Science.gov

Sample records for address research questions

  1. From experience to definition: addressing the question 'what is qualitative research?'.

    PubMed

    Smythe, Liz; Giddings, Lynne S

    2007-07-01

    Most health professionals today have heard of 'qualitative research' but many remain confused as to what it is and how to go about doing it. In this paper, two experienced qualitative researchers become engaged in conversation exploring the question 'what is qualitative research?' Lynne Giddings and Liz Smythe are Associate Professors in the Faculty of Health & Environmental Sciences at the Auckland University of Technology. They engage a reader in exploring issues such as: What might draw you to qualitative research? How does qualitative research make a difference to practice? How can reading a qualitative research article inform practice? From a qualitative perspective, what is 'truth'? How many participants? What happens to the data? What about the bias of the researcher? Can qualitative findings be trusted? Stories and exemplars are used to highlight the processes and issues involved in undertaking a qualitative research study.

  2. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  3. [Shortage and need of physicians in Germany? Questions addressed to health services research].

    PubMed

    Adler, G; v d Knesebeck, J-H

    2011-02-01

    The problem of shortage of physicians has been discussed controversially in Germany for years, and the different positions of the interest groups involved have not been resolved. The question of the present and anticipated future requirement of physicians is central for an appropriate and necessary medical care of the population. In the analysis, supply and demand of medical care have to be distinguished. Relatively reliable data do exist for the supply of physicians; however, the changing number of working hours that male and--in particular female--physicians are willing to contribute should be taken into consideration. Reliable data for the future demand are presently not available. Several variables (e.g., demography, disease spectrum of an aging society, medical progress, the changing rules of working hours, and the shift of medical care between hospital and practice care) depend on future developments. Considering the existing serious indicators of a growing shortage of physicians, it is recommended to put more effort into the scientific investigation of these factors. More profound data should improve the basis for decisions in health and education politics.

  4. Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site: Field-Scale Test Facility for Addressing Fundamental Questions of Environmental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrash, W.; Routh, P. S.

    2006-12-01

    The Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site (BHRS) is a research wellfield or field-scale test facility developed in a shallow, coarse, fluvial aquifer with the objectives of supporting (a) development of cost-effective, non- invasive methods for quantitative characterization and imaging methods in heterogeneous aquifers using hydrologic and geophysical techniques; (b) examination of fundamental relationships and processes at multiple scales; (c) testing theories and models for groundwater flow and solute transport; and (d) educating and training the next generation of professionals in multidisciplinary subsurface science and engineering. The design of the wells and the wellfield provide for a wide range of single-well, cross-hole, multiwell and multilevel hydrologic, geophysical, and combined hydrologic-geophysical experiments. Efforts have been focused largely on (a) establishing the 3D distributions of geologic, hydrologic, and geophysical parameters which can then be used as the basis for testing methods to jointly invert hard and soft data to return the "known" 3D K distribution and (b) developing subsurface measurement and imaging methods including static and time-lapse tomographic imaging methods. From this work we have developed a good understanding of the hydrostratigraphic framework of the BHRS as a hierarchical system which includes layers and lenses; this framework is recognized with geologic, hydrologic, radar, seismic, and EM methods and tracer tests. Work to date has been conducted by Boise State University with some collaboration and exchange with researchers and students from other institutions. At this point the BHRS is functioning well as a field-scale control volume and test cell in a multiscale heterogeneous aquifer so there is an opportunity to increase the range of both collaborative participation and research activities at the BHRS. In this regard, opportunities exist to investigate and monitor process and property variation in time and space

  5. Questions for Music Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2008-01-01

    In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…

  6. Business Education: Addressing the "What" Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almoharby, Darwish

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to diversify the economy and stimulate private enterprise development, government agencies and private institutions in many countries have emphasized the importance of setting up and developing small and medium-size enterprises and promoting entrepreneurship. An important question confronting policy makers, however, is how they can…

  7. Basic Physics Questions Addressed by Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Dark matter, dark energy, the Big Bang, testing relativity -- all are physics questions accessible to astrophysicists -- but all require new equipment. As Harwit's "Cosmic Discovery" pointed out, almost all great surprises in astronomy came from new equipment or new uses of equipment designed for other purposes, and many of those had military applications. I will outline prospects for new equipment and discuss how that equipment can be developed and built. Bigger and lighter mirrors, wavefront sensing and control, new detector technology, cryogenics -- each has its own social network, its own special possibilities, and its own funding sources outside science. I will discuss some examples drawn from real-life experience with the James Webb Space Telescope, a telescope that was said to have a "giggle factor" when it was proposed in 1995. Now each of the 10 major technologies has been brought to maturity, flight hardware is being built, and launch is planned for 2014. As an instrument builder all my life, I will speculate a little on what may be within our reach over the next few decades.

  8. Addressing Parental Vaccination Questions in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luthy, Karlen E.; Burningham, Jana; Eden, Lacey M.; Macintosh, Janelle L. B.; Beckstrand, Renea L.

    2016-01-01

    School nurses work in a unique environment with key opportunities to address parental concerns and questions regarding their child's health. A common concern for parents during school enrollment is childhood vaccination safety and efficacy. As public health leaders, school nurses are well respected among parents, therefore school nurses are in a…

  9. Secondary Data Analysis: An Important Tool for Addressing Developmental Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Dowsett, Chantelle J.

    2012-01-01

    Existing data sets can be an efficient, powerful, and readily available resource for addressing questions about developmental science. Many of the available databases contain hundreds of variables of interest to developmental psychologists, track participants longitudinally, and have representative samples. In this article, the authors discuss the…

  10. Asking Research Questions: Theoretical Presuppositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenberg, Josh

    2014-01-01

    Asking significant research questions is a crucial aspect of building a research foundation in computer science (CS) education. In this article, I argue that the questions that we ask are shaped by internalized theoretical presuppositions about how the social and behavioral worlds operate. And although such presuppositions are essential in making…

  11. Addressing questions about including environmental effects in the DMSO HLA

    SciTech Connect

    Hummel, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    The Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO) is developing a High Level Architecture (HLA) to support the DOD Modeling and Simulation (M and S) community. Many, if not all, of the simulations involve the environment in some fashion. In some applications, the simulation takes place in an acknowledged environment without any environmental functionality being taken into account. The Joint Training Federation Prototype (JTFp) is one of several prototype efforts that have been created to provide a test of the DMSO HLA. In addition to addressing the applicability of the HLA to a training community, the JTFp is also one of two prototype efforts that is explicitly including environmental effects in their simulation effort. These two prototyping efforts are examining the issues associated with the inclusion of the environment in an HLA federation. In deciding whether or not to include an environmental federation in the JTFp effort, a number of questions have been raised about the environment and the HLA. These questions have raised the issue of incompatibility between the environment and the HLA and also shown that there is something unique about including the environment in simulations. The purpose of this White Paper, which was developed with inputs from the National Air and Space [Warfare] Model Program among others, is to address the various questions that have been posed about including environmental effects in an HLA simulation.

  12. Questionable Methods in Alcoholism Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koocher, Gerald P.

    1991-01-01

    Alcoholism research paradigms that use substantial cash incentives to attract participants and that call for alcoholics to consume ethanol in laboratory raise ethical questions. When using such methods, investigators should be obligated to discuss risk-benefit rationales and detail precautionary behaviors to protect participants. Discussion of…

  13. Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte Therapy: Addressing Prevailing Questions.

    PubMed

    Radvanyi, Laszlo G

    2015-01-01

    Autologous adoptive T-cell therapies have made tremendous strides over the last few years with excitement currently being generated by technologies that can reprogram T-cell specificities toward any desired antigen including chimeric antigen receptors and recombinant T-cell receptors. Time will tell whether these new genetically engineered T-cell technologies will be effective as advertised, especially in solid tumors, considering the limited availability of specific antigens and the difficulty in managing the unpredictable on-target, off-tissue toxicities. However, a form of T-cell therapy that has been utilized in patients more than any other and has left a lasting mark in the field is tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte therapy has consistently yielded durable clinical responses in selected patients with metastatic melanoma and is now being increasingly applied to treat other solid tumors, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, cervical cancer, breast cancer, and lung cancer. Despite its long history in the clinic and key developments over the last few decades that have augmented response rates and have made TIL manufacturing more streamlined, a number of key outstanding conceptual questions remain to be answered in the TIL therapy field. In this review, we address critical questions, including the mechanism of action of TILs and active T-cell subsets, the current need for lymphoablative preconditioning, predictive biomarkers, the role of combination therapy such as checkpoint blockade, new excitement over the recognition of mutated antigens (the "mutanome") by TILs, and issues in developing TILs for nonmelanoma indications. In each case, we will critically discuss the main issues and concerns and how they can affect the eventual positioning of TIL therapy in the mainstream of cancer care. PMID:26588676

  14. Early Childhood Teacher Research: From Questions to Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    What is early childhood teacher research and why is it important? How does a teacher researcher formulate a research question and a plan for doing research? How do teachers apply research results to effect change? "Early Childhood Teacher Research" is an exciting new resource that will address the sorts of questions and concerns that pre- and…

  15. Preventing and Addressing Challenging Behavior: Common Questions and Practical Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Corso, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer preschool teachers strategies for preventing challenging behavior and supporting the development of social skills and emotional competencies. This article is framed in a question and answer format using questions from teachers who the authors have worked with in the past. These questions and strategies are…

  16. Three Naive Questions: Addressed to the Modern Educational Optimism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krstic, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to question anew the popular and supposedly self-evident affirmation of education, in its modern incarnation as in its historical notion. The "naive" questions suggest that we have recently taken for granted that education ought to be for the masses, that it ought to be upbringing, and that it is better than ignorance.…

  17. Core questions in domestication research.

    PubMed

    Zeder, Melinda A

    2015-03-17

    The domestication of plants and animals is a key transition in human history, and its profound and continuing impacts are the focus of a broad range of transdisciplinary research spanning the physical, biological, and social sciences. Three central aspects of domestication that cut across and unify this diverse array of research perspectives are addressed here. Domestication is defined as a distinctive coevolutionary, mutualistic relationship between domesticator and domesticate and distinguished from related but ultimately different processes of resource management and agriculture. The relative utility of genetic, phenotypic, plastic, and contextual markers of evolving domesticatory relationships is discussed. Causal factors are considered, and two leading explanatory frameworks for initial domestication of plants and animals, one grounded in optimal foraging theory and the other in niche-construction theory, are compared.

  18. Overview of chemical imaging methods to address biological questions.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Marcel Menezes Lyra; Trepout, Sylvain; Messaoudi, Cédric; Wu, Ting-Di; Ortega, Richard; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Marco, Sergio

    2016-05-01

    Chemical imaging offers extensive possibilities for better understanding of biological systems by allowing the identification of chemical components at the tissue, cellular, and subcellular levels. In this review, we introduce modern methods for chemical imaging that can be applied to biological samples. This work is mainly addressed to the biological sciences community and includes the bases of different technologies, some examples of its application, as well as an introduction to approaches on combining multimodal data.

  19. Experimental approaches for addressing fundamental biological questions in living, functioning cells with single molecule precision

    PubMed Central

    Lenn, Tchern; Leake, Mark C.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, single molecule experimentation has allowed researchers to observe biological processes at the sensitivity level of single molecules in actual functioning, living cells, thereby allowing us to observe the molecular basis of the key mechanistic processes in question in a very direct way, rather than inferring these from ensemble average data gained from traditional molecular and biochemical techniques. In this short review, we demonstrate the impact that the application of single molecule bioscience experimentation has had on our understanding of various cellular systems and processes, and the potential that this approach has for the future to really address very challenging and fundamental questions in the life sciences. PMID:22773951

  20. Optimizing available network resources to address questions in environmental biogeochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinckley, Eve-Lyn; Suzanne Andersen,; Baron, Jill S.; Peter Blanken,; Gordon Bonan,; William Bowman,; Sarah Elmendorf,; Fierer, Noah; Andrew Fox,; Keli Goodman,; Katherine Jones,; Danica Lombardozzi,; Claire Lunch,; Jason Neff,; Michael SanClements,; Katherine Suding,; Will Wieder,

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of network observatories have been established globally to collect long-term biogeochemical data at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although many outstanding questions in biogeochemistry would benefit from network science, the ability of the earth- and environmental-sciences community to conduct synthesis studies within and across networks is limited and seldom done satisfactorily. We identify the ideal characteristics of networks, common problems with using data, and key improvements to strengthen intra- and internetwork compatibility. We suggest that targeted improvements to existing networks should include promoting standardization in data collection, developing incentives to promote rapid data release to the public, and increasing the ability of investigators to conduct their own studies across sites. Internetwork efforts should include identifying a standard measurement suite—we propose profiles of plant canopy and soil properties—and an online, searchable data portal that connects network, investigator-led, and citizen-science projects.

  1. Developing Qualitative Research Questions: A Reflective Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The reflective and interrogative processes required for developing effective qualitative research questions can give shape and direction to a study in ways that are often underestimated. Good research questions do not necessarily produce good research, but poorly conceived or constructed questions will likely create problems that affect all…

  2. Respiratory microbiota: addressing clinical questions, informing clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Geraint B; Shaw, Dominick; Marsh, Robyn L; Carroll, Mary P; Serisier, David J; Bruce, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, technological advances have revolutionised efforts to understand the role played by microbes in airways disease. With the application of ever more sophisticated techniques, the literature has become increasingly inaccessible to the non-specialist reader, potentially hampering the translation of these gains into improvements in patient care. In this article, we set out the key principles underpinning microbiota research in respiratory contexts and provide practical guidance on how best such studies can be designed, executed and interpreted. We examine how an understanding of the respiratory microbiota both challenges fundamental assumptions and provides novel clinical insights into lung disease, and we set out a number of important targets for ongoing research.

  3. Republished: Respiratory microbiota: addressing clinical questions, informing clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Geraint B; Shaw, Dominick; Marsh, Robyn L; Carroll, Mary P; Serisier, David J; Bruce, Kenneth D

    2015-08-01

    Over the last decade, technological advances have revolutionised efforts to understand the role played by microbes in airways disease. With the application of ever more sophisticated techniques, the literature has become increasingly inaccessible to the non-specialist reader, potentially hampering the translation of these gains into improvements in patient care. In this article, we set out the key principles underpinning microbiota research in respiratory contexts and provide practical guidance on how best such studies can be designed, executed and interpreted. We examine how an understanding of the respiratory microbiota both challenges fundamental assumptions and provides novel clinical insights into lung disease, and we set out a number of important targets for ongoing research.

  4. Questions for Research on Handwriting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Ernest

    1962-01-01

    Problems in handwriting research are related either to the total design of classroom instruction or to specific factors (e.g., position, letter formation). Problems of general design to be researched are the relation of handwriting practice to a student's general writing, identification of the most productive methods of practicing writing problems…

  5. Qualitative Studies: Developing Good Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bufkin, Melissa A.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative research is a type of research process that is widely used to give people a voice while researching a particular subject matter. In using this research process, one must understand how important it is to develop research questions within the qualitative research process. The purpose of this article is to aid researchers in the…

  6. Mental Models of Research: Generating Authentic Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donham, Jean; Heinrich, Jill A.; Bostwick, Kerry A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we question how we might disrupt positivist research paradigms that preclude students from engaging and experiencing ownership in the research process. We question what we, as professors, could do to facilitate the transition from traditional research reporting to a disposition of inquiry that allows for ambiguity and discovery in…

  7. The Question of Research Methodologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aanstoos, Christopher M.

    This paper argues that a human science approach should be included in the American Psychological Association's (APA) pending reconsideration of accreditation specifications. Psychology's curriculum will remain incomplete and sterile until it assimilates this approach. Some of the key procedures of human science research methodology are outlined,…

  8. How to Arrive at Good Research Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, K. Abdul

    2008-01-01

    Identifying an area of research a topic, deciding on a problem, and formulating it in to a researchable question are very difficult stages in the whole research process at least for beginners. Few books on research methodology elaborates the various process involved in problem selection and clarification. Viewing research and problem selection as…

  9. Learning How to Ask Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musante, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative research is a demanding endeavor, and for a group of undergraduate students tasked with identifying their own interdisciplinary research problem, the challenges are even greater. "It was scary--we didn't know what to ask the professors, and we couldn't decide on a research question," says Miran Park, a student at the University of…

  10. Research Questions in Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichowski, Chester; Walker, Thomas

    Results are reported of a nationwide survey to identify and categorize research questions related to the trade and industrial education area. (Respondents were members of the Policy and Planning Committee and the Research Committee of the American Vocational Association's Trade and Industrial Division, state and territorial supervisors of trade…

  11. Addressing Risks to Advance Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Iltis, Ana S.; Misra, Sahana; Dunn, Laura B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Campbell, Amy; Earll, Sarah A.; Glowinski, Anne; Hadley, Whitney B.; Pies, Ronald; DuBois, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk communication and management are essential to the ethical conduct of research, yet addressing risks may be time consuming for investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) may reject study designs that appear too risky. This can discourage needed research, particularly in higher risk protocols or those enrolling potentially vulnerable individuals, such as those with some level of suicidality. Improved mechanisms for addressing research risks may facilitate much needed psychiatric research. This article provides mental health researchers with practical approaches to: 1) identify and define various intrinsic research risks; 2) communicate these risks to others (e.g., potential participants, regulatory bodies, society); 3) manage these risks during the course of a study; and 4) justify the risks. Methods As part of a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded scientific meeting series, a public conference and a closed-session expert panel meeting were held on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. The expert panel reviewed the literature with a focus on empirical studies and developed recommendations for best practices and further research on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. IRB review was not required because there were no human subjects. The NIMH played no role in developing or reviewing the manuscript. Results Challenges, current data, practical strategies, and topics for future research are addressed for each of four key areas pertaining to management and disclosure of risks in clinical trials: identifying and defining risks, communicating risks, managing risks during studies, and justifying research risks. Conclusions Empirical data on risk communication, managing risks, and the benefits of research can support the ethical conduct of mental health research and may help investigators better conceptualize and confront risks and to gain IRB approval. PMID:24173618

  12. The most intriguing question in synesthesia research.

    PubMed

    Rouw, Romke; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2014-01-01

    This discussion paper forms an insightful addition to the synesthesia literature. Accompanying a steep increase in recent publications on synesthesia, it helps remedy the conspicuous paucity of mechanistic process models explaining the condition. The paper furthermore addresses what is arguably among the most interesting questions: Why do most synesthetes *not* get confused by their additional sensations? This is particularly interesting when phrased in a broader context: What are the mechanisms for deciding which of the sensations we experience reflect something "real" (phenomena in the outside world) and which reflect something that is "not real" (internally generated and private phenomena).

  13. Frequently asked questions in hypoxia research

    PubMed Central

    Wenger, Roland H; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan; Scholz, Carsten C; Marti, Hugo H; Hoogewijs, David

    2015-01-01

    “What is the O2 concentration in a normoxic cell culture incubator?” This and other frequently asked questions in hypoxia research will be answered in this review. Our intention is to give a simple introduction to the physics of gases that would be helpful for newcomers to the field of hypoxia research. We will provide background knowledge about questions often asked, but without straightforward answers. What is O2 concentration, and what is O2 partial pressure? What is normoxia, and what is hypoxia? How much O2 is experienced by a cell residing in a culture dish in vitro vs in a tissue in vivo? By the way, the O2 concentration in a normoxic incubator is 18.6%, rather than 20.9% or 20%, as commonly stated in research publications. And this is strictly only valid for incubators at sea level. PMID:27774480

  14. Early Parental Positive Behavior Support and Childhood Adjustment: Addressing Enduring Questions with New Methods

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Winter, Charlotte E.; Wilson, Melvin

    2016-01-01

    A large literature provides strong empirical support for the influence of parenting on child outcomes. The current study addresses enduring research questions testing the importance of early parenting behavior to children’s adjustment. Specifically, we developed and tested a novel multi-method observational measure of parental positive behavior support at age 2. Next, we tested whether early parental positive behavior support was related to child adjustment at school age, within a multi-agent and multi-method measurement approach and design. Observational and parent-reported data from mother–child dyads (N = 731; 49 percent female) were collected from a high-risk sample at age 2. Follow-up data were collected via teacher report and child assessment at age 7.5. The results supported combining three different observational methods to assess positive behavior support at age 2 within a latent factor. Further, parents’ observed positive behavior support at age 2 predicted multiple types of teacher-reported and child-assessed problem behavior and competencies at 7.5 years old. Results supported the validity and predictive capability of a multi-method observational measure of parenting and the importance of a continued focus on the early years within preventive interventions. PMID:26997757

  15. Addressing Parental Vaccination Questions in the School Setting: An Integrative Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Luthy, Karlen E; Burningham, Jana; Eden, Lacey M; Macintosh, Janelle L B; Beckstrand, Renea L

    2016-02-01

    School nurses work in a unique environment with key opportunities to address parental concerns and questions regarding their child's health. A common concern for parents during school enrollment is childhood vaccination safety and efficacy. As public health leaders, school nurses are well respected among parents, therefore school nurses are in a prime position to educate parents and promote childhood vaccinations while also dispelling common vaccination myths. The purpose of this integrative literature review is to synthesize evidence-based answers to common parental questions regarding childhood vaccinations. PMID:26400833

  16. Forming a Research Question from a Multi-Center Database

    PubMed Central

    Likosky, Donald S.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: It is not uncommon for individuals to ask biostatisiticians and epidemiologists to assist them with a research project. Often the request is in the shape of statistical analyses. However, most of these requests are nothing more than missed opportunities. This manuscript focuses on the reasons underlying such a statement. Most individuals might say that the most important aspect of a study is its conclusion. Many who would disagree with this sentiment and would feel that the most important aspect of a study rather is the question it intends to address. If this question is not articulated sufficiently, any additional information stemming from the study will most likely be irrelevant. Herein, some principles for formulating (successfully) a question from a multi-center database will be described. PMID:19361039

  17. Linking Research Questions to Mixed Methods Data Analysis Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of research questions in mixed methods studies. First, we discuss the ways that the goal of the study, the research objective(s), and the research purpose shape the formation of research questions. Second, we compare and contrast quantitative research questions and qualitative research…

  18. Rainfall Simulation: methods, research questions and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J. B.; Iserloh, T.

    2012-04-01

    In erosion research, rainfall simulations are used for the improvement of process knowledge as well as in the field for the assessment of overland flow generation, infiltration, and erosion rates. In all these fields of research, rainfall experiments have become an indispensable part of the research methods. In this context, small portable rainfall simulators with small test-plot sizes of one square-meter or even less, and devices of low weight and water consumption are in demand. Accordingly, devices with manageable technical effort like nozzle-type simulators seem to prevail against larger simulators. The reasons are obvious: lower costs and less time consumption needed for mounting enable a higher repetition rate. Regarding the high number of research questions, of different fields of application, and not least also due to the great technical creativity of our research staff, a large number of different experimental setups is available. Each of the devices produces a different rainfall, leading to different kinetic energy amounts influencing the soil surface and accordingly, producing different erosion results. Hence, important questions contain the definition, the comparability, the measurement and the simulation of natural rainfall and the problem of comparability in general. Another important discussion topic will be the finding of an agreement on an appropriate calibration method for the simulated rainfalls, in order to enable a comparison of the results of different rainfall simulator set-ups. In most of the publications, only the following "nice" sentence can be read: "Our rainfall simulator generates a rainfall spectrum that is similar to natural rainfall!". The most substantial and critical properties of a simulated rainfall are the drop-size distribution, the fall velocities of the drops, and the spatial distribution of the rainfall on the plot-area. In a comparison of the most important methods, the Laser Distrometer turned out to be the most up

  19. To Address or Not to Address the Violent Past in the Classroom? That Is the Question in Côte D'ivoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppens, Line; Langer, Arnim

    2016-01-01

    In the aftermath of violent conflict, divided societies have to answer the important question of whether, when and how to address their country's violent past within their educational system. Whereas some scholars within the field of peace education and transitional justice argue that addressing the violent past in the classroom is important for…

  20. Research funds for NCI’s Provocative Questions project announced

    Cancer.gov

    NCI’s Provocative Questions project has announced that it is now seeking applications from researchers eager to influence the state of cancer research by tackling potentially game-changing, but perplexing, scientific questions that could drive progress ag

  1. Home Education Reason and Research: Common Questions and Research-Based Answers about Homeschooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    This is a brief review of research on a variety of topics related to home education and answers the most common questions asked regarding Homeschooling. Examples of the topics addressed are: the teaching parent's education level, academic achievement of students, population growth, philosophy, government (state) regulation and homeschool…

  2. On framing the research question and choosing the appropriate research design.

    PubMed

    Parfrey, Patrick; Ravani, Pietro

    2009-01-01

    Clinical epidemiology is the science of human disease investigation with a focus on diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. The generation of a reasonable question requires the definition of patients, interventions, controls, and outcomes. The goal of research design is to minimize error, ensure adequate samples, measure input and output variables appropriately, consider external and internal validities, limit bias, and address clinical as well as statistical relevance. The hierarchy of evidence for clinical decision making places randomized controlled trials (RCT) or systematic review of good quality RCTs at the top of the evidence pyramid. Prognostic and etiologic questions are best addressed with longitudinal cohort studies.

  3. On framing the research question and choosing the appropriate research design.

    PubMed

    Parfrey, Patrick S; Ravani, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Clinical epidemiology is the science of human disease investigation with a focus on diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. The generation of a reasonable question requires definition of patients, interventions, controls, and outcomes. The goal of research design is to minimize error, to ensure adequate samples, to measure input and output variables appropriately, to consider external and internal validities, to limit bias, and to address clinical as well as statistical relevance. The hierarchy of evidence for clinical decision-making places randomized controlled trials (RCT) or systematic review of good quality RCTs at the top of the evidence pyramid. Prognostic and etiologic questions are best addressed with longitudinal cohort studies.

  4. Survey design research: a tool for answering nursing research questions.

    PubMed

    Siedlecki, Sandra L; Butler, Robert S; Burchill, Christian N

    2015-01-01

    The clinical nurse specialist is in a unique position to identify and study clinical problems in need of answers, but lack of time and resources may discourage nurses from conducting research. However, some research methods can be used by the clinical nurse specialist that are not time-intensive or cost prohibitive. The purpose of this article is to explain the utility of survey methodology for answering a number of nursing research questions. The article covers survey content, reliability and validity issues, sample size considerations, and methods of survey delivery.

  5. Separating the Research Question from the Laboratory Techniques: Advancing High-School Biology Teachers' Ability to Ask Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasson, Eilat; Yarden, Anat

    2012-01-01

    Inquiry is essentially a process in which research questions are asked and an attempt is made to find the answers. However, the formulation of operational research questions of the sort used in authentic scientific inquiry is not a trivial task. Here, we set out to explore the possible influence of separating the research question from the…

  6. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers: A Case Study for Using Biomonitoring Data to Address Risk Assessment Questions

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Linda S.; Cohen Hubal, Elaine A.

    2006-01-01

    The use of biomonitoring data holds promise for characterizing exposure and informing risk assessment. Biomonitoring data have been used successfully to track population trends, identify susceptible populations, and provide indications of emerging environmental health issues. However, there remain challenges associated with interpreting biomonitoring data for risk assessment. An international biomonitoring workshop was convened in September 2004 to explore the use of biomonitoring data in the context of risk assessment. Six compounds were examined as case studies for this workshop, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The PBDE case study was developed to provide an example of a persistent compound for which relatively few data are available for human exposure, biomonitoring, and health outcomes. PBDEs are used in hard plastics, electronics, textiles, and polyurethane foam products. The congener pattern downstream of production facilities often resembles the commercial mixture. However, because these compounds persist in the environment and in biota, the patterns of congeners evolve. PBDEs partition into body lipids, and direct measurement of bromodiphenyl ether congeners in biologic specimens provides a good marker of exposure. Data indicate significant variability (> 100-fold range) in lipid-adjusted levels for PBDEs in the general population. It is hypothesized that both exposure and pharmacokinetics may play a role in observed congener profiles. Significant gaps in our ability to interpret PBDE biomonitoring data to address public health and risk assessment questions include limited knowledge of environmental fate and transport of PBDE congeners, limited population-based data for adults, and lack of data for potentially vulnerable populations such as children. PMID:17107866

  7. Mars 2001 Mission: Addressing Scientific Questions Regarding the Characteristics and Origin of Local Bedrock and Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Weitz, C. M.; Marshall, J.; Squyres, S. W.; Christensen, P. R.; Meloy, T.; Smith, P.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Mission will carry instruments on the orbiter, lander and rover that will support synergistic observations and experiments to address important scientific questions regarding the local bedrock and soils. The martian surface is covered in varying degrees by fine materials less than a few mms in size. Viking and Pathfinder images of the surface indicate that soils at those sites are composed of fine particles. Wheel tracks from the Sojourner rover suggest that soil deposits are composed of particles <40 mm. Viking images show that dunes are common in many areas on Mars and new MOC images indicate that dunes occur nearly everywhere. Dunes on Mars are thought to be composed of 250-500 microns particles based upon Viking IRTM data and Mars wind tunnel experiments. If martian dunes are composed of sand particles > 100 microns and soils are dominated by <10 micron particles, then where are the intermediate grain sizes? Have they been wom away through prolonged transport over the eons? Were they never generated to begin with? Or are they simply less easy to identify because do they not form distinctive geomorphic features such as dunes or uniform mantles that tend to assume superposition in the soil structure?

  8. Beyond Open Big Data: Addressing Unreliable Research

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Edward T; Hsu, Douglas J; Stone, David J

    2014-01-01

    The National Institute of Health invests US $30.9 billion annually in medical research. However, the subsequent impact of this research output on society and the economy is amplified dramatically as a result of the actual medical treatments, biomedical innovations, and various commercial enterprises that emanate from and depend on these findings. It is therefore a great concern to discover that much of published research is unreliable. We propose extending the open data concept to the culture of the scientific research community. By dialing down unproductive features of secrecy and competition, while ramping up cooperation and transparency, we make a case that what is published would then be less susceptible to the sometimes corrupting and confounding pressures to be first or journalistically attractive, which can compromise the more fundamental need to be robustly correct. PMID:25405277

  9. Beyond open big data: addressing unreliable research.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Edward T; Hsu, Douglas J; Stone, David J; Celi, Leo Anthony

    2014-11-11

    The National Institute of Health invests US $30.9 billion annually in medical research. However, the subsequent impact of this research output on society and the economy is amplified dramatically as a result of the actual medical treatments, biomedical innovations, and various commercial enterprises that emanate from and depend on these findings. It is therefore a great concern to discover that much of published research is unreliable. We propose extending the open data concept to the culture of the scientific research community. By dialing down unproductive features of secrecy and competition, while ramping up cooperation and transparency, we make a case that what is published would then be less susceptible to the sometimes corrupting and confounding pressures to be first or journalistically attractive, which can compromise the more fundamental need to be robustly correct.

  10. Beyond open big data: addressing unreliable research.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Edward T; Hsu, Douglas J; Stone, David J; Celi, Leo Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The National Institute of Health invests US $30.9 billion annually in medical research. However, the subsequent impact of this research output on society and the economy is amplified dramatically as a result of the actual medical treatments, biomedical innovations, and various commercial enterprises that emanate from and depend on these findings. It is therefore a great concern to discover that much of published research is unreliable. We propose extending the open data concept to the culture of the scientific research community. By dialing down unproductive features of secrecy and competition, while ramping up cooperation and transparency, we make a case that what is published would then be less susceptible to the sometimes corrupting and confounding pressures to be first or journalistically attractive, which can compromise the more fundamental need to be robustly correct. PMID:25405277

  11. Research infrastructure support to address ecosystem dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Los, Wouter

    2014-05-01

    Predicting the evolution of ecosystems to climate change or human pressures is a challenge. Even understanding past or current processes is complicated as a result of the many interactions and feedbacks that occur within and between components of the system. This talk will present an example of current research on changes in landscape evolution, hydrology, soil biogeochemical processes, zoological food webs, and plant community succession, and how these affect feedbacks to components of the systems, including the climate system. Multiple observations, experiments, and simulations provide a wealth of data, but not necessarily understanding. Model development on the coupled processes on different spatial and temporal scales is sensitive for variations in data and of parameter change. Fast high performance computing may help to visualize the effect of these changes and the potential stability (and reliability) of the models. This may than allow for iteration between data production and models towards stable models reducing uncertainty and improving the prediction of change. The role of research infrastructures becomes crucial is overcoming barriers for such research. Environmental infrastructures are covering physical site facilities, dedicated instrumentation and e-infrastructure. The LifeWatch infrastructure for biodiversity and ecosystem research will provide services for data integration, analysis and modeling. But it has to cooperate intensively with the other kinds of infrastructures in order to support the iteration between data production and model computation. The cooperation in the ENVRI project (Common operations of environmental research infrastructures) is one of the initiatives to foster such multidisciplinary research.

  12. Using Participatory Action Research to Address Absenteeism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrell, Elizabeth W.; Nance, Cara N.; Torres, Amanda L.; Torres, Selina M.

    2014-01-01

    Many urban high schools serving low-income families have below-average attendance rates, which can indicate that fewer students are prepared to matriculate into college and career opportunities. Through the use of participatory action research (PAR), we--a group of four educators at Wilson High School--have changed school policies and procedures…

  13. Top 10 research questions to promote physical activity research in people with binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Rosenbaum, Simon; Probst, Michel; Connaughton, Joanne; Du Plessis, Christy; Yamamoto, Taisei; Diedens, Jolien; Stubbs, Brendon

    2016-01-01

    Despite emerging evidence illustrating the benefits of physical activity for people with binge eating disorder, engaging this population in physical activity is challenging. The International Organization of Physical Therapists in Mental Health (IOPTMH) set out to summarize, appraise, and strengthen the direction of physical activity endeavors. This process led to the identification of 10 important research questions which are discussed. Addressing these 10 research questions is critical for developing evidence-based approaches for promoting and sustaining an active lifestyle in people with binge eating disorder. PMID:26694684

  14. Questioning current definitions for breastfeeding research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to examine how breastfeeding is defined for research purposes. Discussion Current breastfeeding definitions focus on the amount of breast milk an infant receives and do not encompass how a baby is fed. Our concerns are that key variables are not measured when mothers are pumping or expressing their milk and bottle feeding. It seems the breastfeeding relationship is not considered in the definition. Conclusion While we appreciate the implications of full versus partial breastfeeding in research studies, we also believe the method of infant feeding to be significant. Researchers should develop new definitions. PMID:22889093

  15. Compilation of Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension Questions for Discussion. 104th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    This volume compiles and reprints the responses of 37 organizations to a series of questions issued by the House Committee on Agriculture in anticipation of debates concerning the Research Title of the 1995 Farm Bill due for updating and revision. The questions address some of the following topics: the role of the federal government in…

  16. Frequently Asked Questions about Clinical Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... the molecular basis of human genetic diseases, and creating new technologies to accelerate further genetic research. NHGRI investigators are working to uncover the genetic components of common disorders such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease, as well as less common conditions such ...

  17. Beyond Technology: Questioning, Research and the Information Literate School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Jamie

    This collection of previously published essays and articles by the author outlines an approach to school research that is meant to prepare students to explore the most demanding and essential questions of life with independence, skill and confidence. The book describes strategies to make student questioning and research central to schooling, and…

  18. The Significance of Problems Addressed in Recent Vocational Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucel, David J.

    1983-01-01

    This article examines the significance of problems addressed in recent vocational education research published in volumes 4 and 5 of the "Journal of Vocational Education Research" and volumes 16 and 17 of the "Journal of Industrial Teacher Education." (SSH)

  19. Identifying and Addressing Challenges to Research in University Laboratory Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    File, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This essay offers a review of challenges that university laboratory preschools face in providing a site for research that fits with other components of the program mission. An argument is made to consider paradigm shifts in research questions and methods that move away from traditions within the fields that study children's…

  20. Studying Teacher Preparation: The Questions That Drive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran-Smith, Marilyn; Maria Villegas, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that research on teacher preparation over the last 100 years can be understood in terms of the major questions that researchers examined. The analysis is guided by the framework of "research as historically situated social practice," which emphasizes that researchers' interests, commitments, and social experiences…

  1. Using imprecise probabilities to address the questions of inference and decision in randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Gurrin, Lyle C; Sly, Peter D; Burton, Paul R

    2002-05-01

    Randomized controlled clinical trials play an important role in the development of new medical therapies. There is, however, an ethical issue surrounding the use of randomized treatment allocation when the patient is suffering from a life threatening condition and requires immediate treatment. Such patients can only benefit from the treatment they actually receive and not from the alternative therapy, even if it ultimately proves to be superior. We discuss a novel new way to analyse data from such clinical trials based on the use of the recently developed theory of imprecise probabilities. This work draws an explicit distinction between the related but nevertheless distinct questions of inference and decision in clinical trials. The traditional question of scientific interest asks 'Which treatment offers the greater chance of success?' and is the primary reason for conducting the clinical trial. The question of decision concerns the welfare of the patients in the clinical trial, asking whether the accumulated evidence favours one treatment over the other to such an extent that the next patient should decline randomization and instead express a preference for one treatment. Consideration of the decision question within the framework of imprecise probabilities leads to a mathematical definition of equipoise and a method for governing the randomization protocol of a clinical trial. This paper describes in detail the protocol for the conduct of clinical trials based on this new method of analysis, which is illustrated in a retrospective analysis of data from a clinical trial comparing the anti-emetic drugs ondansetron and droperidol in the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting. The proposed methodology is compared quantitatively using computer simulation studies with conventional clinical trial designs and is shown to maintain high statistical power with reduced sample sizes, at the expense of a high type I error rate that we argue is irrelevant in some

  2. Politics and the Life Sciences: Current Research Questions and Teaching Biopolitics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somit, Albert; Peterson, Steven A.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on major current research questions addressed by those in biopolitics. Notes how this research material can be introduced into graduate and undergraduate courses. Suggests introducing these materials into courses dealing with political behavior, public policy and public administration, political philosophy, international relations, and…

  3. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Physical Literacy.

    PubMed

    Longmuir, Patricia E; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    The term physical literacy is relatively new, and its definition, conceptual underpinning, how it is measured, how to change it, and its relationship with holistic health and wellness across the life span are a few of many foundational issues that lack consensus. At present, there are more questions than answers. The purpose of this article is to highlight 10 important research questions related to physical literacy with the hope of fueling future research activity and debate. Input was sought from international experts and practitioners on priorities and research gaps related to physical literacy. This list was supplemented by personal experience and research priorities identified in published manuscripts. From these various sources, the top 10 research questions related to physical literacy were compiled. Research related to physical literacy is in its infancy, and many important, even fundamental research questions and priorities remain unanswered. Research needs are summarized within 4 themes: monitoring physical literacy, understanding the physical literacy journey, enhancing physical literacy, and the benefits of physical literacy. Specific research questions relate to identifying measurable aspects of physical literacy and how they change across cultures and throughout the life span, as well as understanding the individual and environmental factors that describe the physical literacy journey and are effective targets for interventions. Physical literacy is increasingly recognized as the foundation for a healthy active lifestyle; however, robust research demonstrating its constitution, its relationship with health-related outcomes, and intervention strategies for its improvement remains to be completed. PMID:26889582

  4. Addressing the Research/Practice Divide in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flessner, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Educational scholars often describe a research/practice divide. Similarly, students in teacher education programs often struggle to navigate the differences between university coursework and expectations they face in field-based placements. This self-study analyzes one researcher's attempt to address the research/practice divide from the position…

  5. Begging the Question: Performativity and Studio-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petelin, George

    2014-01-01

    The requirement that candidates in studio-based or practice-led higher degrees by research should formulate a research question has been found to be problematic by some writers. The present article argues that this stance, particularly as it is articulated by proponents of the influential category of "performative research" (Haseman,…

  6. The paradox of premature mortality in schizophrenia: new research questions.

    PubMed

    Wildgust, Hiram Joseph; Hodgson, Richard; Beary, Mike

    2010-11-01

    The life expectancy of patients with schizophrenia is reduced by between 15 and 25 years. Those patients dying of natural causes die of the same diseases as in the general population. In 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) identified underlying global risk factors for mortality in the general population. However, there is little evidence in the literature assessing their validity in those with schizophrenia. The WHO report on global health risks (2009) identifies hypertension, smoking, raised glucose, physical inactivity, overweight and obesity, and high cholesterol as the six leading global mortality risk factors. Currently, there are minimal data on the contribution to mortality that these risk factors make in schizophrenia, and their optimum management. Both short and long-term studies are needed to address these gaps. New research has raised important questions about risk balance with regards to ideal body mass, with some studies showing that being overweight is associated with lower all-cause mortality and lower suicide rates. Cardiorespiratory fitness is being recognized as a more powerful predictor of mortality than smoking, hypertension or diabetes in men. However, there are virtually no published data on assessment of fitness levels in schizophrenia. New studies have raised concerns about the quality of physical care for patients with schizophrenia, which is another important avenue of future research. A greater biological understanding of the relationship between these disorders and schizophrenia would inform clinical practice. Low birth weight has been associated with increased risk for schizophrenia, and it will be important to explore this risk factor for both physical and mental health outcomes.

  7. The Swimming Ammonite: How Computed Tomography can Address Questions of Functional Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemanis, Robert; Hoffmann, Rene; Zachow, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    has strong potential to address the controversial life-habits of adult ammonites through the study of the buoyant properties of the phragmocone and the structural properties of the shell. The implications for palaeobiology are clear, however the understanding of ammonite life-habits is also important for utilization as archives for palaeoenvironmetal/geochemical data.

  8. The Arctic in the Anthropocene: Emerging Research Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Pfirman, Stephanie; Huntington, Henry

    2014-04-29

    The activity was designed to provide guidance on future research questions in the Arctic over the next 10-20 years, identifying the key scientific questions that are emerging in different realms of Arctic science and exploring both disciplinary realms (e.g., marine, terrestrial, atmosphere, cryosphere, and social sciences) and cross cutting realms (e.g., integrated systems science and sustainability science). Based on the emerging research questions, the study also helps identify research infrastructure needs and collaboration opportunities. Attention was given to assessing needs where there may be a mismatch between rates of change and the pace of scientific research. Although it is understood that there is no one answer, the committee was asked to explore how agency decision makers might achieve balance in their research portfolios and associated investments. This report is meant to guide future directions in U.S. Arctic research so that research is targeted on critical scientific and societal questions and conducted as effectively as possible. This activity was sponsored by USARC, DOE, NASA, NOAA, NSF, and the Smithsonian Institution.

  9. Can Qualitative Researchers Answer Policymakers' What-Works Question?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donmoyer, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The article asks whether constructivist qualitative researchers have anything to offer policymakers who expect researchers to tell them what works. The first part of the article addresses philosophical objections to characterizing the social world in cause/effect terms. Specifically, it considers whether it is legitimate for qualitative…

  10. Questions of Culture in Distance Learning: A Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzuner, Sedef

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews past research that focused on questions of culture in distance learning. Of specific interest are the studies that examined the influence of culture on students' learning and engagement in asynchronous learning networks (ALNs). The purpose of this review is three-fold: to present the state of knowledge concerning the questions…

  11. Service-Learning Projects Developed from Institutional Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zack, Maria; Crow, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Institutional research questions provide an excellent source of interesting problems for service-learning projects for undergraduates in mathematics. This paper discusses how this model has been implemented at Point Loma Nazarene University and provides both examples and practical details. (Contains 6 figures.)

  12. Student Engagement Research in Higher Education: Questioning an Academic Orthodoxy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepke, Nick

    2014-01-01

    This article suggests that student engagement research is not often investigated critically. It attempts to change this. After briefly outlining a conceptual framework for student engagement, it explores three critical questions about it. First, it asks whether in trying to be all things in teaching and learning, student engagement focuses too…

  13. Balance of the Sexes: Addressing Sex Differences in Preclinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Zakiniaeiz, Yasmin; Cosgrove, Kelly P.; Potenza, Marc N.; Mazure, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical research is fundamental for the advancement of biomedical sciences and enhancing healthcare. Considering sex differences in all studies throughout the entire biomedical research pipeline is necessary to adequately inform clinical research and improve health outcomes. However, there is a paucity of information to date on sex differences in preclinical work. As of 2009, most (about 80 percent) rodent studies across 10 fields of biology were still conducted with only male animals. In 2016, the National Institutes of Health implemented a policy aimed to address this concern by requiring the consideration of sex as a biological variable in preclinical research grant applications. This perspective piece aims to (1) provide a brief history of female inclusion in biomedical research, (2) describe the importance of studying sex differences, (3) explain possible reasons for opposition of female inclusion, and (4) present potential additional solutions to reduce sex bias in preclinical research. PMID:27354851

  14. Importance of Broken Gauge Symmetry in Addressing Three, Key, Unanswered Questions Posed by Low Nuclear Reactions (LENR's)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott

    2003-03-01

    Three, Key, Unanswered Questions posed by LENR's are: 1. How do we explain the lack of high energy particles (HEP's)? 2. Can we understand and prioritize the way coupling can occur between nuclear- and atomic- lengthscales, and 3. What are the roles of Surface-Like (SL), as opposed to Bulk-Like (BL), processes in triggering nuclear phenomena. One important source of confusion associated with each of these questions is the common perception that the quantum mechanical phases of different particles are not correlated with each other. When the momenta p of interacting particles is large, and reactions occur rapidly (between HEP's, for example), this is a valid assumption. But when the relative difference in p becomes vanishingly small, between one charge, and many others, as a result of implicit electromagnetic coupling, each charge can share a common phase, relative to the others, modulo 2nπ, where n is an integer, even when outside forces are introduced. The associated forms of broken gauge symmetry, distinguish BL from SL phenomena, at room temperature, also explain super- and normal- conductivity in solids, and can be used to address the Three, Key, Unanswered Questions posed by LENR's.

  15. Empirical and theoretical studies on number comparison: design parameters and research questions.

    PubMed

    Ballan, Meltem

    2012-01-01

    For well over one-hundred years, several key factors have been well established in the study of number comparison, including mental number line, numerical distance effect, and effect of sensory representation on number processing. The purpose of this article is to put some of these studies together to discuss design parameters and research questions addressed in the mental number comparison studies. Most of the studies discuss sensory representation and abstract number representation as well as degree of their interaction. In order to give the different views on a particular research question, the author classified studies under the related research questions. For example, Stroop and size congruity effect studies are addressed under this title chronologically. It was very clear that the design parameters and research question might change the interpretation of a task. It may be time to shift attention from the question of the interaction degree of sensory representation and abstract representation to a larger scope. The larger scope would be to understand the differences and similarities between different groups using a universal approach. PMID:24278748

  16. Overcoming barriers to addressing education problems with research design: a panel discussion.

    PubMed

    Yarris, Lalena M; Gruppen, Larry D; Hamstra, Stanley J; Anders Ericsson, K; Cook, David A

    2012-12-01

    A plenary panel session at the 2012 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Education Research in Emergency Medicine: Opportunities, Challenges, and Strategies for Success" discussed barriers educators face in imagining, designing, and implementing studies to address educational challenges. This proceedings article presents a general approach to getting started in education research. Four examples of studies from the medical education literature that illustrate a distinct way to approach specific research questions are discussed. The study designs used are applicable to a variety of education research problems in emergency medicine (EM). Potential applications of studies are discussed, as well as effects and lessons learned.

  17. Top 10 research questions related to children physical activity motivation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ang

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity is critical to healthy development of children. It is well documented that helping children develop and sustain a physically active lifestyle requires children to become motivated. Many studies have been conducted in the past 2.5 decades on determinants and correlates for children and adolescents' physical activity motivation. The findings have informed researchers and practitioners about motivation sources for children and effective strategies to motivate children in given physical activity settings. Built on the extensive knowledge base and theoretical platforms formed by these research studies, the purpose of this article is to take a look at the current research landscape and provide subjective thoughts about what we still need to know about children's physical activity motivation. The product of this subjective thinking process rendered 10 potential questions for future research on children's physical activity motivation in both in-school and out-of-school settings. These topics encompass those focusing on children's physical activity motivation as a mental dispositional process, those conceptualizing the motivation as an outcome of person-environment interactions, and those attempting to dissect the motivation as an outcome of social-cultural influences and educational policies. It is hoped that the topics can serve researchers interested in children's physical activity motivation as starting blocks from which they can extend their conceptual thinking and identify research questions that are personally meaningful. It is also hoped that the list of potential questions can be helpful to researchers in accomplishing the imperative and significant mission to motivate children to be physically active in the 21st century and beyond. PMID:24592774

  18. Recent NRC research activities addressing valve and pump issues

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    The mission of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to ensure the safe design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants and other facilities in the U.S.A. One of the main roles that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) plays in achieving the NRC mission is to plan, recommend, and implement research programs that address safety and technical issues deemed important by the NRC. The results of the research activities provide the bases for developing NRC positions or decisions on these issues. Also, RES performs confirmatory research for developing the basis to evaluate industry responses and positions on various regulatory requirements. This presentation summarizes some recent RES supported research activities that have addressed safety and technical issues related to valves and pumps. These activities include the efforts on determining valve and motor-operator responses under dynamic loads and pressure locking events, evaluation of monitoring equipment, and methods for detecting and trending aging of check valves and pumps. The role that RES is expected to play in future years to fulfill the NRC mission is also discussed.

  19. GRACEnet: addressing policy needs through coordinated cross-location research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jawson, Michael D.; Walthall, Charles W.; Shafer, Steven R.; Liebig, Mark; Franzluebbers, Alan J.; Follett, Ronald F.

    2012-01-01

    GRACEnet (Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network) was conceived to build upon ongoing USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) research to improve soil productivity, while addressing the challenges and opportunities of interest in C sequestration from a climate change perspective. The vision for GRACEnet was and remains: Knowledge and information used to implement scientifically based agricultural management practices from the field to national policy scales on C sequestration, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and environmental benefits. The national focus of GRACEnet uses a standardized approach by ARS laboratories and university and land manager (e.g. farmer and rancher) cooperators to assess C sequestration and GHG emission from different crop and grassland systems. Since 2002, GRACEnet has significantly expanded GHG mitigation science and delivered usable information to agricultural research and policy organizations. Recent developments suggest GRACEnet will have international impact by contributing leadership and technical guidance for the Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases.

  20. Can small institutes address some problems facing biomedical researchers?

    PubMed Central

    Sheetz, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    At a time of historically low National Institutes of Health funding rates and many problems with the conduct of research (unfunded mandates, disgruntled reviewers, and rampant paranoia), there is a concern that biomedical research as a profession is waning in the United States (see ”Rescuing US biomedical research from its systemic flaws” by Alberts and colleagues in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences). However, it is wonderful to discover something new and to tackle tough puzzles. If we could focus more of our effort on discussing scientific problems and doing research, then we could be more productive and perhaps happier. One potential solution is to focus efforts on small thematic institutes in the university structure that can provide a stimulating and supportive environment for innovation and exploration. With an open-lab concept, there are economies of scale that can diminish paperwork and costs, while providing greater access to state-of-the-art equipment. Merging multiple disciplines around a common theme can catalyze innovation, and this enables individuals to develop new concepts without giving up the credit they deserve, because it is usually clear who did the work. Small institutes do not solve larger systemic problems but rather enable collective efforts to address the noisome aspects of the system and foster an innovative community effort to address scientific problems. PMID:25360047

  1. Can small institutes address some problems facing biomedical researchers?

    PubMed

    Sheetz, Michael P

    2014-11-01

    At a time of historically low National Institutes of Health funding rates and many problems with the conduct of research (unfunded mandates, disgruntled reviewers, and rampant paranoia), there is a concern that biomedical research as a profession is waning in the United States (see "Rescuing US biomedical research from its systemic flaws" by Alberts and colleagues in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences). However, it is wonderful to discover something new and to tackle tough puzzles. If we could focus more of our effort on discussing scientific problems and doing research, then we could be more productive and perhaps happier. One potential solution is to focus efforts on small thematic institutes in the university structure that can provide a stimulating and supportive environment for innovation and exploration. With an open-lab concept, there are economies of scale that can diminish paperwork and costs, while providing greater access to state-of-the-art equipment. Merging multiple disciplines around a common theme can catalyze innovation, and this enables individuals to develop new concepts without giving up the credit they deserve, because it is usually clear who did the work. Small institutes do not solve larger systemic problems but rather enable collective efforts to address the noisome aspects of the system and foster an innovative community effort to address scientific problems. PMID:25360047

  2. Can small institutes address some problems facing biomedical researchers?

    PubMed

    Sheetz, Michael P

    2014-11-01

    At a time of historically low National Institutes of Health funding rates and many problems with the conduct of research (unfunded mandates, disgruntled reviewers, and rampant paranoia), there is a concern that biomedical research as a profession is waning in the United States (see "Rescuing US biomedical research from its systemic flaws" by Alberts and colleagues in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences). However, it is wonderful to discover something new and to tackle tough puzzles. If we could focus more of our effort on discussing scientific problems and doing research, then we could be more productive and perhaps happier. One potential solution is to focus efforts on small thematic institutes in the university structure that can provide a stimulating and supportive environment for innovation and exploration. With an open-lab concept, there are economies of scale that can diminish paperwork and costs, while providing greater access to state-of-the-art equipment. Merging multiple disciplines around a common theme can catalyze innovation, and this enables individuals to develop new concepts without giving up the credit they deserve, because it is usually clear who did the work. Small institutes do not solve larger systemic problems but rather enable collective efforts to address the noisome aspects of the system and foster an innovative community effort to address scientific problems.

  3. Applied cognition and training research to address emerging military requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Denise; Bowers, Clint; Davis, Larry; Fidopiastis, Cali

    2007-04-01

    Modeling, Simulation and Training (MS&T) technologies have provided significant capabilities for Military training and mission rehearsal. However, most of the state-of-the-art MS&T systems used today are high fidelity, stand alone systems, routinely staffed by a team of support and instructional personnel. As the military becomes more reliant on these technologies to support ever changing concepts of operations, they are asking for numerous technological advancements including 1) automated instructional features to reduce the number of personnel required for exercises, 2) increased capability for adaptation of human computer interfaces to support individual differences and embedded performance support in operational settings, and 3) a continuum of low to high fidelity system components to provide embedded, deployable and transportable solutions. A multi-disciplinary team of researchers at the University of Central Florida's (UCF) Institute for Simulation and Training (IST) Applied Cognition and Training in Immersive Virtual Environments Lab (ACTIVE), lead by Dr. Denise Nicholson, is performing research and development to address these emerging requirements as part of on-going projects for Navy, Marine Corps and Army customers. In this paper we will discuss some of the challenges that confront researchers in this area and how the ACTIVE lab hopes to respond to these challenges.

  4. Is Current Hydrogeologic Research Addressing Long-TermPredictions?

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2004-09-10

    Hydrogeology is a field closely related to the needs of society. Many problems of current national and local interest require predictions of hydrogeological system behavior, and, in a number of important cases, the period of prediction is tens to hundreds of thousands of years. It is argued that the demand for such long-term hydrogeological predictions casts a new light on the future needs of hydrogeological research. Key scientific issues are no longer concerned only with simple processes or narrowly focused modeling or testing methods, but also with assessment of prediction uncertainties and confidence, couplings among multiple physico-chemical processes occurring simultaneously at a site, and the interplay between site characterization and predictive modeling. These considerations also have significant implications for hydrogeological education. With this view, it is asserted that hydrogeological directions and education need to be reexamined and possibly refocused to address specific needs for long-term predictions.

  5. Proposing an Argument for Research Questions that Could Create Permeable Boundaries within Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Hayes, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    In this conceptual paper, we discuss how carefully developed research questions may support qualitative researchers by providing boundaries for their study designs. These boundaries could indicate a researcher's epistemological and theoretical connections and support his or her research choices. Although these boundaries are permeable and in flux,…

  6. Research in thermal biology: Burning questions for coldwater stream fishes

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, Dr. Dale; Bartholow, Dr. John; Jager, Yetta; al., et.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing appreciation of global warming impacts on ecological systems in addition to the myriad of land management effects on water quality, the number of literature citations dealing with the effects of water temperature on freshwater fish has escalated in the past decade. Given the many biological scales at which water temperature effects have been studied and the growing need to integrate knowledge from multiple disciplines of thermal biology to fully protect beneficial uses, we held that a survey of the most promising recent developments and an expression of some of the remaining unanswered questions with significant management implications would best be approached collectively by a diverse research community. We have identified five specific topic areas of renewed research where new techniques and critical thought could benefit coldwater stream fishes (particularly salmonids): molecular, organism, population/species, community and ecosystem, and policy issues in water quality. Our hope is that information gained through examination of recent research fronts linking knowledge at various scales will prove useful in managing water quality at a basin level to protect fish populations and whole ecosystems. Standards of the past were based largely on incipient lethal and optimum growth rate temperatures for fish species, while future standards should consider all integrated thermal impacts to the organism and ecosystem.

  7. Research in thermal biology: Burning questions for coldwater stream fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCullough, D.A.; Bartholow, J.M.; Jager, H.I.; Beschta, R.L.; Cheslak, E.F.; Deas, M.L.; Ebersole, J.L.; Foott, J.S.; Johnson, S.L.; Marine, K.R.; Mesa, M.G.; Petersen, J.H.; Souchon, Y.; Tiffan, K.F.; Wurtsbaugh, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing appreciation of global warming impacts on ecological systems, in addition to the myriad of land management effects on water quality, the number of literature citations dealing with the effects of water temperature on freshwater fish has escalated in the past decade. Given the many biological scales at which water temperature effects have been studied, and the growing need to integrate knowledge from multiple disciplines of thermal biology to fully protect beneficial uses, we held that a survey of the most promising recent developments and an expression of some of the remaining unanswered questions with significant management implications would best be approached collectively by a diverse research community. We have identified five specific topic areas of renewed research where new techniques and critical thought could benefit coldwater stream fishes (particularly salmonids): molecular, organism, population/species, community and ecosystem, and policy issues in water quality. Our hope is that information gained through examination of recent research fronts linking knowledge at various scales will prove useful in managing water quality at a basin level to protect fish populations and whole ecosystems. Standards of the past were based largely on incipient lethal and optimum growth rate temperatures for fish species, while future standards should consider all integrated thermal impacts to the organism and ecosystem. ?? Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  8. Generation of priority research questions to inform conservation policy and management at a national level.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Murray A; Beazley, Karen F; Cooke, Steven J; Fleishman, Erica; Lane, Daniel E; Mascia, Michael B; Roth, Robin; Tabor, Gary; Bakker, Jiselle A; Bellefontaine, Teresa; Berteaux, Dominique; Cantin, Bernard; Chaulk, Keith G; Cunningham, Kathryn; Dobell, Rod; Fast, Eleanor; Ferrara, Nadia; Findlay, C Scott; Hallstrom, Lars K; Hammond, Thomas; Hermanutz, Luise; Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Lindsay, Kathryn E; Marta, Tim J; Nguyen, Vivian M; Northey, Greg; Prior, Kent; Ramirez-Sanchez, Saudiel; Rice, Jake; Sleep, Darren J H; Szabo, Nora D; Trottier, Geneviève; Toussaint, Jean-Patrick; Veilleux, Jean-Philippe

    2011-06-01

    Integrating knowledge from across the natural and social sciences is necessary to effectively address societal tradeoffs between human use of biological diversity and its preservation. Collaborative processes can change the ways decision makers think about scientific evidence, enhance levels of mutual trust and credibility, and advance the conservation policy discourse. Canada has responsibility for a large fraction of some major ecosystems, such as boreal forests, Arctic tundra, wetlands, and temperate and Arctic oceans. Stressors to biological diversity within these ecosystems arise from activities of the country's resource-based economy, as well as external drivers of environmental change. Effective management is complicated by incongruence between ecological and political boundaries and conflicting perspectives on social and economic goals. Many knowledge gaps about stressors and their management might be reduced through targeted, timely research. We identify 40 questions that, if addressed or answered, would advance research that has a high probability of supporting development of effective policies and management strategies for species, ecosystems, and ecological processes in Canada. A total of 396 candidate questions drawn from natural and social science disciplines were contributed by individuals with diverse organizational affiliations. These were collaboratively winnowed to 40 by our team of collaborators. The questions emphasize understanding ecosystems, the effects and mitigation of climate change, coordinating governance and management efforts across multiple jurisdictions, and examining relations between conservation policy and the social and economic well-being of Aboriginal peoples. The questions we identified provide potential links between evidence from the conservation sciences and formulation of policies for conservation and resource management. Our collaborative process of communication and engagement between scientists and decision makers for

  9. Generation of Priority Research Questions to Inform Conservation Policy and Management at a National Level

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, Murray A; Beazley, Karen F; Cooke, Steven J; Fleishman, Erica; Lane, Daniel E; Mascia, Michael B; Roth, Robin; Tabor, Gary; Bakker, Jiselle A; Bellefontaine, Teresa; Berteaux, Dominique; Cantin, Bernard; Chaulk, Keith G; Cunningham, Kathryn; Dobell, Rod; Fast, Eleanor; Ferrara, Nadia; Findlay, C Scott; Hallstrom, Lars K; Hammond, Thomas; Hermanutz, Luise; Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Lindsay, Kathryn E; Marta, Tim J; Nguyen, Vivian M; Northey, Greg; Prior, Kent; Ramirez-Sanchez, Saudiel; Rice, Jake; Sleep, Darren J H; Szabo, Nora D; Trottier, Geneviève; Toussaint, Jean-Patrick; Veilleux, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Integrating knowledge from across the natural and social sciences is necessary to effectively address societal tradeoffs between human use of biological diversity and its preservation. Collaborative processes can change the ways decision makers think about scientific evidence, enhance levels of mutual trust and credibility, and advance the conservation policy discourse. Canada has responsibility for a large fraction of some major ecosystems, such as boreal forests, Arctic tundra, wetlands, and temperate and Arctic oceans. Stressors to biological diversity within these ecosystems arise from activities of the country's resource-based economy, as well as external drivers of environmental change. Effective management is complicated by incongruence between ecological and political boundaries and conflicting perspectives on social and economic goals. Many knowledge gaps about stressors and their management might be reduced through targeted, timely research. We identify 40 questions that, if addressed or answered, would advance research that has a high probability of supporting development of effective policies and management strategies for species, ecosystems, and ecological processes in Canada. A total of 396 candidate questions drawn from natural and social science disciplines were contributed by individuals with diverse organizational affiliations. These were collaboratively winnowed to 40 by our team of collaborators. The questions emphasize understanding ecosystems, the effects and mitigation of climate change, coordinating governance and management efforts across multiple jurisdictions, and examining relations between conservation policy and the social and economic well-being of Aboriginal peoples. The questions we identified provide potential links between evidence from the conservation sciences and formulation of policies for conservation and resource management. Our collaborative process of communication and engagement between scientists and decision makers for

  10. The Timing of the Research Question: First-Year Writing Faculty and Instruction Librarians' Differing Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutefall, Jennifer E.; Ryder, Phyllis Mentzell

    2010-01-01

    Faculty and librarians agree on the qualities of a good research question. However, in an exploratory study, they differed on when students should develop their research question. While librarians stated that students should develop their question early, first-year writing faculty advocated for delaying the development of the research question.…

  11. [Dentists and National Socialism. Systematic Literature Review and Research Questions].

    PubMed

    Schwanke, Enno; Krischel, Matthis; Gross, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the rich literature on Nazi medicine in general, the connection between dentists and National Socialism is less well documented. Neither the elites of the field from this era nor those excluded from the profession are catalogued in a systematic manner. The aims of this contribution are to assemble and review the relevant literature and show how German dentistry organizations have handled this chapter of their professional history. Trends in the literature since the 1980s are examined and it is pointed out, which areas have received some attention and which have not yet been addressed. Thus, this contribution will serve as both the basis and the starting point for new research into the field.

  12. [Dentists and National Socialism. Systematic Literature Review and Research Questions].

    PubMed

    Schwanke, Enno; Krischel, Matthis; Gross, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the rich literature on Nazi medicine in general, the connection between dentists and National Socialism is less well documented. Neither the elites of the field from this era nor those excluded from the profession are catalogued in a systematic manner. The aims of this contribution are to assemble and review the relevant literature and show how German dentistry organizations have handled this chapter of their professional history. Trends in the literature since the 1980s are examined and it is pointed out, which areas have received some attention and which have not yet been addressed. Thus, this contribution will serve as both the basis and the starting point for new research into the field. PMID:27141725

  13. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Teaching Games for Understanding.

    PubMed

    Memmert, Daniel; Almond, Len; Bunker, David; Butler, Joy; Fasold, Frowin; Griffin, Linda; Hillmann, Wolfgang; Hüttermann, Stefanie; Klein-Soetebier, Timo; König, Stefan; Nopp, Stephan; Rathschlag, Marco; Schul, Karsten; Schwab, Sebastian; Thorpe, Rod; Furley, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we elaborate on 10 current research questions related to the "teaching games for understanding" (TGfU) approach with the objective of both developing the model itself and fostering game understanding, tactical decision making, and game-playing ability in invasion and net/wall games: (1) How can existing scientific approaches from different disciplines be used to enhance game play for beginners and proficient players? (2) How can state-of-the-art technology be integrated to game-play evaluations of beginners and proficient players by employing corresponding assessments? (4) How can complexity thinking be utilized to shape day-to-day physical education (PE) and coaching practices? (5) How can game making/designing be helpfully utilized for emergent learning? (6) How could purposeful game design create constraints that enable tactical understanding and skill development through adaptive learning and distributed cognition? (7) How can teacher/coach development programs benefit from game-centered approaches? (8) How can TGfU-related approaches be implemented in teacher or coach education with the goal of facilitating preservice and in-service teachers/coaches' learning to teach and thereby foster their professional development from novices to experienced practitioners? (9) Can the TGfU approach be considered a helpful model across different cultures? (10) Can physical/psychomotor, cognitive, affective/social, and cultural development be fostered via TGfU approaches? The answers to these questions are critical not only for the advancement of teaching and coaching in PE and sport-based clubs, but also for an in-depth discussion on new scientific avenues and technological tools.

  14. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Teaching Games for Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Memmert, Daniel; Almond, Len; Bunker, David; Butler, Joy; Fasold, Frowin; Griffin, Linda; Hillmann, Wolfgang; Hüttermann, Stefanie; Klein-Soetebier, Timo; König, Stefan; Nopp, Stephan; Rathschlag, Marco; Schul, Karsten; Schwab, Sebastian; Thorpe, Rod; Furley, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we elaborate on 10 current research questions related to the “teaching games for understanding” (TGfU) approach with the objective of both developing the model itself and fostering game understanding, tactical decision making, and game-playing ability in invasion and net/wall games: (1) How can existing scientific approaches from different disciplines be used to enhance game play for beginners and proficient players? (2) How can state-of-the-art technology be integrated to game-play evaluations of beginners and proficient players by employing corresponding assessments? (4) How can complexity thinking be utilized to shape day-to-day physical education (PE) and coaching practices? (5) How can game making/designing be helpfully utilized for emergent learning? (6) How could purposeful game design create constraints that enable tactical understanding and skill development through adaptive learning and distributed cognition? (7) How can teacher/coach development programs benefit from game-centered approaches? (8) How can TGfU-related approaches be implemented in teacher or coach education with the goal of facilitating preservice and in-service teachers/coaches’ learning to teach and thereby foster their professional development from novices to experienced practitioners? (9) Can the TGfU approach be considered a helpful model across different cultures? (10) Can physical/psychomotor, cognitive, affective/social, and cultural development be fostered via TGfU approaches? The answers to these questions are critical not only for the advancement of teaching and coaching in PE and sport-based clubs, but also for an in-depth discussion on new scientific avenues and technological tools. PMID:26452580

  15. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Teaching Games for Understanding.

    PubMed

    Memmert, Daniel; Almond, Len; Bunker, David; Butler, Joy; Fasold, Frowin; Griffin, Linda; Hillmann, Wolfgang; Hüttermann, Stefanie; Klein-Soetebier, Timo; König, Stefan; Nopp, Stephan; Rathschlag, Marco; Schul, Karsten; Schwab, Sebastian; Thorpe, Rod; Furley, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we elaborate on 10 current research questions related to the "teaching games for understanding" (TGfU) approach with the objective of both developing the model itself and fostering game understanding, tactical decision making, and game-playing ability in invasion and net/wall games: (1) How can existing scientific approaches from different disciplines be used to enhance game play for beginners and proficient players? (2) How can state-of-the-art technology be integrated to game-play evaluations of beginners and proficient players by employing corresponding assessments? (4) How can complexity thinking be utilized to shape day-to-day physical education (PE) and coaching practices? (5) How can game making/designing be helpfully utilized for emergent learning? (6) How could purposeful game design create constraints that enable tactical understanding and skill development through adaptive learning and distributed cognition? (7) How can teacher/coach development programs benefit from game-centered approaches? (8) How can TGfU-related approaches be implemented in teacher or coach education with the goal of facilitating preservice and in-service teachers/coaches' learning to teach and thereby foster their professional development from novices to experienced practitioners? (9) Can the TGfU approach be considered a helpful model across different cultures? (10) Can physical/psychomotor, cognitive, affective/social, and cultural development be fostered via TGfU approaches? The answers to these questions are critical not only for the advancement of teaching and coaching in PE and sport-based clubs, but also for an in-depth discussion on new scientific avenues and technological tools. PMID:26452580

  16. Animating Research with Counseling Values: A Training Model to Address the Research-to-Practice Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kristi A.; Dewell, John A.; Holmes, Courtney M.

    2014-01-01

    The persistent research-to-practice gap poses a problem for counselor education. The gap may be caused by conflicts between the humanistic values that guide much of counseling and the values that guide research training. In this article, the authors address historical concerns regarding research training for students and the conducting of research…

  17. Addressing Earth Science Data Access Challenges through User Experience Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmings, S. N.; Banks, B.; Kendall, J.; Lee, C. M.; Irwin, D.; Toll, D. L.; Searby, N. D.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Capacity Building Program (Earth Science Division, Applied Sciences Program) works to enhance end-user capabilities to employ Earth observation and Earth science (EO/ES) data in decision-making. Open data access and user-tailored data delivery strategies are critical elements towards this end. User Experience (UX) and User Interface (UI) research methods can offer important contributions towards addressing data access challenges, particularly at the interface of science application/product development and product transition to end-users. This presentation focuses on developing nation contexts and describes methods, results, and lessons learned from two recent UX/UI efforts conducted in collaboration with NASA: the SERVIRglobal.net redesign project and the U.S. Water Partnership (USWP) Portal development effort. SERVIR, a collaborative venture among NASA, USAID, and global partners, seeks to improve environmental management and climate change response by helping governments and other stakeholders integrate EO and geospatial technologies into decision-making. The USWP, a collaboration among U.S. public and private sectors, harnesses U.S.-based resources and expertise to address water challenges in developing nations. SERVIR's study, conducted from 2010-2012, assessed and tested user needs, preferences, and online experiences to generate a more user-friendly online data portal at SERVIRglobal.net. The portal provides a central access interface to data and products from SERVIR's network of hubs in East Africa, the Hindu Kush Himalayas, and Mesoamerica. The second study, conducted by the USWP Secretariat and funded by the U.S. Department of State, seeks to match U.S.-based water information resources with developing nation stakeholder needs. The USWP study utilizes a multi-pronged approach to identify key design requirements and to understand the existing water data portal landscape. Adopting UX methods allows data distributors to design customized UIs that

  18. ASCO's Community Research Forum: addressing challenges of community-based research from the grass roots.

    PubMed

    Robert, Nicholas; Lilenbaum, Rogerio; Hurley, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    ASCO's Community Research Forum is a solution-oriented venue for community research sites to overcome barriers to conducting clinical trials. The key objectives of the Forum are to (1) convene community-based researchers to identify challenges to conducting research that ASCO can address, (2) develop solution-oriented projects to address these challenges to facilitate clinical trial participation in community research settings, and (3) shape ASCO programs and policies to support members engaged in community research. The Community Research Forum holds an annual in-person meeting that convenes physician investigators, research administrators, research nurses, and clinical research associates from community-based research programs and practices. To meet identified needs, the Community Research Forum has developed the ASCO Clinical Trial Workload Assessment Tool and the ASCO Research Program Quality Assessment Tool. Both of these tools will be available to the public in 2014. The Forum is currently exploring the concept and potential metrics of a research certification program to formally assess community-based research programs, and to identify gaps and areas to improve the program in order to meet quality standards. The Community Research Forum's website aims to serve as a go-to resource for community-based physician investigators and research staff. The Community Research Forum will continue to provide a forum for community-based researchers to network, share challenges, and develop initiatives that provide solutions and facilitate the conduct of clinical trials.

  19. The Theory Question in Research Capacity Building in Education: Towards an Agenda for Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert; Allan, Julie; Edwards, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The question of capacity building in education has predominantly been approached with regard to the methods and methodologies of educational research. Far less attention has been given to capacity building in relation to theory. In many ways the latter is as pressing an issue as the former, given that good research depends on a combination of high…

  20. Bilingual Cognitive Development: Addressing Three Gaps in Current Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Rafael M.

    1985-01-01

    Results question the validity of Cummins's threshold hypothesis and suggest that degree of bilingualism is related to variability in cognitive measures only before a certain threshold of proficiency in the second language is attained. A cause-effect model in which degree of bilingualism appears as the causal factor affecting children's cognitive…

  1. 2012 Senior Researcher Award Acceptance Address: The Value and Community of Research in Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's speech during the 2012 Senior Researcher award. The author is honored and delighted to accept the award from the Society for Research in Music Education (SRME) and NAfME, an organization of which she has been a member for about forty years. In this address, the author focuses on these four topics: (1) the…

  2. Immigrants and Minorities: Old Questions for New Directions in Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschman, Charles

    1982-01-01

    Examines questions and issues that should be included in the study of immigrant and ethnic group socioeconomic progress. Discusses assimilation, opportunity structures, and institutional responses to minorities and immigrants. (Author/GC)

  3. Examining Research Questions on Germination from the Perspective of Scientific Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir Kaçan, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted with the participation of 31 pre-service science teachers. Participants were asked to develop various research questions on germination. The study aims to examine research questions on the subject germination from the perspective of scientific creativity. The research questions were examined using the fluency, science…

  4. Teaching Psychology Students to be Savvy Consumers and Producers of Research Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    Stresses the importance of teaching students to be good consumers of research problems and questions. Contends that students must be able not only to appreciate the questions that others ask, but also to produce research and research questions on their own. Provides activities that help promote both good consumers and producers. (CMK)

  5. Ethical Issues in Addressing Inequity in/through ESL Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ena

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines a researcher's struggles with conducting "ethical" research when her case study reveals racializations faced by a minority teacher in a Canadian ESL program. How might becoming privy to research participants' experiences of inequity in ESL education complicate the notion of research ethics when "doing the right thing" runs…

  6. Developing Research and Community Literacies to Recruit Latino Researchers and Practitioners to Address Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Granberry, Phillip J; Torres, María Idalí; Allison, Jeroan J; Rosal, Milagros C; Rustan, Sarah; Colón, Melissa; Fontes, Mayara; Cruz, Ivettte

    2016-03-01

    Engaging community residents and undergraduate Latino students in developing research and community literacies can expose both groups to resources needed to address health disparities. The bidirectional learning process described in this article developed these literacies through an ethnographic mapping fieldwork activity that used a learning-by-doing method in combination with reflection on the research experience. The active efforts of research team members to promote reflection on the research activities were integral for developing research and community literacies. Our findings suggest that, through participating in this field research activity, undergraduate students and community residents developed a better understanding of resources for addressing health disparities. Our research approach assisted community residents and undergraduate students by demystifying research, translating scientific and community knowledge, providing exposure to multiple literacies, and generating increased awareness of research as a tool for change among community residents and their organizations. The commitment of the community and university leadership to this pedagogical method can bring out the full potential of mentoring, both to contribute to the development of the next generation of Latino researchers and to assist community members in their efforts to address health disparities. PMID:26896113

  7. A strategic stakeholder approach for addressing further analysis requests in whole genome sequencing research.

    PubMed

    Thornock, Bradley Steven O

    2016-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) can be a cost-effective and efficient means of diagnosis for some children, but it also raises a number of ethical concerns. One such concern is how researchers derive and communicate results from WGS, including future requests for further analysis of stored sequences. The purpose of this paper is to think about what is at stake, and for whom, in any solution that is developed to deal with such requests. To accomplish this task, this paper will utilize stakeholder theory, a common method used in business ethics. Several scenarios that connect stakeholder concerns and WGS will also posited and analyzed. This paper concludes by developing criteria composed of a series of questions that researchers can answer in order to more effectively address requests for further analysis of stored sequences. PMID:27091475

  8. A strategic stakeholder approach for addressing further analysis requests in whole genome sequencing research.

    PubMed

    Thornock, Bradley Steven O

    2016-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) can be a cost-effective and efficient means of diagnosis for some children, but it also raises a number of ethical concerns. One such concern is how researchers derive and communicate results from WGS, including future requests for further analysis of stored sequences. The purpose of this paper is to think about what is at stake, and for whom, in any solution that is developed to deal with such requests. To accomplish this task, this paper will utilize stakeholder theory, a common method used in business ethics. Several scenarios that connect stakeholder concerns and WGS will also posited and analyzed. This paper concludes by developing criteria composed of a series of questions that researchers can answer in order to more effectively address requests for further analysis of stored sequences.

  9. Teachers' Engagement with Published Research: Addressing the Knowledge Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increased interest in research impact, there is very little empirical evidence that educational research can inform practice directly, and furthermore, a body of literature which suggests that this is, in principle, impossible. This paper reports on a study in which secondary school teachers were given research findings about teaching…

  10. Addressing Quandaries in Early Education through Research Practice Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Carla; Connolly, Faith; Doss, Chris; Grigg, Jeffrey; Gorgen, Perry; Wentworth, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This panel examines research on early education from two research practice partnerships, the Baltimore Education Research Consortium (BERC) with Baltimore City Schools and Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, and the Stanford-SFUSD Partnership with San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD) and Stanford University in San Francisco,…

  11. On the evolutionary ecology of host-parasite interactions: addressing the question with regard to bumblebees and their parasites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid-Hempel, Paul

    2001-05-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a major shift in the study of adaptive patterns and processes towards including the role of host-parasite interactions, informed by concepts from evolutionary ecology. As a consequence, a number of major questions have emerged. For example, how genetics affects host-parasite interactions, whether parasitism selects for offspring diversification, whether parasite virulence is an adaptive trait, and what constrains the use of the host's immune defences. Using bumblebees, Bombus spp, and their parasites as a model system, answers to some of these questions have been found, while at the same time the complexity of the interaction has led expectations away from simple theoretical models. In addition, the results have also led to the unexpected discovery of novel phenomena concerning, for instance, female mating strategies.

  12. Introducing Astrophysics and Cosmology as Part of Multidisciplinary Approaches to Liberal Arts Courses Addressing "The Big Questions" of Human Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesney, J. C.

    2012-08-01

    There is an opportunity to bring college students to the exploration of the grandeur and wonder of the universe through the design and crafting of courses for the university and liberal arts curricula that would develop multidisciplinary perspectives within the frames of reference of astrophysics and cosmology. There is broad interest within colleges and universities to provide courses that examine "The Big Questions" of human experience from a variety of perspectives. The study of the history of discoveries and insights that we have gained through the development of astrophysics and cosmology provides course options for students to use to explore these questions. Such hybrid courses enable students to approach the questions of origins, human existence, appreciation of the natural world, appreciation of the universe at large, and the significance of our evolving comprehension of the universe from a variety of disciplinary perspectives, including those that border on the astrophysical and cosmological domains. There are within such courses opportunities to examine historical, philosophical, theological, and cultural perspectives as they intersect with our scientific understanding of where and who we are. The first of these courses at Sacred Heart University has been developed and presented for the past two years as part of the new Core Curriculum. The development of that course, entitled The Journey in the Physical Universe, will be discussed, and insights will be shared.

  13. Addressing the "Research Gap" in Special Education through Mixed Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingner, Janette K.; Boardman, Alison G.

    2011-01-01

    At least some of the challenges faced in special education, such as the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students, the gap between research and practice, and inequitable educational opportunities, can be explained in part by a research gap, or, in other words, a failure to conduct the different types of…

  14. How much detail and accuracy is required in plant growth sub-models to address questions about optimal management strategies in agricultural systems?

    PubMed Central

    Renton, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Simulations that integrate sub-models of important biological processes can be used to ask questions about optimal management strategies in agricultural and ecological systems. Building sub-models with more detail and aiming for greater accuracy and realism may seem attractive, but is likely to be more expensive and time-consuming and result in more complicated models that lack transparency. This paper illustrates a general integrated approach for constructing models of agricultural and ecological systems that is based on the principle of starting simple and then directly testing for the need to add additional detail and complexity. Methodology The approach is demonstrated using LUSO (Land Use Sequence Optimizer), an agricultural system analysis framework based on simulation and optimization. A simple sensitivity analysis and functional perturbation analysis is used to test to what extent LUSO's crop–weed competition sub-model affects the answers to a number of questions at the scale of the whole farming system regarding optimal land-use sequencing strategies and resulting profitability. Principal results The need for accuracy in the crop–weed competition sub-model within LUSO depended to a small extent on the parameter being varied, but more importantly and interestingly on the type of question being addressed with the model. Only a small part of the crop–weed competition model actually affects the answers to these questions. Conclusions This study illustrates an example application of the proposed integrated approach for constructing models of agricultural and ecological systems based on testing whether complexity needs to be added to address particular questions of interest. We conclude that this example clearly demonstrates the potential value of the general approach. Advantages of this approach include minimizing costs and resources required for model construction, keeping models transparent and easy to analyse, and ensuring the model

  15. AGING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE RESEARCH PROGRAM: ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGE THROUGH INNOVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A driving force behind the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative and the Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is the Clean Water and Drinking Water Infrastructure Gap Analysis. In this report, EPA estimated that if operation, maintenance, and capital inves...

  16. An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: research questions in COPD.

    PubMed

    Celli, Bartolome R; Decramer, Marc; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Wilson, Kevin C; Agustí, Alvar A; Criner, Gerard J; MacNee, William; Make, Barry J; Rennard, Stephen I; Stockley, Robert A; Vogelmeier, Claus; Anzueto, Antonio; Au, David H; Barnes, Peter J; Burgel, Pierre-Regis; Calverley, Peter M; Casanova, Ciro; Clini, Enrico M; Cooper, Christopher B; Coxson, Harvey O; Dusser, Daniel J; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Fahy, Bonnie; Ferguson, Gary T; Fisher, Andrew; Fletcher, Monica J; Hayot, Maurice; Hurst, John R; Jones, Paul W; Mahler, Donald A; Maltais, François; Mannino, David M; Martinez, Fernando J; Miravitlles, Marc; Meek, Paula M; Papi, Alberto; Rabe, Klaus F; Roche, Nicolas; Sciurba, Frank C; Sethi, Sanjay; Siafakas, Nikos; Sin, Don D; Soriano, Joan B; Stoller, James K; Tashkin, Donald P; Troosters, Thierry; Verleden, Geert M; Verschakelen, Johny; Vestbo, Jorgen; Walsh, John W; Washko, George R; Wise, Robert A; Wouters, Emiel F M; ZuWallack, Richard L

    2015-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and resource use worldwide. The goal of this official American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) Research Statement is to describe evidence related to diagnosis, assessment, and management; identify gaps in knowledge; and make recommendations for future research. It is not intended to provide clinical practice recommendations on COPD diagnosis and management. Clinicians, researchers and patient advocates with expertise in COPD were invited to participate. A literature search of Medline was performed, and studies deemed relevant were selected. The search was not a systematic review of the evidence. Existing evidence was appraised and summarised, and then salient knowledge gaps were identified. Recommendations for research that addresses important gaps in the evidence in all areas of COPD were formulated via discussion and consensus. Great strides have been made in the diagnosis, assessment and management of COPD, as well as understanding its pathogenesis. Despite this, many important questions remain unanswered. This ATS/ERS research statement highlights the types of research that leading clinicians, researchers and patient advocates believe will have the greatest impact on patient-centred outcomes.

  17. An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: research questions in COPD.

    PubMed

    Celli, Bartolome R; Decramer, Marc; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Wilson, Kevin C; Agustí, Alvar; Criner, Gerard J; MacNee, William; Make, Barry J; Rennard, Stephen I; Stockley, Robert A; Vogelmeier, Claus; Anzueto, Antonio; Au, David H; Barnes, Peter J; Burgel, Pierre-Regis; Calverley, Peter M; Casanova, Ciro; Clini, Enrico M; Cooper, Christopher B; Coxson, Harvey O; Dusser, Daniel J; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Fahy, Bonnie; Ferguson, Gary T; Fisher, Andrew; Fletcher, Monica J; Hayot, Maurice; Hurst, John R; Jones, Paul W; Mahler, Donald A; Maltais, François; Mannino, David M; Martinez, Fernando J; Miravitlles, Marc; Meek, Paula M; Papi, Alberto; Rabe, Klaus F; Roche, Nicolas; Sciurba, Frank C; Sethi, Sanjay; Siafakas, Nikos; Sin, Don D; Soriano, Joan B; Stoller, James K; Tashkin, Donald P; Troosters, Thierry; Verleden, Geert M; Verschakelen, Johny; Vestbo, Jorgen; Walsh, John W; Washko, George R; Wise, Robert A; Wouters, Emiel F M; ZuWallack, Richard L

    2015-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality, and resource use worldwide. The goal of this official American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) research statement is to describe evidence related to diagnosis, assessment and management; identify gaps in knowledge; and make recommendations for future research. It is not intended to provide clinical practice recommendations on COPD diagnosis and management. Clinicians, researchers, and patient advocates with expertise in COPD were invited to participate. A literature search of Medline was performed, and studies deemed relevant were selected. The search was not a systematic review of the evidence. Existing evidence was appraised and summarised, and then salient knowledge gaps were identified. Recommendations for research that addresses important gaps in the evidence in all areas of COPD were formulated via discussion and consensus. Great strides have been made in the diagnosis, assessment and management of COPD, as well as understanding its pathogenesis. Despite this, many important questions remain unanswered. This ATS/ERS research statement highlights the types of research that leading clinicians, researchers, and patient advocates believe will have the greatest impact on patient-centred outcomes.

  18. The Space Station - Past, present and future with some thoughts on some legal questions that need to be addressed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    The history of the concept of a space station is briefly considered, taking into account a story written by Hale (1869), quantitative work provided by Oberth and Tsiolkovsky, von Braun, and the U.S. decision regarding the establishment of a space station. Arguments in favor of constructing a space station are related to the utility of a laboratory in earth orbit, the importance of a repair and maintenance base for satellites, the provision of capabilities for the commercial utilization of space, and the employment of a space station as a staging base for missions to the moon, Mars, and, possibly, the asteroids. Plans for the implementation of the Space Station concept are discussed, taking into account also legal issues involved in such an implementation. Attention is given to questions regarding the applicability of the Liability convention, U.S. domestic law, the domestic law of other countries, and four treaties.

  19. 'A question of balance': addressing the public health impacts of multinational enterprises in the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises.

    PubMed

    Yang, Joshua S; McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2012-01-01

    The global community is beginning to address non-communicable diseases, but how to increase the accountability of multinational enterprises (MNEs) for the health impacts of their products and practices remains unclear. We examine the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) efforts to do so through voluntary MNE guidelines. We developed a historical case study of how the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises were developed and revised from 1973 to 2000 through an analysis of publicly available archived OECD and tobacco industry documents. The first edition of the Guidelines was a purely economic instrument. Outside pressures and a desire to ward off more stringent regulatory efforts resulted in the addition over time of guidelines related to the environment, consumer interests, sustainable development and human rights. Despite their voluntary nature, the Guidelines can play a role in efforts to help balance the interests of MNEs and public health by providing a starting point for efforts to create binding provisions addressing MNEs' contributions to disease burden or disease reduction. PMID:23046298

  20. Universal testing and treatment as an HIV prevention strategy: research questions and methods.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Richard; Sabapathy, Kalpana; Fidler, Sarah

    2011-09-01

    Achieving high coverage of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in resource-poor settings will become increasingly difficult unless HIV incidence can be reduced substantially. Universal voluntary counselling and testing followed by immediate initiation of ART for all those diagnosed HIV-positive (universal testing and treatment, UTT) has the potential to reduce HIV incidence dramatically but would be very challenging and costly to deliver in the short term. Early modelling work in this field has been criticised for making unduly optimistic assumptions about the uptake and coverage of interventions. In future work, it is important that model parameters are realistic and based where possible on empirical data. Rigorous research evidence is needed before the UTT approach could be considered for wide-scale implementation. This paper reviews the main areas that need to be explored. We consider in turn research questions related to the provision of services for universal testing, services for immediate treatment of HIV-positives and the population-level impact of UTT, and the research methods that could be used to address these questions. Ideally, initial feasibility studies should be carried out to investigate the acceptability, feasibility and uptake of UTT services. If these studies produce promising results, there would be a strong case for a cluster-randomised trial to measure the impact of a UTT intervention on HIV incidence, and we consider the main design features of such a trial.

  1. From Effect to Effectiveness: The Missing Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsop, Graham; Tompsett, Chris

    2007-01-01

    For many researchers and developers in information and communication technology in education (ICTE), the transfer of knowledge from research into educational practice is slow and limited. For most researchers concerned with changing practice, the failure to make a significant impact is attributed to those who practice in education, whilst those in…

  2. Predicting Individual Research Productivity: More than a Question of Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Jack K.; Brotheridge, Celeste M.

    2007-01-01

    Despite professors' education and socialization and the significant rewards they receive for research activities and output, the 80/20 rule seems to apply; that is, there exists a system of stars who produce a disproportionate volume of research such that most research tends to be undertaken by a small percentage of the academy (Erkut, 2002).…

  3. Addressing Research Gaps in the Intersection between Homophobia and Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Swearer, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    Bullying, aggression, and peer victimization among adolescents are significant public health concerns. Recent research has demonstrated that bullying and peer victimization sometimes include homophobic epithets directed at heterosexual and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. It appears that being at the receiving end of…

  4. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide.Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposur...

  5. Obama address touches on research, energy, and environmental issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-02-01

    President Barack Obama's State of the Union message, delivered on 24 January, touched on the need for basic research, energy production, support for clean energy, and environmental protection, but it included just one passing reference to climate change. In addition, the speech made no note of the Administration's recent denial of a controversial application for the Keystone XL pipeline to transport crude oil from Canada to the United States and made just an elliptical reference regarding the bankrupt Solyndra Corporation, which the administration had touted as a clean energy company. Innovation "demands basic research," Obama said, adding that Congress should not "gut these investments in our budget." Noting that one promise for innovation is American-made energy, Obama said he is directing the administration to "open more than 75% of our potential offshore oil and gas resources."

  6. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Theodore C.; Pfau, Jean C.; Gavett, Stephen H.; Shukla, Arti; Miller, Aubrey; Hines, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Summary Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide. Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposures remain unresolved. For example, environmental asbestos exposures associated with a former mine in Libby, Montana, have resulted in high rates of nonoccupational asbestos-related disease. Additionally, other areas with naturally occurring asbestos deposits near communities in the United States and overseas are undergoing investigations to assess exposures and potential health risks. Some of the latest public health, epidemiological, and basic research findings were presented at a workshop on asbestos at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology in Phoenix, Arizona. The following focus areas were discussed: a) mechanisms resulting in fibrosis and/or tumor development; b) relative toxicity of different forms of asbestos and other hazardous elongated mineral particles (EMPs); c) proper dose metrics (e.g., mass, fiber number, or surface area of fibers) when interpreting asbestos toxicity; d) asbestos exposure to susceptible populations; and e) using toxicological findings for risk assessment and remediation efforts. The workshop also featured asbestos research supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Better protection of individuals from asbestos-related health effects will require stimulation of new multidisciplinary research to further our understanding of what constitutes hazardous exposures and risk factors associated with toxicity of asbestos and other hazardous EMPs (e.g., nanomaterials). PMID:26230287

  7. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Danielle J; Larson, Theodore C; Pfau, Jean C; Gavett, Stephen H; Shukla, Arti; Miller, Aubrey; Hines, Ronald

    2015-08-01

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide. Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposures remain unresolved. For example, environmental asbestos exposures associated with a former mine in Libby, Montana, have resulted in high rates of nonoccupational asbestos-related disease. Additionally, other areas with naturally occurring asbestos deposits near communities in the United States and overseas are undergoing investigations to assess exposures and potential health risks. Some of the latest public health, epidemiological, and basic research findings were presented at a workshop on asbestos at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology in Phoenix, Arizona. The following focus areas were discussed: a) mechanisms resulting in fibrosis and/or tumor development; b) relative toxicity of different forms of asbestos and other hazardous elongated mineral particles (EMPs); c) proper dose metrics (e.g., mass, fiber number, or surface area of fibers) when interpreting asbestos toxicity; d) asbestos exposure to susceptible populations; and e) using toxicological findings for risk assessment and remediation efforts. The workshop also featured asbestos research supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Better protection of individuals from asbestos-related health effects will require stimulation of new multidisciplinary research to further our understanding of what constitutes hazardous exposures and risk factors associated with toxicity of asbestos and other hazardous EMPs (e.g., nanomaterials).

  8. Simulation for human factors research. A central question: Fidelity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, D.

    1985-01-01

    Generalized outlines are presented for simulation in human factors research. Recent trends in aeronautical simulation are given. Some criteria for effective training devices are also given. Full system/full mission simulation in aviation and in space human factors research is presented.

  9. Questioning Methodologies in Research on Men in ECEC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrmann, Tim; Brody, David

    2015-01-01

    Research that elucidates the complexities of gender balance is itself a controversial field. This article examines challenges and limitations in quantitative as well as qualitative research on gender balance in early childhood education and care (ECEC). Cross country comparisons of male and female participation in the ECEC workforce are often…

  10. Addressing Global Environmental Challenges through Interdisciplinary Biogeochemical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paytan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Our planet is dynamic; energy and matter constantly move between the hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere on time scales from seconds to millenia. These tight interactions - including those between organisms and their physical environment - are what make Earth habitable. However, as Rachel Carson wrote, 'Only within the moment of time represented by the present century has one species - man - acquired significant power to alter the nature of this world'. Globalization and explosive population growth have generated far-reaching environmental problems on a scale that humanity has never faced before. Fortunately, our species has also developed an unprecedented ability to provide science-based solutions. Since processes impacting the environment involve complex biological, physical, chemical and geological interactions and feedbacks, they require the integration of expertise from all these scientific disciplines as well as input from policy makers, social scientists, and economists. This talk presents four examples of current interdisciplinary research projects conducted in my lab, each one related to a theme from one of Carson's books (Under the Sea-wind, The Sea Around Us, The Edge of the Sea, and Silent Spring). These projects, and others like them, provide hope that we can move toward a sustainable relationship with the natural world by encouraging the best scientists to conduct interdisciplinary research with direct applications for environmental management and stewardship.

  11. Addressing selection bias in dental health services research.

    PubMed

    Lee, J Y; Rozier, R G; Norton, E C; Vann, W F

    2005-10-01

    When randomization is not possible, researchers must control for non-random assignment to experimental groups. One technique for statistical adjustment for non-random assignment is through the use of a two-stage analytical technique. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the use of this technique to control for selection bias in examining the effects of the The Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children's (WIC) on dental visits. From 5 data sources, an analysis file was constructed for 49,512 children ages 1-5 years. The two-stage technique was used to control for selection bias in WIC participation, the potentially endogenous variable. Specification tests showed that WIC participation was not random and that selection bias was present. The effects of the WIC on dental use differed by 36% after adjustment for selection bias by means of the two-stage technique. This technique can be used to control for potential selection bias in dental research when randomization is not possible.

  12. Sex and gender matter in health research: addressing health inequities in health research reporting.

    PubMed

    Gahagan, Jacqueline; Gray, Kimberly; Whynacht, Ardath

    2015-01-01

    Attention to the concepts of 'sex' and 'gender' is increasingly being recognized as contributing to better science through an augmented understanding of how these factors impact on health inequities and related health outcomes. However, the ongoing lack of conceptual clarity in how sex and gender constructs are used in both the design and reporting of health research studies remains problematic. Conceptual clarity among members of the health research community is central to ensuring the appropriate use of these concepts in a manner that can advance our understanding of the sex- and gender-based health implications of our research findings. During the past twenty-five years much progress has been made in reducing both sex and gender disparities in clinical research and, to a significant albeit lesser extent, in basic science research. Why, then, does there remain a lack of uptake of sex- and gender-specific reporting of health research findings in many health research journals? This question, we argue, has significant health equity implications across all pillars of health research, from biomedical and clinical research, through to health systems and population health.

  13. Clinical Research Trials and You: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... volunteers and to preserve the integrity of the science. Ethical guidelines in place today were primarily a response to past research abuses. Informed Consent Informed consent is the process of learning the key facts about a clinical trial before ...

  14. Challenges and key research questions for yaws eradication.

    PubMed

    Marks, Michael; Mitjà, Oriol; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Pillay, Allan; Knauf, Sascha; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Bassat, Quique; Martin, Diana L; Fegan, David; Taleo, Fasihah; Kool, Jacob; Lukehart, Sheila; Emerson, Paul M; Solomon, Anthony W; Ye, Tun; Ballard, Ronald C; Mabey, David C W; Asiedu, Kingsley B

    2015-10-01

    Yaws is endemic in west Africa, southeast Asia, and the Pacific region. To eradicate yaws by 2020, WHO has launched a campaign of mass treatment with azithromycin. Progress has been made towards achievement of this ambitious goal, including the validation of point-of-care and molecular diagnostic tests and piloting of the strategy in several countries, including Ghana, Vanuatu, and Papua New Guinea. Gaps in knowledge need to be addressed to allow refinement of the eradication strategy. Studies exploring determinants of the spatial distribution of yaws are needed to help with the completion of baseline mapping. The finding that Haemophilus ducreyi causes lesions similar to yaws is particularly important and further work is needed to assess the effect of azithromycin on these lesions. The integration of diagnostic tests into different stages of the eradication campaign needs investigation. Finally, studies must be done to inform the optimum mass-treatment strategy for sustainable interruption of transmission.

  15. The case for a deep-atmospheric in situ mission to address the highest priority Decadal Survey questions for Venus (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atreya, S. K.; Garvin, J. B.; Glaze, L. S.; Campbell, B. A.; Fisher, M. E.; Flores, A.; Gilmore, M. S.; Johnson, N.; Kiefer, W. S.; Lorenz, R. D.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Ravine, M. A.; Webster, C. R.; Zolotov, M. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Current understanding of Venus lags behind that for Mars, with a major disparity of information concerning noble and trace gases and the small scale surface processes needed for comparative studies of terrestrial planet evolution. Despite global surface mapping by Magellan, discoveries by Venera landers, and ongoing atmospheric observations by the Venus Express (VEx) orbiter, significant questions about Venus remain unanswered. To place Venus into its proper context with respect to Mars and Earth, it is necessary to obtain new measurements that address top issues identified in the National Research Council (NRC) Solar System Decadal Survey: (1) evolution of the atmosphere, history of climate, and evidence of past hydrologic cycles; (2) history of volatiles and sedimentary cycles; and (3) planetary surface evolution. To answer these questions, new measurements are needed. First and foremost, in situ noble gas measurements are needed to constrain solar system formation and Venus evolution. In particular, the isotopic ratios of Xe and Kr can provide unique insights into planetary accretion. Isotopic measurements of nitrogen (15N/14N) will place important constraints on atmospheric loss processes. Current knowledge of this ratio has a substantial uncertainty of ×20%. VEx observations of hydrogen isotopes indicate the D/H ratio above the clouds is substantially greater than measured by Pioneer Venus, and varies with height. High precision measurements of the vertical distribution of the D/H isotopic ratio below the cloud layers will provide constraints on models of the climate history of water on Venus. The majority of atmospheric mass is located below the clouds. Current data suggest intense interaction among atmospheric gases down to the surface. The haze within the cloud region of unknown composition plays a central role in the radiative balance. Photochemically-derived species (H2SO4, OCS, CO, Sn) are subjected to thermochemical reactions below the clouds

  16. The future of human embryonic stem cell research: addressing ethical conflict with responsible scientific research.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, David M

    2004-05-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have almost unlimited regenerative capacity and can potentially generate any body tissue. Hence they hold great promise for the cure of degenerative human diseases. But their derivation and the potential for misuse have raised a number of ethical issues. These ethical issues threaten to paralyze pubic funding for ES cell research, leaving experimentation in the hands of the private sector and precluding the public's ability to monitor practices, research alternatives, and effectively address the very ethical issues that are cause for concern in the first place. With new technology being inevitable, and the potential for abuse high, government must stay involved if the public is to play a role in shaping the direction of research. In this essay, I will define levels of ethical conflict that can be delineated by the anticipated advances in technology. From the urgent need to derive new ES cell lines with existing technology, to the most far-reaching goal of deriving genetically identical tissues from an adult patients cells, technology-specific ethical dilemmas can be defined and addressed. This staged approach provides a solid ethical framework for moving forward with ES cell research. Moreover, by anticipating the moral conflicts to come, one can predict the types of scientific advances that could overcome these conflicts, and appropriately direct federal funding toward these goals to offset potentially less responsible research directives that will inevitably go forward via private or foreign funding.

  17. Learning biology through research papers: a stimulus for question-asking by high-school students.

    PubMed

    Brill, Gilat; Yarden, Anat

    2003-01-01

    Question-asking is a basic skill, required for the development of scientific thinking. However, the way in which science lessons are conducted does not usually stimulate question-asking by students. To make students more familiar with the scientific inquiry process, we developed a curriculum in developmental biology based on research papers suitable for high-school students. Since a scientific paper poses a research question, demonstrates the events that led to the answer, and poses new questions, we attempted to examine the effect of studying through research papers on students' ability to pose questions. Students were asked before, during, and after instruction what they found interesting to know about embryonic development. In addition, we monitored students' questions, which were asked orally during the lessons. Questions were scored according to three categories: properties, comparisons, and causal relationships. We found that before learning through research papers, students tend to ask only questions of the properties category. In contrast, students tend to pose questions that reveal a higher level of thinking and uniqueness during or following instruction with research papers. This change was not observed during or following instruction with a textbook. We suggest that learning through research papers may be one way to provide a stimulus for question-asking by high-school students and results in higher thinking levels and uniqueness. PMID:14673492

  18. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Body Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Going, Scott; Lee, Vinson; Blew, Rob; Laddu, Deepika; Hetherington-Rauth, Megan

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of body composition is crucial to understanding human health, disease, and function. Research in body composition has focused on the development of assessment methods, description of normal changes in body composition with growth and development and aging, and the changes that occur in body composition in response to challenges…

  19. High Level Thinking and Questioning Strategies. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Ella

    2010-01-01

    Higher-order thinking is an instructional strategy supported by research. Often referred to as critical thinking skills, it is more than simple recall of facts or information. It is a function of the interaction between cognitive strategies, meta-cognition, and nonstrategic knowledge when solving problems. Higher-order thinking is based on the…

  20. Survey research: it's just a few questions, right?

    PubMed

    Tait, Alan R; Voepel-Lewis, Terri

    2015-07-01

    While most anesthesiologists and other physician- or nurse-scientists are familiar with traditional descriptive, observational, and interventional study design, survey research has typically remained the preserve of the social scientists. To that end, this article provides a basic overview of the elements of good survey design and offers some rules of thumb to help guide investigators through the survey process.

  1. Collaborating in Life Science Research Groups: The Question of Authorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how life science postdocs' perceptions of contemporary academic career rationales influence how they relate to collaboration within research groups. One consequential dimension of these perceptions is the high value assigned to publications. For career progress, postdocs consider producing publications and…

  2. Biomedical Research and Corporate Interests: A Question of Academic Freedom

    PubMed Central

    McHenry, Leemon

    2008-01-01

    The current situation in medicine has been described as a crisis of credibility, as the profit motive of industry has taken control of clinical trials and the dissemination of data. Pharmaceutical companies maintain a stranglehold over the content of medical journals in three ways: (1) by ghostwriting articles that bias the results of clinical trials, (2) by the sheer economic power they exert on journals due to the purchase of drug advertisements and journal reprints, and (3) by the threat of legal action against those researchers who seek to correct the misrepresentation of study results. This paper argues that Karl Popper's critical rationalism provides a corrective to the failure of academic freedom in biomedical research. PMID:22013356

  3. Biomedical research and corporate interests: a question of academic freedom.

    PubMed

    McHenry, Leemon

    2008-01-01

    The current situation in medicine has been described as a crisis of credibility, as the profit motive of industry has taken control of clinical trials and the dissemination of data. Pharmaceutical companies maintain a stranglehold over the content of medical journals in three ways: (1) by ghostwriting articles that bias the results of clinical trials, (2) by the sheer economic power they exert on journals due to the purchase of drug advertisements and journal reprints, and (3) by the threat of legal action against those researchers who seek to correct the misrepresentation of study results. This paper argues that Karl Popper's critical rationalism provides a corrective to the failure of academic freedom in biomedical research.

  4. Determining Research Questions on Health Risks by People with Learning Disabilities, Carers and Care-Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anita F.; Chesson, Rosemary A.

    2008-01-01

    Here we describe the process by which research questions were developed for reducing health risks for people with learning disabilities. A participatory approach was used to give service users and carers a clear voice in "deciding" questions, thereby setting the research agenda. Audio-taped interviews and focus groups were used. Forty people (20…

  5. The Varieties of Student Experience--An Open Research Question and Some Ways to Answer It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainley, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Based on meetings of the Society for Research into Higher Education's Student Experience Network over the past three years, the genuinely open research question is posed whether there is one or more undergraduate student experience within English higher education. Answering this question depends on whether what is taught or what is learnt is…

  6. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-06-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the EMF (electric and magnetic fields) produced by power lines and other electrical devices affect our health. Although no adverse health effects of electric power EMF have been confirmed, there is continued scientific uncertainty about this issue. Research on EMF is ongoing throughout the world. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  7. Emotion Theory and Research: Highlights, Unanswered Questions, and Emerging Issues

    PubMed Central

    Izard, Carroll E.

    2009-01-01

    Emotion feeling is a phase of neurobiological activity, the key component of emotions and emotion-cognition interactions. Emotion schemas, the most frequently occurring emotion experiences, are dynamic emotion-cognition interactions that may consist of momentary/ situational responding or enduring traits of personality that emerge over developmental time. Emotions play a critical role in the evolution of consciousness and the operations of all mental processes. Types of emotion relate differentially to types or levels of consciousness. Unbridled imagination and the ability for sympathetic regulation of empathy may represent both potential gains and losses from the evolution and ontogeny of emotion processes and consciousness. Unresolved issues include psychology’s neglect of levels of consciousness that are distinct from access or reflective consciousness and use of the term “unconscious mind” as a dumpster for all mental processes that are considered unreportable. The relation of memes and the mirror neuron system to empathy, sympathy, and cultural influences on the development of socioemotional skills are unresolved issues destined to attract future research. PMID:18729725

  8. COOP+ project: Promoting the cooperation among international Research Infrastructures to address global environmental challenges.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonet-García, Francisco; Materia, Paola; Kutsch, Werner; de Lucas, Jesús Marco; Tjulin, Anders

    2016-04-01

    (LifeWatch) with international counterparts (NEON, TERN, AMISR/SRI, CGSM, OOI, INPA/LBA, IMOS, OCN, AMERIFLUX, etc.) and to leverage international scientific cooperation and data exchange with non-EU countries. During the time span of COOP+ (March 2016 to July 2018), we will address several important questions regarding RIs: What could be the contribution of international RIs to address cross-disciplinary global challenges like modelling and understanding the carbon cycle? Is it feasible to join the knowledge gathered in Arctic research with marine science outputs into comprehensive global models? What collaboration approaches could be implemented to foster the cooperation among RIs? What is the role of local observatories (bottom-up) in this cooperation framework? This contribution will describe COOP+ project using the concept of global challenge. We will describe several possible case study that could be addressed by a network of international RIs.

  9. Addressing Possible Problems of Validity and Reliability in Qualitative Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    The ways in which potential problems in terms of validity were addressed by a beginning researcher conducting research into teacher attitudes are described. The researcher, a doctoral candidate, studied the beliefs, attitudes, and values of four experienced high school biology teachers. Principles and practices of research were set into place…

  10. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Musculoskeletal Physical Fitness Testing in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plowman, Sharon Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to bring attention to the 10 most pressing questions relevant to musculoskeletal physical fitness testing in children and adolescents. The goal is to stimulate research to answer these questions. The most pressing needs include establishing definitive links between valid, reliable, and feasible field test measures of…

  11. Learning Biology through Research Papers: A Stimulus for Question-Asking by High-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Gilat; Yarden, Anat

    2003-01-01

    Question-asking is a basic skill, required for the development of scientific thinking. However, the way in which science lessons are conducted does not usually stimulate question-asking by students. To make students more familiar with the scientific inquiry process, we developed a curriculum in developmental biology based on research papers…

  12. A Systematic Review of Research on Questioning as a High-Level Cognitive Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davoudi, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Narges Amel

    2015-01-01

    Given the significance of questioning as a high-level cognitive strategy in language teaching and learning in the literature on TEFL as well as in education in general, this study sought to make a systematic review of research studies conducted in the span of the last three decades on the issue of questioning across different disciplines with a…

  13. Building Consistency between Title, Problem Statement, Purpose, & Research Questions to Improve the Quality of Research Plans and Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Isadore; Covrig, Duane M.

    2013-01-01

    Consistency in the title, problem, purpose, and research question improve the logic and transparency of research. When these components of research are aligned research design and planning are more coherent and research reports are more readable. This article reviews the process for checking for and improving consistency. Numerous examples of…

  14. 2016 Senior Researcher Award Acceptance Address: Developing Productive Researchers Through Mentoring, Rethinking Doctoral Dissertations, and Facilitating Positive Publishing Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Wendy L.

    2016-01-01

    In her acceptance address, Wendy Sims provides a unique perspective based on thoughts and reflections resulting from her 8 years of service as the ninth Editor of the "Journal of Research in Music Education" ("JRME"). Specifically, she addresses how college-level music education researchers can promote positive attitudes toward…

  15. BERA Presidential Address 2013: Educational Research--What's to Be Done?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menter, Ian

    2014-01-01

    In his inaugural Presidential Address, given to the BERA Conference 2013 at the University of Sussex, Ian Menter addresses a number of issues concerning educational policy and the contributions that educational research might make to policy development. As BERA approaches its fortieth anniversary, he also sets out some of the responsibilities that…

  16. Addressing Inequalities in Health: New Directions in Midwifery Education and Practice. Researching Professional Education Research Reports Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Angie; Lockey, Rachael; Henwood, Flis; Pankhurst, Francesca; Hall, Valerie; Sommerville, Fiona

    This report addresses key questions concerning the effectiveness of midwifery education in preparing midwives to meet the needs of women from minority or disadvantaged groups in England. Chapter 1 sets out the methodological context within which the work was undertaken and provides an overview of data sources and sample sizes. Chapters 3 and 4…

  17. Developing Survey Research Infrastructure At An Historically Black College/University To Address Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Daniel L.; Boyd, Carlton L.; Kalsbeek, Bill; Godley, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Center for Survey Research at Shaw University, a Historically Black College and University (HBCU), and its efforts to build a data collection infrastructure that addresses issues germane to health disparities research in the African American population. Academic institutions that are similar to Shaw in size, mission, and background can use the Project EXPORT collaboration and the Center for Survey Research as models for establishing their own research infrastructure and subsequent survey center in order to address health disparities through the use of survey methodology. PMID:22090795

  18. Developing Survey Research Infrastructure At An Historically Black College/University To Address Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Howard, Daniel L; Boyd, Carlton L; Kalsbeek, Bill; Godley, Paul A

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Center for Survey Research at Shaw University, a Historically Black College and University (HBCU), and its efforts to build a data collection infrastructure that addresses issues germane to health disparities research in the African American population. Academic institutions that are similar to Shaw in size, mission, and background can use the Project EXPORT collaboration and the Center for Survey Research as models for establishing their own research infrastructure and subsequent survey center in order to address health disparities through the use of survey methodology.

  19. Writing a Scientific Research ("Testable") Question: The First Step in Using Online Data Sets for Guided Inquiry Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Chiron; Rutherford, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Educational research focused on questioning techniques used in classroom settings is quite extensive. However, research regarding a teacher's ability to generate research questions is virtually nonexistent. Posing research or "testable" questions is a key component of inquiry-based instruction, and teachers must be able to both generate these…

  20. An Overview of Interdisciplinary Research at Notre Dame Addressing "Grand Challenges" in the Midwest and Great Lakes Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlet, A. F.; Bolster, D.; Tank, J. L.; Hellmann, J.; Christopher, S. F.; Sharma, A.; Chiu, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Midwest and Great Lakes region face a number of "Grand Challenges" associated with climate, land use, agriculture, and water resources infrastructure. These include sustainability of agricultural systems and related impacts to food security and the regional economy; sustainability of Great Lakes water levels; changing storm statistics and impacts to stormwater management and flooding; water quality in rivers and downstream receiving water bodies related to non-point source pollution on agricultural lands and combined sewer overflows in urban areas; urban impacts related to aging infrastructure and climate change, and ecosystem management and restoration. In the context of water management, groundwater resources are poorly understood in comparison with surface water resources, and regional-scale simulation models are needed to address questions of sustainability both in terms of supply and water quality. Interdisciplinary research at the University of Notre Dame is attempting to address these research challenges via 1) integrated macro-scale groundwater and surface water modeling to address issues related to sustainable water supply, ecosystem restoration, and agricultural impacts; 2) development of high-resolution regional climate models dynamically coupled to the Great Lakes to address urban impacts, changing storm statistics and to quantify precipitation and evaporation over the Great Lakes; 3) and integrated macro-scale hydrology and water quality modeling to assess the large-scale performance of innovative land management BMPs on agricultural land (such as the two-stage ditch, cover crops, and dynamic drainage control) intended to improve water quality.

  1. Conducting "Good" Equity Research in Mathematics Education: A Question of Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Erika C.

    2012-01-01

    Hostetler (2005) describes "good" education research as that which attends to the well-being of students, teachers, and communities. In this essay, the author proposes measuring equity-based research in mathematics education against Hostetler's standard. She argues that current equity-based research has not adequately addressed the…

  2. The Health of Latino Children: Urgent Priorities, Unanswered Questions, and a Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Glenn; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Barbot, Oxiris; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Claudio, Luz; Lara, Mariaelena; McLaurin, Jennie A.; Patcher, Lee; Gomez, Francisco Ramos; Mendoza, Fernando; Valdez, R. Burciaga; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Zambrana, Ruth E.; Greenberg, Robert; Weitzman, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The Latino Consortium of the American Academy of Pediatrics Center for Child Health Research identified the most urgent priorities and answered questions on Latino child health. Discusses research and methodologic issues, disproportionate disease burden and associated risk factors, cultural and linguistic considerations, workforce issues, and…

  3. Animal Encounters in Environmental Education Research: Responding to the "Question of the Animal"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakley, Jan; Watson, Gavan P. L.; Russell, Constance L.; Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy; Fawcett, Leesa; Kuhl, Gail; Russell, Joshua; van der Waal, Marlon; Warkentin, Traci

    2010-01-01

    The "question of the animal" represents an area of emergent interest in the environmental education field, as researchers critically consider human-animal relations and animal advocacy in their work. Following a group discussion at the 10th Seminar in Health and Environmental Education Research, the authors of this paper share experiences,…

  4. Questions Students Ask: Bridging the Gap between Scientists and Students in a Research Institute Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Bev; Bay, Jacquie L.

    2010-01-01

    It was proposed that an analysis of the questions students anticipate asking, and ask, could provide information about an enculturation encounter between Year 13 biology students and scientists working in a biomedical-clinical research unit. As part of a day-long intervention at this research institute, small groups of students (10-15) met with…

  5. Eight Questions on Teacher Licensure and Certification: What Does the Research Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Beverly; O'Brien, Tracey

    2005-01-01

    This document is a summary of the findings of an extensive review by the Education Commission of the States (ECS) of empirical research on the effectiveness of current approaches to licensing and certifying teachers. The research review focused on eight questions (and several subquestions) that are of particular interest and concern to policy and…

  6. 76 FR 45268 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to Addressing Drug Shortage; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to... approach of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) to addressing drug shortages. This public... interested persons about the causes and impact of drug shortages, and possible strategies for preventing...

  7. 76 FR 60505 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to Addressing Drug Shortage; Public Workshop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to... notice of public workshop published in the Federal Register of July 28, 2011 (76 FR 45268). In that... Research to addressing drug shortages. FDA is opening a comment period in light of public interest in...

  8. Beyond procedural ethics: foregrounding questions of justice in global health research ethics training for students.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Matthew R; Godard, Beatrice

    2013-07-01

    Interest in global health is growing among students across many disciplines and fields of study. In response, an increasing number of academic programmes integrate and promote opportunities for international research, service or clinical placements. These activities raise a range of ethical issues and are associated with important training needs for those who participate. In this paper, we focus on research fieldwork conducted in lower income nations by students from more affluent countries and the ethics preparation they would benefit from receiving prior to embarking on these projects. Global health research is closely associated with questions of justice and equity that extend beyond concerns of procedural ethics. Research takes place in and is shaped by matrices of political, social and cultural contexts and concerns. These realities warrant analysis and discussion during research ethics training. Training activities present an opportunity to encourage students to link global health research to questions of global justice, account for issues of justice in planning their own research, and prepare for 'ethics-in-practice' issues when conducting research in contexts of widespread inequality. Sustained engagement with questions of justice and equity during research ethics training will help support students for involvement in global health research.

  9. A Framework for Addressing Skeptics' Claims Using Evidence-Based Argumentation: Lessons Learned from Educational Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, J. L.; Bleicher, R. E.; Edwards, A.; Henderson, A.

    2012-12-01

    In science education, climate change is an issue that is especially useful for teaching concepts spanning several fields of science, as well the nature and practices of science. In response, we are developing a NASA-funded curriculum, titled Climate Science Investigations (CSI): South Florida, that teaches high school and first-year undergraduate level students how to analyze and use scientific data answer questions about climate change. To create an effective curriculum, we integrated lessons learned from our educational research conducted within our elementary science methods courses (Lambert, Lindgren, & Bleicher, 2012). For the past few years, we have been integrating climate science in our courses as a way to teach standards across several science disciplines and assessing our preservice teachers' gains in knowledge over the semesters. More recently, given the media attention and reports on the public's shift in opinion toward being more skeptical (Kellstedt, Zahran, & Vedlitz, 2008; Washington & Cook, 2011), we have assessed our students' perceptions about climate change and implemented strategies to help students use evidence-based scientific argumentation to address common claims of climate skeptics. In our elementary science methods courses, we framed climate change as a crosscutting theme, as well as a core idea, in the Next Generation Science Standards. We proposed that the issue and science of climate change would help preservice teachers not only become more interested in the topic, but also be more prepared to teach core science concepts spanning several disciplines (physical, life, and earth sciences). We also thought that highlighting the "practice of scientific inquiry" by teaching students to develop evidence-based arguments would help the preservice teachers become more analytical and able to differentiate scientific evidence from opinions, which could ultimately influence their perceptions on climate change. Lessons learned from our preservice

  10. Predicting self-reported research misconduct and questionable research practices in university students using an augmented Theory of Planned Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Rajah-Kanagasabai, Camilla J.; Roberts, Lynne D.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior model, augmented by descriptive norms and justifications, for predicting self-reported research misconduct and questionable research practices in university students. A convenience sample of 205 research active Western Australian university students (47 male, 158 female, ages 18–53 years, M = 22, SD = 4.78) completed an online survey. There was a low level of engagement in research misconduct, with approximately one in seven students reporting data fabrication and one in eight data falsification. Path analysis and model testing in LISREL supported a parsimonious two step mediation model, providing good fit to the data. After controlling for social desirability, the effect of attitudes, subjective norms, descriptive norms and perceived behavioral control on student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices was mediated by justifications and then intention. This revised augmented model accounted for a substantial 40.8% of the variance in student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices, demonstrating its predictive utility. The model can be used to target interventions aimed at reducing student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices. PMID:25983709

  11. Questions and controversies in innate immune research: what is the physiological role of NLRP3?

    PubMed

    Coll, R C; O'Neill, Laj; Schroder, K

    2016-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome is a key component of the innate immune system that induces pro-inflammatory cytokine production and cell death. Although NLRP3 is activated by many pathogens, it only appears to be critical for host defense for a limited number of specific infections. NLRP3 is however strongly associated with the initiation and pathology of many inflammatory diseases. If NLRP3 function is largely redundant for host defense, but drives a number of inflammatory diseases, this raises the important question of why evolution has elected to maintain NLRP3 function. We propose that the primary physiological functions of NLRP3 in health are to engage pathways to clear noxious substances (e.g. protein aggregates and crystals), and to regulate metabolism. We discuss the newly identified functions for NLRP3 in metabolic homeostasis, and how NLRP3 beneficial functions in homeostasis may become detrimental during the onset of inflammatory and metabolic diseases. A common feature of most NLRP3-driven diseases is that they are associated with ageing or metabolic excess, and indeed, Nlrp3 deficiency promotes 'healthspan' in ageing mice. This suggests that beneficial functions of NLRP3 in youth may become increasingly countered by NLRP3-dependent pathology as an individual ages, and we propose a general model by which ageing or nutrient excess may provide a tipping point to switch NLRP3 function from beneficial to pathological. The physiological role of NLRP3 in healthy individuals remains incompletely understood and future research will need to address this if NLRP3 is to become a successful therapeutic target for the clinical management of inflammatory diseases. PMID:27551512

  12. Questions and controversies in innate immune research: what is the physiological role of NLRP3?

    PubMed Central

    Coll, RC; O’Neill, LAJ; Schroder, K

    2016-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome is a key component of the innate immune system that induces pro-inflammatory cytokine production and cell death. Although NLRP3 is activated by many pathogens, it only appears to be critical for host defense for a limited number of specific infections. NLRP3 is however strongly associated with the initiation and pathology of many inflammatory diseases. If NLRP3 function is largely redundant for host defense, but drives a number of inflammatory diseases, this raises the important question of why evolution has elected to maintain NLRP3 function. We propose that the primary physiological functions of NLRP3 in health are to engage pathways to clear noxious substances (e.g. protein aggregates and crystals), and to regulate metabolism. We discuss the newly identified functions for NLRP3 in metabolic homeostasis, and how NLRP3 beneficial functions in homeostasis may become detrimental during the onset of inflammatory and metabolic diseases. A common feature of most NLRP3-driven diseases is that they are associated with ageing or metabolic excess, and indeed, Nlrp3 deficiency promotes ‘healthspan’ in ageing mice. This suggests that beneficial functions of NLRP3 in youth may become increasingly countered by NLRP3-dependent pathology as an individual ages, and we propose a general model by which ageing or nutrient excess may provide a tipping point to switch NLRP3 function from beneficial to pathological. The physiological role of NLRP3 in healthy individuals remains incompletely understood and future research will need to address this if NLRP3 is to become a successful therapeutic target for the clinical management of inflammatory diseases. PMID:27551512

  13. How Can the eCampus Be Organized and Run To Address Traditional Concerns, but Maintain an Innovative Approach to Providing Educational Access? Project Eagle Evaluation Question #3. Benchmarking St. Petersburg College: A Report to Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Joyce

    This paper discusses the findings of St. Petersburg College's (SPC) (Florida) evaluation question: "How can the eCampus be organized and run to address traditional faculty concerns, but maintain an innovative approach to providing educational access?" In order to evaluate this question, a list was compiled of faculty issues identified by…

  14. Outlining Purposes, Stating the Nature of the Present Research, and Listing Research Questions or Hypotheses in Academic Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shehzad, Wasima

    2011-01-01

    Driving research questions from the prevailing issues and interests and developing from them new theories, formulas, algorithms, methods, and designs, and linking them to the interests of the larger audience is a vital component of scientific research papers. The present article discusses outlining purposes or stating the nature of the present…

  15. Defining Educational Research: A Perspective of/on Presidential Addresses and the Australian Association for Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob; Gale, Trevor

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the definition of the field of educational research and the changing and developing role of the Australian Association for Research in Education (AARE) in representing and constituting this field. The evidence for the argument is derived from AARE Presidential Addresses across its 40-year history. The paper documents…

  16. Answering the Questions of Rape Prevention Research: A Response to Tharp et al. (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Rape prevention programmers and researchers have long struggled to select the most appropriate theoretical models to frame their work. Questions abound regarding appropriate standards of evidence for success of program interventions. The present article provides an alternative point of view to the one put forward by seven staff members from the…

  17. Television Viewing and Symptoms of Inattention and Hyperactivity across Time: The Importance of Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Tara; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; To, Yen

    2009-01-01

    The importance of well-specified research questions in the evaluation of early predictors of later inattention and hyperactivity is examined. In an analysis of a nationally representative sample of 2,717 children aged 4 to 10, latent growth trajectories for television viewing and inattention and hyperactivity are determined and the relationship of…

  18. Mapping the Questions: The State of Writing-Related Transfer Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jessie

    2012-01-01

    The following article maps the questions, methods, contexts, and theories presented in published scholarship on writing-related transfer. While not exhaustive, this review attempts to capture representative samples with a focus on recent publications. The article then highlights a multi-institutional research initiative that aims to flesh out the…

  19. Addressing Barriers to Student Learning & Promoting Healthy Development: A Usable Research-Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2004

    2004-01-01

    As schools evolve improvement plans in keeping with higher standards and expectations and increased accountability, most planners recognize they must include a comprehensive focus on addressing barriers to student learning and promoting healthy development. A growing volume of research on the value of schools, families, and communities working…

  20. Critical Event Preparedness and Response: Keynote Address to the 2006 Sloan Research Workshop by Jon Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Janet C.

    2008-01-01

    At the intersection of online education and preparedness, Johns Hopkins University's (JHU) Center for Public Health Preparedness provides all-hazards preparedness and response training for public health and public safety professionals. This report comes from Jonathan Links' keynote address to the Sloan Summer Research Workshop in Baltimore,…

  1. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-05-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  2. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-11-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this pamphlet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. (BPA is the Pacific Northwest`s Federal electric power marketing agency.) First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are described. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns raised by these studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this pamphlet.

  3. Challenges in Addressing Depression in HIV Research: Assessment, Cultural Context, and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Simoni, Jane M.; Safren, Steven A.; Manhart, Lisa E.; Lyda, Karen; Grossman, Cynthia I.; Rao, Deepa; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Wong, Frank Y.; Catz, Sheryl L.; Blank, Michael B.; DiClemente, Ralph; Wilson, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common co-morbidities of HIV infection. It negatively impacts self-care, quality of life, and biomedical outcomes among people living with HIV (PLWH) and may interfere with their ability to benefit from health promotion interventions. State-of-the-science research among PLWH, therefore, must address depression. To guide researchers, we describe the main diagnostic, screening, and symptom-rating measures of depression, offering suggestions for selecting the most appropriate instrument. We also address cultural considerations in the assessment of depression among PLWH, emphasizing the need to consider measurement equivalence and offering strategies for developing measures that are valid cross-culturally. Finally, acknowledging the high prevalence of depression among PLWH, we provide guidance to researchers on incorporating depression into the theoretical framework of their studies and employing procedures that account for participants with depression. PMID:21046221

  4. A Blueprint to Address Research Gaps in the Development of Biomarkers for Pediatric Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Mark Patrick; Gnanashanmugam, Devasena; Browning, Renee; Click, Eleanor S; Cuevas, Luis E; Detjen, Anne; Graham, Steve M; Levin, Michael; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Nahid, Payam; Perez-Velez, Carlos M; Reither, Klaus; Song, Rinn; Spiegel, Hans M L; Worrell, Carol; Zar, Heather J; Walzl, Gerhard

    2015-10-15

    Childhood tuberculosis contributes significantly to the global tuberculosis disease burden but remains challenging to diagnose due to inadequate methods of pathogen detection in paucibacillary pediatric samples and lack of a child-specific host biomarker to identify disease. Accurately diagnosing tuberculosis in children is required to improve case detection, surveillance, healthcare delivery, and effective advocacy. In May 2014, the National Institutes of Health convened a workshop including researchers in the field to delineate priorities to address this research gap. This blueprint describes the consensus from the workshop, identifies critical research steps to advance this field, and aims to catalyze efforts toward harmonization and collaboration in this area.

  5. Addressing NCDs through research and capacity building in LMICs: lessons learned from tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Sturke, Rachel; Vorkoper, Susan; Duncan, Kalina; Levintova, Marya; Parascondola, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Confronting the global non-communicable diseases (NCDs) crisis requires a critical mass of scientists who are well versed in regional health problems and understand the cultural, social, economic, and political contexts that influence the effectiveness of interventions. Investments in global NCD research must be accompanied by contributions to local research capacity. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Fogarty International Center have a long-standing commitment to supporting research capacity building and addressing the growing burden of NCDs in low- and middle-income countries. One program in particular, the NIH International Tobacco and Health Research and Capacity Building Program (TOBAC program), offers an important model for conducting research and building research capacity simultaneously. This article describes the lessons learned from this unique funding model and demonstrates how a relatively modest investment can make important contributions to scientific evidence and capacity building that could inform ongoing and future efforts to tackle the global burden of NCDs. PMID:27545455

  6. Addressing NCDs through research and capacity building in LMICs: lessons learned from tobacco control

    PubMed Central

    Sturke, Rachel; Vorkoper, Susan; Duncan, Kalina; Levintova, Marya; Parascondola, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Confronting the global non-communicable diseases (NCDs) crisis requires a critical mass of scientists who are well versed in regional health problems and understand the cultural, social, economic, and political contexts that influence the effectiveness of interventions. Investments in global NCD research must be accompanied by contributions to local research capacity. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Fogarty International Center have a long-standing commitment to supporting research capacity building and addressing the growing burden of NCDs in low- and middle-income countries. One program in particular, the NIH International Tobacco and Health Research and Capacity Building Program (TOBAC program), offers an important model for conducting research and building research capacity simultaneously. This article describes the lessons learned from this unique funding model and demonstrates how a relatively modest investment can make important contributions to scientific evidence and capacity building that could inform ongoing and future efforts to tackle the global burden of NCDs. PMID:27545455

  7. School nurses can address existing gaps in school-age sleep research.

    PubMed

    Willgerodt, Mayumi A; Kieckhefer, Gail M

    2013-06-01

    Sleep has been linked to a host of physical, behavioral, and emotional outcomes, and research has documented that youth across the globe are experiencing inadequate sleep. Despite this knowledge, however, very little research has been conducted on school-age children; much of the extant research has focused on infants, toddlers, preschoolers, adolescents, and adults. School-age children exhibit increasing independence around health-related behaviors, which provide health professionals the opportunity to educate and promote healthy sleep behaviors. This commentary extends previous research reviews by identifying the current gaps in sleep research, highlighting future directions needed in sleep research, and explaining why school nurses are best suited to address this growing public health issue. PMID:23054101

  8. Agenda for Researching Teaching (ART): A Visual Model and Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Haug, Carolyn A.; Robinson, Ellen Hill

    2011-01-01

    In response to the dearth of research agendas that connect teacher education and teaching in the field and to the call for more programmatic research, the purpose of this paper is to present the Agenda for Researching Teaching (ART). The ART is a visual research agenda that spans the time from a teacher candidate learning to teach to impacting…

  9. Addressing prospective elementary teachers' mathematics subject matter knowledge through action research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourigan, Mairéad; O'Donoghue, John

    2015-01-01

    There is international dissatisfaction regarding the standard of mathematics subject matter knowledge (MSMK) evident among both qualified and prospective elementary teachers. Ireland is no exception. Following increasing anecdotal evidence of prospective elementary teachers in one Irish College of Education (provider of initial teacher education programme) demonstrating weaknesses in this regard, this study sought to examine and address the issue through two cycles of action research. The examination of the nature of prospective teachers' MSMK (as well as related beliefs in the main study) informed the design and implementation of an intervention to address the issue. A mixed method approach was taken throughout. In both cycles, Shapiro's criteria were used as a conceptual framework for the evaluation of the initiative. This paper focuses on the perceived and actual effects of the intervention on participants' MSMK. As well as its contribution at a local and national level, the study provides an Irish perspective on approaches taken to address the phenomenon internationally.

  10. Cancer Core Europe: a consortium to address the cancer care-cancer research continuum challenge.

    PubMed

    Eggermont, Alexander M M; Caldas, Carlos; Ringborg, Ulrik; Medema, René; Tabernero, Josep; Wiestler, Otmar

    2014-11-01

    European cancer research for a transformative initiative by creating a consortium of six leading excellent comprehensive cancer centres that will work together to address the cancer care-cancer research continuum. Prerequisites for joint translational and clinical research programs are very demanding. These require the creation of a virtual single 'e-hospital' and a powerful translational platform, inter-compatible clinical molecular profiling laboratories with a robust underlying computational biology pipeline, standardised functional and molecular imaging, commonly agreed Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for liquid and tissue biopsy procurement, storage and processing, for molecular diagnostics, 'omics', functional genetics, immune-monitoring and other assessments. Importantly also it requires a culture of data collection and data storage that provides complete longitudinal data sets to allow for: effective data sharing and common database building, and to achieve a level of completeness of data that is required for conducting outcome research, taking into account our current understanding of cancers as communities of evolving clones. Cutting edge basic research and technology development serve as an important driving force for innovative translational and clinical studies. Given the excellent track records of the six participants in these areas, Cancer Core Europe will be able to support the full spectrum of research required to address the cancer research- cancer care continuum. Cancer Core Europe also constitutes a unique environment to train the next generation of talents in innovative translational and clinical oncology. PMID:25263570

  11. The health of Latino children: urgent priorities, unanswered questions, and a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Flores, Glenn; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Barbot, Oxiris; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Claudio, Luz; Lara, Marielena; McLaurin, Jennie A; Pachter, Lee; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco J; Mendoza, Fernando; Valdez, R Burciaga; Villarruel, Antonia M; Zambrana, Ruth E; Greenberg, Robert; Weitzman, Michael; Gomez, Francisco J Ramos

    2002-07-01

    Latinos recently became the largest racial/ethnic minority group of US children. The Latino Consortium of the American Academy of Pediatrics Center for Child Health Research, consisting of 13 expert panelists, identified the most important urgent priorities and unanswered questions in Latino child health. Conclusions were drawn when consensus was reached among members, with refinement through multiple iterations. A consensus statement with supporting references was drafted and revised. This article summarizes the key issues, including lack of validated research instruments, frequent unjustified exclusion from studies, and failure to analyze data by pertinent subgroups. Latino children are at high risk for behavioral and developmental disorders, and there are many unanswered questions about their mental health needs and use of services. The prevalence of dental caries is disproportionately higher for Latino children, but the reasons for this disparity are unclear. Culture and language can profoundly affect Latino children's health, but not enough cultural competency training of health care professionals and provision of linguistically appropriate care occur. Latinos are underrepresented at every level of the health care professions. Latino children are at high risk for school dropout, environmental hazards, obesity, diabetes mellitus, asthma, lack of health insurance, nonfinancial barriers to health care access, and impaired quality of care, but many key questions in these areas remain unanswered. This article suggests areas in which more research is needed and ways to improve research and care of Latino children. PMID:12090866

  12. Questions Students Ask: Bridging the gap between scientists and students in a research institute classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Bev; Bay, Jacquie L.

    2010-01-01

    It was proposed that an analysis of the questions students anticipate asking, and ask, could provide information about an enculturation encounter between Year 13 biology students and scientists working in a biomedical-clinical research unit. As part of a day-long intervention at this research institute, small groups of students (10-15) met with scientists (two) for a 15-minute discussion period. Pre- and post-questionnaires from 398 students provided data on intended, and judged best questions that were categorised and analysed into five categories: nature of science, science information, citizen decisions, personal, and no response/other. Chi Square analysis showed that students' areas of interest shifted to a personal perspective as a result of the intervention. Twenty students were interviewed who provided explanations for their questions. Analysis of their responses showed students were: developing an understanding of scientific practice as a journey, making identity links, using the personal as a knowledge bridge, acknowledging a commonality of values, and demonstrating that such an enculturation can be a transformative experience. These students engaged with a community of scientists at a physical, cognitive, and personal level. Physically they engaged with the practice of science in the laboratory, cognitively they were able to develop an understanding about how science knowledge was developed, and personally they were able to identify with science and scientists. The shift in students' questions showed that the intervention influenced their views on science and scientists to a broader understanding of scientific literacy.

  13. Brown Superfund Basic research Program: a multistakeholder partnership addresses real-world problems in contaminated communities.

    PubMed

    Senier, Laura; Hudson, Benjamin; Fort, Sarah; Hoover, Elizabeth; Tillson, Rebecca; Brown, Phil

    2008-07-01

    The NIEHS funds several basic and applied research programs, many of which also require research translation or outreach. This paper reports on a project by the Brown University Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP), in which outreach and research translation teams collaborated with state regulatory agency personnel and community activists on a legislative initiative to mitigate the financial impacts of living in a contaminated community. The Environmentally Compromised Home Ownership (ECHO) program makes home equity loans of up to $25,000 available to qualified applicants. This collaboration provides a case study in community engagement and demonstrates how research translation and outreach activities that are clearly differentiated yet well-integrated can improve a suite of basic and applied research. Although engaging diverse constituencies can be difficult community-engaged translation and outreach have the potential to make research findings more useful to communities, address some of the social impacts of contamination, and empower stakeholders to pursue their individual and collectively held goals for remediation. The NIEHS has recently renewed its commitment to community-engaged research and advocacy, making this an optimal time to reflect on how basic research programs that engage stakeholders through research translation and outreach can add value to the overall research enterprise. PMID:18677987

  14. Community-based participatory research: understanding a promising approach to addressing knowledge gaps in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Riffin, Catherine; Kenien, Cara; Ghesquiere, Angela; Dorime, Ashley; Villanueva, Carolina; Gardner, Daniel; Callahan, Jean; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Reid, M Carrington

    2016-07-01

    Concern over the need for effective and accessible healthcare for individuals with advanced chronic illness has drawn attention to the significant gaps in our knowledge of palliative medicine. To advance our understanding of this field, community-based participatory research (CBPR) is proposed as a tool for future research initiatives. This paper offers a rationale for how CBPR may be employed to address specific gaps in palliative care research. Several examples where this approach has been used previously are described, and potential obstacles to implementing this research method are delineated. Despite challenges to incorporating CBPR to palliative care research, this approach holds substantial potential to advance our current understanding of the field and promote sensitivity for future programs, practices and policies. PMID:27481321

  15. Addressing food security through public policy action in a community-based participatory research partnership.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Victoria Breckwich; Lanza, Dana; Hennessey-Lavery, Susana; Facente, Shelley; Halpin, Helen Ann; Minkler, Meredith

    2007-10-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an increasingly utilized research approach that involves the affected community identifying a health-related problem, developing a research agenda, and planning an appropriate intervention to address the problem. This report on a CBPR partnership in San Francisco's Bayview Hunters Point neighborhood documents the rise of a community food security policy in response to youth-involved research that found poor access to quality food in an economically disadvantaged area of the city. To analyze the impact of the research on public policy, a framework of specific steps in the policy-making process is used to organize and better understand the partnership's objectives, activities, strategies, and successes. This community-health department partnership has been able to achieve an innovative and sustainable public policy solution, the Good Neighbor Program, by working closely with policy makers and local businesses to expand community accessibility to healthy food. PMID:17728199

  16. Alzheimer's disease research in the context of the national plan to address Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Heather M; Hendrix, James; Bain, Lisa J; Carrillo, Maria C

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the first National Plan to Address Alzheimer's Disease in the United States (U.S.) was released, a component of the National Alzheimer's Project Act legislation. Since that time, there have been incremental increases in U.S. federal funding for Alzheimer's disease and related dementia research, particularly in the areas of biomarker discovery, genetic link and related biological underpinnings, and prevention studies for Alzheimer's. A central theme in each of these areas has been the emphasis of cross-sector collaboration and private-public partnerships between government, non-profit organizations and for-profit organizations. This paper will highlight multiple private-public partnerships supporting the advancement of Alzheimer's research in the context of the National Plan to Address Alzheimer's.

  17. 2014 Senior Researcher Award Acceptance Address: Cautious Optimism for the Future of Research in Music Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the transcript of Peter Webster's 2014 Senior Researcher Award Acceptance Address. Webster comments on several big ideas in music education: (1) The consideration of teaching as a blend of constructivist approaches and direct instruction that values student-centered work primarily as evidence of learning; (2) The…

  18. Top 10 research questions related to physical activity in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Pate, Russell R; O'Neill, Jennifer R; Brown, William H; McIver, Kerry L; Howie, Erin K; Dowda, Marsha

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to highlight important research needs related to physical activity in 3- to 5-year-old children. We identified research needs in 3 major categories: health effects, patterns of physical activity, and interventions and policies. The top research needs include identifying the health effects of physical activity, the effects of physical activity on the development of healthy weight, the effects of physical activity on learning and behavior, and the health implications of sedentary behavior. Research questions concerning patterns of physical activity include determining the prevalence of 3- to 5-year-olds meeting the current physical activity guidelines; the social and environmental factors that influence physical activity in home, preschool, and community settings; and how physical activity tracks into later childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Research questions about interventions and policies include identifying the most effective strategies to promote physical activity in home, child care, and community settings and to reach diverse populations of young children, identifying effective intervention implementation and dissemination strategies, and determining the effectiveness of national, state, local, and institutional policies for increasing physical activity. In conclusion, research is needed to establish a full understanding of the health implications of physical activity in 3- to 5-year-old children, to better understand the nature of physical activity behavior in this group, and to learn how to promote physical activity in young children. PMID:24592775

  19. Shifting the HIV Training and Research Paradigm to Address Disparities in HIV Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Levison, Julie H; Alegría, Margarita

    2016-09-01

    Tailored programs to diversify the pool of HIV/AIDS investigators and provide sufficient training and support for minority investigators to compete successfully are uncommon in the US and abroad. This paper encourages a shift in the HIV/AIDS training and research paradigm to effectively train and mentor Latino researchers in the US, Latin America and the Caribbean. We suggest three strategies to accomplish this: (1) coaching senior administrative and academic staff of HIV/AIDS training programs on the needs, values, and experiences unique to Latino investigators; (2) encouraging mentors to be receptive to a different set of research questions and approaches that Latino researchers offer due to their life experiences and perspectives; and (3) creating a virtual infrastructure to share resources and tackle challenges faced by minority researchers. Shifts in the research paradigm to include, retain, and promote Latino HIV/AIDS researchers will benefit the scientific process and the patients and communities who await the promise of HIV/AIDS research. PMID:27501811

  20. Policy recommendations for addressing privacy challenges associated with cell-based research and interventions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increased use of human biological material for cell-based research and clinical interventions poses risks to the privacy of patients and donors, including the possibility of re-identification of individuals from anonymized cell lines and associated genetic data. These risks will increase as technologies and databases used for re-identification become affordable and more sophisticated. Policies that require ongoing linkage of cell lines to donors’ clinical information for research and regulatory purposes, and existing practices that limit research participants’ ability to control what is done with their genetic data, amplify the privacy concerns. Discussion To date, the privacy issues associated with cell-based research and interventions have not received much attention in the academic and policymaking contexts. This paper, arising out of a multi-disciplinary workshop, aims to rectify this by outlining the issues, proposing novel governance strategies and policy recommendations, and identifying areas where further evidence is required to make sound policy decisions. The authors of this paper take the position that existing rules and norms can be reasonably extended to address privacy risks in this context without compromising emerging developments in the research environment, and that exceptions from such rules should be justified using a case-by-case approach. In developing new policies, the broader framework of regulations governing cell-based research and related areas must be taken into account, as well as the views of impacted groups, including scientists, research participants and the general public. Summary This paper outlines deliberations at a policy development workshop focusing on privacy challenges associated with cell-based research and interventions. The paper provides an overview of these challenges, followed by a discussion of key themes and recommendations that emerged from discussions at the workshop. The paper concludes that

  1. Ethical questions concerning research on human embryos, embryonic stem cells and chimeras.

    PubMed

    Bobbert, Monika

    2006-12-01

    Research using human embryos and embryonic stem cells is viewed as important for various reasons. Apart from questions concerning legal regulations, numerous ethical objections are raised pertaining to the use of surplus embryos from reproductive medicine as well as the creation of embryos and stem cells through cloning. In the hopes of avoiding ethical problems, alternatives have been proposed including the extraction of egg cells from "dead" embryos derived from in vitro fertilization procedures, the extraction of pluripotent stem cells from blastocysts, technologies such as "altered nuclear transfer" (ANT) and "oocyte-assisted reprogramming" (ANT-OAR) as well as parthenogenesis. Initial ethical assessments show that certain questions pertaining to such strategies have remained unanswered. Furthermore, with the help of new or more differentiated biotechnological procedures, it is possible to create chimeras and hybrids in which human and non-human cells are combined. Human-animal chimeras, in which gametes or embryonic tissue have been mixed with embryonic or adult stem cells, demonstrate a different "quality" and "degree of penetration" from those produced in previous experiments. Not only does this have consequences regarding questions of patentability, this situation also raises fundamental questions concerning the human being's self image, the concept of person, identity and species and the moral rights and duties that are connected with such concepts. There is a need for legal regulation, on the national as well as the international level.

  2. Building nursing research capacity to address health disparities: engaging minority baccalaureate and master's students.

    PubMed

    Goeppinger, Jean; Miles, Margaret Shandor; Weaver, Wanda; Campbell, Lenora; Roland, E Joyce

    2009-01-01

    In order to decrease health disparities, nursing needs to promote opportunities for minority nursing students to incorporate the conduct, as well as the utilization, of research into their professional careers. This article describes a model program to facilitate minority research career development, the Research Enrichment and Apprenticeship Program (REAP). REAP was developed and implemented by a federally funded partnership between 2 historically Black universities and a research-intensive university. Fifty-five (N = 55) baccalaureate and master's nursing students and 35 faculty members from the 3 schools participated in an intensive research mentorship program guided by learner-centered pedagogical approaches that culminated in the public presentation of students' research projects at a scientific poster session. Student, faculty, and institutional achievements, as well as challenges, were identified and addressed as the partnership evolved. Recognizing and building upon the strengths of both minority-serving and research-intensive institutions allowed the development of an exemplar program. While process measures provided many indicators of success, long-term evaluation of research career-related outcomes are needed. PMID:19447236

  3. Towards renewed research questions from the outcomes of the European project Labwork in Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Séré, Marie-Geneviève

    2002-09-01

    A research project about labwork at Upper secondary and Undergraduate levels was launched in 1996, funded by the European Commission. Seven research groups from six European countries participated in the surveys at European scale and carried out a number of case-studies. This common work allowed numerous discussions which, months later, permit to articulate renewed directions of research about labwork. In this paper, new research questions are presented, drawing upon the outcomes of the project. One of them was to disclose numerous potential objectives which can be aimed for in a laboratory. This means that conscious choices must be taken among objectives. These are studied in this paper under the three classical headings of conceptual/epistemological/procedural objectives.

  4. SHAPING A NEW GENERATION OF HISPANIC CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCHERS ADDRESSING MINORITY HEALTH AND HEALTH DISPARITIES

    PubMed Central

    Estape, Estela S.; Segarra, Barbara; Baez, Adriana; Huertas, Aracelis; Diaz, Clemente; Frontera, Walter

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, research educators face significant challenges. Training programs in Clinical and Translational Research need to develop or enhance their curriculum to comply with new scientific trends and government policies. Curricula must impart the skills and competencies needed to help facilitate the dissemination and transfer of scientific advances at a faster pace than current health policy and practice. Clinical and translational researchers are facing also the need of new paradigms for effective collaboration, and resource sharing while using the best educational models. Both government and public policy makers emphasize addressing the goals of improving health quality and elimination of health disparities. To help achieve this goal, our academic institution is taking an active role and striving to develop an environment that fosters the career development of clinical and translational researchers. Consonant with this vision, in 2002 the University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus School of Health Professions and School of Medicine initiated a multidisciplinary post-doctoral Master of Science in Clinical Research focused in training Hispanics who will address minority health and health disparities research. Recently, we proposed a curriculum revision to enhance this commitment in promoting competency-based curricula for clinician-scientists in clinical and translational sciences. The revised program will be a post-doctoral Master of Science in Clinical and Translational Research (MCTR), expanding its outreach by actively engaging in establishing new collaborations and partnerships that will increase our capability to diversify our educational efforts and make significant contributions to help reduce and eliminate the gap in health disparities. PMID:22263296

  5. A Help To Start Research/Practice That Facilitates Self-Directed Learning in a Japanese Language Class: 50 Questions That Promote Research [and] Related Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariizumi, Yoshihiko

    This paper presents 50 questions that promote research/practices to facilitate self-directed learning in Japanese language classes. The questions are divided into the five following categories: (1) general questions and general research methodology issues (e.g., Why is it important to nurture self-directed learning?); (2) learners' readiness for…

  6. College Students’ Views of Work–Life Balance in STEM Research Careers: Addressing Negative Preconceptions

    PubMed Central

    Tan-Wilson, Anna; Stamp, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    In career discussions, female undergraduates said that if they were to attend graduate school in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and were to follow a career based on their research training, they would have to give up having a family. A subsequent survey showed that many students, both men and women, thought work–life balance would be more difficult to achieve in a STEM research path than in other professions they were considering. Their views of STEM research being less family-friendly were more pronounced on issues of parental leaves and caring for children than finding a spouse/partner and landing two jobs in the same locality. To provide role models of work–life balance in STEM professions, we convened panels of dual-career couples who described how they worked together to raise their children while advancing their scientific careers. Our selection of panelists and topics of discussion were based on findings of social science research on work–life balance. On a survey with the same questions administered afterward, the changes in paired responses of male and female students with respect to all four issues showed a significant shift toward thinking that a research-based STEM career would be no more difficult than other careers they were considering. PMID:26163564

  7. College Students' Views of Work-Life Balance in STEM Research Careers: Addressing Negative Preconceptions.

    PubMed

    Tan-Wilson, Anna; Stamp, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    In career discussions, female undergraduates said that if they were to attend graduate school in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and were to follow a career based on their research training, they would have to give up having a family. A subsequent survey showed that many students, both men and women, thought work-life balance would be more difficult to achieve in a STEM research path than in other professions they were considering. Their views of STEM research being less family-friendly were more pronounced on issues of parental leaves and caring for children than finding a spouse/partner and landing two jobs in the same locality. To provide role models of work-life balance in STEM professions, we convened panels of dual-career couples who described how they worked together to raise their children while advancing their scientific careers. Our selection of panelists and topics of discussion were based on findings of social science research on work-life balance. On a survey with the same questions administered afterward, the changes in paired responses of male and female students with respect to all four issues showed a significant shift toward thinking that a research-based STEM career would be no more difficult than other careers they were considering.

  8. College Students' Views of Work-Life Balance in STEM Research Careers: Addressing Negative Preconceptions.

    PubMed

    Tan-Wilson, Anna; Stamp, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    In career discussions, female undergraduates said that if they were to attend graduate school in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and were to follow a career based on their research training, they would have to give up having a family. A subsequent survey showed that many students, both men and women, thought work-life balance would be more difficult to achieve in a STEM research path than in other professions they were considering. Their views of STEM research being less family-friendly were more pronounced on issues of parental leaves and caring for children than finding a spouse/partner and landing two jobs in the same locality. To provide role models of work-life balance in STEM professions, we convened panels of dual-career couples who described how they worked together to raise their children while advancing their scientific careers. Our selection of panelists and topics of discussion were based on findings of social science research on work-life balance. On a survey with the same questions administered afterward, the changes in paired responses of male and female students with respect to all four issues showed a significant shift toward thinking that a research-based STEM career would be no more difficult than other careers they were considering. PMID:26163564

  9. The research component of specialist registration--a question of alligators and swamps? A personal view.

    PubMed

    Aldous, C M; Adhikari, M; Rout, C C

    2015-01-01

    The recent implementation of the research requirement for specialist registration presents difficulties with regard to the provision of research supervision, particularly in those medical schools that previously followed the path of qualification via the Colleges of Medicine of South Africa examinations. The differences between the requirements for research supervision as stated in the Health Professions Council of South Africa memorandum and those of the Committee for Higher Education are causing disparities between medical schools similar to those that led to the memorandum in the first place. While the research component of specialist training can only improve the quality of both patient care and academic endeavour, it requires an enormous investment of time on the part of both the specialist trainees and their supervisors. In order to deal with this, specific issues outlined in the article need to be addressed. PMID:26046156

  10. Using Research to Identify and Address Student Difficulties with Galilean and Special Relativity*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vokos, Stamatis

    1998-04-01

    The Physics Education Group at the University of Washington has been engaged in an ongoing project in which research is used as a guide for the development of curriculum on Galilean and special relativity. Results from the analysis of student interviews, pretests and examinations form the basis for the design of instructional materials to supplement the lecture and textbook of a standard introductory course and an undergraduate course on relativity. Examples of specific student difficulties and instructional strategies to address them will be presented. * This work has been funded in part by NSF grants DUE 9354501 and 9727648, which include support from other Divisions of EHR and the Physics Division of MPS.

  11. Twenty-six key research questions in urban stream ecology: an assessment of the state of the science

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although urban streams have been the focus of much research activity in recent years, there remain many unanswered questions about the mechanisms driving the “urban stream syndrome.” Identification of these key research questions is an important step toward effective, efficient ...

  12. IPCC and other assessments as vehicles for integrating natural and social science research to address human dimensions of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, C. B.

    2012-12-01

    IPCC and other assessments address both natural and social science aspects of climate change, but this approach has historically involved relatively little integration across the two sets of disciplines. In a framing that is only slightly oversimplified, past relationships were mostly sequential. From a physical climate perspective, human behavior was a boundary condition setting the trajectory of atmospheric forcing. And from an impacts perspective, changes in the physical climate set the stage upon which humans experienced impacts and made decisions about adaptation and mitigation. Integrated assessment models have been the main locus of research on questions about bi-directional coupling, where the trajectory of the physical climate influences GHG balance related to the need for agricultural land as well as GHG emissions from other activities. In the IPCC AR4 (2007), feedbacks from the natural carbon cycle to climate were a focus, but with little discussion of the potentially important feedbacks from climate-carbon interactions in the human domain. Detailed research and modeling in this area are still in the relatively early stages. For the future, IPCC and other assessments potentially provide a vehicle for new insights about the interaction of natural and social science dimensions of climate change. Several aspects could be interesting. Some of these relate to the decisions that modulate GHG emissions. For example, how does scientific understanding of climate change influence people's interest in mitigation and adaptation? How does it influence their willingness to pay? How are these modulated by regional and global geopolitics? Other potentially interesting aspects relate to interactions between mitigation and adaptation. For example, how does local experience of climate change alter the balance of focus on adaptation and mitigation? Still others relate to the nature of impacts and the role of sustainable development. With an aggress sustainable development

  13. Academic Research Library as Broker in Addressing Interoperability Challenges for the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P., II

    2015-12-01

    Data capture is an important process in the research lifecycle. Complete descriptive and representative information of the data or database is necessary during data collection whether in the field or in the research lab. The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Public Access Plan (2015) mandates the need for federally funded projects to make their research data more openly available. Developing, implementing, and integrating metadata workflows into to the research process of the data lifecycle facilitates improved data access while also addressing interoperability challenges for the geosciences such as data description and representation. Lack of metadata or data curation can contribute to (1) semantic, (2) ontology, and (3) data integration issues within and across disciplinary domains and projects. Some researchers of EarthCube funded projects have identified these issues as gaps. These gaps can contribute to interoperability data access, discovery, and integration issues between domain-specific and general data repositories. Academic Research Libraries have expertise in providing long-term discovery and access through the use of metadata standards and provision of access to research data, datasets, and publications via institutional repositories. Metadata crosswalks, open archival information systems (OAIS), trusted-repositories, data seal of approval, persistent URL, linking data, objects, resources, and publications in institutional repositories and digital content management systems are common components in the library discipline. These components contribute to a library perspective on data access and discovery that can benefit the geosciences. The USGS Community for Data Integration (CDI) has developed the Science Support Framework (SSF) for data management and integration within its community of practice for contribution to improved understanding of the Earth's physical and biological systems. The USGS CDI SSF can be used as a reference model to map to Earth

  14. Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of questions to…

  15. Research opportunities for medications to treat alcohol dependence: addressing stakeholders' needs.

    PubMed

    Litten, Raye Z; Falk, Daniel; Ryan, Megan; Fertig, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, significant advances have been made in the development of medications to treat alcohol dependence. Four medications have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating alcohol dependence-naltrexone, injectable naltrexone, acamprosate, and disulfiram-and several others show promise. The fact remains, however, that because of the heterogeneity of alcohol dependence, these medications will not work for all people, in all circumstances. Moreover, clinicians are not routinely prescribing these medications for alcohol treatment. This commentary poses a number of issues that must be addressed in order to advance the alcohol research field and to make medications a mainstream treatment for problematic drinking. These issues are framed from the perspective of the various stakeholders involved, including clinicians, patients, regulatory agencies, the pharmaceutical industry, and third-party payers. Addressing these issues will not only help to improve treatment but, as further described, will also open up many new research opportunities for alcohol investigators in the coming decade.

  16. A Global Perspective on Using Implementation Research to Address Hypertension-Associated Target Organ Damage.

    PubMed

    Peprah, Emmanuel; Lopez-Class, Maria; Shero, Susan; John-Sowah, Joylene; Engelgau, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, imposes a significant public health burden and challenge to address it worldwide. Scaling up delivery of proven, effective interventions for hypertension could significantly advance the goal of reducing the global burden. Although significant progress has been made in many countries, some lament that large-scale initiatives focused on reducing blood pressure in global populations have not effectively addressed this challenge. Late-stage implementation research plays a critical role in determining effective and sustainable scale-up of these initiatives. In this article, we briefly discuss some of the global initiatives that have been funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the US National Institutes of Health. Intervention delivery strategies in low resource settings must have demonstrated effectiveness and consideration for the social, cultural and physical context (eg, access, affordability, and availability of medications) in which a program is being delivered in order to be sustainable nationally and globally. Hence, the use of implementation research is central to determining sustainable delivery of evidence-based and tailored interventions focused on hypertension control. The sustained control of hypertension in global populations holds tremendous potential for reducing morbidity, premature mortality, and the adverse economic impact of cardiovascular disease in all regions. PMID:27440980

  17. Earth-Science Research for Addressing the Water-Energy Nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, R. W.; Alley, W. M.; Engle, M.; McMahon, P. B.; Bales, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    In the coming decades, the United States will face two significant and sometimes competing challenges: preserving sustainable supplies of fresh water for humans and ecosystems, and ensuring available sources of energy. This presentation provides an overview of the earth-science data collection and research needed to address these challenges. Uncertainty limits our understanding of many aspects of the water-energy nexus. These aspects include availability of water, water requirements for energy development, energy requirements for treating and delivering fresh water, effects of emerging energy development technologies on water quality and quantity, and effects of future climates and land use on water and energy needs. Uncertainties can be reduced with an integrated approach that includes assessments of water availability and energy resources; monitoring of surface water and groundwater quantity and quality, water use, and energy use; research on impacts of energy waste streams, hydraulic fracturing, and other fuel-extraction processes on water quality; and research on the viability and environmental footprint of new technologies such as carbon capture and sequestration and conversion of cellulosic material to ethanol. Planning for water and energy development requires consideration of factors such as economics, population trends, human health, and societal values; however, sound resource management must be grounded on a clear understanding of the earth-science aspects of the water-energy nexus. Information gained from an earth-science data-collection and research program can improve our understanding of water and energy issues and lay the ground work for informed resource management.

  18. How desertification research is addressed in Spain? Land versus Soil approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero Sierra, Celia; Marques, María Jose; Ruiz, Manuel; Escadafal, Richard; Exbrayat, Williams; Akthar-Schuster, Mariam; El Haddadi, Anass

    2013-04-01

    This study intend to understand how desertification research is organised in a south Mediterranean country, as is Spain. It is part of a larger work addressing soil and land research and its relationships with stakeholders. This wider work aims to explain the weakness of the United Nation Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), which devoid of a scientific advisory panel. Within this framework, we assume that a fitting coordination between scientific knowledge and a better flow of information between researchers and policy makers is needed in order to slow down and reverse the impacts of land degradation on drylands. With this purpose we conducted an in-depth study at national level in Spain. The initial work focused on a small sample of published references in scientific journals indexed in the Web of Science. It allowed us to identify the most common thematic approaches and working issues, as well as the corresponding institutions and research teams and the relationships between them. The preliminary results of this study pointed out that two prevalent approaches at this national level could be identified. The first one is related to applied science being sensitive to socio-economic issues, and the second one is related to basic science studying the soil in depth, but it is often disconnected from socio-economic factors. We also noticed that the Spanish research teams acknowledge the other Spanish teams in this subject, as frequent co-citations are found in their papers, nevertheless, they do not collaborate. We also realised that the Web of Science database does not collect the wide spectrum of sociology, economics and the human implications of land degradation which use to be included in books or reports related to desertification. A new wider database was built compiling references of Web of Science related to "desertification", "land", "soil", "development" and "Spain" adding references from other socioeconomic databases. In a second stage we used

  19. Expanding the Frontiers of Population Nutrition Research: New Questions, New Methods, and New Approaches12

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, David L.; Porter, Christine M.; Aarons, Gregory A.; Wuehler, Sara E.; Neufeld, Lynnette M.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition research, ranging from molecular to population levels and all points along this spectrum, is exploring new frontiers as new technologies and societal changes create new possibilities and demands. This paper defines a set of frontiers at the population level that are being created by the increased societal recognition of the importance of nutrition; its connection to urgent health, social, and environmental problems; and the need for effective and sustainable solutions at the population level. The frontiers are defined in terms of why, what, who, and how we study at the population level and the disciplinary foundations for that research. The paper provides illustrations of research along some of these frontiers, an overarching framework for population nutrition research, and access to some of the literature from outside of nutrition that can enhance the intellectual coherence, practical utility, and societal benefit of population nutrition research. The frontiers defined in this paper build on earlier forward-looking efforts by the American Society for Nutrition and extend these efforts in significant ways. The American Society for Nutrition and its members can play pivotal roles in advancing these frontiers by addressing a number of well-recognized challenges associated with transdisciplinary and engaged research. PMID:23319128

  20. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research

    SciTech Connect

    John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole

    2013-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials

  1. ACT-CCREC Core Research Program: Study Questions and Design. ACT Working Paper Series. WP-2015-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruce, Ty M.

    2015-01-01

    This report provides a non-technical overview of the guiding research questions and research design for the ACT-led core research program conducted on behalf of the GEAR UP College and Career Readiness Evaluation Consortium (CCREC). The core research program is a longitudinal study of the effectiveness of 14 GEAR UP state grants on the academic…

  2. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  3. Grand Research Questions in the Solid-Earth Sciences Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Linn, Anne M.

    2008-12-03

    Over the past three decades, Earth scientists have made great strides in understanding our planet’s workings and history. Yet this progress has served principally to lay bare more fundamental questions about the Earth. Expanding knowledge is generating new questions, while innovative technologies and new partnerships with other sciences provide new paths toward answers. A National Academies committee was established to frame some of the great intellectual challenges inherent in the study of the Earth and planets. The goal was to focus on science, not implementation issues, such as facilities or recommendations aimed at specific agencies. The committee canvassed the geological community and deliberated at length to arrive at 10 questions: 1. How did Earth and other planets form? 2. What happened during Earth’s “dark age” (the first 500 million years)? 3. How did life begin? 4. How does Earth’s interior work, and how does it affect the surface? 5. Why does Earth have plate tectonics and continents? 6. How are Earth processes controlled by material properties? 7. What causes climate to change—and how much can it change? 8. How has life shaped Earth—and how has Earth shaped life? 9. Can earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and their consequences be predicted? 10. How do fluid flow and transport affect the human environment? Written for graduate students, colleagues in sister disciplines, and program managers funding Earth and planetary science research, the report describes where the field stands, how it got there, and where it might be headed. Our hope is that the report will spark new interest in and support for the field by showing how Earth science can contribute to a wide range of issues—including some not always associated with the solid Earth—from the formation of the solar system to climate change to the origin of life. Its reach goes beyond the United States; the report is being translated into Chinese and distributed in China.

  4. Addressing conflicts of interest in the research paper: a societal demand in contemporary science?

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, S.M.R.; Cassimiro, M.C.; Martins, M.F.M.; Palácios, M.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, dialogue between science and society has found a forum in an increasing number of publications on topics such as public engagement with science and public trust in science. Concerning the latter, issues that include cases of research misconduct, accountability in research, and conflicts of interest (COIs) have shaped global discussions on the communication of science. In the publication setting, the perception that hiding COIs and/or not managing them well may affect public trust in the research record has grown among editors. We conducted a search for editorials addressing COIs between 1989 and 2011, using four major databases: Medline/PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge. We explored the content of these editorials and the relationship they established between COIs and the public trust in science. Our results demonstrate that the relationship between disclosure of COIs and public trust in science has become a major concern among editors. We, thus, argue that COIs should be discussed more openly and frequently in graduate courses in the sciences, around the globe, not only in biomedical but also in non-biomedical areas. This is a critical issue in contemporary science, as graduate students are the future voices and decision-makers of the research community. Therefore, COIs, especially in the broader context of science and society, merit closer attention from policymakers, researchers, and educators. At times of great expectations for public engagement with science, mishandling of COIs may have undesirable consequences for public engagement with science and confidence in the scientific endeavor. PMID:24345908

  5. Research opportunities with curanderos to address childhood overweight in Latino families.

    PubMed

    Clark, Lauren; Bunik, Maya; Johnson, Susan L

    2010-01-01

    Curanderos are consulted as an adjunct or alternative to biomedical health care in the greater southwest, although the extent of their involvement in obesity prevention and treatment is poorly understood. Seven curanderos participated in audiotaped interviews about their work with families and beliefs about childhood feeding and overweight. Themes reflected curanderos' beliefs about their practice and childhood obesity. Curanderos approach their work as a calling, emphasizing elements from nature in etiology and cure. From the curandero's standpoint, essential elements of obesity management must acknowledge the socially marginalized experiences of Latinos. We encountered working with curanderos as problematic, and this likely reflected our differing personal characteristics and a tension between our healing professions. Curanderos could serve as collaborators in childhood obesity interventions if we craft health messages and delivery modes that resonate with Latino families and address ethical and communication issues on the research team. PMID:19933354

  6. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  7. NASA DEVELOP Program: Students Extending Earth Science Research to Address Community Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, A. L.; Ross, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    Eight years ago, several students at NASA Langley Research Center launched the DEVELOP Program. DEVELOP is now at six NASA centers and is a program element of the NASA Applied Sciences Human Capital Development Program that extends the use of Earth observation sources to address Earth science issues in local communities. Students in the program strengthen their leadership and academic skills by analyzing scientific data, experimenting with novel technology, and engaging in cooperative interactions. Graduate, undergraduate and high school students from across the United States collaborate to integrate NASA space-based Earth observation sources and partner agencies' science data, models and decision support tools. Information from these collaborations result in rapid prototype projects addressing local policy and environmental issues. Following a rigorous 10-week term, DEVELOP students present visual products demonstrating the application of NASA scientific information to community leaders at scientific and public policy forums such as the American Geophysical Union (AGU), the American Meteorological Society (AMS), and the Southern Growth Policies Board (SGPB). Submission of written products to peer-reviewed scientific publications and other public databases is also done. Student experiences and interactions working with NASA data, advanced technological programs and community leaders have, and continue to prove, beneficial to student professional development. DEVELOP's human capital development focus affords students real world experience, making them a valuable asset to the scientific and global community and to the continuation of a scientifically aware society. NASA's DEVELOP Program is more than scientific exploration and valuable results; DEVELOP fosters human capital development by bridging the gap between NASA science research and federal, state, local and tribal resource managers.

  8. Top 10 research questions related to assessing physical activity and its contexts using systematic observation.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Thomas L; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-03-01

    Numerous methods are available to assess physical activity (PA) but systematic observation (SO) excels in being able to provide contextually rich data on the setting in which the activity occurs. As SO is particularly useful for determining how activity is influenced by the immediate physical and social environments, its use is becoming more popular. Observation tools have the advantages of flexibility, high internal validity, low inference, and low participant burden, while their disadvantages include the need for careful observer training and recalibration, inaccessibility to certain environments, and potential participant reactivity. There is a need for both scientists and practitioners to have additional information on observation techniques and systems relative to making environmental and policy decisions about PA, and in this article, we describe concepts and identify questions related to using SO in researching PA behavior. We present 10 general questions in 3 sections, including those related to: (a) ensuring data accuracy through the selection of the most appropriate methodological protocols; (b) investigating PA in school settings, including physical education, recess, and other programs; and (c) investigating PA in community settings (e.g., parks, recreation centers, youth and adult sport programs) and homes.

  9. “A question of balance”: addressing the public health impacts of multinational enterprises in the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Joshua S.; McDaniel, Patricia A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2012-01-01

    Background The global community is beginning to address non-communicable diseases, but how to increase the accountability of multinational enterprises (MNEs) for the health impacts of their products and practices remains unclear. We examine the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s (OECD) efforts to do so through voluntary MNE guidelines. Methods We developed a historical case study of how the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises were developed and revised from 1973–2000 through an analysis of publicly available archived OECD and tobacco industry documents. Results The first edition of the Guidelines was a purely economic instrument. Outside pressures and a desire to ward off more stringent regulatory efforts resulted in the addition over time of guidelines related to the environment, consumer interests, sustainable development, and human rights. Conclusion Despite their voluntary nature, the Guidelines can play a role in efforts to help balance the interests of MNEs and public health by providing a starting point for efforts to create binding provisions addressing MNEs’ contributions to disease burden or disease reduction. PMID:23046298

  10. Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    Well-known historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's classic work "The Republic" (2003). Today, teachers still use questions as one way to help students develop productive thinking skills and to understand concepts and topics.…

  11. Eye Tracking Research to Answer Questions about Augmentative and Alternative Communication Assessment and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Krista M.; Mitchell, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Recently, eye tracking technologies (i.e., technologies that automatically track the point of an individual’s gaze while that person views or interacts with a visual image) have become available for research purposes. These technologies record the orientation of the individual’s eyes in a series of samples taken at rapid intervals through measurement of infrared light reflected from the cornea (the curved portion of the eyeball) and the pupil, and as a function of the distance of the eyes from the monitor. Based on the sampling information, researchers can quantify which locations within the visual image were fixated (viewed), for how long, and how many times. These automated eye tracking technologies open up a wealth of avenues for investigating how individuals with developmental or acquired communication disabilities may respond to aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems. In this paper, we introduce basic terminology and summarize some of the considerations of importance to researchers seeking to do this type of research. We also explore some of the special challenges of conducting eye tracking research with populations with disabilities who might use AAC, including challenges of inferring attention from the presence of fixation and challenges related to calibration that may result from participant characteristics, behavioral idiosyncracies, and/or the number of calibration points. We also examine how the technology can be applied to ask well-structured experimental questions that have direct clinical relevance, with a focus on the unique contributions that eye tracking research can provide by (a) allowing evaluation of skills in individuals who are difficult to assess via traditional methods and (b) facilitating access to information on underlying visual cognitive processes that is not accessible via traditional behavioral measures. PMID:24758526

  12. On the Science of Embodied Cognition in the 2010s: Research Questions, Appropriate Reductionism, and Testable Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    "The Journal of the Learning Sciences" has devoted this special issue to the study of embodied cognition (as it applies to mathematics), a topic that for several decades has gained attention in the cognitive sciences and in mathematics education, in particular. In this commentary, the author aims to address crucial questions in embodied…

  13. Conducting Community Research in Rural China –Addressing the Methodological Challenges of Recruiting Participants in Rapidly Changing Social Environments

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jing; Chiu, Helen F.K.; Hou, Zai-Jin; Caine, Eric D.

    2012-01-01

    Background The paper addressed a unique challenge for public health and community research in rural China, i.e., the very large percentage of young adults that comprises a highly mobile working population that has been an essential component of the country’s economic transformation. Fluid local demographic patterns potentially have a substantial impact on sample representativeness and data validity. Methods This report is based upon a cross sectional survey with face-to-face interviews of residents aged 16–34 years in rural communities of Mianyang, Sichuan Province, China. Two waves of fieldwork and other strategies were adopted in response to recruitment challenges. Results 1654 of 3008 potential participants took part in the study; this constituted 98% of those individuals approached and 55% of the persons enumerated in the local household registration system (hukou). Analyses revealed substantial differences among those who were interviewed during September and October 2005, versus those seen during the Chinese Lunar New Year of 2006 when many migrant workers and students returned to their homes. Both groups together differed from those who were unavailable during either recruiting episode. Discussion and Conclusions We discuss potential responses to associated methodological challenges, including, (1) permanent hukou mismatches; (2) temporary hukou mismatches; (3) difficulties faced by potential participants to fully understand the purpose of research, the informed consent process, and specific research questions; and (4) appreciation of the importance of local social networks, as they pertain in particular to rural China. These findings underscore that there may be a need to make “on-the-ground” adjustments to varying local conditions to maximize sample representativeness and data validity. PMID:22662022

  14. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics branch--interdisciplinary research for addressing complex natural resource issues across landscapes and time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wilson, Juliette T.

    2013-01-01

    The Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center offers an interdisciplinary team of talented and creative scientists with expertise in biology, botany, ecology, geology, biogeochemistry, physical sciences, geographic information systems, and remote-sensing, for tackling complex questions about natural resources. As demand for natural resources increases, the issues facing natural resource managers, planners, policy makers, industry, and private landowners are increasing in spatial and temporal scope, often involving entire regions, multiple jurisdictions, and long timeframes. Needs for addressing these issues include (1) a better understanding of biotic and abiotic ecosystem components and their complex interactions; (2) the ability to easily monitor, assess, and visualize the spatially complex movements of animals, plants, water, and elements across highly variable landscapes; and (3) the techniques for accurately predicting both immediate and long-term responses of system components to natural and human-caused change. The overall objectives of our research are to provide the knowledge, tools, and techniques needed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, state agencies, and other stakeholders in their endeavors to meet the demand for natural resources while conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services. Ecosystem Dynamics scientists use field and laboratory research, data assimilation, and ecological modeling to understand ecosystem patterns, trends, and mechanistic processes. This information is used to predict the outcomes of changes imposed on species, habitats, landscapes, and climate across spatiotemporal scales. The products we develop include conceptual models to illustrate system structure and processes; regional baseline and integrated assessments; predictive spatial and mathematical models; literature syntheses; and frameworks or protocols for improved ecosystem monitoring, adaptive management, and program evaluation. The descriptions

  15. From question-behaviour effects in trials to the social psychology of research participation.

    PubMed

    McCambridge, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The 'question-behaviour effect' (QBE) has attracted much recent attention within health psychology, where it has also been referred to as the 'mere measurement' effect. There are other conceptualisations of similar phenomena in related disciplines. This paper explores the implications of the QBE for the safety of inferences about intervention effectiveness within the context of randomised controlled trials evaluating health behaviour change interventions. It draws attention to poorly understood mechanisms by which bias is introduced with conventional thinking about trial design and analysis. The threat to valid inference on intervention effectiveness posed by the QBE applies even when its effects are small and regardless of the specific content of the QBE. The nature of the resulting bias does not fit well within existing bias classification schemes, such as that proposed by the Cochrane Collaboration. The QBE is one possible consequence of research participation and it is suggested that the social psychology of research participation is very much underdeveloped. Possible future directions for health psychology research in this area are considered.

  16. Addressing food insecurity in a Native American reservation using community-based participatory research.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird; Salvatore, Alicia L; Styne, Dennis M; Winkleby, Marilyn

    2012-08-01

    The food insecurity faced by many Native American communities has numerous implications for the health and welfare of families. To identify and address upstream causes of food insecurity in a rural California reservation, we conducted a community assessment using the Tool for Health and Resilience in Vulnerable Environments (THRIVE). Guided by a community-based participatory research orientation, the THRIVE tool was adapted using digital storytelling and implemented in a series of focus groups. As a result of the THRIVE assessment, community members identified racial injustice and physical and financial barriers to accessing healthy and culturally appropriate foods as areas of greatest importance. Subsequently, the project partnership developed policies to reduce identified barriers which included an integrated community supported agriculture and commodity food program, the introduction of Electronic Benefits Transfer and culturally appropriate foods at the local farmers' market and reallocation of shelf space at the grocery store to include vegetables and fruits as well as special foods for diabetics. Results suggest that a participatory research orientation coupled with the use of a culturally adapted THRIVE tool may be an effective means for identifying structural determinants of food insecurity and initiating novel policy interventions to reduce health disparities experienced by Native American communities.

  17. Addressing food insecurity in a Native American reservation using community-based participatory research

    PubMed Central

    Blue Bird Jernigan, Valarie; Salvatore, Alicia L.; Styne, Dennis M.; Winkleby, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    The food insecurity faced by many Native American communities has numerous implications for the health and welfare of families. To identify and address upstream causes of food insecurity in a rural California reservation, we conducted a community assessment using the Tool for Health and Resilience in Vulnerable Environments (THRIVE). Guided by a community-based participatory research orientation, the THRIVE tool was adapted using digital storytelling and implemented in a series of focus groups. As a result of the THRIVE assessment, community members identified racial injustice and physical and financial barriers to accessing healthy and culturally appropriate foods as areas of greatest importance. Subsequently, the project partnership developed policies to reduce identified barriers which included an integrated community supported agriculture and commodity food program, the introduction of Electronic Benefits Transfer and culturally appropriate foods at the local farmers’ market and reallocation of shelf space at the grocery store to include vegetables and fruits as well as special foods for diabetics. Results suggest that a participatory research orientation coupled with the use of a culturally adapted THRIVE tool may be an effective means for identifying structural determinants of food insecurity and initiating novel policy interventions to reduce health disparities experienced by Native American communities. PMID:21994709

  18. Addressing food insecurity in a Native American reservation using community-based participatory research.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird; Salvatore, Alicia L; Styne, Dennis M; Winkleby, Marilyn

    2012-08-01

    The food insecurity faced by many Native American communities has numerous implications for the health and welfare of families. To identify and address upstream causes of food insecurity in a rural California reservation, we conducted a community assessment using the Tool for Health and Resilience in Vulnerable Environments (THRIVE). Guided by a community-based participatory research orientation, the THRIVE tool was adapted using digital storytelling and implemented in a series of focus groups. As a result of the THRIVE assessment, community members identified racial injustice and physical and financial barriers to accessing healthy and culturally appropriate foods as areas of greatest importance. Subsequently, the project partnership developed policies to reduce identified barriers which included an integrated community supported agriculture and commodity food program, the introduction of Electronic Benefits Transfer and culturally appropriate foods at the local farmers' market and reallocation of shelf space at the grocery store to include vegetables and fruits as well as special foods for diabetics. Results suggest that a participatory research orientation coupled with the use of a culturally adapted THRIVE tool may be an effective means for identifying structural determinants of food insecurity and initiating novel policy interventions to reduce health disparities experienced by Native American communities. PMID:21994709

  19. How desertification research is addressed in Argentina? Land versus Soil approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Laura; Abraham, Elena M.; Barbero, Celia; Marques, Maria J.; Ruiz, Manuel; Escadafal, Richard; Exbrayat, Williams

    2013-04-01

    Recommendations are not enough to solve problems of desertification. In certain areas, soil degradation and poverty establish a vicious circle that may be broken if political, social, economic and natural visions are considered as a whole. Nevertheless, usually the scientific framework to combat land degradation is only associated with the protection of natural resources - the "soil approach"-, and weak attention is paid on the social sciences - the "land approach". The success in the adoption of mitigation measures to combat dryland degradation depends on the dialogue between research institutes, policy makers, land users and funding agencies. The structure of desertification research and its implementation in Argentina is addressed in this study. It is one part of a wider framework of analysis that is simultaneously carried out in other different regions under the umbrella of a Task Force on Land and Soil promoted by DesertNet International. The ultimate goal of this Task Force is the achievement of an informed analysis to support the need of a scientific panel to answer the needs of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. The features and orientation of such a panel to be truly effective may be established from the results of the analysis of the different ways to meet the challenge of combating desertification in different regions of the world and their success or failure. The method is based on the analysis of scientific journals indexed in the Web of Science using different searching criteria with different groups of keywords. The analysis of papers addresses three main criteria: the disciplines involved, the type of study and finally the range of the study in order to know the level of applicability. In order to compute and visualise clusters of elements bibliometric methods will be used. Positive signs have been recognised in Argentina in recent years trough the increase of governmental and non governmental organisation that are involved in

  20. The European Safeguards Research and Development Association Addresses Safeguards and Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Kusumi, R.; Daures, Pascal A.; Janssens, Willem; Dickman, Deborah A.

    2010-06-16

    range of subjects, including nuclear material accountancy principles, legal definitions and the regulatory base and inspection tools and techniques. This 60% core part is given by representatives from regulatory bodies (The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Directorate General for Nuclear Energy and Transport), industry (AREVA, British Nuclear Group), and research (Stockholm University, Hamburg University, Joint Research Centre-Institute of Transuranic Elements, and Joint Research Centre-Institute for the Protection of the Citizen). The remaining part is completed with topical lectures addressed by invited lecturers, such as from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the IAEA addressing topics of physical protection, illicit trafficking, the Iraq case study, exercises, including satellite imagery interpretation etc. With this structure of a stable core plus a variable set of invited lectures, the course will remain sustainable and up-to-date. A syllabus provides the students a homogeneous set of information material in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation matters at the European and international level. In this way, the ESARDA TKMWG aims to contribute to a two-fold scientific-technical and political-juridical education and training.

  1. Heat illness in military populations: asking the right questions for research.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Mike; Woods, D; Ross, D; Wilson, D

    2014-06-01

    Reports of death and injury in military populations due to exertional heat illness (EHI) and its most severe form, exertional heat stroke, date from antiquity. Yet, understanding of why one soldier may succumb to EHI, while those around him do not, is incomplete. This paper sets out research questions in support of the health of military populations who may experience exertional heat stress. The mechanisms by which excess body heat arises and is dissipated are outlined and the significance of core temperature measurement during exercise is discussed. Known risk factors for EHI are highlighted and new approaches for identifying individual vulnerability to EHI are introduced. A better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology may allow the effective use of biomarkers in future risk stratification and identification of EHI, allied to emerging genetic technologies. The thermal burden associated with states of dress and personal protection of Service personnel in their worldwide duties should be a focus of research as new equipment is introduced. At all times, the discerning use of existing guidance by Commanders on the ground will remain a mainstay of preventing EHI.

  2. The prime questions in authentic patient's consultations: a call for additional research on current and new paradigms.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hanh Thi

    2013-01-01

    Although the 3 prime questions ("What did your doctor tell you the medication is for?" "How did your doctor tell you to take the medication?," and "What did your doctor tell you to expect?") have been recommended as a way to implement an interactive approach to patient's counseling in pharmacy, research examining how these questions are actually used in practice is relatively sparse. Qualitative approaches might assist to inform pertinent questions that might challenge prevailing paradigms. This commentary calls for a close look at how novice pharmacists in training manage these questions in real-life patient's consultations. These examples are aimed to provide preliminary observations about (1) how the prime questions in their original and modified forms are treated by pharmacists in training and patients, and (2) the interactional functions that the prime questions and similar questions may serve. Preliminary observations based on a conversation analysis of these examples show that the open-ended nature of the original prime questions sometimes leads to interactional problems such as delays in patients' responses and pharmacists' revision of the questions. Modified question formats that involve the use of specific knowledge expected to be possessed by a pharmacist, such as declarative questions and Q-word questions with concrete information, may lead to smoother interaction. Finally, questions about the purpose of the therapy may also be used to create opportunities to express empathy toward the patient or to shift the zone of expertise to the doctor. These initial findings suggest a more context sensitive and adaptive approach to communication in pharmacy.

  3. Addressing the question of disorder-specific risk factors of internet addiction: a comparison of personality traits in patients with addictive behaviors and comorbid internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Müller, K W; Koch, A; Dickenhorst, U; Beutel, M E; Duven, E; Wölfling, K

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled use of the internet has been reported to affect the lives of some users in a negative way. According to epidemiological studies, about 1% of the general population is showing signs of internet addiction. Since internet addiction is becoming a growing health concern, research on potential risk factors is becoming more important in order to develop strategies for prevention and to adopt therapeutic treatment. Although there are some studies investigating personality traits in internet addiction, most of these studies are based on samples of healthy subjects. In this research project, we compared personality profiles of a sample of patients in different rehabilitation centers. 70 patients with an addiction disorder that additionally met the criteria for internet addiction were compared to 48 patients suffering from alcohol dependence. Besides Big Five personality traits, we also assessed depressive symptoms. It was shown that patients with comorbid internet addiction can be discriminated from other patients by higher neuroticism and lower extraversion as well as lower conscientiousness. After controlling for depressive symptoms, lower conscientiousness especially turned out to be a disorder-specific risk factor. As internet addiction is related to unique patterns of personality traits and can be discriminated from alcohol dependence, treatment approaches are needed that meet the specific requirements of patients with internet addiction.

  4. The neurobiology of emotion-cognition interactions: fundamental questions and strategies for future research.

    PubMed

    Okon-Singer, Hadas; Hendler, Talma; Pessoa, Luiz; Shackman, Alexander J

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emergence of powerful new tools for assaying the brain and a remarkable acceleration of research focused on the interplay of emotion and cognition. This work has begun to yield new insights into fundamental questions about the nature of the mind and important clues about the origins of mental illness. In particular, this research demonstrates that stress, anxiety, and other kinds of emotion can profoundly influence key elements of cognition, including selective attention, working memory, and cognitive control. Often, this influence persists beyond the duration of transient emotional challenges, partially reflecting the slower molecular dynamics of catecholamine and hormonal neurochemistry. In turn, circuits involved in attention, executive control, and working memory contribute to the regulation of emotion. The distinction between the 'emotional' and the 'cognitive' brain is fuzzy and context-dependent. Indeed, there is compelling evidence that brain territories and psychological processes commonly associated with cognition, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and working memory, play a central role in emotion. Furthermore, putatively emotional and cognitive regions influence one another via a complex web of connections in ways that jointly contribute to adaptive and maladaptive behavior. This work demonstrates that emotion and cognition are deeply interwoven in the fabric of the brain, suggesting that widely held beliefs about the key constituents of 'the emotional brain' and 'the cognitive brain' are fundamentally flawed. We conclude by outlining several strategies for enhancing future research. Developing a deeper understanding of the emotional-cognitive brain is important, not just for understanding the mind but also for elucidating the root causes of its disorders. PMID:25774129

  5. The neurobiology of emotion–cognition interactions: fundamental questions and strategies for future research

    PubMed Central

    Okon-Singer, Hadas; Hendler, Talma; Pessoa, Luiz; Shackman, Alexander J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emergence of powerful new tools for assaying the brain and a remarkable acceleration of research focused on the interplay of emotion and cognition. This work has begun to yield new insights into fundamental questions about the nature of the mind and important clues about the origins of mental illness. In particular, this research demonstrates that stress, anxiety, and other kinds of emotion can profoundly influence key elements of cognition, including selective attention, working memory, and cognitive control. Often, this influence persists beyond the duration of transient emotional challenges, partially reflecting the slower molecular dynamics of catecholamine and hormonal neurochemistry. In turn, circuits involved in attention, executive control, and working memory contribute to the regulation of emotion. The distinction between the ‘emotional’ and the ‘cognitive’ brain is fuzzy and context-dependent. Indeed, there is compelling evidence that brain territories and psychological processes commonly associated with cognition, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and working memory, play a central role in emotion. Furthermore, putatively emotional and cognitive regions influence one another via a complex web of connections in ways that jointly contribute to adaptive and maladaptive behavior. This work demonstrates that emotion and cognition are deeply interwoven in the fabric of the brain, suggesting that widely held beliefs about the key constituents of ‘the emotional brain’ and ‘the cognitive brain’ are fundamentally flawed. We conclude by outlining several strategies for enhancing future research. Developing a deeper understanding of the emotional-cognitive brain is important, not just for understanding the mind but also for elucidating the root causes of its disorders. PMID:25774129

  6. Developing a Gap Taxonomy to Address Crew Health Risks in NASA's Human Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Edwards, J. Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The mission of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is to understand and reduce the risk to crew health and performance in exploration missions. The HRP addresses 27 specific risks by identifying and then filling gaps in understanding the risks and in the ability to disposition the risks. The primary bases for identifying gaps have been past experience and requirements definition. This approach has been very effective in identifying some important, relevant gaps, but may be inadequate for identifying gaps outside the past experience base. We are exploring the use of a gap taxonomy as a comprehensive, underlying conceptual framework that allows a more systematic identification of gaps. The taxonomy is based on these stages in medical care: prediction, prevention, detection/diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, rehabilitation, and lifetime surveillance. This gap taxonomy approach identifies new gaps in HRP health risks. Many of the new gaps suggest risk reduction approaches that are more cost effective than present approaches. A major benefit of the gap taxonomy approach is to identify new, economical approaches that reduce the likelihood and/or consequence of a risk.

  7. Research approaches to address uncertainties in the risk assessment of arsenic in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Michael F. Kenyon, Elaina M.; Kitchin, Kirk T.

    2007-08-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs), an environmental drinking water contaminant, is a human toxicant and carcinogen. The public health community has developed recommendations and regulations that limit human exposure to iAs in drinking water. Although there is a vast amount of information available to regulators on the exposure, disposition and the health-related effects of iAs, there is still critical information about the toxicology of this metalloid that is needed. This necessary information includes identification of the chemical species of arsenic that is (are) the active toxicant(s), the mode(s) of action for its various toxicities and information on potentially susceptible populations. Because of these unknown factors, the risk assessment of iAs still incorporates default assumptions, leading to uncertainties in the overall assessment. The characteristics of a scientifically defensible risk assessment for iAs are that it must: (1) quantitatively link exposure and target tissue dose of active metabolites to key events in the mode of action for major health effects and (2) identify sources of variation in susceptibility to arsenic-induced health effects and quantitatively evaluate their impact wherever possible. Integration of research to address these goals will better protect the health of iAs-exposed populations.

  8. Defining the questions: a research agenda for nontraditional authentication in arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Hauck, Danielle K; Mac Arthur, Duncan W; Smith, Morag K; Thron, Jonathan L; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory

    2010-01-01

    Many traditional authentication techniques have been based on hardware solutions. Thus authentication of measurement system hardware has been considered in terms of physical inspection and destructive analysis. Software authentication has implied hash function analysis or authentication tools such as Rose. Continuity of knowledge is maintained through TIDs and cameras. Although there is ongoing progress improving all of these authentication methods, there has been little discussion of the human factors involved in authentication. Issues of non-traditional authentication include sleight-of-hand substitutions, monitor perception vs. reality, and visual diversions. Since monitor confidence in a measurement system depends on the product of their confidences in each authentication element, it is important to investigate all authentication techniques, including the human factors. This paper will present an initial effort to identify the most important problems that traditional authentication approaches in safeguards have not addressed and are especially relevant to arms control verification. This will include a survey of the literature and direct engagement with nontraditional experts in areas like psychology and human factors. Based on the identification of problem areas, potential research areas will be identified and a possible research agenda will be developed.

  9. Exploring Pre-Service Science Teacher Methods and Strategies for the Driving Questions in Research Inquiry: From Consulting an Instructor to Group Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Miraç

    2016-01-01

    An important stage in any research inquiry is the development of research questions that need to be answered. The strategies to develop research questions should be defined and described, but few studies have considered this process in greater detail. This study explores pre-service science teachers' research questions and the strategies they can…

  10. A Critical Review of Research on Questioning in Education: Limitations of Its Positivistic Basis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Mikyeong

    2006-01-01

    In spite of its prevalence and importance, questioning in education has been underestimated and misconceptualized. The major reason for this has been that most studies on questioning have been heavily dependent on the paradigm of positivism. The present study critiques the limitations of those studies on four specific issues: 1) the narrow…

  11. Scholar-Craftsmanship: Question-Type, Epistemology, Culture of Inquiry, and Personality-Type in Dissertation Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Thomas P.; Rogers, Katrina S.

    2013-01-01

    "Scholar-Craftsmanship" (SC) is a quadrant methodological framework created to help social science doctoral students construct first-time dissertation research. The framework brackets and predicts how epistemological domains, cultures of inquiries, personality indicators, and research question--types can be correlated in dissertation…

  12. Law addresses question of space artifact ownership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-10-01

    U.S. astronauts who participated in many of NASA's early space missions will receive full ownership rights to artifacts from those missions through legislation that President Barack Obama signed into law on 25 September. The legislation, which received broad bipartisan support, provides artifact ownership rights to any of NASA's Mercury, Gemini, or Apollo space programs through the completion of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, whose flight occurred in July 1975. The law defines artifacts as expendable, disposable, or personal use items—including personal logs and flight hardware salvaged from jettisoned lunar modules—used by astronauts that were not required to be returned to NASA; lunar rocks and other lunar material are not defined as artifacts. Bill cosponsor Rep. Ralph Hall (R-Tex.), chair of the House of Representatives' Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, said on 19 September, “A majority of these items have been in the personal possession of the astronauts for 40 years or more. Over the last decade, NASA has begun to challenge the astronauts' ownership of these mementos. This issue was first brought to my attention late last year. I was surprised to learn that NASA had, on an irregular basis, intervened several times to claim ownership.”

  13. Health and Well-Being in Emerging Adults’ Same-Sex Relationships: Critical Questions and Directions for Research in Developmental Science

    PubMed Central

    Frost, David M.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Hammack, Phillip L.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have yet to account for the potentially unique experiences of emerging adults who are in or seeking to be in a relationship with a same-sex romantic partner. This paper articulates an agenda for research focused on better understanding and addressing the health and well-being of emerging adults in or pursuing same-sex romantic relationships. We provide a general summary of what is known about health and well-being in same-sex relationships, followed by an overview of the current and changing social climate surrounding same-sex relationships. We point out how recent historical changes present sexual minority emerging adults with unique relational benefits and challenges that have not been examined within the social and health sciences. We conclude by proposing a set of research questions to help develop knowledge needed to improve the health and well-being of emerging adults in or pursuing same-sex relationships. PMID:27588221

  14. Language Teachers' Responses to Educational Research: Addressing the "Crisis" of Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwaruddin, Sardar M.

    2016-01-01

    While teachers are being called upon to turn to educational research and find evidence of "what works," critics argue that research often suffers from a crisis of representation. They contend that research reports fail to sufficiently capture the lived experiences of research participants. In this article, I present insights gleaned from…

  15. Evidence-based decision-making in infectious diseases epidemiology, prevention and control: matching research questions to study designs and quality appraisal tools

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Project on a Framework for Rating Evidence in Public Health (PRECEPT) was initiated and is being funded by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) to define a methodology for evaluating and grading evidence and strength of recommendations in the field of public health, with emphasis on infectious disease epidemiology, prevention and control. One of the first steps was to review existing quality appraisal tools (QATs) for individual research studies of various designs relevant to this area, using a question-based approach. Methods Through team discussions and expert consultations, we identified 20 relevant types of public health questions, which were grouped into six domains, i.e. characteristics of the pathogen, burden of disease, diagnosis, risk factors, intervention, and implementation of intervention. Previously published systematic reviews were used and supplemented by expert consultation to identify suitable QATs. Finally, a matrix was constructed for matching questions to study designs suitable to address them and respective QATs. Key features of each of the included QATs were then analyzed, in particular in respect to its intended use, types of questions and answers, presence/absence of a quality score, and if a validation was performed. Results In total we identified 21 QATs and 26 study designs, and matched them. Four QATs were suitable for experimental quantitative study designs, eleven for observational quantitative studies, two for qualitative studies, three for economic studies, one for diagnostic test accuracy studies, and one for animal studies. Included QATs consisted of six to 28 items. Six of the QATs had a summary quality score. Fourteen QATs had undergone at least one validation procedure. Conclusions The results of this methodological study can be used as an inventory of potentially relevant questions, appropriate study designs and QATs for researchers and authorities engaged with evidence-based decision

  16. Routing and Addressing Problems in Large Metropolitan-Scale Internetworks. ISI Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Gregory G.

    This report discusses some of the problems and limitations in existing internetwork design for the connection of packet-switching networks of different technologies and presents an algorithm that has been shown to be suitable for internetworks of unbounded size. Using a new form of address and a flat routing mechanism called Cartesian routing,…

  17. Testing for Questionable Research Practices in a Meta-Analysis: An Example from Experimental Parapsychology

    PubMed Central

    Bierman, Dick J.; Spottiswoode, James P.; Bijl, Aron

    2016-01-01

    We describe a method of quantifying the effect of Questionable Research Practices (QRPs) on the results of meta-analyses. As an example we simulated a meta-analysis of a controversial telepathy protocol to assess the extent to which these experimental results could be explained by QRPs. Our simulations used the same numbers of studies and trials as the original meta-analysis and the frequencies with which various QRPs were applied in the simulated experiments were based on surveys of experimental psychologists. Results of both the meta-analysis and simulations were characterized by 4 metrics, two describing the trial and mean experiment hit rates (HR) of around 31%, where 25% is expected by chance, one the correlation between sample-size and hit-rate, and one the complete P-value distribution of the database. A genetic algorithm optimized the parameters describing the QRPs, and the fitness of the simulated meta-analysis was defined as the sum of the squares of Z-scores for the 4 metrics. Assuming no anomalous effect a good fit to the empirical meta-analysis was found only by using QRPs with unrealistic parameter-values. Restricting the parameter space to ranges observed in studies of QRP occurrence, under the untested assumption that parapsychologists use comparable QRPs, the fit to the published Ganzfeld meta-analysis with no anomalous effect was poor. We allowed for a real anomalous effect, be it unidentified QRPs or a paranormal effect, where the HR ranged from 25% (chance) to 31%. With an anomalous HR of 27% the fitness became F = 1.8 (p = 0.47 where F = 0 is a perfect fit). We conclude that the very significant probability cited by the Ganzfeld meta-analysis is likely inflated by QRPs, though results are still significant (p = 0.003) with QRPs. Our study demonstrates that quantitative simulations of QRPs can assess their impact. Since meta-analyses in general might be polluted by QRPs, this method has wide applicability outside the domain of experimental

  18. Testing for Questionable Research Practices in a Meta-Analysis: An Example from Experimental Parapsychology.

    PubMed

    Bierman, Dick J; Spottiswoode, James P; Bijl, Aron

    2016-01-01

    We describe a method of quantifying the effect of Questionable Research Practices (QRPs) on the results of meta-analyses. As an example we simulated a meta-analysis of a controversial telepathy protocol to assess the extent to which these experimental results could be explained by QRPs. Our simulations used the same numbers of studies and trials as the original meta-analysis and the frequencies with which various QRPs were applied in the simulated experiments were based on surveys of experimental psychologists. Results of both the meta-analysis and simulations were characterized by 4 metrics, two describing the trial and mean experiment hit rates (HR) of around 31%, where 25% is expected by chance, one the correlation between sample-size and hit-rate, and one the complete P-value distribution of the database. A genetic algorithm optimized the parameters describing the QRPs, and the fitness of the simulated meta-analysis was defined as the sum of the squares of Z-scores for the 4 metrics. Assuming no anomalous effect a good fit to the empirical meta-analysis was found only by using QRPs with unrealistic parameter-values. Restricting the parameter space to ranges observed in studies of QRP occurrence, under the untested assumption that parapsychologists use comparable QRPs, the fit to the published Ganzfeld meta-analysis with no anomalous effect was poor. We allowed for a real anomalous effect, be it unidentified QRPs or a paranormal effect, where the HR ranged from 25% (chance) to 31%. With an anomalous HR of 27% the fitness became F = 1.8 (p = 0.47 where F = 0 is a perfect fit). We conclude that the very significant probability cited by the Ganzfeld meta-analysis is likely inflated by QRPs, though results are still significant (p = 0.003) with QRPs. Our study demonstrates that quantitative simulations of QRPs can assess their impact. Since meta-analyses in general might be polluted by QRPs, this method has wide applicability outside the domain of experimental

  19. Ethical and Epistemic Dilemmas in Knowledge Production: Addressing Their Intersection in Collaborative, Community-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Ronald David; Newman, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative community-based research can bring a range of benefits to universities, communities, and the public more broadly. A distinct virtue of collaborative community-based research is that it makes the ethical-epistemic intersections and challenges in research a focal point of its methodology. This makes collaborative community-based…

  20. School Nurses Can Address Existing Gaps in School-Age Sleep Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willgerodt, Mayumi A.; Kieckhefer, Gail M.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep has been linked to a host of physical, behavioral, and emotional outcomes, and research has documented that youth across the globe are experiencing inadequate sleep. Despite this knowledge, however, very little research has been conducted on school-age children; much of the extant research has focused on infants, toddlers, preschoolers,…

  1. Beyond the "National Container": Addressing Methodological Nationalism in Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahjahan, Riyad A.; Kezar, Adrianna J.

    2013-01-01

    This essay argues that there is a need for higher education researchers to become aware of methodological nationalism (MN) and take steps to reframe their scholarship in new ways. It illuminates two characteristics of MN prevalent in higher education research and suggests that although a few researchers have attempted to move beyond MN in the…

  2. Playing Fair?: Minority Research Institutions Call for NIH to Address Funding Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2012-01-01

    When Ph.D. science and health researchers are seeking financial support for their health science studies, more often than not they apply to the federal government's National Institutes of Health (NIH) for an RO1 research grant, which boosts a project's standing in the research community as well as the career of the applicant. Even before the NIH…

  3. Action Research in Education: Addressing Gaps in Ethical Principles and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Amanda L.; Putten, Jim Vander

    2007-01-01

    Action research in education has gained increasing attention in the past 20 years. It is viewed as a practical yet systematic research method that enables teachers to investigate their own teaching and their students' learning. However, the ethical issues unique to this form of insider research have received less attention. Drawing on several…

  4. Lifespan Engagement and the Question of Relevance: Challenges for Music Education Research in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, David

    2008-01-01

    The scope of music education research has expanded significantly over the last 50 years. Nevertheless, many studies remain atomistic, with limited contexts for questions, methods, findings and implications. Such approaches may seek to validate instructional strategies within an established music education system, rather than developing a continuum…

  5. What Makes a Scientific Research Question Worth Investigating? Students' Epistemic Criteria and Considerations of Contribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Eric Bruckner

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation introduces the construct of "worthwhileness" as an important aspect of students' "practical" epistemologies of science (Sandoval, 2005). Specifically, it examines how students conceptualize what makes a scientific research question worthwhile, through a close analysis of the criteria they use for…

  6. Upgrading the Research Paper toward "Real Writing" by Using Prewriting Ploys, Critical Probe-Questions, and Audience-Relating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, James

    Prewriting, critical probe questions, and post-writing-recasting for plural audiences-(audience-relating) are three tactics that can be used in research paper instruction to help college students gain skill in "real world" writing and in critical assessment of issues and evidence. The prewriting tactics of freewriting, listing specifics, and…

  7. Work group III: Methodologic issues in research on the food and physical activity environments: addressing data complexity.

    PubMed

    Oakes, J Michael; Mâsse, Louise C; Messer, Lynne C

    2009-04-01

    Progress in transdisciplinary research addressing the health effects of the food and physical activity environments appears hampered by several methodologic obstacles, including: (1) the absence of clear, testable conceptual models; (2) slow adoption of practicable, rigorous research designs; (3) improper use of analytic techniques; and (4) concerns about ubiquitous measurement error. The consequence of such obstacles is that data collected as part of the typical study are more complex than need be. We offer diagnoses and recommendations from an NIH-sponsored meeting that addressed core issues in food- and physical activity-environment research. Recommendations include improved conceptual models and more elaborate theories, experimental thinking and increased attention to causal effect estimation, adoption of cross-validation techniques, use of existing measurement-error models, and increased support for methodologic research.

  8. Asking Difficult Questions: Exploring Research Methods with Children on Painful Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeson, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Assumptions about a child's competence to voice an opinion often inhibit efforts to find effective methods for participation. Answers to questions are sought from the significant adults who surround a child [Morris, J. 2003. "Including All Children: Finding Out about the Experiences of Children with Communication and/or Cognitive…

  9. Research Questions to Identify Ecological Indicators Most Useful for Linking Ecosystems and Human Wellbeing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods While the desirability of ecological indicators that foster social science interpretation and use as well as public comprehension is well established, guidelines for developing indicators that meet these needs are not as well developed. In the past f...

  10. Young Children and E-Reading: Research to Date and Questions for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Elizabeth B.; Warschauer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The practice of reading is rapidly moving from print to screen. Young children are not immune from this trend; indeed, many children's principal literacy experiences occur using iPads and other handheld digital devices. This transition raises important questions about how the emergence and development of literacy might change in these new…

  11. Research on the enhancement of signal-to-noise ratio of light-addressable potentiometric sensor by optical focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Liu, Shi-bin; Yin, Shi-min; Liang, Jin-tao

    2016-01-01

    For enhancing the response of light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) and further improving its signal- to-noise ratio ( SNR), an optical focusing method is adopted. Experimental research and theoretical analysis reveal that the magnitude of responsive signal is increased by optical focusing, and the SNR is improved remarkably. These research results indicate that the optical focusing is an effective approach for improving SNR of LAPS.

  12. Addressing Three Common Issues in Research on Youth Activities: An Integrative Approach for Operationalizing and Analyzing Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael A.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Youth activity involvement has been operationalized and analyzed using a wide range of approaches. Researchers face the challenges of distinguishing between the effects of involvement versus noninvolvement and intensity of involvement in a particular activity, accounting simultaneously for cumulative effects of involvement, and addressing multiple…

  13. The Evidence Base for Mental Health Consultation in Early Childhood Settings: Research Synthesis Addressing Staff and Program Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Eileen M.; Bradley, Jennifer R.; Allen, Mary Dallas; Perry, Deborah F.

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: One strategy to support early childhood providers' work with children exhibiting challenging behavior is offering mental health consultation services in order to build staff skills and confidence and reduce staff stress and turnover. Through systematic search procedures, 26 recent studies were identified that addressed the…

  14. Top 10 research questions related to growth and maturation of relevance to physical activity, performance, and fitness.

    PubMed

    Malina, Robert M

    2014-06-01

    Growth, maturation, and development dominate the daily lives of children and adolescents for approximately the first 2 decades of life. Growth and maturation are biological processes, while development is largely a behavioral process. The 3 processes occur simultaneously and interact. They can be influenced by physical activity and also can influence activity, performance, and fitness. Allowing for these potential interactions, 10 questions on growth and maturation that have relevance to physical activity, performance, and fitness are presented. The questions are not mutually exclusive and address several broadly defined topical areas: exercise and growth, body weight status (body mass index, adiposity rebound, "unhealthy weight gain"), movement proficiency (hypothesized barrier, role in obesity), individual differences, tracking, maturity-associated variation in performance, and corresponding variation in physical activity. Central to the discussion of each is the need for a biocultural approach recognizing the interactions of biology and behavior as potential influences on the variables of interest.

  15. Putting Principles into Practice: Addressing Historical Trauma, Mistrust, and Apprehension in Research Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Zuleka; Acquaye-Doyle, Lucinda A.; Waites, Shayna; Howard, Tyriesa

    2016-01-01

    The social work profession has articulated commitments to acknowledging and affirming how diversity and culture shape the human experience and to developing social workers who can competently engage in research-informed practice and practice-informed research. However, there remains a need in social work education for more widespread use of…

  16. The Undefined Role of the Antecedent: Addressing the Measurement Quagmires in Applied Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stichter, Janine Peck; Conroy, Maureen A.; Boyd, Brian A.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, several investigators have examined trends in the antecedent research literature through discussion of key conceptual models considered to guide this research (Conroy & Stichter, 2003; Smith & Iwata, 1997; Smith, Iwata, & Michael, 2000) as well as related trends in measurement (Mahon, Shores, & Buske, 1999). Despite varied points…

  17. A Collection of NIDA Notes: Articles That Address Research on Club Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    Included in this document are selections of topic-specific articles on club drug research reprinted from the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA) research newsletter, NIDA Notes. The collection features articles originally published from 1996 through 2002. Topics include the effects of ecstasy and methamphetamine on the brain and body,…

  18. Writing Cover Letters That Address Instructor Feedback Improves Final Papers in a Research Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Frances; Gaze, Catherine M.; Braasch, Jason L. G.

    2015-01-01

    We examined how writing cover letters to the instructor influenced final papers in research methods courses. After receiving instructor feedback on drafts of each section of an American Psychological Association style research paper throughout the semester, students in two classes wrote cover letters to the instructor explaining how the instructor…

  19. Mixed Methods Research Strategies with Deaf People: Linguistic and Cultural Challenges Addressed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Amy T.; Winiarczyk, Rowena E.

    2014-01-01

    Deaf people, members of a complex global language minority, have been excluded from positions of power in the field of humanitarian aid and development assistance, as well as from playing a significant role in the conduct of research that affects their lives. Deaf people rarely lead or participate as researchers in studies about their own…

  20. "We Want Respect": Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Address Respect in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Katherine Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Respect is central to ethical guidelines for research. The scientific community has long debated, and at times disagreed on, how to demonstrate respect in research with adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. To illuminate the voices of those most affected, the author studies the views of adults with intellectual and developmental…

  1. A Collection of NIDA NOTES. Articles That Address Research on Heroin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Included in this document are selections of topic-specific articles on heroin research reprinted from the National Institute on Drug Abuses (NIDA) research newsletter, NIDA Notes. Titles include: Buprenorphine Taken Three Times Per Week Is as Effective as Daily Doses in Treating Heroin Addiction; 33-Year Study Finds Lifelong, Lethal Consequences…

  2. A Collection of NIDA Notes: Articles That Address Research on Marijuana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    Included in this document are selections of topic-specific articles on marijuana research reprinted from the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA) research newsletter, NIDA Notes. The collection features articles originally published from 1995 through 2002. Topics include long-term cognitive impairments in heavy marijuana users, evidence that…

  3. A Consideration to Two Main Ethical Issues in Educational Research, and How May These Be Addressed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abed, Mohaned Ghazi

    2015-01-01

    This paper has firstly discussed the topic of Ethical Issues in Education, and has accordingly highlighted the fact that ethics are not something to deem at the commencement of a research project or fieldwork, but rather throughout the entire research process. Furthermore, two of the most important ethical issues have been given…

  4. "We want respect": adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities address respect in research.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Katherine Elizabeth

    2012-07-01

    Respect is central to ethical guidelines for research. The scientific community has long debated, and at times disagreed on, how to demonstrate respect in research with adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. To illuminate the voices of those most affected, the author studies the views of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities on respect in research. Findings are consistent with disability rights' ideas and indicate that adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have much to contribute to the discussion, that they value participating, and that they agree with calls to focus on human rights and dignity. Notably, participants spoke at lengths about the nature of interactions between researchers and participants. Implications are discussed, including how to infuse research standards with community-supported values and preferences.

  5. Open questions in the present heliospheric research and challenges for upcoming space mission like IMAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahr, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    Since the appearance of the first IBEX ENA fullsky maps in 2009 up to the present time it remained an open question what ENA sources are reponsible for the famous "IBEX-ribbon" feature. Both innerheliospheric and outerheliospheric ENA sources still today compete as reponsible candidates for that feature. Whether the ribbon-producing ENA`s are due to charge exchange processes inside or outside the heliopause is an outstanding question up to the present days. The answer, as I will show, will surely come with an extended energy range of the ENA detector and with a better time resolution in ENA maps, helping to control the reflection of temporal variations of solar wind flux patterns in ENA features as it all will be realized with IMAP.A second open question concerns the compressibility of the heliosheath plasma. Incompressibility prevails under very low Mach number flows or very high effective sound speeds, as could be realized by hot PUI`s or hot electrons downstream of the termination shock. Hot suprathermal electrons have been predicted, but not yet confirmed by VOYAGER measurements. At the low energy side of the spectrum this is explained by the negative charge-up of the spacecraft, at the medium energy range (0.5-1.0 MeV) shock-processed suprathermal electrons are likely to in fact explain the observations.Furthermore these electrons would directly influence the electrostatic wave characteristics in the heliosheath leading to unexpected propagation properties of such waves. To clarify on some of these points IMAP should have a sensitive electron detector which could monitor solar wind electron properties at passages of travelling shocks and thus prove the efficiency of shock processing.If in fact hot electrons have to be expected in the heliosheath, then electron impact ionization processes have to be studied in new details, and the question may arise whether also LISM helium under these new auspices becomes partially ionized when crossing the heliosheath.

  6. Consumer-Involved Participatory Research to Address General Medical Health and Wellness in a Community Mental Health Setting.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Sharat P; Pancake, Laura S; Dandino, Elizabeth S; Wells, Kenneth B

    2015-12-01

    Barriers to sustainably implementing general medical interventions in community mental health (CMH) settings include role uncertainty, consumer engagement, workforce limitations, and sustainable reimbursement. To address these barriers, this project used a community-partnered participatory research framework to create a stakeholder-based general medical and wellness intervention in a large CMH organization, with consumers involved in all decision-making processes. Consumers faced practical barriers to participating in organizational decision making, but their narratives were critical in establishing priorities and ensuring sustainability. Addressing baseline knowledge and readiness of stakeholders and functional challenges to consumer involvement can aid stakeholder-based approaches to implementing general medical interventions in CMH settings.

  7. NIH Research Addresses Aging Issues and Disparities in Oral Health | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... it important to have a research focus on older adults? One reason is that older adults make up ... What does the latest data tell us about older adults' oral health? It gives us some good news, ...

  8. Addressing transportation energy and environmental impacts: technical and policy research directions

    SciTech Connect

    Weissenberger, S.; Pasternak, A.; Smith, J.R.; Wallman, H.

    1995-08-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is establishing a local chapter of the University of California Energy Institute (UCEI). In order to most effectively contribute to the Institute, LLNL sponsored a workshop on energy and environmental issues in transportation. This workshop took place in Livermore on August 10 and brought together researchers from throughout the UC systems in order to establish a joint LLNL-UC research program in transportation, with a focus on energy and environmental impacts.

  9. Swedish Physical Education Research Questioned--Current Situation and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Hakan; Redelius, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Background: Research on the school subject of physical education and health in Sweden has proliferated in the early part of the 21st century. Several large research programmes have been conducted that shed light on the history of physical education and health in this country and that provide a research-based description of the current situation in…

  10. Rejecting the Null: Research and Social Justice Means Asking Different Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Stephanie; Schwartz, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the specific ethical issues related to social justice research and the practical implications of engaging in social justice research, including the potential impact of research results on practice, policy, and advocacy at the local and national level. Specific recommendations are offered, including identifying…

  11. Qualitative Research in Question: A Narrative of Disciplinary Power with/in the IRB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tara Star

    2008-01-01

    This article narrates the author's experience of obtaining institutional review board (IRB) approval for her dissertation study. Although her research topic was particularly sensitive, this case is illustrative of the increasing level of difficulty qualitative researchers are facing in conducting not only risky research but also work that is not…

  12. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Physical Activity in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Brown, William H.; McIver, Kerry L.; Howie, Erin K.; Dowda, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to highlight important research needs related to physical activity in 3-to 5-year-old children. We identified research needs in 3 major categories: health effects, patterns of physical activity, and interventions and policies. The top research needs include identifying the health effects of physical activity, the…

  13. Is there a need for a '100 questions exercise' to enhance fisheries and aquatic conservation, policy, management and research? Lessons from a global 100 questions exercise on conservation of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Cooke, S J; Danylchuk, A J; Kaiser, M J; Rudd, M A

    2010-06-01

    Recent global and regional exercises have been undertaken to identify 100 questions of relevance to policy makers that, if answered, would improve decision making and conservation actions. These were intentionally broad, but all included themes and questions of relevance to aquatic and fisheries professionals (e.g. exploitation, habitat alteration, effectiveness of protected areas, migratory connectivity and environmental effects of aquaculture). Here, the content of the global 100 question exercise relevant to aquatic and fisheries issues is summarized and a critical analysis is provided. Many of the questions addressed in apparently unrelated themes and topics (e.g. terrestrial, agriculture and energy policy) have potential relevance to fisheries and aquatic habitats, which underlines the connectivity between terrestrial and aquatic realms. Given the intimate link between aquatic environmental problems and human activities (including culture and economics), greater understanding of the human dimension is required to inform decision making. Stakeholder perspectives need to be included as a core component of the fisheries management triangle (i.e. managing fish, habitat and people). The benefits and risks of conducting a global 100 questions exercise with an exclusive focus on questions of relevance to fisheries and aquatic practitioners are also considered. There is no question that evidence-based approaches to conservation are essential for addressing the many threats that face aquatic ecosystems and reverse the imperilment trends among ichthyofauna. It is still unclear, however, as to the extent to which 100 questions exercises will help to achieve conservation and management targets for aquatic resources. A global 100 questions exercise that focused on fisheries and aquatic issues would certainly help to generate interest and awareness sufficient to justify such an exercise.

  14. Is there a need for a '100 questions exercise' to enhance fisheries and aquatic conservation, policy, management and research? Lessons from a global 100 questions exercise on conservation of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Cooke, S J; Danylchuk, A J; Kaiser, M J; Rudd, M A

    2010-06-01

    Recent global and regional exercises have been undertaken to identify 100 questions of relevance to policy makers that, if answered, would improve decision making and conservation actions. These were intentionally broad, but all included themes and questions of relevance to aquatic and fisheries professionals (e.g. exploitation, habitat alteration, effectiveness of protected areas, migratory connectivity and environmental effects of aquaculture). Here, the content of the global 100 question exercise relevant to aquatic and fisheries issues is summarized and a critical analysis is provided. Many of the questions addressed in apparently unrelated themes and topics (e.g. terrestrial, agriculture and energy policy) have potential relevance to fisheries and aquatic habitats, which underlines the connectivity between terrestrial and aquatic realms. Given the intimate link between aquatic environmental problems and human activities (including culture and economics), greater understanding of the human dimension is required to inform decision making. Stakeholder perspectives need to be included as a core component of the fisheries management triangle (i.e. managing fish, habitat and people). The benefits and risks of conducting a global 100 questions exercise with an exclusive focus on questions of relevance to fisheries and aquatic practitioners are also considered. There is no question that evidence-based approaches to conservation are essential for addressing the many threats that face aquatic ecosystems and reverse the imperilment trends among ichthyofauna. It is still unclear, however, as to the extent to which 100 questions exercises will help to achieve conservation and management targets for aquatic resources. A global 100 questions exercise that focused on fisheries and aquatic issues would certainly help to generate interest and awareness sufficient to justify such an exercise. PMID:20557662

  15. Polar Engineering and Research to Address Operational Challenges in Austere Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, J. L.; Richter-Menge, J.; Weale, J. C.; Lever, J. H.; Knuth, M. A.; Shoop, S. A.; Haehnel, R.; Arcone, S. A.; Bjella, K.; Finnegan, D. C.; Courville, Z.; Tracy, B. T.

    2009-12-01

    Logistics constraints and operational challenges in the austere environs of the polar regions present unique technological and engineering problems. Working closely with universities, government agencies and industry, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab (CRREL) routinely conducts scientific research and engineering in the Arctic, sub-Arctic and Antarctic covering a wide range of topics and applications. Current areas of focus include: improved mobility techniques for overland traverses; robotic vehicles for traversing, sampling and data collection; snow road and transportation characterization; integrated operational systems including airfield consolidation proof-of-concept studies; infrastructure technology such as firn air cooling, building design, snow foundations and sewage handling; remote/renewable autonomous power solutions for data collection; subsurface radar for crevasse detection and cryosphere characterization; ground-based lidar topographic scanning and near-real-time climate/environmental monitoring linked to AIS infrastructure. While these research and engineering efforts provide solutions and improved technology for specific problems, the impacts are many and wide-reaching and the results are often applicable to other challenging environments. Here, an overview of current research foci and projects is presented along with in-the-field applications, effects and future implications. The results and solutions of these efforts typically lead to technological improvements in operations and logistics which are cost-beneficial, thus freeing up funding dollars for fundamental scientific research. The links between basic research and applied solutions delivering far-reaching impacts (both large- and small-scale) on society, the environment, industry and scientific research are also demonstrated.

  16. Synthesizing Evidence-Based Strategies and Community-Engaged Research: A Model to Address Social Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Bohan, Kyle David; Trotter, Robert Talbot

    2013-01-01

    Addressing social determinants of health (SDH) requires multileveled intervention designs. Increasingly, organizations and coalitions face pressure to use evidence-based strategies when seeking to address SDH. Evidence-based strategies, however, must be locally relevant and integrated into existing systems to function efficiently. We propose the incorporation of an effective rapid assessment technique, Rapid Assessment, Response, and Evaluation (RARE), with evidence-based strategies, findings, and recommendations embedded in community-engaged research to increase the likelihood of success in addressing SDH. Our RARE project—a partnership among a community health center, a nonprofit funding agency, and academic faculty researchers—resulted in community- and policy-level interventions for the prevention of childhood obesity in a Southwestern U.S. city. PMID:24179282

  17. Child Abuse and Neglect Program Evaluation: A Report from a Symposium on Evaluation Questions and Research Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaus, Susan L.

    Presented in the report on the Symposium on Child Abuse and Neglect Program Evaluation are the critical issues regarding evaluation and research needs which were addressed during the 2-day meeting and a brief description of the meeting's format. A child protective services model involving five stages (identification/reporting,…

  18. Strategies to address participant misrepresentation for eligibility in Web-based research.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Jessica; Rubin, Amy; Coster, Wendy; Helmuth, Eric; Hermos, John; Rosenbloom, David; Moed, Rich; Dooley, Meghan; Kao, Ying-Chia; Liljenquist, Kendra; Brief, Deborah; Enggasser, Justin; Keane, Terence; Roy, Monica; Lachowicz, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Emerging methodological research suggests that the World Wide Web ("Web") is an appropriate venue for survey data collection, and a promising area for delivering behavioral intervention. However, the use of the Web for research raises concerns regarding sample validity, particularly when the Web is used for recruitment and enrollment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the challenges experienced in two different Web-based studies in which participant misrepresentation threatened sample validity: a survey study and an online intervention study. The lessons learned from these experiences generated three types of strategies researchers can use to reduce the likelihood of participant misrepresentation for eligibility in Web-based research. Examples of procedural/design strategies, technical/software strategies and data analytic strategies are provided along with the methodological strengths and limitations of specific strategies. The discussion includes a series of considerations to guide researchers in the selection of strategies that may be most appropriate given the aims, resources and target population of their studies.

  19. Addressing Control Research Issues Leading to Piloted Simulations in Support of the IFCS F-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Napolitano, Marcello; Perhinschi, Mario; Campa, Giampiero; Seanor, Brad

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the research effort by a team of researchers at West Virginia University in support of the NASA Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) F-15 program. In particular, WVU researchers assisted NASA Dryden researchers in the following technical tasks leading to piloted simulation of the 'Gen_2' IFCS control laws. Task #1- Performance comparison of different neural network (NN) augmentation for the Dynamic Inversion (DI) -based VCAS 'Gen_2' control laws. Task #2- Development of safety monitor criteria for transition to research control laws with and without failure during flight test. Task #3- Fine-tuning of the 'Gen_2' control laws for cross-coupling reduction at post-failure conditions. Matlab/Simulink-based simulation codes were provided to the technical monitor on a regular basis throughout the duration of the project. Additional deliverables for the project were Power Point-based slides prepared for different project meetings. This document provides a description of the methodology and discusses the general conclusions from the simulation results.

  20. Strategies to address participant misrepresentation for eligibility in Web-based research

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Jessica; Rubin, Amy; Coster, Wendy; Helmuth, Eric; Hermos, John; Rosenbloom, David; Moed, Rich; Dooley, Meghan; Kao, Ying-Chia; Liljenquist, Kendra; Brief, Deborah; Enggasser, Justin; Keane, Terence; Roy, Monica; Lachowicz, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Emerging methodological research suggests that the World Wide Web (“Web”) is an appropriate venue for survey data collection, and a promising area for delivering behavioral intervention. However, the use of the Web for research raises concerns regarding sample validity, particularly when the Web is used for recruitment and enrollment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the challenges experienced in two different Web-based studies in which participant misrepresentation threatened sample validity: a survey study and an online intervention study. The lessons learned from these experiences generated three types of strategies researchers can use to reduce the likelihood of participant misrepresentation for eligibility in Web-based research. Examples of procedural/design strategies, technical/software strategies and data analytic strategies are provided along with the methodological strengths and limitations of specific strategies. The discussion includes a series of considerations to guide researchers in the selection of strategies that may be most appropriate given the aims, resources and target population of their studies. PMID:24431134

  1. The Brown Superfund Basic Research Program: A Multistakeholder Partnership Addresses Real-World Problems in Contaminated Communities

    PubMed Central

    Senier, Laura; Hudson, Benjamin; Fort, Sarah; Hoover, Elizabeth; Tillson, Rebecca; Brown, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The NIEHS funds several basic and applied research programs, many of which also require research translation or outreach. This paper reports on a project by the Brown University Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP), in which outreach and research translation teams collaborated with state regulatory agency personnel and community activists on a legislative initiative to mitigate the financial impacts of living in a contaminated community. The Environmentally Compromised Home Ownership (ECHO) program makes home equity loans of up to $25,000 available to qualified applicants. This collaboration provides a case study in community engagement and demonstrates how research translation and outreach activities that are clearly differentiated yet well integrated can improve a suite of basic and applied research. Although engaging diverse constituencies can be difficult, community-engaged translation and outreach have the potential to make research findings more useful to communities, address some of the social impacts of contamination, and empower stakeholders to pursue their individual and collectively-held goals for remediation. The NIEHS has recently renewed its commitment to community-engaged research and advocacy, making this an optimal time to reflect on how basic research programs that engage stakeholders through research translation and outreach can add value to the overall research enterprise. PMID:18677987

  2. State of the Research and Literature Address: ACT with Children, Adolescents and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrell, Amy R.; Scherbarth, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 1999) has been found effective in treating a wide number of psychological conditions affecting adults. To date, however, little research has been done on the use of ACT with youth and parents. Few efforts have been made at summarizing the literature that does exist. This article,…

  3. State of the Research & Literature Address: ACT with Children, Adolescents and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrell, Amy R.; Scherbarth, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 1999) has been found effective in treating a wide number of psychological conditions affecting adults. To date, however, little research has been done on the use of ACT with youth and parents. Few efforts have been made at summarizing the literature that does exist. This article,…

  4. How Can Non-Verbalized Emotions in the Field Be Addressed in Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanas, Maija

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at how emotions in the field move from one context to another and between individuals, and how they change forms in an arctic Finnish village school. During the fieldwork, non-verbalized emotions influenced the events in the field and also penetrated the research. The paper asks how these non-verbalized emotions can be addressed…

  5. College Students' Views of Work-Life Balance in STEM Research Careers: Addressing Negative Preconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan-Wilson, Anna; Stamp, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    In career discussions, female undergraduates said that if they were to attend graduate school in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and were to follow a career based on their research training, they would have to give up having a family. A subsequent survey showed that many students, both men and women, thought work-life…

  6. Changing the Face of Research: Tribal Colleges Address Community Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Dorreen Yellow

    2007-01-01

    The article focuses on public health research projects which are being conducted at two Indian colleges; Candeska Cikana Community College in Fort Trotten, North Dakota and Turtle Mountain Community College in Belcourt, North Dakota. Candeska Community College was given a 6 year grant funded by the National Institutes of Diabetes, Digestive and…

  7. Addressing Informatics Barriers to Conducting Observational Comparative Effectiveness Research: A Comparative Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Christopher P. D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The U.S. health care system has been under immense scrutiny for ever-increasing costs and poor health outcomes for its patients. Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) has emerged as a generally accepted practice by providers, policy makers, and scientists as an approach to identify the most clinical- and cost-effective interventions…

  8. Addressing Human Capital Challenges: Assessing the Experiences of Four Countries in the Arab Region. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

    2008-01-01

    This research brief describes an analysis of the reform efforts of four Arab region nations (Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates) in response to human capital challenges they face in preparing their people to work in a global environment. (Contains 3 tables.) [For associated report, see ED503118.

  9. Has Research on Collaborative Learning Technologies Addressed Massiveness? A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manathunga, Kalpani; Hernández-Leo, Davinia

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in understanding to what extent innovative educational technologies can be used to support massive courses. Collaboration is one of the main desired elements in massive learning actions involving large communities of participants. Accumulated research in collaborative learning technologies has proposed and evaluated…

  10. Incomplete Reporting: Addressing the Prevalence of Outcome-Reporting Bias in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Brian; Polanin, Joshua; Williams, Ryan; Pigott, Terri

    2015-01-01

    Outcome reporting bias refers to the practice of omitting from primary studies outcomes that were actually collected. When primary studies do not report on all the outcomes assessed, there is an incomplete understanding of a phenomenon that may be compounded when the study is included in a systematic review of research. Outcome reporting bias is…

  11. Translating Research Into E/PO That Addresses Real Needs in K-12 Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veen, Wil E.; Belbruno, E. A.; Roelofsen Moody, T.

    2009-01-01

    One of the challenges in NASA ROSES E/PO is translating cutting edge research into products for which there is a demonstrated need. Rather than working from the premise that the "research is so cool’ that K-12 students or the public should learn about it, it is key to consult with the target audience to identify what their needs really are. The partnership between NJACE, Innovative Orbital Design, Inc., and Princeton offered a unique opportunity to translate intriguing but theoretical and mathematical research related to low energy orbits into a valuable education product. NJACE worked with educators to identify several needs with an intellectual link to this research: 1) Understanding of Gravity and Newton's Laws, 2) Understanding of Energy and Energy Transformations, 3) Integration of the sciences with math and technology, and 4) Knowledge of NASA's past accomplishments (such as the moon landings). Based on these identified needs, two science units were developed for students in grades 5-12 that integrate astronomy, physics, and the life sciences with math and technology. In addition an engaging public lecture was developed that tells a personal story of the quest for more economic space travel. In the past year, the workshops have been presented on three occasions, reaching over 75 teachers and demand exceeded available space with numerous teachers on waiting lists. The lecture has been presented numerous times at planetariums, museums, amateur astronomy and other clubs. We hope that our partnership will serve as a useful example of how to translate cutting edge research into valuable education products with an identified need. We will provide handouts with links to a website where the products and training can be downloaded in hope that others will help disseminate our product.

  12. Addressing gender dynamics and engaging men in HIV programs: lessons learned from Horizons research.

    PubMed

    Pulerwitz, Julie; Michaelis, Annie; Verma, Ravi; Weiss, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    In the field of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, there has been increasing interest in the role that gender plays in HIV and violence risk, and in successfully engaging men in the response. This article highlights findings from more than 10 studies in Asia, Africa, and Latin America--conducted from 1997 through 2007 as part of the Horizons program--that have contributed to understanding the relationship between gender and men's behaviors, developing useful measurement tools for gender norms, and designing and evaluating the impact of gender-focused program strategies. Studies showed significant associations between support for inequitable norms and risk, such as more partner violence and less condom use. Programmatic lessons learned ranged from insights into appropriate media messages, to strategies to engage men in critically reflecting upon gender inequality, to the qualities of successful program facilitators. The portfolio of work reveals the potential and importance of directly addressing gender dynamics in HIV- and violence-prevention programs for both men and women. PMID:20297757

  13. Researchers advance ideas for addressing global CO{sub 2} levels

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    For millions of years, the presence of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere was balanced with the natural storager of carbon in the solid phase. In the short term, naturally occurring CO{sub 2} was converted by photosynthesis into trees, plankton, and other plant matter. In the long term, such biomatter was transformed into coal, oil, and other fossil fuels. However, in recent decades, mankind has begun to short circuit this process by combusting ever-increasing amounts of fossil fuel and by destroying large numbers of trees and forests. Although the debate still rages as to the presence and severity of global warming, man`s actions have led to a measurable increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels. Taking a cue from mother nature`s carbon storage cycle, scientists have suggested an alternative process that could address a major anthropogenic source of excess CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. Although only a conceptual idea at present, the storage of the oxidized carbon from coal combustion in common and abundant minerals might be possible. The process is described in this paper. 1 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Addressing gender dynamics and engaging men in HIV programs: lessons learned from Horizons research.

    PubMed

    Pulerwitz, Julie; Michaelis, Annie; Verma, Ravi; Weiss, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    In the field of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, there has been increasing interest in the role that gender plays in HIV and violence risk, and in successfully engaging men in the response. This article highlights findings from more than 10 studies in Asia, Africa, and Latin America--conducted from 1997 through 2007 as part of the Horizons program--that have contributed to understanding the relationship between gender and men's behaviors, developing useful measurement tools for gender norms, and designing and evaluating the impact of gender-focused program strategies. Studies showed significant associations between support for inequitable norms and risk, such as more partner violence and less condom use. Programmatic lessons learned ranged from insights into appropriate media messages, to strategies to engage men in critically reflecting upon gender inequality, to the qualities of successful program facilitators. The portfolio of work reveals the potential and importance of directly addressing gender dynamics in HIV- and violence-prevention programs for both men and women.

  15. Integrating the Life Course and Life-Span: Formulating Research Questions with Dual Points of Entry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Michael J.; Porfelli, Erik

    2002-01-01

    Life-span research typically begins with personal characteristics, life-course research with social context and roles. Using both points of entry will encourage interdisciplinary work as well as the study of person-context interactions. (Contains 30 references.) (SK)

  16. Changing Teaching and Learning Relationships through Collaborative Action Research: Learning to Ask Different Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Paula; Gillam, Katy; Andrews, Jane; Day, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The article reports work over one year by three teachers from the Milton Keynes Primary Schools Learning Network. Their collaborative classroom-focused action research investigated the limits and possibilities of pupils' and teachers' learning through self-evaluation. In phase one the teacher researchers used questionnaires, interviews and…

  17. Reactions to Participating in Dating Violence Research: Are Our Questions Distressing Participants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Cornelius, Tara L.; Bell, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased research focus on dating violence, producing important information for reducing these violent relationships. Yet Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) are often hesitant to approve research on dating violence, citing emotional distress of participants as a possible risk of participation. However, no known…

  18. Living the Questions: A Guide for Teacher-Researchers. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shagoury, Ruth; Power, Brenda Miller

    2012-01-01

    Teacher research is an extension of good teaching, observing students closely, analyzing their needs, and adjusting the curriculum to fit the needs of all. In this completely updated second edition of their definitive work, Ruth Shagoury and Brenda Miller Power present a framework for teacher research along with an extensive collection of…

  19. Understanding Interventions that Encourage Minorities to Pursue Research Careers: Major Questions and Appropriate Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagen, Adam P.; Labov, Jay B.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a workshop, supported by the National Academy of Sciences and the National Institute of Health, that examines the current state of research about interventions that could significantly influence the participation of underrepresented minorities in pursuing research careers in the biomedical and behavioral sciences and other…

  20. Beyond "on" or "with": Questioning Power Dynamics and Knowledge Production in "Child-Oriented" Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunleth, Jean

    2011-01-01

    By taking a reflexive approach to research methodology, this article contributes to discussions on power dynamics and knowledge production in the social studies of children. The author describes and analyzes three research methods that she used with children--drawing, child-led tape-recording and focus group discussions. These methods were carried…

  1. An inquiry-based approach to teaching research design: asking the right questions.

    PubMed

    Yonts, Nikki; Abramson, Charles I; McKenna, Jessica; DeBoer, Stacy; McMillin, Ann; Rice, Justin; Potts, Richard; Scott, Bill

    2002-06-01

    To describe an inquiry-based learning activity and discuss the advantages of using such activities to demonstrate research design to undergraduate psychology students the authors presented students with the research problem of eyewitness memory recall and asked students to solve the problem, using the information provided by the course. Working in small groups, students reviewed eyewitness studies and designed their own research materials, including a videotaped theft and a CD-ROM version of the eyewitness survey and potential suspect line-up. Poststudy interviews showed that the students enjoyed the activity and felt that they had a better understanding of experimental research design than they had before the exercise. It is proposed that this activity may be a useful hands-on tool for instructors who have difficulty teaching students fundamental topics such as literature reviews, hypothesis testing, reliability and validity of research measures, and experimental design. PMID:12150385

  2. Aquatics Systems Branch: transdisciplinary research to address water-related environmental problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dong, Quan; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Aquatic Systems Branch at the Fort Collins Science Center is a group of scientists dedicated to advancing interdisciplinary science and providing science support to solve water-related environmental issues. Natural resource managers have an increasing need for scientific information and stakeholders face enormous challenges of increasing and competing demands for water. Our scientists are leaders in ecological flows, riparian ecology, hydroscape ecology, ecosystem management, and contaminant biology. The Aquatic Systems Branch employs and develops state-of-the-science approaches in field investigations, laboratory experiments, remote sensing, simulation and predictive modeling, and decision support tools. We use the aquatic experimental laboratory, the greenhouse, the botanical garden and other advanced facilities to conduct unique research. Our scientists pursue research on the ground, in the rivers, and in the skies, generating and testing hypotheses and collecting quantitative information to support planning and design in natural resource management and aquatic restoration.

  3. Measurement and Data Analysis in Research Addressing Health Disparities in Substance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Burlew, Ann Kathleen; Feaster, Daniel; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Hubbard, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes concrete strategies for conducting substance abuse research with Ethnic Minorities. Two issues associated with valid analysis, measurement and data analysis, are included. Both empirical (e.g., Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Item Response Theory, and regression) and nonempirical (e.g., focus groups, expert panels, pilot studies and translation equivalence) approaches to improving measures are described. A discussion of the use of norms and cutoff scores derived from a different ethnic group along with the effects of the ethnicity of the interviewer or coder on measurement is included. The section on data analysis describes why the use of race comparison designs may lead to misleading conclusions. Alternatives to race comparison analysis including within group and between group analyses are described. The shortcomings of combining ethnic groups for analyses are discussed. The paper ends with a list of recommendations for research with Ethnic Minorities. PMID:18550320

  4. Identifying and Addressing Stakeholder Interests in Design Science Research: An Analysis Using Critical Systems Heuristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venable, John R.

    This paper utilises the Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) framework developed by Werner Ulrich to critically consider the stakeholders and design goals that should be considered as relevant by researchers conducing Design Science Research (DSR). CSH provides a philosophically and theoretically grounded framework and means for critical consideration of the choices of stakeholders considered to be relevant to any system under design consideration. The paper recommends that legitimately undertaken DSR should include witnesses to represent the interests of the future consumers of the outcomes of DSR, i.e., the future clients, decision makers, professionals, and other non-included stakeholders in the future use of the solution technologies to be invented in DSR. The paper further discusses options for how witnesses might be included, who should be witnessed for and obstacles to implementing the recommendations.

  5. Technology requirements to be addressed by the NASA Lewis Research Center Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aydelott, J. C.; Rudland, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is responsible for the planning and execution of a scientific program which will provide advance in space cryogenic fluid management technology. A number of future space missions were identified that require or could benefit from this technology. These fluid management technology needs were prioritized and a shuttle attached reuseable test bed, the cryogenic fluid management facility (CFMF), is being designed to provide the experimental data necessary for the technology development effort.

  6. A research note about military-civilian humanitarianism: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Weiss, T G

    1997-06-01

    'Military-civilian humanitarianism'--or the coming together of military forces and civilian aid agencies to deal with the human suffering from complex emergencies--has numerous forms, but disenchantment has resulted from the Somalia and Bosnia syndromes. There is little political will at present, but evidence from the immediate post-Cold War era suggests how multilateral military operations could expand or contract in future to the benefit or peril of war victims. Partly a literature review but more importantly a framework for interpreting recent publications, this essay seeks to move beyond exchanging assertions. There is a contextualisation of recent literature; a definition of military-civilian humanitarianism; a discussion of possible military contributions to humanitarian action; a framework to assess the effectiveness of military-civilian humanitarianism; and a preliminary analysis of experience from northern Iraq, Somalia, Bosnia, Rwanda and Haiti. Caveat lector: At this point in time, there are still 'more questions than answers'. PMID:9235222

  7. Interrupting the Silence: An Action Research Study to Transform a Juvenile Justice Culture for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Questioning & Intersex (LGBTQI) Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, Dawn N.

    2015-01-01

    This action research (AR) study explored practitioners' knowledge of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Questioning, and Intersex (LGBTQI) youth issues in a juvenile justice setting. A research and service approach was employed to develop a LGBTQI policy and training. This study was motivated by three research questions. Does sensitivity…

  8. ADDRESSING POLLUTION PREVENTION ISSUES IN THE DESIGN OF A NEW NUCLEAR RESEARCH FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Corpion, Juan; Nelson, Timothy O.

    2003-02-27

    The Chemistry and Metallurgical Research (CMR) Facility was designed in 1949 and built in 1952 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to support analytical chemistry, metallurgical studies, and actinide research and development on samples of plutonium and other nuclear materials for the Atomic Energy Commission's nuclear weapons program. These primary programmatic uses of the CMR Facility have not changed significantly since it was constructed. In 1998, a seismic fault was found to the west of the CMR Facility and projected to extend beneath two wings of the building. As part of the overall Risk Management Strategy for the CMR Facility, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposed to replace it by 2010 with what is called the CMR Facility Replacement (CMRR). In an effort to make this proposed new nuclear research facility environmentally sustainable, several pollution prevention/waste minimization initiatives are being reviewed for potential incorporation during the design phase. A two-phase approach is being adopted; the facility is being designed in a manner that integrates pollution prevention efforts, and programmatic activities are being tailored to minimize waste. Processes and procedures that reduce waste generation compared to current, prevalent processes and procedures are identified. Some of these ''best practices'' include the following: (1) recycling opportunities for spent materials; (2) replacing lithium batteries with alternate current adaptors; (3) using launderable contamination barriers in Radiological Control Areas (RCAs); (4) substituting mercury thermometers and manometers in RCAs with mercury-free devices; (5) puncturing and recycling aerosol cans; (6) using non-hazardous low-mercury fluorescent bulbs where available; (7) characterizing low-level waste as it is being generated; and (8) utilizing lead alternatives for radiological shielding. Each of these pollution prevention initiatives are being assessed for their technical validity, relevancy

  9. Integrating movement ecology with biodiversity research - exploring new avenues to address spatiotemporal biodiversity dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jeltsch, Florian; Bonte, Dries; Pe'er, Guy; Reineking, Björn; Leimgruber, Peter; Balkenhol, Niko; Schröder, Boris; Buchmann, Carsten M; Mueller, Thomas; Blaum, Niels; Zurell, Damaris; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Wiegand, Thorsten; Eccard, Jana A; Hofer, Heribert; Reeg, Jette; Eggers, Ute; Bauer, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Movement of organisms is one of the key mechanisms shaping biodiversity, e.g. the distribution of genes, individuals and species in space and time. Recent technological and conceptual advances have improved our ability to assess the causes and consequences of individual movement, and led to the emergence of the new field of 'movement ecology'. Here, we outline how movement ecology can contribute to the broad field of biodiversity research, i.e. the study of processes and patterns of life among and across different scales, from genes to ecosystems, and we propose a conceptual framework linking these hitherto largely separated fields of research. Our framework builds on the concept of movement ecology for individuals, and demonstrates its importance for linking individual organismal movement with biodiversity. First, organismal movements can provide 'mobile links' between habitats or ecosystems, thereby connecting resources, genes, and processes among otherwise separate locations. Understanding these mobile links and their impact on biodiversity will be facilitated by movement ecology, because mobile links can be created by different modes of movement (i.e., foraging, dispersal, migration) that relate to different spatiotemporal scales and have differential effects on biodiversity. Second, organismal movements can also mediate coexistence in communities, through 'equalizing' and 'stabilizing' mechanisms. This novel integrated framework provides a conceptual starting point for a better understanding of biodiversity dynamics in light of individual movement and space-use behavior across spatiotemporal scales. By illustrating this framework with examples, we argue that the integration of movement ecology and biodiversity research will also enhance our ability to conserve diversity at the genetic, species, and ecosystem levels.

  10. Questions related to a research intervention carried out with female and male public school workers.

    PubMed

    Brito, Jussara; Neves, Mary Yale; Athayde, Milton

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a health intervention-research project done with workers in Brazilian public schools. Health, as we understand it, is linked both to the way in which we live and to our capacity to change that way of life. We emphasize the critical importance of initiating dialogue between research professionals and workers (co-investigators) in order to understand and transform work situations. We highlight the effects of debates about gender relations that led to work transformations. Such debates made it easier for workers and researchers to understand that men and women experience job requirements differently. We found that some staff favored reproduction of a sexually differentiated school system. These debates also allowed male and female workers to make their family members aware of difficulties in their work, unknown to society in general. We considered how to expand this research process, including examples of how the work was transformed. PMID:17434863

  11. How Asking a Very Basic Research Question Led Us to a Model for at Least Three Diseases | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Howard Young Editor’s note: This article is adapted from Dr. Young’s January 12, 2015, post to the I am Intramural Blog of the Intramural Research Program. When I started this project, it was not my objective to develop a model for any specific disease, nor did I even suspect that the ultimate result would be some insight into autoimmune disease. The basic research question I was asking was why there are sequences in the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNA that are more highly conserved than in the coding region of the gene.

  12. Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Research (COPTR): interventions addressing multiple influences in childhood and adolescent obesity.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Charlotte A; Boyington, Josephine; Esposito, Layla; Pemberton, Victoria L; Bonds, Denise; Kelley, Melinda; Yang, Song; Murray, David; Stevens, June

    2013-11-01

    This paper is the first of five papers in this issue that describes a new research consortium funded by the National Institutes of Health. It describes the design characteristics of the Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Research (COPTR) trials and common measurements across the trials. The COPTR Consortium is conducting interventions to prevent obesity in pre-schoolers and treat overweight or obese 7-13 year olds. Four randomized controlled trials will enroll a total of 1700 children and adolescents (~50% female, 70% minorities), and will test innovative multi-level and multi-component interventions in multiple settings involving primary care physicians, parks and recreational centers, family advocates, and schools. For all the studies, the primary outcome measure is body mass index; secondary outcomes, moderators and mediators of intervention include diet, physical activity, home and neighborhood influences, and psychosocial factors. COPTR is being conducted collaboratively among four participating field centers, a coordinating center, and NIH project offices. Outcomes from COPTR have the potential to enhance our knowledge of interventions to prevent and treat childhood obesity.

  13. Can zoo records help answer behavioral research questions? The case of the left-handed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Hosey, Geoff; Hill, Sonya P; Lherbier, Mary L

    2012-01-01

    Most zoos keep comprehensive records, which potentially form a database for use in answering some research questions, such as in veterinary and population management research. They have not, however, been widely used to answer questions about animal behavior and welfare. Here we try to assess the usefulness to behavioral research of two sorts of zoo records (ARKS, the Animal Records Keeping System, and student dissertations held on file) to test the hypothesis that ring-tailed lemurs with a left limb preference experience more negative social lives. We found that, as predicted, lemurs with a left limb preference (LH) received more aggression and were involved in less grooming than nonleft-preferent lemurs (NLH), though the differences were not statistically significant. Contrary to prediction, LH lemurs had fewer reported woundings than NLH lemurs, but again the difference was not statistically significant. We found that the ARKS reports did not contain sufficient quantified and systematic behavioral data for our purposes, although otherwise they provided an excellent context for interpreting results. The student dissertations were also of limited use, primarily because of the small time frame in which they were carried out. Because of these shortcomings we were unable to distinguish whether our inability to find significant effects was due to biological (perhaps hand preference had no consequences for the lemurs) or data reasons. We suggest that closer liaison between zoo research staff, zoo record keepers and academic supervisors could help to improve the usefulness of zoo records for behavioral research. PMID:21674604

  14. Can zoo records help answer behavioral research questions? The case of the left-handed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Hosey, Geoff; Hill, Sonya P; Lherbier, Mary L

    2012-01-01

    Most zoos keep comprehensive records, which potentially form a database for use in answering some research questions, such as in veterinary and population management research. They have not, however, been widely used to answer questions about animal behavior and welfare. Here we try to assess the usefulness to behavioral research of two sorts of zoo records (ARKS, the Animal Records Keeping System, and student dissertations held on file) to test the hypothesis that ring-tailed lemurs with a left limb preference experience more negative social lives. We found that, as predicted, lemurs with a left limb preference (LH) received more aggression and were involved in less grooming than nonleft-preferent lemurs (NLH), though the differences were not statistically significant. Contrary to prediction, LH lemurs had fewer reported woundings than NLH lemurs, but again the difference was not statistically significant. We found that the ARKS reports did not contain sufficient quantified and systematic behavioral data for our purposes, although otherwise they provided an excellent context for interpreting results. The student dissertations were also of limited use, primarily because of the small time frame in which they were carried out. Because of these shortcomings we were unable to distinguish whether our inability to find significant effects was due to biological (perhaps hand preference had no consequences for the lemurs) or data reasons. We suggest that closer liaison between zoo research staff, zoo record keepers and academic supervisors could help to improve the usefulness of zoo records for behavioral research.

  15. Addressing Underrepresentation in Sex Work Research: Reflections on Designing a Purposeful Sampling Strategy.

    PubMed

    Bungay, Vicky; Oliffe, John; Atchison, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Men, transgender people, and those working in off-street locales have historically been underrepresented in sex work health research. Failure to include all sections of sex worker populations precludes comprehensive understandings about a range of population health issues, including potential variations in the manifestation of such issues within and between population subgroups, which in turn can impede the development of effective services and interventions. In this article, we describe our attempts to define, determine, and recruit a purposeful sample for a qualitative study examining the interrelationships between sex workers' health and the working conditions in the Vancouver off-street sex industry. Detailed is our application of ethnographic mapping approaches to generate information about population diversity and work settings within distinct geographical boundaries. Bearing in mind the challenges and the overwhelming discrimination sex workers experience, we scope recommendations for safe and effective purposeful sampling inclusive of sex workers' heterogeneity.

  16. Addressing Underrepresentation in Sex Work Research: Reflections on Designing a Purposeful Sampling Strategy.

    PubMed

    Bungay, Vicky; Oliffe, John; Atchison, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Men, transgender people, and those working in off-street locales have historically been underrepresented in sex work health research. Failure to include all sections of sex worker populations precludes comprehensive understandings about a range of population health issues, including potential variations in the manifestation of such issues within and between population subgroups, which in turn can impede the development of effective services and interventions. In this article, we describe our attempts to define, determine, and recruit a purposeful sample for a qualitative study examining the interrelationships between sex workers' health and the working conditions in the Vancouver off-street sex industry. Detailed is our application of ethnographic mapping approaches to generate information about population diversity and work settings within distinct geographical boundaries. Bearing in mind the challenges and the overwhelming discrimination sex workers experience, we scope recommendations for safe and effective purposeful sampling inclusive of sex workers' heterogeneity. PMID:26589337

  17. Addressing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Live Donor Kidney Transplantation: Priorities for Research and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, Amy D.; Rodrigue, James R.; Purnell, Tanjala S.; Ladin, Keren; Boulware, L. Ebony

    2009-01-01

    One potential mechanism for reducing racial/ethnic disparities in the receipt of kidney transplants is to enhance minorities’ pursuit of living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT). Pursuit of LDKT is influenced by patients’ personal values, their extended social networks, the healthcare system, and the community at large. This review discusses research and interventions promoting LDKT, especially for minorities, including improving education for patients, donors, and providers, utilizing LDKT kidneys more efficiently, and reducing surgical and financial barriers to transplant. Future directions to increase awareness of LDKT for more racial/ethnic minorities are also discussed including developing culturally tailored transplant education, clarifying transplant-eligibility practice guidelines, strengthening partnerships between community kidney providers and transplant centers, and conducting general media campaigns and community outreach. PMID:20116653

  18. Questioning Many Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sara F.

    2015-04-01

    The first section of this memoir queries my formative years. Indirectly I address the question, did my childhood and early years make a difference in my choice of career? Why and how did I begin my journey to becoming a scientist? Did I choose the field of solar astronomy or did circumstances dictate it for me? In the second section, I travel through my work environments and experiences, talking about interactions and aspects of being a scientist that do not appear in our research papers. What parts of my research were happenstances and what parts did I plan? What does it feel like to be on scientific quests? Using examples in my journey, I also turn to questions that have intrigued me throughout my sojourn as a solar astronomer. How do scientific discoveries come about? What factors lead to little discoveries? And what factors lead to major exciting discoveries? Are there timely questions we do not think to ask? How can small, seemingly scattered pieces of knowledge suddenly coalesce into a deeper understanding - what is called the "Aha!" experience - the times when our mental light switches on, and with child-like wonder we behold a "big picture"?

  19. Using Formative Research to Develop Environmental and Ecological Interventions to Address Overweight and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mark G.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Ozminkowski, Ronald J.; DeJoy, Dave M.; Della, Lindsay; Roemer, Enid Chung; Schneider, Jennifer; Tully, Karen J.; White, John M.; Baase, Catherine M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This paper presents the formative research phase of a large multi-site intervention study conducted to inform the feasibility of introducing environmental and ecological interventions. Methods Using mixed methods that included an environmental assessment, climate survey, leadership focus groups and interviews, and archival data, information was collected on employee health and job factors, the physical environment, social-organizational environment, and current health programs. Results Results show that 83% of employees at the study sites were overweight or obese. Leadership was very supportive of health initiatives and felt integrating the strategies into organizational operations would increase their likelihood of success. Environmental assessment scores ranged from 47 to 19 on a 100 point scale. Health services personnel tended to view the organizational climate for health more positively than site leadership (mean of 3.6 vs 3.0 respectively). Conclusions Intervention strategies chosen included increasing healthy food choices in vending, cafeterias, and company meetings, providing a walking path, targeting messages, developing site goals, training leaders, and establishing leaders at the work group level. PMID:18073340

  20. Children Left Alone: Latchkey Problems--Future Research Questions and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosarelli, Patricia D.

    A brief discussion of some myths associated with latchkey children is followed by a statement that an insufficient number of after-school care programs for children makes it likely that children will continue in self-care or sibling care. It is suggested that future research endeavors take the following parental/familial variables into account:…

  1. Finding the right research question: quality science depends on quality careers.

    PubMed

    Flockhart, D A; Abernethy, D R

    2008-09-01

    When making the transition from trainee to principal investigator, there are few steps more important than selecting the first independent research project. The project must synthesize the excitement and idealism of contributing to the well-being of humankind and the practical realities of an area of inquiry that is likely to lead to a successful career. PMID:18615005

  2. The Effects of Text Analysis on Drafting and Justifying Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Maria Antonia; Solorzano, Wendy Guadalupe; Pacheco, Virginia

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: A correspondence has been seen between the level at which one can read scientific texts and his/her performance in writing this type of texts. Besides being able to read at the most complex levels, formulating research problems requires explicit training in writing. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether…

  3. Ethics, Education Policy and Research: The Phonics Question Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Sue; Moss, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that direct control of the early years literacy curriculum recently exercised by politicians in England has made the boundaries between research, policy and practice increasingly fragile. It describes how policy came to focus most effort on the use of synthetic phonics programmes in the early years. It examines why the…

  4. SLA Research and L2 Pedagogy: Misapplications and Questions of Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spada, Nina

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable debate about the relevance and applicability of SLA theory and research for L2 pedagogy. There are those who maintain that SLA must be applicable to L2 pedagogy: a view based on the argument that because SLA is a subfield of applied linguistics, it should have direct relevance to L2 teaching. Others take the view that…

  5. Children's Media Use and Sleep Problems: Issues and Unanswered Questions. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Frederick J.

    2008-01-01

    Research shows that most children and adolescents do not get enough high-quality sleep, and that their sleep times appear to have declined over the last two decades. Coinciding with this trend has been the rise in popularity of new media forms including the Internet, video games, cell phones and DVDs. Because of the immediacy and interactivity of…

  6. Research on Economic Education: Is It Asking the Right Questions? Discussion Paper No. 510-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbrod, Burton A.

    Most research on economics education has focused on the production function for teaching economics in colleges and universities. This concentration on higher education is notable because the majority of students never go to a four-year college. They therefore have access to formal economics education only in high school or junior college, if at…

  7. Representing Refugee Youth in Qualitative Research: Questions of Ethics, Language and Authenticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorstensson Dávila, Liv

    2014-01-01

    This article speaks conceptually and methodologically about the ethics and politics of doing research with newcomer refugee youth and issues of representation. Feminist poststructuralist paradigms across a variety of fields have critically examined notions of experience, agency, and identity to in order to encompass more fluid understandings of…

  8. Dependency, Partiality and the Generation of Research Questions in Refugee Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Marianne; Fozdar, Farida

    2010-01-01

    From the late 1990s to the mid 2000s refugees who gained entry to Australia came mainly from the African region, in particular Sudan. This contrasts with earlier intakes from Asia, the Middle East and the former Yugoslavia. The change in regional focus sparked research into the resettlement of African refugees in Australia, but it is a new field…

  9. What are you trying to learn? Study designs and the appropriate analysis for your research question

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One fundamental necessity in the entire process of a well-performed study is the experimental design. A well-designed study can help researchers understand and have confidence in their results and analyses, and additionally the agreement or disagreement with the stated hypothesis. This well-designed...

  10. Answering Questions and Questioning Answers. Part II. University of Central Florida Conference Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, C. C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Brief analyses are provided of presentations made at a conference, held at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, which addressed questions and answers relating to research and education. Conference sessions explored the role of research in relation to educational practices with special focus on theory, research, issues and application.…

  11. Report to the Nuclear energy Research Advisory Committee (NERAC) Subcommittee on "Long-Term Isotope Research and Productions Plan" - Responses to Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Ammoniums

    1999-07-01

    This report presents responses to two series of questions that were raised by a subcommittee of the Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee (NERAC) that has been charged with producing a ''Long-Term Isotope Research and Production Plan.'' The NERAC subcommittee is chaired by Dr. Richard Reba, and the Hanford Site Visit team, which comprises a subset of the subcommittee members, is chaired by Dr. Thomas Ruth. The first set of questions raised by the subcommittee on isotope production at the Hanford Site was received from Dr. Ruth on May 10, 1999, and the second set was received from him on July 5, 1999. Responses to the first set of questions were prepared as part of a June 1999 report entitled ''Isotope Production at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington'' (PNNL 1999a). The responses to these questions are summarized in this document, with frequent references to the June 1999 report for additional details. Responses to the second set of questions from the NERAC subcommittee are presented in this document for the first time.

  12. Artificial Cell Research as a Field that Connects Chemical, Biological and Philosophical Questions.

    PubMed

    Deplazes-Zemp, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This review article discusses the interdisciplinary nature and implications of artificial cell research. It starts from two historical theories: Gánti's chemoton model and the autopoiesis theory by Maturana and Varela. They both explain the transition from chemical molecules to biological cells. These models exemplify two different ways in which disciplines of chemistry, biology and philosophy can profit from each other. In the chemoton model, conclusions from one disciplinary approach are relevant for the other disciplines. In contrast, the autopoiesis model itself (rather than its conclusions) is transferred from one discipline to the other. The article closes by underpinning the relevance of artificial cell research for philosophy with reference to the on-going philosophical debates on emergence, biological functions and biocentrism. PMID:27363375

  13. [The legal question of the obtention of human stem cells for biomedical research. Legislation policy considerations].

    PubMed

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2006-01-01

    The future Law on Biomedical Research, whose draft bill has been approved by the Council of Ministers and that will soon begin its parliamentary process of approval, will regulate, among other matters, the research with embryos. Likewise, it will make a pronouncement on the so-called therapeutic cloning. This report makes a detailed analysis of different matters that must be borne in mind by the legislator in order to face the process of evaluation and approval of said Law in relation with the aforementioned matters. It makes a special analysis of the legal texts of an international nature to which Spain is unavoidably subjected to, in such a way that the legislative text that will finally be approved is not contrary to the dispositions that are within such.

  14. Energy Frontier Research Centers: Helping Win the Energy Innovation Race (2011 EFRC Summit Keynote Address, Secretary of Energy Chu)

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Steven

    2011-05-25

    Secretary of Energy Steven Chu gave the keynote address at the 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum. In his talk, Secretary Chu highlighted the need to "unleash America's science and research community" to achieve energy breakthroughs. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several “grand challenges” and use-inspired “basic research needs” recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  15. Energy Frontier Research Centers: Helping Win the Energy Innovation Race (2011 EFRC Summit Keynote Address, Secretary of Energy Chu)

    ScienceCinema

    Chu, Steven (DOE Secretary of Energy)

    2016-07-12

    Secretary of Energy Steven Chu gave the keynote address at the 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum. In his talk, Secretary Chu highlighted the need to "unleash America's science and research community" to achieve energy breakthroughs. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several “grand challenges” and use-inspired “basic research needs” recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  16. Barriers to communication and cooperation in addressing community impacts of radioactive releases from research facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, Robert J.; Peterson, S. Ring

    1999-05-05

    Two instances of research facilities responding to public scrutiny will be discussed. The first concerns emissions from a "tritium labeling facility" operated at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); the second deals with releases of plutonium from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). There are many parallels between these two cases, both of which are still ongoing. In both, the national laboratory is the acknowledged source of low-level (by regulatory standards) radioactive contamination in the community. A major purpose of both investigations is to determine the degree of the contamination and the threat it poses to public health and the environment. The examining panel or committee is similarly constituted in the two cases, including representatives from all four categories of stakeholders: decision makers; scientists and other professionals doing the analysis/assessment; environmental activist or public interest groups; and "ordinary" citizens (nearly everyone else not in one or more of the first three camps). Both involved community participation from the beginning. The levels of outrage over the events triggering the assessment are comparable; though "discovered" or "appreciated" only a few years ago, the release of radiation in both cases occurred or began occurring more than a decade ago. The meetings have been conducted in a similar manner, with comparable frequency, often utilizing the services of professional facilitators. In both cases, the sharply contrasting perceptions of risk commonly seen between scientists and activists were present from the beginning, though the contrast was sharper and more problematical in the Berkeley case. Yet, the Livermore case seems to be progressing towards a satisfactory resolution, while the Berkeley case remains mired in ill-will, with few tangible results after two years of effort. We perceive a wide gap in negotiation skills (at the very least), and a considerable difference in willingness to

  17. Flood Risk Management Policy in Scotland: Research Questions Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Hastings, Emily; MacDonald, Jannette

    2016-04-01

    Scotland's Centre of Expertise for Waters (CREW) delivers accessible research and expert opinion to support the Scottish Government and its delivery partners in the development and implementation of water policy. It was established in 2011 by the Scottish Government (Rural and Environmental Science and Analytical Services) in recognition of a gap in the provision of short term advice and research to policy (development and implementation). Key policy areas include the Water Framework Directive, Floods Directive, Drinking Water Directive, Habitats Directive and Scotland's Hydro Nation Strategy. CREW is unique in its demand-driven and free service for policy makers and practitioners, managing the engagement between scientists, policy makers and practitioners to work effectively across this interface. The users of CREW are the Scottish Government, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Natural Heritage and Scottish Water. CREW has funded around 100 projects relating to water policy since its inception in 2011. Of these, a significant number relate to flood risk management policy. Based on a review of work to date, this poster will give an overview of these projects and a forward look at the challenges that remain. From learning from community led flood risk management to surface water flood forecasting for urban communities, links will be made between sustainable and traditional flood risk management while considering the perceptions of stakeholders to flood risk management. How can we deliver fully integrated flood risk management options? How policy makers, scientists and land managers can better work together will also be explored.

  18. Transcriptome and proteome research in veterinary science: what is possible and what questions can be asked?

    PubMed

    Klopfleisch, Robert; Gruber, Achim D

    2012-01-01

    In recent years several technologies for the complete analysis of the transcriptome and proteome have reached a technological level which allows their routine application as scientific tools. The principle of these methods is the identification and quantification of up to ten thousands of RNA and proteins species in a tissue, in contrast to the sequential analysis of conventional methods such as PCR and Western blotting. Due to their technical progress transcriptome and proteome analyses are becoming increasingly relevant in all fields of biological research. They are mainly used for the explorative identification of disease associated complex gene expression patterns and thereby set the stage for hypothesis-driven studies. This review gives an overview on the methods currently available for transcriptome analysis, that is, microarrays, Ref-Seq, quantitative PCR arrays and discusses their potentials and limitations. Second, the most powerful current approaches to proteome analysis are introduced, that is, 2D-gel electrophoresis, shotgun proteomics, MudPIT and the diverse technological concepts are reviewed. Finally, experimental strategies for biomarker discovery, experimental settings for the identification of prognostic gene sets and explorative versus hypothesis driven approaches for the elucidation of diseases associated genes and molecular pathways are described and their potential for studies in veterinary research is highlighted.

  19. Relationship of Teacher Questioning and Student Answering Behaviors in High School Biology and Chemistry Classes across the School Year. Classroom Interaction Research Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schell, Robert E.; And Others

    This research assessed whether, within the context of a classroom session, the pattern of questioning and discussion used by teachers is related to the pattern of student responses. Clear and comprehensible linkages between questioning and answering behaviors were found in this study. These results indicate that researchers can help resolve the…

  20. Burning Questions about Calories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, J. David; Berry, Kimberly A.

    2001-01-01

    Uses questioning techniques to teach about caloric consumption and weight gain. Starts with defining questions about calories and includes the stages of measuring calories, analyzing data, and conducting inquiry research. Includes directions for the experiment. (YDS)

  1. Providing free heroin to addicts participating in research – ethical concerns and the question of voluntariness

    PubMed Central

    Henden, Edmund; Bærøe, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Providing heroin to people with heroin addiction taking part in medical trials assessing the effectiveness of the drug as a treatment alternative breaches ethical research standards, some ethicists maintain. Heroin addicts, they say, are unable to consent voluntarily to taking part in these trials. Other ethicists disagree. In our view, both sides of the debate have an inadequate understanding of ‘voluntariness’. In this article we therefore offer a fuller definition of the concept, one which allows for a more flexible, case-to-case approach in which some heroin addicts are considered capable of consenting voluntarily, others not. An advantage of this approach, it is argued, is that it provides a safety net to minimise the risk of inflicting harm on trial participants. PMID:26191421

  2. The critical role of the research question, inclusion criteria, and transparency in meta-analyses of integrity test research: a reply to Harris et al. (2012) and Ones, Viswesvaran, and Schmidt (2012).

    PubMed

    Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Roth, Philip L; Raymark, Patrick H; Odle-Dusseau, Heather N

    2012-05-01

    We clear up a number of misconceptions from the critiques of our meta-analysis (Van Iddekinge, Roth, Raymark, & Odle-Dusseau, 2012). We reiterate that our research question focused on the criterion-related validity of integrity tests for predicting individual work behavior and that our inclusion criteria flowed from this question. We also reviewed the primary studies we could access from Ones, Viswesvaran, and Schmidt's (1993) meta-analysis of integrity tests and found that only about 30% of the studies met our inclusion criteria. Further, analyses of some of the types of studies we had to exclude revealed potentially inflated validity estimates (e.g., corrected validities as high as .80 for polygraph studies). We also discuss our experience trying to obtain primary studies and other information from authors of Harris et al. (2012) and Ones, Viswesvaran, and Schmidt (2012). In addition, we address concerns raised about certain decisions we made and values we used, and we demonstrate how such concerns would have little or no effect on our results or conclusions. Finally, we discuss some other misconceptions about our meta-analysis, as well as some divergent views about the integrity test literature in general. Overall, we stand by our research question, methods, and results, which suggest that the validity of integrity tests for criteria such as job performance and counterproductive work behavior is weaker than the authors of the critiques appear to believe. PMID:22582729

  3. Asking the right questions: Scoping studies in the commissioning of research on the organisation and delivery of health services

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stuart; Allen, Pauline; Peckham, Stephen; Goodwin, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Scoping studies have been used across a range of disciplines for a wide variety of purposes. However, their value is increasingly limited by a lack of definition and clarity of purpose. The UK's Service Delivery and Organisation Research Programme (SDO) has extensive experience of commissioning and using such studies; twenty four have now been completed. This review article has four objectives; to describe the nature of the scoping studies that have been commissioned by the SDO Programme; to consider the impact of and uses made of such studies; to provide definitions for the different elements that may constitute a scoping study; and to describe the lessons learnt by the SDO Programme in commissioning scoping studies. Scoping studies are imprecisely defined but usually consist of one or more discrete components; most commonly they are non-systematic reviews of the literature, but other important elements are literature mapping, conceptual mapping and policy mapping. Some scoping studies also involve consultations with stakeholders including the end users of research. Scoping studies have been used for a wide variety of purposes, although a common feature is to identify questions and topics for future research. The reports of scoping studies often have an impact that extends beyond informing research commissioners about future research areas; some have been published in peer reviewed journals, and others have been published in research summaries aimed at a broader audience of health service managers and policymakers. Key lessons from the SDO experience are the need to relate scoping studies to a particular health service context; the need for scoping teams to be multi-disciplinary and to be given enough time to integrate diverse findings; and the need for the research commissioners to be explicit not only about the aims of scoping studies but also about their intended uses. This necessitates regular contact between researchers and commissioners. Scoping studies are

  4. Measuring sun exposure in epidemiological studies: Matching the method to the research question.

    PubMed

    King, Laura; Xiang, Fan; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Lucas, Robyn M

    2015-12-01

    Sun exposure has risks and benefits for health. Testing these associations requires tools for measuring sun exposure that are feasible and relevant to the time-course of the health outcome. Recent sun exposure, e.g. the last week, is best captured by dosimeters and sun diaries. These can also be used for medium-term sun exposure e.g. over several weeks, but incur a high participant burden. Self-reported data on "typical time outdoors" for working and non-working days, is less detailed and not influenced by day-to-day variation. Over a longer period, e.g. the lifetime, or for particular life stages, proxies of sun exposure, such as latitude of residence or ambient ultraviolet (UV) radiation levels (from satellites or ground-level monitoring) can be used, with additional detail provided by lifetime sun exposure calendars that include locations of residence, usual time outdoors, and detail of sunburn episodes. Objective measures of lifetime sun exposure include microtopography of sun-exposed skin (e.g. using silicone casts) or conjunctival UV autofluorescence. Potential modifiers of the association between sun exposure and the health outcome, such as clothing coverage and skin colour, may also need to be measured. We provide a systematic approach to selecting sun exposure measures for use in epidemiological health research.

  5. Social, economic and operational research on tuberculosis: recent studies and some priority questions.

    PubMed

    Murray, C J

    1991-12-01

    Social, economic and operational research has already contributed to the growing global awareness of the neglected burden of tuberculosis on individuals, families and communities. These studies have also illustrated that short-course chemotherapy for smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis is a highly cost-effective tool for combatting tuberculosis. In the present work, the author examines the costs and effectiveness of the national tuberculosis programmes in Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania. Chemotherapy for smear-positive tuberculosis is found to be among the most cost-effective health interventions known, costing 1-4 US dollars per year of life saved. In all situations, short-course chemotherapy is found to be more cost-effective than standard 12-month chemotherapy. General conclusions about the role of hospitalization are difficult to make; its cost-effectiveness depends on local patterns of compliance and the cost of hospitalization. Because more than three-quarters of the benefits of chemotherapy for smear-positive tuberculosis are due to transmission reduction, treating HIV sero-positives, smear-positives is probably cost-effective.

  6. Florence Goodenough and child study: The question of mothers as researchers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ann

    2015-05-01

    This article examines the views of early developmental psychologist Florence Goodenough, summarizing her contributions to the field, her complex viewpoints on science and gender issues, and her arguments for maternal record-keeping as a valuable scientific strategy, as drawn from her writings in textbooks, popular magazine articles, and private correspondence. During the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s, when Goodenough enjoyed a high professional profile as a research scientist, the field of child psychology shifted from focus on producing applied knowledge to benefit parents and educators to a preference for laboratory-controlled basic science approaches to understanding development. Goodenough championed observation and other descriptive methods, including use of mothers as data collectors in the home, even while these approaches were increasingly discredited by prominent peers in the United States. I argue that Goodenough's allegiance to maternal record-keeping highlights a forgotten strand of context-sensitive, descriptive work that survived despite its general disparagement among proponents of a narrower version of strictly experimental developmental science emerging in the 1920s.

  7. Measuring sun exposure in epidemiological studies: Matching the method to the research question.

    PubMed

    King, Laura; Xiang, Fan; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Lucas, Robyn M

    2015-12-01

    Sun exposure has risks and benefits for health. Testing these associations requires tools for measuring sun exposure that are feasible and relevant to the time-course of the health outcome. Recent sun exposure, e.g. the last week, is best captured by dosimeters and sun diaries. These can also be used for medium-term sun exposure e.g. over several weeks, but incur a high participant burden. Self-reported data on "typical time outdoors" for working and non-working days, is less detailed and not influenced by day-to-day variation. Over a longer period, e.g. the lifetime, or for particular life stages, proxies of sun exposure, such as latitude of residence or ambient ultraviolet (UV) radiation levels (from satellites or ground-level monitoring) can be used, with additional detail provided by lifetime sun exposure calendars that include locations of residence, usual time outdoors, and detail of sunburn episodes. Objective measures of lifetime sun exposure include microtopography of sun-exposed skin (e.g. using silicone casts) or conjunctival UV autofluorescence. Potential modifiers of the association between sun exposure and the health outcome, such as clothing coverage and skin colour, may also need to be measured. We provide a systematic approach to selecting sun exposure measures for use in epidemiological health research. PMID:26555640

  8. Parallels between nutrition and physical activity: research questions in development of peak bone mass.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Connie M

    2015-06-01

    Lifestyle choices are attributed to 40% to 60% of adult peak bone mass. The National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) sought to update its 2000 consensus statement on peak bone mass and partnered with the American Society for Nutrition, which, in turn, charged a 9-member writing committee with using a systematic review approach to update the previous NOF guidelines. PubMed searches of the scientific literature from January 2000 through December 2014 were conducted on all relevant lifestyle choice factors and their relation to increasing bone mass during childhood and adolescence. The writing group concluded that there is strong evidence for the benefits of physical activity and calcium intake on bone mass accretion, moderately strong evidence for the benefits of vitamin D and dairy intake on bone mass and for physical activity on bone structure, and weaker evidence for other lifestyle choices. There were parallels and synergies between the benefits of diet and exercise on development of peak bone mass, but the type of evidence and public policy recommendations in the two disciplines differ in several important ways. Nutrition uses a more reductionist approach in contrast to physical activity, which uses a more global approach. This leads to differences in research priorities in the 2 disciplines. The disciplines can advance more quickly through collaboration and adoption of the best approaches from each other. PMID:25965111

  9. Using community-based participatory research to address Chinese older women’s health needs: Toward sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Chang, E-Shien; Simon, Melissa A.; Dong, XinQi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been recognized as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities, less attention is given to how CBPR projects may address gender inequalities in health for immigrant older women. The goal of this article is to share culturally sensitive strategies and lessons learned from the PINE study—a population-based study of U.S. Chinese older adults that was strictly guided by the CBPR approach. Working with Chinese older women requires trust, respect, and understanding of their unique historical, social, and cultural positions. We also discuss implications for developing impact-driven research partnerships that meet the needs of this vulnerable population. PMID:27310870

  10. Answering the big questions in neuroscience: DoD's experimental research wing takes on massive, high-risk projects.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    When the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) asks research questions, it goes big. This is, after all, the same agency that put together teams of scientists and engineers to find a way to connect the worlds computers and, in doing so, developed the precursor to the Internet. DARPA, the experimental research wing of the U.S. Department of Defense, funds the types of research queries that scientists and engineers dream of tackling. Unlike a traditional granting agency that conservatively metes out its funding and only to projects with a good chance of success, DARPA puts its money on massive, multi-institutional projects that have no guarantees, but have enormous potential. In the 1990s, DARPA began its biological and medical science research to improve the safety, health, and well being of military personnel, according to DARPA program manager and Army Colonel Geoffrey Ling, Ph.D., M.D. More recently, DARPA has entered the realm of neuroscience and neurotechnology. Its focus with these projects is on its prime customer, the U.S. Department of Defense, but Ling acknowledged that technologies developed in its programs "certainly have potential to cascade into civilian uses."

  11. Questioning Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Michelle

    1999-01-01

    Questions are so much a part of the classroom routine and they should stimulate learning and thinking. Introduces the Questioning and Understanding to Improve Learning and Thinking (QUILT) method which incorporates Bloom's Taxonomy and wait time. (ASK)

  12. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

  13. Reading for Meaning: Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinkle, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    An essential literacy skill is asking questions. Because reading comprehension strategies should be taught directly and explicitly, students need to be told that they should ask questions throughout their research and that all questions are valid. While library media specialists are not reading teachers, the work they do with students in the…

  14. Questions for Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Nora Cate; Dykema, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We begin with a look back at the field to identify themes of recent research that we expect to continue to occupy researchers in the future. As part of this overview, we characterize the themes and topics examined in research about measurement and survey questions published in Public Opinion Quarterly in the past decade. We then characterize the field more broadly by highlighting topics that we expect to continue or to grow in importance, including the relationship between survey questions and the total survey error perspective, cognitive versus interactional approaches, interviewing practices, mode and technology, visual aspects of question design, and culture. Considering avenues for future research, we advocate for a decision-oriented framework for thinking about survey questions and their characteristics. The approach we propose distinguishes among various aspects of question characteristics, including question topic, question type and response dimension, conceptualization and operationalization of the target object, question structure, question form, response categories, question implementation, and question wording. Thinking about question characteristics more systematically would allow study designs to take into account relationships among these characteristics and identify gaps in current knowledge. PMID:24970951

  15. Global Energy Technology Strategy: Addressing Climate Change Phase 2 Findings from an international Public-Private Sponsored Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, James A.; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.; Smith, Steven J.; Runci, Paul J.; Clarke, Leon E.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Stokes, Gerald M.

    2007-05-01

    This book examines the role of global energy technology in addressing climate change. The book considers the nature of the climate change challenge and the role of energy in the issue. It goes on to consider the implications for the evolution of the global energy system and the potential value of technology availability, development and deployment. Six technology systems are identified for special consideration: CO2 capture and storage, Biotechnology, Hydrogen systems, Nuclear energy, Wind and solar energy, and End-use energy technologies. In addition, consideration is given to the role of non-CO2 gases in climate change as well as the potential of technology development and deployment to reduce non-CO2 emissions. Present trends in energy R&D are examined and potentially fruitful avenues for research. The book concludes with a set of key findings.

  16. IODP Deep Biosphere Research Workshop report - a synthesis of recent investigations, and discussion of new research questions and drilling targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, B. N.; LaRowe, D. E.; Lloyd, K. G.; Mills, H.; Orsi, W.; Reese, B. K.; Sauvage, J.; Huber, J. A.; Amend, J.

    2014-04-01

    During the past decade, the IODP (International Ocean Discovery Program) has fostered a significant increase in deep biosphere investigations in the marine sedimentary and crustal environments, and scientists are well-poised to continue this momentum into the next phase of the IODP. The goals of this workshop were to evaluate recent findings in a global context, synthesize available biogeochemical data to foster thermodynamic and metabolic activity modeling and measurements, identify regional targets for future targeted sampling and dedicated expeditions, foster collaborations, and highlight the accomplishments of deep biosphere research within IODP. Twenty-four scientists from around the world participated in this one-day workshop sponsored by IODP-MI and held in Florence, Italy, immediately prior to the Goldschmidt 2013 conference. A major topic of discussion at the workshop was the continued need for standard biological sampling and measurements across IODP platforms. Workshop participants renew the call to IODP operators to implement recommended protocols.

  17. Questions and Answers about School-Age Children in Self-Care: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Children in Self-Care, and answers the following questions about school-age children in self-care: (1) How many school-age children are in…

  18. Blog-based applications and health information: two case studies that illustrate important questions for Consumer Health Informatics (CHI) research.

    PubMed

    Adams, Samantha A

    2010-06-01

    Weblogs (blogs), together with podcasts and wikis are part of the larger body of next-generation communication applications dubbed "web 2.0." Within the specific area of health care, little attention has been devoted to understanding what applications are available to the lay public and how these are being used. In this study, a literature review on blogs and blogging practices was conducted, followed by case study analyses of two separate sites that use blogging tools to help patients and other lay web end-users record health-related experiences. This paper explores the diverse purposes for which blogging applications can be (or are being) used in relation to health and introduces the idea of "health goal-oriented" blogging. The discussion focuses on relevant informatics questions that arise with respect to the use of blogs and makes suggestions for subsequent research.

  19. A Model for Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Address the Diabetes Epidemic in East Harlem

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Carol R.; Goldfinger, Judith Z.; Muller, Sara E.; Pulichino, Romina S.; Vance, Thomas L.; Arniella, Guedy; Lancaster, Kristie J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Diabetes prevalence and mortality are increasing, with minority populations disproportionately affected. Despite evidence that weight loss due to improved nutrition and increased physical activity can prevent or control diabetes, there is often a disconnect between this evidence and individuals’ lifestyles. Methods East Harlem is a predominantly African-American and Latino neighborhood that has the highest rates of diabetes prevalence and mortality in New York City. The East Harlem Diabetes Center of Excellence is a community-centered coalition. To help direct their work, the coalition used their experiences, research, outreach, and literature review to build a conceptual model describing how local factors affect health behaviors and health outcomes such as obesity and diabetes. Results This model describes the relationship between the physical environment, the social/medical environment and individual factors including demographic data, food and exercise beliefs and behaviors, and health outcomes. The coalition inserted local data from surveys and focus groups into the model to identify targets for future interventions, research, and activism. Conclusions This type of collaboration and the model may be useful tools to help communities identify and address the deficits that prevent their residents from enjoying the health benefits of improved nutrition and increased physical activity, and that also lead to racial and ethnic disparities in health. PMID:18306238

  20. Building Partnerships and Research Collaborations to Address the Impacts of Arctic Change: The North Atlantic Climate Change Collaboration (NAC3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polk, J.; North, L. A.; Strenecky, B.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in Arctic warming influence the various atmospheric and oceanic patterns that drive Caribbean and mid-latitude climate events, including extreme events like drought, tornadoes, and flooding in Kentucky and the surrounding region. Recently, the establishment of the North Atlantic Climate Change Collaboration (NAC3) project at Western Kentucky University (WKU) in partnership with the University of Akureyri (UNAK), Iceland Arctic Cooperation Network (IACN), and Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC) provides a foundation from which to engage students in applied research from the local to global levels and more clearly understand the many tenets of climate change impacts in the Arctic within both a global and local community context. The NAC3 project encompasses many facets, including joint international courses, student internships, economic development, service learning, and applied research. In its first phase, the project has generated myriad outcomes and opportunities for bridging STEM disciplines with other fields to holistically and collaboratively address specific human-environmental issues falling under the broad umbrella of climate change. WKU and UNAK students desire interaction and exposure to other cultures and regions that are threatened by climate change and Iceland presents a unique opportunity to study influences such as oceanic processes, island economies, sustainable harvest of fisheries, and Arctic influences on climate change. The project aims to develop a model to bring partners together to conduct applied research on the complex subject of global environmental change, particularly in the Arctic, while simultaneously focusing on changing how we learn, develop community, and engage internationally to understand the impacts and find solutions.

  1. Question Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Josh

    2012-01-01

    After accepting the principal position at Farmersville (TX) Junior High, the author decided to increase instructional rigor through question mapping because of the success he saw using this instructional practice at his prior campus. Teachers are the number one influence on student achievement (Marzano, 2003), so question mapping provides a…

  2. On the Question of an Identity Status Category Order: Rasch Model Step and Scale Statistics Used to Identify Category Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Owidha, Amjed; Green, Kathy E.; Kroger, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether or not a developmental continuum underlies James Marcia's identity statuses has been a topic of debate among identity researchers for nearly 20 years. This study addressed the prefatory question of whether the identity statuses can be empirically ordered in a theoretically optimal way. This question was addressed via use of…

  3. Selected Speeches, Addresses, Remarks, and Testimony of the Assistant Secretary of Education for Educational Research and Improvement, October 23-December 11, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Christopher T.

    This document consists of 10 separate speeches, addresses, remarks, or testimony made by the Assistant Secretary of Education for Educational Research and Improvement during the period from October 23 to December 11, 1989. The addresses are arranged chronologically as follows: (1) Testimony, Senate Subcommittee on Governmental Information and…

  4. The Presidential Address to the Association for Career and Technical Education Research: Using Standards to Reform Teacher Preparation in Career and Technical Education--A Successful Reformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, M. Susie

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the presidential address at the annual conference of the Association for Career and Technical Education Research by M. Susie Whittington, ACTER President 2005. The purpose of the presidential address is to examine a current issue facing the profession, and pose challenges to the membership in the context of that issue. In her…

  5. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    related fields such as nuclear astrophysics, hypernuclear physics, hadron physics, and condensate matter physics so on. In fact, in this workshop, we also discuss the clustering aspects in the related fields. Thus, I expect in this workshop we can grasp the present status of the nuclear cluster physics and demonstrate its perspective in near future. This workshop is sponsored by several institutes and organizations. In particular, I would express our thanks for financial supports to Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), University of Tokyo, Joint Institute for Computational Fundamental Science (JICFuS), and RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator- Based Science. They are cohosting this workshop. I would like also to appreciate my University, Kanto Gakuin University, who offers this nice place for one week and helps us to hold this workshop smoothly and conveniently. Today, the president of my University, Prof. Kuku, is here to present a welcome address. Thank you very much. Finally, with many of the participants leading this field both in theory and in experiment, we wish this workshop offers an opportunity to simulate communications not only during the workshop but also in the future. In addition, we hope you enjoy exploring city of Yokohama and the area around, as well as scientific discussions. Thank you very much for your attention.

  6. To research (or not) that is the question: ethical issues in research when medical care is disrupted by political action: a case study from Eldoret, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    House, Darlene R; Marete, Irene; Meslin, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    While considerable attention has been focused on understanding the myriad of ethical analysis in international research in low and middle income countries, new issues always arise that have not been anticipated in guidelines or studied extensively. The disruption of medical care arising as a direct result of political actions, including strikes, postelection violence and related activities, is one such issue that leaves physician-researchers struggling to manage often conflicting professional responsibilities. This paper discusses the ethical conflicts that arise for physician-researchers, particularly when disruption threatens the completion of a study or completion is possible but at the expense of not addressing unmet medical needs of patients. We review three pragmatic strategies and the ethical issues arising from each: not starting research, stopping research that has already started, and continuing research already initiated. We argue that during episodes of medical care disruption, research that has been started can be continued only if the ethical standards imposed at the beginning of the study can continue to be met; however, studies that have been approved but not yet started should not begin until the disruption has ended and ethical standards can again be assured. PMID:26474601

  7. To research (or not) that is the question: ethical issues in research when medical care is disrupted by political action: a case study from Eldoret, Kenya.

    PubMed

    House, Darlene R; Marete, Irene; Meslin, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    While considerable attention has been focused on understanding the myriad of ethical analysis in international research in low and middle income countries, new issues always arise that have not been anticipated in guidelines or studied extensively. The disruption of medical care arising as a direct result of political actions, including strikes, postelection violence and related activities, is one such issue that leaves physician-researchers struggling to manage often conflicting professional responsibilities. This paper discusses the ethical conflicts that arise for physician-researchers, particularly when disruption threatens the completion of a study or completion is possible but at the expense of not addressing unmet medical needs of patients. We review three pragmatic strategies and the ethical issues arising from each: not starting research, stopping research that has already started, and continuing research already initiated. We argue that during episodes of medical care disruption, research that has been started can be continued only if the ethical standards imposed at the beginning of the study can continue to be met; however, studies that have been approved but not yet started should not begin until the disruption has ended and ethical standards can again be assured.

  8. To research (or not) that is the question: ethical issues in research when medical care is disrupted by political action: a case study from Eldoret, Kenya.

    PubMed

    House, Darlene R; Marete, Irene; Meslin, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    While considerable attention has been focused on understanding the myriad of ethical analysis in international research in low and middle income countries, new issues always arise that have not been anticipated in guidelines or studied extensively. The disruption of medical care arising as a direct result of political actions, including strikes, postelection violence and related activities, is one such issue that leaves physician-researchers struggling to manage often conflicting professional responsibilities. This paper discusses the ethical conflicts that arise for physician-researchers, particularly when disruption threatens the completion of a study or completion is possible but at the expense of not addressing unmet medical needs of patients. We review three pragmatic strategies and the ethical issues arising from each: not starting research, stopping research that has already started, and continuing research already initiated. We argue that during episodes of medical care disruption, research that has been started can be continued only if the ethical standards imposed at the beginning of the study can continue to be met; however, studies that have been approved but not yet started should not begin until the disruption has ended and ethical standards can again be assured. PMID:26474601

  9. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crovini, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen To quote Mr Jean Terrien: "Physics must be one step ahead of metrology". A long-serving Director of the BIPM, he said these words when visiting the IMGC in 1970 as a member of the scientific board of our Institute. At that time it was still an open question whether the IMGC should start research work on the absolute measurement of silicon lattice spacing. Mr Terrien underlined the revolutionary character of x-ray interferometry and, eventually, he caused the balance needle to lean towards the ... right direction. Mr Terrien correctly foresaw that, like Michelson's interferometer of 1880, x-ray interferometry could have a prominent place in today's science and technology. And while, in the first case, after more than a century we can see instruments based on electromagnetic wave interaction within every one's reach in laboratories and, sometimes, in workshops, in the second case, twenty-five years since the first development of an x-ray interferometer we can witness its role in nanometrology. Today and tomorrow we meet to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal place in the value of the Avogadro constant. We are aware that the quest for this achievement requires the cooperation of scientists with complementary capabilities. I am sure that the present workshop is a very good opportunity to present and discuss results and to improve and extend existing cooperation. The new adjustment of fundamental constants envisaged by the CODATA Task Group is redoubling scientists' efforts to produce competitive values of NA. The results of the measurements of the silicon lattice spacing in terms of an optical wavelength, which were available for the 1986 adjustment, combined with the determination of silicon molar volume, demonstrate how such an NA determination produces a consistent set of other constants and opens the way to a possible redefinition of the kilogram. We shall see in these two days how far we have progressed along this road. For us at the

  10. To Question or Not to Question: That Seems to Be the Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradtmueller, Weldon G.; Egan, James B.

    Research on the effects of questioning in the classroom has explored the placement, timing, type, and social impact of questions. Principles of good questioning include the following: (1) well-stated questions should be concise, clear, and complete; (2) questions should be topical in nature, requiring a complex answer; (3) yes or no questions…

  11. ESSA, Equity of Opportunity, and Addressing Barriers to Learning. Research for School Improvement and Transformation. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The "Every Student Succeeds Act" (ESSA) recognizes that significant numbers of students require supports to successfully meet challenging state academic standards. This brief (1) analyzes the act to assess how it addresses the nature and scope of supports to address barriers to learning and re-engage disconnected students and (2)…

  12. Addressing Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Greg; Helmig, Mary; Kaplan, Bill; Kosch, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Four camp directors discuss how the September 11 tragedy and current world events will affect their camps. They describe how they are addressing safety concerns, working with parents, cooperating with outside agencies, hiring and screening international staff, and revising emergency plans. Camps must continue to offer community and support to…

  13. Efforts to Bridge the Gap between Research and Practice in Social Work: Precedents and Prospects: Keynote Address at the Bridging the Gap Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Allen

    2015-01-01

    This keynote address discusses previous and ongoing efforts to reduce the persistent gap between research and practice in social work and offers recommendations for further bridging that gap. Key among those recommendations is the need to conduct descriptive outcome studies of efforts to adapt research-supported interventions in everyday practice…

  14. Common questions about herpes: analysis of chat-room transcripts.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Lisa K; Omisore, Folashade

    2009-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with genital herpes typically undergo a period of psychological adjustment. Although healthcare providers can play a key role in this adjustment, in several patient surveys patients have expressed dissatisfaction with the information and counselling offered by professionals. To address this gap, providers must first identify the common questions and myths that are not addressed, or are addressed inadequately. This article is that first step. Through a content analysis of herpes chat-room transcripts captured on their website from autumn 2001 to spring 2006, researchers from the American Social Health Association identified common herpes questions and myths. The 1968 chat passages were coded into 12 themes and 50 sub-themes. Frequently, visitors' questions concerned transmission, symptoms and diagnosis followed by natural history, psychosocial issues and treatment options. The results of this analysis will aid in the creation of tailored messages to address common factual questions and provide psychosocial support.

  15. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  16. Characteristics, detection methods, and treatment of questionable occlusal carious lesions: findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Funkhouser, Ellen; Bader, James D; Gordan, Valeria V.; Rindal, D. Brad; Pihlstrom, Daniel J.; Qvist, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    Questionable occlusal carious lesions (QOC) can be defined as an occlusal tooth surface with no cavitation and no radiographic radiolucencies, but caries is suspected due to roughness, surface opacities, or staining. An earlier analysis of data from this study indicates ⅓ of patients have a QOC. The objective of this report is to quantify the characteristics of these common lesions, diagnostic aids used, and treatment of QOC. A total of 82 dentist and hygienist practitioner-investigators from the United States and Denmark in The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network participated. When consented patients presented with a QOC, information was recorded about the patient, tooth, lesion, and treatments. 2,603 QOC from 1,732 patients were analyzed. Lesions were usually associated with a fissure, on molars, and varied from yellow to black in color. Half presented with a chalky luster and had a rough surface when examined with an explorer. There was an association between color and luster, 10% were chalky-light, 47% were shiny-dark, and 42% were mixtures. A higher proportion of chalky than shiny lesions were light (22% vs. 9%; p < 0.001). Lesions light in color were less common in adults than pediatric patients (9% vs. 32%; p < 0.001). Lesions that were chalky and light were more common among pediatric than adult patients (22% vs. 6%, p < 0.001). This is the first study to investigate characteristics of QOC in routine clinical practice. Clinicians commonly face this diagnostic uncertainty. Determining the characteristics of these lesions are relevant when making diagnostic and treatment decisions. PMID:24480989

  17. Characteristics, detection methods and treatment of questionable occlusal carious lesions: findings from the national dental practice-based research network.

    PubMed

    Makhija, S K; Gilbert, G H; Funkhouser, E; Bader, J D; Gordan, V V; Rindal, D B; Pihlstrom, D J; Qvist, V

    2014-01-01

    Questionable occlusal carious lesions (QOC) can be defined as an occlusal tooth surface with no cavitation and no radiographic radiolucencies, but caries is suspected due to roughness, surface opacities or staining. An earlier analysis of data from this study indicates 1/3 of patients have a QOC. The objective of this report has been to quantify the characteristics of these common lesions, the diagnostic aids used and the treatment of QOC. A total of 82 dentist and hygienist practitioner-investigators from the USA and Denmark in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network participated. When consenting patients presented with a QOC, information was recorded about the patient, tooth, lesion and treatments. A total of 2,603 QOC from 1,732 patients were analyzed. The lesions were usually associated with a fissure, on molars, and varied from yellow to black in color. Half presented with a chalky luster and had a rough surface when examined with an explorer. There was an association between color and luster: 10% were chalky-light, 47% were shiny-dark and 42% were mixtures. A higher proportion of chalky than of shiny lesions were light (22 vs. 9%; p < 0.001). Lesions light in color were less common in adults than in pediatric patients (9 vs. 32%; p < 0.001). Lesions that were chalky and light were more common among pediatric than among adult patients (22 vs. 6%; p < 0.001). This is the first study to investigate characteristics of QOC in routine clinical practice. Clinicians commonly face this diagnostic uncertainty. Determining the characteristics of these lesions is relevant when making diagnostic and treatment decisions. PMID:24480989

  18. A Question of Choice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Women's reproductive rights, reproductive health, and constitutional privacy rights in the United States are addressed in light of the contemporary onslaught of the Christian Right. The misuse of State power by fundamentalist social forces in America is critiqued. The article also briefly reviews the question of State control over women's bodies. PMID:21696627

  19. "The" Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Pardee, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the suggestions found in Michael Canale's paper, "Considerations in the Testing of Reading and Listening Proficiency," in the light of a possible U.S. Government's Interagency Language Roundtable receptive skills proficiency test which must supply the answer to the question of how well an individual can understand a particular language.…

  20. Questor's Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary; Dock, Michelle Nichols; Eldridge, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    Questor is a curious little bird whose four broad questions are helpful to anyone interested in making art or understanding the art of others. He was designed as a character in an online video for children, "Building on a River: Questor's Tale." The video is narrated by Questor, who relates the 2000 year history of architecture along the Salt…

  1. Questionable Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

    1999-01-01

    This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

  2. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching artists often find themselves working in schools and communities that are new to them, whether these are situations close to home or farther afield. This issue of Four Questions highlights teaching artists who travel extensively as part of their teaching and artistic practices and bring their expertise, energy, and creativity to…

  3. Research and Teaching: Correlations between Students' Written Responses to Lecture-Tutorial Questions and Their Understandings of Key Astrophysics Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckenrode, Jeffrey; Prather, Edward E.; Wallace, Colin S.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into the correlations between students' understandings of introductory astronomy concepts and the correctness and coherency of their written responses to targeted Lecture-Tutorial questions.

  4. Questioning Our Questions: Assessing Question Asking Practices to Evaluate a yPAR Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Sarah; Langhout, Regina Day

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine question asking practices in a youth participatory action research (yPAR) after school program housed at an elementary school. The research question was: In which ways did the adult question asking practices in a yPAR setting challenge and/or reproduce conventional models of power in educational…

  5. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Gore, M S

    1997-07-01

    In India, data from the decennial censuses have been the catalyst that has led researchers to identify social policy needs and craft programs to lower overall mortality rates, infant mortality rates, and fertility rates. A new demographic phenomenon that is being exposed by the data is the increase in life expectancy that will see large numbers of individuals surviving 15-20 years beyond age 60. This increased life expectancy will lead to an increased old age dependency ratio and will require reexamination of the issue of resources to meet the needs of the elderly. These needs are social and psychological as well as physical. Research is needed to predict the initial consequences of population aging within different states. International comparisons within the Asian region will also foster identification of effective policies. Research is also needed to identify whether longevity is tied to higher educational and socioeconomic status in order to improve life expectancy among low-income groups. Another aspect that requires consideration is that most elderly women will likely survive their husbands. This means that they will be available to care for their husbands but will have to depend upon their children to care for them. The possible demographic diversity in the experience of aging among various states and classes and between the genders may be of special interest to researchers. PMID:12293130

  6. Addressing Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This dialogue, extracted from a conversation among some members of the Equity Special Issue Editorial Panel, concerns racism in mathematics education. It raises issues about the use of various terms; about fields of research outside of mathematics education; and about the kinds of racialization processes that occur for students, teachers, and…

  7. Producing and Using Video Data in the Early Years: Ethical Questions and Practical Consequences in Research with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Sue

    2011-01-01

    This article considers ethical questions and practical challenges arising from the production of video data with young children, and suggests that such considerations are reciprocal and that video data should be seen as constructed collaboratively by all participants. Video data can be a valuable means of eliciting children's perspectives, but it…

  8. Will the Real Author Come Forward? Questions of Ethics, Plagiarism, Theft and Collusion in Academic Research Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, Pat

    2009-01-01

    This paper raises some questions about academic authorial honesty under the headings of Plagiarism (including self-plagiarism), Theft, and Collusion. Compared with the medical sciences, the social sciences in general and education specifically, lag behind in terms of critical attention being paid to the problem of plagiarism, the peer review…

  9. The Effects of the Use of the Question Exploration Routine on Student Performance in Secondary Content Classrooms. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulgren, Janis A.; Lenz, B. Keith; Marquis, Janet; Schumaker, Jean B.; Deshler, Donald D.

    The tenth in a series of studies investigating the educational context and outcomes for high school students with disabilities (SWDs), this study explored the use of a Question Exploration Routine as a means of enhancing the performance of students with disabilities in ninth-grade inclusive content classes. Participants were 134 students, with and…

  10. A Research-Based In-Service Program for Helping Teachers Ask Questions Which Facilitate Development of Higher Order Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Nolan A.; Armstrong, Carmen L.

    An inservice model was developed to assist teachers in asking students the kinds of questions that facilitate higher order thinking. Higher order thinking involves problem identification and definition, hypothesizing, collecting, analyzing and synthesizing data, and formulating conclusions that upon application will prove valid. Based on this…

  11. A Domain Analysis Model for eIRB Systems: Addressing the Weak Link in Clinical Research Informatics

    PubMed Central

    He, Shan; Narus, Scott P.; Facelli, Julio C.; Lau, Lee Min; Botkin, Jefferey R.; Hurdle, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) are a critical component of clinical research and can become a significant bottleneck due to the dramatic increase, in both volume and complexity of clinical research. Despite the interest in developing clinical research informatics (CRI) systems and supporting data standards to increase clinical research efficiency and interoperability, informatics research in the IRB domain has not attracted much attention in the scientific community. The lack of standardized and structured application forms across different IRBs causes inefficient and inconsistent proposal reviews and cumbersome workflows. These issues are even more prominent in multi-institutional clinical research that is rapidly becoming the norm. This paper proposes and evaluates a domain analysis model for electronic IRB (eIRB) systems, paving the way for streamlined clinical research workflow via integration with other CRI systems and improved IRB application throughput via computer-assisted decision support. PMID:24929181

  12. Welcome address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuoka, Hiroshi

    2003-07-01

    Mr Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen. It is a great honour to have the opportunity to say a few words before starting this symposium. First of all, on behalf of all members of the Advanced Science Research Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, I would like to express our great pleasure in welcoming all of you and in hosting the Third International Symposium on Advanced Science Research. The Advanced Science Research Center was established in 1993. Since then one of the most important functions assigned to this centre has been to promote and initiate basic research activities in atomic energy and related fields, in collaboration with scientists throughout our country as well as abroad. In view of the rapidly advancing frontiers of science and technology, and the increasing importance of international collaboration, I strongly felt that our centre should play a leading role in promoting scientific activities in a worldwide form. This is not only a give-and-take information exchange with the outside world but also we intend to promote harmony between different scientific cultures through the establishment of new programmes at our centre. As one action for the global promotion of our research activities, we have decided to host a series of international symposia on advances in various topics in fields of our interest. This we call the ‘Advance series of symposia’. The first such symposium was held on the subject of ‘neutron scattering research’ and the second, held in November 2001, on ‘heavy element research’, with great success. The present symposium is the third of this series. The size and format of each symposium will be chosen flexibly considering the nature of its topic. However, in all cases, in addition to promoting exchange of expert insights, we would like to encourage particularly young scientists to present papers in each symposium on their new results from the frontiers of science and technology, and to help them to get an

  13. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Ghatowar, P S

    1993-07-01

    The Union Deputy Minister of Health and Family Welfare in India addressed the 35th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay in 1993. Officials in developing countries have been concerned about population growth for more than 30 years and have instituted policies to reduce population growth. In the 1960s, population growth in developing countries was around 2.5%, but today it is about 2%. Despite this decline, the world will have 1 billion more individuals by the year 2001. 95% of these new people will be born in developing countries. India's population size is so great that India does not have the time to wait for development to reduce population growth. Population needs to be viewed as an integrated part of overall development, since it is linked to poverty, illiteracy, environmental damage, gender issues, and reproductive health. Despite a large population size, India has made some important advancements in health and family planning. For example, India has reduced population growth (to 2.14% annually between 1981-1991), infant mortality, and its birth rate. It has increased the contraceptive use rate and life expectancy. Its southern states have been more successful at achieving demographic goals than have the northern states. India needs to implement efforts to improve living conditions, to change attitudes and perceptions about small families and contraception, and to promote family planning acceptance earlier among young couples. Improvement of living conditions is especially important in India, since almost 33% of the people live in poverty. India needs to invest in nutrition, health, and education. The mass media and nongovernmental organizations need to create population awareness and demand for family planning services. Improvement in women's status accelerates fertility decline, as has happened in Kerala State. The government needs to facilitate generation of jobs. Community participation is needed for India to achieve

  14. Research funding for addressing tobacco-related disease: an analysis of UK investment between 2008 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Mary; Bogdanovica, Ilze; Britton, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the UK. However, research spending on tobacco-related disease, and particularly smoking prevention, is thought to be low. We therefore aimed to assess the relation between tobacco-related research investment and disease burden from 2008 to 2012. Methods We used the Health Research Classification System to classify UK government and charitable research funding by broad health category and then by tobacco prevention research and 18 WHO defined tobacco-related diseases. We used UK mortality figures to calculate disease-specific tobacco attributable deaths and then compared disease specific and tobacco prevention research investment with all cause and tobacco attributable mortality over the 5-year period and as annual averages. Results 12 922 research grants were identified with a total value of £6.69bn, an annual average of £1.34bn. Annually an average of 110 000 people die from tobacco-related disease, approximately 20% of total deaths. £130m is invested in researching tobacco-related disease each year and £5m on tobacco prevention, 10.8% and 0.42% of total annual research funding, respectively. Prevention research equated to an annual average of £46 per tobacco attributable death or one pound for every £29 spent on tobacco-related disease. Funding varied widely for diseases with different numbers of deaths (eg, lung cancer £68 per all cause death, cervical cancer £2500), similar numbers of deaths (leukaemia £983 per death, stomach cancer £43) or similar numbers of tobacco attributable deaths (eg, colorectal cancer £5k, pancreatic cancer £670, bladder cancer £340). Conclusions Tobacco-related research funding is not related to burden of disease or level of risk. As a result certain diseases receive a disproportionately low level of research funding and disease prevention funding is even lower. PMID:27377637

  15. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  16. The Monograph of CNMI Educational Leadership Research: Implications for Capacity Building To Address Issues of Disability in the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego State Univ., CA. Interwork Inst.

    This monograph is a compilation of abstracts of the research conducted by students who participated in a collaborative Educational Leadership master's degree program through San Diego State University and Northern Marianas College, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI). The research projects include: (1) teacher satisfaction and…

  17. Addressing the Decline in Counseling and Supervision Process and Outcome Research in the "Journal of Counseling Psychology"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallinckrodt, Brent

    2011-01-01

    Scheel et al. have argued convincingly that there has been a decline in counseling-related research in the "Journal of Counseling Psychology" ("JCP") and "The Counseling Psychologist" ("TCP"). This response focuses on the relatively steady 35-year decline in this type of research published in "JCP". The author conducted a new analysis based on the…

  18. Action Research to Address the Transition from Kindergarten to Primary School: Children's Authentic Learning, Construction Play, and Pretend Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Scott; Goh, Garry

    2012-01-01

    Children experience demanding changes during the transition from early childhood programs to primary school. Research shows that children's initial academic and social success at school can affect their long-term adjustment, achievement, and success. The authors, both early childhood teachers in Singapore, undertook an action research project that…

  19. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html File Formats Help: How ...

  20. Full Life-Cycle Defect Management Assessment: Initial Inspection Data Collection Results and Research Questions for Further Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Forrest; Feldmann, Raimund; Haingaertner, Ralf; Regardie, Myrna; Seaman, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    It is often the case in software projects that when schedule and budget resources are limited, the Verification and Validation (V&V) activities suffer. Fewer V&V activities can be afforded and moreover, short-term challenges can result in V&V activities being scaled back or dropped altogether. As a result, too often the default solution is to save activities for improving software quality until too late in the life-cycle, relying on late-term code inspections followed by thorough testing activities to reduce defect counts to acceptable levels. As many project managers realize, however, this is a resource-intensive way of achieving the required quality for software. The Full Life-cycle Defect Management Assessment Initiative, funded by NASA s Office of Safety and Mission Assurance under the Software Assurance Research Program, aims to address these problems by: Improving the effectiveness of early life-cycle V&V activities to make their benefits more attractive to team leads. Specifically, we focus on software inspection, a proven method that can be applied to any software work product, long before executable code has been developed; Better communicating this effectiveness to software development teams, along with suggestions for parameters to improve in the future to increase effectiveness; Analyzing the impact of early life-cycle V&V on the effectiveness and cost required for late life-cycle V&V activities, such as testing, in order to make the tradeoffs more apparent. This white paper reports on an initial milestone in this work, the development of a preliminary model of inspection effectiveness across multiple NASA Centers. This model contributes toward reaching our project goals by: Allowing an examination of inspection parameters, across different types of projects and different work products, for an analysis of factors that impact defect detection effectiveness. Allowing a comparison of this NASA-specific model to existing recommendations in the literature

  1. Handling intensity and the short- and long-term survival of elephant seals: addressing and quantifying research effects on wild animals.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Clive; van den Hoff, John; Burton, Harry

    2005-08-01

    This study addresses the consequences of repeated human handling on the survival of an endangered phocid, the southern elephant seal and the implications for wildlife research. Southern elephant seal pups were repeatedly handled during the first six weeks of their lives. The possibility that such anthropogenic research may have altered the very parameters that were being investigated is a topical and relevant study area that we address here. Our results show that there were no measurable effects on pups that were repeatedly handled and subjected to invasive research methods with respect to survivorship in the short term (the 24-day nursing period) nor in the long term (the first year of life and beyond) and hence fitness one year after handling. In support of this conclusion we were unable to detect any significant differences in the survival rates of the most intensively handled seals and the least intensively handled seals.

  2. BUILDING A PLATFORM FOR TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH IN CHRONIC NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES TO ADDRESS POPULATION HEALTH IN PERU

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J. Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Málaga, Germán; Cardenas, María K.; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.; Pesantes, M. Amalia; Araya, Ricardo; Boggio, Oscar; Checkley, William; García, Patricia J.; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Lescano, Andrés G.; Montori, Victor; Pan, William; Rivera-Chira, Maria; Sacksteder, Katherine; Smeeth, Liam; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence in Chronic Diseases, based at Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, was created in 2009 with support from the United States National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). The vision of CRONICAS is to build a globally recognised Centre of Excellence conducting quality and innovative research and generating high-impact evidence for health. The Centre’s identity is embedded in its core values: generosity, innovation, integrity, and quality. This review has been structured to describe the development of the CRONICAS Centre, with a focus on highlighting the ongoing translational research projects and capacity building strategies. The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence is not a risk-averse organisation: it benefits from past experiences, including past mistakes, and improves upon them, and thus challenges traditional research approaches. This ethos and environment is key to fostering innovation in research. PMID:25754562

  3. A method for addressing research gaps in HTA, developed whilst evaluating robotic-assisted surgery: a proposal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background When evaluating health technologies with insufficient scientific evidence, only innovative potentials can be assessed. A Regional policy initiative linking the governance of health innovations to the development of clinical research has been launched by the Region of Emilia Romagna Healthcare Authority. This program, aimed at enhancing the research capacity of health organizations, encourages the development of adoption plans that combine use in clinical practice along with experimental use producing better knowledge. Following the launch of this program we developed and propose a method that, by evaluating and ranking scientific uncertainty, identifies the moment (during the stages of the technology's development) where it would be sensible to invest in research resources and capacity to further its evaluation. The method was developed and tested during a research project evaluating robotic surgery. Methods A multidisciplinary panel carried out a 5-step evaluation process: 1) definition of the technology's evidence profile and of all relevant clinical outcomes; 2) systematic review of scientific literature and outline of the uncertainty profile differentiating research results into steady, plausible, uncertain and unknown results; 3) definition of the acceptable level of uncertainty for investing research resources; 4) analysis of local context; 5) identification of clinical indications with promising clinical return. Results Outputs for each step of the evaluation process are: 1) evidence profile of the technology and systematic review; 2) uncertainty profile for each clinical indication; 3) exclusion of clinical indications not fulfilling the criteria of maximum acceptable risk; 4) mapping of local context; 5) recommendations for research. Outputs of the evaluation process for robotic surgery are described in the paper. Conclusions This method attempts to rank levels of uncertainty in order to distinguish promising from hazardous clinical use and to

  4. Fundamental Research in Engineering Education. Development of Concept Questions and Inquiry-Based Activities in Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer: An Example for Equilibrium vs. Steady-State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigeant, Margot; Prince, Michael; Nottis, Katharyn

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the use of inquiry-based instruction to promote the understanding of critical concepts in thermodynamics and heat transfer. Significant research shows that students frequently enter our courses with tightly held misconceptions about the physical world that are not effectively addressed through traditional instruction. Students'…

  5. Opening address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castagnoli, C.

    1994-01-01

    representation of the mole. Most of you, I presume, are neo-Pythagoreans, and consequently believe that a new definition and, maybe, a new realization of the unit of mass will be based on a number of atoms of silicon, a view which will certainly lead you to cross swords with the "electrical party". The importance of NA is also linked to the considerable and far-reaching return in other scientific and industrial fields. Finally, let me add that, ethically, the work of many persons all over the world and the money and energy they spend in order to add a decimal figure, may be an example of commitment to be given to our students. Last but not least, my warm thanks to the Director of the Istituto di Metrologia "G Colonnetti", where the experiment has been in progress since 1971, and to all the researchers involved in this work. I do hope that the National Council of Research will continue to support this important project. While wishing you a pleasant stay in Turin, I express the hope that our meeting will prove a fruitful opportunity for discussion and exchange of views.

  6. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abalakin, V. K.

    1997-03-01

    Dear Colleagues, It is a great pleasure and honor for me to invite you on the occasion of the IAU Colloquium International Cooperation in Dissemination of the Astronomical Data to the Central (Pulkovo) Astronomical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences. This distinguished gathering of experts in the vast field of modern methods for archiving and managing almost infinite astronomical data files of everlasting value will doubtlessly make a considerable and important contribution to success in the present and future research in astronomy. All of us are witnesses of a great technological, even psychological upturn that occurs in the everyday astronomical practice. The small but the most powerful handy devices known as desktop, laptop, or even palm-top PCs, have rendered a tedious calculating work and stressing search in the card-file or book-form catalogs to a pure pleasure and raised an admiration for those brilliant minds that have invented such a kind of hard- and software. The networks of all kinds and sorts -- Internet, Bitnet, World Wide Web, etc. -- have realized ancient dreams of a Man to fly with thought all over the world communicating with other human beings. But ... don't forget that the most real and valuable communication is the live one, when one can see the face and the eyes of his (or her) partner, listen to his voice as large as life, and the only opportunity for this is to stay together. And this just occurs at the colloquium like ours! So, let me heartily welcome you to the Pulkovo Observatory.

  7. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the…

  8. A case study in innovative outreach--combining training, research, and technology transfer to address real-world problems.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, D P

    1998-01-01

    Outreach, training, technology transfer, and research are often treated as programmatically distinct activities. The interdisciplinary and applied aspects of the Superfund Basic Research Program offer an opportunity to explore different models. A case study is presented that describes a collaborative outreach effort that combines all of the above. It involves the University of California's Davis and Berkeley program projects, the University of California Systemwide Toxic Substances Research and Teaching Program, the U.S. Navy's civilian workforce at the former Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California (MINSY), a Department of Defense (DoD) Environmental Education Demonstration Grant program, and the Private Industry Council of Napa and Sonoma counties in California. The effort applied a Superfund-developed technology to a combined waste, radium and polychlorinated biphenyl contamination, stemming from a problematic removal action at an installation/restoration site at MINSY. The effort demonstrates that opportunities for similar collaborations are possible at DoD installations. PMID:9703494

  9. Addressing criticisms of existing predictive bias research: cognitive ability test scores still overpredict African Americans' job performance.

    PubMed

    Berry, Christopher M; Zhao, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Predictive bias studies have generally suggested that cognitive ability test scores overpredict job performance of African Americans, meaning these tests are not predictively biased against African Americans. However, at least 2 issues call into question existing over-/underprediction evidence: (a) a bias identified by Aguinis, Culpepper, and Pierce (2010) in the intercept test typically used to assess over-/underprediction and (b) a focus on the level of observed validity instead of operational validity. The present study developed and utilized a method of assessing over-/underprediction that draws on the math of subgroup regression intercept differences, does not rely on the biased intercept test, allows for analysis at the level of operational validity, and can use meta-analytic estimates as input values. Therefore, existing meta-analytic estimates of key parameters, corrected for relevant statistical artifacts, were used to determine whether African American job performance remains overpredicted at the level of operational validity. African American job performance was typically overpredicted by cognitive ability tests across levels of job complexity and across conditions wherein African American and White regression slopes did and did not differ. Because the present study does not rely on the biased intercept test and because appropriate statistical artifact corrections were carried out, the present study's results are not affected by the 2 issues mentioned above. The present study represents strong evidence that cognitive ability tests generally overpredict job performance of African Americans.

  10. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  11. Theory, Research, and Practice for Students Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing With Disabilities: Addressing the Challenges from Birth to Postsecondary Education.

    PubMed

    Guardino, Caroline; Cannon, Joanna E

    2015-01-01

    Students who are deaf with a disability or disabilities (DWD) constitute nearly half of the population of K-12 learners who are deaf or hard of hearing. However, there is a dearth of information on theory, research, and practice related to these learners. The authors present an overview of (a) how the field of education of students who are D/deaf and hard of hearing might refer to this unique population in a way that represents the learner, not the disability; (b) the demographic data that further define these learners; (c) a theoretical framework within which to guide research and practice; (d) prevalence and frequency of the existing research; and (e) the practices and resources available to guide practitioners and the parents of students who are DWD. Questions are posed to the field on how to continue to improve the theory, research, and pedagogy used with these students. PMID:26497073

  12. Theory, Research, and Practice for Students Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing With Disabilities: Addressing the Challenges from Birth to Postsecondary Education.

    PubMed

    Guardino, Caroline; Cannon, Joanna E

    2015-01-01

    Students who are deaf with a disability or disabilities (DWD) constitute nearly half of the population of K-12 learners who are deaf or hard of hearing. However, there is a dearth of information on theory, research, and practice related to these learners. The authors present an overview of (a) how the field of education of students who are D/deaf and hard of hearing might refer to this unique population in a way that represents the learner, not the disability; (b) the demographic data that further define these learners; (c) a theoretical framework within which to guide research and practice; (d) prevalence and frequency of the existing research; and (e) the practices and resources available to guide practitioners and the parents of students who are DWD. Questions are posed to the field on how to continue to improve the theory, research, and pedagogy used with these students.

  13. Genes as a historical archive: on the applicability of genetic research to sociohistorical questions: the debate on the origins of Ashkenazi Jewry revisited.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Noa Sophie

    2014-01-01

    The origin of the Ashkenazi Jews has fascinated a growing number of geneticists in recent decades. Using genetic markers to answer questions of history is an approach that is at once tempting and precarious. Both genetics and history are highly specialized fields, and with an interdisciplinary approach, difficulties abound.This article briefly discusses this complex issue based on two studies, written by geneticists,which aimed at contributing to the research on the history of Ashkenazi Jewry.To date, geneticists who have tried to tackle historical questions by means of genetics and statistics have had difficulties with the dialectic methods of historiography, while historians have often misinterpreted the validity of the research results of the so-called "exact sciences." Only when both sides study and understand the other side's methodology can cooperation lead to usable and meaningful results. PMID:25345705

  14. Addressing the Needs of Youth with Disabilities in the Juvenile Justice System: The Current Status of Evidence-Based Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Daniel P.; Aron, Laudan; Bernstein, Jenny

    This report summarizes the state of knowledge about children and youth with disabilities at risk of delinquency or already involved with the juvenile justice system. It reviews the existing research as well as perspectives of service providers, administrators, policy makers, and advocates. Following an executive summary and introductory chapter,…

  15. Toward Addressing the Issues of Site Selection in District Effectiveness Research: A Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Growth Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: District effectiveness research (DER) is an emerging field concerned with identifying the organizational structures, administration, and leadership practices at the school district level that help districts find success with all of their students across the schools within the system. This work has mirrored much of the early school…

  16. Using Constructivist Case Study Methodology to Understand Community Development Processes: Proposed Methodological Questions to Guide the Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauckner, Heidi; Paterson, Margo; Krupa, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Often, research projects are presented as final products with the methodologies cleanly outlined and little attention paid to the decision-making processes that led to the chosen approach. Limited attention paid to these decision-making processes perpetuates a sense of mystery about qualitative approaches, particularly for new researchers who will…

  17. How communication of genetic information within the family is addressed in genetic counselling: a systematic review of research evidence.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Álvaro; Paneque, Milena; Sousa, Liliana; Clarke, Angus; Sequeiros, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    Supporting consultands to communicate risk information with their relatives is key to obtaining the full benefits of genetic health care. To understand how health-care professionals address this issue in clinical practice and what interventions are used specifically to assist consultands in their communication of genetic information to appropriate relatives, we conducted a systematic review. Four electronic databases and four subject-specific journals were searched for papers published, in English, between January 1997 and May 2014. Of 2926 papers identified initially, 14 papers met the inclusion criteria for the review and were heterogeneous in design, setting and methods. Thematic data analysis has shown that dissemination of information within families is actively encouraged and supported by professionals. Three overarching themes emerged: (1) direct contact from genetic services: sending letters to relatives of mutation carriers; (2) professionals' encouragement of initially reluctant consultands to share relevant information with at-risk relatives and (3) assisting consultands in communicating genetic information to their at-risk relatives, which included as subthemes (i) psychoeducational guidance and (ii) written information aids. Findings suggest that professionals' practice and interventions are predicated on the need to proactively encourage family communication. We discuss this in the context of what guidance of consultands by professionals might be appropriate, as best practices to facilitate family communication, and of the limits to non-directiveness in genetic counselling.

  18. A capacity-based approach for addressing ancillary care needs: implications for research in resource limited settings.

    PubMed

    Bright, Patricia L; Nelson, Robert M

    2012-11-01

    A paediatric clinical trial conducted in a developing country is likely to encounter conditions or illnesses in participants unrelated to the study. Since local healthcare resources may be inadequate to meet these needs, research clinicians may face the dilemma of deciding when to provide ancillary care and to what extent. The authors propose a model for identifying ancillary care obligations that draws on assessments of urgency, the capacity of the local healthcare infrastructure and the capacity of the research infrastructure. The model lends itself to a decision tree that can be adapted to the local context and resources so as to provide procedural guidance. This approach can help in planning and establishing organisational policies that govern the provision of ancillary care.

  19. 2007 SOPHE Presidential Address: Discovering a Philosophy of Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambescia, Stephen F.

    2007-01-01

    While we have several hallmarks of a mature profession, does this include a well-articulated "Philosophy of Health Education?" High-order questions should be important to both practitioners and researchers in health education. This address outlines why it is important for us to have a philosophy of health education, an approach that we could take…

  20. Addressing the social and environmental determinants of urban health equity: evidence for action and a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Akerman, Marco; Hancock, Trevor; Kumaresan, Jacob; Marmot, Michael; Melin, Thomas; Vlahov, David

    2011-10-01

    Urban living is the new reality for the majority of the world's population. Urban change is taking place in a context of other global challenges--economic globalization, climate change, financial crises, energy and food insecurity, old and emerging armed conflicts, as well as the changing patterns of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. These health and social problems, in countries with different levels of infrastructure and health system preparedness, pose significant development challenges in the 21st century. In all countries, rich and poor, the move to urban living has been both good and bad for population health, and has contributed to the unequal distribution of health both within countries (the urban-rural divide) and within cities (the rich-poor divide). In this series of papers, we demonstrate that urban planning and design and urban social conditions can be good or bad for human health and health equity depending on how they are set up. We argue that climate change mitigation and adaptation need to go hand-in-hand with efforts to achieve health equity through action in the social determinants. And we highlight how different forms of governance can shape agendas, policies, and programs in ways that are inclusive and health-promoting or perpetuate social exclusion, inequitable distribution of resources, and the inequities in health associated with that. While today we can describe many of the features of a healthy and sustainable city, and the governance and planning processes needed to achieve these ends, there is still much to learn, especially with respect to tailoring these concepts and applying them in the cities of lower- and middle-income countries. By outlining an integrated research agenda, we aim to assist researchers, policy makers, service providers, and funding bodies/donors to better support, coordinate, and undertake research that is organized around a conceptual framework that positions health, equity, and sustainability as central

  1. Addressing research capacity for health equity and the social determinants of health in three African countries: the INTREC programme

    PubMed Central

    Hofman, Karen; Blomstedt, Yulia; Addei, Sheila; Kalage, Rose; Maredza, Mandy; Sankoh, Osman; Bangha, Martin; Kahn, Kathleen; Becher, Heiko; Haafkens, Joke; Kinsman, John

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of tackling economic, social and health-related inequities is increasingly accepted as a core concern for the post-Millennium Development Goal framework. However, there is a global dearth of high-quality, policy-relevant and actionable data on inequities within populations, which means that development solutions seldom focus on the people who need them most. INTREC (INDEPTH Training and Research Centres of Excellence) was established with this concern in mind. It aims to provide training for researchers from the INDEPTH network on associations between health inequities, the social determinants of health (SDH), and health outcomes, and on presenting their findings in a usable form to policy makers. Objective As part of a baseline situation analysis for INTREC, this paper assesses the current status of SDH training in three of the African INTREC countries – Ghana, Tanzania, and South Africa – as well as the gaps, barriers, and opportunities for training. Methods SDH-related courses from the three countries were identified through personal knowledge of the researchers, supplemented by snowballing and online searches. Interviews were also conducted with, among others, academics engaged in SDH and public health training in order to provide context and complementary material. Information regarding access to the Internet, as a possible INTREC teaching medium, was gathered in each country through online searches. Results SDH-relevant training is available, but 1) the number of places available for students is limited; 2) the training tends to be public-health-oriented rather than inclusive of the broader, multi-sectoral issues associated with SDH; and 3) insufficient funding places limitations on both students and on the training institutions themselves, thereby affecting participation and quality. We also identified rapidly expanding Internet connectivity in all three countries, which opens up opportunities for e-learning on SDH, though the

  2. Addressing the Research-to-Practice Gap in Autism Treatments: Applying an Effectiveness Research Model to the Picture Exchange Communication System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Alissa L.

    2011-01-01

    Despite expansive improvements in both treatments and research, the majority of persons with autism use non-empirically supported interventions. One way to decrease the research-to-practice gap involves increasing the direct applicability of research findings to clinical settings. Effectiveness research achieves this goal by identifying treatments…

  3. Research as a guide for curriculum development: An example from introductory spectroscopy. II. Addressing student difficulties with atomic emission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanjek, L.; Shaffer, P. S.; McDermott, L. C.; Planinic, M.; Veza, D.

    2015-02-01

    This is the second of two closely related articles (Paper I and Paper II) that together illustrate how research in physics education has helped guide the design of instruction that has proved effective in improving student understanding of atomic spectroscopy. Most of the more than 1000 students who participated in this four-year investigation were science majors enrolled in the introductory calculus-based physics course at the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle, WA, USA. The others included graduate and undergraduate teaching assistants at UW and physics majors in introductory and advanced physics courses at the University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. About half of the latter group were preservice high school physics teachers. Paper I describes how several conceptual and reasoning difficulties were identified among university students as they tried to relate a discrete line spectrum to the energy levels of atoms in a light source. This second article (Paper II) illustrates how findings from this research informed the development of a tutorial that led to improvement in student understanding of atomic emission spectra.

  4. The practice gap in the care of women following successful infertility treatments: unasked research questions in midwifery and nursing.

    PubMed

    Allan, Helen; Finnerty, Gina

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the gap between existing research evidence and nursing and midwifery practices in caring for women following successful in vitro fertilization (IVF) and gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), and to suggest directions for research within these disciplines. We argue that although the number of couples in the UK experiencing fertility problems has risen, 1.4% of all births in the UK are as the result of infertility treatments (HFEA, 2005/2006); yet there is little research into the experiences of motherhood for women who successfully achieve pregnancy following IVF or GIFT. Consequently, there is negligible research evidence for nurses and midwives practicing in this area, and British healthcare staff appear to be unaware of the specific needs of infertile women during pregnancy, birth and early motherhood. In this paper we review the existing literature on this group of women, which falls into three areas: studies into the psychosocial development of the child conceived via IVF/GIFT/donor insemination; comparative studies into experiences of women following successful infertility treatment and women who conceive naturally; and studies into the experiences of women following successful IVF treatment. We review this literature to argue for research into the needs of infertile women following successful IVF/GIFT, to inform evidence for practice. PMID:17564889

  5. Assessing the Impact of De Novo Social Ties within Health Intervention Settings: New Questions for Health Behavior Intervention Research.

    PubMed

    Tesdahl, Eric; Gesell, Sabina B

    2015-12-01

    Recent developments in the study of health and social networks have focused on linkages between health outcomes and naturally occurring social relations, such as friendship or kinship. Based on findings in this area, a new generation of health behavior intervention programs have been implemented that rely on the formation of new social relations among program participants. However, little is known about the qualities of these de novo social relations. We examined the social networks of 59 participants within a randomized controlled trial of an intervention designed to prevent excessive gestational weight gain. We employed exponential random graph modeling techniques to analyze supportive relationships formed between participants in the intervention arm, to detect unique effects of program participation on the likelihood of forming ties. Program participation had a positive effect on the likelihood of forming supportive social relations, however, in this particular timeframe we did not detect any additional effect of such relations on the health behaviors or outcomes of interest. Our findings raise two critical questions: do short-term group-level programs reliably lead to the formation of new social relations among participants; and do these relations have a unique effect on health outcomes relative to standard methods of health behavior intervention? PMID:26577514

  6. RESEARCH REPORT: Eliciting students' understandings of chemical reactions using two forms of essay questions during a learning cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, Ann M. L.

    2003-05-01

    We examined ninth-grade students' explanations of chemical reactions using two forms of an open-ended essay question during a learning cycle. One form provided students with key terms to be used as 'anchors' upon which to base their essay, whereas the second form did not. The essays were administered at three points: pre-learning cycle, post-concept application, and after additional concept application activities. Students' explanations were qualitatively examined and grouped according to common patterns representing their understandings or misunderstandings. Findings indicated that more misunderstandings were elicited by the use of key terms as compared to the non-use of key terms in the pre-test. Misunderstandings in the key term essay responses generally involved the misuse of these terms and their association with the concept. Findings also indicated significant positive shifts in students' understanding over the learning cycle. No perceptible increase in understanding occurred after additional application activities. Differences in gender were observed, with females showing equal or greater understanding compared to males, contradicting reports that males typically outperform females in the physical sciences and supporting the need to reconstruct assessment techniques to better reveal the conceptual understandings of all students.

  7. Assessing the Impact of De Novo Social Ties within Health Intervention Settings: New Questions for Health Behavior Intervention Research.

    PubMed

    Tesdahl, Eric; Gesell, Sabina B

    2015-12-01

    Recent developments in the study of health and social networks have focused on linkages between health outcomes and naturally occurring social relations, such as friendship or kinship. Based on findings in this area, a new generation of health behavior intervention programs have been implemented that rely on the formation of new social relations among program participants. However, little is known about the qualities of these de novo social relations. We examined the social networks of 59 participants within a randomized controlled trial of an intervention designed to prevent excessive gestational weight gain. We employed exponential random graph modeling techniques to analyze supportive relationships formed between participants in the intervention arm, to detect unique effects of program participation on the likelihood of forming ties. Program participation had a positive effect on the likelihood of forming supportive social relations, however, in this particular timeframe we did not detect any additional effect of such relations on the health behaviors or outcomes of interest. Our findings raise two critical questions: do short-term group-level programs reliably lead to the formation of new social relations among participants; and do these relations have a unique effect on health outcomes relative to standard methods of health behavior intervention?

  8. Presentation of a research project addressed to the realisation of a diamond-based cellular biosensing device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boarino, Luca; Carabelli, Valentina; Carbone, Emilio; Genovese, Marco; Gosso, Sara; Olivero, Paolo; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Picollo, Federico; Traina, Paolo

    2012-02-01

    In this proceedings we will present a research project financed by Piedmont regional government (Italy; finalized to the realization and commercialization of functional devices for cellular bio-sensing based on diamond. Partners of the project are: Crisel Instruments, Torino University, Torino Polytechnic, INRIM, Politronica, Bionica Tech, Ulm University Here the main features of the final devices will be briefly summarized. We envisage an active diamond-based cellular substrate that can simultaneously stimulate and detect a variety of signals (chemical, optical, electrical) to and from neuroendocrine cells, in a fully biocompatible environment for the cellular system under test. Such a device can be realized by fully exploiting the peculiar properties of diamond: optical transparency, biocompatibility, chemical inertness, accessibility to a conductive graphite-like phase; properties that will be further explored and tested during the project.

  9. Linking assessment questions to a research article to stimulate self-directed learning and develop high-order cognitive skills in an undergraduate module of molecular genetics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinlu

    2009-01-01

    Assessment plays a crucial role in the learning process, but current assessments focus on assessment of learning rather than assessment for learning. In this study, a novel method for open-book continuous assessment (CA) was developed. The aim was to encourage students to learn beyond the textbook by challenging students with questions linked to a research article. Research articles closely related to lecture contents were selected and released to students before the CA for perusal. CA questions were set at three different levels to assess conceptual understanding, application, and synthesis. The CA was administered to first-year undergraduate students majoring in life science as part of Molecular Genetics, a compulsory module. It contributed 10% of the student's grade for the module. Students' CA scores indicated that the majority could answer correctly all the questions. Students' feedback on the CA showed that most of them praised the CA model for its novelty, motivation, and application. Only a few criticized it due to its poor coverage of lecture contents. Overall, this CA went beyond the traditional role of assessments in the assignment of scores and stimulated curiosity and self-directed learning. PMID:19952097

  10. "Why Are You Doing This?" Questions on Purpose, Structure, and Outcomes in Participatory Action Research Engaging Youth and Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galletta, Anne; Jones, Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    Our article is based on a study of our integration of social foundations coursework with filmmaking and participatory action research, bringing teacher candidates and middle and high school students together. The project was carried out in partnership between an urban university and two nearby public schools within a Midwestern city known for high…

  11. Building a Play Research Agenda: What Do We Know about Play? What New Questions Do We Need to Ask?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Susan J.; Klugman, Edgar

    2007-01-01

    Today's research about children's play exists in the context of deep societal concern about children's learning and development. Teachers may understand why play is a key contributor to healthy child development, but the pressure of national and state standards, the focus on early literacy, and the introduction of Head Start academic outcomes and…

  12. Big Questions, Small Works, Lots of Layers: Documentary Video Production and the Teaching of Academic Research and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbritter, Bump; Blon, Noah; Creighton, Caron

    2011-01-01

    Documentary movie making is not academic writing. Nor is it traditional academic research. However, I have found it to be a remarkable vehicle for teaching both of these things...each semester I am amazed and humbled by the creativity and sincerity that my students bring to their work.

  13. Early Career Academic Perceptions, Attitudes and Professional Development Activities: Questioning the Teaching and Research Gap to Further Academic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Kelly E.; Lodge, Jason M.; Bosanquet, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Early career academia is a challenging time, particularly as academics are facing increasing pressures to excel across a range of areas. Boyer argued for the "true scholar" versed in the overlapping areas of scholarship in research, teaching, integration and engagement. Academic developers have an important role to play in assisting the…

  14. To Aggregate or Not and Potentially Better Questions for Clustered Data: The Need for Hierarchical Linear Modeling in CTE Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimon, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Using state achievement data that are openly accessible, this paper demonstrates the application of hierarchical linear modeling within the context of career technical education research. Three prominent approaches to analyzing clustered data (i.e., modeling aggregated data, modeling disaggregated data, modeling hierarchical data) are discussed…

  15. Academic Institutions and One Health: Building Capacity for Transdisciplinary Research Approaches to Address Complex Health Issues at the Animal-Human-Ecosystem Interface.

    PubMed

    Allen-Scott, Lisa K; Buntain, Bonnie; Hatfield, Jennifer M; Meisser, Andrea; Thomas, Christopher James

    2015-07-01

    To improve health at the human, animal, and ecosystem interface, defined as One Health, training of researchers must transcend individual disciplines to develop a new process of collaboration. The transdisciplinary research approach integrates frameworks and methodologies beyond academic disciplines and includes involvement of and input from policy makers and members of the community. The authors argue that there should be a significant shift in academic institutions' research capacity to achieve the added value of a transdisciplinary approach for addressing One Health problems. This Perspective is a call to action for academic institutions to provide the foundations for this salient shift. The authors begin by describing the transdisciplinary approach, propose methods for building transdisciplinary research capacity, and highlight three value propositions that support the case. Examples are provided to illustrate how the transdisciplinary approach to research adds value through improved sustainability of impact, increased cost-effectiveness, and enhanced abilities to mitigate potentially harmful unintended consequences. The authors conclude with three key recommendations for academic institutions: (1) a focus on creating enabling environments for One Health and transdisciplinary research, (2) the development of novel funding structures for transdisciplinary research, and (3) training of "transmitters" using real-world-oriented educational programs that break down research silos through collaboration across disciplines.

  16. Academic Institutions and One Health: Building Capacity for Transdisciplinary Research Approaches to Address Complex Health Issues at the Animal–Human–Ecosystem Interface

    PubMed Central

    Allen-Scott, Lisa K.; Buntain, Bonnie; Hatfield, Jennifer M.; Meisser, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    To improve health at the human, animal, and ecosystem interface, defined as One Health, training of researchers must transcend individual disciplines to develop a new process of collaboration. The transdisciplinary research approach integrates frameworks and methodologies beyond academic disciplines and includes involvement of and input from policy makers and members of the community. The authors argue that there should be a significant shift in academic institutions’ research capacity to achieve the added value of a transdisciplinary approach for addressing One Health problems. This Perspective is a call to action for academic institutions to provide the foundations for this salient shift. The authors begin by describing the transdisciplinary approach, propose methods for building transdisciplinary research capacity, and highlight three value propositions that support the case. Examples are provided to illustrate how the transdisciplinary approach to research adds value through improved sustainability of impact, increased cost-effectiveness, and enhanced abilities to mitigate potentially harmful unintended consequences. The authors conclude with three key recommendations for academic institutions: (1) a focus on creating enabling environments for One Health and transdisciplinary research, (2) the development of novel funding structures for transdisciplinary research, and (3) training of “transmitters” using real-world-oriented educational programs that break down research silos through collaboration across disciplines. PMID:25650827

  17. Questions of Matter: Critical Conversations in Online Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albers, Peggy; Turnbull, Sarah; Angay-Crowder, Tuba

    2015-01-01

    How professional development is delivered in today's networked world has shifted greatly, and research into online spaces of learning is growing. Numerous questions, however, remain regarding how online spaces can be leveraged to foster meaningful conversations that address current critical educational issues. This qualitative study examines the…

  18. Methodological questions in studying consonant acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Consonant mastery is one of the most widely used metrics of typical phonological acquisition and of phonological disorder. Two fundamental methodological questions concerning research on consonant acquisition are (1) how to elicit a representative sample of productions and (2) how to analyse this sample once it has been collected. This paper address these two questions by reviewing relevant aspects of experience in evaluating word-initial consonant accuracy from transcriptions of isolated-word productions elicited from 2- and 3-year-olds learning four different first languages representing a telling range of consonant systems (English, Cantonese, Greek, Japanese). It is suggested that both researchers and clinicians should consider a number of different item-related factors, such as phonotactic probability and word length, when constructing word lists to elicit consonant productions from young children. This study also proposes that transcription should be supplemented by acoustic analysis and the perceptual judgements of naïve listeners. PMID:19031192

  19. Field-Based Teacher Research: How Teachers and Scientists Working Together Answers Questions about Turtle Nesting Ecology while Enhancing Teachers' Inquiry Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, J. M.; Jungblut, D.; Catena, A. N.; Rubenstein, D. I.

    2013-12-01

    Providing rigorous academic supplement to a professional development program for teachers, QUEST is a fusion of Drexel University's environmental science research department with Princeton University's Program in Teacher Preparation. Completed in the summers of 2012 (in partnership with Earthwatch) and 2013 in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, QUEST's terrapin field research program enhances K-12 teachers' ecological knowledge, develops inquiry-based thinking in the classroom, and builds citizen science engagement. With a focus on quality question development and data analysis to answer questions, teachers are coached in developing, implementing, and presenting independent research projects on diamondback terrapin nesting ecology. As a result, teachers participating in QUEST's week long program bring a realistic example of science in action into their classrooms, helping to develop their own students' critical thinking skills. For teachers, this program provides training towards educating students on how to do real and imaginative science - subsequently sending students to university better prepared to engage in their own independent research. An essential component of the collaboration through QUEST, in addition to the teacher's experience during and after the summer institute, is the research data collected which supplements that of the Principal Investigator. In 2012, by documenting terrapin nest site predators, teachers gained valuable scientific experience, while Drexel acquired important ecological data which would have not been able to be collected otherwise. In 2013, teachers helped answer important questions about terrapin nesting success post Superstorm Sandy. In fact, the 2013 QUEST teachers are the first to visualize the frighteningly increased erosion of a primary terrapin nesting site due to Sandy; showing how most terrapin nests now lie in the bay, instead of safe on shore. Teachers comment that interacting with scientists in the field, and contributing to

  20. Ethics Standards (HRPP) and Public Partnership (PARTAKE) to Address Clinical Research Concerns in India: Moving Toward Ethical, Responsible, Culturally Sensitive, and Community-Engaging Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Tal; Gupta, Yogendra K; Mehta, Nalin; Swamy, Nagendra; Sovani, Vishwas; Speers, Marjorie A

    2014-01-01

    Like other emerging economies, India’s quest for independent, evidence-based, and affordable healthcare has led to robust and promising growth in the clinical research sector, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 20.4% between 2005 and 2010. However, while the fundamental drivers and strengths are still strong, the past few years witnessed a declining trend (CAGR −16.7%) amid regulatory concerns, activist protests, and sponsor departure. And although India accounts for 17.5% of the world’s population, it currently conducts only 1% of clinical trials. Indian and international experts and public stakeholders gathered for a 2-day conference in June 2013 in New Delhi to discuss the challenges facing clinical research in India and to explore solutions. The main themes discussed were ethical standards, regulatory oversight, and partnerships with public stakeholders. The meeting was a collaboration of AAHRPP (Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs)—aimed at establishing responsible and ethical clinical research standards—and PARTAKE (Public Awareness of Research for Therapeutic Advancements through Knowledge and Empowerment)—aimed at informing and engaging the public in clinical research. The present article covers recent clinical research developments in India as well as associated expectations, challenges, and suggestions for future directions. AAHRPP and PARTAKE provide etiologically based solutions to protect, inform, and engage the public and medical research sponsors. PMID:25558428

  1. Carbon dioxide and climate. [Appendix includes names and addresses of the Principal Investigators for the research projects funded in FY1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Global climate change is a serious environmental concern, and the US has developed An Action Agenda'' to deal with it. At the heart of the US effort is the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which has been developed by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) of the Federal Coordinating Council for Sciences, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET). The USGCRP will provide the scientific basis for sound policy making on the climate-change issue. The DOE contribution to the USGCRP is the Carbon Dioxide Research Program, which now places particular emphasis on the rapid improvement of the capability to predict global and regional climate change. DOE's Carbon Dioxide Research Program has been addressing the carbon dioxide-climate change connection for more than twelve years and has provided a solid scientific foundation for the USGCRP. The expansion of the DOE effort reflects the increased attention that the Department has placed on the issue and is reflected in the National Energy Strategy (NES) that was released in 1991. This Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1991 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments. The Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research supports a Carbon Dioxide Research Program to determine the scientific linkage between the rise of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide, and climate and vegetation change. One facet is the Core CO{sub 2} Program, a pioneering program that DOE established more than 10 years ago to understand and predict the ways that fossil-fuel burning could affect atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, global climate, and the Earth's biosphere. Major research areas are: global carbon cycle; climate detection and models of climate change; vegetation research; resource analysis; and, information and integration.

  2. The USA PATRIOT Act, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, and Information Policy Research in Libraries: Issues, Impacts, and Questions for Libraries and Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Paul T.; McClure, Charles R.; Bertot, John Carlo; Snead, John T.

    2004-01-01

    While the USA PATRIOT Act has altered how certain types of federal intelligence investigations affect libraries, the act also greatly alters how researchers can study information policy issues related to libraries. To date, the gravity and scope of the act's implications for researchers of library services, resources, operations, and policies have…

  3. Privacy Questions from Practicing School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2004-01-01

    This Question and Answer (Q&A) article addresses practice issues related to school health records and school nursing documentation that were posed by school nurses in the field. Specifically, the questions addressed concern the following: education records, medication privacy issues, sharing of sensitive health information, privacy of individual…

  4. Integrating Research and Action: A Systematic Review of Community-based Participatory Research To Address Health Disparities In Environmental and Occupational Health in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Integrating research and action represents a goal and key principles of CBPR, but there has been little effort to synthesize the literature to evaluate if such integration is occurring. Objectives 1) To examine the extent to which CBPR integrates action to effect community-level change; and 2) to ascertain factors that facilitates such integration. Methods Original articles reporting on CBPR in environmental and occupational health in the United States were identified primarily through a MEDLINE search. Inceptions, processes, methods, and outcomes of the projects were reviewed. Results In fourteen of the twenty studies reviewed, CBPR led to community-level action to improve the health and well-being of the community members. Observational studies that investigated problems posed by the affected community and that incorporated qualitative methods were more likely to lead to action. The collaboration among government scientists, university researchers, and community partners emerged as a new model of CBPR partnerships that effectively integrates research and action. Conclusions To help CBPR better integrate research and action, a shift towards community-initiated and action-oriented observational studies might be needed. PMID:18621950

  5. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    PubMed

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  6. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  7. Student Moderators in Asynchronous Online Discussion: A Question of Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingaro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Much current research exalts the benefits of having students facilitate weekly discussions in asynchronous online courses. This study seeks to add to what is known about student moderation through an analysis of the types of questions students use to spur each discussion. Prior experimental work has demonstrated that the types of questions posed…

  8. How have research questions and methods used in clinical trials published in Clinical Rehabilitation changed over the last 30 years?

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Nancy E; Kaur, Navaldeep; Barbic, Skye P; Fiore, Julio; Barclay, Ruth; Finch, Lois; Kuspinar, Ayse; Asano, Miho; Figueiredo, Sabrina; Aburub, Ala’ Sami; Alzoubi, Fadi; Arafah, Alaa; Askari, Sorayya; Bakhshi, Behtash; Bouchard, Vanessa; Higgins, Johanne; Hum, Stanley; Inceer, Mehmet; Letellier, Marie Eve; Lourenco, Christiane; Mate, Kedar; Salbach, Nancy M; Moriello, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Research in rehabilitation has grown from a rare phenomenon to a mature science and clinical trials are now common. The purpose of this study is to estimate the extent to which questions posed and methods applied in clinical trials published in Clinical Rehabilitation have evolved over three decades with respect to accepted standards of scientific rigour. Studies were identified by journal, database, and hand searching for the years 1986 to 2016. A total of 390 articles whose titles suggested a clinical trial of an intervention, with or without randomization to form groups, were reviewed. Questions often still focused on methods to be used (57%) rather than what knowledge was to be gained. Less than half (43%) of the studies delineated between primary and secondary outcomes; multiple outcomes were common; and sample sizes were relatively small (mean 83, range 5 to 3312). Blinding of assessors was common (72%); blinding of study subjects was rare (19%). In less than one-third of studies was intention-to-treat analysis done correctly; power was reported in 43%. There is evidence of publication bias as 83% of studies reported either a between-group or a within-group effect. Over time, there was an increase in the use of parameter estimation rather than hypothesis testing and there was evidence that methodological rigour improved. Rehabilitation trialists are answering important questions about their interventions. Outcomes need to be more patient-centred and a measurement framework needs to be explicit. More advanced statistical methods are needed as interventions are complex. Suggestions for moving forward over the next decades are given. PMID:27496695

  9. How have research questions and methods used in clinical trials published in Clinical Rehabilitation changed over the last 30 years?

    PubMed

    Mayo, Nancy E; Kaur, Navaldeep; Barbic, Skye P; Fiore, Julio; Barclay, Ruth; Finch, Lois; Kuspinar, Ayse; Asano, Miho; Figueiredo, Sabrina; Aburub, Ala' Sami; Alzoubi, Fadi; Arafah, Alaa; Askari, Sorayya; Bakhshi, Behtash; Bouchard, Vanessa; Higgins, Johanne; Hum, Stanley; Inceer, Mehmet; Letellier, Marie Eve; Lourenco, Christiane; Mate, Kedar; Salbach, Nancy M; Moriello, Carolina

    2016-09-01

    Research in rehabilitation has grown from a rare phenomenon to a mature science and clinical trials are now common. The purpose of this study is to estimate the extent to which questions posed and methods applied in clinical trials published in Clinical Rehabilitation have evolved over three decades with respect to accepted standards of scientific rigour. Studies were identified by journal, database, and hand searching for the years 1986 to 2016.A total of 390 articles whose titles suggested a clinical trial of an intervention, with or without randomization to form groups, were reviewed. Questions often still focused on methods to be used (57%) rather than what knowledge was to be gained. Less than half (43%) of the studies delineated between primary and secondary outcomes; multiple outcomes were common; and sample sizes were relatively small (mean 83, range 5 to 3312). Blinding of assessors was common (72%); blinding of study subjects was rare (19%). In less than one-third of studies was intention-to-treat analysis done correctly; power was reported in 43%. There is evidence of publication bias as 83% of studies reported either a between-group or a within-group effect. Over time, there was an increase in the use of parameter estimation rather than hypothesis testing and there was evidence that methodological rigour improved.Rehabilitation trialists are answering important questions about their interventions. Outcomes need to be more patient-centred and a measurement framework needs to be explicit. More advanced statistical methods are needed as interventions are complex. Suggestions for moving forward over the next decades are given. PMID:27496695

  10. Good Student Questions in Inquiry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombard, François E.; Schneider, Daniel K.

    2013-01-01

    Acquisition of scientific reasoning is one of the big challenges in education. A popular educational strategy advocated for acquiring deep knowledge is inquiry-based learning, which is driven by emerging "good questions". This study will address the question: "Which design features allow learners to refine questions while preserving…

  11. Seven Questions About Stroke and Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Bleck, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Seizures and stroke are both common neurologic conditions, but when they occur in close temporal proximity they produce much more concern than either does alone. The stroke specialist (and the family) fear that convulsions will worsen the stroke because of acute hypertension and airway compromise, and the epileptologist is concerned that these acute seizures are the harbingers of later epilepsy. Other less commonly recognized but important aspects of this relationship are that subclinical seizures worsen some forms of stroke, and some anticonvulsants may have more adverse effects on stroke patients than they do in other groups. In surveying the connections between these two conditions, I have attempted to address seven questions. For some questions, there are data to help provide an answer; for others, there is only opinion; and for a maddening few, newer research is making older suggestions less certain. PMID:23447718

  12. Seven questions about stroke and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Bleck, Thomas P

    2012-11-01

    Seizures and stroke are both common neurologic conditions, but when they occur in close temporal proximity they produce much more concern than either does alone. The stroke specialist (and the family) fear that convulsions will worsen the stroke because of acute hypertension and airway compromise, and the epileptologist is concerned that these acute seizures are the harbingers of later epilepsy. Other less commonly recognized but important aspects of this relationship are that subclinical seizures worsen some forms of stroke, and some anticonvulsants may have more adverse effects on stroke patients than they do in other groups. In surveying the connections between these two conditions, I have attempted to address seven questions. For some questions, there are data to help provide an answer; for others, there is only opinion; and for a maddening few, newer research is making older suggestions less certain. PMID:23447718

  13. Enhancing continental-scale understanding of agriculture: Integrating the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) with existing research networks to address global change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, G.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a resurgence of interest in the sustainability of the world's food system and its contributions to feeding the world's population as well as to ensuring environmental sustainability of the planet. The elements of this grand challenge are by now well known. Analysis of agricultural sustainability is made more challenging by the fact that the local responses to these global drivers of change are extremely variable in space and time due to the biophysical and geopolitical heterogeneity across the United States, and the world. Utilizing research networks allows the scientific community to leverage existing knowledge, models and data to develop a framework for understanding the interplay between global change drivers, regional, and continental sustainability of US agriculture. For example, well-established instrumented and calibrated research networks will allow for the examination of the potential tradeoffs between: 1) crop production, 2) land use and carbon emissions and sequestration, 3) groundwater depletion, and 4) nitrogen dynamics. NEON represents a major investment in scientific infrastructure in support of ecological research at a continental scale and is intended to address multiple ecological grand challenges. NEON will collect data from automated sensors and sample organisms and ecological variables in 20 eco-climatic domains. We will provide examples of how NEON's full potential can be realized when these data are combined with long term experimental results and other sensor networks [e.g., Ameriflux, Fluxnet, the Long-term Ecological Research Program (LTER), the Long-term Agroecosystem Research Network (LTAR)], Critical Zone Observatory (CZO).

  14. Can Science Education Research Give an Answer to Questions posed by History of Science and Technology? The Case of Steam Engine's Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanderakis, Nikos E.

    2009-09-01

    According to the principle of virtual velocities, if on a simple machine in equilibrium we suppose a slight virtual movement, then the ratio of weights or forces equals the inverse ratio of velocities or displacements. The product of the weight raised or force applied multiplied by the height or displacement plays a central role there. British engineers used the same product in the eighteenth century in order to measure steam engines’ effectiveness. The question is whether this measure was obviously empirical or had its origin in theory of mechanics and particularly in the principle of virtual velocities. According to science education research, this measure is not likely to have arisen intuitively and most probably could not have been formulated without any acquaintance with theory of mechanics.

  15. Our Field Needs a Framework to Guide Development of Validity Research Agendas and Identification of Validity Research Questions and Threats to Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve

    2007-01-01

    In this issue of Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives, Schilling et al. are explicit about the centrality of assessment design and development and psychometric analysis in validation. Schilling and colleagues, Kane (2004, 2006), other contemporary validity theorists and practitioners, and their predecessors typically discuss…

  16. Research on Student Teaching: A Question of Transfer. A Report of a Research Seminar Conducted at the University of Oregon, Fall 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Ray; And Others

    This paper provides a synthesis of research on aspects of student teaching as they relate to transfer of teaching skills to the classroom. The report highlights major dimensions of student teaching, such as specific training interventions (microteaching and simulation), the ecological context of student teaching (involving the cooperating teacher,…

  17. The International Social Organisation of Educational Research in Europe: Reviewing the European Educational Research Association as an Example--Facts and Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gretler, Armin

    2007-01-01

    Armin Gretler passed away on 6 October 2005. Armin was a founder member of the EERA and served on its Council, representing Switzerland. He was a sociologist and founding director of the Swiss Coordination Centre for Research in Education in 1971. He remained Director until retiring in 1999. Prior to that he had been working as a consultant for…

  18. Conducting systematic reviews of intervention questions I: Writing the review protocol, formulating the question and searching the literature.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, A M; Anderson, K M; Goodell, C K; Sargeant, J M

    2014-06-01

    This article is the fourth of six articles addressing systematic reviews in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine. Previous articles in the series have introduced systematic reviews, discussed study designs and hierarchies of evidence, and provided details on conducting randomized controlled trials, a common design for use in systematic reviews. This article describes development of a review protocol and the first two steps in a systematic review: formulating a review question, and searching the literature for relevant research. The emphasis is on systematic reviews of questions related to interventions. The review protocol is developed prior to conducting the review and specifies the plan for the conduct of the review, identifies the roles and responsibilities of the review team and provides structured definitions related to the review question. For intervention questions, the review question should be defined by the PICO components: population, intervention, comparison and outcome(s). The literature search is designed to identify all potentially relevant original research that may address the question. Search terms related to some or all of the PICO components are entered into literature databases, and searches for unpublished literature also are conducted. All steps of the literature search are documented to provide transparent reporting of the process.

  19. Stakeholders' expectations on connectivity research for water and land management addressed by a survey in the collaborative EU-COST Connecteur network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smetanova, Anna; Paton, Eva N.; Keesstra, Saskia

    2016-04-01

    Transfer of knowledge across the science-society interface is essential for both, ethical and economic reasons, and inevitable for successful climate change adaptation and integrated management of sustainable, resilient landscapes. The transdisciplinary research of connectivity (which is the degree to which a system facilitates the movement of matter and energy through itself. It is an emergent property of the system state, Connecteur web resources,2015) has the potential to supply monitoring, modelling and management tools to land and water managers in order to reach these goals. The research of water and sediment connectivity has received significant and increasing scientific attention across the entire realm of the environmental disciplines, and the COST Action ES 1306 Connecteur facilitates the multi-sectorial collaboration in connectivity research at EU level. In order to appropriately address the transfer of the cutting edge research developments of the Connecteur network, the collaborative research project on stakeholders' perception of connectivity was conducted by the Working Group 5 "Transition of connectivity research towards sustainable land and water management". The questionnaire survey on stakeholder perception was conducted by volunteering scientist involved in the Connecteur network together from 19 European countries. Together 84 stakeholders from all mayor sectors in water and land management were asked about the main challenges of their work, their understanding of connectivity, the desired areas of cooperation with connectivity science, and the best tools for transferring knowledge. The results showed differences between different stakeholders groups in the way they percept and work with connectivity, as well as their requirement of knowledge transfers. While farmers, and (in lower extend) the agricultural administration officers articulated no, or little need for connectivity management, the majority of stakeholders involved in land and water

  20. Six Questions on Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, John F.; Sanayei, Ali

    2011-09-01

    This paper includes an interview with John F. Symons regarding some important questions in "complex systems" and "complexity". In addition, he has stated some important open problems concerning complex systems in his research area from a philosophical point of view.

  1. Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

  2. Birds: Old Questions and New.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses questions such as how birds fly and the meaning of bird songs. Explains the relationship between birds and ecological activism and points out the excitement in research and observation of birds. (Contains 34 references.) (YDS)

  3. Seven essential questions on G-quadruplexes.

    PubMed

    König, Sebastian L B; Evans, Amanda C; Huppert, Julian L

    2010-08-01

    The helical duplex architecture of DNA was discovered by Francis Crick and James Watson in 1951 and is well known and understood. However, nucleic acids can also adopt alternative structural conformations that are less familiar, although no less biologically relevant, such as the G-quadruplex. G-quadruplexes continue to be the subject of a rapidly expanding area of research, owing to their significant potential as therapeutic targets and their unique biophysical properties. This review begins by focusing on G-quadruplex structure, elucidating the intermolecular and intramolecular interactions underlying its formation and highlighting several substructural variants. A variety of methods used to characterize these structures are also outlined. The current state of G-quadruplex research is then addressed by proffering seven pertinent questions for discussion. This review concludes with an overview of possible directions for future research trajectories in this exciting and relevant field.

  4. The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) Network - Data and Technological Resources to Address Current and Emerging Issues in Agroecosystems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Wienhold, B.; Suyker, A.; Erickson, G.; Hayes, M. J.; Awada, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) is one of 18 established Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) networks across the US. PR-HPA is a partnership between the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), the USDA-ARS Agroecosystem Management Research Unit (AMRU) in Lincoln, and the USDA-ARS Environmental Management Research Unit (EMRU) in Clay Center, NE. The PR-HPA network encompasses 27,750 ha of research sites with data going back to the early 1900s. A partial list of on-going research projects include those encompassing long-term manuring and continuous corn (Est. 1912), dryland tillage plots (Est. 1970), soil nutrients and tillage (Est. 1983), biofuel feedstock studies (Est. 2001), and carbon sequestration study (Est. 2000). Affiliated partners include the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) that develops measures to improve preparedness and adaptation to climate variability and drought; the High Plains Regional Climate Center (HPRCC) that coordinates data acquisition from over 170 automated weather stations and around 50 automated soil moisture network across NE and beyond; the AMERIFLUX and NEBFLUX networks that coordinate the water vapor and carbon dioxide flux measurements across NE with emphasis on rainfed and irrigated crop lands; the ARS Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network (GRACEnet) and the Resilient Economic Agricultural Practices (REAP) project; and the Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT) that assists with the use of geospatial technologies for agriculture and natural resource applications. Current emphases are on addressing present-day and emerging issues related to profitability and sustainability of agroecosystems. The poster will highlight some of the ongoing and planned efforts in research pertaining to climate variability and change, water sustainability, and ecological and agronomic challenges associated

  5. How to ensure that the results of climate risk analysis make a difference? - Experience from applied research addressing the challenges of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneiderbauer, Stefan; Zebisch, Marc; Becker, Daniel; Pedoth, Lydia; Renner, Kathrin; Kienberger, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Changing climate conditions may have beneficial or adverse effects on the social-ecological systems we are living in. In any case, the possible effects result from complex and interlinked physical and social processes embedded in these systems. Traditional research addresses these bio-physical and societal issues in a separate way. Therefore, in general, studies on risks related to climate change are still mono-disciplinary in nature with an increasing amount of work following a multi-disciplinary approach. The quality and usefulness of the results of such research for policy or decision making in practice may further be limited by study designs that do not acknowledge appropriately the significance of integrating or at least mixing qualitative and quantitative information and knowledge. Finally, the acceptance of study results - particularly when containing some kind of assessments - is often endangered by insufficient and / or late involvement of stakeholders and users. The above mentioned limitations have often been brought up in the recent past. However, despite that a certain consensus could be achieved in the last years recognising the need to tackle these issues, little progress has been made in terms of implementation within the context of (research) studies. This paper elaborates in detail on reasons that hamper the application of - interdisciplinary (i.e. natural and social science), - trans-disciplinary (i.e. co-production of knowledge) and - integrative (i.e. combining qualitative and quantitative approaches) work. It is based on the experience gained through a number of applied climate change vulnerability studies carried out within the context of various GIZ-financed development cooperation projects, a consultancy project for the German Environment Agency as well as the workshop series INQUIMUS, which tackles particularly the issues of mixing qualitative and quantitative research approaches. Potentials and constraints of possible attempts for

  6. Persistence of Latino Students in Community Colleges: An Empowerment Model Addressing Acculturative Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    College student persistence has been a concern of researchers and practitioners since the early 1960s. Traditional models have addressed the need for students to be integrated into the academic and social domains of the college campus. Recently, critical theorists and researchers have been questioning the relevance of the traditional models for…

  7. [The changing role of the state in health care systems in OECD countries--research questions, research design and first results].

    PubMed

    Helmert, U; Cacace, M; Grimmeisen, S; Wendt, C; Rothgang, H

    2005-02-01

    In the framework of the DFG-Research-Unit 597 "Transformation of the State" is Project C3 investigating the change of the role of the state in health care systems in OECD-countries between 1970 and 2000. The primary research hypothesis is, that a tendency of convergence exists regarding the role of the state for the three main dimensions of health care systems, namely service provision, financing and regulation. This is carried out firstly based on a quantitative oriented analysis for 23 OECD-countries, utilising the data set "OECD Health Data 2002", and secondly with qualitative oriented country-studies for England, Germany and the U.S. Findings for the qualitative country-studies give some hints of convergence regarding the "private-public-mix" between the health system types "social insurance" (Germany), "national health system" (England), and "market oriented health system" (USA). First quantitative results concerning the changing role of the state in relation to the health care systems in OECD-countries provide evidence for a convergence process between these states in the financing dimension. For the dependent variable "total health care costs in % of gross domestic product" a trend of convergence is observed for the members states of the European Union (n = 12), while in the remaining Non-EU countries (n = 11) a trend of divergence is identified. For the same parameter we found a convergence for OECD-countries of the type "national health system" (n = 14). For OECD-countries of the type "social insurance" (n = 8) this convergence process is observed only for the time period 1970 - 1980. Some results confirm the hypothesis of the "growth to limits" (Flora). But it appears to us that in future other significant factors like globalisation processes, the increasing potentials of the medical technology and demographic changes may play an important role for the overall health budget and specific needs of the population in the OECD-states. PMID:15747194

  8. [The changing role of the state in health care systems in OECD countries--research questions, research design and first results].

    PubMed

    Helmert, U; Cacace, M; Grimmeisen, S; Wendt, C; Rothgang, H

    2005-02-01

    In the framework of the DFG-Research-Unit 597 "Transformation of the State" is Project C3 investigating the change of the role of the state in health care systems in OECD-countries between 1970 and 2000. The primary research hypothesis is, that a tendency of convergence exists regarding the role of the state for the three main dimensions of health care systems, namely service provision, financing and regulation. This is carried out firstly based on a quantitative oriented analysis for 23 OECD-countries, utilising the data set "OECD Health Data 2002", and secondly with qualitative oriented country-studies for England, Germany and the U.S. Findings for the qualitative country-studies give some hints of convergence regarding the "private-public-mix" between the health system types "social insurance" (Germany), "national health system" (England), and "market oriented health system" (USA). First quantitative results concerning the changing role of the state in relation to the health care systems in OECD-countries provide evidence for a convergence process between these states in the financing dimension. For the dependent variable "total health care costs in % of gross domestic product" a trend of convergence is observed for the members states of the European Union (n = 12), while in the remaining Non-EU countries (n = 11) a trend of divergence is identified. For the same parameter we found a convergence for OECD-countries of the type "national health system" (n = 14). For OECD-countries of the type "social insurance" (n = 8) this convergence process is observed only for the time period 1970 - 1980. Some results confirm the hypothesis of the "growth to limits" (Flora). But it appears to us that in future other significant factors like globalisation processes, the increasing potentials of the medical technology and demographic changes may play an important role for the overall health budget and specific needs of the population in the OECD-states.

  9. How agro-ecological research helps to address food security issues under new IPM and pesticide reduction policies for global crop production systems.

    PubMed

    E Birch, A Nicholas; Begg, Graham S; Squire, Geoffrey R

    2011-06-01

    Drivers behind food security and crop protection issues are discussed in relation to food losses caused by pests. Pests globally consume food estimated to feed an additional one billion people. Key drivers include rapid human population increase, climate change, loss of beneficial on-farm biodiversity, reduction in per capita cropped land, water shortages, and EU pesticide withdrawals under policies relating to 91/414 EEC. IPM (Integrated Pest Management) will be compulsory for all EU agriculture by 2014 and is also being widely adopted globally. IPM offers a 'toolbox' of complementary crop- and region-specific crop protection solutions to address these rising pressures. IPM aims for more sustainable solutions by using complementary technologies. The applied research challenge now is to reduce selection pressure on single solution strategies, by creating additive/synergistic interactions between IPM components. IPM is compatible with organic, conventional, and GM cropping systems and is flexible, allowing regional fine-tuning. It reduces pests below economic thresholds utilizing key 'ecological services', particularly biocontrol. A recent global review demonstrates that IPM can reduce pesticide use and increase yields of most of the major crops studied. Landscape scale 'ecological engineering', together with genetic improvement of new crop varieties, will enhance the durability of pest-resistant cultivars (conventional and GM). IPM will also promote compatibility with semiochemicals, biopesticides, precision pest monitoring tools, and rapid diagnostics. These combined strategies are urgently needed and are best achieved via multi-disciplinary research, including complex spatio-temporal modelling at farm and landscape scales. Integrative and synergistic use of existing and new IPM technologies will help meet future food production needs more sustainably in developed and developing countries, in an era of reduced pesticide availability. Current IPM research gaps are

  10. Rigour in quantitative research.

    PubMed

    Claydon, Leica Sarah

    2015-07-22

    This article which forms part of the research series addresses scientific rigour in quantitative research. It explores the basis and use of quantitative research and the nature of scientific rigour. It examines how the reader may determine whether quantitative research results are accurate, the questions that should be asked to determine accuracy and the checklists that may be used in this process. Quantitative research has advantages in nursing, since it can provide numerical data to help answer questions encountered in everyday practice.

  11. Beware Answers with Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humble, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Answers to mathematical problems come in all forms and most come with a variety of questions. Students often forget to ask questions once they have found an answer. This paper suggests that students would always benefit by questioning answers.

  12. The Doctor Is In: Practical Answers to Perplexing Questions about Classroom Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutknecht, Bruce

    To address the gap perceived by classroom reading teachers between research findings and reading process theories and the realities of classroom reading instruction, this paper poses six questions/problems often asked by reading teachers, and answers them with information drawn from current research and theory. Topics covered in the questions…

  13. The Answer Depends on the Question: A Reply to Eric Jensen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The question that Eric Jensen addresses in his article is whether brain research can provide a basis for educational practice. He debates John Bruer, president of the James S. McDonnell Foundation, and argues that brain research can, in fact, provide a basis for what educators do. Most of Jensen's article is devoted to showing ways in which brain…

  14. Brief Report: Attitudes about Responding to Survey Questions Concerning Childhood Sexual Abuse by Hispanic Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Frederick A.; Salinas, Nancy I.; Perez, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    In no studies have research participants been asked how they feel about answering questions concerning childhood sexual abuse. We have performed searches from two different search engines again and have found nothing published which specifically addresses this question in the way we have. A questionnaire about childhood sexual abuse was…

  15. Posing Einstein's Question: Questioning Einstein's Pose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topper, David; Vincent, Dwight E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the events surrounding a famous picture of Albert Einstein in which he poses near a blackboard containing a tensor form of his 10 field equations for pure gravity with a question mark after it. Speculates as to the content of Einstein's lecture and the questions he might have had about the equation. (Contains over 30 references.) (WRM)

  16. The Presidential Address 2013: Promoting Enthusiasm, Imparting Knowledge! Science for the General Population and Science for Future Researchers Must All Start in the School Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a transcript of the Presidential Address delivered by Martin Rees, Lord Rees of Ludlow, to the Association for Science Education (ASE) Annual Conference at the University of Reading, January 2013. The address is divided into five sections under the following headings: (1) Three Reasons Why the ASE's Mission Is So…

  17. Provocative Questions in Cancer: NCI Seminar

    Cancer.gov

    science writers' seminar to discuss various aspects of one of NCI’s signature efforts -- the Provocative Questions project. Discussion will focus on the scientific research that surrounds some of these questions.

  18. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  19. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  20. Measuring victimization inside prisons: questioning the questions.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Nancy; Jing Shi; Bachman, Ronet

    2008-10-01

    Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the questions used in the prison victimization literature to elicit information on victimization from inmates, compared to questions used in the general victimization literature. The questions used in the National Violence Against Women and Men Surveys are used to estimate sexual and physical victimization rates for an entire prison system. Rates of victimization were found to vary significantly by specificity of the question, definition of perpetrator, and clustering of behaviors. Facts about victimization inside prison will become more certain when the methodology becomes more standardized and consistent with definitions of victimization. PMID:18309042