measuring walking capacity and complemented by taking a history of fatigue and low activity. For younger adults (i.e. <70 years), sarcopenia screening could first register gait speed or hand grip strength and then body composition measurements. Simple questionnaires are feasible clinical alternatives. Treatment of frailty and sarcopenia overlaps, i.e. provide adequate protein and vitamin D supplementation, and encourage resistance exercise.

  12. Burnout-depression overlap: a review.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Renzo; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Laurent, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Whether burnout is a form of depression or a distinct phenomenon is an object of controversy. The aim of the present article was to provide an up-to-date review of the literature dedicated to the question of burnout-depression overlap. A systematic literature search was carried out in PubMed, PsycINFO, and IngentaConnect. A total of 92 studies were identified as informing the issue of burnout-depression overlap. The current state of the art suggests that the distinction between burnout and depression is conceptually fragile. It is notably unclear how the state of burnout (i.e., the end stage of the burnout process) is conceived to differ from clinical depression. Empirically, evidence for the distinctiveness of the burnout phenomenon has been inconsistent, with the most recent studies casting doubt on that distinctiveness. The absence of consensual diagnostic criteria for burnout and burnout research's insufficient consideration of the heterogeneity of depressive disorders constitute major obstacles to the resolution of the raised issue. In conclusion, the epistemic status of the seminal, field-dominating definition of burnout is questioned. It is suggested that systematic clinical observation should be given a central place in future research on burnout-depression overlap.

  13. Vertical overlap of probability density functions of cloud and precipitation hydrometeors: CLOUD AND PRECIPITATION PDF OVERLAP

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Lim, Kyo-Sun Sunny; Larson, Vincent E.; Wong, May; Thayer-Calder, Katherine; Ghan, Steven J.

    2016-11-05

    Coarse-resolution climate models increasingly rely on probability density functions (PDFs) to represent subgrid-scale variability of prognostic variables. While PDFs characterize the horizontal variability, a separate treatment is needed to account for the vertical structure of clouds and precipitation. When sub-columns are drawn from these PDFs for microphysics or radiation parameterizations, appropriate vertical correlations must be enforced via PDF overlap specifications. This study evaluates the representation of PDF overlap in the Subgrid Importance Latin Hypercube Sampler (SILHS) employed in the assumed PDF turbulence and cloud scheme called the Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB). PDF overlap in CLUBB-SILHS simulations of continental and tropical oceanic deep convection is compared with overlap of PDF of various microphysics variables in cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations of the same cases that explicitly predict the 3D structure of cloud and precipitation fields. CRM results show that PDF overlap varies significantly between different hydrometeor types, as well as between PDFs of mass and number mixing ratios for each species, - a distinction that the current SILHS implementation does not make. In CRM simulations that explicitly resolve cloud and precipitation structures, faster falling species, such as rain and graupel, exhibit significantly higher coherence in their vertical distributions than slow falling cloud liquid and ice. These results suggest that to improve the overlap treatment in the sub-column generator, the PDF correlations need to depend on hydrometeor properties, such as fall speeds, in addition to the currently implemented dependency on the turbulent convective length scale.

  14. Acetaminophen induced Steven Johnson syndrome-toxic epidermal necrolysis overlap.

    PubMed

    Khawaja, Ali; Shahab, Ahmed; Hussain, Syed Ather

    2012-05-01

    Steven Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis are rare but severe form of hypersensitivity inflammatory reactions to multiple offending agents including drugs. Acetaminophen is extensively used due to its analgesic and anti-pyretic properties. It is rendered to be relatively safe, with hepatotoxicity considered to be the major adverse effect. However, very few cases of Steven Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis have been reported with acetaminophen usage in the past. We present the case of a 40 years old lady who developed an overlap of the two condition after taking several doses of acetaminophen for fever. She presented with widespread maculopapular rash, stinging in the eyes, oral mucosal ulcerations and high grade fever. She was successfully treated with corticosteroid therapy along with the supportive treatment. This case addresses the fact, that severe hypersensitivity reactions can occur with acetaminophen which can be potentially life threatening.

  15. A global regulatory science agenda for vaccines.

    PubMed

    Elmgren, Lindsay; Li, Xuguang; Wilson, Carolyn; Ball, Robert; Wang, Junzhi; Cichutek, Klaus; Pfleiderer, Michael; Kato, Atsushi; Cavaleri, Marco; Southern, James; Jivapaisarnpong, Teeranart; Minor, Philip; Griffiths, Elwyn; Sohn, Yeowon; Wood, David

    2013-04-18

    The Decade of Vaccines Collaboration and development of the Global Vaccine Action Plan provides a catalyst and unique opportunity for regulators worldwide to develop and propose a global regulatory science agenda for vaccines. Regulatory oversight is critical to allow access to vaccines that are safe, effective, and of assured quality. Methods used by regulators need to constantly evolve so that scientific and technological advances are applied to address challenges such as new products and technologies, and also to provide an increased understanding of benefits and risks of existing products. Regulatory science builds on high-quality basic research, and encompasses at least two broad categories. First, there is laboratory-based regulatory science. Illustrative examples include development of correlates of immunity; or correlates of safety; or of improved product characterization and potency assays. Included in such science would be tools to standardize assays used for regulatory purposes. Second, there is science to develop regulatory processes. Illustrative examples include adaptive clinical trial designs; or tools to analyze the benefit-risk decision-making process of regulators; or novel pharmacovigilance methodologies. Included in such science would be initiatives to standardize regulatory processes (e.g., definitions of terms for adverse events [AEs] following immunization). The aim of a global regulatory science agenda is to transform current national efforts, mainly by well-resourced regulatory agencies, into a coordinated action plan to support global immunization goals. This article provides examples of how regulatory science has, in the past, contributed to improved access to vaccines, and identifies gaps that could be addressed through a global regulatory science agenda. The article also identifies challenges to implementing a regulatory science agenda and proposes strategies and actions to fill these gaps. A global regulatory science agenda will enable

  16. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  17. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  18. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  19. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 2. Evaluation of seismic designs: a review of seismic design requirements for Nuclear Power Plant Piping

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    This document reports the position and recommendations of the NRC Piping Review Committee, Task Group on Seismic Design. The Task Group considered overlapping conservation in the various steps of seismic design, the effects of using two levels of earthquake as a design criterion, and current industry practices. Issues such as damping values, spectra modification, multiple response spectra methods, nozzle and support design, design margins, inelastic piping response, and the use of snubbers are addressed. Effects of current regulatory requirements for piping design are evaluated, and recommendations for immediate licensing action, changes in existing requirements, and research programs are presented. Additional background information and suggestions given by consultants are also presented.

  20. FIRST-ORDER RESONANCE OVERLAP AND THE STABILITY OF CLOSE TWO-PLANET SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Deck, Katherine M.; Payne, Matthew; Holman, Matthew J.

    2013-09-10

    Motivated by the population of observed multi-planet systems with orbital period ratios 1 < P{sub 2}/P{sub 1} {approx}< 2, we study the long-term stability of packed two-planet systems. The Hamiltonian for two massive planets on nearly circular and nearly coplanar orbits near a first-order mean motion resonance can be reduced to a one-degree-of-freedom problem. Using this analytically tractable Hamiltonian, we apply the resonance overlap criterion to predict the onset of large-scale chaotic motion in close two-planet systems. The reduced Hamiltonian has only a weak dependence on the planetary mass ratio m{sub 1}/m{sub 2}, and hence the overlap criterion is independent of the planetary mass ratio at lowest order. Numerical integrations confirm that the planetary mass ratio has little effect on the structure of the chaotic phase space for close orbits in the low-eccentricity (e {approx}< 0.1) regime. We show numerically that orbits in the chaotic web produced primarily by first-order resonance overlap eventually experience large-scale erratic variation in semimajor axes and are therefore Lagrange unstable. This is also true of the orbits in this overlap region which satisfy the Hill criterion. As a result, we can use the first-order resonance overlap criterion as an effective stability criterion for pairs of observed planets. We show that for low-mass ({approx}< 10 M{sub Circled-Plus }) planetary systems with initially circular orbits the period ratio at which complete overlap occurs and widespread chaos results lies in a region of parameter space which is Hill stable. Our work indicates that a resonance overlap criterion which would apply for initially eccentric orbits likely needs to take into account second-order resonances. Finally, we address the connection found in previous work between the Hill stability criterion and numerically determined Lagrange instability boundaries in the context of resonance overlap.

  1. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  2. Influence of slice overlap on positron emission tomography image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, Clare; Gillen, Gerry; Dempsey, Mary Frances; Findlay, Caroline

    2016-02-01

    PET scans use overlapping acquisition beds to correct for reduced sensitivity at bed edges. The optimum overlap size for the General Electric (GE) Discovery 690 has not been established. This study assesses how image quality is affected by slice overlap. Efficacy of 23% overlaps (recommended by GE) and 49% overlaps (maximum possible overlap) were specifically assessed. European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) guidelines for calculating minimum injected activities based on overlap size were also reviewed. A uniform flood phantom was used to assess noise (coefficient of variation, (COV)) and voxel accuracy (activity concentrations, Bq ml-1). A NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) body phantom with hot/cold spheres in a background activity was used to assess contrast recovery coefficients (CRCs) and signal to noise ratios (SNR). Different overlap sizes and sphere-to-background ratios were assessed. COVs for 49% and 23% overlaps were 9% and 13% respectively. This increased noise was difficult to visualise on the 23% overlap images. Mean voxel activity concentrations were not affected by overlap size. No clinically significant differences in CRCs were observed. However, visibility and SNR of small, low contrast spheres (⩽13 mm diameter, 2:1 sphere to background ratio) may be affected by overlap size in low count studies if they are located in the overlap area. There was minimal detectable influence on image quality in terms of noise, mean activity concentrations or mean CRCs when comparing 23% overlap with 49% overlap. Detectability of small, low contrast lesions may be affected in low count studies—however, this is a worst-case scenario. The marginal benefits of increasing overlap from 23% to 49% are likely to be offset by increased patient scan times. A 23% overlap is therefore appropriate for clinical use. An amendment to EANM guidelines for calculating injected activities is also proposed which better reflects the effect overlap size has

  3. Regulatory Forum.

    PubMed

    Peden, W Michael

    2016-12-01

    Revision of the International Council for Harmonization (ICH) S1 guidance for rat carcinogenicity studies to be more selective of compounds requiring a 2-year rat carcinogenicity study has been proposed following extensive evaluation of rat carcinogenicity and chronic toxicity studies by industry and drug regulatory authorities. To inform the ICH S1 expert working group in their potential revision of ICH S1, a prospective evaluation study was initiated in 2013, in which sponsors would assess the pharmacologic and toxicologic findings present in the chronic toxicity studies and predict a positive or negative carcinogenicity outcome using a weight of evidence argument (a carcinogenicity assessment document [CAD]). The Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee was asked by the Society of Toxicology Pathology (STP) executive committee to track these changes with ICH S1 and inform the STP membership of status changes. This commentary is intended to provide a brief summary of recent changes to the CAD guidance and highlight the importance of STP membership participation in the process of CAD submissions.

  4. Overextended sarcomeres regain filament overlap following stretch.

    PubMed

    Panchangam, Appaji; Herzog, Walter

    2012-09-21

    Sarcomere overextension has been widely implicated in stretch-induced muscle injury. Yet, sarcomere overextensions are typically inferred based on indirect evidence obtained in muscle and fibre preparations, where individual sarcomeres cannot be observed during dynamic contractions. Therefore, it remains unclear whether sarcomere overextensions are permanent following injury-inducing stretch-shortening cycles, and thus, if they can explain stretch-induced force loss. We tested the hypothesis that overextended sarcomeres can regain filament overlap in isolated myofibrils from rabbit psoas muscles. Maximally activated myofibrils (n=13) were stretched from an average sarcomere length of 2.6±0.04μm by 0.9μm sarcomere(-1) at a speed of 0.1μm sarcomere(-1)s(-1) and immediately returned to the starting lengths at the same speed (sarcomere strain=34.1±2.3%). Myofibrils were then allowed to contract isometrically at the starting lengths (2.6μm) for ∼30s before relaxing. Force and individual sarcomere lengths were measured continuously. Out of the 182 sarcomeres, 35 sarcomeres were overextended at the peak of stretch, out of which 26 regained filament overlap in the shortening phase while 9 (∼5%) remained overextended. About 35% of the sarcomeres with initial lengths on the descending limb of the force-length relationship and ∼2% of the sarcomeres with shorter initial lengths were overextended. These findings provide first ever direct evidence that overextended sarcomeres can regain filament overlap in the shortening phase following stretch, and that the likelihood of overextension is higher for sarcomeres residing initially on the descending limb.

  5. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  6. Technology initiatives with government/business overlap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Robert H., Jr.

    2015-03-01

    Three important present-day technology development settings involve significant overlap between government and private sectors. The Advanced Research Project Agency for Energy (ARPA-E) supports a wide range of "high risk, high return" projects carried out in academic, non-profit or private business settings. The Materials Genome Initiative (MGI), based in the White House, aims at radical acceleration of the development process for advanced materials. California public utilities such as Pacific Gas & Electric operate under a structure of financial returns and political program mandates that make them arms of public policy as much as independent businesses.

  7. Investigation of Overlap Correction Techniques for Application in the Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkoff, Timothy A.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Campbell, James R.; Scott, Vibart S.; Spinhirne, James D.

    2003-01-01

    The Micro-Pulse Lidar NETwork (MPLNET) is comprised of micro-pulse lidars (MPL) stationed around the globe to provide measurements of aerosol and cloud vertical distribution on a continuous basis. MPLNET sites are co-located with sunphotometers in the AErosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) to provide joint measurements of aerosol optical depth, size, and other inherent optical properties. The IPCC 2001 report discusses . the importance of obtaining routine measurements of aerosol vertical structure, especially for absorbing aerosols. MPLNET provides exactly this sort of measurement, including calculation of aerosol extinction profiles, in a near real-time basis for all sites in the network. In order to obtain aerosol profiles, near range signal returns (0-6 km) must be accurately measured by the MPL. This measurement is complicated by the instrument s overlap range: Le., the minimum distance at which returning signals are completely in the instrument s field-of-view (FOV). Typical MPL overlap distances are large, between 5 - 6 km, due to the narrow FOV of the MPL receiver. A function describing the MPL overlap must be determined and used to correct signals in this range. Currently, overlap functions for MPLNET are determined using horizontal MPL measurements along a path with 10-1 5 km clear line-of-sight and a homogenous atmosphere. These conditions limit the location and ease in which successful overlaps can be obtained. Furthermore, the current MPLNET process of correcting for overlap increases the uncertainty and bias error for the near range signals and the resulting aerosol extinction profiles. To address these issues, an alternative overlap correction method using a small-diameter, wide FOV receiver is being considered for potential use in MPLNET. The wide FOV receiver has a much shorter overlap distance and will be used to calculate the overlap function of the MPL receiver. This approach has a significant benefit in that overlap corrections could be obtained

  8. Regulatory pathways for vaccines for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Milstien, Julie; Belgharbi, Lahouari

    2004-01-01

    Vaccines that are designed for use only in developing countries face regulatory hurdles that may restrict their use. There are two primary reasons for this: most regulatory authorities are set up to address regulation of products for use only within their jurisdictions and regulatory authorities in developing countries traditionally have been considered weak. Some options for regulatory pathways for such products have been identified: licensing in the country of manufacture, file review by the European Medicines Evaluation Agency on behalf of WHO, export to a country with a competent national regulatory authority (NRA) that could handle all regulatory functions for the developing country market, shared manufacturing and licensing in a developing country with competent manufacturing and regulatory capacity, and use of a contracted independent entity for global regulatory approval. These options have been evaluated on the basis of five criteria: assurance of all regulatory functions for the life of the product, appropriateness of epidemiological assessment, applicability to products no longer used in the domestic market of the manufacturing country, reduction of regulatory risk for the manufacturer, and existing rules and regulations for implementation. No one option satisfies all criteria. For all options, national infrastructures (including the underlying regulatory legislative framework, particularly to formulate and implement local evidence-based vaccine policy) must be developed. WHO has led work to develop this capacity with some success. The paper outlines additional areas of action required by the international community to assure development and use of vaccines needed for the developing world. PMID:15042235

  9. 76 FR 58846 - Final Interim Staff Guidance: Review of Evaluation To Address Gas Accumulation Issues in Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Final Interim Staff Guidance: Review of Evaluation To Address Gas Accumulation Issues in Safety.... Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff is issuing its Final Interim Staff Guidance (ISG)...

  10. Regulatory Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, legal documents, technological devices, organizational structures, and work practices aimed at minimizing risk. I use this term to reorient the analytical attention with respect to safety regulation. Instead of evaluating whether safety is achieved, the point is to explore the types of “safety” produced through these logics as well as to consider the sometimes unintended consequences of such safety work. In fact, the EU rules have been giving rise to complaints from practitioners finding the directives problematic and inadequate. In this article, I explore the problems practitioners face and why they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape. PMID:26139952

  11. Regulatory Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  12. Activation of words with phonological overlap

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Claudia K.; Felder, Verena; Lahiri, Aditi; Eulitz, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Multiple lexical representations overlapping with the input (cohort neighbors) are temporarily activated in the listener's mental lexicon when speech unfolds in time. Activation for cohort neighbors appears to rapidly decline as soon as there is mismatch with the input. However, it is a matter of debate whether or not they are completely excluded from further processing. We recorded behavioral data and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in auditory-visual word onset priming during a lexical decision task. As primes we used the first two syllables of spoken German words. In a carrier word condition, the primes were extracted from spoken versions of the target words (ano-ANORAK “anorak”). In a cohort neighbor condition, the primes were taken from words that overlap with the target word up to the second nucleus (ana—taken from ANANAS “pineapple”). Relative to a control condition, where primes and targets were unrelated, lexical decision responses for cohort neighbors were delayed. This reveals that cohort neighbors are disfavored by the decision processes at the behavioral front end. In contrast, left-anterior ERPs reflected long-lasting facilitated processing of cohort neighbors. We interpret these results as evidence for extended parallel processing of cohort neighbors. That is, in parallel to the preparation and elicitation of delayed lexical decision responses to cohort neighbors, aspects of the processing system appear to keep track of those less efficient word candidates. PMID:24009593

  13. The Hippocampus and Disambiguation of Overlapping Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Agster, Kara L.; Fortin, Norbert J.; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Recent models of hippocampal function emphasize its potential role in disambiguating sequences of events that compose distinct episodic memories. In this study, rats were trained to distinguish two overlapping sequences of odor choices. The capacity to disambiguate the sequences was measured by the critical odor choice after the overlapping elements of the sequences. When the sequences were presented in rapid alternation, damage to the hippocampus, produced either by infusions of the neurotoxin ibotenic acid or by radiofrequency current, produced a severe deficit, although animals with radiofrequency lesions relearned the task. When the sequences were presented spaced apart and in random order, animals with radiofrequency hippocampal lesions could perform the task. However, they failed when a memory delay was imposed before the critical choice. These findings support the hypothesis that the hippocampus is involved in representing sequences of nonspatial events, particularly when interference between the sequences is high or when animals must remember across a substantial delay preceding items in a current sequence. PMID:12097529

  14. Visualizing fuzzy overlapping communities in networks.

    PubMed

    Vehlow, Corinna; Reinhardt, Thomas; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    An important feature of networks for many application domains is their community structure. This is because objects within the same community usually have at least one property in common. The investigation of community structure can therefore support the understanding of object attributes from the network topology alone. In real-world systems, objects may belong to several communities at the same time, i.e., communities can overlap. Analyzing fuzzy community memberships is essential to understand to what extent objects contribute to different communities and whether some communities are highly interconnected. We developed a visualization approach that is based on node-link diagrams and supports the investigation of fuzzy communities in weighted undirected graphs at different levels of detail. Starting with the network of communities, the user can continuously drill down to the network of individual nodes and finally analyze the membership distribution of nodes of interest. Our approach uses layout strategies and further visual mappings to graphically encode the fuzzy community memberships. The usefulness of our approach is illustrated by two case studies analyzing networks of different domains: social networking and biological interactions. The case studies showed that our layout and visualization approach helps investigate fuzzy overlapping communities. Fuzzy vertices as well as the different communities to which they belong can be easily identified based on node color and position.

  15. Serial FBG sensor network allowing overlapping spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbenseth, S.; Lochmann, S.; Ahrens, A.; Rehm, B.

    2016-05-01

    For structure or material monitoring low impact serial fiber Bragg grating (FBG) networks have attracted increasing research interest. Common sensor networks using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) for FBG interrogation are limited in their efficiency by the spectral width of their light source, the FBG tuning range and the spectral guard bands. Overlapping spectra are strictly forbidden in this case. Applying time division multiplexing (TDM) or active resonator schemes may overcome these restrictions. However, they introduce other substantial disadvantages like signal roundtrip dependency or sophisticated control of active resonating structures. Code division multiplexing (CDM) as a means of FBG interrogation by simple autocorrelation of appropriate codes has been shown to be superior in this respect. However, it came at the cost of a second spectrometer introducing additional equalization efforts. We demonstrate a new serial FBG sensor network utilizing CDM signal processing for efficient sensor interrogation without the need of a second spectrometer and additional state of polarization (SOP) controlling components. It allows overlapping spectra even when all sensing FBGs are positioned at the same centre wavelength and it shows a high degree of insensitivity to SOP. Sequence inversed keyed (SIK) serial signal processing utilizing quasi-orthogonal balanced codes ensures simple and quick sensor interrogation with high signal-to-interference/noise ratio.

  16. Octave illusion elicited by overlapping narrowband noises.

    PubMed

    Jonas Brännström, K; Nilsson, Patrik

    2011-05-01

    The octave or Deutsch illusion occurs when two tones, separated by about one octave, are presented simultaneously but alternating between ears, such that when the low tone is presented to the left ear the high tone is presented to the right ear and vice versa. Most subjects hear a single tone that alternates both between ears and in pitch; i.e., they hear a low pitched tone in one ear alternating with a high pitched tone in the other ear. The present study examined whether the illusion can be elicited by aperiodic signals consisting of low-frequency band-pass filtered noises with overlapping spectra. The amount of spectral overlap was held constant, but the high- and low-frequency content of the signals was systematically varied. The majority of subjects perceived an auditory illusion in terms of a dominant ear for pitch and lateralization by frequency, as proposed by Deutsch [(1975a) Sci. Am. 233, 92-104]. Furthermore, the salience of the illusion increased as the high frequency of the content in the signal increased. Since no harmonics were present in the stimuli, it is highly unlikely that this illusion is perceived on the basis of binaural diplacusis or harmonic binaural fusion.

  17. Heterogeneity of asthma–COPD overlap syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Hyonsoo; Han, Deokjae; Lee, Jae Ha; Rhee, Chin Kook

    2017-01-01

    Many patients suffering from asthma or COPD have overlapping features of both diseases. However, a phenotypical approach for evaluating asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) has not been established. In this report, we examined the phenotypes in patients with ACOS. Patients diagnosed with ACOS between 2011 and 2015 were identified and classified into four phenotype groups. Group A was composed of patients who smoked <10 pack years and had blood eosinophil counts ≥300. Group B was composed of patients who smoked <10 pack years and had blood eosinophil counts <300. Group C was composed of patients who smoked ≥10 pack years and had blood eosinophil counts ≥300. Group D was composed of patients who smoked <10 pack years and had blood eosinophil counts <300. Clinical characteristics were analyzed and compared among groups. Comparisons were made among 103 ACOS patients. Patients in group D were oldest, while patients in group A were youngest. There were relatively more female patients in groups A and B; the majority of patients in groups C and D were male. The degree of airflow obstruction was most severe in group C. The rate of being free of severe exacerbation was significantly lower in group C than in the other groups. In this study, each ACOS phenotype showed different characteristics. The proportion of patients free of severe exacerbation differed significantly among groups. At this time, further studies on the phenotypes of ACOS are required. PMID:28260876

  18. Adaptive overlapped sub-blocks contrast enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Anqiu; Yuan, Fei; Liu, Jing; Liu, Siqi; Li, An; Zheng, Zhenrong

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an overlapped sub-block gray-level average method for contrast enhancement is presented. The digital image correction of uneven illumination under microscope transmittance is a problem in image processing, also sometimes the image in the dark place need to correct the uneven problem. A new correction method was proposed based on the mask method and sub-blocks gray-level average method because Traditional mask method and background fitting method are restricted due to application scenarios, and the corrected image brightness is low by using background fitting method, so it has some limitations of the application. In this paper, we introduce a new method called AOSCE for image contrast enhancement. The image is divided into many sub-blocks which are overlapped, calculate the average gray-level of the whole image as M and the calculate the average gray-level of each one as mi, next for each block it can get d = mi - m, each block minus d to get a new image, and then get the minimum gray-level of each block into a matrix DD to get the background, and use bilinearity to get the same scale of the image. over fitting the image in matlab in order to get smoother image, then minus the background to get the contrast enhancement image.

  19. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  20. 9 CFR 121.4 - Overlap select agents and toxins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... select agent or toxin to APHIS or CDC. (i) The seizure of any of the following overlap select agents and.... This report must be followed by submission of APHIS/CDC Form 4 within 7 calendar days after seizure of the overlap select agent or toxin. (ii) For all other overlap select agents or toxins, APHIS/CDC...

  1. Phonological and Orthographic Overlap Effects in Fast and Masked Priming

    PubMed Central

    Frisson, Steven; Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    We investigated how orthographic and phonological information is activated during reading, using a fast priming task, and during single word recognition, using masked priming. Specifically, different types of overlap between prime and target were contrasted: high orthographic and high phonological overlap (track-crack), high orthographic and low phonological overlap (bear-gear), or low orthographic and high phonological overlap (fruit-chute). In addition, we examined whether (orthographic) beginning overlap (swoop-swoon) yielded the same priming pattern as end (rhyme) overlap (track-crack). Prime durations were 32 and 50ms in the fast priming version, and 50ms in the masked priming version, and mode of presentation (prime and target in lower case) was identical. The fast priming experiment showed facilitatory priming effects when both orthography and phonology overlapped, with no apparent differences between beginning and end overlap pairs. Facilitation was also found when prime and target only overlapped orthographically. In contrast, the masked priming experiment showed inhibition for both types of end overlap pairs (with and without phonological overlap), and no difference for begin overlap items. When prime and target only shared principally phonological information, facilitation was only found with a long prime duration in the fast priming experiment, while no differences were found in the masked priming version. These contrasting results suggest that fast priming and masked priming do not necessarily tap into the same type of processing. PMID:24365065

  2. The regulatory gap in chronic disease prevention: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Walls, Helen L; Walls, Kelvin L; Loff, Bebe

    2012-02-01

    Experience shows that regulatory intervention can lead to substantial improvement in population health. The history of regulatory intervention in public health suggests that 'tipping points' necessary to catalyse regulatory change may be identified. We examine three areas in which governments have legislated to protect public health: sanitation, building standards, and vehicle emissions. We apply the lessons to regulatory reform addressing obesity and the chronic disease it causes.

  3. Dimensional overlap between time and space.

    PubMed

    Eikmeier, Verena; Schröter, Hannes; Maienborn, Claudia; Alex-Ruf, Simone; Ulrich, Rolf

    2013-12-01

    Several pieces of evidence suggest that our mental representations of time and space are linked. However, the extent of this linkage between the two domains has not yet been assessed. We present the results of two experiments that draw on the predictions of the dimensional overlap model (Kornblum, Hasbroucq, & Osman, Psychological Review 97:253-270, 1990). The stimulus and response sets in these reaction time experiments were related to either time or space. The obtained stimulus-response congruency effects were of about the same size for identical stimulus-response sets (time-time or space-space) and for different stimulus-response sets (time-space or space-time). These results support the view that our representations of time and space are strongly linked.

  4. Plasticity of Sensorimotor Networks: Multiple Overlapping Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Buch, Ethan R; Liew, Sook-Lei; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2016-03-16

    Redundancy is an important feature of the motor system, as abundant degrees of freedom are prominent at every level of organization across the central and peripheral nervous systems, and musculoskeletal system. This basic feature results in a system that is both flexible and robust, and which can be sustainably adapted through plasticity mechanisms in response to intrinsic organismal changes and dynamic environments. While much early work of motor system organization has focused on synaptic-based plasticity processes that are driven via experience, recent investigations of neuron-glia interactions, epigenetic mechanisms and large-scale network dynamics have revealed a plethora of plasticity mechanisms that support motor system organization across multiple, overlapping spatial and temporal scales. Furthermore, an important role of these mechanisms is the regulation of intrinsic variability. Here, we review several of these mechanisms and discuss their potential role in neurorehabilitation.

  5. Overlapped Fourier coding for optical aberration removal

    PubMed Central

    Horstmeyer, Roarke; Ou, Xiaoze; Chung, Jaebum; Zheng, Guoan; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    We present an imaging procedure that simultaneously optimizes a camera’s resolution and retrieves a sample’s phase over a sequence of snapshots. The technique, termed overlapped Fourier coding (OFC), first digitally pans a small aperture across a camera’s pupil plane with a spatial light modulator. At each aperture location, a unique image is acquired. The OFC algorithm then fuses these low-resolution images into a full-resolution estimate of the complex optical field incident upon the detector. Simultaneously, the algorithm utilizes redundancies within the acquired dataset to computationally estimate and remove unknown optical aberrations and system misalignments via simulated annealing. The result is an imaging system that can computationally overcome its optical imperfections to offer enhanced resolution, at the expense of taking multiple snapshots over time. PMID:25321982

  6. [Syndrome overlap: autoimmune hepatitis and autoimmune cholangitis].

    PubMed

    Guerra Montero, Luis; Ortega Alvarez, Félix; Marquez Teves, Maguin; Asato Higa, Carmen; Sumire Umeres, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis and autoimmune cholangitis are chronic autoimmune liver disease, usually present separate, the cases where characteristics of two of the above is observed liver disease is commonly referred to as Overlap Syndromes (OS). Although there is no consensus on specific criteria for the diagnosis of OS identification of this association is important for initiating appropriate treatment and prevent its progression to cirrhosis or at least the complications of cirrhosis and death. We report the case of awoman aged 22 cirrhotic which debuted are edematous ascites, severe asthenia and jaundice compliant diagnostics SS criteria and initially present any response to treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid and oral corticosteroids, but ultimately finished performing a transplant orthotopic liver.

  7. Void percolation and conduction of overlapping ellipsoids.

    PubMed

    Yi, Y B

    2006-09-01

    The void percolation and conduction problems for equisized overlapping ellipsoids of revolution are investigated using the discretization method. The method is validated by comparing the estimated percolation threshold of spheres with the precise result found in literature. The technique is then extended to determine the threshold of void percolation as a function of the geometric aspect ratio of ellipsoidal particles. The finite element method is also applied to evaluate the equivalent conductivity of the void phase in the system. The results confirm that there are no universalities for void percolation threshold and conductivity in particulate systems, and these properties are clearly dependent on the geometrical shape of particles. As a consequence, void percolation and conduction associated with ellipsoidal particles of large aspect ratio should be treated differently from spheres.

  8. Grid adaption using Chimera composite overlapping meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Liou, Meng-Sing; Chow, Chuen-Yen

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to perform grid adaptation using composite over-lapping meshes in regions of large gradient to capture the salient features accurately during computation. The Chimera grid scheme, a multiple overset mesh technique, is used in combination with a Navier-Stokes solver. The numerical solution is first converged to a steady state based on an initial coarse mesh. Solution-adaptive enhancement is then performed by using a secondary fine grid system which oversets on top of the base grid in the high-gradient region, but without requiring the mesh boundaries to join in any special way. Communications through boundary interfaces between those separated grids are carried out using tri-linear interpolation. Applications to the Euler equations for shock reflections and to a shock wave/boundary layer interaction problem are tested. With the present method, the salient features are well resolved.

  9. Grid adaptation using chimera composite overlapping meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Liou, Meng-Sing; Chow, Chuen-Yen

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to perform grid adaptation using composite overlapping meshes in regions of large gradient to accurately capture the salient features during computation. The chimera grid scheme, a multiple overset mesh technique, is used in combination with a Navier-Stokes solver. The numerical solution is first converged to a steady state based on an initial coarse mesh. Solution-adaptive enhancement is then performed by using a secondary fine grid system which oversets on top of the base grid in the high-gradient region, but without requiring the mesh boundaries to join in any special way. Communications through boundary interfaces between those separated grids are carried out using trilinear interpolation. Application to the Euler equations for shock reflections and to shock wave/boundary layer interaction problem are tested. With the present method, the salient features are well-resolved.

  10. Grid adaptation using Chimera composite overlapping meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Liou, Meng-Sing; Chow, Chuen-Yen

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to perform grid adaptation using composite over-lapping meshes in regions of large gradient to capture the salient features accurately during computation. The Chimera grid scheme, a multiple overset mesh technique, is used in combination with a Navier-Stokes solver. The numerical solution is first converged to a steady state based on an initial coarse mesh. Solution-adaptive enhancement is then performed by using a secondary fine grid system which oversets on top of the base grid in the high-gradient region, but without requiring the mesh boundaries to join in any special way. Communications through boundary interfaces between those separated grids are carried out using tri-linear interpolation. Applications to the Euler equations for shock reflections and to a shock wave/boundary layer interaction problem are tested. With the present method, the salient features are well resolved.

  11. Geometrical constraint experimental determination of Raman lidar overlap profile.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Li, Chengcai; Zhao, Yiming; Li, Jing; Chu, Yiqi

    2016-06-20

    A simple experimental method to determine the overlap profile of Raman lidar is presented in this paper. Based on Mie and Raman backscattering signals and a geometrically constrained condition, the overlap profile of a Raman lidar system can be determined. Our approach simultaneously retrieves the lidar ratio of aerosols, which is one of the most important sources of uncertainty in the overlap profile determination. The results indicate that the overlap factor is significantly influenced by the lidar ratio in experimental methods. A representative case study indicates that the correction of the overlap profile obtained by this method is practical and feasible.

  12. Effects due to overlapping large impact basins on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert; Reidy, Anne Marie; Roark, James H.; Stockman, Stephanie

    1994-01-01

    Many ancient, highly degraded large impact basins exist on Mars. In many cases these basins overlap or are overlapped by more easily observed, presumably younger, impact basins. While impact basin overlap is becoming more recognized, the effects of such overlap have only occassionally been described. Such effects will depend on a variety of factors including the absolute and relative size of the basins, the degree of overlap, the state of the lithosphere and its thermal gradient at the time of impact, and the time between impacts. There now exists enough evidence for overlapping basins of different sizes that some of these can be discussed. This paper highlights some examples of the obvious effects of basin overlap.

  13. Leveraging disjoint communities for detecting overlapping community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Tanmoy

    2015-05-01

    Network communities represent mesoscopic structure for understanding the organization of real-world networks, where nodes often belong to multiple communities and form overlapping community structure in the network. Due to non-triviality in finding the exact boundary of such overlapping communities, this problem has become challenging, and therefore huge effort has been devoted to detect overlapping communities from the network. In this paper, we present PVOC (Permanence based Vertex-replication algorithm for Overlapping Community detection), a two-stage framework to detect overlapping community structure. We build on a novel observation that non-overlapping community structure detected by a standard disjoint community detection algorithm from a network has high resemblance with its actual overlapping community structure, except the overlapping part. Based on this observation, we posit that there is perhaps no need of building yet another overlapping community finding algorithm; but one can efficiently manipulate the output of any existing disjoint community finding algorithm to obtain the required overlapping structure. We propose a new post-processing technique that by combining with any existing disjoint community detection algorithm, can suitably process each vertex using a new vertex-based metric, called permanence, and thereby finds out overlapping candidates with their community memberships. Experimental results on both synthetic and large real-world networks show that PVOC significantly outperforms six state-of-the-art overlapping community detection algorithms in terms of high similarity of the output with the ground-truth structure. Thus our framework not only finds meaningful overlapping communities from the network, but also allows us to put an end to the constant effort of building yet another overlapping community detection algorithm.

  14. High-resolution transcriptional analysis of the regulatory influence of cell-to-cell signalling reveals novel genes that contribute to Xanthomonas phytopathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    An, Shi-Qi; Febrer, Melanie; McCarthy, Yvonne; Tang, Dong-Jie; Clissold, Leah; Kaithakottil, Gemy; Swarbreck, David; Tang, Ji-Liang; Rogers, Jane; Dow, J Maxwell; Ryan, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    The bacterium Xanthomonas campestris is an economically important pathogen of many crop species and a model for the study of bacterial phytopathogenesis. In X. campestris, a regulatory system mediated by the signal molecule DSF controls virulence to plants. The synthesis and recognition of the DSF signal depends upon different Rpf proteins. DSF signal generation requires RpfF whereas signal perception and transduction depends upon a system comprising the sensor RpfC and regulator RpfG. Here we have addressed the action and role of Rpf/DSF signalling in phytopathogenesis by high-resolution transcriptional analysis coupled to functional genomics. We detected transcripts for many genes that were unidentified by previous computational analysis of the genome sequence. Novel transcribed regions included intergenic transcripts predicted as coding or non-coding as well as those that were antisense to coding sequences. In total, mutation of rpfF, rpfG and rpfC led to alteration in transcript levels (more than fourfold) of approximately 480 genes. The regulatory influence of RpfF and RpfC demonstrated considerable overlap. Contrary to expectation, the regulatory influence of RpfC and RpfG had limited overlap, indicating complexities of the Rpf signalling system. Importantly, functional analysis revealed over 160 new virulence factors within the group of Rpf-regulated genes. PMID:23617851

  15. Summation from a regulatory perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ohanian, Edward V.; Cotruvo, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    There is an urgent need to discuss the Office of Drinking Water's standard-setting or rulemaking process since most of the researchers whose papers are presented here directly or indirectly play a crucial role in this complex undertaking. Therefore, this paper will address the research data required to support policymaking and regulatory decisions pertaining to health effects of disinfectants and disinfection by-products. PMID:3816731

  16. Depression-Burnout Overlap in Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Wurm, Walter; Vogel, Katrin; Holl, Anna; Ebner, Christoph; Bayer, Dietmar; Mörkl, Sabrina; Szilagyi, Istvan-Szilard; Hotter, Erich; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Hofmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether burnout is a distinct phenomenon rather than a type of depression and whether it is a syndrome, limited to three “core” components (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment) are subjects of current debate. We investigated the depression-burnout overlap, and the pertinence of these three components in a large, representative sample of physicians. Methods In a cross-sectional study, all Austrian physicians were invited to answer a questionnaire that included the Major Depression Inventory (MDI), the Hamburg Burnout Inventory (HBI), as well as demographic and job-related parameters. Of the 40093 physicians who received an invitation, a total of 6351 (15.8%) participated. The data of 5897 participants were suitable for analysis. Results Of the participants, 10.3% were affected by major depression. Our study results suggest that potentially 50.7% of the participants were affected by symptoms of burnout. Compared to physicians unaffected by burnout, the odds ratio of suffering from major depression was 2.99 (95% CI 2.21–4.06) for physicians with mild, 10.14 (95% CI 7.58–13.59) for physicians with moderate, 46.84 (95% CI 35.25–62.24) for physicians with severe burnout and 92.78 (95% CI 62.96–136.74) for the 3% of participants with the highest HBI_sum (sum score of all ten HBI components). The HBI components Emotional Exhaustion, Personal Accomplishment and Detachment (representing depersonalization) tend to correlate more highly with the main symptoms of major depression (sadness, lack of interest and lack of energy) than with each other. A combination of the HBI components Emotional Exhaustion, Helplessness, Inner Void and Tedium (adj.R2 = 0.92) explained more HBI_sum variance than the three “core” components (adj.R2 = 0.85) of burnout combined. Cronbach’s alpha for Emotional Exhaustion, Helplessness, Inner Void and Tedium combined was 0.90 compared to α = 0.54 for the combination of the three

  17. An extended micromechanics method for probing interphase properties in polymer nanocomposites [An extended micromechanics method for overlapping geometries with application to polymer nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zeliang; Moore, John A.; Liu, Wing Kam

    2016-05-03

    Inclusions comprised on filler particles and interphase regions commonly form complex morphologies in polymer nanocomposites. Addressing these morphologies as systems of overlapping simple shapes allows for the study of dilute particles, clustered particles, and interacting interphases all in one general modeling framework. To account for the material properties in these overlapping geometries, weighted-mean and additive overlapping conditions are introduced and the corresponding inclusion-wise integral equations are formulated. An extended micromechanics method based on these overlapping conditions for linear elastic and viscoelastic heterogeneous material is then developed. An important feature of the proposed approach is that the effect of both the geometric overlapping (clustered particles) and physical overlapping (interacting interphases) on the effective properties can be distinguished. Lastly, we apply the extended micromechanics method to a viscoelastic polymer nanocomposite with interphase regions, and estimate the properties and thickness of the interphase region based on experimental data for carbon-black filled styrene butadiene rubbers.

  18. The Reach Address Database (RAD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores reach address information for each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams, lakes, etc) in the National Hydrology Database (NHD) Plus dataset.

  19. Nuclear matrix protein Matrin3 regulates alternative splicing and forms overlapping regulatory networks with PTB

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Miguel B; Attig, Jan; Bellora, Nicolás; König, Julian; Hallegger, Martina; Kayikci, Melis; Eyras, Eduardo; Ule, Jernej; Smith, Christopher WJ

    2015-01-01

    Matrin3 is an RNA- and DNA-binding nuclear matrix protein found to be associated with neural and muscular degenerative diseases. A number of possible functions of Matrin3 have been suggested, but no widespread role in RNA metabolism has yet been clearly demonstrated. We identified Matrin3 by its interaction with the second RRM domain of the splicing regulator PTB. Using a combination of RNAi knockdown, transcriptome profiling and iCLIP, we find that Matrin3 is a regulator of hundreds of alternative splicing events, principally acting as a splicing repressor with only a small proportion of targeted events being co-regulated by PTB. In contrast to other splicing regulators, Matrin3 binds to an extended region within repressed exons and flanking introns with no sharply defined peaks. The identification of this clear molecular function of Matrin3 should help to clarify the molecular pathology of ALS and other diseases caused by mutations of Matrin3. PMID:25599992

  20. Base drive and overlap protection circuit

    DOEpatents

    Gritter, David J.

    1983-01-01

    An inverter (34) which provides power to an A. C. machine (28) is controlled by a circuit (36) employing PWM control strategy whereby A. C. power is supplied to the machine at a preselectable frequency and preselectable voltage. This is accomplished by the technique of waveform notching in which the shapes of the notches are varied to determine the average energy content of the overall waveform. Through this arrangement, the operational efficiency of the A. C. machine is optimized. The control circuit includes a microcomputer and memory element which receive various parametric inputs and calculate optimized machine control data signals therefrom. The control data is asynchronously loaded into the inverter through an intermediate buffer (38). A base drive and overlap protection circuit is included to insure that both transistors of a complimentary pair are not conducting at the same time. In its preferred embodiment, the present invention is incorporated within an electric vehicle (10) employing a 144 VDC battery pack (32) and a three-phase induction motor (18).

  1. Continuum percolation of congruent overlapping spherocylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenxiang; Su, Xianglong; Jiao, Yang

    2016-09-01

    Continuum percolation of randomly orientated congruent overlapping spherocylinders (composed of cylinder of height H with semispheres of diameter D at the ends) with aspect ratio α =H /D in [0 ,∞ ) is studied. The percolation threshold ϕc, percolation transition width Δ, and correlation-length critical exponent ν for spherocylinders with α in [0, 200] are determined with a high degree of accuracy via extensive finite-size scaling analysis. A generalized excluded-volume approximation for percolation threshold with an exponent explicitly depending on both aspect ratio and excluded volume for arbitrary α values in [0 ,∞ ) is proposed and shown to yield accurate predictions of ϕc for an extremely wide range of α in [0, 2000] based on available numerical and experimental data. We find ϕc is a universal monotonic decreasing function of α and is independent of the effective particle size. Our study has implications in percolation theory for nonspherical particles and composite material design.

  2. Effects of overlapping strings in pp collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Bierlich, Christian; Gustafson, Gösta; Lönnblad, Leif; ...

    2015-03-26

    In models for hadron collisions based on string hadronization, the strings are usually treated as independent, allowing no interaction between the confined colour fields. In studies of nucleus collisions it has been suggested that strings close in space can fuse to form "colour ropes." Such ropes are expected to give more strange particles and baryons, which also has been suggested as a signal for plasma formation. Overlapping strings can also be expected in pp collisions, where usually no phase transition is expected. In particular at the high LHC energies the expected density of strings is quite high. To investigate possiblemore » effects of rope formation, we present a model in which strings are allowed to combine into higher multiplets, giving rise to increased production of baryons and strangeness, or recombine into singlet structures and vanish. Also a crude model for strings recombining into junction structures is considered, again giving rise to increased baryon production. The models are implemented in the DIPSY MC event generator, using PYTHIA8 for hadronization, and comparison to pp minimum bias data, reveals improvement in the description of identified particle spectra.« less

  3. Effects of overlapping strings in pp collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Bierlich, Christian; Gustafson, Gösta; Lönnblad, Leif; Tarasov, Andrey

    2015-03-26

    In models for hadron collisions based on string hadronization, the strings are usually treated as independent, allowing no interaction between the confined colour fields. In studies of nucleus collisions it has been suggested that strings close in space can fuse to form "colour ropes." Such ropes are expected to give more strange particles and baryons, which also has been suggested as a signal for plasma formation. Overlapping strings can also be expected in pp collisions, where usually no phase transition is expected. In particular at the high LHC energies the expected density of strings is quite high. To investigate possible effects of rope formation, we present a model in which strings are allowed to combine into higher multiplets, giving rise to increased production of baryons and strangeness, or recombine into singlet structures and vanish. Also a crude model for strings recombining into junction structures is considered, again giving rise to increased baryon production. The models are implemented in the DIPSY MC event generator, using PYTHIA8 for hadronization, and comparison to pp minimum bias data, reveals improvement in the description of identified particle spectra.

  4. Hybrid lattice Boltzmann method on overlapping grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Ilio, G.; Chiappini, D.; Ubertini, S.; Bella, G.; Succi, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a hybrid lattice Boltzmann method (HLBM) is proposed, where the standard lattice Boltzmann implementation based on the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (LBGK) approximation is combined together with an unstructured finite-volume lattice Boltzmann model. The method is constructed on an overlapping grid system, which allows the coexistence of a uniform lattice nodes spacing and a coordinate-free lattice structure. The natural adaptivity of the hybrid grid system makes the method particularly suitable to handle problems involving complex geometries. Moreover, the provided scheme ensures a high-accuracy solution near walls, given the capability of the unstructured submodel of achieving the desired level of refinement in a very flexible way. For these reasons, the HLBM represents a prospective tool for solving multiscale problems. The proposed method is here applied to the benchmark problem of a two-dimensional flow past a circular cylinder for a wide range of Reynolds numbers and its numerical performances are measured and compared with the standard LBGK ones.

  5. The Regulatory Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... [The Regulatory Plan and Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions] #7; #7; The Regulatory Plan #7; #7; ] OPEN GOVERNMENT AND EVIDENCE-BASED REGULATION There is a close connection, even an inextricable relationship, between open government and evidence- based regulation. If regulatory choices are based on careful analysis of...

  6. A Lower Bound for Quantifying Overlap Effects: An Empirical Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Bassetti, Federico

    1997-12-31

    Among the many features that are implemented in today`s microprocessors there are some that have the capability of reducing the execution time via overlapping of different operations. Overlapping of instructions with other instructions, and overlapping of computation with memory activities are the main way in which execution time is reduced. In this paper we will introduce a notion of overlap and its definition, and a few different ways to capture its effects. We will characterize some of the DOE Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) benchmarks using the overlap and some other quantities related to it. Also, we will present a characterization of the overlap effects using a lower bound derived empirically from measured data. We will conclude by using the lower bound to estimate other components of the overall execution time.

  7. Overlapping neural correlates of reading emotionally positive and negative adjectives.

    PubMed

    Demirakca, Traute; Herbert, Cornelia; Kissler, Johanna; Ruf, Matthias; Wokrina, Tim; Ende, Gabriele

    2009-07-03

    Comparison of positive and negative naturally read adjectives to neutral adjectives yielded an overlapping higher BOLD response in the occipital and the orbitofrontal cortex (gyrus rectus). Superior medial frontal gyrus and posterior cingulate gyrus showed higher BOLD response to negative adjectives and inferior frontal gyrus to positive adjectives. The overlap of activated regions and lack of pronounced distinct regions supports the assumption that the processing of negative and positive words mainly takes place in overlapping brain regions.

  8. Impacts of cloud overlap assumptions on radiative budgets and heating fields in convective regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, XiaoCong; Liu, YiMin; Bao, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Impacts of cloud overlap assumptions on radiative budgets and heating fields are explored with the aid of a cloud-resolving model (CRM), which provided cloud geometry as well as cloud micro and macro properties. Large-scale forcing data to drive the CRM are from TRMM Kwajalein Experiment and the Global Atmospheric Research Program's Atlantic Tropical Experiment field campaigns during which abundant convective systems were observed. The investigated overlap assumptions include those that were traditional and widely used in the past and the one that was recently addressed by Hogan and Illingworth (2000), in which the vertically projected cloud fraction is expressed by a linear combination of maximum and random overlap, with the weighting coefficient depending on the so-called decorrelation length Lcf. Results show that both shortwave and longwave cloud radiative forcings (SWCF/LWCF) are significantly underestimated under maximum (MO) and maximum-random (MRO) overlap assumptions, whereas remarkably overestimated under the random overlap (RO) assumption in comparison with that using CRM inherent cloud geometry. These biases can reach as high as 100 Wm- 2 for SWCF and 60 Wm- 2 for LWCF. By its very nature, the general overlap (GenO) assumption exhibits an encouraging performance on both SWCF and LWCF simulations, with the biases almost reduced by 3-fold compared with traditional overlap assumptions. The superiority of GenO assumption is also manifested in the simulation of shortwave and longwave radiative heating fields, which are either significantly overestimated or underestimated under traditional overlap assumptions. The study also pointed out the deficiency of constant assumption on Lcf in GenO assumption. Further examinations indicate that the CRM diagnostic Lcf varies among different cloud types and tends to be stratified in the vertical. The new parameterization that takes into account variation of Lcf in the vertical well reproduces such a relationship and

  9. CONTENT-ADDRESSABLE MEMORY SYSTEMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The utility of content -addressable memories (CAM’s) within a general purpose computing system is investigated. Word cells within CAM may be...addressed by the character of all or a part of cell contents . Multimembered sets of word cells may be addressed simultaneously. The distributed logical...package is developed which allows simulation of CAM commands within job programs run on the IBM 7090 and derives tallies of execution times corresponding to a particular realization of a CAM system . (Author)

  10. Genomics in the land of regulatory science.

    PubMed

    Tong, Weida; Ostroff, Stephen; Blais, Burton; Silva, Primal; Dubuc, Martine; Healy, Marion; Slikker, William

    2015-06-01

    Genomics science has played a major role in the generation of new knowledge in the basic research arena, and currently question arises as to its potential to support regulatory processes. However, the integration of genomics in the regulatory decision-making process requires rigorous assessment and would benefit from consensus amongst international partners and research communities. To that end, the Global Coalition for Regulatory Science Research (GCRSR) hosted the fourth Global Summit on Regulatory Science (GSRS2014) to discuss the role of genomics in regulatory decision making, with a specific emphasis on applications in food safety and medical product development. Challenges and issues were discussed in the context of developing an international consensus for objective criteria in the analysis, interpretation and reporting of genomics data with an emphasis on transparency, traceability and "fitness for purpose" for the intended application. It was recognized that there is a need for a global path in the establishment of a regulatory bioinformatics framework for the development of transparent, reliable, reproducible and auditable processes in the management of food and medical product safety risks. It was also recognized that training is an important mechanism in achieving internationally consistent outcomes. GSRS2014 provided an effective venue for regulators andresearchers to meet, discuss common issues, and develop collaborations to address the challenges posed by the application of genomics to regulatory science, with the ultimate goal of wisely integrating novel technical innovations into regulatory decision-making.

  11. Regulatory Streamlining and Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Carl

    2006-07-11

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) engaged in numerous projects outlined under the scope of work discussed in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) grant number DE-FC26-04NT15456 awarded to the IOGCC. Numerous projects were completed that were extremely valuable to state oil and gas agencies as a result of work performed utilizing resources provided by the grant. There are numerous areas in which state agencies still need assistance. This additional assistance will need to be addressed under future scopes of work submitted annually to DOE's Project Officer for this grant. This report discusses the progress of the projects outlined under the grant scope of work for the 2005-2006 areas of interest, which are as follows: Area of Interest No. 1--Regulatory Streamlining and Improvement: This area of interest continues to support IOGCC's regulatory streamlining efforts that include the identification and elimination of unnecessary duplications of efforts between and among state and federal programs dealing with exploration and production on public lands. Area of Interest No. 2--Technology: This area of interest seeks to improve efficiency in states through the identification of technologies that can reduce costs. Area of Interest No. 3--Training and Education: This area of interest is vital to upgrading the skills of regulators and industry alike. Within the National Energy Policy, there are many appropriate training and education opportunities. Education was strongly endorsed by the President's National Energy Policy Development group. Acting through the governors offices, states are very effective conduits for the dissemination of energy education information. While the IOGCC favors the development of a comprehensive, long-term energy education plan, states are also supportive of immediate action on important concerns, such as energy prices, availability and conservation. Area of Interest No. 4--Resource Assessment and Development: This area

  12. An Exposition of Fischer's Model of Overlapping Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, T. Windsor; Hart, William R.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests how the classic model of overlapping contracts can be incorporated into the contract wage model of aggregate supply. Illustrates dynamics of macroeconomic adjustment following a shock to aggregate demand. Concludes that overlapping contracts do not prolong the adjustment process; rather, the longest remaining contract determines the time…

  13. Spousal Network Overlap as a Basis for Spousal Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The role social network structure plays in facilitating flows of support between spouses is often overlooked. This study examined whether levels of support between spouses depended on the degree of overlap between spouses' networks. Network overlap may enhance spouses' support capacities by increasing their understanding of each other's support…

  14. Shake for Sigma, Pray for Pi: Classroom Orbital Overlap Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Andrew P.

    2011-01-01

    An introductory organic classroom demonstration is discussed where analogies are made between common societal hand contact and covalent bond formation. A handshake signifies creation of a [sigma] bond ("head-on" orbital overlap), whereas the action of praying illustrates "sideways" overlap and generation of a [pi] bond. The nature of orbital and…

  15. Prevention of overlapping prescriptions of psychotropic drugs by community pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Shimane, Takuya; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Wada, Kiyoshi

    2012-10-01

    The nonmedical use or abuse of prescription drugs, including psychotropic medicines, is a growing health problem in Japan. Patient access to psychotropic drugs, specifically from the oversupply of medications due to overlapping prescriptions, may increase the risk of drug abuse and dependence. However, very little is known about such overlapping prescriptions. Today, the dispensing of prescriptions is generally moving from inside to outside of hospitals, with psychotropic drugs mainly dispensed at community pharmacies. In this study, we used health insurance claims (i.e., receipts) for dispensing as the main source of information in an investigation of overlapping prescriptions of psychotropic drugs. A total of 119 patients were found to have received overlapping prescriptions, as identified by community pharmacists who were members of the Saitama Pharmaceutical Association, using patient medication records, followed by medication counseling and prescription notes for the patient. According to our findings, the most frequently overlapping medication was etizolam. Etizolam can be prescribed for more than 30 days since it is not regulated under Japanese law as a "psychotropic drug." Generally, when a drug can be prescribed for a greater number of days, it increases the likelihood of an overlapping prescription during the same period. As a result, the long-term prescription of etizolam increases the risk of overlapping prescriptions. We also found that the patients who received overlapping prescriptions of etizolam were mostly elderly and the most common pattern was prescription from both internal medicine and orthopedics physicians. Etizolam has wide range of indications that are covered by health insurance. Our results suggest that patients who received overlapping prescriptions of etizolam may receive prescriptions from different prescribers for different purposes. Therefore, it may be appropriate to regulate etizolam as a "psychotropic drug" under Japanese law

  16. A tutorial on structural equation modeling for analysis of overlapping symptoms in co-occurring conditions using MPlus.

    PubMed

    Gunzler, Douglas D; Morris, Nathan

    2015-10-30

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a very general approach to analyzing data in the presence of measurement error and complex causal relationships. In this tutorial, we describe SEM, with special attention to exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple indicator multiple cause modeling. The tutorial is motivated by a problem of symptom overlap routinely faced by clinicians and researchers, in which symptoms or test results are common to two or more co-occurring conditions. As a result of such overlap, diagnoses, treatment decisions, and inferences about the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions can be biased. This problem is further complicated by increasing reliance on patient-reported outcomes, which introduces systematic error based on an individual's interpretation of a test questionnaire. SEM provides flexibility in handling this type of differential item functioning and disentangling the overlap. Scales and scoring approaches can be revised to be free of this overlap, leading to better care. This tutorial uses an example of depression screening in multiple sclerosis patients in which depressive symptoms overlap with other symptoms, such as fatigue, cognitive impairment, and functional impairment. Details of how MPlus (Muthén & Muthén, Los Angeles, CA, USA) software can be used to address the symptom overlap problem, including data requirements, code and output are described in this tutorial.

  17. A Tutorial on Structural Equation Modeling for Analysis of Overlapping Symptoms in Co-occurring Conditions Using MPlus

    PubMed Central

    Gunzler, Douglas D.; Morris, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is a very general approach to analyzing data in the presence of measurement error and complex causal relationships. In this tutorial, we describe SEM, with special attention to exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and multiple indicator multiple cause (MIMIC) modeling. The tutorial is motivated by a problem of symptom overlap routinely faced by clinicians and researchers, in which symptoms or test results are common to two or more co-occurring conditions. As a result of such overlap, diagnoses, treatment decisions and inferences about the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions can be biased. This problem is further complicated by increasing reliance on patient-reported outcomes, which introduces systematic error based on an individual's interpretation of a test questionnaire. SEM provides flexibility in handling this type of differential item functioning and disentangling the overlap. Scales and scoring approaches can be revised to be free of this overlap, leading to better care. This tutorial uses an example of depression screening in Multiple Sclerosis patients in which depressive symptoms overlap with other symptoms, such as fatigue, cognitive impairment and functional impairment. Details of how MPlus software can be used to address the symptom overlap problem, including data requirements, code and output are described in this tutorial. PMID:26045102

  18. A method to account for track overlap in CR-39 detectors.

    PubMed

    Franci, Daniele; Aureli, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear track detectors are commonly used for the detection of indoor radon levels. However, despite numerous advantages, this technique still presents many unsolved problems. An important source of error is represented by the reduction in the detection efficiency due to overlapping tracks, which results in a sensible underestimation of the radon levels. This paper presents a new experimental procedure to address the effect of overlapping tracks by establishing a relationship between the detection efficiency and the number of detected tracks. Experimental data have been collected at the radon chamber of the Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti (INMRI), at the ENEA centre in Casaccia, using CR-39 detectors provided by Radosys Ltd. It has been proved that the method, applied to the experimental settings of this study, gives reliable results up to 7607 kBq h m(-3). Finally, the method has been validated through a Monte Carlo simulation, exploring a wide range of radon exposure.

  19. An extension to artifact-free projection overlaps

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jianyu

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: In multipinhole single photon emission computed tomography, the overlapping of projections has been used to increase sensitivity. Avoiding artifacts in the reconstructed image associated with projection overlaps (multiplexing) is a critical issue. In our previous report, two types of artifact-free projection overlaps, i.e., projection overlaps that do not lead to artifacts in the reconstructed image, were formally defined and proved, and were validated via simulations. In this work, a new proposition is introduced to extend the previously defined type-II artifact-free projection overlaps so that a broader range of artifact-free overlaps is accommodated. One practical purpose of the new extension is to design a baffle window multipinhole system with artifact-free projection overlaps. Methods: First, the extended type-II artifact-free overlap was theoretically defined and proved. The new proposition accommodates the situation where the extended type-II artifact-free projection overlaps can be produced with incorrectly reconstructed portions in the reconstructed image. Next, to validate the theory, the extended-type-II artifact-free overlaps were employed in designing the multiplexing multipinhole spiral orbit imaging systems with a baffle window. Numerical validations were performed via simulations, where the corresponding 1-pinhole nonmultiplexing reconstruction results were used as the benchmark for artifact-free reconstructions. The mean square error (MSE) was the metric used for comparisons of noise-free reconstructed images. Noisy reconstructions were also performed as part of the validations. Results: Simulation results show that for noise-free reconstructions, the MSEs of the reconstructed images of the artifact-free multiplexing systems are very similar to those of the corresponding 1-pinhole systems. No artifacts were observed in the reconstructed images. Therefore, the testing results for artifact-free multiplexing systems designed using the

  20. Overlap Properties of Clouds Generated by a Cloud Resolving Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreopoulos, L.; Khairoutdinov, M.

    2002-01-01

    In order for General Circulation Models (GCMs), one of our most important tools to predict future climate, to correctly describe the propagation of solar and thermal radiation through the cloudy atmosphere a realistic description of the vertical distribution of cloud amount is needed. Actually, one needs not only the cloud amounts at different levels of the atmosphere, but also how these cloud amounts are related, in other words, how they overlap. Currently GCMs make some idealized assumptions about cloud overlap, for example that contiguous cloud layers overlap maximally and non-contiguous cloud layers overlap in a random fashion. Since there are difficulties in obtaining the vertical profile of cloud amount from observations, the realism of the overlap assumptions made in GCMs has not been yet rigorously investigated. Recently however, cloud observations from a relatively new type of ground radar have been used to examine the vertical distribution of cloudiness. These observations suggest that the GCM overlap assumptions are dubious. Our study uses cloud fields from sophisticated models dedicated to simulate cloud formation, maintenance, and dissipation called Cloud Resolving Models . These models are generally considered capable of producing realistic three-dimensional representation of cloudiness. Using numerous cloud fields produced by such a CRM we show that the degree of overlap between cloud layers is a function of their separation distance, and is in general described by a combination of the maximum and random overlap assumption, with random overlap dominating as separation distances increase. We show that it is possible to parameterize this behavior in a way that can eventually be incorporated in GCMs. Our results seem to have a significant resemblance to the results from the radar observations despite the completely different nature of the datasets. This consistency is encouraging and will promote development of new radiative transfer codes that will

  1. 21 CFR 810.11 - Regulatory hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.11 Regulatory hearing. (a... a recall of the device that was the subject of the order. The hearing may also address the...

  2. 21 CFR 810.11 - Regulatory hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.11 Regulatory hearing. (a... a recall of the device that was the subject of the order. The hearing may also address the...

  3. 21 CFR 810.11 - Regulatory hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.11 Regulatory hearing. (a... a recall of the device that was the subject of the order. The hearing may also address the...

  4. 21 CFR 810.11 - Regulatory hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.11 Regulatory hearing. (a... a recall of the device that was the subject of the order. The hearing may also address the...

  5. 21 CFR 810.11 - Regulatory hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.11 Regulatory hearing. (a... a recall of the device that was the subject of the order. The hearing may also address the...

  6. Regulatory Aspects Of Implementing Electrokinetic Remediation

    EPA Science Inventory

    A better understanding of the environmental impact of hazardous waste management practices has led to new environmental laws and a comprehensive regulatory program. This program is designed to address remediation of past waste management practices and to ensure that the hazardou...

  7. Address tracing for parallel machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stunkel, Craig B.; Janssens, Bob; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1991-01-01

    Recently implemented parallel system address-tracing methods based on several metrics are surveyed. The issues specific to collection of traces for both shared and distributed memory parallel computers are highlighted. Five general categories of address-trace collection methods are examined: hardware-captured, interrupt-based, simulation-based, altered microcode-based, and instrumented program-based traces. The problems unique to shared memory and distributed memory multiprocessors are examined separately.

  8. Computation of overlap integrals over STOs with mathematica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yükçü, S. A.; Yükçü, N.

    2017-02-01

    Overlap integrals which encountered in molecular structure calculations are the most basic of molecular integrals. Also, other molecular integrals can be expressed in terms of these integrals. Overlap integrals can be calculated by using Slater Type Orbitals (STOs). In this work, we develop algorithms for two-center overlap integrals which are calculated over the STOs in ellipsoidal coordinates and some auxiliary functions by S. M. Mekelleche's group. During the computation of this paper, Mathematica programming language has been used to produce algorithms. Numerical results for some quantum numbers are presented in the tables. Finally, our numerical results and others are compared, then some details of evaluation method are discussed.

  9. A Guide to Using STITCHER for Overlapping Assembly PCR Applications.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Damien M

    2017-01-01

    Overlapping PCR is commonly used in many molecular applications that include stitching PCR fragments together, generating fluorescent transcriptional and translational fusions, inserting mutations, making deletions, and PCR cloning. Overlapping PCR is also used for genotyping and in detection experiments using techniques such as loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). STITCHER is a web tool providing a central resource for researchers conducting all types of overlapping assembly PCR experiments with an intuitive interface for automated primer design that's fast, easy to use, and freely available online.

  10. Addressing Risks to Advance Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Iltis, Ana S.; Misra, Sahana; Dunn, Laura B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Campbell, Amy; Earll, Sarah A.; Glowinski, Anne; Hadley, Whitney B.; Pies, Ronald; DuBois, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk communication and management are essential to the ethical conduct of research, yet addressing risks may be time consuming for investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) may reject study designs that appear too risky. This can discourage needed research, particularly in higher risk protocols or those enrolling potentially vulnerable individuals, such as those with some level of suicidality. Improved mechanisms for addressing research risks may facilitate much needed psychiatric research. This article provides mental health researchers with practical approaches to: 1) identify and define various intrinsic research risks; 2) communicate these risks to others (e.g., potential participants, regulatory bodies, society); 3) manage these risks during the course of a study; and 4) justify the risks. Methods As part of a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded scientific meeting series, a public conference and a closed-session expert panel meeting were held on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. The expert panel reviewed the literature with a focus on empirical studies and developed recommendations for best practices and further research on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. IRB review was not required because there were no human subjects. The NIMH played no role in developing or reviewing the manuscript. Results Challenges, current data, practical strategies, and topics for future research are addressed for each of four key areas pertaining to management and disclosure of risks in clinical trials: identifying and defining risks, communicating risks, managing risks during studies, and justifying research risks. Conclusions Empirical data on risk communication, managing risks, and the benefits of research can support the ethical conduct of mental health research and may help investigators better conceptualize and confront risks and to gain IRB approval. PMID:24173618

  11. 42 CFR 73.4 - Overlap select agents and toxins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... have been genetically modified. (d) Overlap select agents or toxins that meet any of the following... Elements, Recombinant and/or Synthetic Nucleic Acids, and Recombinant and/or Synthetic Organisms:...

  12. 42 CFR 73.4 - Overlap select agents and toxins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... genetically modified. (d) Overlap select agents or toxins that meet any of the following criteria are excluded... Equine Encephalitis virus (c) Genetic Elements, Recombinant Nucleic Acids, and Recombinant Organisms:...

  13. 9 CFR 121.4 - Overlap select agents and toxins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... safety, to animal health, or to animal products. (b) Overlap select agents and toxins: Bacillus anthracis... toxins must be reported within 24 hours by telephone, facsimile, or e-mail: Bacillus anthracis,...

  14. 42 CFR 73.4 - Overlap select agents and toxins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... animal health, or to animal products. (b) Overlap select agents and toxins: Bacillus anthracis Brucella... CDC or APHIS. (i) The seizure of Bacillus anthracis, Brucella melitensis, Hendra virus, Nipah...

  15. Radial sets: interactive visual analysis of large overlapping sets.

    PubMed

    Alsallakh, Bilal; Aigner, Wolfgang; Miksch, Silvia; Hauser, Helwig

    2013-12-01

    In many applications, data tables contain multi-valued attributes that often store the memberships of the table entities to multiple sets such as which languages a person masters, which skills an applicant documents, or which features a product comes with. With a growing number of entities, the resulting element-set membership matrix becomes very rich of information about how these sets overlap. Many analysis tasks targeted at set-typed data are concerned with these overlaps as salient features of such data. This paper presents Radial Sets, a novel visual technique to analyze set memberships for a large number of elements. Our technique uses frequency-based representations to enable quickly finding and analyzing different kinds of overlaps between the sets, and relating these overlaps to other attributes of the table entities. Furthermore, it enables various interactions to select elements of interest, find out if they are over-represented in specific sets or overlaps, and if they exhibit a different distribution for a specific attribute compared to the rest of the elements. These interactions allow formulating highly-expressive visual queries on the elements in terms of their set memberships and attribute values. As we demonstrate via two usage scenarios, Radial Sets enable revealing and analyzing a multitude of overlapping patterns between large sets, beyond the limits of state-of-the-art techniques.

  16. Detection of node group membership in networks with group overlap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawardecker, E. N.; Sales-Pardo, M.; Amaral, L. A. N.

    2009-02-01

    Most networks found in social and biochemical systems have modular structures. An important question prompted by the modularity of these networks is whether nodes can be said to belong to a single group. If they cannot, we would need to consider the role of “overlapping communities.” Despite some efforts in this direction, the problem of detecting overlapping groups remains unsolved because there is neither a formal definition of overlapping community, nor an ensemble of networks with which to test the performance of group detection algorithms when nodes can belong to more than one group. Here, we introduce an ensemble of networks with overlapping groups. We then apply three group identification methods - modularity maximization, k-clique percolation, and modularity-landscape surveying - to these networks. We find that the modularity-landscape surveying method is the only one able to detect heterogeneities in node memberships, and that those heterogeneities are only detectable when the overlap is small. Surprisingly, we find that the k-clique percolation method is unable to detect node membership for the overlapping case.

  17. Positive emotion, appraisal, and the role of appraisal overlap in positive emotion co-occurrence.

    PubMed

    Tong, Eddie M W; Jia, Lile

    2017-02-01

    Appraisal research has traditionally focused on negative emotions but has not addressed issues concerning the relationships between several positive emotions and appraisals in daily life and the extent to which co-occurrence of positive emotions can be explained by overlap in appraisals. Driven by a priori hypotheses on appraisal-emotion relationships, this study investigated 12 positive emotions and 13 appraisal dimensions using Ecological Momentary Assessment. The results provide strong evidence that positive emotions and appraisals correlate significantly in daily life. Importantly, we found that the positive emotions' overlap on theoretically relevant, as compared to irrelevant, appraisals was stronger and more predictive of their co-occurrence. Furthermore, appraisal overlap on theoretically relevant appraisals predicted the co-occurrence of positive emotions even when the appraisal of pleasantness was excluded, indicating that positive emotions do not co-occur just by virtue of their shared valence. Our findings affirmed and refined the appraisal profiles of positive emotions and underscore the importance of appraisals in accounting for the commonality and differences among positive emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every…

  19. Agenda to address climate change

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This document looks at addressing climate change in the 21st century. Topics covered are: Responding to climate change; exploring new avenues in energy efficiency; energy efficiency and alternative energy; residential sector; commercial sector; industrial sector; transportation sector; communities; renewable energy; understanding forests to mitigate and adapt to climate change; the Forest Carbon budget; mitigation and adaptation.

  20. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  1. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  2. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2016-07-12

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  3. Research strategies for addressing uncertainties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busch, David E.; Brekke, Levi D.; Averyt, Kristen; Jardine, Angela; Welling, Leigh; Garfin, Gregg; Jardine, Angela; Merideth, Robert; Black, Mary; LeRoy, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Research Strategies for Addressing Uncertainties builds on descriptions of research needs presented elsewhere in the book; describes current research efforts and the challenges and opportunities to reduce the uncertainties of climate change; explores ways to improve the understanding of changes in climate and hydrology; and emphasizes the use of research to inform decision making.

  4. Diabetes and Alzheimer Disease, Two Overlapping Pathologies with the Same Background: Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Rosales-Corral, Sergio; Tan, Dun-Xian; Manchester, Lucien; Reiter, Russel J.

    2015-01-01

    There are several oxidative stress-related pathways interconnecting Alzheimer's disease and type II diabetes, two public health problems worldwide. Coincidences are so compelling that it is attractive to speculate they are the same disorder. However, some pathological mechanisms as observed in diabetes are not necessarily the same mechanisms related to Alzheimer's or the only ones related to Alzheimer's pathology. Oxidative stress is inherent to Alzheimer's and feeds a vicious cycle with other key pathological features, such as inflammation and Ca2+ dysregulation. Alzheimer's pathology by itself may lead to insulin resistance in brain, insulin resistance being an intervening variable in the neurodegenerative disorder. Hyperglycemia and insulin resistance from diabetes, overlapping with the Alzheimer's pathology, aggravate the progression of the neurodegenerative processes, indeed. But the same pathophysiological background is behind the consequences, oxidative stress. We emphasize oxidative stress and its detrimental role in some key regulatory enzymes. PMID:25815110

  5. Curriculum-based measurement of oral reading: A preliminary investigation of confidence interval overlap to detect reliable growth.

    PubMed

    Van Norman, Ethan R

    2016-09-01

    Curriculum-based measurement of oral reading (CBM-R) progress monitoring data is used to measure student response to instruction. Federal legislation permits educators to use CBM-R progress monitoring data as a basis for determining the presence of specific learning disabilities. However, decision making frameworks originally developed for CBM-R progress monitoring data were not intended for such high stakes assessments. Numerous documented issues with trend line estimation undermine the validity of using slope estimates to infer progress. One proposed recommendation is to use confidence interval overlap as a means of judging reliable growth. This project explored the degree to which confidence interval overlap was related to true growth magnitude using simulation methodology. True and observed CBM-R scores were generated across 7 durations of data collection (range 6-18 weeks), 3 levels of dataset quality or residual variance (5, 10, and 15 words read correct per minute) and 2 types of data collection schedules. Descriptive and inferential analyses were conducted to explore interactions between overlap status, progress monitoring scenarios, and true growth magnitude. A small but statistically significant interaction was observed between overlap status, duration, and dataset quality, b = -0.004, t(20992) =-7.96, p < .001. In general, confidence interval overlap does not appear to meaningfully account for variance in true growth across many progress monitoring conditions. Implications for research and practice are discussed. Limitations and directions for future research are addressed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Regulatory Risk Management of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    George, Glenn R.

    2002-07-01

    Regulatory risk reflects both the likelihood of adverse outcomes during regulatory interactions and the severity of those outcomes. In the arena of advanced nuclear power plant licensing and construction, such adverse outcomes may include, for example, required design changes and construction delays. These, in turn, could significantly affect the economics of the plant and the generation portfolio in which it will operate. In this paper, the author addresses these issues through the lens of risk management. The paper considers various tools and techniques of regulatory risk management, including design diversity and hedging strategies. The effectiveness of alternate approaches is weighed and recommendations are made in several regulatory contexts. (author)

  7. Investigating the overlap function of a ceilometer with different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Frank; Mattis, Ina; Geiss, Alexander; Wiegner, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    The DWD ceilometer network was created in 2008. In the following years more and more ceilometers of type CHM15k (manufacturer Jenoptik) were installed with the aim of observing atmospheric aerosol particles. Now, 58 ceilometers are in continuous operation. The overlap function of a ceilometer is important for the correction of the measurements in the near field of the instrument. In this work the overlap function for a ceilometer CHM15k Nimbus was determined with different methods and the results are compared taking into accounts the respective errors and error propagation. The first method is based on the comparison of measurements with another CHM15k Nimbus device which has a known overlap function. For this type of instrument the overlap is complete at about 1.5km distance. Co-located measurements of the 2 devices were done at Hohenpeissenberg Meteorological Observatory during several months in summer 2013. The second method resembles the first one but the comparison is done with a CHM15k near field instrument. For this type of instrument the overlap is complete at about 500m distance. Co-located measurements of the 2 devices were done at the Meteorological Institute of the University of Munich during one week in July 2013.The third method is based on horizontal measurements under the assumption that the aerosol particles are horizontally homogenously spread. This is assured by measurements in different (horizontal) directions, i.e. different azimuth angles, under suitable meteorological conditions. The measurements were acquired during one night at Hohenpeissenberg Meteorological Observatory. All three methods were used to determine the overlap function of a CHM15k ceilometer. The results were similar although the final error of the obtained overlap function differs due to different assumptions and measurement errors.

  8. Presentation of dynamically overlapping auditory messages in user interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Papp, III, Albert Louis

    1997-09-01

    This dissertation describes a methodology and example implementation for the dynamic regulation of temporally overlapping auditory messages in computer-user interfaces. The regulation mechanism exists to schedule numerous overlapping auditory messages in such a way that each individual message remains perceptually distinct from all others. The method is based on the research conducted in the area of auditory scene analysis. While numerous applications have been engineered to present the user with temporally overlapped auditory output, they have generally been designed without any structured method of controlling the perceptual aspects of the sound. The method of scheduling temporally overlapping sounds has been extended to function in an environment where numerous applications can present sound independently of each other. The Centralized Audio Presentation System is a global regulation mechanism that controls all audio output requests made from all currently running applications. The notion of multimodal objects is explored in this system as well. Each audio request that represents a particular message can include numerous auditory representations, such as musical motives and voice. The Presentation System scheduling algorithm selects the best representation according to the current global auditory system state, and presents it to the user within the request constraints of priority and maximum acceptable latency. The perceptual conflicts between temporally overlapping audio messages are examined in depth through the Computational Auditory Scene Synthesizer. At the heart of this system is a heuristic-based auditory scene synthesis scheduling method. Different schedules of overlapped sounds are evaluated and assigned penalty scores. High scores represent presentations that include perceptual conflicts between over-lapping sounds. Low scores indicate fewer and less serious conflicts. A user study was conducted to validate that the perceptual difficulties predicted by

  9. Regulatory Information By Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory, compliance, & enforcement information for various business, industry and government sectors, listed by NAICS code. Sectors include agriculture, automotive, petroleum manufacturing, oil & gas extraction & other manufacturing

  10. The Regulatory Framework for Privacy and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiller, Janine S.

    The internet enables the easy collection of massive amounts of personally identifiable information. Unregulated data collection causes distrust and conflicts with widely accepted principles of privacy. The regulatory framework in the United States for ensuring privacy and security in the online environment consists of federal, state, and self-regulatory elements. New laws have been passed to address technological and internet practices that conflict with privacy protecting policies. The United States and the European Union approaches to privacy differ significantly, and the global internet environment will likely cause regulators to face the challenge of balancing privacy interests with data collection for many years to come.

  11. Analysis of Regulatory Guidance for Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munns, Thomas E.; Beard, Richard E.; Culp, Aubrey M.; Murphy, Dennis A.; Kent, Renee M.; Cooper, Eric G. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the connection between current FAA regulations and the incorporation of Health Management (HM) systems into commercial aircraft. To address the overall objectives ARINC: (1) investigated FAA regulatory guidance, (2) investigated airline maintenance practices, (3) systematically identified regulations and practices that would be affected or could act as barriers to the introduction of HM technology, and (4) assessed regulatory and operational tradeoffs that should be considered for implementation. The assessment procedure was validated on a postulated structural HM capability for the B757 horizontal stabilizer.

  12. Thioredoxin binding site of phosphoribulokinase overlaps the catalytic site. [R

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, M.A.; Hartman, F.C.

    1986-01-01

    The ATP-regulatory binding site of phosphoribulokinase was studied using bromoacetylethanolamine phosphate (BrAcNHEtOP). BrAcNHEtOP binds to the active-regulatory binding site of the protein. Following trypsin degradation of the labeled protein, fragments were separated by HPLC and sequenced. (DT)

  13. Increasing efficiency in intermediate band solar cells with overlapping absorptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Akshay; Krich, Jacob J.

    2016-07-01

    Intermediate band (IB) materials are promising candidates for realizing high efficiency solar cells. In IB photovoltaics, photons are absorbed in one of three possible electronic transitions—valence to conduction band, valence to intermediate band, or intermediate to conduction band. With fully concentrated sunlight, when the band gaps have been chosen appropriately, the highest efficiency IB solar cells require that these three absorptions be non-overlapping, so absorbed photons of fixed energy contribute to only one transition. The realistic case of overlapping absorptions, where the transitions compete for photons, is generally considered to be a source of loss. We show that overlapping absorptions can in fact lead to significant improvements in IB solar cell efficiencies, especially for IB that are near the middle of the band gap. At low to moderate concentration, the highest efficiency requires overlapping absorptions. We use the detailed-balance method and indicate how much overlap of the absorptions is required to achieve efficiency improvements, comparing with some known cases. These results substantially broaden the set of materials that can be suitable for high-efficiency IB solar cells.

  14. Heuristic overlap-exchange model of noble gas chemical shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrian, Frank J.

    2004-05-01

    It is now generally recognized that overlap-exchange interactions are the primary cause of the medium-dependent magnetic shielding (chemical shift) in all noble gases except helium, although the attractive electrostatic-dispersion (van der Waals) interactions play an indirect role in determining the penetration of the interacting species into the repulsive overlap-exchange region. The short-range nature of these overlap-exchange interactions, combined with the fact that they often can be approximated by simple functions of the overlap of the wave functions of the interacting species, suggests a useful semiempirical model of these chemical shifts. In it the total shielding is the sum of shieldings due to pairwise interactions of the noble gas atom with the individual atoms of the medium, with the "atomic" shielding terms either estimated by simple functions of the atomic overlap integrals averaged over their Boltzmann-weighted separations, or determined by fits to experimental data in systems whose complexity makes the former procedure impractical. Results for 129Xe chemical shifts in the noble gases and in a variety of molecular and condensed systems, including families of n-alkanes, straight-chain alcohols, and the endohedral compounds Xe@C60 and Xe@C70 are encouraging for the applicability of the model to systems of technical and biomedical interest.

  15. Federally Funded Programs Related to Building Energy Use: Overlaps, Challenges, and Opportunities for Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Butner, Ryan S.; Hostick, Donna J.

    2010-10-01

    As energy efficiency in buildings continues to move from discreet technology development to an integrated systems approach, the need to understand and integrate complementary goals and targets becomes more pronounced. Whether within Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Technologies Program (BTP), across the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), or throughout DOE and the Federal government, mutual gains and collaboration synergies exist that are not easily achieved because of organizational and time constraints. There also cases where federal agencies may be addressing similar issues, but with different (and sometimes conflicting) outcomes in mind. This report conducts a comprehensive inventory across all EERE and other relevant Federal agencies of potential activities with synergistic benefits. A taxonomy of activities with potential interdependencies is presented. The report identifies a number of federal program objectives, products, and plans related to building energy efficiency and characterizes the current structure and interactions related to these plans and programs. Areas where overlap occurs are identified as are the challenges of addressing issues related to overlapping goals and programs. Based on the input gathered from various sources, including 20 separate interviews with federal agency staff and contractor staff supporting buildings programs, this study identifies a number of synergistic opportunities and makes recommends a number of areas where further collaboration could be beneficial.

  16. Atomic clusters with addressable complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, David J.

    2017-02-01

    A general formulation for constructing addressable atomic clusters is introduced, based on one or more reference structures. By modifying the well depths in a given interatomic potential in favour of nearest-neighbour interactions that are defined in the reference(s), the potential energy landscape can be biased to make a particular permutational isomer the global minimum. The magnitude of the bias changes the resulting potential energy landscape systematically, providing a framework to produce clusters that should self-organise efficiently into the target structure. These features are illustrated for small systems, where all the relevant local minima and transition states can be identified, and for the low-energy regions of the landscape for larger clusters. For a 55-particle cluster, it is possible to design a target structure from a transition state of the original potential and to retain this structure in a doubly addressable landscape. Disconnectivity graphs based on local minima that have no direct connections to a lower minimum provide a helpful way to visualise the larger databases. These minima correspond to the termini of monotonic sequences, which always proceed downhill in terms of potential energy, and we identify them as a class of biminimum. Multiple copies of the target cluster are treated by adding a repulsive term between particles with the same address to maintain distinguishable targets upon aggregation. By tuning the magnitude of this term, it is possible to create assemblies of the target cluster corresponding to a variety of structures, including rings and chains.

  17. Speckle Statistics of Multiple Overlapping Beams Propagating in Inhomogeneous Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afeyan, Bedros B.; Schmitt, A. J.; Lehmberg, R. H.

    1999-11-01

    We have calculated the electric field of RPP, SSD and ISI beams propagating in inhomogeneous plasmas. We have studied the intensity statistics of these beams as well as those generated when a number of such beams overlap. Changes in the geometry and statistical properties of the resulting hot spots will be presented as a function of angles of incidence, spot sizes and density scale length. Analytic, semi-analytic (quadrature using Green's functions) and numerical simulation results will be shown. The degree to which vacuum electrodynamics is inappropriate to model multiple overlapping beams in inhomogeneous plasmas will be demonstrated. These results are crucial to the study of plasma phenomena in the coronas of direct drive targets including laser imprinting and parametric instabilities. Parametric instabilities at the LEH of indirect drive targets must also take into account overlapping beam physics issues discussed here.

  18. Climate-induced range overlap among closely related species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krosby, Meade; Wilsey, Chad B.; McGuire, Jenny L.; Duggan, Jennifer M.; Nogeire, Theresa M.; Heinrichs, Julie A.; Tewksbury, Joshua J.; Lawler, Joshua J.

    2015-09-01

    Contemporary climate change is causing large shifts in biotic distributions, which has the potential to bring previously isolated, closely related species into contact. This has led to concern that hybridization and competition could threaten species persistence. Here, we use bioclimatic models to show that future range overlap by the end of the century is predicted for only 6.4% of isolated, congeneric species pairs of New World birds, mammals and amphibians. Projected rates of climate-induced overlap are higher for birds (11.6%) than for mammals (4.4%) or amphibians (3.6%). As many species will have difficulty tracking shifting climates, actual rates of future overlap are likely to be far lower, suggesting that hybridization and competition impacts may be relatively modest.

  19. Overlapping community detection in weighted networks via a Bayesian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Wang, Xiaolong; Xiang, Xin; Tang, Buzhou; Chen, Qingcai; Fan, Shixi; Bu, Junzhao

    2017-02-01

    Complex networks as a powerful way to represent complex systems have been widely studied during the past several years. One of the most important tasks of complex network analysis is to detect communities embedded in networks. In the real world, weighted networks are very common and may contain overlapping communities where a node is allowed to belong to multiple communities. In this paper, we propose a novel Bayesian approach, called the Bayesian mixture network (BMN) model, to detect overlapping communities in weighted networks. The advantages of our method are (i) providing soft-partition solutions in weighted networks; (ii) providing soft memberships, which quantify 'how strongly' a node belongs to a community. Experiments on a large number of real and synthetic networks show that our model has the ability in detecting overlapping communities in weighted networks and is competitive with other state-of-the-art models at shedding light on community partition.

  20. Combined Overlap Extension PCR Method for Improved Site Directed Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Nikson Fatt-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The combined overlap extension PCR (COE-PCR) method developed in this work combines the strengths of the overlap extension PCR (OE-PCR) method with the speed and ease of the asymmetrical overlap extension (AOE-PCR) method. This combined method allows up to 6 base pairs to be mutated at a time and requires a total of 40–45 PCR cycles. A total of eight mutagenesis experiments were successfully carried out, with each experiment mutating between two to six base pairs. Up to four adjacent codons were changed in a single experiment. This method is especially useful for codon optimization, where doublet or triplet rare codons can be changed using a single mutagenic primer set, in a single experiment. PMID:27995143

  1. Efficient algorithm for discrimination of overlapping ultrasonic echoes.

    PubMed

    Fortineau, Julien P; Vander Meulen, François; Fortineau, Jérôme; Feuillard, Guy

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method to identify the different echoes of an overlapped ultrasonic signal. This method is based on an iterative algorithm that compares the experimental signal to a realistic dictionary of trial functions and allows identification of one overlapped echo at each iteration. Adding physical parameters to the dictionary such as sample attenuation and ultrasound beam diffraction allows the method to be applied to various materials and sample geometries. Measurements at 500kHz and 5MHz on a ABS material and a copper plate are reported. The effectiveness and the robustness of the method are studied as a function of time delay between the different echoes. We show that taking into account the experimental set-up and material properties in the development of the dictionary are critical to identifying a round-trip signal when overlapping occurs.

  2. Overlap syndromes of autoimmune hepatitis: an open question.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Marilena; Premoli, Alberto; Paschetta, Elena; Belci, Paola; Spandre, Maurizio; Bo, Simona

    2013-02-01

    The headword "overlap syndromes" of liver diseases includes the coexistence of autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. These syndromes often represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for hepatologists; it remains unclear whether these overlap syndromes form distinct entities or they are only variants of the major autoimmune liver diseases. The most frequent reported association occurs between autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis, whereas the overlap between autoimmune hepatitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis is less frequent, typically at young age and often attendant with an inflammatory bowel disease. The choice therapy is based on ursodeoxycholic acid and immunosuppressive drugs, used at the same time or consecutively, according to the course of disease. The diagnostic scores for autoimmune hepatitis can help for diagnosis, even though their definitive soundness is lacking.

  3. 78 FR 44279 - Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Regulatory Flexibility Act, 5 U.S.C. sections 601 to 612 (1988). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert... mandated for the regulatory flexibility agendas required by the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 602... regulatory flexibility agenda, in accordance with the Regulatory Flexibility Act, because they are likely...

  4. Toxic epidermal necrolysis, DRESS, AGEP: Do overlap cases exist?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Severe cutaneous adverse reactions to drugs (SCARs) include acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) and epidermal necrolysis (Stevens-Johnson syndrome–toxic epidermal necrolysis [SJS-TEN]). Because of the varied initial presentation of such adverse drug reactions, diagnosis may be difficult and suggests overlap among SCARs. Overlapping SCARs are defined as cases fulfilling the criteria for definite or probable diagnosis of at least 2 ADRs according to scoring systems for AGEP, DRESS and SJS-TEN. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of overlap among SCARs among cases in the referral hospital in France. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data for 216 patients hospitalized in the referral centre over 7 years with a discharge diagnosis of AGEP (n = 45), DRESS (n = 47), SJS-TEN (n = 80) or “drug rash” (n = 44). Each case with detailed clinical data and a skin biopsy specimen was scored for AGEP, DRESS and SJS-TEN by use of diagnostic scores elaborated by the RegiSCAR group. Results In total, 45 of 216 cases (21%) had at least 2 possible diagnoses: 35 had a single predominant diagnosis (definite or probable), 7 had several possible diagnoses and 3 (2.1% of 145 confirmed SCARs) were overlap SCARs. Conclusions Despite ambiguities among SCARs, confirmed overlap cases are rare. This study did not avoid pitfalls linked to its retrospective nature and selection bias. In the acute stage of disease, early identification of severe ADRs can be difficult because of clinical or biologic overlapping features and missing data on histology, biology and evolution. Retrospectively analyzing cases by use of diagnostic algorithms can lead to reliable discrimination among AGEP, DRESS and SJS-TEN. PMID:23009177

  5. Overlaps among phenological phases in flood plain forest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartošová, Lenka; Bauer, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing concern that climate change has significant impacts on species phenology, seasonal population dynamics, and thus interaction (a)synchrony between species. Species that have historically undergone life history events on the same seasonal calendar may lose synchrony and therefore lose the ability to interact as they have in the past. In view of the match/mismatch hypothesis, the different extents or directions of the phenological shifts among interacting species may have significant implications for community structure and dynamics. That's why our principal goal of the study is to determine the phenological responses within the ecosystem of flood plain forest and analyzed the phenological overlapping among each phenological periods of given species. The phenological observations were done at flood-plain forest experimental site during the period 1961-2012. The whole ecosystem in this study create 17 species (15 plants and 2 bird species) and each species is composed of 2 phenological phases. Phenological periods of all species of ecosystem overlap each other and 43 of these overlapping were chosen and the length, trend and correlation with temperature were elaborated. The analysis of phenophases overlapping of chosen species showed that the length of overlay is getting significantly shorter in 1 case. On the other hand the situation when the length of overlaps is getting significantly longer arose in 4 cases. Remaining overlaps (38) of all phenological periods among various species is getting shorter or longer but with no significance or have not changed anyhow. This study was funded by project "Building up a multidisciplinary scientific team focused on drought" No. CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0248. and of projects no. LD13030 supporting participation of the Czech Republic in the COST action ES1106.

  6. Recent NRC research activities addressing valve and pump issues

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    The mission of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to ensure the safe design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants and other facilities in the U.S.A. One of the main roles that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) plays in achieving the NRC mission is to plan, recommend, and implement research programs that address safety and technical issues deemed important by the NRC. The results of the research activities provide the bases for developing NRC positions or decisions on these issues. Also, RES performs confirmatory research for developing the basis to evaluate industry responses and positions on various regulatory requirements. This presentation summarizes some recent RES supported research activities that have addressed safety and technical issues related to valves and pumps. These activities include the efforts on determining valve and motor-operator responses under dynamic loads and pressure locking events, evaluation of monitoring equipment, and methods for detecting and trending aging of check valves and pumps. The role that RES is expected to play in future years to fulfill the NRC mission is also discussed.

  7. Diagnosing Depression in MS in the Face of Overlapping Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Patten, Sb

    2010-01-01

    Depression is an important problem in multiple sclerosis (MS), but the diagnosis is challenging since symptoms of depression overlap with those of MS. In the past, the main strategy has been to remove physical symptoms from scales assessing depressive symptoms in MS, but these attempts have not been successful. Depression and overlapping MS symptoms may actually share pathophysiological mechanisms, so the strategy of attempting to exclude such symptoms may be fundamentally flawed. Current diagnostic criteria provide a pragmatic solution, but it may be possible to develop improved definitions.

  8. Overlapping illusions by transformation optics without any negative refraction material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fei; He, Sailing

    2016-01-01

    A novel method to achieve an overlapping illusion without any negative refraction index material is introduced with the help of the optic-null medium (ONM) designed by an extremely stretching spatial transformation. Unlike the previous methods to achieve such an optical illusion by transformation optics (TO), our method can achieve a power combination and reshape the radiation pattern at the same time. Unlike the overlapping illusion with some negative refraction index material, our method is not sensitive to the loss of the materials. Other advantages over existing methods are discussed. Numerical simulations are given to verify the performance of the proposed devices.

  9. Neurofibromatosis type 1 with overlap Turner syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hatipoglu, Nihal; Kurtoglu, Selim; Kendirci, Mustafa; Keskin, Mehmet; Per, Hüseyin

    2010-02-01

    Turner's syndrome is a sex chromosome disorder. Klinefelter's syndrome is one of the most severe genetic diseases. Neurofibromatosis is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by cafe-au-lait spots and fibromatous tumors of the skin. In this article, we report the overlap of neurofibromatosis-1 with Turner and Klinefelter syndromes. Thus, these disorders might overlap within the same patient. Due to these cases, we suggest that each patient with Turner-like symptoms or Klinefelter's-like syndrome, be carefully examined for café au lait macules before the initiation of hormone replacement treatment.

  10. Uncovering Overlap Community Structure in Complex Networks Using Particle Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breve, Fabricio; Zhao, Liang; Quiles, Marcos

    Identification and classification of overlap nodes in communities is an important topic in data mining. In this paper, a new clustering method to uncover overlap nodes in complex networks is proposed. It is based on particles walking and competing with each other, using random-deterministic movement. The new community detection algorithm can output not only hard labels, but also continuous-valued output (soft labels), which corresponds to the levels of membership from the nodes to each of the communities. Computer simulations were performed with synthetic and real data and good results were achieved.

  11. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  12. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance.

  13. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  14. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating.

  15. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  16. Two Efficient Techniques to Find Approximate Overlaps between Sequences

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology outputs a huge number of sequences (reads) that require further processing. After applying prefiltering techniques in order to eliminate redundancy and to correct erroneous reads, an overlap-based assembler typically finds the longest exact suffix-prefix match between each ordered pair of the input reads. However, another trend has been evolving for the purpose of solving an approximate version of the overlap problem. The main benefit of this direction is the ability to skip time-consuming error-detecting techniques which are applied in the prefiltering stage. In this work, we present and compare two techniques to solve the approximate overlap problem. The first adapts a compact prefix tree to efficiently solve the approximate all-pairs suffix-prefix problem, while the other utilizes a well-known principle, namely, the pigeonhole principle, to identify a potential overlap match in order to ultimately solve the same problem. Our results show that our solution using the pigeonhole principle has better space and time consumption over an FM-based solution, while our solution based on prefix tree has the best space consumption between all three solutions. The number of mismatches (hamming distance) is used to define the approximate matching between strings in our work. PMID:28293632

  17. 9 CFR 121.4 - Overlap select agents and toxins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in paragraph (b) of this section that have been genetically modified. (d) Overlap select agents or... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS POSSESSION, USE... elements, recombinant nucleic acids, and recombinant organisms: (1) Nucleic acids that can...

  18. 42 CFR 73.4 - Overlap select agents and toxins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... have been genetically modified. (d) Overlap select agents or toxins that meet any of the following... Elements, Recombinant and/or Synthetic Nucleic Acids, and Recombinant and/or Synthetic Organisms: (1... within the exclusion category. (e) An attenuated strain of a select agent, or a select toxin modified...

  19. 9 CFR 121.4 - Overlap select agents and toxins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... this section that have been genetically modified. (d) Overlap select agents or toxins that meet any of... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS POSSESSION, USE...) Genetic elements, recombinant and/or synthetic nucleic acids, and recombinant and/or synthetic...

  20. 9 CFR 121.4 - Overlap select agents and toxins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Federal law enforcement agency reports the seizure of the overlap select agent or toxin to APHIS or CDC... pseudomallei. This report must be followed by submission of APHIS/CDC Form 4 within 7 calendar days after.../CDC Form 4 must be submitted within 7 calendar days after seizure of the agent or toxin. (iii) A...

  1. Peer Network Overlap in Twin, Sibling, and Friend Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Shirley; Segal, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that sibling–peer connections are important for understanding adolescent problem behaviors. Using a novel behavioral genetic design, the current study investigated peer network overlap in 300 child–child pairs (aged 7-13 years) in 5 dyad types: monozygotic (MZ), dizygotic twins, full siblings (FSs), friend pairs, and virtual…

  2. Sarcomeric thick and thin filament overlap influences postmortem proteolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interaction between sarcomere length (SL) and proteolysis on meat tenderness is not clear. Indeed, the extent of thick and thin filament overlap alters actomyosin binding and may alter substrate availability during aging. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of sarcomere le...

  3. 14 CFR 71.9 - Overlapping airspace designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Overlapping airspace designations. 71.9 Section 71.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES;...

  4. [Impact of the Overlap Region Between Acoustic and Electric Stimulation].

    PubMed

    Baumann, Uwe; Mocka, Moritz

    2017-02-08

    Patients with residual hearing in the low frequencies and ski-slope hearing loss with partial deafness at medium and high frequencies receive a cochlear implant treatment with electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS, "hybrid" stimulation). In the border region between electric and acoustic stimulation a superposition of the 2 types of stimulation is expected. The area of overlap is determined by the insertion depth of the stimulating electrode and the lower starting point of signal transmission provided by the CI speech processor. The study examined the influence of the variation of the electric-acoustic overlap area on speech perception in noise, whereby the width of the "transmission gap" between the 2 different stimulus modalities was varied by 2 different methods. The results derived from 9 experienced users of the MED-EL Duet 2 speech processor show that the electric-acoustic overlapping area and with it the crossover frequency between the acoustic part and the CI should be adjusted individually. Overall, speech reception thresholds (SRT) showed a wide variation of results in between subjects. Further studies shall investigate whether generalized procedures about the setting of the overlap between electric and acoustic stimulation are reasonable, whereby an increased number of subjects and a longer period of acclimatization prior to the conduction of hearing tests deemed necessary.

  5. A Longitudinal Assessment of the Victim-Offender Overlap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Higgins, George E.; Tewksbury, Richard; Gover, Angela R.; Piquero, Alex R.

    2010-01-01

    Although research has established an offending/victimization overlap and that offenders and victims share similar characteristics, much less work has examined the longitudinal sequencing of victimization and offending in the same developmental period and whether key risk/protective factors significantly distinguish both offenders and victims. This…

  6. Sarcoidosis Blood Transcriptome Reflects Lung Inflammation and Overlaps with Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, Owen D.; Peng, Jeffrey C.; Bhakta, Nirav R.; Nguyen, Christine P.; Woodruff, Prescott G.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease of unknown etiology, although M. tuberculosis may play a role in the pathogenesis. The traditional view holds that inflammation in sarcoidosis is compartmentalized to involved organs. Objectives: To determine whether whole blood gene expression signatures reflect inflammatory pathways in the lung in sarcoidosis and whether these signatures overlap with tuberculosis. Methods: We analyzed transcriptomic data from blood and lung biopsies in sarcoidosis and compared these profiles with blood transcriptomic data from tuberculosis and other diseases. Measurements and Main Results: Applying machine learning algorithms to blood gene expression data, we built a classifier that distinguished sarcoidosis from health in derivation and validation cohorts (92% sensitivity, 92% specificity). The most discriminative genes were confirmed by quantitative PCR and correlated with disease severity. Transcript profiles significantly induced in blood overlapped with those in lung biopsies and identified shared dominant inflammatory pathways (e.g., Type-I/II interferons). Sarcoidosis and tuberculosis shared more overlap in blood gene expression compared with other diseases using the 86-gene signature reported to be specific for tuberculosis and the sarcoidosis signature presented herein, although reapplication of machine learning algorithms could identify genes specific for sarcoidosis. Conclusions: These data indicate that blood transcriptome analysis provides a noninvasive method for identifying inflammatory pathways in sarcoidosis, that these pathways may be leveraged to complement more invasive procedures for diagnosis or assessment of disease severity, and that sarcoidosis and tuberculosis share overlap in gene regulation of specific inflammatory pathways. PMID:21852540

  7. Track with overlapping links for dry coal extrusion pumps

    DOEpatents

    Saunders, Timothy; Brady, John D

    2014-01-21

    A chain for a particulate material extrusion pump includes a plurality of links, each of the plurality of links having a link body and a link ledge, wherein each link ledge of the plurality of links at least partially overlaps the link body of an adjacent one of the plurality of links.

  8. Australia's National Research Collection: Overlap, Uniqueness, and Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genoni, Paul; Wright, Janette

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of an overlap study of Australian research library collections. The study used OCLC's WorldCat Collection Analysis software to mine data recording Australian holdings on the WorldCat database. The data is analysed according to the results obtained for six "groups" which represent various coalitions of…

  9. Resonance Overlap Is Responsible for Ejecting Planets in Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudryk, Lawrence R.; Wu, Yanqin

    2006-03-01

    A planet orbiting around a star in a binary system experiences both secular and resonant perturbations from the companion star. It may be dislodged from its host star if it is simultaneously affected by two or more resonances. We find that overlap between subresonances lying within mean-motion resonances (mostly of the j:1 type) can account for the boundary of orbital stability within binary systems first observed in numerical studies (e.g., Holman & Wiegert). Strong secular forcing from the companion displaces the centroids of different subresonances, producing large regions of resonance overlap. Planets lying within these overlapping regions experience chaotic diffusion, which in most cases leads to their eventual ejection. The overlap region extends to shorter period orbits as either the companion's mass or its eccentricity increase, with boundaries largely agreeing with those obtained by Holman & Wiegert. Furthermore, we find the following two results: First, at a given binary mass ratio, the instability boundary as a function of eccentricity appears jagged, with jutting peninsulas and deep inlets corresponding to islands of instability and stability, respectively; as a result, the largest stable orbit could be reduced from the Holman & Wiegert values by as much as 20%. Second, very high-order resonances (e.g., 50:3) do not significantly modify the instability boundary; these weak resonances, while producing slow chaotic diffusion that may be missed by finite-duration numerical integrations, do not contribute markedly to planet instability. We present some numerical evidence for the first result. More extensive experiments are called for to confirm these conclusions. For the special case of circular binaries, we are intrigued to find that the Hill criterion (based on the critical Jacobi integral) yields an instability boundary that is very similar to that obtained by resonance overlap arguments, making the former both a necessary and a sufficient condition for

  10. Individual foraging strategies reveal niche overlap between endangered galapagos pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Villegas-Amtmann, Stella; Jeglinski, Jana W E; Costa, Daniel P; Robinson, Patrick W; Trillmich, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Most competition studies between species are conducted from a population-level approach. Few studies have examined inter-specific competition in conjunction with intra-specific competition, with an individual-based approach. To our knowledge, none has been conducted on marine top predators. Sympatric Galapagos fur seals (Arctocephalus galapagoensis) and sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) share similar geographic habitats and potentially compete. We studied their foraging niche overlap at Cabo Douglas, Fernandina Island from simultaneously collected dive and movement data to examine spatial and temporal inter- and intra-specific competition. Sea lions exhibited 3 foraging strategies (shallow, intermediate and deep) indicating intra-specific competition. Fur seals exhibited one foraging strategy, diving predominantly at night, between 0-80 m depth and mostly at 19-22 h. Most sea lion dives also occurred at night (63%), between 0-40 m, within fur seals' diving depth range. 34% of sea lions night dives occurred at 19-22 h, when fur seals dived the most, but most of them occurred at dawn and dusk, when fur seals exhibited the least amount of dives. Fur seals and sea lions foraging behavior overlapped at 19 and 21 h between 0-30 m depths. Sea lions from the deep diving strategy exhibited the greatest foraging overlap with fur seals, in time (19 h), depth during overlapping time (21-24 m), and foraging range (37.7%). Fur seals foraging range was larger. Cabo Douglas northwest coastal area, region of highest diving density, is a foraging "hot spot" for both species. Fur seals and sea lions foraging niche overlap occurred, but segregation also occurred; fur seals primarily dived at night, while sea lions exhibited night and day diving. Both species exploited depths and areas exclusive to their species. Niche breadth generally increases with environmental uncertainty and decreased productivity. Potential competition between these species could be greater during warmer periods

  11. Content-addressable holographic databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grawert, Felix; Kobras, Sebastian; Burr, Geoffrey W.; Coufal, Hans J.; Hanssen, Holger; Riedel, Marc; Jefferson, C. Michael; Jurich, Mark C.

    2000-11-01

    Holographic data storage allows the simultaneous search of an entire database by performing multiple optical correlations between stored data pages and a search argument. We have recently developed fuzzy encoding techniques for this fast parallel search and demonstrated a holographic data storage system that searches digital data records with high fidelity. This content-addressable retrieval is based on the ability to take the two-dimensional inner product between the search page and each stored data page. We show that this ability is lost when the correlator is defocussed to avoid material oversaturation, but can be regained by the combination of a random phase mask and beam confinement through total internal reflection. Finally, we propose an architecture in which spatially multiplexed holograms are distributed along the path of the search beam, allowing parallel search of large databases.

  12. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  13. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  14. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  15. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Regulatory T cell memory

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Michael D.; Way, Sing Sing; Abbas, Abul K.

    2016-01-01

    Memory for antigen is a defining feature of adaptive immunity. Antigen-specific lymphocyte populations show an increase in number and function after antigen encounter and more rapidly re-expand upon subsequent antigen exposure. Studies of immune memory have primarily focused on effector B cells and T cells with microbial specificity, using prime challenge models of infection. However, recent work has also identified persistently expanded populations of antigen-specific regulatory T cells that protect against aberrant immune responses. In this Review, we consider the parallels between memory effector T cells and memory regulatory T cells, along with the functional implications of regulatory memory in autoimmunity, antimicrobial host defence and maternal fetal tolerance. In addition, we discuss emerging evidence for regulatory T cell memory in humans and key unanswered questions in this rapidly evolving field. PMID:26688349

  17. 3 CFR - Regulatory Compliance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... protecting the air we breathe and the water we drink. Consistent regulatory enforcement also levels the... can lead the Government to hold itself more accountable, encouraging agencies to identify and...

  18. 3 CFR - Regulatory Review

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in general—should be revisited. I therefore direct the Director of OMB, in consultation with... delay; clarify the role of the behavioral sciences in formulating regulatory policy; and identify...

  19. The auditory nerve overlapped waveform (ANOW): A new objective measure of low-frequency hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenhan, Jeffery T.; Salt, Alec N.; Guinan, John J.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most pressing problems today in the mechanics of hearing is to understand the mechanical motions in the apical half of the cochlea. Almost all available measurements from the cochlear apex of basilar membrane or other organ-of-Corti transverse motion have been made from ears where the health, or sensitivity, in the apical half of the cochlea was not known. A key step in understanding the mechanics of the cochlear base was to trust mechanical measurements only when objective measures from auditory-nerve compound action potentials (CAPs) showed good preparation sensitivity. However, such traditional objective measures are not adequate monitors of cochlear health in the very low-frequency regions of the apex that are accessible for mechanical measurements. To address this problem, we developed the Auditory Nerve Overlapped Waveform (ANOW) that originates from auditory nerve output in the apex. When responses from the round window to alternating low-frequency tones are averaged, the cochlear microphonic is canceled and phase-locked neural firing interleaves in time (i.e., overlaps). The result is a waveform that oscillates at twice the probe frequency. We have demonstrated that this Auditory Nerve Overlapped Waveform - called ANOW - originates from auditory nerve fibers in the cochlear apex [8], relates well to single-auditory-nerve-fiber thresholds, and can provide an objective estimate of low-frequency sensitivity [7]. Our new experiments demonstrate that ANOW is a highly sensitive indicator of apical cochlear function. During four different manipulations to the scala media along the cochlear spiral, ANOW amplitude changed when either no, or only small, changes occurred in CAP thresholds. Overall, our results demonstrate that ANOW can be used to monitor cochlear sensitivity of low-frequency regions during experiments that make apical basilar membrane motion measurements.

  20. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.

  1. Regulatory Models and the Environment: Practice, Pitfalls, and Prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, K. John; Graham, Judith A.; McKone, Thomas; Whipple, Chris

    2008-06-01

    Computational models support environmental regulatory activities by providing the regulator an ability to evaluate available knowledge, assess alternative regulations, and provide a framework to assess compliance. But all models face inherent uncertainties, because human and natural systems are always more complex and heterogeneous than can be captured in a model. Here we provide a summary discussion of the activities, findings, and recommendations of the National Research Council's Committee on Regulatory Environmental Models, a committee funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency to provide guidance on the use of computational models in the regulatory process. Modeling is a difficult enterprise even outside of the potentially adversarial regulatory environment. The demands grow when the regulatory requirements for accountability, transparency, public accessibility, and technical rigor are added to the challenges. Moreover, models cannot be validated (declared true) but instead should be evaluated with regard to their suitability as tools to address a specific question. The committee concluded that these characteristics make evaluation of a regulatory model more complex than simply comparing measurement data with model results. Evaluation also must balance the need for a model to be accurate with the need for a model to be reproducible, transparent, and useful for the regulatory decision at hand. Meeting these needs requires model evaluation to be applied over the"life cycle" of a regulatory model with an approach that includes different forms of peer review, uncertainty analysis, and extrapolation methods than for non-regulatory models.

  2. DISENTANGLING OVERLAPPING ASTRONOMICAL SOURCES USING SPATIAL AND SPECTRAL INFORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, David E.; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Van Dyk, David A.

    2015-08-01

    We present a powerful new algorithm that combines both spatial information (event locations and the point-spread function) and spectral information (photon energies) to separate photons from overlapping sources. We use Bayesian statistical methods to simultaneously infer the number of overlapping sources, to probabilistically separate the photons among the sources, and to fit the parameters describing the individual sources. Using the Bayesian joint posterior distribution, we are able to coherently quantify the uncertainties associated with all these parameters. The advantages of combining spatial and spectral information are demonstrated through a simulation study. The utility of the approach is then illustrated by analysis of observations of FK Aqr and FL Aqr with the XMM-Newton Observatory and the central region of the Orion Nebula Cluster with the Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  3. Diffusion amid random overlapping obstacles: Similarities, invariants, approximations

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Igor L.; Gao, Fei; Kraikivski, Pavel; Slepchenko, Boris M.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient and accurate numerical techniques are used to examine similarities of effective diffusion in a void between random overlapping obstacles: essential invariance of effective diffusion coefficients (Deff) with respect to obstacle shapes and applicability of a two-parameter power law over nearly entire range of excluded volume fractions (ϕ), except for a small vicinity of a percolation threshold. It is shown that while neither of the properties is exact, deviations from them are remarkably small. This allows for quick estimation of void percolation thresholds and approximate reconstruction of Deff (ϕ) for obstacles of any given shape. In 3D, the similarities of effective diffusion yield a simple multiplication “rule” that provides a fast means of estimating Deff for a mixture of overlapping obstacles of different shapes with comparable sizes. PMID:21513372

  4. Severe Cutaneous Drug Reactions: Do Overlapping Forms Exist?

    PubMed

    Horcajada-Reales, C; Pulido-Pérez, A; Suárez-Fernández, R

    2016-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms are all severe hypersensitivity reactions to medications. While each of these reactions is a well-established entity with specific diagnostic criteria, clinicians see cases that fulfill criteria for more than one form, prompting discussion on the possibility of combined forms. Such overlapping clinical pictures meeting the criteria for 2 conditions have thus become a topic of debate in dermatology in recent years. We describe 2 patients with cutaneous drug reactions having the characteristics of both acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome -toxic epidermal necrolysis. We also review previously published cases and current thinking on such overlapping conditions.

  5. Clinical Overlap of Multiple Sclerosis and Autoimmune Hepatitis: Three Cases.

    PubMed

    Sayin, Refah; Gokgul, Alper; Ebinc, Senar; Dulger, Ahmet Cumhur; Tombul, Temel

    2016-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, inflammatory disease characterized by demyelination and axonal degeneration in the central nervous system. MS is the second major cause of disability following trauma, and is mostly seen between the ages of 20 - 40 years and in women. Autoimmune hepatitis (AH) is a chronic disease characterized by hypergammaglobulinemia, high levels of transaminases, presence of antibodies, and histologically by the necroinflammatory process with interface hepatitis. In AH, the etiological agent of the disease and the cause of liver injury remain unknown. MS may be associated with AH, autoimmune thyroiditis, and type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). In literature, 8 cases with overlap of MS and AH have been reported. In this report, we present 3 cases which were detected with overlap of MS and AH, and are very rare condition in literature.

  6. Shrinking lung syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus-scleroderma overlap.

    PubMed

    Guleria, Vivek S; Singh, Pradeep K; Saxena, Puneet; Subramanian, Shankar

    2014-10-01

    Shrinking lung syndrome (SLS) is a infrequently reported manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Reported prevalence of SLS is about 0.5% in SLE patients. Pathogenesis is not fully understood and different therapeutic modalities have been employed with variable results, as only 77 cases of SLS have been documented in literature. SLS in SLE-Scleroderma overlap has not been reported yet. We report a patient of SLE - scleroderma overlap presenting with dyspnea, intermittent orthopnea and pleuritic chest pain. Evaluation revealed elevated hemidiaphragms and severe restrictive defect. She was eventually diagnosed as a case of SLS. This case report is a reminder to the medical fraternity that SLS although a rare complication must be thought of in the special subset of patients of SLE having respiratory symptoms.

  7. Discriminating crop and other canopies by overlapping binary image layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, Ryoichi

    2013-02-01

    For optimal management of agricultural fields by remote sensing, discrimination of the crop canopy from weeds and other objects is essential. In a digital photograph, a rice canopy was discriminated from a variety of weed and tree canopies and other objects by overlapping binary image layers of red-green-blue and other color components indicating the pixels with target canopy-specific (intensity) values based on the ranges of means ±(3×) standard deviations. By overlapping and merging the binary image layers, the target canopy specificity improved to 0.0015 from 0.027 for the yellow 1× standard deviation binary image layer, which was the best among all combinations of color components and means ±(3×) standard deviations. The most target rice canopy-likely pixels were further identified by limiting the pixels at different luminosity values. The discriminatory power was also visually demonstrated in this manner.

  8. Micropattern-Guided Assembly of Overlapping Pairs of Dynamic Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Fourniol, Franck J.; Li, Tai-De; Bieling, Peter; Mullins, R. Dyche; Fletcher, Daniel A.; Surrey, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between antiparallel microtubules are essential for the organization of spindles in dividing cells. The ability to form immobilized antiparallel microtubule pairs in vitro, combined with the ability to image them via TIRF microscopy, permits detailed biochemical characterization of microtubule cross-linking proteins and their effects on microtubule dynamics. Here, we describe methods for chemical micropatterning of microtubule seeds on glass surfaces in configurations that specifically promote the formation of antiparallel microtubule overlaps in vitro. We demonstrate that this assay is especially well suited for reconstitution of minimal midzone overlaps stabilized by the antiparallel microtubule cross-linking protein PRC1 and its binding partners. The micropatterning method is suitable for use with a broad range of proteins, and the assay is generally applicable to any microtubule cross-linking protein. PMID:24630116

  9. Overture: An Object-Oriented Framework for Overlapping Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Henshaw, W.D.

    2002-04-04

    The Overture framework is an object-oriented environment for solving partial differential equations on over-lapping grids. We describe some of the tools in Overture that can be used to generate grids and solve partial differential equations (PDEs). Overture contains a collection of C++ classes that can be used to write PDE solvers either at a high level or at a lower level for efficiency. There are also a number of tools provided with Overture that can be used with no programming effort. These tools include capabilities to: repair computer-aided-design (CAD) geometries and build global surface triangulations; generate surface and volume grids with hyperbolic grid generation; generate composite overlapping grids; generate hybrid (unstructured) grids; and solve particular PDEs such as the incompressible and compressible Navier-Stokes equations.

  10. Functional overlap of the Arabidopsis leaf and root microbiota.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Müller, Daniel B; Srinivas, Girish; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; Potthoff, Eva; Rott, Matthias; Dombrowski, Nina; Münch, Philipp C; Spaepen, Stijn; Remus-Emsermann, Mitja; Hüttel, Bruno; McHardy, Alice C; Vorholt, Julia A; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2015-12-17

    Roots and leaves of healthy plants host taxonomically structured bacterial assemblies, and members of these communities contribute to plant growth and health. We established Arabidopsis leaf- and root-derived microbiota culture collections representing the majority of bacterial species that are reproducibly detectable by culture-independent community sequencing. We found an extensive taxonomic overlap between the leaf and root microbiota. Genome drafts of 400 isolates revealed a large overlap of genome-encoded functional capabilities between leaf- and root-derived bacteria with few significant differences at the level of individual functional categories. Using defined bacterial communities and a gnotobiotic Arabidopsis plant system we show that the isolates form assemblies resembling natural microbiota on their cognate host organs, but are also capable of ectopic leaf or root colonization. While this raises the possibility of reciprocal relocation between root and leaf microbiota members, genome information and recolonization experiments also provide evidence for microbiota specialization to their respective niche.

  11. DNA Metabarcoding Reveals Diet Overlap between the Endangered Walia Ibex and Domestic Goats - Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Gebremedhin, Berihun; Flagstad, Øystein; Bekele, Afework; Chala, Desalegn; Bakkestuen, Vegar; Boessenkool, Sanne; Popp, Magnus; Gussarova, Galina; Schrøder-Nielsen, Audun; Nemomissa, Sileshi; Brochmann, Christian; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2016-01-01

    Human population expansion and associated degradation of the habitat of many wildlife species cause loss of biodiversity and species extinctions. The small Simen Mountains National Park in Ethiopia is one of the last strongholds for the preservation of a number of afro-alpine mammals, plants and birds, and it is home to the rare endemic Walia ibex, Capra walie. The narrow distribution range of this species as well as potential competition for resources with livestock, especially with domestic goat, Capra hircus, may compromise its future survival. Based on a curated afro-alpine taxonomic reference library constructed for plant taxon identification, we investigated the diet of the Walia ibex and addressed the dietary overlap with domestic goat using DNA metabarcoding of faecal samples. Faeces of both species were collected from different localities in the National Park. We show that both species are browsers, with forbs, shrubs and trees comprising the largest proportion of their diet, supplemented by grasses. There was a considerable overlap in dietary preferences. Several of the preferred diet items of the Walia ibex (Alchemilla sp., Hypericum revolutum, Erica arborea and Rumex sp.) were also among the most preferred diet items of the domestic goat. These results indicate that there is potential for competition between the two species, especially during the dry season, when resources are limited. Our findings, in combination with the expected increase in domestic herbivores, suggest that management plans should consider the potential threat posed by domestic goats to ensure future survival of the endangered Walia ibex. PMID:27416020

  12. Two regional regulatory meetings on distributed resources. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    2001-02-01

    An overview and discussion of Eastern Regional and Western Regional State Utility Regulators Workshops on Distributed Resources (DR) is given. The purpose of the workshops was for state regulators to learn about DR and the regulatory issues surrounding their greater use. The following issues were addressed: introduction to DR technologies and their potential benefits, interconnection and market barriers, regulatory incentives, rate design issues, and environmental issues.

  13. Managing overlapping federal FMLA and state leave regulations.

    PubMed

    Grebowski, Lucinda S

    2002-03-01

    The overlap between the Family and Medical Leave Act and state leave laws can create complications. Employers, particularly those with multistate operations, may wish to consider an outsourced absence management system, which can remove the burden of day-to-day administration and the need to stay abreast of changing state regulations. However, employers cannot outsource the responsibility to set broad policy toward absence management.

  14. Short superstrings and the structure of overlapping strings.

    PubMed

    Armen, C; Stein, C

    1995-01-01

    Given a collection of strings S = [s1,...,sn] over an alphabet sigma, a superstring alpha of S is a string containing each si as a substring, that is, for each i, 1 < or = i < or = n, alpha contains a block of magnitude of si consecutive characters that match si exactly. The shortest superstring problem is the problem of finding a superstring alpha of minimum length. The shortest superstring problem has applications in both computational biology and data compression. The shortest superstring problem is NP-hard (Gallant et al., 1980); in fact, it was recently shown to be MAX SNP-hard (Blum et al., 1994). Given the importance of the applications, several heuristics and approximation algorithms have been proposed. Constant factor approximation algorithms have been given in Blum et al. (1994) (factor of 3), Teng and Yao (1993) (factor of 2 8/9), Czumaj et al. (1994) (factor of 2 5/6), and Kosaraju et al. (1994) (factor of 2 50/63). Informally, the key to any algorithm for the shortest superstring problem is to identify sets of strings with large amounts of similarity, or overlap. Although the previous algorithms and their analyses have grown increasingly sophisticated, they reveal remarkably little about the structure of strings with large amounts of overlap. In this sense, they are solving a more general problem than the one at hand. In this paper, we study the structure of strings with large amounts of overlap and use our understanding to give an algorithm that finds a superstring whose length is no more than 2 3/4 times that of the optimal superstring. Our algorithm runs in O(magnitude of S + n3) time, which matches that of previous algorithms. We prove several interesting properties about short periodic strings, allowing us to answer questions of the following form: Given a string with some periodic structure, characterize all the possible periodic strings that can have a large amount of overlap with the first string.

  15. Bilateral coxitis in scleroderma-polymyositis overlap syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Berrada, Khadija; Abourazzak, Fatima Ezzahra; Houssaini, Ghita Sqalli; Kadi, Nadira; Tahiri, Latifa; Amrani, Kawthar; Khammar, Zineb; Lahlou, Meriam; Berrady, Rhizlane; Rabhi, Samira; Tizniti, Siham; Bono, Wafaa; Harzy, Taoufik

    2014-01-01

    Joint manifestations in scleroderma (Scl) and polymyositis (PM) are dominated by inflammatory arthralgia. Arthritis is less common and preferentially affects the hands, wrists, knees, and ankles. Involvement of the hip has been rarely reported in the literature. We report a case of coxitis diagnosed in a patient suffering from scleroderma-polymyositis overlap syndrome successfully treated by ultrasound-guided infiltration of triamcinolone hexacetonide PMID:27708891

  16. Registration of partially overlapping laser-radar range images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Dan; Sun, Jian-Feng; Li, Qi; Wang, Qi

    2015-10-01

    To register partially overlapping three-dimensional point sets from different viewpoints, it is necessary to remove spurious corresponding point pairs that are not located in overlapping regions. Most variants of the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm require users to manually select the rejection parameters for discarding spurious point pairs between the registering views. This requirement often results in unreliable and inaccurate registration. To overcome this problem, we present an improved ICP algorithm that can automatically determine the rejection percentage to reliably and accurately align partially overlapping laser-radar (ladar) range images. The similarity of k neighboring features of each nonplanar point is employed to determine reasonable point pairs in nonplanar regions, and the distance measurement method is used to find reasonable point pairs in planar regions. The rejection percentage can be obtained from these two sets of reasonable pairs. The performance of our algorithm is compared with that of five other algorithms using various models with low and high curvatures. The experimental results show that our algorithm is more accurate and robust than the other algorithms.

  17. Securely measuring the overlap between private datasets with cryptosets.

    PubMed

    Swamidass, S Joshua; Matlock, Matthew; Rozenblit, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Many scientific questions are best approached by sharing data--collected by different groups or across large collaborative networks--into a combined analysis. Unfortunately, some of the most interesting and powerful datasets--like health records, genetic data, and drug discovery data--cannot be freely shared because they contain sensitive information. In many situations, knowing if private datasets overlap determines if it is worthwhile to navigate the institutional, ethical, and legal barriers that govern access to sensitive, private data. We report the first method of publicly measuring the overlap between private datasets that is secure under a malicious model without relying on private protocols or message passing. This method uses a publicly shareable summary of a dataset's contents, its cryptoset, to estimate its overlap with other datasets. Cryptosets approach "information-theoretic" security, the strongest type of security possible in cryptography, which is not even crackable with infinite computing power. We empirically and theoretically assess both the accuracy of these estimates and the security of the approach, demonstrating that cryptosets are informative, with a stable accuracy, and secure.

  18. STITCHER 2.0: primer design for overlapping PCR applications.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Damien M; Uriagereka-Herburger, Isabel; Bode, Katrin

    2017-03-30

    Overlapping polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a common technique used by researchers in very diverse fields that enables the user to 'stitch' individual pieces of DNA together. Previously, we have reported a web based tool called STITCHER that provides a platform for researchers to automate the design of primers for overlapping PCR applications. Here we present STITCHER 2.0, which represents a substantial update to STITCHER. STITCHER 2.0 is a newly designed web tool that automates the design of primers for overlapping PCR. Unlike STITCHER, STITCHER 2.0 considers diverse algorithmic parameters, and returns multiple result files that include a facility for the user to draw their own primers as well as comprehensive visual guides to the user's input, output, and designed primers. These result files provide greater control and insight during experimental design and troubleshooting. STITCHER 2.0 is freely available to all users without signup or login requirements and can be accessed at the following webpage: www.ohalloranlab.net/STITCHER2.html.

  19. Overlapping node discovery for improving classification of lung nodules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Cai, Weidong; Song, Yang; Lee, Min-Zhao; Shan, Shimin; Dagan, David

    2013-01-01

    Distinguishing malignant lung nodules from benign nodules is an important aspect of lung cancer diagnosis. In this paper, we propose an automatic method to classify lung nodules into four different types, i.e. well-circumscribed, juxta-vascular, juxta-pleural and pleural-tail. Additionally, since the morphology of lung nodules forms a continuum between the different types, our proposed method is superior to previous methods that classify single nodules into a single type. First, a weighted similarity network is constructed based on the SVM with probability estimates, turning the 128-length SIFT descriptor to a 4-length probability vector against the four types. Then, the classification of nodules while identifying those with overlapping types is made using the weighed Clique Percolation Method (CPMw). We evaluate the proposed method on low-dose CT images from ELCAP. Our results show that there is more overlap between well-circumscribed and juxta-vascular, and between juxta-pleural and pleural tail. Also, quantitative comparisons among various methods demonstrate highly effective nodule classification results by identifying the overlapping nodule types.

  20. Shadow overlap ion-beam lithography for nanoarchitectures.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeonho; Hong, Soongweon; Lee, Luke P

    2009-11-01

    Precisely constructed nanoscale devices and nanoarchitectures with high spatial resolution are critically needed for applications in high-speed electronics, high-density memory, efficient solar cells, optoelectronics, plasmonics, optical antennas, chemical sensors, biological sensors, and nanospectroscopic imaging. Current methods of classical optical lithography are limited by the diffraction effect of light for nanolithography, and the state of art of e-beam or focused ion beam lithography limit the throughput and further reduction less than few nanometers for large-area batch fabrication. However, these limits can be surpassed surprisingly by utilizing the overlap of two shadow images. Here we present shadow overlap of ion-beam lithography (SOIL), which can combine the advantages of parallel processing, tunable capability of geometries, cost-effective method, and high spatial resolution nanofabrication technique. The SOIL method relies on the overlap of shadows created by the directional metal deposition and etching angles on prepatterned structures. Consequently, highly tunable patterns can be obtained. As examples, unprecedented nanoarchitectures for optical antennas are demonstrated by SOIL. We expect that SOIL can have a significant impact not only on nanoscale devices, but also large-scale (i.e., micro and macro) three-dimensional innovative lithography.

  1. Overlap syndromes of autoimmune hepatitis: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Nájera, O; Velasco-Zamora, J A; Torre, A

    2015-01-01

    Some patients with autoimmune liver disease have characteristics of cholestasis, as well as of autoimmune hepatitis. Despite the fact that this is a relatively frequent clinical condition seen in referral centers for liver diseases, there is little evidence as regards the clinical management of these syndromes due to their low prevalence and the lack of standardized definitions and diagnostic criteria. This is relevant, given that published studies report that there is a lower therapeutic response and poorer outcome in patients with overlap syndrome than in those presenting solely with autoimmune hepatitis. Whether overlap syndromes are distinct entities or the presence of 2 concurrent diseases is still a subject of debate. They should be suspected in autoimmune hepatitis patients that present with signs of cholestasis, as it is known that overlap behavior tends to be more aggressive, with higher rates of cirrhosis and the need for liver transplantation. Treatment response is also poorer and should be directed at the predominant component. Standardized definitions are necessary so that these syndromes can be studied in controlled clinical trials.

  2. Magnetic breakdown in an array of overlapping Fermi surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadigrobov, A. M.; Radić, D.; Bjeliš, A.

    2015-03-01

    We develop a theoretical framework for a magnetic breakdown in an array of circular two-dimensional bands with a finite overlap of neighboring Fermi surfaces due to the presence of a presumably weak periodic potential, and apply the obtained results to the electron bands in carbon honeycomb structures of doped graphene and intercalated graphite compounds. In contrast to the standard treatment, inaugurated more than fifty years ago by Slutskin and Kadigrobov, with electron semiclassical trajectories encircling significantly overlapping Fermi surfaces, we examine a configuration in which bands are related in a way that the Fermi surfaces only slightly overlap, forming internal band pockets with areas of the size comparable to the area of the quantum magnetic flux for a given external magnetic field. Such band configuration has to be treated quantum mechanically. The calculation leads to the results for magnetic breakdown coefficients comprising an additional large factor with respect to the standard results, proportional to the ratio of the Fermi energy and the cyclotron energy. Also, these coefficients show oscillating dependence on energy, as well as on the wave number of periodic potential. Both mentioned elements enable the adjustment of the preferred wave vector of possible magnetic breakdown induced density wave instability at the highest possible critical temperature.

  3. STITCHER 2.0: primer design for overlapping PCR applications

    PubMed Central

    O’Halloran, Damien M.; Uriagereka-Herburger, Isabel; Bode, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    Overlapping polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a common technique used by researchers in very diverse fields that enables the user to ‘stitch’ individual pieces of DNA together. Previously, we have reported a web based tool called STITCHER that provides a platform for researchers to automate the design of primers for overlapping PCR applications. Here we present STITCHER 2.0, which represents a substantial update to STITCHER. STITCHER 2.0 is a newly designed web tool that automates the design of primers for overlapping PCR. Unlike STITCHER, STITCHER 2.0 considers diverse algorithmic parameters, and returns multiple result files that include a facility for the user to draw their own primers as well as comprehensive visual guides to the user’s input, output, and designed primers. These result files provide greater control and insight during experimental design and troubleshooting. STITCHER 2.0 is freely available to all users without signup or login requirements and can be accessed at the following webpage: www.ohalloranlab.net/STITCHER2.html. PMID:28358011

  4. Injury Differences Between Small and Large Overlap Frontal Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, Jason J.; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Maiman, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    Because small overlap impacts have recently emerged as a crash mode posing great injury risk to occupants, a detailed analysis of US crash data was conducted using the NASS/CDS and CIREN databases. Frontal crashes were subcategorized into small overlap impact (SOI) and large overlap impact (LOI) using crash and crush characteristics from the datasets. Injuries to head, spine, chest, hip and pelvis, and lower extremities were parsed and compared between crash types. MAIS 3+ occupants in NASS/CDS and CIREN demonstrated increased incidence of head, chest, spine, and hip/pelvis injuries in SOI compared to LOI. In NASS/CDS, subgaleal hematoma represented 48.6% of SOI head injury codes but 27.6% in LOI. Cervical spine posterior element fractures also represented greater proportions of SOI spine injuries (e.g., facet fractures: 27.8 vs. 14.0%), and proximal femur fractures represented a greater proportion of hip/pelvis injuries (e.g., intertrochanteric fracture: 32.5 vs. 11.8%). Tarsal/metatarsal fractures were a lesser proportion of lower extremity injuries in SOI compared to LOI. Occupant contact points inducing these injuries were observed in CIREN cases in some instances without compartment intrusion. These injuries suggest the substantial role of occupant kinematics in SOI which may induce suboptimal occupant restraint interaction. PMID:22105392

  5. Securely Measuring the Overlap between Private Datasets with Cryptosets

    PubMed Central

    Swamidass, S. Joshua; Matlock, Matthew; Rozenblit, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Many scientific questions are best approached by sharing data—collected by different groups or across large collaborative networks—into a combined analysis. Unfortunately, some of the most interesting and powerful datasets—like health records, genetic data, and drug discovery data—cannot be freely shared because they contain sensitive information. In many situations, knowing if private datasets overlap determines if it is worthwhile to navigate the institutional, ethical, and legal barriers that govern access to sensitive, private data. We report the first method of publicly measuring the overlap between private datasets that is secure under a malicious model without relying on private protocols or message passing. This method uses a publicly shareable summary of a dataset’s contents, its cryptoset, to estimate its overlap with other datasets. Cryptosets approach “information-theoretic” security, the strongest type of security possible in cryptography, which is not even crackable with infinite computing power. We empirically and theoretically assess both the accuracy of these estimates and the security of the approach, demonstrating that cryptosets are informative, with a stable accuracy, and secure. PMID:25714898

  6. Statistically validated network of portfolio overlaps and systemic risk

    PubMed Central

    Gualdi, Stanislao; Cimini, Giulio; Primicerio, Kevin; Di Clemente, Riccardo; Challet, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Common asset holding by financial institutions (portfolio overlap) is nowadays regarded as an important channel for financial contagion with the potential to trigger fire sales and severe losses at the systemic level. We propose a method to assess the statistical significance of the overlap between heterogeneously diversified portfolios, which we use to build a validated network of financial institutions where links indicate potential contagion channels. The method is implemented on a historical database of institutional holdings ranging from 1999 to the end of 2013, but can be applied to any bipartite network. We find that the proportion of validated links (i.e. of significant overlaps) increased steadily before the 2007–2008 financial crisis and reached a maximum when the crisis occurred. We argue that the nature of this measure implies that systemic risk from fire sales liquidation was maximal at that time. After a sharp drop in 2008, systemic risk resumed its growth in 2009, with a notable acceleration in 2013. We finally show that market trends tend to be amplified in the portfolios identified by the algorithm, such that it is possible to have an informative signal about institutions that are about to suffer (enjoy) the most significant losses (gains). PMID:28000764

  7. Saccade plan overlap and cancellation during free viewing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Esther X W; Chua, Fook-Kee; Yen, Shih-Cheng

    2016-10-01

    In the current study, we examined how the saccadic system responds when visual information changes dynamically in our environment. Previous studies, using the double-step task, have shown that (a) saccade plans could overlap, such that saccade preparation to an object started even while the saccade preparation to another object was ongoing, and (b) saccade plans could be cancelled before they were completed. In these studies, saccade targets were restricted to a few, experimenter-defined locations. Here, we examined whether saccade plan overlap and cancellation mechanisms could be observed in free-viewing conditions. For each trial, we constructed sets of two images, each containing five objects. All objects have unique positions. Image 1 was presented for several fixations, before Image 2 was presented during a fixation, presumably while a saccade plan to an object in Image 1 was ongoing. There were two crucial findings: (a) First, the saccade immediately following the transition was sometimes executed towards objects in Image 2, and not an object in Image 1, suggesting that the earlier saccade plan to an Image 1 object had been cancelled. Second, analysis of the temporal data also suggested that preparation of the first post-transition saccade started before an earlier saccade plan to an Image 1 object was executed, implying that saccade plans overlapped.

  8. Overlap between empathy, teamwork and integrative approach to patient care.

    PubMed

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Bianco, Joseph A; Mann, Douglas; Massello, David; Calabrese, Leonard H

    2014-10-14

    Abstract Background: Empathy, teamwork and an integrative approach to patient care share common denominators such as interpersonal skills and understanding patients' concerns. Thus, a significant overlap among measures of empathy, teamwork and integrative approach to patient care is expected. Aim: This study examined the magnitude of overlap (shared variance) among three measures of empathy, teamwork and an integrative approach to patient care. Methods: Three-hundred seventy-three medical students completed the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE), the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration (JSAPNC) and Integrative Patient Care (IPC). Results: Significant overlaps were found among the three measures (p < 0.01), ranging from 13% (r = 0.36), between JSAPNC and IPC, to 18% (r = 0.42), between JSE and JSAPNC, and 30% (r = 0.55) between JSE and IPC for the total sample. Pattern of findings was similar for men and women. In a multiple regression model, a significant multiple correlation (R = 0.60, p < 0.01) was obtained in correlating scores on the JSE with the JSAPNC, and IPC scores, controlling for gender effect (men = 0 and women = 1). Conclusions: The significant links between empathy, teamwork and IPC support the common denominator assumption. The findings that IPC shares common variance with empathy and teamwork have implications for medical education curriculum, suggesting that implementation of integrative patient care can improve empathic engagement in patient care and orientation toward teamwork.

  9. Statistically validated network of portfolio overlaps and systemic risk.

    PubMed

    Gualdi, Stanislao; Cimini, Giulio; Primicerio, Kevin; Di Clemente, Riccardo; Challet, Damien

    2016-12-21

    Common asset holding by financial institutions (portfolio overlap) is nowadays regarded as an important channel for financial contagion with the potential to trigger fire sales and severe losses at the systemic level. We propose a method to assess the statistical significance of the overlap between heterogeneously diversified portfolios, which we use to build a validated network of financial institutions where links indicate potential contagion channels. The method is implemented on a historical database of institutional holdings ranging from 1999 to the end of 2013, but can be applied to any bipartite network. We find that the proportion of validated links (i.e. of significant overlaps) increased steadily before the 2007-2008 financial crisis and reached a maximum when the crisis occurred. We argue that the nature of this measure implies that systemic risk from fire sales liquidation was maximal at that time. After a sharp drop in 2008, systemic risk resumed its growth in 2009, with a notable acceleration in 2013. We finally show that market trends tend to be amplified in the portfolios identified by the algorithm, such that it is possible to have an informative signal about institutions that are about to suffer (enjoy) the most significant losses (gains).

  10. Overlapping ETS and CRE Motifs ((G/C)CGGAAGTGACGTCA) preferentially bound by GABPα and CREB proteins.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Raghunath; Zhao, Jianfei; He, Ximiao; Shlyakhtenko, Andrey; Mann, Ishminder; Waterfall, Joshua J; Meltzer, Paul; Sathyanarayana, B K; FitzGerald, Peter C; Vinson, Charles

    2012-10-01

    Previously, we identified 8-bps long DNA sequences (8-mers) that localize in human proximal promoters and grouped them into known transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). We now examine split 8-mers consisting of two 4-mers separated by 1-bp to 30-bps (X(4)-N(1-30)-X(4)) to identify pairs of TFBS that localize in proximal promoters at a precise distance. These include two overlapping TFBS: the ETS⇔ETS motif ((C/G)CCGGAAGCGGAA) and the ETS⇔CRE motif ((C/G)CGGAAGTGACGTCAC). The nucleotides in bold are part of both TFBS. Molecular modeling shows that the ETS⇔CRE motif can be bound simultaneously by both the ETS and the B-ZIP domains without protein-protein clashes. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) shows that the ETS protein GABPα and the B-ZIP protein CREB preferentially bind to the ETS⇔CRE motif only when the two TFBS overlap precisely. In contrast, the ETS domain of ETV5 and CREB interfere with each other for binding the ETS⇔CRE. The 11-mer (CGGAAGTGACG), the conserved part of the ETS⇔CRE motif, occurs 226 times in the human genome and 83% are in known regulatory regions. In vivo GABPα and CREB ChIP-seq peaks identified the ETS⇔CRE as the most enriched motif occurring in promoters of genes involved in mRNA processing, cellular catabolic processes, and stress response, suggesting that a specific class of genes is regulated by this composite motif.

  11. A flexible analog memory address list manager for PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, M.N.; Musrock, M.S.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Walker, J.W.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.; Allen, M.D.

    1996-06-01

    A programmable analog memory address list manager has been developed for use with all analog memory-based detector subsystems of PHENIX. The unit provides simultaneous read/write control, cell write-over protection for both a Level-1 trigger decision delay and digitization latency, and re-ordering of AMU addresses following conversion, at a beam crossing rate of 105 ns. Addresses are handled such that up to 5 Level-1 (LVL-1) events can be maintained in the AMU without write-over. Data tagging is implemented for handling overlapping and shared beam-event data packets. Full usage in all PHENIX analog memory-based detector subsystems is accomplished by the use of detector-specific programmable parameters--the number of data samples per valid LVL-1 trigger and the sample spacing. Architectural candidates for the system are discussed with emphasis on implementation implications. Details of the design are presented including application specifics, timing information, and test results from a full implementation using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs).

  12. Addressable nanoelectrode membrane arrays: fabrication and steady-state behavior.

    PubMed

    Zoski, Cynthia G; Yang, Nianjun; He, Peixin; Berdondini, Luca; Koudelka-Hep, Milena

    2007-02-15

    An addressable nanoelectrode membrane array (ANEMA) based on a Au-filled track-etched polycarbonate membrane was fabricated. The Au-filled membrane was secured to a lithographically fabricated addressable ultramicroelectrode (UME) array patterned with 25 regularly spaced (100 microm center to center spacing), 10 microm diameter recessed Pt UMEs to create 25 microregions of 10 microm diameter nanoelectrode ensembles (NEEs) on the membrane. The steady-state voltammetric behavior of 1.0 mM Ru(NH(3))(6)Cl(3) and 1.0 mM ferrocene methanol in 0.1 M KCl on each of the micro NEEs resulted in sigmoidal-shaped voltammograms which were reproducible across the ANEMA. This reproducibility of the steady-state current was attributed to the overlapping hemispherical diffusion layers at the Au-filled nanopores of each 10 microm diameter NEE of a ANEMA. The track-etched polycarbonate membranes were filled using a gold electroless deposition procedure into the 30 nm diameter pores in the membrane. Electrical connection between the Au-filled template array and the lithographic UME platform array was achieved by potentiostatic electrodeposition of Cu from an acidic copper solution into each of the 25 recessed Pt UMEs on the UME array platform. A multiplexer unit capable of addressing 64 individual micro NEEs on an ANEMA is described. ANEMAs have advantages of high reproducibility, facile fabrication, multitime reuse of lithographically fabricated UME arrays, and purely steady-state behavior.

  13. Data standards in clinical research: gaps, overlaps, challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Richesson, Rachel L; Krischer, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Current efforts to define and implement health data standards are driven by issues related to the quality, cost and continuity of care, patient safety concerns, and desires to speed clinical research findings to the bedside. The President's goal for national adoption of electronic medical records in the next decade, coupled with the current emphasis on translational research, underscore the urgent need for data standards in clinical research. This paper reviews the motivations and requirements for standardized clinical research data, and the current state of standards development and adoption--including gaps and overlaps--in relevant areas. Unresolved issues and informatics challenges related to the adoption of clinical research data and terminology standards are mentioned, as are the collaborations and activities the authors perceive as most likely to address them.

  14. Detection and separation of overlapping cells based on contour concavity for Leishmania images.

    PubMed

    Neves, João C; Castro, Helena; Tomás, Ana; Coimbra, Miguel; Proença, Hugo

    2014-06-01

    Life scientists often must count cells in microscopy images, which is a tedious and time-consuming task. Automatic approaches present a solution to this problem. Several procedures have been devised for this task, but the majority suffer from performance degradation in the case of cell overlap. In this article, we propose a method to determine the positions of macrophages and parasites in fluorescence images of Leishmania-infected macrophages. The proposed strategy is primarily based on blob detection, clustering, and separation using concave regions of the cells' contours. In comparison with the approaches of Nogueira (Master's thesis, Department of University of Porto Computer Science, 2011) and Leal et al. (Proceedings of the 9th international conference on Image Analysis and Recognition, Vol. II, ICIAR'12. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 2012. pp. 432-439), which also addressed this type of image, we conclude that the proposed methodology achieves better performance in the automatic annotation of Leishmania infections.

  15. 75 FR 61530 - Issuance of Regulatory Guides

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Issuance of Regulatory Guides AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  16. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  17. An extended micromechanics method for probing interphase properties in polymer nanocomposites [An extended micromechanics method for overlapping geometries with application to polymer nanocomposites

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Zeliang; Moore, John A.; Liu, Wing Kam

    2016-05-03

    Inclusions comprised on filler particles and interphase regions commonly form complex morphologies in polymer nanocomposites. Addressing these morphologies as systems of overlapping simple shapes allows for the study of dilute particles, clustered particles, and interacting interphases all in one general modeling framework. To account for the material properties in these overlapping geometries, weighted-mean and additive overlapping conditions are introduced and the corresponding inclusion-wise integral equations are formulated. An extended micromechanics method based on these overlapping conditions for linear elastic and viscoelastic heterogeneous material is then developed. An important feature of the proposed approach is that the effect of both themore » geometric overlapping (clustered particles) and physical overlapping (interacting interphases) on the effective properties can be distinguished. Lastly, we apply the extended micromechanics method to a viscoelastic polymer nanocomposite with interphase regions, and estimate the properties and thickness of the interphase region based on experimental data for carbon-black filled styrene butadiene rubbers.« less

  18. On the Resolution Limit of Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy: Modelling Fifth-Order Signals with Overlapping Pulses.

    PubMed

    Fumero, Giuseppe; Batignani, Giovanni; Dorfman, Konstantin E; Mukamel, Shaul; Scopigno, Tullio

    2015-11-16

    Femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering (FSRS) spectroscopy is a powerful pump-probe technique that can track electronic and vibrational dynamics with high spectral and temporal resolution. The investigation of extremely short-lived species, however, implies deciphering complex signals and is ultimately hampered by unwanted nonlinear effects once the time resolution limit is approached and the pulses overlap temporally. Using the loop diagrams formalism we calculate the fifth-order response of a model system and address the limiting case where the relevant dynamics timescale is comparable to the pump-pulse duration and, consequently, the pump and the probe overlap temporally. We find that in this regime, additional diagrams that do not contribute for temporally well separated pulses need to be taken into account, giving rise to new time-dependent features, even in the absence of photoinduced dynamics and for negative delays.

  19. 75 FR 15423 - U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Technical Evaluation Report for the Phase 1 Decommissioning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    .... Nuclear Regulatory Commission Technical Evaluation Report for the Phase 1 Decommissioning Plan for the... Regulatory Commission (NRC) Technical Evaluation Report (TER) for the Phase 1 Decommissioning Plan for the... Center (DOE/ EIS-0226). ADDRESSES: Copies of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Technical...

  20. A novel approach for efficient extrication of overlapping chromosomes in automated karyotyping.

    PubMed

    Munot, Mousami V; Mukherjee, Jayanta; Joshi, Madhuri

    2013-12-01

    Since the introduction of the automated karyotyping systems, segmentation and classification of touching and overlapping chromosomes in the metaphase images are major challenges. The earlier reported techniques for disentangling the chromosome overlaps have limited success and use only color information in case of multispectral imaging. Most of them are restricted to separation of single overlap of two chromosomes. This paper introduces a novel algorithm to extricate overlapping chromosomes in a metaphase image. The proposed technique uses Delaunay triangulation to automatically identify the number of overlaps in a cluster followed by the detection of the appropriate cut-points. The banding information on the overlapped region further resolves the set of overlapping chromosomes with the identified cut-points. The proposed algorithm has been tested with four data sets of 60 overlapping cases, obtained from publically available databases and private genetic labs. The experimental results provide an overall accuracy of 75–100 % for resolving the cluster of 1–6 overlaps.

  1. Parallel Memory Addressing Using Coincident Optical Pulses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-15

    diodes, and NEC NDL2102 avalanche photodiodes, are specified to operate in excess of I GHz. 2) The percentage of overlap for coincident pulses must be...Donald M. Chiarulli is an assistant professor of Rami G. Melhem has been with the faculty of Steven P. Levitan is the Wellington C. Carl computer

  2. 10 CFR 218.34 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Economic Regulatory Administration, Department of Energy, 2000 M Street, NW., Washington, DC 20461, and to the Director, Office of Hearings and Appeals, Department of Energy, 2000 M Street, NW., Washington,...

  3. 10 CFR 218.34 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Economic Regulatory Administration, Department of Energy, 2000 M Street, NW., Washington, DC 20461, and to the Director, Office of Hearings and Appeals, Department of Energy, 2000 M Street, NW., Washington,...

  4. Regulatory Promotion of Emergent CCS Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, Lincoln; Uchitel, Kirsten; Johnson, David

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing inevitability of climate change and the attendant need for mitigation strategies, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has yet to gain much traction in the United States. Recent regulatory proposals by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), limited in scope to new-build power plants, represent the only significant policy initiative intended to mandate diffusion of CCS technology. Phase I of this Project assessed barriers to CCS deployment as prioritized by the CCS community. That research concluded that there were four primary barriers: (1) cost, (2) lack of a carbon price, (3) liability, and (4) lack of a comprehensive regulatory regime. Phase II of this Project, as presented in this Report, assesses potential regulatory models for CCS and examines where those models address the hurdles to diffusing CCS technology identified in Phase I. It concludes (1) that a CCS-specific but flexible standard, such as a technology performance standard or a very particular type of market-based regulation, likely will promote CCS diffusion, and (2) that these policies cannot work alone, but rather, should be combined with other measures, such as liability limits and a comprehensive CCS regulatory regime.

  5. 76 FR 2369 - Priorities for Addressing Risks to the Reliability of the Bulk-Power System; Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Priorities for Addressing Risks to the Reliability of the Bulk- Power System... related to reliability of the Bulk-Power System, including priorities for addressing risks to reliability.... The conference will be Webcast. Anyone with Internet access who desires to listen to this event can...

  6. 75 FR 54349 - Animal Models-Essential Elements To Address Efficacy Under the Animal Rule; Notice of Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Animal Models--Essential Elements To Address Efficacy Under... concerns of industry, other government agencies, and interested parties on the regulatory and scientific challenges as addressed in the draft document entitled ``Guidance for ] Industry: Animal...

  7. The regulatory horizon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, ED

    1987-01-01

    The author briefly discusses the FAA's position as it relates to cockpit resource management. For example, if Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is a positive concept, why isn't everyone required to implement it? The regulatory practice of the FAA is discussed and questions and answers are presented.

  8. Toxicogenomics in Regulatory Ecotoxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential utility of toxicogenomics in toxicological research and regulatory activities has been the subject of scientific discussions, and as with any new technology, there is a wide range of opinion. The purpose of this feature article is to consider roles of toxicogenomic...

  9. 78 FR 52810 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... addresses industry topics that establish the appropriate regulatory and procedural knowledge base necessary...., CBOE Rule 3.6A.08(b); NASD Notice to Members 01- 51 (August 2001), available at http://www.finra.org... address industry topics and establish the appropriate regulatory and procedural knowledge base relevant...

  10. Cumulative overlap distribution function in realistic spin glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billoire, A.; Maiorano, A.; Marinari, E.; Martin-Mayor, V.; Yllanes, D.

    2014-09-01

    We use a sample-dependent analysis, based on medians and quantiles, to analyze the behavior of the overlap probability distribution of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick and 3D Edwards-Anderson models of Ising spin glasses. We find that this approach is an effective tool to distinguish between replica symmetry breaking-like and droplet-like behavior of the spin-glass phase. Our results are in agreement with a replica symmetry breaking-like behavior for the 3D Edwards-Anderson model.

  11. 9. THIRD IMAGE OF THE PANORAMIC SERIES WITH CONSIDERABLE OVERLAP. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. THIRD IMAGE OF THE PANORAMIC SERIES WITH CONSIDERABLE OVERLAP. A SETTLING TANK, SMOKESTACK FROM THE MILL'S BOILER ROOM, MILL ANNEX AND OTHER MILL OUT BUILDINGS ARE IN THE MIDDLE RIGHT OF THE IMAGE THE SUPERINTENDENTS HOUSE IS IN THE MIDDLE LEFT OF THE IMAGE SPANNING FROM LEFT TO RIGHT IN THE BACKGROUND IS THE TOWN OF BODIE. IN THE FAR BACKGROUND LEFT IS THE ROAD THAT IS THE ACCESS PARK. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  12. ANCA Associated Mononeuritis Multiplex with Overlap in Vasculitic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Coimbatore; Varadraj, Govindraj; Nandeesh, Bevinahalli

    2017-01-01

    Mononeuritis multiplex is a common manifestation of many illnesses which includes Hansen’s disease and certain types of systemic vasculitis. The Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody (ANCA)-Associated Vasculitis (AAV) is a group of rare diseases which show typical characteristic inflammatory cell infiltration and blood vessel wall necrosis. AAV syndromes include Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA), Microscopic Polyangiitis (MPA) and Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (EGPA). We describe a patient who presented with mononeuritis multiplex and had features of overlap between EGPA and MPA. The patient was treated with standard regimen of steroids and pulsed cyclophosphamide and she achieved excellent clinical remission. PMID:28273992

  13. Overlapping image segmentation for context-dependent anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theiler, James; Prasad, Lakshman

    2011-06-01

    The challenge of finding small targets in big images lies in the characterization of the background clutter. The more homogeneous the background, the more distinguishable a typical target will be from its background. One way to homogenize the background is to segment the image into distinct regions, each of which is individually homogeneous, and then to treat each region separately. In this paper we will report on experiments in which the target is unspecified (it is an anomaly), and various segmentation strategies are employed, including an adaptive hierarchical tree-based scheme. We find that segmentations that employ overlap achieve better performance in the low false alarm rate regime.

  14. The Role of Nutrition-Related Initiatives in Addressing Community Health Needs Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Daniel R.; Rovniak, Liza S.; Dillon, Judy; Snyder, Gail

    2017-01-01

    Academic Health Centers and nonprofit hospitals are exploring strategies to meet Affordable Care Act mandates requiring tax-exempt institutions to address community health needs, which commonly include major chronic illnesses. We explore the implications of this regulatory landscape, describing methods that nonprofit health care institutions are…

  15. Telecommunications Policy Research Conference 1987. Program [and] Keynote Address by Morris Tanenbaum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Panelists, discussants, and speakers at the 20 sessions of this three-day conference on telecommunications policy research are listed under the appropriate sessions in this conference program, as well luncheon and dinner speakers. Topics addressed by the various sessions include: federal regulatory policies and technical change in…

  16. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  17. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  18. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  19. ARS, university and regulatory partnerships needed to address the challenge and complete eradication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although most of the U.S. Cotton Belt has achieved functional eradication of the boll weevil, certain areas of Texas as well as Northern Mexico still experience economic loss to this pest. Currently under active eradication, most of these areas are considered subtropical, where boll weevils can per...

  20. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  1. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  2. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  3. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  4. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  5. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41... Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in an application... correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which an address is...

  6. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41... Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in an application... correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which an address is...

  7. 47 CFR 13.10 - Licensee address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee address. 13.10 Section 13.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.10 Licensee address. In accordance with § 1.923 of this chapter all applications must specify an address where...

  8. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  9. Multiregional medical device development: regulatory perspective.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Atsushi; Kutsumi, Hiromu

    2014-04-01

    There are difficulties in conducting worldwide medical device development simultaneously because each country and/or region has their own medical device regulations. However, to aid globalization of the medical device market, and to quickly provide innovative medical devices to patients, attempts have been made to encourage harmonization and convergence of medical device regulations. 'Harmonization by doing' is a bilateral effort from the United States and Japan to develop global clinical trials and address regulatory barriers that may be impediments to timely device approval. The Global Harmonization Task Force (GHTF) was conceived in 1992 in an effort to achieve greater uniformity between national medical device regulatory systems. Since 2012, the GHTF has been replaced by the International Medical Device Regulators Forum.

  10. Generation and Characterization of Mouse Regulatory Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Carretero-Iglesia, Laura; Hill, Marcelo; Cuturi, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, cell therapy has become a promising approach to therapeutically manipulate immune responses in autoimmunity, cancer, and transplantation. Several types of lymphoid and myeloid cells origin have been generated in vitro and tested in animal models. Their efficacy to decrease pharmacological treatment has successfully been established. Macrophages play an important role in physiological and pathological processes. They represent an interesting cell population due to their high plasticity in vivo and in vitro. Here, we describe a protocol to differentiate murine regulatory macrophages in vitro from bone marrow precursors. We also describe several methods to assess macrophage classical functions, as their bacterial killing capacity and antigen endocytosis and degradation. Importantly, regulatory macrophages also display suppressive characteristics, which are addressed by the study of their hypostimulatory T lymphocyte capacity and polyclonal T lymphocyte activation suppression.

  11. Neurodevelopmental disorders in young violent offenders: Overlap and background characteristics.

    PubMed

    Billstedt, Eva; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Wallinius, Märta; Hofvander, Björn

    2017-03-06

    Neurodevelopmental disorders (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), tic disorder, intellectual disability (ID)), in prison populations have received increased attention but the focus has generally been on one single condition leaving out the global picture. This study assessed the prevalence and overlap of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) in a consecutive cohort (n=270) of young adult male offenders (age 18-25 years), sentenced for "hands-on" violent offences and serving prison time in Swedish prisons. Seventy-one percent of all who met inclusion criteria participated. Comprehensive clinical assessments were carried out including history of early antisocial behavior and maladjustment, self-report questionnaires and an intelligence test. Sixty-three percent of the study group met DSM-IV criteria for childhood ADHD, 43% for ADHD in adulthood, 10% met criteria for an ASD, 6% for Tourette syndrome, and 1% for ID. Twenty-two percent had borderline intellectual functioning. A substantial rate of overlap between the NDDs was found. The combined NDD group had an earlier onset of antisocial behavior, had more aggressive behavior and lower school achievements than the non-NDD group. The results highlight the need for prison and probation services to be attentive of and screen for neurodevelopmental disorders in young violent offenders.

  12. Overlapping spectra resolution using non-negative matrix factorization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong-Tao; Li, Tong-Hua; Chen, Kai; Li, Wei-Guang; Bi, Xian

    2005-03-31

    Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), with the constraints of non-negativity, has been recently proposed for multi-variate data analysis. Because it allows only additive, not subtractive, combinations of the original data, NMF is capable of producing region or parts-based representation of objects. It has been used for image analysis and text processing. Unlike PCA, the resolutions of NMF are non-negative and can be easily interpreted and understood directly. Due to multiple solutions, the original algorithm of NMF [D.D. Lee, H.S. Seung, Nature 401 (1999) 788] is not suitable for resolving chemical mixed signals. In reality, NMF has never been applied to resolving chemical mixed signals. It must be modified according to the characteristics of the chemical signals, such as smoothness of spectra, unimodality of chromatograms, sparseness of mass spectra, etc. We have used the modified NMF algorithm to narrow the feasible solution region for resolving chemical signals, and found that it could produce reasonable and acceptable results for certain experimental errors, especially for overlapping chromatograms and sparse mass spectra. Simulated two-dimensional (2-D) data and real GUJINGGONG alcohol liquor GC-MS data have been resolved soundly by NMF technique. Butyl caproate and its isomeric compound (butyric acid, hexyl ester) have been identified from the overlapping spectra. The result of NMF is preferable to that of Heuristic evolving latent projections (HELP). It shows that NMF is a promising chemometric resolution method for complex samples.

  13. Sheath overlap during very large scale plasma source ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cluggish, B. P.; Munson, C. P.

    1998-12-01

    Measurements of plasma source ion implantation have been performed on a large target of complex geometry. The target consists of 1000 aluminum, automotive piston surrogates mounted on four racks; total surface area is over 16 m2. The four racks are positioned parallel to each other, 0.25 m apart, in an 8 m3 vacuum chamber. The racks of pistons are immersed in a capacitive radio frequency plasma, with an argon gas pressure of 20-65 mPa. Langmuir probe measurements indicate that the plasma density profile is highly nonuniform, due to particle losses to the racks of pistons. The plasma ions are implanted into the pistons by pulse biasing the workpiece to negative voltages as low as -18 kV for up to 20 μs. During the voltage pulse, the high-voltage sheaths from adjacent racks of pistons converge towards each other. At plasma densities less than 109 cm-3 the sheaths are observed to overlap. Measurements of the sheath overlap time are compared with standard analytic theory and with simulations run with a two-dimensional particle-in-cell code.

  14. Integrated interpretation of overlapping AEM datasets achieved through standardisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, Camilla C.; Munday, Tim; Heinson, Graham

    2015-12-01

    Numerous airborne electromagnetic surveys have been acquired in Australia using a variety of systems. It is not uncommon to find two or more surveys covering the same ground, but acquired using different systems and at different times. Being able to combine overlapping datasets and get a spatially coherent resistivity-depth image of the ground can assist geological interpretation, particularly when more subtle geophysical responses are important. Combining resistivity-depth models obtained from the inversion of airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data can be challenging, given differences in system configuration, geometry, flying height and preservation or monitoring of system acquisition parameters such as waveform. In this study, we define and apply an approach to overlapping AEM surveys, acquired by fixed wing and helicopter time domain electromagnetic (EM) systems flown in the vicinity of the Goulds Dam uranium deposit in the Frome Embayment, South Australia, with the aim of mapping the basement geometry and the extent of the Billeroo palaeovalley. Ground EM soundings were used to standardise the AEM data, although results indicated that only data from the REPTEM system needed to be corrected to bring the two surveys into agreement and to achieve coherent spatial resistivity-depth intervals.

  15. Content patterns in topic-based overlapping communities.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Sebastián A; Muñoz, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the underlying community structure is an important challenge in social network analysis. Most state-of-the-art algorithms only consider structural properties to detect disjoint subcommunities and do not include the fact that people can belong to more than one community and also ignore the information contained in posts that users have made. To tackle this problem, we developed a novel methodology to detect overlapping subcommunities in online social networks and a method to analyze the content patterns for each subcommunities using topic models. This paper presents our main contribution, a hybrid algorithm which combines two different overlapping sub-community detection approaches: the first one considers the graph structure of the network (topology-based subcommunities detection approach) and the second one takes the textual information of the network nodes into consideration (topic-based subcommunities detection approach). Additionally we provide a method to analyze and compare the content generated. Tests on real-world virtual communities show that our algorithm outperforms other methods.

  16. Trophic overlap between native and invasive stream crayfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magoulick, Daniel D.; Piercey, Glenn L.

    2016-01-01

    We examined trophic dynamics of a stream food web where invasive Orconectes neglectusappear to be displacing native O. eupunctus in the Spring River drainage of the Ozark Highlands, Missouri and Arkansas, USA. We collected crayfish species and possible food sources seasonally from a site of sympatry on the South Fork Spring River. We determined diet overlap and potential for competition between O. eupunctus and O. neglectus, and investigated seasonal variation using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses and gut content analyses. Gut content analysis showed both species of crayfish consumed mainly detritus during summer and spring, with other prey categories varying by species and season. Stable isotope analysis showed that O. eupunctus and O. neglectus relied on invertebrates as a major energy and nutrient source throughout summer, autumn, and spring, and the two species showed differences in their stable isotope signatures during spring and summer, but not autumn. Given the trophic overlap between O. eupunctus and O. neglectus, there is a potential for the two species to compete for food and to be ecologically redundant. Ecological redundancy can lead to reduced effects on ecosystem function post-invasion, and therefore examining ecological redundancy of potential invaders should be a conservation priority.

  17. Home range overlap as a driver of intelligence in primates.

    PubMed

    Grueter, Cyril C

    2015-04-01

    Various socioecological factors have been suggested to influence cognitive capacity in primates, including challenges associated with foraging and dealing with the complexities of social life. Alexander [Alexander, 1989]. Evolution of the human psyche. In: Mellars P, Stringer C, editors. The human revolution: Behavioural and biological perspectives on the origins of modern humans. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p 455-513] proposed an integrative model for the evolution of human cognitive abilities and complex sociality that incorporates competition among coalitions of conspecifics (inter-group conflict) as a major selective pressure. However, one of the premises of this model, i.e., that when confronted with inter-group conflict selection should favor enhanced cognition, has remained empirically untested. Using a comparative approach on species data, I aimed to test the prediction that primate species (n = 104) that face greater inter-group conflict have higher cognitive abilities (indexed by endocranial volume). The degree of inter-group conflict/complexity was approximated via the variable home range overlap among groups. I found a significant relationship between home range overlap and endocranial volume, even after controlling for other predictor variables and covariates such as group size and body mass. I conclude that brain size evolution cannot be attributed exclusively to social factors such as group size, but likely reflects a variety of social and ecological determinants including inter-group conflict which poses cognitive demands on monitoring both the wider social milieu as well as spatial attributes of the habitat.

  18. Efficient discovery of overlapping communities in massive networks

    PubMed Central

    Gopalan, Prem K.; Blei, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Detecting overlapping communities is essential to analyzing and exploring natural networks such as social networks, biological networks, and citation networks. However, most existing approaches do not scale to the size of networks that we regularly observe in the real world. In this paper, we develop a scalable approach to community detection that discovers overlapping communities in massive real-world networks. Our approach is based on a Bayesian model of networks that allows nodes to participate in multiple communities, and a corresponding algorithm that naturally interleaves subsampling from the network and updating an estimate of its communities. We demonstrate how we can discover the hidden community structure of several real-world networks, including 3.7 million US patents, 575,000 physics articles from the arXiv preprint server, and 875,000 connected Web pages from the Internet. Furthermore, we demonstrate on large simulated networks that our algorithm accurately discovers the true community structure. This paper opens the door to using sophisticated statistical models to analyze massive networks. PMID:23950224

  19. Habituation and extinction of fear recruit overlapping forebrain structures.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Teri M; Richardson, Rick; McNally, Gavan P

    2016-02-01

    Establishing the neurocircuitry involved in inhibiting fear is important for understanding and treating anxiety disorders. To date, extinction procedures have been predominately used to examine the inhibition of learned fear, where fear is reduced to a conditioned stimulus (CS) by presenting it in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). However, learned fear can also be reduced by habituation procedures where the US is presented in the absence of the CS. Here we used expression of the activity marker c-Fos in rats to compare the recruitment of several forebrain structures following fear habituation and extinction. Following fear conditioning where a tone CS was paired with a loud noise US, fear was then reduced the following day by either presentation of the CS or US alone (i.e. CS extinction or US habituation, respectively). This extinction and habituation training recruited several common structures, including infralimbic cortex, basolateral amygdala, midline thalamus and medial hypothalamus (orexin neurons). Moreover, this overlap was shared when examining the neural correlates of the expression of habituation and extinction, with common recruitment of infralimbic cortex and midline thalamus. However, there were also important differences. Specifically, acquisition of habituation was associated with greater recruitment of prelimbic cortex whereas expression of habituation was associated with greater recruitment of paraventricular thalamus. There was also less recruitment of central amygdala for habituation compared to extinction in the retention phase. These findings indicate that largely overlapping neurocircuitries underlie habituation and fear extinction and imply common mechanisms for reducing fear across different inhibitory treatments.

  20. Overlap of movement planning and movement execution reduces reaction time.

    PubMed

    Orban de Xivry, Jean-Jacques; Legrain, Valéry; Lefèvre, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Motor planning is the process of preparing the appropriate motor commands in order to achieve a goal. This process has largely been thought to occur before movement onset and traditionally has been associated with reaction time. However, in a virtual line bisection task we observed an overlap between movement planning and execution. In this task performed with a robotic manipulandum, we observed that participants (n = 30) made straight movements when the line was in front of them (near target) but often made curved movements when the same target was moved sideways (far target, which had the same orientation) in such a way that they crossed the line perpendicular to its orientation. Unexpectedly, movements to the far targets had shorter reaction times than movements to the near targets (mean difference: 32 ms, SE: 5 ms, max: 104 ms). In addition, the curvature of the movement modulated reaction time. A larger increase in movement curvature from the near to the far target was associated with a larger reduction in reaction time. These highly curved movements started with a transport phase during which accuracy demands were not taken into account. We conclude that an accuracy demand imposes a reaction time penalty if processed before movement onset. This penalty is reduced if the start of the movement consists of a transport phase and if the movement plan can be refined with respect to accuracy demands later in the movement, hence demonstrating an overlap between movement planning and execution.

  1. Evaluation of a Highly Anticlastic Panel with Tow Overlaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Gurdal, Zafer

    2007-01-01

    A rectangular, variable-stiffness panel with tow overlaps was manufactured using an advanced tow placement machine. The cured panel had large anticlastic imperfections, with measured amplitudes of over two times the average panel thickness. These imperfections were not due to the overall steered-fiber layup or the tow overlaps, but instead resulted from local asymmetries in the laminate that were caused by a manufacturing oversight. In the nominal panel layup, fiber angles vary linearly from 60 degrees on the panel axial centerline to 30 degrees on the parallel edges. A geometrically nonlinear analysis was performed with a -280 degree Fahrenheit thermal load to simulate the postcure cooldown to room temperature. The predicted geometric imperfections correlated well with the measured panel shape. Unique structural test fixtures were then developed which greatly reduced these imperfections, but they also caused prestresses in the panel. Surface imperfections measured after the panel was installed in the test fixtures were used with nonlinear finite element analyses to predict these fixturing-induced prestresses. These prestresses were also included in structural analyses of panel end compression to failure, and the analytical results compared well with test data when both geometric and material nonlinearities were included.

  2. SEPARATION OF OVERLAPPED ELECTROCHEMICAL PEAKS USING THE KALMAN FILTER

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T. F.; Brown, S. D.

    1981-01-01

    A major limitation in the use of electrochemical techniques for the quantitative analysis of mixtures is the difficulty of resolving overlapped peaks. This problem is further complicated by the low signal-to-noise ratios often encountered in trace analysis and by the use of electrochemical techniques that produce broad, asymmetric waveforms. This paper demonstrates the use of the Kalman Filter for multi-component analysis of linear sweep voltammograms. Even with the broad, asymmetric LSV waveform, synthetic data runs show that a peak separation of as little as 2.5 mV is sufficient for peak deconvolution in the presence of random noise. Besides separating overlapped peaks, the methods also filters the noise from the signal and can be used to separate the capacitive current component from the faradaic current component. The method is validated further using the Cd(II)/In(III) and Cd(II)/In(III)/Pb(II) systems which show peak separations of 40 to 200 mV. The use of the techniques with two other voltammetric waveforms is also demonstrated.

  3. Dense Multiple Stereo Matching of Highly Overlapping Uav Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haala, N.; Rothermel, M.

    2012-07-01

    UAVs are becoming standard platforms for applications aiming at photogrammetric data capture. Since these systems can be completely built-up at very reasonable prices, their use can be very cost effective. This is especially true while aiming at large scale aerial mapping of areas at limited extent. In principle, the photogrammetric evaluation of UAV-based imagery is feasible by of-the-shelf commercial software products. Thus, standard steps like aerial triangulation, the generation of Digital Surface Models and ortho image computation can be performed effectively. However, this processing pipeline can be hindered due to the limited quality of UAV data. This is especially true if low-cost sensor components are applied. To overcome potential problems in AAT, UAV imagery is frequently captured at considerable overlaps. As it will be discussed in the paper, such highly overlapping image blocks are not only beneficial during georeferencing, but are especially advantageous while aiming at a dense and accurate image based 3D surface reconstruction.

  4. Experimental characterization of Raman overlaps between mode-groups

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Erik N.; Koefoed, Jacob G.; Friis, Søren M. M.; Castaneda, Mario A. Usuga; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Mode-division multiplexing has the potential to further increase data transmission capacity through optical fibers. In addition, distributed Raman amplification is a promising candidate for multi-mode signal amplification due to its desirable noise properties and the possibility of mode-equalized gain. In this paper, we present an experimental characterization of the intermodal Raman intensity overlaps of a few-mode fiber using backward-pumped Raman amplification. By varying the input pump power and the degree of higher order mode-excitation for the pump and the signal in a 10 km long two-mode fiber, we are able to characterize all intermodal Raman intensity overlaps. Using these results, we perform a Raman amplification measurement and demonstrate a mode-differential gain of only 0.25 dB per 10 dB overall gain. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest mode differential gain achieved for amplification of mode division multiplexed signals in a single fiber. PMID:27703272

  5. Finding Hierarchical and Overlapping Dense Subgraphs using Nucleus Decompositions

    SciTech Connect

    Seshadhri, Comandur; Pinar, Ali; Sariyuce, Ahmet Erdem; Catalyurek, Umit

    2014-11-01

    Finding dense substructures in a graph is a fundamental graph mining operation, with applications in bioinformatics, social networks, and visualization to name a few. Yet most standard formulations of this problem (like clique, quasiclique, k-densest subgraph) are NP-hard. Furthermore, the goal is rarely to nd the \\true optimum", but to identify many (if not all) dense substructures, understand their distribution in the graph, and ideally determine a hierarchical structure among them. Current dense subgraph nding algorithms usually optimize some objective, and only nd a few such subgraphs without providing any hierarchy. It is also not clear how to account for overlaps in dense substructures. We de ne the nucleus decomposition of a graph, which represents the graph as a forest of nuclei. Each nucleus is a subgraph where smaller cliques are present in many larger cliques. The forest of nuclei is a hierarchy by containment, where the edge density increases as we proceed towards leaf nuclei. Sibling nuclei can have limited intersections, which allows for discovery of overlapping dense subgraphs. With the right parameters, the nuclear decomposition generalizes the classic notions of k-cores and k-trusses. We give provable e cient algorithms for nuclear decompositions, and empirically evaluate their behavior in a variety of real graphs. The tree of nuclei consistently gives a global, hierarchical snapshot of dense substructures, and outputs dense subgraphs of higher quality than other state-of-theart solutions. Our algorithm can process graphs with tens of millions of edges in less than an hour.

  6. Growing networks of overlapping communities with internal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Jean-Gabriel; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Allard, Antoine; Dubé, Louis J.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce an intuitive model that describes both the emergence of community structure and the evolution of the internal structure of communities in growing social networks. The model comprises two complementary mechanisms: One mechanism accounts for the evolution of the internal link structure of a single community, and the second mechanism coordinates the growth of multiple overlapping communities. The first mechanism is based on the assumption that each node establishes links with its neighbors and introduces new nodes to the community at different rates. We demonstrate that this simple mechanism gives rise to an effective maximal degree within communities. This observation is related to the anthropological theory known as Dunbar's number, i.e., the empirical observation of a maximal number of ties which an average individual can sustain within its social groups. The second mechanism is based on a recently proposed generalization of preferential attachment to community structure, appropriately called structural preferential attachment (SPA). The combination of these two mechanisms into a single model (SPA+) allows us to reproduce a number of the global statistics of real networks: The distribution of community sizes, of node memberships, and of degrees. The SPA+ model also predicts (a) three qualitative regimes for the degree distribution within overlapping communities and (b) strong correlations between the number of communities to which a node belongs and its number of connections within each community. We present empirical evidence that support our findings in real complex networks.

  7. Toxicogenomics and the Regulatory Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicogenomics presents regulatory agencies with the opportunity to revolutionize their analyses by enabling the collection of information on a broader range of responses than currently considered in traditional regulatory decision making. Analyses of genomic responses are expec...

  8. Comparison of overlap-based models for approximating the exchange-repulsion energy.

    PubMed

    Söderhjelm, Pär; Karlström, Gunnar; Ryde, Ulf

    2006-06-28

    Different ways of approximating the exchange-repulsion energy with a classical potential function have been investigated by fitting various expressions to the exact exchange-repulsion energy for a large set of molecular dimers. The expressions involve either the orbital overlap or the electron-density overlap. For comparison, the parameter-free exchange-repulsion model of the effective fragment potential (EFP) is also evaluated. The results show that exchange-repulsion energy is nearly proportional to both the orbital overlap and the density overlap. For accurate results, a distance-dependent correction is needed in both cases. If few parameters are desired, orbital overlap is superior to density overlap, but the fit to density overlap can be significantly improved by introducing more parameters. The EFP performs well, except for delocalized pi systems. However, an overlap expression with a few parameters seems to be slightly more accurate and considerably easier to approximate.

  9. Functional footprinting of regulatory DNA

    PubMed Central

    Vierstra, Jeff; Reik, Andreas; Chang, Kai-Hsin; Stehling-Sun, Sandra; Zhou, Yuan-Yue; Hinkley, Sarah J.; Paschon, David E.; Zhang, L.; Psatha, Nikoletta; Bendana, Yuri R.; O'Neill, Colleen M.; Song, Alex H.; Mich, Andrea; Liu, Pei-Qi; Lee, Gary; Bauer, Daniel E.; Holmes, Michael C.; Orkin, Stuart H.; Papayannopoulou, Thalia; Stamatoyannopoulos, George; Rebar, Edward J.; Gregory, Philip D.; Urnov, Fyodor D.; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory regions harbor multiple transcription factor recognition sites; however, the contribution of individual sites to regulatory function remains challenging to define. We describe a facile approach that exploits the error-prone nature of genome editing-induced double-strand break repair to map functional elements within regulatory DNA at nucleotide resolution. We demonstrate the approach on a human erythroid enhancer, revealing single TF recognition sites that gate the majority of downstream regulatory function. PMID:26322838

  10. Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1990-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the commission. This is an annual publication for the general use of the NRC Staff and is available to the public. The digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide.

  11. Creating a Comprehensive, Efficient, and Sustainable Nuclear Regulatory Structure

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Patricia; Wright, Troy L.; Tuttle, John D.; Hazel, Michael J.; Schlegel, Steven C.; Miller, Daniel R.

    2009-03-30

    Abstract. With the congressionally mandated January 1, 2013 deadline for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) program to complete its transition of MPC&A responsibility to the Russian Federation, NNSA management directed its MPC&A program managers and team leaders to demonstrate that work in ongoing programs would lead to successful and timely achievement of these milestones. In the spirit of planning for successful project completion, the NNSA review of the Russian regulatory development process confirmed the critical importance of an effective regulatory system to a sustainable nuclear protection regime and called for an analysis of the existing Russian regulatory structure and the identification of a plan to ensure a complete MPC&A regulatory foundation. This paper describes the systematic process used by the U.S. DOE MPC&A Regulatory Development Project RDP) to develop an effective and sustainable MPC&A regulatory structure in the Russian Federation. This nuclear regulatory system will address all non-military Category I and II nuclear materials at State Corporation for Atomic Energy “Rosatom,” the Federal Service for Ecological, Technological, and Nuclear Oversight (Rostechnadzor), the Federal Agency for Marine and River Transport (FAMRT, within the Ministry of Transportation), and the Ministry of Industry and Trade (Minpromtorg). The approach to ensuring a complete and comprehensive nuclear regulatory structure includes five sequential steps. The approach was adopted from DOE’s project management guidelines and was adapted to the regulatory development task by the RDP. The five steps in the Regulatory Development Process are: 1) Define MPC&A Structural Elements; 2) Analyze the existing regulatory documents using the identified Structural Elements; 3) Validate the analysis with Russian colleagues and define the list of documents to be developed; 4) Prioritize and schedule the development of

  12. Cognitive regulatory control therapies.

    PubMed

    Bowins, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive regulatory control processes play an essential but typically unappreciated role in maintaining mental health. The purpose of the current paper is to identify this role and demonstrate how cognitive-behavioral and related techniques can compensate for impairments. Impaired cognitive regulation contributes to the overly intense emotional states present in anxiety disorders, depression, and personality disorders; progression of adaptive hypomania to mania; expression of psychosis in the conscious and awake state; dominance of immature defense mechanisms in borderline and other personality disorders. A wide variety of standard (monitoring, reappraisal, response inhibition, relaxation training) and more novel (suppression therapy, willful detachment, cost-benefit analysis, normalization, mature defense mechanism training) cognitive-behavioral and related techniques can be applied to compensate for cognitive regulatory control impairments, and their success probably aligns with this capacity.

  13. Comparison of Overlap Methods for Quantitatively Synthesizing Single-Subject Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolery, Mark; Busick, Matthew; Reichow, Brian; Barton, Erin E.

    2010-01-01

    Four overlap methods for quantitatively synthesizing single-subject data were compared to visual analysts' judgments. The overlap methods were percentage of nonoverlapping data, pairwise data overlap squared, percentage of data exceeding the median, and percentage of data exceeding a median trend. Visual analysts made judgments about 160 A-B data…

  14. Mechanisms of signal transduction by ethylene: overlapping and non-overlapping signalling roles in a receptor family

    PubMed Central

    Shakeel, Samina N.; Wang, Xiaomin; Binder, Brad M.; Schaller, G. Eric

    2013-01-01

    The plant hormone ethylene regulates growth and development as well as responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Over the last few decades, key elements involved in ethylene signal transduction have been identified through genetic approaches, these elements defining a pathway that extends from initial ethylene perception at the endoplasmic reticulum to changes in transcriptional regulation within the nucleus. Here, we present our current understanding of ethylene signal transduction, focusing on recent developments that support a model with overlapping and non-overlapping roles for members of the ethylene receptor family. We consider the evidence supporting this model for sub-functionalization within the receptor family, and then discuss mechanisms by which such a sub-functionalization may occur. To this end, we consider the importance of receptor interactions in modulating their signal output and how such interactions vary in the receptor family. In addition, we consider evidence indicating that ethylene signal output by the receptors involves both phosphorylation-dependent and phosphorylation-independent mechanisms. We conclude with a current model for signalling by the ethylene receptors placed within the overall context of ethylene signal transduction. PMID:23543258

  15. The eigSUMR inverter for overlap fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cundy, Nigel; Lee, Weonjong

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the usage and applicability of deflation methods for the overlap lattice Dirac operator, focusing on calculating the eigenvalues using a method similar to the eigCG algorithm used for other Dirac operators. The overlap operator, which contains several theoretical advantages over other formulations of lattice Quantum Chromodynamics, is more computationally expensive because it requires the computation of the matrix sign function. The principal change made compared to deflation methods for other formulations of lattice QCD is that it is necessary for best performance to tune the accuracy of the matrix sign function as the computation proceeds. We present two possible relaxation strategies, one which provides a rigorous bound for the eigenvalues but seems to be too conservative in practice, and a second which is less conservative but, while its stability is not guaranteed, seems to work well in practice. We adapt the original eigCG algorithm for two of the preferred inversion algorithms for overlap fermions, GMRESR(relCG) and GMRESR(relSUMR). Before deflation, the rate of convergence of these routines in terms of iterations is similar, but, since the Shifted Unitary Minimal Residual (SUMR) algorithm only requires one call to the matrix sign function compared to the two calls required for Conjugate Gradient (CG), SUMR is usually preferred for single inversions of the Dirac operator. We construct bounds for the required accuracy of the matrix sign function during the eigenvalue calculation. For the SUMR algorithm, we use a variant of the Galerkin projection to perform the deflation; while for the CG algorithm, we are able to use a considerably superior spectral pre-conditioner. The superior performance of the spectral pre-conditioner, and its need for less accurate eigenvalues, almost erodes SUMR's advantage over CG as an inversion algorithm. We see factor of three gains for the inversion algorithm from the deflation on our small test lattices; we expect

  16. Time-quefrency analysis of overlapping similar microseismic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagano, Koji

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, I describe a new technique to determine the interval between P-waves in similar, overlapping microseismic events. The similar microseismic events that occur with overlapping waveforms are called `proximate microseismic doublets' herein. Proximate microseismic doublets had been discarded in previous studies because we had not noticed their usefulness. Analysis of similar events can show relative locations of sources between them. Analysis of proximate microseismic doublets can provide more precise relative source locations because variation in the velocity structure has little influence on their relative travel times. It is necessary to measure the interval between the P-waves in the proximate microseismic doublets to determine their relative source locations. A `proximate microseismic doublet' is a pair of microseismic events in which the second event arrives before the attenuation of the first event. Cepstrum analysis can provide the interval even though the second event overlaps the first event. However, a cepstrum of a proximate microseismic doublet generally has two peaks, one representing the interval between the arrivals of the two P-waves, and the other representing the interval between the arrivals of the two S-waves. It is therefore difficult to determine the peak that represents the P-wave interval from the cepstrum alone. I used window functions in cepstrum analysis to isolate the first and second P-waves and to suppress the second S-wave. I change the length of the window function and calculate the cepstrum for each window length. The result is represented in a three-dimensional contour plot of length-quefrency-cepstrum data. The contour plot allows me to identify the cepstrum peak that represents the P-wave interval. The precise quefrency can be determined from a two-dimensional quefrency-cepstrum graph, provided that the length of the window is appropriately chosen. I have used both synthetic and field data to demonstrate that this

  17. Reconstructing prokaryotic transcriptional regulatory networks: lessons from actinobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Venancio, Thiago M; Aravind, L

    2009-01-01

    Reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks of uncharacterized bacteria is a main challenge for the post-genomic era. Recent studies, including one in BMC Systems Biology, address this problem in the relatively underexplored actinobacteria clade, which includes major pathogenic and economically relevant taxa. PMID:19435474

  18. Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Analysis for Regulatory Parameters - A Progress Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation is a progress report on the analysis of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids for regulatory compounds outlined in the various US EPA methodologies. Fracturing fluids vary significantly in consistency and viscosity prior to fracturing. Due to the nature of the fluids the analytical challenges will have to be addressed. This presentation also outlines the sampling issues associated with the collection of dissolved gas samples.

  19. Acid rain compliance: The need for regulatory guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, B.D.

    1993-07-01

    This article presents a broad view of the need for regulatory guidance when confronting the problem of acid rain. The two major topics addressed are (1) Why is guidance needed and (2) What kind of guidance is needed. Discussion of rate and accounting treatment of allowances, acid rain compliance planning, and allowance trading and energy efficiency are included.

  20. Optimizing Bandwidth Limited Problems Using One-SidedCommunication and Overlap

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Christian; Bonachea, Dan; Nishtala, Rajesh; Yelick, Katherine

    2005-10-14

    Partitioned Global Address Space languages like Unified Parallel C (UPC) are typically valued for their expressiveness, especially for computations with fine-grained random accesses. In this paper we show that the one-sided communication model used in these languages also has a significant performance advantage for bandwidth-limited applications. We demonstrate this benefit through communication microbenchmarks and a case-study that compares UPC and MPI implementations of the NAS Fourier Transform (FT) benchmark. Our optimizations rely on aggressively overlapping communication with computation but spreading communication events throughout the course of the local computation. This alleviates the potential communication bottleneck that occurs when the communication is packed into a single phase (e.g., the large all-to-all in a multidimensional FFT). Even though the new algorithms require more messages for the same total volume of data, the resulting overlap leads to speedups of over 1.75x and 1.9x for the two-sided and one-sided implementations, respectively, when compared to the default NAS Fortran/MPI release. Our best one-sided implementations show an average improvement of 15 percent over our best two-sided implementations. We attribute this difference to the lower software overhead of one-sided communication, which is partly fundamental to the semantic difference between one-sided and two-sided communication. Our UPC results use the Berkeley UPC compiler with the GASNet communication system, and demonstrate the portability and scalability of that language and implementation, with performance approaching 0.5TFlop/s on the FT benchmark running on 512 processors.

  1. Overlap of autistic and schizotypal traits in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Barneveld, Petra S; Pieterse, Jolijn; de Sonneville, Leo; van Rijn, Sophie; Lahuis, Bertine; van Engeland, Herman; Swaab, Hanna

    2011-03-01

    This study addresses the unraveling of the relationship between autism spectrum and schizophrenia spectrum traits in a population of adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Recent studies comparing isolated symptoms of both spectrum disorders as well as diagnostic criteria for each (DSM-IV-TR) suggest resemblances in the clinical phenotype. A group of 27 adolescents with ASD (11 to 18 years) and 30 typically developing adolescents, matched for age and gender, participated in this study. Within the ASD group 11 adolescents satisfied DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizotypal personality disorders. Autistic and schizotypal traits were identified by means of well validated questionnaires (Autism Questionnaire, AQ and Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Revised, SPQ). Significantly more schizotypal traits in adolescents with ASD were found than in typically developing controls. Besides high levels of negative symptoms, adolescents with ASD also displayed high levels of positive and disorganized symptoms. There appeared to be a relationship between the mean level of autistic symptoms and schizotypal traits, as well as specific associations between autistic symptoms and negative, disorganized and positive schizotypal symptoms within individuals. Schizotypal symptomatology in all sub dimensions that are reflected by the SPQ scores, was most prominently associated with attention switching problems of the autism symptoms from the AQ. These findings indicate that patients diagnosed with an ASD show schizophrenia spectrum traits in adolescence. Although other studies have provided empirical support for this overlap in diagnostic criteria between both spectrum disorders, the present findings add to the literature that behavioral overlap is not limited to negative schizotypal symptoms, but extends to disorganized and positive symptoms as well.

  2. Stability of the spatio-temporal distribution and niche overlap in neotropical earthworm assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Juan-José; Decaëns, Thibaud; Rossi, Jean-Pierre

    2006-11-01

    The spatial distribution of soil invertebrates is aggregated with high-density patches alternating with low-density zones. A high degree of spatio-temporal organization generally exists with identified patches of specific species assemblages, in which species coexist according to assembly rules related to competitive mechanisms for spatial and trophic resources occur. However, these issues have seldom been addressed. The spatio-temporal structure of a native earthworm community in a natural savanna and a grass-legume pasture in the Colombian "Llanos" was studied during a 2-year-period. A spatially explicit sampling design (regular grid) was used to discern the distribution pattern of species assemblages in both systems. Earthworms were collected from small soil pits at three different sampling dates. Data collected from 1 m 2 soil monoliths were also used in the present study. Data were analyzed with the partial triadic analysis (PTA) and correlograms, while niche overlap was computed with the Pianka index. The PTA and correlogram analysis revealed that earthworm communities displayed a similar stable spatial structure in both systems during the 2-year study period. An alternation of population patches where different species' assemblages dominated was common to all sampling dates. The medium-sized Andiodrilus sp. and Glossodrilus sp. exhibited a clear spatial opposition in natural savanna and the grass-legume pasture for the duration of the study. The Pianka index showed a high degree of niche overlapping in several dimensions (vertical distribution, seasonality of population density) between both species. The inclusion of space-time data analysis tools as the PTA and the use of classical ecological indices (Pianka) in soil ecology studies may improve our knowledge of earthworm assemblages' dynamics.

  3. Overlapping Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Relapse to Opioid Use Disorder and Chronic Pain: Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Ghitza, Udi E.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, a steeply growing number of persons with chronic non-cancer pain have been using opioid analgesics chronically to treat it, accompanied by a markedly increased prevalence of individuals with opioid-related misuse, opioid use disorders, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, admissions to drug treatment programs, and drug overdose deaths. This opioid misuse and overdose epidemic calls for well-designed randomized-controlled clinical trials into more skillful and appropriate pain management and for developing effective analgesics that have lower abuse liability and are protective against stress induced by chronic non-cancer pain. However, incomplete knowledge regarding effective approaches to treat various types of pain has been worsened by an under-appreciation of overlapping neurobiological mechanisms of stress, stress-induced relapse to opioid use, and chronic non-cancer pain in patients presenting for care for these conditions. This insufficient knowledge base has unfortunately encouraged common prescription of conveniently available opioid pain-relieving drugs with abuse liability, as opposed to treating underlying problems using team-based multidisciplinary, patient-centered, collaborative-care approaches for addressing pain and co-occurring stress and risk for opioid use disorder. This paper reviews recent neurobiological findings regarding overlapping mechanisms of stress-induced relapse to opioid misuse and chronic non-cancer pain, and then discusses these in the context of key outstanding evidence gaps and clinical-treatment research directions that may be pursued to fill these gaps. Such research directions, if conducted through well-designed randomized-controlled trials, may substantively inform clinical practice in general medical settings on how to effectively care for patients presenting with pain-related distress and these common co-occurring conditions. PMID:27199787

  4. A global response induced in Escherichia coli by redox-cycling agents overlaps with that induced by peroxide stress.

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, J T; Demple, B

    1989-01-01

    Escherichia coli treated with nontoxic levels of the superoxide-generating redox-cycling agents menadione and paraquat showed dramatic changes in protein composition as monitored by two-dimensional gel analysis. The distribution of proteins synthesized after treatment with these agents overlapped significantly with that seen after hydrogen peroxide treatment, and it included all the proteins in the oxyR regulon. The redox-cycling agents also elicited the synthesis of at least 33 other proteins that were not seen with hydrogen peroxide, including three heat shock proteins, the Mn-containing superoxide dismutase, the DNA repair protein endonuclease IV, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. At least some of these redox-inducible proteins appear to be part of a specific response to intracellular superoxide. E. coli is thus equipped with a network of inducible responses against oxidative damage, controlled in multiple regulatory pathways. Images PMID:2472381

  5. A global response induced in Escherichia coli by redox-cycling agents overlaps with that induced by peroxide stress.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J T; Demple, B

    1989-07-01

    Escherichia coli treated with nontoxic levels of the superoxide-generating redox-cycling agents menadione and paraquat showed dramatic changes in protein composition as monitored by two-dimensional gel analysis. The distribution of proteins synthesized after treatment with these agents overlapped significantly with that seen after hydrogen peroxide treatment, and it included all the proteins in the oxyR regulon. The redox-cycling agents also elicited the synthesis of at least 33 other proteins that were not seen with hydrogen peroxide, including three heat shock proteins, the Mn-containing superoxide dismutase, the DNA repair protein endonuclease IV, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. At least some of these redox-inducible proteins appear to be part of a specific response to intracellular superoxide. E. coli is thus equipped with a network of inducible responses against oxidative damage, controlled in multiple regulatory pathways.

  6. 78 FR 52814 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... addresses industry topics that establish the appropriate regulatory and procedural knowledge base necessary...); NASD Notice to Members 01- 51 (August 2001), available at http://www.finra.org/web/groups/industry/@ip... establish the appropriate regulatory and procedural knowledge base relevant to proprietary trading....

  7. Regulatory Guidance for Lightning Protection in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, Roger A; Wilgen, John B; Ewing, Paul D; Korsah, Kofi; Antonescu, Christina E

    2006-01-01

    Abstract - Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was engaged by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) to develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance to address design and implementation practices for lightning protection systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Lightning protection is becoming increasingly important with the advent of digital and low-voltage analog systems in NPPs. These systems have the potential to be more vulnerable than older analog systems to the resulting power surges and electromagnetic interference (EMI) when lightning strikes facilities or power lines. This paper discusses the technical basis for guidance to licensees and applicants covered in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.204, Guidelines for Lightning Protection of Nuclear Power Plants, issued August 2005. RG 1.204 describes guidance for practices that are acceptable to the NRC staff for protecting nuclear power structures and systems from direct lightning strikes and the resulting secondary effects.

  8. Simultaneous Combined Myositis, Inflammatory Polyneuropathy, and Overlap Myasthenic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Magy, Laurent; Corcia, Philippe; Ghorab, Karima; Richard, Laurence; Ciron, Jonathan; Duchesne, Mathilde; Vallat, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Immune-mediated neuromuscular disorders include pathologies of the peripheral nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscles. If overlap syndromes (or the association of almost two autoimmune disorders) are recognized, the simultaneous occurrence of several autoimmune neuromuscular disorders is rare. We describe two patients presenting the simultaneous occurrence of inflammatory neuropathy, myositis, and myasthenia gravis (with positive acetylcholine receptor antibodies). For each patient, we carried out a pathological analysis (nerve and muscle) and an electrophysiological study (and follow-up). To our knowledge, this is the first description of such a triple immune-mediated neuromuscular syndrome. We compared our observations with a few other cases of simultaneous diagnosis of two inflammatory neuromuscular disorders. PMID:28044116

  9. Nonequilibrium evolution of window overlaps in spin glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manssen, Markus; Hartmann, Alexander K.; Young, A. P.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate numerically the time dependence of "window" overlaps in a three-dimensional Ising spin glass below its transition temperature after a rapid quench. Using an efficient GPU implementation, we are able to study large systems up to lateral length L =128 and up to long times of t =108 sweeps. We find that the data scales according to the ratio of the window size W to the nonequilibrium coherence length ξ (t ) . We also show a substantial change in behavior if the system is run for long enough that it globally equilibrates, i.e., ξ (t )≈L /2 , where L is the lattice size. This indicates that the local behavior of a spin glass depends on the spin configurations (and presumably also the bonds) far away. We compare with similar simulations for the Ising ferromagnet. Based on these results, we speculate on a connection between the nonequilibrium dynamics discussed here and averages computed theoretically using the "metastate."

  10. Developmental Profiles of Infant EEG: Overlap with Transient Cortical Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Myers, M.M.; Grieve, P.G.; Izraelit, A.; Fifer, W.P.; Isler, J.R.; Darnall, R.A.; Stark, R.I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To quantify spectral power in frequency specific bands and commonly observed types of bursting activities in the EEG during early human development. Methods An extensive archive of EEG data from human infants from 35 to 52 weeks postmenstrual age obtained in a prior multi-center study was analyzed using power spectrum analyses and a high frequency burst detection algorithm. Results Low frequency power increased with age; however, high frequency power decreased from 35 to 45 weeks. This unexpected decrease was largely attributable to a rapid decline in the number of high frequency bursts. Conclusions The decline in high frequency bursting activity overlaps with a developmental shift in GABA's actions on neurons from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing and the dissolution of the gap junction circuitry of the cortical subplate. PMID:22341979

  11. Contrasting Diversity Values: Statistical Inferences Based on Overlapping Confidence Intervals

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor-Fors, Ian; Payton, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Ecologists often contrast diversity (species richness and abundances) using tests for comparing means or indices. However, many popular software applications do not support performing standard inferential statistics for estimates of species richness and/or density. In this study we simulated the behavior of asymmetric log-normal confidence intervals and determined an interval level that mimics statistical tests with P(α) = 0.05 when confidence intervals from two distributions do not overlap. Our results show that 84% confidence intervals robustly mimic 0.05 statistical tests for asymmetric confidence intervals, as has been demonstrated for symmetric ones in the past. Finally, we provide detailed user-guides for calculating 84% confidence intervals in two of the most robust and highly-used freeware related to diversity measurements for wildlife (i.e., EstimateS, Distance). PMID:23437239

  12. Contrasting diversity values: statistical inferences based on overlapping confidence intervals.

    PubMed

    MacGregor-Fors, Ian; Payton, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    Ecologists often contrast diversity (species richness and abundances) using tests for comparing means or indices. However, many popular software applications do not support performing standard inferential statistics for estimates of species richness and/or density. In this study we simulated the behavior of asymmetric log-normal confidence intervals and determined an interval level that mimics statistical tests with P(α) = 0.05 when confidence intervals from two distributions do not overlap. Our results show that 84% confidence intervals robustly mimic 0.05 statistical tests for asymmetric confidence intervals, as has been demonstrated for symmetric ones in the past. Finally, we provide detailed user-guides for calculating 84% confidence intervals in two of the most robust and highly-used freeware related to diversity measurements for wildlife (i.e., EstimateS, Distance).

  13. A study of pentaquarks on the lattice with overlap fermions

    SciTech Connect

    N. Mathur; F.X. Lee; A. Alexandru; C. Bennhold; Y. Chen; S.J. Dong; T. Draper; I. Horvath; K.F. Liu; S. Tamhankar; J.B. Zhang

    2004-10-01

    We present a quenched lattice QCD calculation of spin-1/2 five-quark states with uudd{bar s} quark content for both positive and negative parities. We do not observe any bound pentaquark state in these channels for either I = 0 or I = 1. The states we found are consistent with KN scattering states which are checked to exhibit the expected volume dependence of the spectral weight. The results are based on overlap-fermion propagators on two lattices, 12{sup 3} x 28 and 16{sup 3} x 28, with the same lattice spacing of 0.2 fm, and pion mass as low as {approx} 180 MeV.

  14. Partial Redundancy and Morphological Homeostasis: Reliable Development through Overlapping Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Micah

    2016-01-01

    How might organisms grow into their desired physical forms in spite of environmental and genetic variation? How do they maintain this form in spite of physical insults? This article presents a case study in simulated morphogenesis, using a physics-based model for embryonic epithelial tissue. The challenges of the underlying physics force the introduction of closed-loop controllers for both spatial patterning and geometric structure. Reliable development is achieved not through elaborate control procedures or exact solutions, but through crude layering of independent, overlapping mechanisms. As a consequence, development and regeneration together become one process, morphological homeostasis, which, owing to its internal feedbacks and partially redundant architecture, is remarkably robust to both knockout damage and environmental variation. The incomplete nature of such redundancy furnishes an evolutionary rationale for its preservation, in spite of individual knockout experiments that may suggest it has little purpose.

  15. Substantial Genetic Overlap between Schizotypy and Neuroticism: A Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Macare, Christine; Bates, Timothy C.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Ettinger, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Schizotypy is phenotypically associated with neuroticism. To reveal the origin of this association, we assessed 3349 (1449 monozygotic (MZ), 1105 dizygotic (DZ) same-sex and 795 DZ opposite-sex) twins on a 12-item version of Chapman’s Psychosis-Proneness Scales and the short-form of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised as measures of schizotypy and neuroticism. A substantial proportion (.51 with 95% CI from .38 to .64) of the phenotypic correlation of .37 between neuroticism and the perceptual and ideational components of schizotypy was accounted for by shared genetic influences on these two traits. Moreover, a Cholesky decomposition including anhedonia, hypomania and impulsivity fully accounted for the heritable variance in perceptual and ideational components of schizotypy. These findings suggest a shared genetic etiology between neuroticism and perceptual and ideational components of schizotypy and affect future investigations on the etiology of these phenotypically overlapping traits and affective and psychotic disorders. PMID:22955548

  16. fjoin: simple and efficient computation of feature overlaps.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Joel E

    2006-10-01

    Sets of biological features with genome coordinates (e.g., genes and promoters) are a particularly common form of data in bioinformatics today. Accordingly, an increasingly important processing step involves comparing coordinates from large sets of features to find overlapping feature pairs. This paper presents fjoin, an efficient, robust, and simple algorithm for finding these pairs, and a downloadable implementation. For typical bioinformatics feature sets, fjoin requires O(n log(n)) time (O(n) if the inputs are sorted) and uses O(1) space. The reference implementation is a stand-alone Python program; it implements the basic algorithm and a number of useful extensions, which are also discussed in this paper.

  17. Photonic crystal fiber sensor array based on modes overlapping.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Sevilla, Guillermo A; Finazzi, Vittoria; Villatoro, Joel; Pruneri, Valerio

    2011-04-11

    An alternative method to build point and sensor array based on photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) is presented. A short length (in the 9-12 mm range) of properly selected index-guiding PCF is fusion spliced between conventional single mode fibers. By selective excitation and overlapping of specific modes in the PCF we make the transmission spectra of the sensors to exhibit a single and narrow notch. The notch position changes with external perturbation which allows sensing diverse parameters. The well-defined single notch, the extinction ratio exceeding 30 dB and the low overall insertion loss allow placing the sensors in series. This makes the implementation of sensor networks possible.

  18. The overlap between anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Guy M.

    2015-01-01

    The anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder. In addition to the specific symptoms of these disorders, there may be a common experience of anxiety and even dysphoria across the conditions, and of course recourse to the same drug or choice of drugs for treatment. This overlap probably occurs because of universal dimensions of distress or negative affectivity, a shared genetic predisposition, and a common neurobiology Evidence of shared genes is still based mainly on twin studies, but the shared neurobiology can be investigated directly by the investigation of emotional or cognitive bias either behaviorally or using functional brain imaging. This intermediate phenotype can then provide a substrate for understanding and developing medicines and psychological treatments. PMID:26487806

  19. Long memory analysis by using maximal overlapping discrete wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafie, Nur Amalina binti; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Isa, Zaidi

    2015-05-01

    Long memory process is the asymptotic decay of the autocorrelation or spectral density around zero. The main objective of this paper is to do a long memory analysis by using the Maximal Overlapping Discrete Wavelet Transform (MODWT) based on wavelet variance. In doing so, stock market of Malaysia, China, Singapore, Japan and United States of America are used. The risk of long term and short term investment are also being looked into. MODWT can be analyzed with time domain and frequency domain simultaneously and decomposing wavelet variance to different scales without loss any information. All countries under studied show that they have long memory. Subprime mortgage crisis in 2007 is occurred in the United States of America are possible affect to the major trading countries. Short term investment is more risky than long term investment.

  20. Neural reality and social convention: do they overlap?

    PubMed

    Mosterín, Jesús

    2013-09-01

    Neural reality is part of nature, independent of our cultural agreements. Social conventions are part of culture and fictions created and sustained by our accords. The classical Greeks had already established a difference between phýsis (nature, reality) and nómos (norm, law). Pain, pleasure, emotion, and compassion belong to the first realm. Rights, duties, guilt, responsibility, and dignity are in the second. Do they overlap anywhere? Perhaps around the emotion of compassion, which is morally relevant but also neurologically real. We briefly consider the relation of compassion to mirror neurons and neuromodulators in the brain. When jumping from neurons to norms, we must beware of the naturalistic fallacy and the moralistic fallacy.

  1. Hysteresis as a Marker for Complex, Overlapping Landscapes in Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Benjamin T.; Capraro, Dominique T.; Sulkowska, Joanna I.; Onuchic, José N.; Jennings, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Topologically complex proteins fold by multiple routes as a result of hard-to-fold regions of the proteins. Oftentimes these regions are introduced into the protein scaffold for function and increase frustration in the otherwise smooth-funneled landscape. Interestingly, while functional regions add complexity to folding landscapes, they may also contribute to a unique behavior referred to as hysteresis. While hysteresis is predicted to be rare, it is observed in various proteins, including proteins containing a unique peptide cyclization to form a fluorescent chromophore as well as proteins containing a knotted topology in their native fold. Here, hysteresis is demonstrated to be a consequence of the decoupling of unfolding events from the isomerization or hula-twist of a chromophore in one protein and the untying of the knot in a second protein system. The question now is- can hysteresis be a marker for the interplay of landscapes where complex folding and functional regions overlap? PMID:23525263

  2. Geometric Quality Assessment of LIDAR Data Based on Swath Overlap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, A.; Heidemann, H. K.; Stensaas, G. L.

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides guidelines on quantifying the relative horizontal and vertical errors observed between conjugate features in the overlapping regions of lidar data. The quantification of these errors is important because their presence quantifies the geometric quality of the data. A data set can be said to have good geometric quality if measurements of identical features, regardless of their position or orientation, yield identical results. Good geometric quality indicates that the data are produced using sensor models that are working as they are mathematically designed, and data acquisition processes are not introducing any unforeseen distortion in the data. High geometric quality also leads to high geolocation accuracy of the data when the data acquisition process includes coupling the sensor with geopositioning systems. Current specifications (e.g. Heidemann 2014) do not provide adequate means to quantitatively measure these errors, even though they are required to be reported. Current accuracy measurement and reporting practices followed in the industry and as recommended by data specification documents also potentially underestimate the inter-swath errors, including the presence of systematic errors in lidar data. Hence they pose a risk to the user in terms of data acceptance (i.e. a higher potential for Type II error indicating risk of accepting potentially unsuitable data). For example, if the overlap area is too small or if the sampled locations are close to the center of overlap, or if the errors are sampled in flat regions when there are residual pitch errors in the data, the resultant Root Mean Square Differences (RMSD) can still be small. To avoid this, the following are suggested to be used as criteria for defining the inter-swath quality of data: a) Median Discrepancy Angle b) Mean and RMSD of Horizontal Errors using DQM measured on sloping surfaces c) RMSD for sampled locations from flat areas (defined as areas with less than 5 degrees of slope

  3. A theory of adhesion at a bimetallic interface - Overlap effects.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, J.; Smith, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary calculation of the chemical bonding adhesive interaction between metal surfaces is provided. In this first theory the Hohenberg and Kohn formalism is used to give the bimetallic adhesive binding energy versus separation. The close-packed planes of Al, Mg, and Zn are considered. The effect of simple overlap of the metal-vacuum distributions is determined. The importance of registry between contact surfaces is ascertained. A minimum in the binding energy curve is exhibited for all combinations. The theoretical predictions agree with trends in bond strengths taken from available experimental data. An insight into the mechanisms involved in metallic transfer is given. The relationship between adhesive energies, cohesive energies, and surface energies is discussed.

  4. Non-overlapping Neural Networks in Hydra vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Dupre, Christophe; Yuste, Rafael

    2017-03-24

    To understand the emergent properties of neural circuits, it would be ideal to record the activity of every neuron in a behaving animal and decode how it relates to behavior. We have achieved this with the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris, using calcium imaging of genetically engineered animals to measure the activity of essentially all of its neurons. Although the nervous system of Hydra is traditionally described as a simple nerve net, we surprisingly find instead a series of functional networks that are anatomically non-overlapping and are associated with specific behaviors. Three major functional networks extend through the entire animal and are activated selectively during longitudinal contractions, elongations in response to light, and radial contractions, whereas an additional network is located near the hypostome and is active during nodding. These results demonstrate the functional sophistication of apparently simple nerve nets, and the potential of Hydra and other basal metazoans as a model system for neural circuit studies.

  5. Excited baryons from Bayesian priors and overlap fermions

    SciTech Connect

    F.X. Lee; S.J. Dong; T. Draper; I. Horvath; K.F. Liu; N. Mathur; J.B. Zhang

    2003-05-01

    Using the constrained-fitting method based on Bayesian priors, we extract the masses of the two lowest states of octet and decouplet baryons with both parities. The calculation is done on quenched 163 x 28 lattices of a = 0.2 fm using an improved gauge action and overlap fermions, with the pion mass as low as 180 MeV. The Roper state N(1440)+ is clearly observed for the first time as the 1st-excited state of the nucleon from the standard interpolating field. Together with other baryons, our preliminary results indicate that the level-ordering of the low-lying baryon states on the lattice is largely consistent with experiment. The realization is helped by cross-overs between the excited + and - states in the region of mp 300 to 400 MeV.

  6. The overlap between anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Guy M

    2015-09-01

    The anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder. In addition to the specific symptoms of these disorders, there may be a common experience of anxiety and even dysphoria across the conditions, and of course recourse to the same drug or choice of drugs for treatment. This overlap probably occurs because of universal dimensions of distress or negative affectivity, a shared genetic predisposition, and a common neurobiology Evidence of shared genes is still based mainly on twin studies, but the shared neurobiology can be investigated directly by the investigation of emotional or cognitive bias either behaviorally or using functional brain imaging. This intermediate phenotype can then provide a substrate for understanding and developing medicines and psychological treatments.

  7. Identifying splicing regulatory elements with de Bruijn graphs.

    PubMed

    Badr, Eman; Heath, Lenwood S

    2014-12-01

    Splicing regulatory elements (SREs) are short, degenerate sequences on pre-mRNA molecules that enhance or inhibit the splicing process via the binding of splicing factors, proteins that regulate the functioning of the spliceosome. Existing methods for identifying SREs in a genome are either experimental or computational. Here, we propose a formalism based on de Bruijn graphs that combines genomic structure, word count enrichment analysis, and experimental evidence to identify SREs found in exons. In our approach, SREs are not restricted to a fixed length (i.e., k-mers, for a fixed k). As a result, we identify 2001 putative exonic enhancers and 3080 putative exonic silencers for human genes, with lengths varying from 6 to 15 nucleotides. Many of the predicted SREs overlap with experimentally verified binding sites. Our model provides a novel method to predict variable length putative regulatory elements computationally for further experimental investigation.

  8. 75 FR 61531 - Issuance of Regulatory Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... E. Norris, Component Integrity Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Issuance of Regulatory Guide AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  9. Detecting overlapping instances in microscopy images using extremal region trees.

    PubMed

    Arteta, Carlos; Lempitsky, Victor; Noble, J Alison; Zisserman, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In many microscopy applications the images may contain both regions of low and high cell densities corresponding to different tissues or colonies at different stages of growth. This poses a challenge to most previously developed automated cell detection and counting methods, which are designed to handle either the low-density scenario (through cell detection) or the high-density scenario (through density estimation or texture analysis). The objective of this work is to detect all the instances of an object of interest in microscopy images. The instances may be partially overlapping and clustered. To this end we introduce a tree-structured discrete graphical model that is used to select and label a set of non-overlapping regions in the image by a global optimization of a classification score. Each region is labeled with the number of instances it contains - for example regions can be selected that contain two or three object instances, by defining separate classes for tuples of objects in the detection process. We show that this formulation can be learned within the structured output SVM framework and that the inference in such a model can be accomplished using dynamic programming on a tree structured region graph. Furthermore, the learning only requires weak annotations - a dot on each instance. The candidate regions for the selection are obtained as extremal region of a surface computed from the microscopy image, and we show that the performance of the model can be improved by considering a proxy problem for learning the surface that allows better selection of the extremal regions. Furthermore, we consider a number of variations for the loss function used in the structured output learning. The model is applied and evaluated over six quite disparate data sets of images covering: fluorescence microscopy, weak-fluorescence molecular images, phase contrast microscopy and histopathology images, and is shown to exceed the state of the art in performance.

  10. Diet overlap among flatfish species in the southern North Sea.

    PubMed

    Schückel, S; Sell, A F; Kröncke, I; Reiss, H

    2012-06-01

    The diets of two non-commercial flatfish species (solenette Buglossidium luteum and scaldfish Arnoglossus laterna) and two commercial flatfish species (dab Limanda limanda and plaice Pleuronectes platessa) were compared in a study area in the German Bight (southern North Sea) to investigate prey-resource partitioning between these species. The diets of A. laterna and B. luteum mainly comprised crustaceans (harpacticoids, amphipods, cumaceans and decapods), whereas the diet of L. limanda and P. platessa consisted mainly of polychaetes. The Schoener index, calculated for different fish size classes between these flatfish species, showed a biologically significant diet overlap between small-sized L. limanda and P. platessa and B. luteum and A. laterna, using similar prey resources of smaller prey (e.g. amphipods, harpacticoids and juvenile bivalves). In contrast, with increasing body size, a change in the diet of L. limanda and P. platessa towards larger prey occurred (e.g. polychaetes and decapods), resulting in low diet overlap values with B. luteum and A. laterna. Due to these size-related differences in resource use, it is assumed that there is reduced interspecific competition for prey between larger L. limanda and P. platessa and both non-commercial flatfishes, probably facilitating resource partitioning within the same area. In contrast, smaller L. limanda and P. platessa may compete directly for the same prey resources with B. luteum and A. laterna. Furthermore, prey availability of most important prey items of the studied flatfishes was relatively low in the study area. Therefore, increasing abundances of B. luteum and A. laterna in the southern North Sea since the late 1980s, owing to fishing effects and climate change, might affect the population dynamics of L. limanda and P. platessa.

  11. FAB overlapping: a strategy for sequencing homologous proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferranti, P.; Malorni, A.; Marino, G.; Pucci, P.; di Luccia, A.; Ferrara, L.

    1991-12-01

    Extensive similarity has been shown to exist between the primary structures of closely related proteins from different species, the only differences being restricted to a few amino acid variations. A new mass spectrometric procedure, which has been called FAB-overlapping, has been developed for sequencing highly homologous proteins based on the detection of these small differences as compared with a known protein used as a reference. Several complementary peptide maps are constructed using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) analysis of different proteolytic digests of the unknown protein and the mass values are related to those expected on the basis of the sequence of the reference protein. The mass signals exhibiting unusual mass values identify those regions where variations have taken place; fine location of the mutations can be obtained by coupling simple protein chemistry methodologies with FAB-MS. Using the FAB-overlapping procedure, it was possible to determine the sequence of [alpha]1, [alpha]3 and [beta] globins from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis hemoglobins (phenotype AA). Two amino acid substitutions were detected in the buffalo [beta] chain (Lys16 --> His and Asn118 --> His) whereas the [alpha]1 chains were found the [alpha]1 and [alpha]3 chains were found to contain four amino acid replacements, three of which were identical (Glu23 --> Asp, Glu71 --> Gly, Phe117 --> Cys), and the insertion of an alanine residue in position 124. The only differences between [alpha]1 and [alpha]3 globins were identified in the C -terminal region; [alpha]1 contains a Phe residue at position 130 whereas [alpha]3 shows serine at position 132.

  12. Superharmonic imaging with chirp coded excitation: filtering spectrally overlapped harmonics.

    PubMed

    Harput, Sevan; McLaughlan, James; Cowell, David M J; Freear, Steven

    2014-11-01

    Superharmonic imaging improves the spatial resolution by using the higher order harmonics generated in tissue. The superharmonic component is formed by combining the third, fourth, and fifth harmonics, which have low energy content and therefore poor SNR. This study uses coded excitation to increase the excitation energy. The SNR improvement is achieved on the receiver side by performing pulse compression with harmonic matched filters. The use of coded signals also introduces new filtering capabilities that are not possible with pulsed excitation. This is especially important when using wideband signals. For narrowband signals, the spectral boundaries of the harmonics are clearly separated and thus easy to filter; however, the available imaging bandwidth is underused. Wideband excitation is preferable for harmonic imaging applications to preserve axial resolution, but it generates spectrally overlapping harmonics that are not possible to filter in time and frequency domains. After pulse compression, this overlap increases the range side lobes, which appear as imaging artifacts and reduce the Bmode image quality. In this study, the isolation of higher order harmonics was achieved in another domain by using the fan chirp transform (FChT). To show the effect of excitation bandwidth in superharmonic imaging, measurements were performed by using linear frequency modulated chirp excitation with varying bandwidths of 10% to 50%. Superharmonic imaging was performed on a wire phantom using a wideband chirp excitation. Results were presented with and without applying the FChT filtering technique by comparing the spatial resolution and side lobe levels. Wideband excitation signals achieved a better resolution as expected, however range side lobes as high as -23 dB were observed for the superharmonic component of chirp excitation with 50% fractional bandwidth. The proposed filtering technique achieved >50 dB range side lobe suppression and improved the image quality without

  13. [Syndrome of overlap: Chronic hepatitis C/autoimmune hepatitis: fact or fancy?].

    PubMed

    Antonaci, Salvatore; Giannelli, Gianluigi; Simone, Barbara; Vella, Francesco Saverio

    2005-01-01

    Non-organ specific autoantibodies are common in patients with chronic hepatitis C, making differential diagnosis difficult between viral, autoimmune forms and hepatitis C/autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome. The lack of additional criteria of autoimmunity in most patients leads to the definition of a "false" hepatitis C-autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome, while the "true" overlap syndrome occurs in a very few number of subjects. In patients with "false" overlap syndrome the first choice therapy is based on the administration of interferon plus ribavirin. On the contrary, first-line therapy with corticosteroids should be restricted to the "true" hepatitis overlap syndrome with the new therapeutic option of interferon/corticosteroid association.

  14. CD161(+) Tconv and CD161(+) Treg Share a Transcriptional and Functional Phenotype despite Limited Overlap in TCRβ Repertoire.

    PubMed

    Duurland, Chantal L; Brown, Chrysothemis C; O'Shaughnessy, Ryan F L; Wedderburn, Lucy R

    2017-01-01

    Human regulatory T cells (Treg) are important in immune regulation, but can also show plasticity in specific settings. CD161 is a lectin-like receptor and its expression identifies an effector-like Treg population. Here, we determined how CD161(+) Treg relate to CD161(+) conventional T cells (Tconv). Transcriptional profiling identified a shared transcriptional signature between CD161(+) Tconv and CD161(+) Treg, which is associated with T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells, and tissue homing, including high expression of gut-homing receptors. Upon retinoic acid (RA) exposure, CD161(+) T cells were more enriched for CCR9(+) and integrin α4(+)β7(+) cells than CD161(-) T cells. In addition, CD161(+) Tconv and CD161(+) Treg were enriched at the inflamed site in autoimmune arthritis, and both CD161(+) and CD161(-) Treg from the inflamed site were suppressive in vitro. CD161(+) T cells from the site of autoimmune arthritis showed a diminished gut-homing phenotype and blunted response to RA suggesting prior imprinting by RA in the gut or at peripheral sites rather than during synovial inflammation. TCRβ repertoires of CD161(+) and CD161(-) Tconv and Treg from blood showed limited overlap whereas there was clear overlap between CD161(+) and CD161(-) Tconv, and CD161(+) and CD161(-) Treg from the inflamed site suggesting that the inflamed environment may alter CD161 levels, potentially contributing to disease pathogenesis.

  15. CD161+ Tconv and CD161+ Treg Share a Transcriptional and Functional Phenotype despite Limited Overlap in TCRβ Repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Duurland, Chantal L.; Brown, Chrysothemis C.; O’Shaughnessy, Ryan F. L.; Wedderburn, Lucy R.

    2017-01-01

    Human regulatory T cells (Treg) are important in immune regulation, but can also show plasticity in specific settings. CD161 is a lectin-like receptor and its expression identifies an effector-like Treg population. Here, we determined how CD161+ Treg relate to CD161+ conventional T cells (Tconv). Transcriptional profiling identified a shared transcriptional signature between CD161+ Tconv and CD161+ Treg, which is associated with T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells, and tissue homing, including high expression of gut-homing receptors. Upon retinoic acid (RA) exposure, CD161+ T cells were more enriched for CCR9+ and integrin α4+β7+ cells than CD161− T cells. In addition, CD161+ Tconv and CD161+ Treg were enriched at the inflamed site in autoimmune arthritis, and both CD161+ and CD161− Treg from the inflamed site were suppressive in vitro. CD161+ T cells from the site of autoimmune arthritis showed a diminished gut-homing phenotype and blunted response to RA suggesting prior imprinting by RA in the gut or at peripheral sites rather than during synovial inflammation. TCRβ repertoires of CD161+ and CD161− Tconv and Treg from blood showed limited overlap whereas there was clear overlap between CD161+ and CD161− Tconv, and CD161+ and CD161− Treg from the inflamed site suggesting that the inflamed environment may alter CD161 levels, potentially contributing to disease pathogenesis. PMID:28321213

  16. Sense overlapping transcripts in IS1341-type transposase genes are functional non-coding RNAs in archaea

    PubMed Central

    Gomes-Filho, José Vicente; Zaramela, Livia Soares; Italiani, Valéria Cristina da Silva; Baliga, Nitin S; Vêncio, Ricardo Z N; Koide, Tie

    2015-01-01

    The existence of sense overlapping transcripts that share regulatory and coding information in the same genomic sequence shows an additional level of prokaryotic gene expression complexity. Here we report the discovery of ncRNAs associated with IS1341-type transposase (tnpB) genes, at the 3'-end of such elements, with examples in archaea and bacteria. Focusing on the model haloarchaeon Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1, we show the existence of sense overlapping transcripts (sotRNAs) for all its IS1341-type transposases. Publicly available transcriptome compendium show condition-dependent differential regulation between sotRNAs and their cognate genes. These sotRNAs allowed us to find a UUCA tetraloop motif that is present in other archaea (ncRNA family HgcC) and in a H. salinarum intergenic ncRNA derived from a palindrome associated transposable elements (PATE). Overexpression of one sotRNA and the PATE-derived RNA harboring the tetraloop motif improved H. salinarum growth, indicating that these ncRNAs are functional. PMID:25806405

  17. Developmental roles of 21 Drosophila transcription factors are determined by quantitative differences in binding to an overlapping set of thousands of genomic regions

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, Stewart; Li, Xiao-Yong; Li, Jingyi; Brown, James B.; Chu, Hou Cheng; Zeng, Lucy; Grondona, Brandi P.; Hechmer, Aaron; Simirenko, Lisa; Keranen, Soile V.E.; Knowles, David W.; Stapleton, Mark; Bickel, Peter; Biggin, Mark D.; Eisen, Michael B.

    2009-05-15

    BACKGROUND: We previously established that six sequence-specific transcription factors that initiate anterior/posterior patterning in Drosophila bind to overlapping sets of thousands of genomic regions in blastoderm embryos. While regions bound at high levels include known and probable functional targets, more poorly bound regions are preferentially associated with housekeeping genes and/or genes not transcribed in the blastoderm, and are frequently found in protein coding sequences or in less conserved non-coding DNA, suggesting that many are likely non-functional. RESULTS: Here we show that an additional 15 transcription factors that regulate other aspects of embryo patterning show a similar quantitative continuum of function and binding to thousands of genomic regions in vivo. Collectively, the 21 regulators show a surprisingly high overlap in the regions they bind given that they belong to 11 DNA binding domain families, specify distinct developmental fates, and can act via different cis-regulatory modules. We demonstrate, however, that quantitative differences in relative levels of binding to shared targets correlate with the known biological and transcriptional regulatory specificities of these factors. CONCLUSIONS: It is likely that the overlap in binding of biochemically and functionally unrelated transcription factors arises from the high concentrations of these proteins in nuclei, which, coupled with their broad DNA binding specificities, directs them to regions of open chromatin. We suggest that most animal transcription factors will be found to show a similar broad overlapping pattern of binding in vivo, with specificity achieved by modulating the amount, rather than the identity, of bound factor.

  18. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function

    PubMed Central

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the “Hash_64” field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  19. Advances in studies of cloud overlap and its radiative transfer in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua; Jing, Xianwen

    2016-04-01

    The latest advances in studies on the treatment of cloud overlap and its radiative transfer in global climate models are summarized. Developments with respect to this internationally challenging problem are described from aspects such as the design of cloud overlap assumptions, the realization of cloud overlap assumptions within climate models, and the data and methods used to obtain consistent observations of cloud overlap structure and radiative transfer in overlapping clouds. To date, there has been an appreciable level of achievement in studies on cloud overlap in climate models, demonstrated by the development of scientific assumptions (e.g., e-folding overlap) to describe cloud overlap, the invention and broad application of the fast radiative transfer method for overlapped clouds (Monte Carlo Independent Column Approximation), and the emergence of continuous 3D cloud satellite observation (e.g., CloudSat/CALIPSO) and cloud-resolving models, which provide numerous data valuable for the exact description of cloud overlap structure in climate models. However, present treatments of cloud overlap and its radiative transfer process are far from complete, and there remain many unsettled problems that need to be explored in the future.

  20. Taking Steps To Address the Digital Divide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Following hearings concerning inadequate telephone access on American Indian lands, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) committed to promoting a government-to-government relationship with federally recognized tribes and consulting with them prior to implementing regulatory actions, and created financial assistance programs for telephone…

  1. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  2. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  3. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  4. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  5. 49 CFR 1102.1 - How addressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How addressed. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMMUNICATIONS § 1102.1 How addressed. All communications...

  6. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  7. 49 CFR 369.6 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS REPORTS OF MOTOR CARRIERS § 369.6 Address. The following address must be used by motor carriers when submitting a report, requesting an exemption from filing...

  8. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2... 20580, unless otherwise specifically directed. The Commission's Web site address is www.ftc.gov....

  9. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  10. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  11. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  12. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  13. History Forum Addresses Creation/Evolution Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinsberg, John

    1997-01-01

    A series of programs entitled Creationism and Evolution: The History of a Controversy was presented at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The controversy was addressed from an historical and sociological, rather than a scientific perspective. Speakers addressed the evolution of scientific creationism, ancient texts versus sedimentary rocks…

  14. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... litigation; (2) The account is assigned to the United States; or (3) The account is written off under §...

  15. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... litigation; (2) The account is assigned to the United States; or (3) The account is written off under §...

  16. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding…

  17. Image compression using address-vector quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu

    1990-12-01

    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  18. Evolving New Skeletal Traits by cis-Regulatory Changes in Bone Morphogenetic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Indjeian, Vahan B.; Kingman, Garrett A.; Jones, Felicity C.; Guenther, Catherine A.; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Myers, Richard M.; Kingsley, David M.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Changes in bone size and shape are defining features of many vertebrates. Here we use genetic crosses and comparative genomics to identify specific regulatory DNA alterations controlling skeletal evolution. Armor bone size differences in sticklebacks maps to a major effect locus overlapping BMP family member GDF6. Freshwater fish express more GDF6 due in part to a transposon insertion, and transgenic overexpression of GDF6 phenocopies evolutionary changes in armor plate size. The human GDF6 locus also has undergone distinctive regulatory evolution, including complete loss of an enhancer that is otherwise highly conserved between chimps and other mammals. Functional tests show that the ancestral enhancer drives expression in hindlimbs but not forelimbs, in locations that have been specifically modified during the human transition to bipedalism. Both gain and loss of regulatory elements can localize BMP changes to specific anatomical locations, providing a flexible regulatory basis for evolving species-specific changes in skeletal form. PMID:26774823

  19. Automated measurement of printer effective addressability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Brian E.; Eid, Ahmed H.; Rippetoe, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    When evaluating printer resolution, addressability is a key consideration. Addressability defines the maximum number of spots or samples within a given distance, independent of the size of the spots when printed. Effective addressability is the addressability demonstrated by the final, printed output. It is the minimum displacement possible between the centers of printed objects. In this paper, we present a measurement procedure for effective addressability that offers an automated way to experimentally determine the addressability of the printed output. It requires printing, scanning, and measuring a test target. The effective addressability test target contains two types of elements, repeated to fill the page: fiducial lines and line segments. The fiducial lines serve as a relative reference for the incremental displacements of the individual line segments, providing a way to tolerate larger-scale physical distortions in the printer. An ordinary reflection scanner captures the printed test target. By rotating the page on the scanner, it is possible to measure effective addressability well beyond the scanner's sampling resolution. The measurement algorithm computes the distribution of incremental displacements, forming either a unimodal or bimodal histogram. In the latter case, the mean of the second (non-zero) peak indicates the effective addressability. In the former case, the printer successfully rendered the target's resolution, requiring another iteration of the procedure after increasing the resolution of the test target. The algorithm automatically estimates whether the histogram is unimodal or bimodal and computes parameters describing the quality of the measured histogram. Several experiments have refined the test target and measurement procedure, including two round-robin evaluations by the ISO WG4 committee. Results include an analysis of approximately 150 printed samples. The effective addressability attribute and measurement procedure are included in

  20. Meeting Regulatory Needs.

    PubMed

    Weber, Michael Fred

    2017-02-01

    The world is experiencing change at an unprecedented pace, as reflected in social, cultural, economic, political, and technological advances around the globe. Regulatory agencies, like the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), must also transform in response to and in preparation for these changes. In 2014, the NRC staff commenced Project Aim 2020 to transform the agency by enhancing efficiency, agility, and responsiveness, while accomplishing NRC's safety and security mission. Following Commission review and approval in 2015, the NRC began implementing the approved strategies, including strategic workforce planning to provide confidence that NRC will have employees with the right skills and talents at the right time to accomplish the agency's mission. Based on the work conducted so far, ensuring an adequate pipeline of radiation protection professionals is a significant need that NRC shares with states and other government agencies, private industry, academia, as well as international counterparts. NRC is working to ensure that sufficient radiation protection professionals will be available to fulfill its safety and security mission and leverage the work of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, the Health Physics Society, the Organization of Agreement States, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Nuclear Energy Agency, and others.

  1. Clinical research: regulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Wermeling, D P

    1999-02-01

    The regulatory issues faced by institutions performing clinical research are described. Many institutions do not have on staff an expert who understands the regulatory issues involved in managing investigational new drug research and who knows the institution's obligations under the federal rules. Because pharmacists understand the FDA regulations that apply to the management of drugs in clinical research, institutions are asking pharmacists to expand their role and manage clinical research offices. Many authorities govern various aspects of investigational drug research. FDA has published regulations for good clinical practice (GCP), and the International Conference on Harmonisation is developing an international standard for the proper management of clinical trials. The guidelines published by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations aim to protect patients who are in the institution to receive health care and also participate in clinical trials. The Social Security Administration Acts specifically state that only items and services that are reasonable and necessary for the diagnosis and treatment of injury or disease can be billed to the government; research-related billings are excluded from coverage. Proper management of drug research is crucial to the success of a research program that is integrated with patient care.

  2. Regulatory considerations for biosimilars.

    PubMed

    Nellore, Ranjani

    2010-01-01

    Currently there is considerable interest in the legislative debate around generic biological drugs or "biosimilars" in the EU and US due to the large, lucrative market that it offers to the industry. While some countries have issued a few regulatory guidelines as well as product specific requirements, there is no general consensus as to a single, simple mechanism similar to the bioequivalence determination that leads to approval of generic small molecules all over the world. The inherent complex nature of the molecules, along with complicated manufacturing and analytical techniques to characterize them make it difficult to rely on a single human pharmacokinetic study for assurance of safety and efficacy. In general, the concept of comparability has been used for evaluation of the currently approved "similar" biological where a step by step assessment on the quality, preclinical and clinical aspects is made. In India, the focus is primarily on the availability and affordability of life-saving drugs. In this context every product needs to be evaluated on its own merit irrespective of the innovator brand. The formation of the National Biotechnology Regulatory Authority may provide a step in the right direction for regulation of these complex molecules. However, in order to have an efficient machinery for initial approval and ongoing oversight with a country-specific focus, cooperation with international authorities for granting approvals and continuous risk-benefit review is essential. Several steps are still needed for India to be perceived as a country that leads the world in providing quality biological products.

  3. Differential regulation of the overlapping Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus vGCR (orf74) and LANA (orf73) promoters.

    PubMed

    Jeong, J; Papin, J; Dittmer, D

    2001-02-01

    Similar to that of other herpesviruses, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8) lytic replication destroys the host cell, while the virus can persist in a latent state in synchrony with the host. During latency only a few genes are transcribed, and the question becomes one of what determines latent versus lytic gene expression. Here we undertake a detailed analysis of the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA [orf73]) promoter (LANAp). We characterized a minimal region that is necessary and sufficient to maintain high-level transcription in all tissues tested, including primary endothelial cells and B cells, which are the suspected natural host for KSHV. We show that in transient-transfection assays LANAp mimics the expression pattern observed for the authentic promoter in the context of the KSHV episome. Unlike other KSHV promoters tested thus far, LANAp is not affected by tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate or viral lytic cycle functions. It is, however, subject to control by LANA itself and cellular regulatory factors, such as p53. This is in contrast to the K14/vGCR (orf74) promoter, which overlaps LANAp and directs transcription on the opposite strand. We isolated a minimal cis-regulatory region sufficient for K14/vGCR promoter activity and show that it, too, mimics the regulation observed for the authentic viral promoter. In particular, we demonstrate that its activity is absolutely dependent on the immediate-early transactivator orf50, the KSHV homolog of the Epstein-Barr virus Rta transactivator.

  4. Analytical and numerical solutions to the amplifier with incoherent pulse temporal overlap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Zhang, X. M.; Wang, Z. G.; Cui, X. D.; Yan, X. W.; Jiang, X. Y.; Zheng, J. G.; Wang, W.; Li, Mingzhong

    2017-01-01

    Serious pulse temporal overlap in amplifiers would result in the decrease of energy extraction efficiency and the increase of pulse-shape distortion (PSD). Precisely predicting pulse temporal overlap is of significance to an effective amplifier design. In this work, the analytical expressions with complete pulse overlap are derived and a numerical method is proposed to solve the case with partial temporal overlap for a double-pass Nd:YAG amplifier. Our studies, in which pulse temporal overlap is taken into account, can precisely predict the output energy and temporal shape, compared to the results from Hirano and other experiments. In addition, our numerical routes could provide the applicable range of analytical solutions to conventional Frantz-Nodvik equations in the case of pulse overlap, further extending the applicability and reducing computational costs. For given conditions, energy reduction and PSD are mainly determined by the overlap degree. For step-shaped pulse, we demonstrate that avoiding overlap in the peak pulse and allowing overlap in the foot pulse have small impacts on the energy extraction and PSD, which extends the range of duration of the pulse for a designed amplifier. Our investigations might provide an efficient way to carefully design a pulsed amplifier with controllable temporal overlap.

  5. Framing of information on the use of public finances, regulatory fit of recipients and tax compliance.

    PubMed

    Holler, Marianne; Hoelzl, Erik; Kirchler, Erich; Leder, Susanne; Mannetti, Lucia

    2008-08-01

    Information campaigns to increase tax compliance could be framed in different ways. They can either highlight the potential gains when tax compliance is high, or the potential losses when compliance is low. According to regulatory focus theory, such framing should be most effective when it is congruent with the promotion or prevention focus of its recipients. Two studies confirmed the hypothesized interaction effects between recipients' regulatory focus and framing of information campaigns, with tax compliance being highest under conditions of regulatory fit. To address taxpayers effectively, information campaigns by tax authorities should consider the positive and negative framing of information, and the moderating effect of recipients' regulatory focus.

  6. Framing of information on the use of public finances, regulatory fit of recipients and tax compliance

    PubMed Central

    Holler, Marianne; Hoelzl, Erik; Kirchler, Erich; Leder, Susanne; Mannetti, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    Information campaigns to increase tax compliance could be framed in different ways. They can either highlight the potential gains when tax compliance is high, or the potential losses when compliance is low. According to regulatory focus theory, such framing should be most effective when it is congruent with the promotion or prevention focus of its recipients. Two studies confirmed the hypothesized interaction effects between recipients' regulatory focus and framing of information campaigns, with tax compliance being highest under conditions of regulatory fit. To address taxpayers effectively, information campaigns by tax authorities should consider the positive and negative framing of information, and the moderating effect of recipients' regulatory focus. PMID:20495689

  7. CPEO and carnitine deficiency overlapping in MELAS syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hsu, C C; Chuang, Y H; Tsai, J L; Jong, H J; Shen, Y Y; Huang, H L; Chen, H L; Lee, H C; Pang, C Y; Wei, Y H

    1995-09-01

    Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is one of the mitochondrial encephalomyopathies that has distinct clinical features including stroke-like episodes with migraine-like headache, nausea, vomiting, encephalopathy and lactic acidosis. We report a 27-year-old woman who presented with partial seizure, stroke-like episodes including hemiparesis, hemianopia and hemihypethesia, sensorineural hearing loss, migraine-like headache, and lactic acidosis. Brain computed tomographic scan showed encephalomalacia in the right parieto-occipital area and recent hypodensity in the left temporoparieto-occipital area with cortical atrophy. Muscle biopsy revealed ragged-red fibers and paracrystaline inclusions in the mitochondria. Genetic study revealed an A to G point mutation at nucleotide position (np) 3243 of mitochondrial DNA. External ophthalmoplegia and ptosis were also found during two exaggerated episodes in this patient. Therefore, the overlapping syndrome of chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia in the MELAS syndrome is considered in this case. Furthermore, we also found carnitine deficiency in this patient and she was responsive well to steroid therapy. Muscle biopsy also revealed excessive lipid droplets deposits. Therefore, the carnitine deficiency may occur in MELAS syndrome with the A to G point mutation at np 3243. We recommend the steroid or carnitine supplement therapy be applied to the MELAS syndrome with carnitine deficiency.

  8. Global malnutrition overlaps with pollinator-dependent micronutrient production

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Dombeck, Emily; Gerber, James; Knuth, Katherine A.; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Mueller, Megan; Ziv, Guy; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2014-01-01

    Pollinators contribute around 10% of the economic value of crop production globally, but the contribution of these pollinators to human nutrition is potentially much higher. Crops vary in the degree to which they benefit from pollinators, and many of the most pollinator-dependent crops are also among the richest in micronutrients essential to human health. This study examines regional differences in the pollinator dependence of crop micronutrient content and reveals overlaps between this dependency and the severity of micronutrient deficiency in people around the world. As much as 50% of the production of plant-derived sources of vitamin A requires pollination throughout much of Southeast Asia, whereas other essential micronutrients such as iron and folate have lower dependencies, scattered throughout Africa, Asia and Central America. Micronutrient deficiencies are three times as likely to occur in areas of highest pollination dependence for vitamin A and iron, suggesting that disruptions in pollination could have serious implications for the accessibility of micronutrients for public health. These regions of high nutritional vulnerability are understudied in the pollination literature, and should be priority areas for research related to ecosystem services and human well-being. PMID:25232140

  9. Pitch perception of concurrent harmonic tones with overlapping spectra.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Baer, Thomas; Glasberg, Brian R; Stone, Michael A; Ye, Datian; Moore, Brian C J

    2012-07-01

    Fundamental frequency difference limens (F0DLs) were measured for a target harmonic complex tone with nominal fundamental frequency (F0) of 200 Hz, in the presence and absence of a harmonic masker with overlapping spectrum. The F0 of the masker was 0, ± 3, or ± 6 semitones relative to 200 Hz. The stimuli were bandpass filtered into three regions: 0-1000 Hz (low, L), 1600-2400 Hz (medium, M), and 2800-3600 Hz (high, H), and a background noise was used to mask combination tones and to limit the audibility of components falling on the filter skirts. The components of the target or masker started either in cosine or random phase. Generally, the effect of F0 difference between target and masker was small. For the target alone, F0DLs were larger for random than cosine phase for region H. For the target plus masker, F0DLs were larger when the target had random phase than cosine phase for regions M and H. F0DLs increased with increasing center frequency of the bandpass filter. Modeling using excitation patterns and "summary autocorrelation" and "stabilized auditory image" models suggested that use of temporal fine structure information can account for the small F0DLs obtained when harmonics are barely, if at all, resolved.

  10. Overlapping representations for grip type and reach direction.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Sara; Strnad, Lukas; Caramazza, Alfonso; Lingnau, Angelika

    2014-07-01

    To grasp an object, we need to move the arm toward it and assume the appropriate hand configuration. While previous studies suggested dorsomedial and dorsolateral pathways in the brain specialized respectively for the transport and grip components, more recent studies cast doubt on such a clear-cut distinction. It is unclear, however, to which degree neuronal populations selective for the two components overlap, and if so, to which degree they interact. Here, we used multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to investigate the representation of three center-out movements (touch, pincer grip, whole-hand grip) performed in five reach directions. We found selectivity exclusively for reach direction in posterior and rostral superior parietal lobes (SPLp, SPLr), supplementary motor area (SMA), and the superior portion of dorsal premotor cortex (PMDs). Instead, we found selectivity for both grip type and reach direction in the inferior portion of dorsal premotor cortex (PMDi), ventral premotor cortex (PMv), anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), primary motor (M1), somatosensory (S1) cortices and the anterior superior parietal lobe (SPLa). Within these regions, PMv, M1, aIPS and SPLa showed weak interactions between the transport and grip components. Our results suggest that human PMDi and S1 contain both grip- and reach-direction selective neuronal populations that retain their functional independence, whereas this information might be combined at the level of PMv, M1, aIPS, and SPLa.

  11. Global malnutrition overlaps with pollinator-dependent micronutrient production.

    PubMed

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Dombeck, Emily; Gerber, James; Knuth, Katherine A; Mueller, Nathaniel D; Mueller, Megan; Ziv, Guy; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2014-11-07

    Pollinators contribute around 10% of the economic value of crop production globally, but the contribution of these pollinators to human nutrition is potentially much higher. Crops vary in the degree to which they benefit from pollinators, and many of the most pollinator-dependent crops are also among the richest in micronutrients essential to human health. This study examines regional differences in the pollinator dependence of crop micronutrient content and reveals overlaps between this dependency and the severity of micronutrient deficiency in people around the world. As much as 50% of the production of plant-derived sources of vitamin A requires pollination throughout much of Southeast Asia, whereas other essential micronutrients such as iron and folate have lower dependencies, scattered throughout Africa, Asia and Central America. Micronutrient deficiencies are three times as likely to occur in areas of highest pollination dependence for vitamin A and iron, suggesting that disruptions in pollination could have serious implications for the accessibility of micronutrients for public health. These regions of high nutritional vulnerability are understudied in the pollination literature, and should be priority areas for research related to ecosystem services and human well-being.

  12. Nonperturbative Renormalization of Composite Operators with Overlap Fermions

    SciTech Connect

    J.B. Zhang; N. Mathur; S.J. Dong; T. Draper; I. Horvath; F. X. Lee; D.B. Leinweber; K.F. Liu; A.G. Williams

    2005-12-01

    We compute non-perturbatively the renormalization constants of composite operators on a quenched 16{sup 3} x 28 lattice with lattice spacing a = 0.20 fm for the overlap fermion by using the regularization independent (RI) scheme. The quenched gauge configurations were generated with the Iwasaki action. We test the relations Z{sub A} = Z{sub V} and Z{sub S} = Z{sub P} and find that they agree well (less than 1%) above {mu} = 1.6 GeV. We also perform a Renormalization Group (RG) analysis at the next-to-next-to-leading order and match the renormalization constants to the {ovr MS} scheme. The wave-function renormalization Z{sub {psi}} is determined from the vertex function of the axial current and Z{sub A} from the chiral Ward identity. Finally, we examine the finite quark mass behavior for the renormalization factors of the quark bilinear operators. We find that the (pa){sup 2} errors of the vertex functions are small and the quark mass dependence of the renormalization factors to be quite weak.

  13. CRISPR Detection From Short Reads Using Partial Overlap Graphs.

    PubMed

    Ben-Bassat, Ilan; Chor, Benny

    2016-06-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are structured regions in bacterial and archaeal genomes, which are part of an adaptive immune system against phages. CRISPRs are important for many microbial studies and are playing an essential role in current gene editing techniques. As such, they attract substantial research interest. The exponential growth in the amount of bacterial sequence data in recent years enables the exploration of CRISPR loci in more and more species. Most of the automated tools that detect CRISPR loci rely on fully assembled genomes. However, many assemblers do not handle repetitive regions successfully. The first tool to work directly on raw sequence data is Crass, which requires reads that are long enough to contain two copies of the same repeat. We present a method to identify CRISPR repeats from raw sequence data of short reads. The algorithm is based on an observation differentiating CRISPR repeats from other types of repeats, and it involves a series of partial constructions of the overlap graph. This enables us to avoid many of the difficulties that assemblers face, as we merely aim to identify the repeats that belong to CRISPR loci. A preliminary implementation of the algorithm shows good results and detects CRISPR repeats in cases where other existing tools fail to do so.

  14. Dynamic-overlapped-grid simulation of aerodynamically determined relative motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Guan-Wei; Baysal, Oktay

    1993-01-01

    Currently, there is a need to develop a means of analyzing and studying unsteady flowfields which involve multiple component configurations with at least one of the components in relative motion with respect to the others. Two of the important phenomena that such analyses can help to understand are the unsteady aerodynamic interference and the boundary-induced component of the flowfield. With this motivation, a computational method is developed which couples the governing equations of the unsteady flowfield and the rigid-body dynamics in six degrees-of-freedom. These equations are solved on composite meshes of overlapped subdomain grids which can move with respect to each other. Initially, several measures that reduce the numerical error are studied and compared with the exact solution of a moving normal shock in a tube. It is concluded that a second-order accurate method, for spatial and temporal discretizations as well as for the moving subdomain interpolations, is needed as a minimum measure. Furthermore, the CFL numbers should be restricted to unity. Then, the method is used to simulate the flowfield history and predict the aerodynamically determined trajectory of a store dropped from its initial position under a wing.

  15. Overlapping nongenomic and genomic actions of thyroid hormone and steroids

    PubMed Central

    Hammes, Stephen R.; Davis, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The genomic actions of thyroid hormone and steroids depend upon primary interactions of the hormones with their specific nuclear receptor proteins. Formation of nuclear co-activator or co-repressor complexes involving the liganded receptors subsequently result in transcriptional events—either activation or suppression—at genes that are specific targets of thyroid hormone or steroids. Nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone and steroids are in contrast initiated at binding sites on the plasma membrane or in cytoplasm or organelles and do not primarily require formation of intranuclear receptor protein-hormone complexes. Importantly, hormonal actions that begin nongenomically outside the nucleus often culminate in changes in nuclear transcriptional events that are regulated by both traditional intranuclear receptors as well as other nuclear transcription factors. In the case of thyroid hormone, the extranuclear receptor can be the classical “nuclear” thyroid receptor (TR), a TR isoform, or integrin αvβ3. In the case of steroid hormones, the membrane receptor is usually, but not always, the classical “nuclear” steroid receptor. This concept defines the paradigm of overlapping nongenomic and genomic hormone mechanisms of action. Here we review some examples of how extranuclear signaling by thyroid hormone and by estrogens and androgens modulates intranuclear hormone signaling to regulate a number of vital biological processes both in normal physiology and in cancer progression. We also point out that nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone may mimic effects of estrogen in certain tumors. PMID:26303085

  16. Inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease: overlaps and differences.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Virginia; Dieli-Crimi, Romina; López-Palacios, Natalia; Bodas, Andrés; Medrano, Luz María; Núñez, Concepción

    2014-05-07

    Recent findings demonstrate the common genetic basis for many immune-mediated diseases, and consequently, the partially shared pathogenesis. We collected these findings and reviewed the extension of these overlaps to other disease characteristics. Two autoimmune diseases were selected that also share the specific target organ, the bowel. The etiology and immunopathogenesis of both conditions characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and celiac disease (CeD), are not completely understood. Both are complex diseases with genetics and environment contributing to dysregulation of innate and adaptive immune responses, leading to chronic inflammation and disease. CeD constitutes a particular disease because the main environmental and genetic triggers are largely known. IBD comprises two main clinical forms, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, which most likely involve a complex interplay between some components of the commensal microbiota and other environmental factors in their origin. These multifactorial diseases encompass a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes and ages of onset, although the clinical presentation often differs depending on childhood or adult onset, with greater heterogeneity commonly observed in adults.

  17. Inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease: Overlaps and differences

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Virginia; Dieli-Crimi, Romina; López-Palacios, Natalia; Bodas, Andrés; Medrano, Luz María; Núñez, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings demonstrate the common genetic basis for many immune-mediated diseases, and consequently, the partially shared pathogenesis. We collected these findings and reviewed the extension of these overlaps to other disease characteristics. Two autoimmune diseases were selected that also share the specific target organ, the bowel. The etiology and immunopathogenesis of both conditions characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and celiac disease (CeD), are not completely understood. Both are complex diseases with genetics and environment contributing to dysregulation of innate and adaptive immune responses, leading to chronic inflammation and disease. CeD constitutes a particular disease because the main environmental and genetic triggers are largely known. IBD comprises two main clinical forms, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, which most likely involve a complex interplay between some components of the commensal microbiota and other environmental factors in their origin. These multifactorial diseases encompass a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes and ages of onset, although the clinical presentation often differs depending on childhood or adult onset, with greater heterogeneity commonly observed in adults. PMID:24803796

  18. An Overlapping Structured P2P for REIK Overlay Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenjun; Song, Jingjing; Yu, Jiguo

    REIK is based on a ring which embedded an inverse Kautz digraph, to enable multi-path P2P routing. It has the constant degree and the logarithmic diameter DHT scheme with constant congestion and Byzantine fault tolerance. However, REIK did not consider the interconnection of many independent smaller networks. In this paper, we propose a new approach to build overlay network, OLS-REIK which is an overlapping structured P2P for REIK overlay network. It is a more flexible interconnecting different REIK network. Peers can belong to several rings, allowing this interconnection. By connecting smaller structured overlay networks in an unstructured way, it provides a cost effective alternative to hierarchical structured P2P systems requiring costly merging. Routing of lookup messages is performed as in REIK within one ring, but a peer belonging to several rings forwards the request to the different rings it belongs to. Furthermore a small number of across point is enough to ensure a high exhaustiveness level.

  19. Evidence for partial overlap of male olfactory cues in lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Li, Ke; Huertas, Mar; Baker, Cindy F.; Jia, Liang; Hayes, Michael C.; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2016-01-01

    Animals rely on a mosaic of complex information to find and evaluate mates. Pheromones, often comprised of multiple components, are considered to be particularly important for species-recognition in many species. While the evolution of species-specific pheromone blends is well-described in many insects, very few vertebrate pheromones have been studied in a macro-evolutionary context. Here, we report a phylogenetic comparison of multi-component male odours that guide reproduction in lampreys. Chemical profiling of sexually mature males from eleven species of lamprey, representing six of ten genera and two of three families, indicated the chemical profiles of sexually mature male odours are partially shared among species. Behavioural assays conducted with four species sympatric in the Laurentian Great Lakes indicated asymmetric female responses to heterospecific odours, where Petromyzon marinus were attracted to male odour collected from all species tested but other species generally preferred only the odour of conspecifics. Electro-olfactogram recordings from P. marinusindicated that although P. marinus exhibited behavioural responses to odours from males of all species, at least some of the compounds that elicited olfactory responses were different in conspecific male odours compared to heterospecific male odours. We conclude that some of the compounds released by sexually mature males are shared among species and elicit olfactory and behavioural responses in P. marinus, and suggest that our results provide evidence for partial overlap of male olfactory cues among lampreys. Further characterization of the chemical identities of odour components is needed to confirm shared pheromones among species.

  20. Asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS): A diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Tho, Nguyen Van; Park, Hye Yun; Nakano, Yasutaka

    2016-04-01

    Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS) is characterized by persistent airflow limitation with several features usually associated with asthma and several features usually associated with COPD. ACOS may be a special phenotype of a spectrum of chronic obstructive airway diseases, in which asthma and COPD are at the two opposite ends. The prevalence of ACOS varies considerably due to differing criteria being applied for diagnosis. Patients with ACOS utilize a large proportion of medical resources. They are associated with more frequent adverse outcomes than those with asthma or COPD alone. ACOS is currently a diagnostic challenge for physicians because there are no specific biomarkers to differentiate ACOS from asthma or COPD. The approach to diagnosing ACOS depends on the population from which the patient originated. The management of ACOS should be individualized to ensure the most effective treatment with minimal side effects. In this paper, we review the diagnostic criteria of ACOS used in previous studies, propose practical approaches to diagnosing and managing ACOS and raise some research questions related to ACOS.

  1. Metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome: an intriguing overlapping.

    PubMed

    Caserta, Donatella; Adducchio, Gloria; Picchia, Simona; Ralli, Eleonora; Matteucci, Eleonora; Moscarini, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an increasing pathology in adults and in children, due to a parallel rise of obesity. Sedentary lifestyle, food habits, cultural influences and also a genetic predisposition can cause dyslipidemia, hypertension, abdominal obesity and insulin resistance which are the two main features of metabolic syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition directly associated with obesity, insulin resistance (HOMA index) and metabolic syndrome, and it is very interesting for its relationship and overlap with the metabolic syndrome. The relationship between the two syndromes is mutual: PCOS women have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome and also women with metabolic syndrome commonly present the reproductive/endocrine trait of PCOS. Prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome and PCOS are similar for various aspects. It is necessary to treat excess adiposity and insulin resistance, with the overall goals of preventing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes and improving reproductive failure in young women with PCOS. First of all, lifestyle changes, then pharmacological therapy, bariatric surgery and laparoscopic ovarian surgery represent the pillars for PCOS treatment.

  2. Expectation formation in an overlapping generation model with production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalli, Fausto; Naimzada, Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamic properties of an overlapping generations' model with capital accumulation, in which agents work in both periods of life. We compare three different expectation mechanisms: perfect foresight, myopic foresight, and adaptive expectations, focusing, in particular, on this last one. We show that the steady state is the same under each mechanism, and we prove its global stability for perfectly foresighted agents. After investigating local stability conditions under myopic expectations, we study in detail the case of adaptive expectations. We show that, under both reduced rationality mechanisms, if the share of time devoted to labor in the second period of life is large enough, periodic and complex dynamics can occur. Moreover, deepening the investigation through numerical simulations, we study the global stability behavior under adaptive expectations. Such complex scenarios also include the coexistence between the stable steady state and a periodic or chaotic attractor, giving rise to multistability, which does not arise under myopic expectations. Finally, we provide some considerations about the possibility for the agents to improve their forecasts by observing the forecasting error time series.

  3. Temporal and spatial overlap between monarch larvae and corn pollen.

    PubMed

    Oberhauser, K S; Prysby, M D; Mattila, H R; Stanley-Horn, D E; Sears, M K; Dively, G; Olson, E; Pleasants, J M; Lam, W K; Hellmich, R L

    2001-10-09

    To assess the likelihood that monarch larvae will be exposed to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) pollen, we studied milkweed and monarch densities in habitats which comprise much of the land available to breeding monarchs, e.g., cornfields, cornfield edges, other agricultural fields, and nonagricultural areas, in four regions of the monarch breeding range. We found that monarchs use milkweed in cornfields throughout their breeding season, and that per plant densities are as high or higher in agricultural habitats as in nonagricultural habitats. As a result of the prevalence of agricultural land, most of the monarchs produced in the upper Midwest are likely to originate in cornfields or other agricultural habitats. There was a greater temporal overlap between susceptible monarchs and corn anthesis in the northern than the southern part of the summer breeding range, because of earlier pollen shed in the south. The importance of agricultural habitats to monarch production suggests that, regardless of the impact of genetically modified crops, agricultural practices such as weed control and foliar insecticide use could have large impacts on monarch populations.

  4. Resolution of overlapping spectra by wavelength modulation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Audra Michiele

    Wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy is a highly sensitive, non-intrusive technique for probing gaseous species, which employs the well-known principles of modulation spectroscopy in a novel way. With this technique, parameters such as velocity, density, and temperature can be measured with a high degree of precision. The research presented here shows that wavelength modulation is a convenient means of increasing the sensitivity of an absorption spectroscopy measurement because it allows for harmonic detection. The focus of the dissertation is resolution of overlapping spectra by harmonic detection and the advantages gained by performing detection at the higher harmonics, e.g., sixth and eighth. Additionally, it is shown that the higher harmonic detection orders can be used to identify transition line shape profiles as well as absorption line parameters. A study of the line shape profile for the oxygen A-band transitions is presented. The results of this study indicate that oxygen exhibits collisional narrowing on the order of 0.006 cm-1 atm-1 in this near infrared atmospheric band. Other general characteristics of absorption signals obtained by employing wavelength modulation spectroscopy with harmonic detection are discussed along with their corresponding applications.

  5. Multiassignment for tracking a large number of overlapping objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirubarajan, Thiagalingam; Bar-Shalom, Yaakov; Pattipati, Krishna R.

    1997-10-01

    In this paper we present a new technique for data association using multiassignment for tracking a large number of closely spaced (and overlapping) objects. The algorithm is illustrated on a biomedical problem, namely the tracking of a group of fibroblast (tissue) cells from an image sequence, which motivated this work. The algorithm presents a novel iterated approach to multiassignment using successive one-to-one assignments of decreasing size with modified costs. The cost functions, which are adjusted depending on the 'depth' of the current assignment level and on the tracking results, are derived. The resulting assignments are used to form, maintain and terminate tracks with a modified version of the probabilistic data association filter, which can handle the contention for a single measurement among multiple tracks in addition to the association of multiple measurements to a single track. Estimation results are given and compared with those of the standard 2-dimensional one-to-one assignment algorithm. It is shown that iterated multiassignment results in superior measurement-to- track association.

  6. Hard ellipsoids: Analytically approaching the exact overlap distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara-Rodríguez, F. de J.; Odriozola, G.

    2011-08-01

    Following previous work [G. Odriozola and F. de J. Guevara-Rodríguez, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 201103 (2011)], 10.1063/1.3596728, the replica exchange Monte Carlo technique is used to produce the equation of state of hard 1:5 aspect-ratio oblate ellipsoids for a wide density range. Here, in addition to the analytical approximation of the overlap distance given by Berne and Pechukas (BP) and the exact numerical solution of Perram and Wertheim, we tested a simple modification of the original BP approximation (MBP) which corrects the known T-shape mismatch of BP for all aspect ratios. We found that the MBP equation of state shows a very good quantitative agreement with the exact solution. The MBP analytical expression allowed us to study size effects on the previously reported results. For the thermodynamic limit, we estimated the exact 1:5 hard ellipsoid isotropic-nematic transition at the volume fraction 0.343 ± 0.003, and the nematic-solid transition in the volume fraction interval (0.592 ± 0.006) - (0.634 ± 0.008).

  7. Notes on the Polynomial Identities in Random Overlap Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sollich, Peter; Barra, Adriano

    2012-04-01

    In these notes we review first in some detail the concept of random overlap structure (ROSt) applied to fully connected and diluted spin glasses. We then sketch how to write down the general term of the expansion of the energy part from the Boltzmann ROSt (for the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model) and the corresponding term from the RaMOSt, which is the diluted extension suitable for the Viana-Bray model. From the ROSt energy term, a set of polynomial identities (often known as Aizenman-Contucci or AC relations) is shown to hold rigorously at every order because of a recursive structure of these polynomials that we prove. We show also, however, that this set is smaller than the full set of AC identities that is already known. Furthermore, when investigating the RaMOSt energy for the diluted counterpart, at higher orders, combinations of such AC identities appear, ultimately suggesting a crucial role for the entropy in generating these constraints in spin glasses.

  8. Hard ellipsoids: analytically approaching the exact overlap distance.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Rodríguez, F de J; Odriozola, G

    2011-08-28

    Following previous work [G. Odriozola and F. de J. Guevara-Rodríguez, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 201103 (2011)], the replica exchange Monte Carlo technique is used to produce the equation of state of hard 1:5 aspect-ratio oblate ellipsoids for a wide density range. Here, in addition to the analytical approximation of the overlap distance given by Berne and Pechukas (BP) and the exact numerical solution of Perram and Wertheim, we tested a simple modification of the original BP approximation (MBP) which corrects the known T-shape mismatch of BP for all aspect ratios. We found that the MBP equation of state shows a very good quantitative agreement with the exact solution. The MBP analytical expression allowed us to study size effects on the previously reported results. For the thermodynamic limit, we estimated the exact 1:5 hard ellipsoid isotropic-nematic transition at the volume fraction 0.343 ± 0.003, and the nematic-solid transition in the volume fraction interval (0.592 ± 0.006)-(0.634 ± 0.008).

  9. Mitigating fluorescence spectral overlap in wide-field endoscopic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Vivian; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. The number of molecular species suitable for multispectral fluorescence imaging is limited due to the overlap of the emission spectra of indicator fluorophores, e.g., dyes and nanoparticles. To remove fluorophore emission cross-talk in wide-field multispectral fluorescence molecular imaging, we evaluate three different solutions: (1) image stitching, (2) concurrent imaging with cross-talk ratio subtraction algorithm, and (3) frame-sequential imaging. A phantom with fluorophore emission cross-talk is fabricated, and a 1.2-mm ultrathin scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) is used to test and compare these approaches. Results show that fluorophore emission cross-talk could be successfully avoided or significantly reduced. Near term, the concurrent imaging method of wide-field multispectral fluorescence SFE is viable for early stage cancer detection and localization in vivo. Furthermore, a means to enhance exogenous fluorescence target-to-background ratio by the reduction of tissue autofluorescence background is demonstrated. PMID:23966226

  10. Numerical Analysis of Maneuvering Rotorcraft Using Moving Overlapped Grid Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Choongmo; Aoyama, Takashi

    In transient flight, rotor wakes and tip vortex generated by unsteady blade air-loads and blade motions are fully unsteady and 3-dimensionally-aperiodic, giving rise to significant complicity in accurate analysis compared to steady flight. We propose a hybrid approach by splitting the motions of a maneuvering helicopter into translation and rotation. Translation is simulated using a non-inertial moving (translating) coordinate for which new governing equations are derived, and rotations are simulated by moving each grid in the frame. A flow simulation (CFD) code is constructed by using the hybrid approach, then two simple cases (accelerating/decelerating flight and right-turn flight) for maneuvering helicopter are calculated using the moving overlapped grid method, which is now one of the most advanced techniques for tip-vortex capture. The vortex bundling phenomena, which is a main characteristic of right-turn flight, is well captured by the simulation code. The results of the present study provide better understanding of the characteristics for maneuvering rotorcraft, which can be valuable in full helicopter design.

  11. Understanding asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wurst, Keele E; Kelly-Reif, Kaitlin; Bushnell, Greta A; Pascoe, Steven; Barnes, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS) is a loosely-defined clinical entity referring to patients who exhibit characteristics of both asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Clinical definitions and classifications for ACOS vary widely, which impacts our understanding of prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of the condition. This literature review was therefore conducted to characterize the prevalence of ACOS and the effect of different disease definitions on these estimates, as this has not previously been explored. From an analysis of English language literature published from 2000 to 2014, the estimated prevalence of ACOS ranges from 12.1% to 55.2% among patients with COPD and 13.3%-61.0% among patients with asthma alone. This variability is linked to differences in COPD and asthma diagnostic criteria, disease ascertainment methods (spirometry-based versus clinical or symptom-based diagnoses and claims data), and population characteristics including age, gender and smoking. Understanding the reasons for differences in prevalence estimates of ACOS across the literature may help guide decision making on the most appropriate criteria for defining ACOS and aid investigators in designing future ACOS clinical studies aimed at effective treatment.

  12. Genetic overlap between schizophrenia and selective components of executive function.

    PubMed

    Owens, Sheena F; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Picchioni, Marco M; Stahl, Daniel; Nenadic, Igor; Murray, Robin M; Toulopoulou, Timothea

    2011-04-01

    Impairments in selective components of executive function are seen in unaffected family members of patients with schizophrenia and may represent the biological expression of increased genetic risk. However no study has quantified the extent to which liability to schizophrenia overlaps genetically with that of executive dysfunction. We studied a total of 418 monozygotic and dizygotic twins, including pairs concordant and discordant for schizophrenia. Participants completed the trail making test part A and verbal fluency tasks to assess initiation, TMT part B to test mental flexibility, and the WAIS-III to assess general intellectual function. Bivariate genetic modeling was used to investigate whether selective measures of executive processing are genetically linked to schizophrenia and to quantify the genetic (i.e. heritability) and environmental contributions to their variability. Genetic influences contributed substantially to test variance for initiation and mental flexibility. Genetic factors were the main source of the phenotypic correlations between schizophrenia and these processes. Verbal fluency tasks shared a large genetic correlation with IQ whilst TMT scales did not, suggesting that they measure discreet processes, and therefore indexing discreet endophenotypes. Both verbal fluency and mental flexibility meet some of the criteria for endophenotypes, but our data suggest that mental flexibility is a purer cognitive process sharing very little common variance with general intellectual functioning. The inclusion of this mental flexibility phenotype in linkage or association analysis should improve the power to detect susceptibility genes for schizophrenia.

  13. Perchlorate Regulatory Determination Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheets have been developed for the perchlorate regulatory determination corresponding to the following stages published in the Federal Register: Final, Supplemental request for comments, and Preliminary.

  14. Estimates of dietary overlap for six species of Amazonian manakin birds using stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Fair, Jeanne M; Ryder, Thomas B; Loiselle, Bette A; Blake, John G; Larson, Toti E; Davis, Paul; Syme, James; Perkins, George B; Heikoop, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    We used stable isotope ratios to determine the metabolic routing fraction of carbon and nitrogen in feathers in addition to faecal analysis to estimate diet overlap of six sympatric species of manakins in the eastern lowland forest of Ecuador. Collectively, all species varied from-23.7 to-32.7 ‰ for δ(13)C, and from 6.0 to 9.9‰ for δ(15)N, with Machaeropterus regulus showing isotopic differences from the other species. We developed a mixing model that explicitly addresses the routing of carbon and nitrogen to feathers. Interestingly, these results suggest a higher proportion of nitrogen and carbon derived from insects than anticipated based on feeding observations and faecal analysis. A concentration-dependent mixing isotopic model was also used to look at dietary proportions. While larvae and arachnids had higher δ(15)N values, these two groups may also be preferred prey of manakins and may be more assimilated into tissues, leading to a potential overestimation of the contribution to diet. This study supports the finding that manakin species, previously thought be primarily frugivorous, contain a significant amount of arthropods in their diet.

  15. Globalization and local response to epidemiological overlap in 21st century Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Waters, William F

    2006-01-01

    Background Third World countries are confronted by a complex overlay of two sets of health problems. Traditional maladies, including communicable diseases, malnutrition, and environmental health hazards coexist with emerging health challenges, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and increasing levels of obesity. Using Ecuador as an example, this paper proposes a conceptual framework for linking epidemiologic overlap to emerging social structures and processes at the national and global levels. Discussion Epidemiologic trends can be seen as part of broader processes related to globalization, but this does not imply that globalization is a monolithic force that inevitably and uniformly affects nations, communities, and households in the same manner. Rather, characteristics and forms of social organization at the subnational level can shape the way that globalization takes place. Thus, globalization has affected Ecuador in specific ways and is, at the same time, intimately related to the form in which the epidemiologic transition has transpired in that country. Summary Ecuador is among neither the poorest nor the wealthiest countries and its situation may illuminate trends in other parts of the world. As in other countries, insertion into the global economy has not taken place in a vacuum; rather, Ecuador has experienced unprecedented social and demographic change in the past several decades, producing profound transformation in its social structure. Examples of local represent alternatives to centralized health systems that do not effectively address the complex overlay of traditional and emerging health problems. PMID:16712722

  16. Medication Nonadherence, "Professional Subjects," and Apparent Placebo Responders: Overlapping Challenges for Medications Development.

    PubMed

    McCann, David J; Petry, Nancy M; Bresell, Anders; Isacsson, Eva; Wilson, Ellis; Alexander, Robert C

    2015-10-01

    Nonadherence is a major problem in clinical trials of new medications. To evaluate the extent of nonadherence, this study evaluated pharmacokinetic sampling from 1765 subjects receiving active therapy across 8 psychiatric trials conducted between 2001 and 2011. With nonadherence defined as greater than 50% of plasma samples below the limit of quantification for study drug, the percentage of nonadherent subjects ranged from 12.8% to 39.2%. There was a trend toward increased nonadherence in studies with greater numbers of subjects, but an association with nonadherence was not apparent for other study design parameters or subject characteristics. For 2 trials with multiple recruitment sites in geographical proximity, several subjects attempted to simultaneously enroll at separate site locations. The construct of "professional subjects," those who enroll in trials only for financial gain, is gaining attention, and we therefore modeled the impact of professional subjects on medication efficacy trials. The results indicate that enrollment of professional subjects who are destined to succeed (those who will appear to achieve treatment success regardless of study drug assignment) can substantially increase both the apparent placebo response rate and the sample size requirement for statistical power, while decreasing the observed effect size. The overlapping nature of nonadherence, professional subjects, and placebo response suggests that these issues should be considered and addressed together. Following this approach, we describe a novel clinical trial design to minimize the adverse effects of professional subjects on trial outcomes and discuss methods to monitor adherence.

  17. SVM2Motif—Reconstructing Overlapping DNA Sequence Motifs by Mimicking an SVM Predictor

    PubMed Central

    Vidovic, Marina M. -C.; Görnitz, Nico; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Rätsch, Gunnar; Kloft, Marius

    2015-01-01

    Identifying discriminative motifs underlying the functionality and evolution of organisms is a major challenge in computational biology. Machine learning approaches such as support vector machines (SVMs) achieve state-of-the-art performances in genomic discrimination tasks, but—due to its black-box character—motifs underlying its decision function are largely unknown. As a remedy, positional oligomer importance matrices (POIMs) allow us to visualize the significance of position-specific subsequences. Although being a major step towards the explanation of trained SVM models, they suffer from the fact that their size grows exponentially in the length of the motif, which renders their manual inspection feasible only for comparably small motif sizes, typically k ≤ 5. In this work, we extend the work on positional oligomer importance matrices, by presenting a new machine-learning methodology, entitled motifPOIM, to extract the truly relevant motifs—regardless of their length and complexity—underlying the predictions of a trained SVM model. Our framework thereby considers the motifs as free parameters in a probabilistic model, a task which can be phrased as a non-convex optimization problem. The exponential dependence of the POIM size on the oligomer length poses a major numerical challenge, which we address by an efficient optimization framework that allows us to find possibly overlapping motifs consisting of up to hundreds of nucleotides. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach on a synthetic data set as well as a real-world human splice site data set. PMID:26690911

  18. 75 FR 54210 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...-2010-032] Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of... Transactions August 30, 2010. On June 17, 2010, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc....

  19. Regulatory and reimbursement issues regarding endoscopic bariatric procedures.

    PubMed

    Schwaitzberg, Steven D

    2011-04-01

    Although innovation marches forward and places new therapeutic options at our doorsteps, the regulatory and payer environment must be considered if any of these new opportunities will be available in the clinical mainstream. Endolumenal treatment of bariatric disease will face many of the same challenges as those the endolumenal treatment of gastroesophageal reflux has faced over the last decade. In an era of shrinking health care dollars, the challenge of reimbursement will be significant. Strategies for the implementation of endolumenal therapies for the treatment of obesity must include a data-driven approach that addresses not only regulatory but also financial concerns to be successful.

  20. FDA-EPA Public Health Guidance on Fish Consumption: A Case Study on Informal Interagency Cooperation in "Shared Regulatory Space".

    PubMed

    Holden, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This article is a case study on how administrative agencies interact with each other in cases of shared regulatory jurisdiction. The theoretical literature on the topic of overlapping jurisdiction both (1) makes predictions about how agencies are expected to behave when they share jurisdiction, and (2) in recent iterations argues that overlapping jurisdiction can confer unique policymaking benefits. Through the lens of that theoretical literature, this article examines the relations between the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regarding the public health risks posed by mercury in fish. It concludes that the FDA-EPA case study (1) corroborates the extant theoretical accounts of how agencies behave in cases of overlapping jurisdiction, (2) supports the conclusion of the recent scholarship that overlapping jurisdiction can confer unique policy benefits, and (3) reveals a few wrinkles not given adequate treatment in the extant literature.

  1. Application of the lamp mapping technique for overlap function for Raman lidar systems.

    PubMed

    Walker, Monique; Venable, Demetrius; Whiteman, David N; Sakai, Tetsu

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, the lidar water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR) is corrected for overlap using data from another instrument, such as a radiosonde. Here we introduce a new experimental method to determine the overlap function using the lamp mapping technique (LMT), which relies on the lidar optics and detection system. The LMT discussed here involves a standard halogen lamp being scanned over the aperture of a Raman lidar telescope in synchronization with the lidar detection system [Appl. Opt.50, 4622 (2011)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.50.004622, Appl. Opt.53, 8538 (2014)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.53.008535]. In this paper, we show results for a LMT-determined overlap function for individual channels, as well as a WVMR overlap function. We found that the LMT-determined WVMR overlap functions deviate within 5% of the traditional radiosonde-determined overlap.

  2. Targeting regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Ménétrier-Caux, Christine; Curiel, Tyler; Faget, Julien; Manuel, Manuarii; Caux, Christophe; Zou, Weiping

    2012-03-01

    Cancers express tumor-associated antigens that should elicit immune response to antagonize the tumor growth, but spontaneous immune rejection of established cancer is rare, suggesting an immunosuppressive environment hindering host antitumor immunity. Among the specific and active tumor-mediated mechanisms, CD4(+)CD25(high) T regulatory cells (Treg) are important mediators of active immune evasion in cancer. In this review, we will discuss Treg subpopulations and the mechanisms of their suppressive functions. Treg depletion improves endogenous antitumor immunity and the efficacy of active immunotherapy in animal models for cancer, suggesting that inhibiting Treg function could also improve the limited successes of human cancer immunotherapy. We will also discuss specific strategies for devising effective cancer immunotherapy targeting Treg.

  3. Toxicogenomics in regulatory ecotoxicology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ankley, Gerald T.; Daston, George P.; Degitz, Sigmund J.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Hoke, Robert A.; Kennedy, Sean W.; Miracle, Ann L.; Perkins, Edward J.; Snape, Jason; Tillitt, Donald E.; Tyler, Charles R.; Versteeg, Donald

    2006-01-01

    Recently, we have witnessed an explosion of different genomic approaches that, through a combination of advanced biological, instrumental, and bioinformatic techniques, can yield a previously unparalleled amount of data concerning the molecular and biochemical status of organisms. Fueled partially by large, well-publicized efforts such as the Human Genome Project, genomic research has become a rapidly growing topical area in multiple biological disciplines. Since 1999, when the term “toxicogenomics” was coined to describe the application of genomics to toxicology (1), a rapid increase in publications on the topic has occurred (Figure 1). The potential utility of toxicogenomics in toxicological research and regulatory activities has been the subject of scientific discussions and, as with any new technology, has evoked a wide range of opinion (2–6).

  4. Regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Claire; Powrie, Fiona

    2004-08-01

    Regulatory T (TR) cells are a subset of T cells that function to control immune responses. Different populations of TR cells have been described, including thymically derived CD4(+)CD25+ TR cells and Tr1 cells induced in the periphery through exposure to antigen. A transcription factor, Foxp3, has been identified that is essential for CD4(+)CD25+ TR cell development and function. There is now evidence that transforming growth factor-beta might play a role in this pathway. CD4(+)CD25+ TR cells proliferate extensively in vivo in an antigen-specific manner, and can respond to both self and foreign peptides. By suppressing excessive immune responses, TR cells play a key role in the maintenance of self-tolerance, thus preventing autoimmune disease, as well as inhibiting harmful inflammatory diseases such as asthma and inflammatory bowel disease.

  5. Addressing Your Child's Weight at the Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  6. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  7. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  8. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  9. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  10. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  11. 76 FR 27020 - Representative and Address Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Representative and Address Provisions ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of...

  12. Regulatory Considerations for Biosimilars

    PubMed Central

    Nellore, Ranjani

    2010-01-01

    Currently there is considerable interest in the legislative debate around generic biological drugs or “biosimilars” in the EU and US due to the large, lucrative market that it offers to the industry. While some countries have issued a few regulatory guidelines as well as product specific requirements, there is no general consensus as to a single, simple mechanism similar to the bioequivalence determination that leads to approval of generic small molecules all over the world. The inherent complex nature of the molecules, along with complicated manufacturing and analytical techniques to characterize them make it difficult to rely on a single human pharmacokinetic study for assurance of safety and efficacy. In general, the concept of comparability has been used for evaluation of the currently approved “similar” biological where a step by step assessment on the quality, preclinical and clinical aspects is made. In India, the focus is primarily on the availability and affordability of life-saving drugs. In this context every product needs to be evaluated on its own merit irrespective of the innovator brand. The formation of the National Biotechnology Regulatory Authority may provide a step in the right direction for regulation of these complex molecules. However, in order to have an efficient machinery for initial approval and ongoing oversight with a country-specific focus, cooperation with international authorities for granting approvals and continuous risk-benefit review is essential. Several steps are still needed for India to be perceived as a country that leads the world in providing quality biological products. PMID:21829775

  13. Optical Addressing And Clocking Of RAM's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R.; Nixon, Robert H.; Bergman, Larry A.; Esener, Sadik

    1989-01-01

    Proposed random-access-memory (RAM) addressing system, in which memory linked optically to read/write logic circuits, greatly increases computer operating speed. System - comprises addressing circuits including numerous lasers as signal sources, numerous optical gates including optical detectors associated with memory cells, and holographic element to direct light signals to desired memory-cell locations - applied to high-capacity digital systems, supercomputers, and complex microcircuits.

  14. Contextual analysis of machine-printed addresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, Peter B.; Ho, Tin K.; Hull, Jonathan J.; Prussak, Michal; Srihari, Sargur N.

    1992-08-01

    The assignment of a nine digit ZIP Code (ZIP + 4 Code) to the digital image of a machine printed address block is a problem of central importance in automated mail sorting. This problem is especially difficult since most addresses do not contain ZIP + 4 Codes and often the information that must be read to match an address to one of the 28 million entries in the ZIP + 4 file is either erroneous, incomplete, or missing altogether. This paper discusses a system for interpreting a machine printed address and assigning a ZIP + 4 Code that uses a constraint satisfaction approach. Words in an address block are first segmented and parsed to assign probable semantic categories. Word images are then recognized by a combination of digit, character, and word recognition algorithms. The control structure uses a constraint satisfaction problem solving approach to match the recognition results to an entry in the ZIP + 4 file. It is shown how this technique can both determine correct responses as well as compensate for incomplete or erroneous information. Experimental results demonstrate the success of this system. In a recent test on over 1000 machine printed address blocks, the ZIP + 4 encode rate was over 73 percent. This compares to the success rate of current postal OCRs which is about 45 percent. Additionally, the word recognition algorithm recognizes over 92 percent of the input images (over 98 percent in the top 10 choices.

  15. Can Multiple Hereditary Exostoses Overlap With Mesomelic Dysplasia?

    PubMed Central

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Ben Ghachem, Maher; Ben Chehida, Farid; Hofstaetter, Jochen G.; Grill, Franz; Ganger, Rudolf; Kircher, Susanne Gerit

    2016-01-01

    Background We studied an unusual combination of severe short stature, mesomelia (Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis syndrome), and multiple exostosis in several family subjects over three generations. The pattern of inheritance was compatible with autosomal dominant. Methods Of 21 affected members over three generations, shortness of stature, associated with mesomelia resembling Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis syndrome with no exostoses was evident in three family subjects. The rest of the family subjects manifested with normal height, and yet multiple exostoses. In this family, the skeletal manifestations were sufficiently variable for the presentation to be with either short stature or scoliosis, a Madelung’ deformity, or with severe hallux valgus associated with exostosis and with Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis syndrome. Results Subjects with structural chromosomal aberrations of the proband IV-7, who manifested with normal height but with multiple exostoses were excluded via 20 CAG-banded mitoses (there were no microdeletions or microduplication after performing Array-CGH-analysis). In addition, DNA examination for subject IV-8 (male cousin of the proband showed short stature and Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis syndrome) revealed no evidence of SHOX deletions. Conclusion We described a multigenerational non-consanguineous North African family , in which mesomelic dysplasia, whose clinical and radiological phenotypes resembled dyschondrosteosis, was a prominent feature in three family subjects. Multiple exostoses were evident in several other family subjects (most were with normal height). We would like to emphasize the variability in the phenotypic expression of multiple exostosis, especially the confusion that might arise when the condition appears both clinically and radiologically to be more complicated, and the overall picture might then be overlapped with one of the other bone dysplasias such as Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis syndrome. PMID:27429682

  16. A Fast Infrared Radiative Transfer Model for Overlapping Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niu, Jianguo; Yang, Ping; Huang, Huang-Lung; Davies, James E.; Li, Jun; Baum, Bryan A.; Hu, Yong X.

    2006-01-01

    A fast infrared radiative transfer model (FIRTM2) appropriate for application to both single-layered and overlapping cloud situations is developed for simulating the outgoing infrared spectral radiance at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). In FIRTM2 a pre-computed library of cloud reflectance and transmittance values is employed to account for one or two cloud layers, whereas the background atmospheric optical thickness due to gaseous absorption can be computed from a clear-sky radiative transfer model. FIRTM2 is applicable to three atmospheric conditions: 1) clear-sky, 2) single-layered ice or water cloud, and 3) two simultaneous cloud layers in a column (e.g., ice cloud overlying water cloud). Moreover, FIRTM2 outputs the derivatives (i.e., Jacobians) of the TOA brightness temperature with respect to cloud optical thickness and effective particle size. Sensitivity analyses have been carried out to assess the performance of FIRTM2 for two spectral regions, namely the longwave (LW) band (587.3 - 1179.5/cm) and the short-to-medium wave (SMW) band (1180.1 - 2228.9/cm). The assessment is carried out in terms of brightness temperature differences (BTD) between FIRTM2 and the well-known discrete ordinates radiative transfer model (DISORT), henceforth referred to as BTD (F-D). The BTD (F-D) values for single-layered clouds are generally less than 0.8 K. For the case of two cloud layers (specifically ice cloud over water cloud), the BTD(F-D) values are also generally less than 0.8 K except for the SMW band for the case of a very high altitude (>15 km) cloud comprised of small ice particles. Note that for clear-sky atmospheres, FIRTM2 reduces to the clear-sky radiative transfer model that is incorporated into FIRTM2, and the errors in this case are essentially those of the clear-sky radiative transfer model.

  17. The Family of Sensorimotor Gating Disorders: Comorbidities or Diagnostic Overlaps?

    PubMed Central

    GEYER, MARK A.

    2009-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle is an operational measure of the pre-attentive filtering process known as sensorimotor gating. Originally identified in patients with schizophrenia, PPI deficits have been observed in multiple but not all psychiatric disorders. Thus, as with most signs and symptoms of psychiatric disorders, deficits in PPI cut across diagnostic categories. It remains unclear whether the diversity of disorders exhibiting deficient PPI bespeaks diagnostic overlaps or comorbidities. Given the recent focus on treatments for cognitive deficits of schizophrenia independently of treating psychosis, the relationship of PPI deficits to cognitive deficits becomes of interest. Although PPI cannot be considered to be a cognitive process per se, abnormalities in pre-attentive information processing may be predictive of or lead to complex cognitive deficits. Animal models of PPI deficits produced by dopamine agonists reliably predict existing antipsychotics. Nevertheless, since neither PPI nor cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are ameliorated by standard antipsychotics, current research is exploring the predictive value of non-dopaminergic PPI models in identifying treatments for gating disturbances independently of their relevance to specific disorders. Both PPI and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia patients are not reversed by first generation antipsychotics but may be attenuated by clozapine. Similarly, effects of glutamate antagonists on symptoms in patients and PPI in animals appear to be reduced by clozapine. Hence, treatment-induced reversals of deficits in PPI produced by glutamate antagonists may provide animal, and human, models to aid in the discovery of treatments of cognitive deficits in patients already treated with existing antipsychotics. PMID:17197371

  18. Characterization of sputum biomarkers for asthma–COPD overlap syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jing; Iwamoto, Hiroshi; Koskela, Jukka; Alenius, Harri; Hattori, Noboru; Kohno, Nobuoki; Laitinen, Tarja; Mazur, Witold; Pulkkinen, Ville

    2016-01-01

    Asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) is a commonly encountered chronic airway disease. However, ACOS is still a consensus-based clinical phenotype and the underlying inflammatory mechanisms are inadequately characterized. To clarify the inflammatory mediatypical for ACOS, five biomarkers, namely interleukin (IL)-13, myeloperoxidase (MPO), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), chitinase-like protein (YKL-40), and IL-6, were selected. This study hypothesized that sputum biomarkers relevant for airway inflammation in asthma (IL-13), COPD (MPO, NGAL), or in both asthma and COPD (YKL-40, IL-6) could be used to differentiate ACOS from COPD and asthma. The aim of this study was to characterize the inflammatory profile and improve the recognition of ACOS. Induced sputum levels of IL-13, MPO, NGAL, YKL-40, and IL-6 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay/Luminex assay in a Finnish discovery cohort (n=90) of nonsmokers, smokers, and patients with asthma, COPD, and ACOS and validated in a Japanese cohort (n=135). The classification accuracy of potential biomarkers was compared with area under the receiver operating characteristic curves. Only sputum NGAL levels could differentiate ACOS from asthma (P<0.001 and P<0.001) and COPD (P<0.05 and P=0.002) in the discovery and replication cohorts, respectively. Sputum NGAL levels were independently correlated with the percentage of pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second predicted in multivariate analysis in the discovery and replication cohorts (P=0.001 and P=0.002, respectively). In conclusion, sputum biomarkers reflecting both airway inflammation and remodeling of the tissue show potential in differentiation between asthma, COPD, and ACOS. PMID:27757028

  19. Resolution of overlapping skin auto-fluorescence for development of non-invasive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yu-Zheng; Lin, Li-Wu; Chen, Chuen-Yau; Hung, Min-Wei; Huang, Kuo-Cheng

    2010-08-01

    Skin auto-fluorescence spectra can provide useful biological information, but the obtained spectrum is overlapped and is difficult to distinguish each contributed component. We applied the genetic algorithm to decompose the overlapping spectrum. First, we simulate the overlapping spectral to confirm our feasible algorithm. The skin auto-fluorescence spectra were obtained from the normal human skin with 337 nm excitation light source. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotid (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are accurately decomposed and demonstrated. The developed algorithm can be widely applied to achieve qualitative and quantitative analysis for overlapping spectra.

  20. Issues in Peer Review of the Scientific Basis for Regulatory Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    This document is intended to provide a discussion of the issues that need to be addressed in the development of peer review guidelines, the options for addressing the issues, and a range of views about such options. The document focuses on peer review with regard to regulatory decisions and contains major sections which deal with: (1) what should…

  1. Regulatory Foci and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Yannis; Ullrich, Johannes; van Dick, Rolf; Davis, Ann J.

    2008-01-01

    We use regulatory focus theory to derive specific predictions regarding the differential relationships between regulatory focus and commitment. We estimated a structural equation model using a sample of 520 private and public sector employees and found in line with our hypotheses that (a) promotion focus related more strongly to affective…

  2. 75 FR 79763 - Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ...The Regulatory Flexibility Act of 1980 and Executive Order (EO) 12866 require the semi-annual issuance of an inventory of rulemaking actions under development throughout the Department with a view to offering summarized information about forthcoming regulatory actions for public...

  3. Microbial regulatory and metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Cho, Byung-Kwan; Charusanti, Pep; Herrgård, Markus J; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2007-08-01

    Reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory and metabolic networks is the foundation of large-scale microbial systems and synthetic biology. An enormous amount of information including the annotated genomic sequences and the genomic locations of DNA-binding regulatory proteins can be used to define metabolic and regulatory networks in cells. In particular, advances in experimental methods to map regulatory networks in microbial cells have allowed reliable data-driven reconstruction of these networks. Recent work on metabolic engineering and experimental evolution of microbes highlights the key role of global regulatory networks in controlling specific metabolic processes and the need to consider the integrated function of multiple types of networks for both scientific and engineering purposes.

  4. Dynamical analysis of regulatory interactions in the gap gene system of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Johannes; Blagov, Maxim; Kosman, David; Kozlov, Konstantin N; Manu; Myasnikova, Ekaterina; Surkova, Svetlana; Vanario-Alonso, Carlos E; Samsonova, Maria; Sharp, David H; Reinitz, John

    2004-01-01

    Genetic studies have revealed that segment determination in Drosophila melanogaster is based on hierarchical regulatory interactions among maternal coordinate and zygotic segmentation genes. The gap gene system constitutes the most upstream zygotic layer of this regulatory hierarchy, responsible for the initial interpretation of positional information encoded by maternal gradients. We present a detailed analysis of regulatory interactions involved in gap gene regulation based on gap gene circuits, which are mathematical gene network models used to infer regulatory interactions from quantitative gene expression data. Our models reproduce gap gene expression at high accuracy and temporal resolution. Regulatory interactions found in gap gene circuits provide consistent and sufficient mechanisms for gap gene expression, which largely agree with mechanisms previously inferred from qualitative studies of mutant gene expression patterns. Our models predict activation of Kr by Cad and clarify several other regulatory interactions. Our analysis suggests a central role for repressive feedback loops between complementary gap genes. We observe that repressive interactions among overlapping gap genes show anteroposterior asymmetry with posterior dominance. Finally, our models suggest a correlation between timing of gap domain boundary formation and regulatory contributions from the terminal maternal system. PMID:15342511

  5. Broadening the cancer and cognition landscape: The role of self-regulatory challenges

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Jamie; Das, Enny; Schagen, Sanne B.; Reid-Arndt, Stephanie A.; Cameron, Linda D.; Ahles, Tim A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The potentially detrimental effects of cancer and related treatments on cognitive functioning have emerged as key foci of cancer survivorship research, but little is known about how psychological variables other than depression influence these relationships. To illustrate the potential of social psychological perspectives, we examine how a self-regulatory analysis and specific self-regulatory challenges of contending with cancer-related expectancies and stereotypes provide conceptual frameworks for understanding some of the potential causes and consequences of cancer-related cognitive deficits. Methods Literatures on cancer-related cognitive deficits, self-regulatory ego depletion, expectancy-stereotypes and their points of convergence are briefly reviewed. Results A review and conceptual integration of relevant literatures suggests that coping with cancer can impair self-regulatory capacity, there is overlap between cognitive deficits associated with self-regulatory challenge and with cancer and its treatment, and restoring self-regulatory resources can attenuate cancer-related cognitive deficits. Examination of specific regulatory challenges of contending with expectancies and stereotypes related to treatment suggest insights that can inform when and among whom cognitive deficits may most likely emerge. Conclusions Integrating social psychological ideas with a substantial knowledge base can illustrate novel research trajectories that can deepen our understanding of cancer-related cognitive deficits and their impact on psychosocial well-being. PMID:23839818

  6. Contact resistance and overlapping capacitance in flexible sub-micron long oxide thin-film transistors for above 100 MHz operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münzenrieder, Niko; Salvatore, Giovanni A.; Petti, Luisa; Zysset, Christoph; Büthe, Lars; Vogt, Christian; Cantarella, Giuseppe; Tröster, Gerhard

    2014-12-01

    In recent years new forms of electronic devices such as electronic papers, flexible displays, epidermal sensors, and smart textiles have become reality. Thin-film transistors (TFTs) are the basic blocks of the circuits used in such devices and need to operate above 100 MHz to efficiently treat signals in RF systems and address pixels in high resolution displays. Beyond the choice of the semiconductor, i.e., silicon, graphene, organics, or amorphous oxides, the junctionless nature of TFTs and its geometry imply some limitations which become evident and important in devices with scaled channel length. Furthermore, the mechanical instability of flexible substrates limits the feature size of flexible TFTs. Contact resistance and overlapping capacitance are two parasitic effects which limit the transit frequency of transistors. They are often considered independent, while a deeper analysis of TFTs geometry imposes to handle them together; in fact, they both depend on the overlapping length (LOV) between source/drain and the gate contacts. Here, we conduct a quantitative analysis based on a large number of flexible ultra-scaled IGZO TFTs. Devices with three different values of overlap length and channel length down to 0.5 μm are fabricated to experimentally investigate the scaling behavior of the transit frequency. Contact resistance and overlapping capacitance depend in opposite ways on LOV. These findings establish routes for the optimization of the dimension of source/drain contact pads and suggest design guidelines to achieve megahertz operation in flexible IGZO TFTs and circuits.

  7. 75 FR 40000 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change Relating to the Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. July 2, 2010. On May 21, 2010, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc....

  8. 75 FR 30453 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving..., Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') (f/k/a National Association of Securities Dealers... National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc., the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc., or...

  9. Comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals the roles of overlapping heat-/drought-responsive genes in poplars exposed to high temperature and drought

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jingbo; Zhou, Jing; Shi, Wenguang; Cao, Xu; Luo, Jie; Polle, Andrea; Luo, Zhi-Bin

    2017-01-01

    High temperature (HT) and drought are both critical factors that constrain tree growth and survival under global climate change, but it is surprising that the transcriptomic reprogramming and physiological relays involved in the response to HT and/or drought remain unknown in woody plants. Thus, Populus simonii saplings were exposed to either ambient temperature or HT combined with sufficient watering or drought. RNA-sequencing analysis showed that a large number of genes were differentially expressed in poplar roots and leaves in response to HT and/or desiccation, but only a small number of these genes were identified as overlapping heat-/drought-responsive genes that are mainly involved in RNA regulation, transport, hormone metabolism, and stress. Furthermore, the overlapping heat-/drought-responsive genes were co-expressed and formed hierarchical genetic regulatory networks under each condition compared. HT-/drought-induced transcriptomic reprogramming is linked to physiological relays in poplar roots and leaves. For instance, HT- and/or drought-induced abscisic acid accumulation and decreases in auxin and other phytohormones corresponded well with the differential expression of a few genes involved in hormone metabolism. These results suggest that overlapping heat-/drought-responsive genes will play key roles in the transcriptional and physiological reconfiguration of poplars to HT and/or drought under future climatic scenarios. PMID:28233854

  10. Understanding genetic regulatory networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, Stuart

    2003-04-01

    Random Boolean networks (RBM) were introduced about 35 years ago as first crude models of genetic regulatory networks. RBNs are comprised of N on-off genes, connected by a randomly assigned regulatory wiring diagram where each gene has K inputs, and each gene is controlled by a randomly assigned Boolean function. This procedure samples at random from the ensemble of all possible NK Boolean networks. The central ideas are to study the typical, or generic properties of this ensemble, and see 1) whether characteristic differences appear as K and biases in Boolean functions are introducted, and 2) whether a subclass of this ensemble has properties matching real cells. Such networks behave in an ordered or a chaotic regime, with a phase transition, "the edge of chaos" between the two regimes. Networks with continuous variables exhibit the same two regimes. Substantial evidence suggests that real cells are in the ordered regime. A key concept is that of an attractor. This is a reentrant trajectory of states of the network, called a state cycle. The central biological interpretation is that cell types are attractors. A number of properties differentiate the ordered and chaotic regimes. These include the size and number of attractors, the existence in the ordered regime of a percolating "sea" of genes frozen in the on or off state, with a remainder of isolated twinkling islands of genes, a power law distribution of avalanches of gene activity changes following perturbation to a single gene in the ordered regime versus a similar power law distribution plus a spike of enormous avalanches of gene changes in the chaotic regime, and the existence of branching pathway of "differentiation" between attractors induced by perturbations in the ordered regime. Noise is serious issue, since noise disrupts attractors. But numerical evidence suggests that attractors can be made very stable to noise, and meanwhile, metaplasias may be a biological manifestation of noise. As we learn more

  11. What pulmonologists think about the asthma–COPD overlap syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Miravitlles, Marc; Alcázar, Bernardino; Alvarez, Francisco Javier; Bazús, Teresa; Calle, Myriam; Casanova, Ciro; Cisneros, Carolina; de-Torres, Juan P; Entrenas, Luis M; Esteban, Cristóbal; García-Sidro, Patricia; Cosio, Borja G; Huerta, Arturo; Iriberri, Milagros; Izquierdo, José Luis; López-Viña, Antolín; López-Campos, José Luis; Martínez-Moragón, Eva; Pérez de Llano, Luis; Perpiñá, Miguel; Ros, José Antonio; Serrano, José; Soler-Cataluña, Juan José; Torrego, Alfons; Urrutia, Isabel; Plaza, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Background Some patients with COPD may share characteristics of asthma; this is the so-called asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). There are no universally accepted criteria for ACOS, and most treatments for asthma and COPD have not been adequately tested in this population. Materials and methods We performed a survey among pulmonology specialists in asthma and COPD aimed at collecting their opinions about ACOS and their attitudes in regard to some case scenarios of ACOS patients. The participants answered a structured questionnaire and attended a face-to-face meeting with the Metaplan methodology to discuss different aspects of ACOS. Results A total of 26 pulmonologists with a mean age of 49.7 years participated in the survey (13 specialists in asthma and 13 in COPD). Among these, 84.6% recognized the existence of ACOS and stated that a mean of 12.6% of their patients might have this syndrome. In addition, 80.8% agreed that the diagnostic criteria for ACOS are not yet well defined. The most frequently mentioned characteristics of ACOS were a history of asthma (88.5%), significant smoking exposure (73.1%), and postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity <0.7 (69.2%). The most accepted diagnostic criteria were eosinophilia in sputum (80.8%), a very positive bronchodilator test (69.2%), and a history of asthma before 40 years of age (65.4%). Up to 96.2% agreed that first-line treatment for ACOS was the combination of a long-acting β2-agonist and inhaled steroid, with a long-acting antimuscarinic agent (triple therapy) for severe ACOS. Conclusion Most Spanish specialists in asthma and COPD agree that ACOS exists, but the diagnostic criteria are not yet well defined. A previous history of asthma, smoking, and not fully reversible airflow limitation are considered the main characteristics of ACOS, with the most accepted first-line treatment being long-acting β2-agonist/inhaled corticosteroids. PMID:26270415

  12. Regulatory requirements affecting disposal of asbestos-containing waste

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities. The performance of these activities may generate asbestos-containing waste because asbestos was formerly used in many building materials, including floor tile, sealants, plastics, cement pipe, cement sheets, insulating boards, and insulating cements. The regulatory requirements governing the disposal of these wastes depend on: (1) the percentage of asbestos in the waste and whether the waste is friable (easily crumbled or pulverized); (2) other physical and chemical characteristics of the waste; and (3) the State in which the waste is generated. This Information Brief provides an overview of the environment regulatory requirements affecting disposal of asbestos-containing waste. It does not address regulatory requirements applicable to worker protection promulgated under the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHAct), the Mining Safety and Health Act (MSHA), or the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).

  13. Genetically engineered crops for biofuel production: regulatory perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lee, David; Chen, Alice; Nair, Ramesh

    2008-01-01

    There are numerous challenges in realizing the potential of biofuels that many policy makers have envisioned. The technical challenges in making the production of biofuels economical and on a scale to replace a significant fraction of transportation fuel have been well described, along with the potential environmental concerns. The use of biotechnology can potentially address many of these technical challenges and environmental concerns, but brings significant regulatory hurdles that have not been discussed extensively in the scientific community. This review will give an overview of the approaches being developed to produce transgenic biofuel feedstocks, particularly cellulosic ethanol, and the regulatory process in the United States that oversees the development and commercialization of new transgenic plants. We hope to illustrate that the level of regulation for transgenic organisms is not proportional to their potential risk to human health or the environment, and that revisions to the regulatory system in the U.S. currently under consideration are necessary to streamline the process.

  14. Internationalization of regulatory requirements.

    PubMed

    Juillet, Y

    2003-02-01

    The aim of harmonisation of medicines regulatory requirements is to allow the patient quicker access to new drugs and to avoid animal and human duplications. Harmonisation in the European Union (EU) is now completed, and has led to the submission of one dossier in one language study leading to European marketing authorizations, thanks in particular to efficacy guidelines published at the European level. With the benefit of the European experience since 1989, more than 40 guidelines have been harmonised amongst the EU, Japan and the USA through the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH). ICH is a unique process gathering regulators and industry experts from the three regions. Its activity is built on expertise and trust. The Common Technical Document (CTD), an agreed common format for application in the three regions, is a logical follow-up to the ICH first phase harmonising the content of the dossier. The CTD final implementation in July 2003 will have considerable influence on the review process and on the exchange of information in the three regions.

  15. 21 CFR 500.88 - Regulatory method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 500.88 Regulatory method. (a) The sponsor shall submit for evaluation and validation a regulatory... method validation data. (c) FDA will publish in the Federal Register the complete regulatory method...

  16. Frequency addressable beams for land mobile communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. D.; Dubellay, G. G.

    1988-01-01

    Satellites used for mobile communications need to serve large numbers of small, low cost terminals. The most important parameters affecting the capacity of such systems are the satellite equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) and gain to noise temperature ratio (G/T) and available bandwidth. Satellites using frequency addressed beams provide high EIRP and G/T with high-gain antenna beams that also permit frequency reuse over the composite coverage area. Frequency addressing is easy to implement and compatible with low-cost terminals and offers higher capacity than alternative approaches.

  17. Shared address collectives using counter mechanisms

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael; Dozsa, Gabor; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R; Miller, Douglas

    2014-02-18

    A shared address space on a compute node stores data received from a network and data to transmit to the network. The shared address space includes an application buffer that can be directly operated upon by a plurality of processes, for instance, running on different cores on the compute node. A shared counter is used for one or more of signaling arrival of the data across the plurality of processes running on the compute node, signaling completion of an operation performed by one or more of the plurality of processes, obtaining reservation slots by one or more of the plurality of processes, or combinations thereof.

  18. Cheaper Adjoints by Reversing Address Computations

    DOE PAGES

    Hascoët, L.; Utke, J.; Naumann, U.

    2008-01-01

    The reverse mode of automatic differentiation is widely used in science and engineering. A severe bottleneck for the performance of the reverse mode, however, is the necessity to recover certain intermediate values of the program in reverse order. Among these values are computed addresses, which traditionally are recovered through forward recomputation and storage in memory. We propose an alternative approach for recovery that uses inverse computation based on dependency information. Address storage constitutes a significant portion of the overall storage requirements. An example illustrates substantial gains that the proposed approach yields, and we show use cases in practical applications.

  19. Friending, IMing, and hanging out face-to-face: overlap in adolescents' online and offline social networks.

    PubMed

    Reich, Stephanie M; Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Espinoza, Guadalupe

    2012-03-01

    Many new and important developmental issues are encountered during adolescence, which is also a time when Internet use becomes increasingly popular. Studies have shown that adolescents are using these online spaces to address developmental issues, especially needs for intimacy and connection to others. Online communication with its potential for interacting with unknown others, may put teens at increased risk. Two hundred and fifty-one high school students completed an in-person survey, and 126 of these completed an additional online questionnaire about how and why they use the Internet, their activities on social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace) and their reasons for participation, and how they perceive these online spaces to impact their friendships. To examine the extent of overlap between online and offline friends, participants were asked to list the names of their top interaction partners offline and online (Facebook and instant messaging). Results reveal that adolescents mainly use social networking sites to connect with others, in particular with people known from offline contexts. While adolescents report little monitoring by their parents, there was no evidence that teens are putting themselves at risk by interacting with unknown others. Instead, adolescents seem to use the Internet, especially social networking sites, to connect with known others. While the study found moderate overlap between teens' closest online and offline friends, the patterns suggest that adolescents use online contexts to strengthen offline relationships.

  20. A new non-overlapping concept to improve the Hybrid Particle Level Set method in multi-phase fluid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Philip J.; Bai, Wei

    2015-02-01

    A novel non-overlapping concept is augmented to the Hybrid Particle Level Set (HPLS) method to improve its accuracy and suitability for the modelling of multi-phase fluid flows. The concept addresses shortcomings in the reseeding algorithm, which maintains resolution of the surface at runtime. These shortcomings result in the misplacement of newly seeded particles in the opposite signed domain and necessitate a restriction on the distance that a particle can escape without deletion, which reduces the effectiveness of the method. The non-overlapping concept judges the suitability of potential new particles based on information already contained within the particle representation of the surface. By preventing the misplacement of particles it is possible to significantly relax the distance restriction thereby increasing the accuracy of the HPLS method in multi-phase flows. To demonstrate its robustness and efficiency, the concept is examined with a number of challenging test cases, including both level-set-only simulations and two-phase fluid flows.