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Sample records for address social determinants

  1. Addressing the social determinants of children's health: a cliff analogy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Camara Phyllis; Jones, Clara Yvonne; Perry, Geraldine S; Barclay, Gillian; Jones, Camille Arnel

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a "Cliff Analogy" illustrating three dimensions of health intervention to help people who are falling off of the cliff of good health: providing health services, addressing the social determinants of health, and addressing the social determinants of equity. In the terms of the analogy, health services include an ambulance at the bottom of the cliff, a net or trampoline halfway down, and a fence at the top of the cliff. Addressing the social determinants of health involves the deliberate movement of the population away from the edge of the cliff. Addressing the social determinants of equity acknowledges that the cliff is three-dimensional and involves interventions on the structures, policies, practices, norms, and values that differentially distribute resources and risks along the cliff face. The authors affirm that we need to address both the social determinants of health, including poverty, and the social determinants of equity, including racism, if we are to improve health outcomes and eliminate health disparities.

  2. Beyond pills and tests: addressing the social determinants of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, Tom; Tovar, Marco A; Huff, Doug; Boccia, Delia; Saunders, Matthew J; Datta, Sumona; Montoya, Rosario; Ramos, Eric; Lewis, James J; Gilman, Robert H; Evans, Carlton

    2016-12-01

    Poverty drives tuberculosis (TB) rates but the approach to TB control has been disproportionately biomedical. In 2015, the World Health Organization's End TB Strategy explicitly identified the need to address the social determinants of TB through socio-economic interventions. However, evidence concerning poverty reduction and cost mitigation strategies is limited. The research described in this article, based on the 2016 Royal College of Physicians Linacre Lecture, aimed to address this knowledge gap. The research was divided into two phases: the first phase was an analysis of a cohort study identifying TB-related costs of TB-affected households and creating a clinically relevant threshold above which those costs became catastrophic; the second was the design, implementation and evaluation of a household randomised controlled evaluation of socio-economic support to improve access to preventive therapy, increase TB cure, and mitigate the effects of catastrophic costs. The first phase showed TB remains a disease of people living in poverty - 'free' TB care was unaffordable for impoverished TB-affected households and incurring catastrophic costs was associated with as many adverse TB treatment outcomes (including death, failure of treatment, lost to follow-up and TB recurrence) as multidrug resistant (MDR) TB. The second phase showed that, in TB-affected households receiving socio-economic support, household contacts were more likely to start and adhere to TB preventive therapy, TB patients were more likely to be cured and households were less likely to incur catastrophic costs. In impoverished Peruvian shantytowns, poverty remains inextricably linked with TB and incurring catastrophic costs predicted adverse TB treatment outcome. A novel socio-economic support intervention increased TB preventive therapy uptake, improved TB treatment success and reduced catastrophic costs. The impact of the intervention on TB control is currently being evaluated by the Community

  3. Making the invisible visible: are health social workers addressing the social determinants of health?

    PubMed

    Craig, Shelley L; Bejan, Raluca; Muskat, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the ways in which health social workers (HSW) address the social determinants of health (SDH) within their social work practice. Social workers (n = 54) employed at major hospitals across Toronto had many years of practice in health care (M = 11 years; SD = 10.32) and indicated that SDH were a top priority in their daily work; with 98% intentionally intervening with at least one and 91% attending to three or more. Health care services were most often addressed (92%), followed by housing (72%), disability (79%), income (72%), and employment security (70%). Few HSW were tackling racism, Aboriginal status, gender, or social exclusion in their daily practice.

  4. Addressing the Social Determinants of Health to Reduce Tobacco-Related Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Bridgette E.; Dube, Shanta R.; Babb, Stephen; McAfee, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Comprehensive tobacco prevention and control efforts that include implementing smoke-free air laws, increasing tobacco prices, conducting hard-hitting mass media campaigns, and making evidence-based cessation treatments available are effective in reducing tobacco use in the general population. However, if these interventions are not implemented in an equitable manner, certain population groups may be left out causing or exacerbating disparities in tobacco use. Disparities in tobacco use have, in part, stemmed from inequities in the way tobacco control policies and programs have been adopted and implemented to reach and impact the most vulnerable segments of the population that have the highest rates of smokings (e.g., those with lower education and incomes). Methods Education and income are the 2 main social determinants of health that negatively impact health. However, there are other social determinants of health that must be considered for tobacco control policies to be effective in reducing tobacco-related disparities. This article will provide an overview of how tobacco control policies and programs can address key social determinants of health in order to achieve equity and eliminate disparities in tobacco prevention and control. Results Tobacco control policy interventions can be effective in addressing the social determinants of health in tobacco prevention and control to achieve equity and eliminate tobacco-related disparities when they are implemented consistently and equitably across all population groups. Conclusions Taking a social determinants of health approach in tobacco prevention and control will be necessary to achieve equity and eliminate tobacco-related disparities. PMID:25516538

  5. Addressing the Social Determinants of Suicidal Behaviors and Poor Mental Health in LGBTI Populations in Australia.

    PubMed

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael; Mars, Michelle

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and assess-as well as identify and rectify gaps in-intervention and prevention initiatives that specifically address poor mental health outcomes and suicidal behaviors in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) populations in Australia. It begins with an overview of the evidence base for heightened vulnerability to suicidal behaviors among LGBTI people in Australia. It then provides a discussion on the public health implications for LGBTI-targeted mental health initiatives and the prevention of and timely intervention in LGBTI suicidal behaviors. We conclude that the literature supports an increased risk for poorer mental health outcomes and suicidal behaviors in LGBTI populations in the Australian context. Psychological distress and suicidal behaviors in LGBTI people in Australia have social determinants that can and have been addressed through the provision of interventions with a strong evidence base in reducing these outcomes, implemented at a nationwide level, including training of health professionals and gatekeepers to mental health services and the general public. We conclude that the current Australian focus appears to address many of the social determinants of suicidal behaviors and poor mental health in LGBTI people but requires sustained and uniform government support if it is to continue and to produce measurable results.

  6. Addressing social determinants of health inequities: what can the state and civil society do?

    PubMed

    Blas, Erik; Gilson, Lucy; Kelly, Michael P; Labonté, Ronald; Lapitan, Jostacio; Muntaner, Carles; Ostlin, Piroska; Popay, Jennie; Sadana, Ritu; Sen, Gita; Schrecker, Ted; Vaghri, Ziba

    2008-11-08

    In this Health Policy article, we selected and reviewed evidence synthesised by nine knowledge networks established by WHO to support the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. We have indicated the part that national governments and civil society can play in reducing health inequity. Government action can take three forms: (1) as provider or guarantor of human rights and essential services; (2) as facilitator of policy frameworks that provide the basis for equitable health improvement; and (3) as gatherer and monitor of data about their populations in ways that generate health information about mortality and morbidity and data about health equity. We use examples from the knowledge networks to illustrate some of the options governments have in fulfilling this role. Civil society takes many forms: here, we have used examples of community groups and social movements. Governments and civil society can have important positive roles in addressing health inequity if political will exists.

  7. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  8. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH. PMID:26928215

  9. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH.

  10. Narratives and Images Used by Public Communication Campaigns Addressing Social Determinants of Health and Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Christopher E.; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Lundell, Helen C.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have increasingly focused on how social determinants of health (SDH) influence health outcomes and disparities. They have also explored strategies for raising public awareness and mobilizing support for policies to address SDH, with particular attention to narrative and image-based information. These efforts will need to overcome low public awareness and concern about SDH; few organized campaigns; and limited descriptions of existing message content. To begin addressing these challenges, we analyzed characteristics of 58 narratives and 135 visual images disseminated by two national SDH awareness initiatives: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Commission to Build a Healthier America and the PBS-produced documentary film Unnatural Causes. Certain types of SDH, including income/wealth and one’s home and workplace environment, were emphasized more heavily than others. Solutions for addressing SDH often involved combinations of self-driven motivation (such as changes in personal health behaviors) along with externally-driven factors such as government policy related to urban revitilization. Images, especially graphs and charts, drew connections among SDH, health outcomes, and other variables, such as the relationship between mother’s education and infant mortality as well as the link between heart disease and education levels within communities. We discuss implications of these findings for raising awareness of SDH and health disparities in the US through narrative and visual means. PMID:23330220

  11. Narratives and images used by public communication campaigns addressing social determinants of health and health disparities.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Christopher E; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Lundell, Helen C

    2012-12-01

    Researchers have increasingly focused on how social determinants of health (SDH) influence health outcomes and disparities. They have also explored strategies for raising public awareness and mobilizing support for policies to address SDH, with particular attention to narrative and image-based information. These efforts will need to overcome low public awareness and concern about SDH; few organized campaigns; and limited descriptions of existing message content. To begin addressing these challenges, we analyzed characteristics of 58 narratives and 135 visual images disseminated by two national SDH awareness initiatives: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Commission to Build a Healthier America and the PBS-produced documentary film Unnatural Causes. Certain types of SDH, including income/wealth and one's home and workplace environment, were emphasized more heavily than others. Solutions for addressing SDH often involved combinations of self-driven motivation (such as changes in personal health behaviors) along with externally-driven factors such as government policy related to urban revitilization. Images, especially graphs and charts, drew connections among SDH, health outcomes, and other variables, such as the relationship between mother's education and infant mortality as well as the link between heart disease and education levels within communities. We discuss implications of these findings for raising awareness of SDH and health disparities in the US through narrative and visual means.

  12. A Framework for Educating Health Professionals to Address the Social Determinants of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization defines the social determinants of health as "the conditions in which people are born, grow, work, live, and age, and the wider set of forces and systems shaping the conditions of daily life." These forces and systems include economic policies, development agendas, cultural and social norms, social policies,…

  13. Ideological and organizational components of differing public health strategies for addressing the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis; Brassolotto, Julia; Baldeo, Navindra

    2015-12-01

    Despite a history of conceptual contributions to reducing health inequalities by addressing the social determinants of health (SDH), Canadian governmental authorities have struggled to put these concepts into action. Ontario's-Canada's most populous province-public health scene shows a similar pattern. In statements and reports, governmental ministries, professional associations and local public health units (PHUs) recognize the importance of these issues, yet there has been varying implementation of these concepts into public health activity. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the key features responsible for differences in SDH-related activities among local PHUs. We interviewed Medical Officers of Health (MOH) and key staff members from nine local PHUs in Ontario varying in SDH activity as to their understandings of the SDH, public health's role in addressing the SDH, and their units' SDH-related activities. We also reviewed their unit's documents and their organizational structures in relation to acting on the SDH. Three clusters of PHUs are identified based on their SDH-related activities: service-delivery-oriented; intersectoral and community-based; and public policy/public education-focused. The two key factors that differentiate PHUs are specific ideological commitments held by MOHs and staff and the organizational structures established to carry out SDH-related activities. The ideological commitments and the organizational structures of the most active PHUs showed congruence with frameworks adopted by national jurisdictions known for addressing health inequalities. These include a structural analysis of the SDH and a centralized organizational structure that coordinates SDH-related activities.

  14. The case for the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health to address gender identity.

    PubMed

    Pega, Frank; Veale, Jaimie F

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed the case of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, which did not address gender identity in their final report. We argue that gender identity is increasingly being recognized as an important social determinant of health (SDH) that results in health inequities. We identify right to health mechanisms, such as established human rights instruments, as suitable policy tools for addressing gender identity as an SDH to improve health equity. We urge the World Health Organization to add gender identity as an SDH in its conceptual framework for action on the SDHs and to develop and implement specific recommendations for addressing gender identity as an SDH.

  15. Community health clinical education in Canada: part 2--developing competencies to address social justice, equity, and the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Benita E; Gregory, David

    2009-01-01

    Recently, several Canadian professional nursing associations have highlighted the expectations that community health nurses (CHNs) should address the social determinants of health and promote social justice and equity. These developments have important implications for (pre-licensure) CHN clinical education. This article reports the findings of a qualitative descriptive study that explored how baccalaureate nursing programs in Canada address the development of competencies related to social justice, equity, and the social determinants of health in their community health clinical courses. Focus group interviews were held with community health clinical course leaders in selected Canadian baccalaureate nursing programs. The findings foster understanding of key enablers and challenges when providing students with clinical opportunities to develop the CHN role related to social injustice, inequity, and the social determinants of health. The findings may also have implications for nursing programs internationally that are addressing these concepts in their community health clinical courses.

  16. A community health worker intervention to address the social determinants of health through policy change.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Maia; Schachter, Ken A; Sabo, Samantha J; Reinschmidt, Kerstin M; Gomez, Sofia; De Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Carvajal, Scott C

    2014-04-01

    Public policy that seeks to achieve sustainable improvements in the social determinants of health, such as income, education, housing, food security and neighborhood conditions, can create positive and sustainable health effects. This paper describes preliminary results of Acción para la Salud, a public health intervention in which Community health workers (CHWs) from five health agencies engaged their community in the process of making positive systems and environmental changes. Academic-community partners trained Acción CHWs in community advocacy and provided ongoing technical assistance in developing strategic advocacy plans. The CHWs documented community advocacy activities through encounter forms in which they identified problems, formulated solutions, and described systems and policy change efforts. Strategy maps described the steps of the advocacy plans. Findings demonstrate that CHWs worked to initiate discussions about underlying social determinants and environment-related factors that impact health, and identified solutions to improve neighborhood conditions, create community opportunities, and increase access to services.

  17. From office tools to community supports: The need for infrastructure to address the social determinants of health in paediatric practice

    PubMed Central

    Fazalullasha, Fatima; Taras, Jillian; Morinis, Julia; Levin, Leo; Karmali, Karima; Neilson, Barbara; Muskat, Barbara; Bloch, Gary; Chan, Kevin; McDonald, Maureen; Makin, Sue; Ford-Jones, E Lee

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has highlighted the importance of addressing the social determinants of health to improve child health outcomes. However, significant barriers exist that limit the paediatrician’s ability to properly address these issues. Barriers include a lack of clinical time, resources, training and education with regard to the social determinants of health; awareness of community resources; and case-management capacity. General practice recommendations to help the health care provider link patients to the community are insufficient. The objective of the current article was to present options for improving the link between the office and the community, using screening questions incorporating physician-based tools that link community resources. Simple interventions, such as routine referral to early-year centres and selected referral to public health home-visiting programs, may help to address populations with the greatest needs. PMID:24855416

  18. From office tools to community supports: The need for infrastructure to address the social determinants of health in paediatric practice.

    PubMed

    Fazalullasha, Fatima; Taras, Jillian; Morinis, Julia; Levin, Leo; Karmali, Karima; Neilson, Barbara; Muskat, Barbara; Bloch, Gary; Chan, Kevin; McDonald, Maureen; Makin, Sue; Ford-Jones, E Lee

    2014-04-01

    Previous research has highlighted the importance of addressing the social determinants of health to improve child health outcomes. However, significant barriers exist that limit the paediatrician's ability to properly address these issues. Barriers include a lack of clinical time, resources, training and education with regard to the social determinants of health; awareness of community resources; and case-management capacity. General practice recommendations to help the health care provider link patients to the community are insufficient. The objective of the current article was to present options for improving the link between the office and the community, using screening questions incorporating physician-based tools that link community resources. Simple interventions, such as routine referral to early-year centres and selected referral to public health home-visiting programs, may help to address populations with the greatest needs.

  19. The Case for the World Health Organization’s Commission on Social Determinants of Health to Address Gender Identity

    PubMed Central

    Veale, Jaimie F.

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the case of the World Health Organization’s Commission on Social Determinants of Health, which did not address gender identity in their final report. We argue that gender identity is increasingly being recognized as an important social determinant of health (SDH) that results in health inequities. We identify right to health mechanisms, such as established human rights instruments, as suitable policy tools for addressing gender identity as an SDH to improve health equity. We urge the World Health Organization to add gender identity as an SDH in its conceptual framework for action on the SDHs and to develop and implement specific recommendations for addressing gender identity as an SDH. PMID:25602894

  20. Getting to the root of the problem: health promotion strategies to address the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Gore, Dana M; Kothari, Anita R

    2013-01-08

    Although extensive research shows that the social determinants of health influence the distribution and course of chronic diseases, there is little programming in public health that addresses the social determinants as a disease prevention strategy. This paper discusses different types of health promotion initiatives and differentiates them based on whether they attempt to impact intermediate (environmental) determinants of health or structural determinants of health. We argue for the importance of programming targeted at the structural determinants as opposed to programming targeted solely at the immediate environment. Specifically, the former has more potential to create significant improvements in health, contribute to long-term social change and increase health equity. We urge public health leaders to take this distinction into consideration during public health program planning, and to build capacity in the public health workforce to tackle structural mechanisms that lead to poor health and health inequities.

  1. Migrant women's perceptions of healthcare during pregnancy and early motherhood: addressing the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Lígia Moreira; Casanova, Catarina; Caldas, José; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo; Dias, Sónia

    2014-08-01

    Recent guidelines from the World Health Organization emphasize the need to monitor the social determinants of health, with particular focus on the most vulnerable groups. With this in mind, we evaluated the access, use and perceived quality of care received by migrant women during pregnancy and early motherhood, in a large urban area in northern Portugal. We performed semi-structured interviews in 25 recent mothers, contacted through welfare institutions, who had immigrated from Eastern European countries, Brazil, or Portuguese-speaking African countries. Six native-Portuguese women of equal economic status were also interviewed for comparison. Misinformation about legal rights and inadequate clarification during medical appointments frequently interacted with social determinants, such as low social-economic status, unemployment, and poor living conditions, to result in lower perceived quality of healthcare. Special attention needs to be given to the most vulnerable populations in order to improve healthcare. Challenges reside not only in assuring access, but also in promoting equity in the quality of care.

  2. Addressing the social determinants of health of children and youth: a role for SOPHE members.

    PubMed

    Allensworth, Diane D

    2011-08-01

    The determinants of youth health disparities include poverty, unequal access to health care, poor environmental conditions, and educational inequities. Poor and minority children have more health problems and less access to health care than their higher socioeconomic status cohorts. Having more health problems leads to more absenteeism in school, which, in turn, can affect achievement. The educational level that one attains is a significant determinant of one's earning potential and health. Those who learn more earn more money and have a better health status. Those who do not attain a high school diploma on average live 6 to 9 years less than those who do graduate from high school. Furthermore, their children also experience poorer health and the cycle is repeated. Achieving a high school diploma and a college degree is an acknowledged route out of poverty. However, that route is blocked for many poor and minority students. SOPHE is in a prime position to be the organization linking the health care, public health and education sectors in addressing the reduction of both health disparities and educational inequities. This article describes what SOPHE members can do both individually and collectively to reduce the health and educational inequities facing our most vulnerable children.

  3. Addressing the social determinants of health through the Alameda County, California, place matters policy initiative.

    PubMed

    Schaff, Katherine; Desautels, Alexandra; Flournoy, Rebecca; Carson, Keith; Drenick, Teresa; Fujii, Darlene; Lee, Anna; Luginbuhl, Jessica; Mena, Mona; Shrago, Amy; Siegel, Anita; Stahl, Robert; Watkins-Tartt, Kimi; Willow, Pam; Witt, Sandra; Woloshin, Diane; Yamashita, Brenda

    2013-11-01

    In Alameda County, California, significant health inequities by race/ethnicity, income, and place persist. Many of the county's low-income residents and residents of color live in communities that have faced historical and current disinvestment through public policies. This disinvestment affects community conditions such as access to economic opportunities, well-maintained and affordable housing, high-quality schools, healthy food, safe parks, and clean water and air. These community conditions greatly affect health. At the invitation of the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies' national Place Matters initiative, Alameda County Supervisor Keith Carson's Office and the Alameda County Public Health Department launched Alameda County Place Matters, an initiative that addresses community conditions through local policy change. We describe the initiative's creation, activities, policy successes, and best practices.

  4. Addressing the Social Determinants of Health of Children and Youth: A Role for SOPHE Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allensworth, Diane D.

    2011-01-01

    The determinants of youth health disparities include poverty, unequal access to health care, poor environmental conditions, and educational inequities. Poor and minority children have more health problems and less access to health care than their higher socioeconomic status cohorts. Having more health problems leads to more absenteeism in school,…

  5. Public social monitoring reports and their effect on a policy programme aimed at addressing the social determinants of health to improve health equity in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Pega, Frank; Valentine, Nicole B; Matheson, Don; Rasanathan, Kumanan

    2014-01-01

    The important role that monitoring plays in advancing global health is well established. However, the role of social monitoring as a tool for addressing social determinants of health (SDH) and health equity-focused policies remains under-researched. This paper assesses the extent and ways in which New Zealand's (NZ) Social Reports (SRs) supported a SDH- and health equity-oriented policy programme nationally over the 2000-2008 period by documenting the SRs' history and assessing its impact on policies across sectors in government and civil society. We conducted key-informant interviews with five senior policy-makers and an e-mail survey with 24 government and civil society representatives on SRs' history and policy impact. We identified common themes across these data and classified them accordingly to assess the intensity of the reports' use and their impact on SDH- and health equity-focused policies. Bibliometric analyses of government publications and media items were undertaken to empirically assess SRs' impact on government and civil society. SRs in NZ arose out of the role played by government as the "benevolent social welfare planner" and an understanding of the necessity of economic and social security for "progress". The SRs were linked to establishing a government-wide programme aimed at reducing inequalities. They have been used moderately to highly in central and local government and in civil society, both within and outside the health sector, but have neither entered public treasury and economic development departments nor the commercial sector. The SRs have not reached the more universal status of economic indicators. However, they have had some success at raising awareness of, and have stimulated isolated action on, SDH. The NZ case suggests that national-level social monitoring provides a valuable tool for raising awareness of SDH across government and civil society. A number of strategies could improve social reports' effectiveness in stimulating

  6. Defining health by addressing individual, social, and environmental determinants: New opportunities for health care and public health

    PubMed Central

    Bircher, Johannes; Kuruvilla, Shyama

    2014-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) mobilized global commitments to promote health, socioeconomic, and sustainable development. Trends indicate that the health MDGs may not be achieved by 2015, in part because of insufficient coordination across related health, socioeconomic, and environmental initiatives. Explicitly acknowledging the need for such collaboration, the Meikirch Model of Health posits that: Health is a state of wellbeing emergent from conducive interactions between individuals' potentials, life's demands, and social and environmental determinants. Health results throughout the life course when individuals' potentials – and social and environmental determinants – suffice to respond satisfactorily to the demands of life. Life's demands can be physiological, psychosocial, or environmental, and vary across contexts, but in every case unsatisfactory responses lead to disease. This conceptualization of the integrative nature of health could contribute to ongoing efforts to strengthen cooperation across actors and sectors to improve individual and population health – leading up to 2015 and beyond. PMID:24943659

  7. Addressing the social determinants of health: a case study from the Mitanin (community health worker) programme in India.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Sulakshana; Schneider, Helen

    2014-09-01

    The Mitanin Programme, a government community health worker (CHW) programme, was started in Chhattisgarh State of India in 2002. The CHWs (Mitanins) have consistently adopted roles that go beyond health programme-specific interventions to embrace community mobilization and action on local priorities. The aim of this research was to document how and why the Mitanins have been able to act on the social determinants of health, describing the catalysts and processes involved and the enabling programmatic and organizational factors. A qualitative comparative case study of successful action by Mitanin was conducted in two 'blocks', purposefully selected as positive exemplars in two districts of Chhattisgarh. One case focused on malnutrition and the other on gender-based violence. Data collection involved 17 in-depth interviews and 10 group interviews with the full range of stakeholders in both blocks, including community members and programme team. Thematic analysis was done using a broad conceptual framework that was further refined. Action on social determinants involved raising awareness on rights, mobilizing women's collectives, revitalizing local political structures and social action targeting both the community and government service providers. Through these processes, the Mitanins developed identities as agents of change and advocates for the community, both with respect to local cultural and gender norms and in ensuring accountability of service providers. The factors underpinning successful action on social determinants were identified as the significance of the original intent and vision of the programme, and how this was carried through into all aspects of programme design, the role of the Mitanins and their identification with village women, ongoing training and support, and the relative autonomy of the programme. Although the results are not narrowly generalizable and do not necessarily represent the situation of the Mitanin Programme as a whole, the

  8. Addressing the social determinants of health: a case study from the Mitanin (community health worker) programme in India

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The Mitanin Programme, a government community health worker (CHW) programme, was started in Chhattisgarh State of India in 2002. The CHWs (Mitanins) have consistently adopted roles that go beyond health programme-specific interventions to embrace community mobilization and action on local priorities. The aim of this research was to document how and why the Mitanins have been able to act on the social determinants of health, describing the catalysts and processes involved and the enabling programmatic and organizational factors. A qualitative comparative case study of successful action by Mitanin was conducted in two ‘blocks’, purposefully selected as positive exemplars in two districts of Chhattisgarh. One case focused on malnutrition and the other on gender-based violence. Data collection involved 17 in-depth interviews and 10 group interviews with the full range of stakeholders in both blocks, including community members and programme team. Thematic analysis was done using a broad conceptual framework that was further refined. Action on social determinants involved raising awareness on rights, mobilizing women’s collectives, revitalizing local political structures and social action targeting both the community and government service providers. Through these processes, the Mitanins developed identities as agents of change and advocates for the community, both with respect to local cultural and gender norms and in ensuring accountability of service providers. The factors underpinning successful action on social determinants were identified as the significance of the original intent and vision of the programme, and how this was carried through into all aspects of programme design, the role of the Mitanins and their identification with village women, ongoing training and support, and the relative autonomy of the programme. Although the results are not narrowly generalizable and do not necessarily represent the situation of the Mitanin Programme as a whole, the

  9. Addressing the social and environmental determinants of urban health equity: evidence for action and a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Akerman, Marco; Hancock, Trevor; Kumaresan, Jacob; Marmot, Michael; Melin, Thomas; Vlahov, David

    2011-10-01

    Urban living is the new reality for the majority of the world's population. Urban change is taking place in a context of other global challenges--economic globalization, climate change, financial crises, energy and food insecurity, old and emerging armed conflicts, as well as the changing patterns of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. These health and social problems, in countries with different levels of infrastructure and health system preparedness, pose significant development challenges in the 21st century. In all countries, rich and poor, the move to urban living has been both good and bad for population health, and has contributed to the unequal distribution of health both within countries (the urban-rural divide) and within cities (the rich-poor divide). In this series of papers, we demonstrate that urban planning and design and urban social conditions can be good or bad for human health and health equity depending on how they are set up. We argue that climate change mitigation and adaptation need to go hand-in-hand with efforts to achieve health equity through action in the social determinants. And we highlight how different forms of governance can shape agendas, policies, and programs in ways that are inclusive and health-promoting or perpetuate social exclusion, inequitable distribution of resources, and the inequities in health associated with that. While today we can describe many of the features of a healthy and sustainable city, and the governance and planning processes needed to achieve these ends, there is still much to learn, especially with respect to tailoring these concepts and applying them in the cities of lower- and middle-income countries. By outlining an integrated research agenda, we aim to assist researchers, policy makers, service providers, and funding bodies/donors to better support, coordinate, and undertake research that is organized around a conceptual framework that positions health, equity, and sustainability as central

  10. Addressing health and health-care disparities: the role of a diverse workforce and the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Chazeman S; Gracia, J Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Despite major advances in medicine and public health during the past few decades, disparities in health and health care persist. Racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States are at disproportionate risk of being uninsured, lacking access to care, and experiencing worse health outcomes from preventable and treatable conditions. As reducing these disparities has become a national priority, insight into the social determinants of health has become increasingly important. This article offers a rationale for increasing the diversity and cultural competency of the health and health-care workforce, and describes key strategies led by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Office of Minority Health to promote cultural competency in the health-care system and strengthen community-level approaches to improving health and health care for all.

  11. Multi-Sectoral Action for Addressing Social Determinants of Noncommunicable Diseases and Mainstreaming Health Promotion in National Health Programmes in India

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Monika; Chauhan, Kavita; John, Shoba; Mukhopadhyay, Alok

    2011-01-01

    Major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) share common behavioral risk factors and deep-rooted social determinants. India needs to address its growing NCD burden through health promoting partnerships, policies, and programs. High-level political commitment, inter-sectoral coordination, and community mobilization are important in developing a successful, national, multi-sectoral program for the prevention and control of NCDs. The World Health Organization's “Action Plan for a Global Strategy for Prevention and Control of NCDs” calls for a comprehensive plan involving a whole-of-Government approach. Inter-sectoral coordination will need to start at the planning stage and continue to the implementation, evaluation of interventions, and enactment of public policies. An efficient multi-sectoral mechanism is also crucial at the stage of monitoring, evaluating enforcement of policies, and analyzing impact of multi-sectoral initiatives on reducing NCD burden in the country. This paper presents a critical appraisal of social determinants influencing NCDs, in the Indian context, and how multi-sectoral action can effectively address such challenges through mainstreaming health promotion into national health and development programs. India, with its wide socio-cultural, economic, and geographical diversities, poses several unique challenges in addressing NCDs. On the other hand, the jurisdiction States have over health, presents multiple opportunities to address health from the local perspective, while working on the national framework around multi-sectoral aspects of NCDs. PMID:22628911

  12. Evaluation of community level interventions to address social and structural determinants of health: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Martin; Hayes, Richard; Moore, Derek; Petticrew, Mark; Clow, Angela; Schmidt, Elena; Draper, Alizon; Lock, Karen; Lynch, Rebecca; Renton, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    organisational levels targeted by the intervention, and secondly, a degree of flexibility or tailoring of the intervention, makes this trial potentially very useful in providing evidence of the types of activities that can be used to address chronic health problems in communities suffering from multiple deprivation. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN68175121 PMID:19558712

  13. Addressing social resistance in emerging security technologies.

    PubMed

    Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In their efforts to enhance the safety and security of citizens, governments and law enforcement agencies look to scientists and engineers to produce modern methods for preventing, detecting, and prosecuting criminal activities. Whole body scanners, lie detection technologies, biometrics, etc., are all being developed for incorporation into the criminal justice apparatus. Yet despite their purported security benefits these technologies often evoke social resistance. Concerns over privacy, ethics, and function-creep appear repeatedly in analyses of these technologies. It is argued here that scientists and engineers continue to pay insufficient attention to this resistance; acknowledging the presence of these social concerns yet failing to meaningfully address them. In so doing they place at risk the very technologies and techniques they are seeking to develop, for socially controversial security technologies face restrictions and in some cases outright banning. By identifying sources of potential social resistance early in the research and design process, scientists can both engage with the public in meaningful debate and modify their security technologies before deployment so as to minimize social resistance and enhance uptake.

  14. Addressing social resistance in emerging security technologies

    PubMed Central

    Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In their efforts to enhance the safety and security of citizens, governments and law enforcement agencies look to scientists and engineers to produce modern methods for preventing, detecting, and prosecuting criminal activities. Whole body scanners, lie detection technologies, biometrics, etc., are all being developed for incorporation into the criminal justice apparatus.1 Yet despite their purported security benefits these technologies often evoke social resistance. Concerns over privacy, ethics, and function-creep appear repeatedly in analyses of these technologies. It is argued here that scientists and engineers continue to pay insufficient attention to this resistance; acknowledging the presence of these social concerns yet failing to meaningfully address them. In so doing they place at risk the very technologies and techniques they are seeking to develop, for socially controversial security technologies face restrictions and in some cases outright banning. By identifying sources of potential social resistance early in the research and design process, scientists can both engage with the public in meaningful debate and modify their security technologies before deployment so as to minimize social resistance and enhance uptake. PMID:23970863

  15. Close to community health providers post 2015: Realising their role in responsive health systems and addressing gendered social determinants of health

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Universal health coverage is gaining momentum and is likely to form a core part of the post Millennium Development Goal (MDG) agenda and be linked to social determinants of health, including gender; Close to community health providers are arguably key players in meeting the goal of universal health coverage through extending and delivering health services to poor and marginalised groups; Close to community health providers are embedded in communities and may therefore be strategically placed to understand intra household gender and power dynamics and how social determinants shape health and well-being. However, the opportunities to develop critical awareness and to translate this knowledge into health system and multi-sectoral action are poorly understood; Enabling close to community health providers to realise their potential requires health systems support and human resource management at multiple levels. PMID:28281706

  16. Seeds of HOPE: a model for addressing social and economic determinants of health in a women's obesity prevention project in two rural communities.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Salli; Campbell, Marci; Doolen, Anne; Rivera, Imana; Negussie, Tezita; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle

    2007-10-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) and income disparity are strong predictors of health, and health promotion interventions that address them are more likely to be meaningful to participants and to sustain positive effects. Seeds of HOPE is an innovative project that is the result of a long-standing collaboration between the University of North Carolina (UNC) Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Prevention Research Center, and communities in rural North Carolina. Initial formative work, including key informant interviews, community surveys, and focus groups, strengthened our understanding of the link between hope and health and the importance of addressing social and economic issues as part of our health promotion interventions. A Seeds of HOPE strategic plan was developed using a community-based participatory process and led to the idea to start Threads of HOPE, an enterprise that will serve as a business laboratory where women will produce and market a unique product and also learn business skills. Threads of HOPE will be a health-enhancing business and will serve as a training program for a new cadre of women entrepreneurs in two rural communities.

  17. Addressing the social determinants of health through health system strengthening and inter-sectoral convergence: the case of the Indian National Rural Health Mission

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Amit Mohan; Chakraborty, Gautam; Yadav, Sajjan Singh; Bhatia, Salima

    2013-01-01

    Background At the turn of the 21st century, India was plagued by significant rural–urban, inter-state and inter-district inequities in health. For example, in 2004, the infant mortality rate (IMR) was 24 points higher in rural areas compared to urban areas. To address these inequities, to strengthen the rural health system (a major determinant of health in itself) and to facilitate action on other determinants of health, India launched the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in April 2005. Methods Under the NRHM, Rs. 666 billion (US$12.1 billion) was invested in rural areas from April 2005 to March 2012. There was also a substantially higher allocation for 18 high-focus states and 264 high-focus districts, identified on the basis of poor health and demographic indicators. Other determinants of health, especially nutrition and decentralized action, were addressed through mechanisms like State/District Health Missions, Village Health, Sanitation and Nutrition Committees, and Village Health and Nutrition Days. Results Consequently, in bigger high-focus states, rural IMR fell by 15.6 points between 2004 and 2011, as compared to 9 points in urban areas. Similarly, the maternal mortality rate in high-focus states declined by 17.9% between 2004–2006 and 2007–2009 compared to 14.6% in other states. Conclusion The article, on the basis of the above approaches employed under NRHM, proposes the NRHM model to ‘reduce health inequities and initiate action on SDH’. PMID:23458089

  18. Addressing Breastfeeding Disparities in Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Carol Grace

    2007-01-01

    This article examines social justice issues affecting breastfeeding in the United States. Public health goals for breastfeeding initiation and duration and barriers to breastfeeding among low-income groups are discussed. Suggestions are made about ways social workers may more assertively support breastfeeding in the context of social work practice.

  19. Social Influences on Interest. Presidential Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergin, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Where does enduring individual interest come from? One answer is, through social experience that derives from a need for belongingness. Because of this need, students seek social links that influence the development of individual interest. This may occur through experiences with parents, friends, passionate affinity groups, competition, public…

  20. Addressing therapeutic boundaries in social networking.

    PubMed

    Ginory, Almari; Sabatier, Laura Mayol; Eth, Spencer

    2012-01-01

    Facebook is the leading social networking website, with over 500 million users. Prior studies have shown an increasing number of housestaff accessing the site. While Facebook can be used to foster camaraderie, it can also create difficulties in the doctor-patient relationship, especially when boundaries are crossed. This study explored the prevalence of such boundary crossings and offers recommendations for training. An anonymous voluntary survey regarding Facebook use was distributed to current psychiatry residents through the American Psychiatric Association (APA) listserv. Of the 182 respondents, 95.7% had current Facebook profiles, and 9.7% had received friend requests from patients. In addition, 18.7% admitted to viewing patient profiles on Facebook. There is a substantial utilization of Facebook among psychiatric residents as compared with prior studies. Specific guidance regarding social media websites and the potential for ethical difficulties should be offered to trainees.

  1. Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives Addressing Social Exclusion in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The private sector is often seen as a driver of exclusionary processes rather than a partner in improving the health and welfare of socially-excluded populations. However, private-sector initiatives and partnerships—collectively labelled corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives—may be able to positively impact social status, earning potential, and access to services and resources for socially-excluded populations. This paper presents case studies of CSR projects in Bangladesh that are designed to reduce social exclusion among marginalized populations and explores whether CSR initiatives can increase economic and social capabilities to reduce exclusion. The examples provide snapshots of projects that (a) increase job-skills and employment opportunities for women, disabled women, and rehabilitated drug-users and (b) provide healthcare services to female workers and their communities. The CSR case studies cover a limited number of people but characteristics and practices replicable and scaleable across different industries, countries, and populations are identified. Common success factors from the case studies form the basis for recommendations to design and implement more CSR initiatives targeting socially-excluded groups. The analysis found that CSR has potential for positive and lasting impact on developing countries, especifically on socially-excluded populations. However, there is a need for additional monitoring and critical evaluation. PMID:19761088

  2. Corporate social responsibility initiatives addressing social exclusion in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Werner, Wendy J

    2009-08-01

    The private sector is often seen as a driver of exclusionary processes rather than a partner in improving the health and welfare of socially-excluded populations. However, private-sector initiatives and partnerships- collectively labelled corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives-may be able to positively impact social status, earning potential, and access to services and resources for socially-excluded populations. This paper presents case studies of CSR projects in Bangladesh that are designed to reduce social exclusion among marginalized populations and explores whether CSR initiatives can increase economic and social capabilities to reduce exclusion. The examples provide snapshots of projects that (a) increase job-skills and employment opportunities for women, disabled women, and rehabilitated drug-users and (b) provide healthcare services to female workers and their communities. The CSR case studies cover a limited number of people but characteristics and practices replicable and scaleable across different industries, countries, and populations are identified. Common success factors from the case studies form the basis for recommendations to design and implement more CSR initiatives targeting socially-excluded groups. The analysis found that CSR has potential for positive and lasting impact on developing countries, especifically on socially-excluded populations. However, there is a need for additional monitoring and critical evaluation.

  3. Why social determinants?

    PubMed

    Halfon, Neal; Larson, Kandyce; Russ, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that social factors have profound influences on health. Children are particularly sensitive to social determinants, especially in the early years. Life course models view health as a developmental process, the product of multiple gene and environment interactions. Adverse early social exposures become programmed into biological systems, setting off chains of risk that can result in chronic illness in mid-life and beyond. Positive health-promoting influences can set in motion a more virtuous and health-affirming cycle, leading to more optimal health trajectories. Mounting an effective response to social determinants will involve both direct social policy initiatives designed to eliminate poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches focused on disrupting pathways between social risks and poor health outcomes. To be effective, these indirect strategies will require nothing short of a transformation of existing child health systems. Parents and professionals must work together from the ground up, raising public awareness about social determinants of health and implementing cross-sector place-based initiatives designed to promote positive health in childhood.

  4. Cultural and Social Interpretation of Chinese Addressing Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Yahui

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of Chinese cultural factors on the addressing terms, together with the history of their use, the social dynamics involved in their use. Through the examination of exact terms, the author demonstrates to the reader, the deeply rooted cultural factors behind it and different ways that these terms can be used,…

  5. [Research in social psychiatry - addressing future challenges of health- and social systems].

    PubMed

    Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2009-01-01

    Demographic change, limited financial resources and increasing social exclusion of individuals suffering chronic illness are major challenges for health and social systems in general and for psychiatry in particular. The paper analyses to what extent social psychiatric research currently addresses this challenges. Future perspectives are discussed, exploring the relationship of clinical neuroscience and social psychiatry.

  6. 2011 AERA Presidential Address: Designing Resilient Ecologies--Social Design Experiments and a New Social Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutiérrez, Kris D.

    2016-01-01

    This article is about designing for educational possibilities--designs that in their inception, social organization, and implementation squarely address issues of cultural diversity, social inequality, and robust learning. I discuss an approach to design-based research, social design experiments, that privileges a social scientific inquiry…

  7. Social Determinants of Health: Housing and Income.

    PubMed

    Forchuk, Cheryl; Dickins, Kevin; Corring, Deborah J

    2016-01-01

    Social determinants of health such as housing and income have a large impact on mental health. Community-based initiatives have worked to address access to housing, prevent homelessness and assist people who are homeless with mental health problems. There have been several large research projects to tease out multiple subgroups such as youth and veterans and other individuals experiencing long-term homelessness. The issue of poverty has been addressed by exploring issues related to employment. The use of social enterprises is a promising practice to address issues around poverty, social inclusion and employment. Similarly, the community has worked to move hospital-based employment programs to the community.

  8. Sociocultural Determinants of Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Address Forms in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sole, Yolanda R.

    1978-01-01

    Asserts that, if the aim of foreign language teaching is to be communicative competence, then some of the sociocultural determinants of usage of some forms should not be overlooked. The Spanish pronominal address forms, "tu" and "Ud.," are discussed as an example. (EJS)

  9. Sociocultural Determinants of Symmetrical and Asymetrical Address Forms in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sole, Yolanda Russinovich

    The most basic and simplest act of communicative competence in Spanish involves the appropriate decoding and selection of the pronominal address forms "tu" and "Usted." Their selection and semantic value are not, however, determined by linguistic criteria alone. Since "tu/Ud." mark the relative status of each speaker in a given context, their…

  10. Social work and medical care: electronic reminders to address adherence.

    PubMed

    Whisenhunt, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Social workers are often involved with patients and families around adherence, both to clinic appointments as well as to the medication regimen. An evidence-based practice project was created and implemented to determine the efficacy of electronic reminders such as text messaging on adherence. The implications of improving adherence can positively impact the patient on an individual level as well as reduce costs and increase revenue at a systems level.

  11. Addressing Consent Issues in Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death.

    PubMed

    Overby, Kim J; Weinstein, Michael S; Fiester, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Given the widening gap between the number of individuals on transplant waiting lists and the availability of donated organs, as well as the recent plateau in donations based on neurological criteria (i.e., brain death), there has been a growing interest in expanding donation after circulatory determination of death. While the prevalence of this form of organ donation continues to increase, many thorny ethical issues remain, often creating moral distress in both clinicians and families. In this article, we address one of these issues, namely, the challenges surrounding patient and surrogate informed consent for donation after circulatory determination of death. First we discuss several general concerns regarding consent related to this form of organ donation, and then we address additional issues that are unique to three different patient categories: adult patients with medical decision-making capacity or potential capacity, adult patients who lack capacity, and pediatric patients.

  12. The Social Determinants of Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cockerham, William C.; Hamby, Bryant W.; Oates, Gabriela R.

    2017-01-01

    This review article addresses the concept of the social determinants of health (SDH), selected theories, and its application in studies of chronic disease. Once ignored or regarded only as distant or secondary influences on health and disease, social determinants have been increasingly acknowledged as fundamental causes of health afflictions. For the purposes of this discussion, SDH refers to SDH variables directly relevant to chronic diseases and, in some circumstances, obesity, in the research agenda of the Mid-South Transdisciplinary Collaborative Center for Health Disparities Research. The health effects of SDH are initially discussed with respect to smoking and the social gradient in mortality. Next, four leading SDH theories—life course, fundamental cause, social capital, and health lifestyle theory—are reviewed with supporting studies. The article concludes with an examination of neighborhood disadvantage, social networks, and perceived discrimination in SDH research. PMID:27989293

  13. Addressing Social Aggression in State Anti-Bullying Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temkin, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Social aggression, or victimization using social exclusion, rumors, and body language, has been overlooked in state anti-bullying policies since the policy surge following the 1999 Columbine Massacres. Social aggression has been associated with social anxiety disorder, depression and suicide, and lowered academic achievement and involvement. An…

  14. The NCSS Presidential Addresses, 1936-1969: Perspectives on the Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Previte, Mark A., Ed.; Sheehan, James J., Ed.

    This collection of the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) presidential addresses seeks to provide a valuable window to the history of NCSS and the field of social studies. Following the "Introduction" (James J. Sheehan), addresses appear chronologically: 1936 "Social Sanity through the Social Studies" (R. O.…

  15. The NCSS Presidential Addresses, 1970-2000: Perspectives on the Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Previte, Mark A., Ed.; Sheehan, James J., Ed.

    This collection of the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) presidential addresses seeks to provide a valuable window to NCSS and the field of social studies from 1970 to 2000. Following "Introduction to the NCSS Presidential Addresses, 1970-2000 (J. J. Sheehan), Volume 2 contains the following addresses: 1970: "Exploring the…

  16. Creating Art Environments That Address Social Justice Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Gail

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I examine strategies for teaching students to make socially conscious art using a variety of media that emphasizes installation work. I present issues of social justice in the contemporary art world and include concerns of censorship that artists sometimes confront. I offer examples of team taught coordinated studies programs…

  17. Career Psychology in South Africa: Addressing and Redressing Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the definition of social justice in career psychology and how this might be understood in the South African context. In particular, macro-contextual factors that define social justice issues in South African career psychology are described. The extent to which the discipline of career psychology in South Africa has addressed…

  18. Adolescent Social Issues: Using Media to Address Crucial Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokoloff, Michele

    1987-01-01

    This article describes media resources available to help adolescents deal with a variety of social concerns, including substance abuse, dropouts, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), suicide, and pregnancy. A list of 56 companies that provide resources dealing with social issues is also provided. (LRW)

  19. Catholic Social Teaching: Addressing Globalization in Catholic Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, James B.; Martinez, Zaida; Toyne, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Although business schools are increasingly aware of the importance of globalization in educating future business leaders, their business programs have addressed globalization from a limited perspective that fails to provide students with a broader understanding of its impact on societies and its moral consequences. The conventional approach to the…

  20. Imaginative Thinking: Addressing Social Justice Issues through MovieMaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boske, Christa A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the experiences of aspiring school leaders who utilized artmaking in this case, photography, poetry, music, collage, and short films through Microsoft MovieMaker as a means for addressing injustices within surrounding school communities. The paper aims to explore how aspiring school leaders…

  1. Developing Social Marketing Capacity to Address Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, S.; Smart, E.; Kopela, J.; Gibson, T.; King, V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Social marketing is increasingly being seen as a potentially effective means of pursuing health education practice generally and within various specific areas such as mental health and wellbeing and more broadly in tackling health inequalities. This paper aims to report and reflect on the authors' experiences of undertaking a health…

  2. Aspiring School Leaders Addressing Social Justice through Art Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boske, Christa

    2012-01-01

    There is little in the professional literature about how school leaders or other professionals committed to promoting social justice deal with and manage their emotional responses to the challenges that await them in educational arenas. Even less has been written about how art making can be utilized as a means of developing new understandings and…

  3. Social Entrepreneurship in Religious Congregations’ Efforts to Address Health Needs

    PubMed Central

    Werber, Laura; Mendel, Peter J.; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Examine how religious congregations engage in social entrepreneurship as they strive to meet health-related needs in their communities. Design Multiple case studies. Setting Los Angeles County, California. Participants Purposive sample of 14 congregations representing diverse races-ethnicities (African American, Latino, and white) and faith traditions (Jewish and various Christian). Method Congregations were recruited based on screening data and consultation of a community advisory board. In each congregation, researchers conducted interviews with clergy and lay leaders (n=57); administered a congregational questionnaire; observed health activities, worship services, and neighborhood context; and reviewed archival information. Interviews were analyzed using a qualitative, code-based approach. Results Congregations’ health-related activities tended to be episodic, small in scale, and local in scope. Trust and social capital played important roles in congregations’ health initiatives, providing a safe, confidential environment and leveraging resources from – and for – faith-based and secular organizations in their community networks. Congregations also served as “incubators” for members to engage in social entrepreneurship. Conclusion Although the small scale of congregations’ health initiatives suggest they may not have the capacity to provide the main infrastructure for service provision, congregations can complement the efforts of health and social providers with their unique strengths. Specifically, congregations are distinctive in their ability to identify unmet local needs, and congregations’ position in their communities permit them to network in productive ways. PMID:23875986

  4. Social Determinants: Taking the Social Context of Asthma Seriously

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Sternthal, Michelle; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2012-01-01

    While asthma has emerged as a major contributor to disease and disability in American children, the burden of this disease is unevenly distributed within the population. This paper provides a brief overview of social status variables that predict variation in asthma risks and social exposures such as stress and violence that are emerging as important risk factors. However, the central focus of the paper is on the distal social variables that have given rise to unhealthy residential environments in which the risk factors for asthma and other diseases are clustered. Effective initiatives for the prevention and treatment of childhood asthma need to address these non-medical determinants of the prevalence of asthma. PMID:19221161

  5. Applied social and behavioral science to address complex health problems.

    PubMed

    Livingood, William C; Allegrante, John P; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Clark, Noreen M; Windsor, Richard C; Zimmerman, Marc A; Green, Lawrence W

    2011-11-01

    Complex and dynamic societal factors continue to challenge the capacity of the social and behavioral sciences in preventive medicine and public health to overcome the most seemingly intractable health problems. This paper proposes a fundamental shift from a research approach that presumes to identify (from highly controlled trials) universally applicable interventions expected to be implemented "with fidelity" by practitioners, to an applied social and behavioral science approach similar to that of engineering. Such a shift would build on and complement the recent recommendations of the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research and require reformulation of the research-practice dichotomy. It would also require disciplines now engaged in preventive medicine and public health practice to develop a better understanding of systems thinking and the science of application that is sensitive to the complexity, interactivity, and unique elements of community and practice settings. Also needed is a modification of health-related education to ensure that those entering the disciplines develop instincts and capacities as applied scientists.

  6. [Monitoring social determinants of health].

    PubMed

    Espelt, Albert; Continente, Xavier; Domingo-Salvany, Antonia; Domínguez-Berjón, M Felicitas; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Monge, Susana; Ruiz-Cantero, M Teresa; Perez, Glòria; Borrell, Carme

    2016-11-01

    Public health surveillance is the systematic and continuous collection, analysis, dissemination and interpretation of health-related data for planning, implementation and evaluation of public health initiatives. Apart from the health system, social determinants of health include the circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work and age, and they go a long way to explaining health inequalities. A surveillance system of the social determinants of health requires a comprehensive and social overview of health. This paper analyses the importance of monitoring social determinants of health and health inequalities, and describes some relevant aspects concerning the implementation of surveillance during the data collection, compilation and analysis phases, as well as dissemination of information and evaluation of the surveillance system. It is important to have indicators from sources designed for this purpose, such as continuous records or periodic surveys, explicitly describing its limitations and strengths. The results should be published periodically in a communicative format that both enhances the public's ability to understand the problems that affect them, whilst at the same time empowering the population, with the ultimate goal of guiding health-related initiatives at different levels of intervention.

  7. Social determinants and osteoarthritis outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Luong, My-Linh N; Cleveland, Rebecca J; Nyrop, Kirsten A; Callahan, Leigh F

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most frequently occurring musculoskeletal diseases, posing a significant public health problem due to its impact on pain and disability. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all of the risk observed for OA outcomes. In recent years, our view of disease causation has broadened to include health risks that are created by an individual’s socioeconomic circumstances. Early research into social determinants has focused on social position and explored factors related to the individual such as education, income and occupation. Results from these investigations suggest that low education attainment and nonprofessional occupation are associated with poorer arthritis outcomes. More recently, research has expanded to examine how one’s neighborhood socioeconomic environment may be relevant to OA outcomes. This narrative review proposes a framework to help guide our understanding of how social context may interact with pathophysiological processes and individual-level variables to influence health outcomes in those living with OA. PMID:23243459

  8. Social Determinants and Teen Pregnancy Prevention.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Taleria R; White, Carla P; Chu, Jocelyn; Dean, Deborah; Clemmons, Naomi; Chaparro, Carmen; Thames, Jessica L; Henderson, Anitra Belle; King, Pebbles

    2016-12-01

    Addressing the social determinants of health (SDOH) that influence teen pregnancy is paramount to eliminating disparities and achieving health equity. Expanding prevention efforts from purely individual behavior change to improving the social, political, economic, and built environments in which people live, learn, work, and play may better equip vulnerable youth to adopt and sustain healthy decisions. In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in partnership with the Office of Adolescent Health funded state- and community-based organizations to develop and implement the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Community-Wide Initiative. This effort approached teen pregnancy from an SDOH perspective, by identifying contextual factors that influence teen pregnancy and other adverse sexual health outcomes among vulnerable youth. Strategies included, but were not limited to, conducting a root cause analysis and establishing nontraditional partnerships to address determinants identified by community members. This article describes the value of an SDOH approach for achieving health equity, explains the integration of such an approach into community-level teen pregnancy prevention activities, and highlights two project partners' efforts to establish and nurture nontraditional partnerships to address specific SDOH.

  9. Adolescence and the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Viner, Russell M; Ozer, Elizabeth M; Denny, Simon; Marmot, Michael; Resnick, Michael; Fatusi, Adesegun; Currie, Candace

    2012-04-28

    The health of adolescents is strongly affected by social factors at personal, family, community, and national levels. Nations present young people with structures of opportunity as they grow up. Since health and health behaviours correspond strongly from adolescence into adult life, the way that these social determinants affect adolescent health are crucial to the health of the whole population and the economic development of nations. During adolescence, developmental effects related to puberty and brain development lead to new sets of behaviours and capacities that enable transitions in family, peer, and educational domains, and in health behaviours. These transitions modify childhood trajectories towards health and wellbeing and are modified by economic and social factors within countries, leading to inequalities. We review existing data on the effects of social determinants on health in adolescence, and present findings from country-level ecological analyses on the health of young people aged 10-24 years. The strongest determinants of adolescent health worldwide are structural factors such as national wealth, income inequality, and access to education. Furthermore, safe and supportive families, safe and supportive schools, together with positive and supportive peers are crucial to helping young people develop to their full potential and attain the best health in the transition to adulthood. Improving adolescent health worldwide requires improving young people's daily life with families and peers and in schools, addressing risk and protective factors in the social environment at a population level, and focusing on factors that are protective across various health outcomes. The most effective interventions are probably structural changes to improve access to education and employment for young people and to reduce the risk of transport-related injury.

  10. Addressing the Academic and Social Needs of Young Male Students through School-Based Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Curtis E.

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed the problem within the U.S. public school system to sustainably meet the academic and social needs of its African American male students. The administrative team of the elementary school in this study desired an evaluation of a school-based male mentoring program that was designed to address these needs. The program, Gentlemen…

  11. How to Address the Volitional Dimension of the Engineer's Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkero, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I argue that volitional aspects, i.e. ethos, attitude, pathos, will, underlying emotion, in engineering action need to be addressed when teaching social responsibility within the engineering curriculum. After presenting reasons for this claim, I look at two different, but not mutually exclusive, approaches to address volitional…

  12. Social network determinants of depression

    PubMed Central

    Rosenquist, JN; Fowler, JH; Christakis, NA

    2013-01-01

    The etiology of depression has long been thought to include social environmental factors. To quantitatively explore the novel possibility of person-to-person spread and network-level determination of depressive symptoms, analyses were performed on a densely interconnected social network of 12 067 people assessed repeatedly over 32 years as part of the Framingham Heart Study. Longitudinal statistical models were used to examine whether depressive symptoms in one person were associated with similar scores in friends, co-workers, siblings, spouses and neighbors. Depressive symptoms were assessed using CES-D scores that were available for subjects in three waves measured between 1983 and 2001. Results showed both low and high CES-D scores (and classification as being depressed) in a given period were strongly correlated with such scores in one's friends and neighbors. This association extended up to three degrees of separation (to one's friends’ friends’ friends). Female friends appear to be especially influential in the spread of depression from one person to another. The results are robust to multiple network simulation and estimation methods, suggesting that network phenomena appear relevant to the epidemiology of depression and would benefit from further study. PMID:20231839

  13. Interventions Addressing the Social Determinants of Teenage Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Adam; Harden, Angela; Brunton, Ginny; Oakley, Ann; Bonell, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The limited evidence of effectiveness of existing teenage pregnancy strategies which focus on sex education, together with growing evidence that factors such as poor school ethos, disaffection, truancy, poor employment prospects and low expectations are associated with teenage pregnancy, has increased interest in interventions which…

  14. Public hospital palliative social work: addressing patient cultural diversity and psychosocial needs.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Monique; Cárdenas, Yvette; Epperhart, Regina; Hernandez, Jose; Ruiz, Susana; Russell, Linda; Soriano, Karolina; Thornberry, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Through creative practice innovations and a wide range of professional competencies, social work has contributed substantively to the development of the palliative care field (Harper, 2011 ). As the field continues to grow and evolve, new opportunities are emerging to profile palliative social work in diverse health care settings. A statewide initiative to spread palliative care in California's public hospitals provided just such an opportunity. Palliative social workers from six public hospitals participating in the initiative formed a group to discuss palliative social work in this unique hospital setting. This article highlights the group's insights and experiences as they address the significant cultural diversity and psychosocial needs of public hospital patients receiving palliative care.

  15. Which Social Elements Are Visible in Virtual Groups? Addressing the Categorization of Social Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Mateo, M.; Guitert, M.

    2012-01-01

    Learning is a social process. That is why it is extremely important to understand how students interact socially in online courses and how it affects the learning process. However, social aspects, understood as those expressions or comments that go beyond strictly academic interaction, i.e. the need to carry out group work, are not clearly…

  16. Addressing vaccine hesitancy: The potential value of commercial and social marketing principles and practices.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Glen J; Gellin, Bruce G; MacDonald, Noni E; Butler, Robb

    2015-08-14

    Many countries and communities are dealing with groups and growing numbers of individuals who are delaying or refusing recommended vaccinations for themselves or their children. This has created a need for immunization programs to find approaches and strategies to address vaccine hesitancy. An important source of useful approaches and strategies is found in the frameworks, practices, and principles used by commercial and social marketers, many of which have been used by immunization programs. This review examines how social and commercial marketing principles and practices can be used to help address vaccine hesitancy. It provides an introduction to key marketing and social marketing concepts, identifies some of the major challenges to applying commercial and social marketing approaches to immunization programs, illustrates how immunization advocates and programs can use marketing and social marketing approaches to address vaccine hesitancy, and identifies some of the lessons that commercial and non-immunization sectors have learned that may have relevance for immunization. While the use of commercial and social marketing practices and principles does not guarantee success, the evidence, lessons learned, and applications to date indicate that they have considerable value in fostering vaccine acceptance.

  17. The Untold Story: Examining Ontario's Community Health Centres' Initiatives to Address Upstream Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Patricia A.; Resendes, Sarah J.; Dunn, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Unlike traditional primary care centres, part of the Community Health Centre (CHC) mandate is to address upstream health determinants. In Ontario, CHCs refer to these activities as Community Initiatives (CIs); yet, little is known about how CIs operate. The objective of this study was to examine the scope, resource requirements, partnerships, successes and challenges among selected Ontario CIs. Methods: We conducted qualitative interviews with 10 CHC staff members representing 11 CIs across Ontario. CIs were identified through an online inventory, recruited by e-mail and interviewed between March and June 2011. Results: Most CIs aim to increase community participation, while addressing social isolation and poverty. They draw minimal financial resources from their CHC, and employ highly skilled staff to support implementation. Most enlist support from various partners, and use numerous methods for community engagement. Successes include improved community relations, increased opportunities for education and employment and rewarding partnerships, while insufficient funding was a commonly identified challenge. Conclusions: Despite minimal attention from researchers and funders, our findings suggest that CIs play key capacity-building roles in vulnerable communities across Ontario, and warrant further investigation. PMID:25410693

  18. An Approach for Addressing the Multiple Testing Problem in Social Policy Impact Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.

    2009-01-01

    In social policy evaluations, the multiple testing problem occurs due to the many hypothesis tests that are typically conducted across multiple outcomes and subgroups, which can lead to spurious impact findings. This article discusses a framework for addressing this problem that balances Types I and II errors. The framework involves specifying…

  19. Training Social Workers and Human Service Professionals to Address the Complex Financial Needs of Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Jodi Jacobson; Hopkins, Karen; Osteen, Philip; Callahan, Christine; Hageman, Sally; Ko, Jungyai

    2017-01-01

    In social work and other community-based human services settings, clients often present with complex financial problems. As a need for more formal training is beginning to be addressed, evaluation of existing training is important, and this study evaluates outcomes from the Financial Stability Pathway (FSP) project. Designed to prepare…

  20. Immigration as a social determinant of health.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Heide; Holmes, Seth M; Madrigal, Daniel S; Young, Maria-Elena DeTrinidad; Beyeler, Naomi; Quesada, James

    2015-03-18

    Although immigration and immigrant populations have become increasingly important foci in public health research and practice, a social determinants of health approach has seldom been applied in this area. Global patterns of morbidity and mortality follow inequities rooted in societal, political, and economic conditions produced and reproduced by social structures, policies, and institutions. The lack of dialogue between these two profoundly related phenomena-social determinants of health and immigration-has resulted in missed opportunities for public health research, practice, and policy work. In this article, we discuss primary frameworks used in recent public health literature on the health of immigrant populations, note gaps in this literature, and argue for a broader examination of immigration as both socially determined and a social determinant of health. We discuss priorities for future research and policy to understand more fully and respond appropriately to the health of the populations affected by this global phenomenon.

  1. Developmental and Social Determinants of Religious Social Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Straten Waillet, Nastasya; Roskam, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess developmental and social determinants of the age at which children become aware that the social environment can be marked by categorization into religious groups and that those groups are associated with different religious beliefs. The results show that middle childhood is a critical period for this…

  2. 78 FR 22361 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations of Unfairness, Prejudice, Partiality, Bias, Misconduct, or Discrimination by Administrative...

  3. 78 FR 9987 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations of Unfairness, Prejudice, Partiality, Bias, Misconduct, or Discrimination by Administrative...

  4. 78 FR 8217 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations of Unfairness, Prejudice, Partiality, Bias, Misconduct, or Discrimination by Administrative...

  5. Recognizing, Determining, and Addressing Entrepreneurial Innovations by Superintendents of Emerging or Established Educational Service Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arfstrom, Kari M.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation describes how entrepreneurial superintendents of educational service agencies (ESAs) recognize, determine and address common and distinct innovative characteristics within emerging or established regional educational environments. Because internal and external factors assist in recognizing innovative practices, this study…

  6. The social determinants of health: key to global tuberculosis control.

    PubMed

    Rasanathan, K; Sivasankara Kurup, A; Jaramillo, E; Lönnroth, K

    2011-06-01

    Improved tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment through the DOTS and Stop TB strategies have saved millions of lives; however, their impact on TB incidence has been disappointing and the scale of the epidemic remains overwhelming. To reduce the incidence of TB, the drivers of the epidemic and social determinants of TB need to be addressed. These include co-morbidities and substance use and, moreover, the social and economic conditions that determine both the course of the TB epidemic and exposure to these risk factors. Doing so builds on the history of TB prevention and treatment during the public health revolution that resulted in a dramatic reduction in incidence in many countries. Addressing the social determinants is also imperative to address pervasive inequities in the incidence, mortality and morbidity of TB between different population groups, including in the performance of health systems in delivering diagnostic and treatment interventions, and in the financial consequences of people seeking care. Action on the social determinants can be categorised in terms of health-sector interventions, intersectoral policies impacting across society, and measurement and research to better understand inequities and links between TB and other factors. TB programmes cannot carry out these actions alone; however, they can make important contributions in the delivery of interventions and in advocating and negotiating for intersectoral efforts. The considerable progress seen in the clinical care of TB needs to be sustained; however, the attainment of TB targets, including elimination by 2050, will require expansion of the lens of TB control efforts beyond 'business as usual' to address the social determinants of the disease.

  7. Developmental and social determinants of religious social categorization.

    PubMed

    Waillet, Nastasya van der Straten; Roskam, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess developmental and social determinants of the age at which children become aware that the social environment can be marked by categorization into religious groups and that those groups are associated with different religious beliefs. The results show that middle childhood is a critical period for this religious social categorization. Moreover, social factors play a role in the development. Religious categorization is likely to appear sooner in children attending heterogeneous schools than in those at homogeneous schools, and children from the minority religious group in the country understand religious categorization earlier than children from the majority group. However, no relation was found between the age at which religious categorization was understood and parents' religious socialization practices. This study is of both theoretical and practical interest: It complements what is already known about gender, race, and ethnic categorization by integrating developmental and social frameworks, and it can serve as a guideline for educational programs.

  8. [Ethics, equity and social determinants of health].

    PubMed

    Puyol, Ángel

    2012-01-01

    The evidence shown by studies on the social determinants of health has changed the relationship between ethics and medicine. The evidence shown by studies on the social determinants of health has changed the relationship between ethics and medicine, and between a normative and a descriptive approach. Studies on the social determinants of health have also modified the traditional concept of equity, necessary health policies and the future of bioethics. More specifically: 1) the boundary between medicine and ethics has become much fuzzier, especially in the field of epidemiology, whose objectives are now inseparable from ethical considerations; 2) the concept of health equity traditionally defined as access to healthcare should be corrected or expanded to incorporate unfair health inequalities that occur before patients reach the healthcare system; and 3) the traditional autonomy bias of bioethics should be replaced by a primary concern for social justice and its relationship with health.

  9. Political Activities of Social Workers: Addressing Perceived Barriers to Political Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Cynthia; Poe, Bethanie; Thomas, Veliska

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on political participation of social workers and the variables that promote or impede political advocacy. Early research in the 1980s and 1990s most often reported education, feelings of efficacy, having a macro-type job, and being a member of a national association as factors that determine greater political…

  10. The corporate impact of addressing social issues: a financial case study of a project in Peru.

    PubMed

    Dabbs, Alan; Bateson, Matthew

    2002-05-01

    Large, multinational resource development projects can affect many aspects, including social, economic and ecological realities, in the regions where they operate. Social and environmental issues that are usually ignored in such projects are increasingly affecting the financial future of multinational corporations in negative ways. In this article, we advance the argument that corporations can successfully manage these issues and that if they choose to view these management efforts as an investment rather than an expense, they may well acquire a competitive advantage over companies that do not. We describe as a case study the Camisea natural gas and condensates development project in Peru, operated by Shell Prospecting and Development Peru (SPDP). Camisea is one of the first projects anywhere in the world to conduct a detailed analysis of key industry-related social issues and the processes, required investment and financial impact of managing them. The Camisea example supports the argument that addressing social and environmental concerns makes financial sense. In present value terms, the benefit of managing these concerns was expected to surpass the cost investment by approximately US$50 million.

  11. Using social marketing to address barriers and motivators to agricultural safety and health best practices.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Aaron M; Murphy, Dennis J

    2012-01-01

    Social marketing is an intervention development strategy that pays considerable attention to barriers to and motivators for behavioral change or adoption of recommended behaviors. Barriers are obstacles that prevent individuals from changing or adopting behaviors and are often referred to as the "cons" or "costs" of doing something. Motivators, on the other hand, are factors that encourage individuals to change or adopt behaviors and are often referred to as the "pros," "benefits," or "influencing factors" of doing something. Importantly, social marketing does not target education or knowledge change as an end point; rather, it targets behavior change. Studies across several types of desired behaviors (e.g., smoking cessation, weight control, more exercise, sunscreen use, radon testing) using the Stages of Change model have found systematic relationships between stages of change and pros and cons of changing behavior. A review of literature identifies numerous research and intervention studies that directly reference social marketing in agricultural safety and health, studies that identify reasons why parents allow their children to be exposed to hazardous situations on the farm, and reasons why youth engage in risky behaviors, but only two studies were found that show evidence of systematically researching specific behavioral change motivating factors. The authors offer several suggestions to help address issues relating to social marketing and agricultural safety and health.

  12. Addressing the socioeconomic determinants of adolescent health: experiences from the WHO/HBSC Forum 2007.

    PubMed

    Koller, Theadora; Morgan, Antony; Guerreiro, Ana; Currie, Candace; Ziglio, Erio

    2009-09-01

    Over the past 25 years, the WHO collaborative cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study has been accumulating evidence that provides insights into how to promote the health and well-being of young people. HBSC has increased understanding of the determinants of young people's health, particularly in relation to the social contexts in which they live, learn and play. The study now spans 43 countries and regions in Europe and North America. HBSC provides intelligence for the development and evaluation of public health policy and practice at national, sub-national and international levels. However, the mere existence of evidence does not automatically change policy nor necessarily improve the lives of young people. Effective mechanisms to ensure use of evidence in policy-making and practice are needed. The WHO/HBSC Forum series is a platform designed to facilitate the translation of evidence into action. Forum processes convene researchers, policy-makers and practitioners from across Europe to analyse data, review policies and interventions, and identify lessons learned to improve the health of adolescents through actions that address the social contexts that influence their health. Each Forum process consists of case studies produced by interdisciplinary teams in countries and regions, cross-country evidence reviews, a European consultation, an outcomes statement within a final publication, and a Web-based knowledge platform. In addition to emphasizing the translation of research into action, the Forum series focuses on increasing know-how to scale up intersectoral policies and interventions; reduce health inequities; and involve young people in the design, implementation and evaluation of policies and interventions. Interviews with selected participants in the 2007 Forum process revealed that national-level impacts of involvement were: brokering new or strengthening existing working relationships among members of case study drafting teams

  13. [Social determinants of health in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Geib, Lorena Teresinha Consalter

    2012-01-01

    Health is affected throughout the course of life by characteristics of social context, which produce inequalities in terms of exposure and vulnerability. These social determinants interfere with the well-being, functional independence and quality of life of the elderly, but are generally overlooked in interventions and policies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematize the knowledge of the social determinants of health in the elderly, using the Dahlgren and Whitehead model as a conceptual guide. The effects of demographic changes in the aging process and morbidity profile were approached at the structural level. The conditions of life and work with impact on current and future health and the role of social cohesion were studied at the intermediate level. Lastly, the behavior and lifestyles of major risk were examined at close quarters. It was detected that equity in health requires attention to social determinants during the course of life in order to minimize chronic diseases and deficiencies of the elderly, which reflect their social positions in early life.

  14. Commentary: what role should physician organizations play in addressing social justice issues?

    PubMed

    Bright, Cedric M

    2012-06-01

    A study by Peek and colleagues in this issue reveals that although racial and ethnic health disparities are recognized as a major national challenge, few physician organizations with both the influence and ability to change practice standards and address disparities appear to be effectively directing their resources to mitigate health disparities. In this commentary, the author examines the history of U.S. health disparities through the lens of social justice. He argues that today, physician organizations have the opportunity to change the paradigm of medicine from being a reactive industry to becoming a proactive industry through collaborations such as the Commission to End Health Disparities, which brings together more than 60 organizations, and the National Medical Association's "We Stand With You" program to improve health and combat disparities. Physician organizations can also address health disparities through advocacy for fair reimbursement policies, funding for pipeline programs to increase the diversity of the workforce, diversity in clinical trials, and other issues. Health disparities present to us in organized medicine a challenge that is cleverly disguised as an immovable object but that is truly a great opportunity for innovation, improvement, and growth. Physician organizations have a unique opportunity to provide avenues of innovation and accomplishment.

  15. Reflective and impulsive determinants of social behavior.

    PubMed

    Strack, Fritz; Deutsch, Roland

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a 2-systems model that explains social behavior as a joint function of reflective and impulsive processes. In particular, it is assumed that social behavior is controlled by 2 interacting systems that follow different operating principles. The reflective system generates behavioral decisions that are based on knowledge about facts and values, whereas the impulsive system elicits behavior through associative links and motivational orientations. The proposed model describes how the 2 systems interact at various stages of processing, and how their outputs may determine behavior in a synergistic or antagonistic fashion. It extends previous models by integrating motivational components that allow more precise predictions of behavior. The implications of this reflective-impulsive model are applied to various phenomena from social psychology and beyond. Extending previous dual-process accounts, this model is not limited to specific domains of mental functioning and attempts to integrate cognitive, motivational, and behavioral mechanisms.

  16. Korean Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Importance and Implementation of Strategies to Address Young Children's Social-Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heo, Kay H.; Cheatham, Gregory A.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Noh, Jina

    2014-01-01

    In South Korea, there has been a rapid increase in challenging behaviors and other social-emotional difficulties at the early childhood level. Korean early childhood educators' perspectives and strategies to address young children's social-emotional competencies and challenging behaviors were investigated. Overall, results suggest that many Korean…

  17. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning: Addressing Challenging Behavior in Infants and Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Amy; Hemmeter, Mary Louise

    2009-01-01

    The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (CSEFEL) is a federally funded national resource center designed to support early care and education providers address the social-emotional needs of children birth through age 5 years. Recent research has found that an extraordinarily high number of young children are being…

  18. Social determinants of disability-based disadvantage in Solomon islands.

    PubMed

    Gartrell, Alexandra; Jennaway, Megan; Manderson, Lenore; Fangalasuu, Judy; Dolaiano, Simon

    2016-08-25

    Development discourse widely recognises that disability is the result of economic and social processes and structures that fail to accommodate persons with disabilities. Empirical work on the relationship between disability and poverty however, conceptualize poverty through an economic resource lens in high-income countries. To address this conceptual gap this article uses a social determinants of health perspective to examine how socio-cultural, economic and political contexts shape disability-based disadvantage. This article draws upon ethnographic research and supplementary data collected using rapid assessment techniques in Solomon Islands. Findings suggest that the disability-poverty nexus and inequalities in health, wellbeing and quality of life must be understood within broader patterns of social vulnerability that are institutionalised in landownership and patterns of descent, gendered power relations and disability specific stigmas that preclude social and productive engagement . This article demonstrates how a social determinant of health perspective that closely examines lived experiences of disability provides critical analytical insights into the structural mechanisms that constitute disability-based disadvantage. This article provides foundation knowledge on which policies and further research to promote disability-inclusion and equity can be based.

  19. Precarious employment: understanding an emerging social determinant of health.

    PubMed

    Benach, J; Vives, A; Amable, M; Vanroelen, C; Tarafa, G; Muntaner, C

    2014-01-01

    Employment precariousness is a social determinant that affects the health of workers, families, and communities. Its recent popularity has been spearheaded by three main developments: the surge in "flexible employment" and its associated erosion of workers' employment and working conditions since the mid-1970s; the growing interest in social determinants of health, including employment conditions; and the availability of new data and information systems. This article identifies the historical, economic, and political factors that link precarious employment to health and health equity; reviews concepts, models, instruments, and findings on precarious employment and health inequalities; summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of this literature; and highlights substantive and methodological challenges that need to be addressed. We identify two crucial future aims: to provide a compelling research program that expands our understanding of employment precariousness and to develop and evaluate policy programs that effectively put an end to its health-related impacts.

  20. Social inequalities in blindness and visual impairment: a review of social determinants.

    PubMed

    Ulldemolins, Anna Rius; Lansingh, Van C; Valencia, Laura Guisasola; Carter, Marissa J; Eckert, Kristen A

    2012-01-01

    Health inequities are related to social determinants based on gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, race, living in a specific geographic region, or having a specific health condition. Such inequities were reviewed for blindness and visual impairment by searching for studies on the subject in PubMed from 2000 to 2011 in the English and Spanish languages. The goal of this article is to provide a current review in understanding how inequities based specifically on the aforementioned social determinants on health influence the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness. With regards to gender inequality, women have a higher prevalence of visual impairment and blindness, which cannot be only reasoned based on age or access to service. Socioeconomic status measured as higher income, higher educational status, or non-manual occupational social class was inversely associated with prevalence of blindness or visual impairment. Ethnicity and race were associated with visual impairment and blindness, although there is general confusion over this socioeconomic position determinant. Geographic inequalities and visual impairment were related to income (of the region, nation or continent), living in a rural area, and an association with socioeconomic and political context was suggested. While inequalities related to blindness and visual impairment have rarely been specifically addressed in research, there is still evidence of the association of social determinants and prevalence of blindness and visual impairment. Additional research should be done on the associations with intermediary determinants and socioeconomic and political context.

  1. Addressing students' social and emotional needs: the role of mental health teams in schools.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Norris M

    2002-01-01

    Children in today's society face many stresses from a variety of sources that have a major impact on thier psychosocial adjustment and academic performance in school. These stressful events and thier consequences on the quality of life and academic success are particularly significant among low-income and ethnic minority students in American society. Many schools have adopted strategies to help students who are impacted by stressful life events to deal affectively with their problems in an attempt to reduce school failure and school dropout rates among these students. Most notable among these strategies are school-based mental health programs including the establishment of school-based mental health teams which seek to proactively address individual student concerns while improving the general climate of schools. The evidence seems to support the claim that these school-based services have a positive impact on students' social and emotional well-being as well as on their academic achievements. However, with more careful monitoring and much more consistent support from administrators and policy makers, these school-based approaches can more fully realize their potential to enhance the quality of life and to positively impact the future of many poor and ethnic minority students.

  2. Social determinants of diagnostic labels in depression.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Susan; Armstrong, David

    2006-01-01

    The role of diagnostic labels in medicine is usually that of labelling an illness as a means of communication. Control over labelling processes in medicine is ordinarily imposed via medical schools, textbooks, education or by diagnostic manuals. Diagnostic labels often change following new discoveries in underlying pathology such as 'consumption' being relabelled as 'TB' or 'cancer'. Sub-types of broad diagnostic labels also often emerge from such discoveries e.g. 'lung cancer' or 'throat cancer'. In mental health, underlying pathology is the subject of ongoing debate spanning ideas including the brain as a faulty organ, faulty genetics and environmental problems. With controversy over pathology comes controversy over labels and the idea that labels may be used not just for communication, but as devices of social and professional control, arising out of a social process. This study explores the codification of the diagnostic label 'depression' which emerged in the twentieth-century and has proliferated with numerous sub-types over the last 40 years. The aim is to examine its social determinants and context. Medline is used as a data source for professional label usage. A range of depression sub-type labels in professional use was identified. This exercise revealed many official and 'unofficial' terms in professional use. Citation rate plots by year were then generated for these depression sub-type labels. The rise and fall of different labels are examined in relation to social determinants and context, including publication of diagnostic manuals DSM and ICD, power shifts in psychiatry, the discovery of psychiatric drugs and the shift from inpatient to community care. Exploring the changing use of official and unofficial labels over time in this way provides a novel historical perspective on the concept of depression in the late twentieth-century.

  3. Social workers' roles in addressing the complex end-of-life care needs of elders with advanced chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Betty J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined social workers' roles in caring for low-income elders with advanced chronic disease in an innovative, community-based managed care program, from the perspective of elders, family, team members, and social workers. The results are drawn from a larger longitudinal, multimethod case study. Sources of data include survey reports of needs addressed by social workers for 120 deceased elders, five focus groups with interdisciplinary team members, and in-depth interviews with 14 elders and 10 of their family caregivers. A thematic conceptual matrix was developed to detail 32 distinctive social work roles that address divergent needs of elders, family, and team members. Distinctive perceptions of social workers' roles were identified for the different stakeholder groups (i.e., elders, family caregivers, team members, and social workers). Findings from this study may inform supervisors and educators regarding training needs of those preparing to enter the rapidly growing workforce of gerontological social workers who may be called upon to care for elders at the end of life. Training is particularly warranted to help social workers gain the skills needed to more successfully treat symptom management, depression, anxiety, agitation, grief, funeral planning, and spiritual needs that are common to the end of life.

  4. Integrating Education on Addressing Health Disparities into the Graduate Social Work Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jamie Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose an elective social work course as a means of better preparing social workers entering practice in healthcare to meet the challenges of promoting health and reducing health disparities in minority and underserved communities. Course offerings specifically targeting health or medical social work training…

  5. Averting the perfect storm: addressing youth substance use risk from social media use.

    PubMed

    Salimian, Parissa K; Chunara, Rumi; Weitzman, Elissa R

    2014-10-01

    Adolescents are developmentally sensitive to pathways that influence alcohol and other drug (AOD) use. In the absence of guidance, their routine engagement with social media may add a further layer of risk. There are several potential mechanisms for social media use to influence AOD risk, including exposure to peer portrayals of AOD use, socially amplified advertising, misinformation, and predatory marketing against a backdrop of lax regulatory systems and privacy controls. Here the authors summarize the influences of the social media world and suggest how pediatricians in everyday practice can alert youth and their parents to these risks to foster conversation, awareness, and harm reduction.

  6. Presidential Address: Social Change and Human Development--Experiences from German Unification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that human development is influenced by social change. In particular, as evidenced by research on German unification, the rapid change of social institutions can impact on various aspects of behaviour and development. Based on my own research experience in this field, I want to show the necessity for a better interdisciplinary…

  7. Teaching to Transform? Addressing Race and Racism in the Teaching of Clinical Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varghese, Rani

    2016-01-01

    Faculty members are key stakeholders to support social work students' learning about race and racism in practice and to promote the professional standards established by the field. This qualitative study examines how 15 clinical social work faculty members teaching advanced practice in the Northeast conceptualize and incorporate their…

  8. Racial Socialization of Biracial Youth: Maternal Messages and Approaches to Address Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Alethea; Hunter, Andrea G.

    2013-01-01

    We explored how mothers of biracial youth prepare their children to navigate diverse racial ecologies and experiences of racism and discrimination. A qualitative thematic analysis was used to identify racial socialization messages mothers used and emergent racial socialization approaches. Mothers of biracial youth engaged in the full range of…

  9. Addressing Social Difference with Prospective Teachers Who Want "To Make a Difference"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Kay

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on a cohort of B.Ed. students' understandings about social difference and social justice as recorded in their professional journals in the first semester of third year. It shows that their reasons for choosing teaching as a career, reflections on their school experiences and discussions about future students are grounded in the…

  10. How Is Corporate Social Responsibility Addressed by Biotech Firms? a Case Study Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez-Bustamante, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the biotech high-tech sector as a way to achieve competitive advantages. After presenting the importance of science for high-tech firms, the paper focuses on the social and economic role of CSR. Next, the primary reasons for firms' engagement in CSR activities are presented, followed by…

  11. Education Technologies in Addressing the Problem of Forming the Socially Active Individual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popova, Irina N.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of technological support of the educational process in solving the problem of forming the socially active individual. The authors studied the value of the category "social activity" and analyzed educational technologies that have an impact on its formation. The obtained results gave the possibility…

  12. Addressing Dilemmas of Social Justice Mathematics Instruction through Collaboration of Students, Educators, and Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokka, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Social justice mathematics educators explicitly aim to develop students' sociopolitical consciousness in addition to teaching mathematics content (Gutiérrez 2013; Gutstein 2006). Sociopolitical consciousness refers to Paulo Freire's (1970) concept of "conscientização," or learning to perceive social, political, and economic…

  13. Weight Gain Prevention among Midlife Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Address Needs Related to the Physical and Social Environment

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Courtney D.; Degeneffe, Dennis; Davey, Cynthia; Kollannoor-Samuel, Grace; Reicks, Marla

    2016-01-01

    Women tend to gain weight at midlife (40–60 years) increasing risk of obesity-related chronic diseases. Within specific eating occasions, needs related to the physical and social environment may result in less healthy eating behavior, which can lead to weight gain over time. The purpose of this study was to determine if a dietitian-delivered nutrition counseling intervention tailored to eating occasion needs could improve diet and prevent weight gain among midlife women over two years. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy midlife women (n = 354) in one U.S. metropolitan area. The intervention group (n = 185) received ten hours of individual nutrition counseling from dietitians over six months, while women in a control group (n = 169) received no counseling. Measured height, weight and waist circumference, and dietary intakes were collected at baseline and every six months over two years. Mixed linear models were used to test for intervention effect on change in outcome variables over time. Dietary intakes of fruit, reduced/low-fat dairy foods and refined grains were significantly improved over time in the intervention compared to control group. However, the intervention had no effect on weight over time (p = 0.48). Nutrition counseling tailored to address eating occasion needs improved self-reported diet but did not significantly affect weight change. PMID:27231927

  14. A Social-Ecological Approach to Promote Self-Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Hill M.; Calkins, Carl; Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Walker, Laura; Bacon, Ansley; Palmer, Susan B.; Jesien, George S.; Nygren, Margaret A.; Heller, Tamar; Gotto, George S.; Abery, Brian H.; Johnson, David R.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a social-ecological approach for promoting and enhancing self-determination among individuals with developmental disabilities. A five-level model is presented, based on the interaction of person and environmental factors, that identifies a series of social mediator variables (i.e., social effectiveness, social capital,…

  15. Health in global context; beyond the social determinants of health?

    PubMed Central

    Krumeich, Anja; Meershoek, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    The rise of the social determinants of health (SDH) discourse on the basis of statistical evidence that correlates ill health to SDH and pictures causal pathways in comprehensive theoretical frameworks led to widespread awareness that health and health disparities are the outcome of complex pathways of interconnecting SDH. In this paper we explore whether and how SDH frameworks can be translated to effectively inform particular national health policies. To this end we identified major challenges for this translation followed by reflections on ways to overcome them. Most important challenges affecting adequate translation of these frameworks into concrete policy and intervention are 1) overcoming the inclination to conceptualize SDH as mere barriers to health behavior to be modified by lifestyle interventions by addressing them as structural factors instead; 2) obtaining sufficient in-depth insight in and evidence for the exact nature of the relationship between SDs and health; 3) to adequately translate the general determinants and pathways into explanations for ill health and limited access to health care in local settings; 4) to develop and implement policies and other interventions that are adjusted to those local circumstances. We conclude that to transform generic SDH models into useful policy tools and to prevent them to transform in SDH themselves, in depth understanding of the unique interplay between local, national and global SDH in a local setting, gathered by ethnographic research, is needed to be able to address structural SD in the local setting and decrease health inequity.

  16. Social Justice Leadership and Inclusion: Exploring Challenges in an Urban District Struggling to Address Inequities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMatthews, David; Mawhinney, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Research Approach: This cross case study describes the challenges that two principals working in one urban school district addressed while attempting to transform their school cultures to embrace an inclusion model. Analysis of interviews and observations in each school revealed the actions, values, and orientations of the individual leaders and…

  17. Addressing Wife Abuse in Mexican Immigrant Couples: Challenges for Family Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Tina

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses wife abuse in undocumented Mexican immigrant couples and suggests an ecosystems treatment approach that takes into consideration the structural forces of oppression and discrimination on abusive behaviors in the home and combines individual, family and community level interventions to help immigrant men stop the abuse.…

  18. Recovering the Role of Reasoning in Moral Education to Address Inequity and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nucci, Larry

    2016-01-01

    This article reasserts the centrality of reasoning as the focus for moral education. Attention to moral cognition must be extended to incorporate sociogenetic processes in moral growth. Moral education is not simply growth within the moral domain, but addresses capacities of students to engage in cross-domain coordination. Development beyond…

  19. Health Journalism Internships: A Social Marketing Strategy to Address Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Duy H.; Shimasaki, Suzuho; Stafford, Helen Shi

    2010-01-01

    The USA seeks to eliminate health disparities by stimulating the rapid uptake of health-promoting behaviors within disadvantaged communities. A health journalism internship incorporates social marketing strategies to increase communities' access to cancer information, while helping the interns who are recruited from underrepresented communities gain admission to top graduate schools. Interns are taught basic health journalism skills that enable them to create immediate streams of cancer-related press releases for submission to community newspapers. Interns are charged with the social responsibility of continuing this dissemination process throughout their careers. Intermediate outcomes are measured as mediators of distal behavioral change goals. PMID:20186519

  20. Health journalism internships: a social marketing strategy to address health disparities.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duy H; Shimasaki, Suzuho; Stafford, Helen Shi; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2010-09-01

    The USA seeks to eliminate health disparities by stimulating the rapid uptake of health-promoting behaviors within disadvantaged communities. A health journalism internship incorporates social marketing strategies to increase communities' access to cancer information, while helping the interns who are recruited from underrepresented communities gain admission to top graduate schools. Interns are taught basic health journalism skills that enable them to create immediate streams of cancer-related press releases for submission to community newspapers. Interns are charged with the social responsibility of continuing this dissemination process throughout their careers. Intermediate outcomes are measured as mediators of distal behavioral change goals.

  1. Presidential address: self-image and compassionate goals and construction of the social self: implications for social and personality psychology.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Jennifer

    2011-11-01

    Interpersonal dynamics of self-esteem are explored. The author proposes that the desire to be seen as having positive qualities and avoid being seen as having dreaded qualities paradoxically leads to lowered self-esteem and lowered regard from others through its adverse effects on interpersonal relationships. The author also argues that the human capacity to transcend concerns with the images others hold of oneself, through caring about the well-being of other people, paradoxically leads to higher self-esteem and regard from others through its salutary effects on relationships. Data from two recent studies demonstrate these paradoxical effects and prompt questions about the nature of persons and situations, research methods, and the union between personality and social psychology. Accordingly, the author reflects more broadly on how people create their social situations, which in turn create the self, and what that means about the methods scholars use to understand social behavior.

  2. Building Hope, Giving Affirmation: Learning Communities That Address Social Justice Issues Bring Equity to the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Stephanie; Hord, Shirley M.

    2010-01-01

    A school that ensures that all students--regardless of race, creed, color, socioeconomic status, gender, or disabilities--have access to and receive the highest-quality education has achieved a key measure of social justice. Since the most significant factor in whether students learn well is quality teaching, and teaching is enhanced through…

  3. History Museums and Social Cohesion: Building Identity, Bridging Communities, and Addressing Difficult Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Tracy Jean

    2011-01-01

    Museums have the capacity to enhance social cohesion, which is the product of a trusting, connected community. History museums and historic sites, in particular, can serve communities by stimulating dialogue on difficult issues, accurately representing all the people of a nation, and creating forums for discussion among groups with disparate…

  4. Secondary Social Studies Teachers' Time Commitment When Addressing the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenna, Joshua L.; Russell, William Benedict, III

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) were officially released in America for mathematics and English language arts and soon adopted by 45 of the 50 states. However, within the English langue arts domain there were standards intended for secondary social studies teachers under the title, Common Core State Standards for English Language…

  5. From Social Movement Learning to Sociomaterial Movement Learning? Addressing the Possibilities and Limits of New Materialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Callum

    2014-01-01

    In recent years academic interest in social movement learning (SML) has flourished. "Studies in the Education of Adults" has arguably emerged as the premier international forum for exploring the links between adult learning and movements for progressive change. In parallel to this subfield, yet largely in isolation from it,…

  6. Annual meeting keynote address: Animal agriculture and emerging social ethics for animals.

    PubMed

    Rollin, B E

    2004-03-01

    Businesses and professions must stay in accord with social ethics, or risk losing their autonomy. A major social ethical issue that has emerged in the past three decades is the treatment of animals in various areas of human use. This point can be illustrated with numerous examples across all areas of animal use. These examples reflect society's moral concern having outgrown the traditional ethic of animal cruelty that began in biblical times and is encoded in the laws of all civilized societies. There are five major reasons for this new social concern, most importantly, the replacement of husbandry-based agriculture with industrial agriculture. This loss of husbandry to industry has threatened the traditional fair contract between humans and animals, and resulted in significant amounts of animal suffering arising on four different fronts. Because such suffering is not occasioned by cruelty, a new ethic for animals was required to express social concerns. Since ethics proceed from preexisting ethics rather than ex nihilo, society has looked to its ethic for humans, appropriately modified, to find moral categories applicable to animals. This concept of legally encoded rights for animals has emerged as a plausible vehicle for reform. The meaning of this ethical movement for animal agriculture is examined. Animal agriculture should explore ways to replace the animal husbandry lost to industrialization.

  7. Professional Co-Development Groups: Addressing the Teacher Training Needs of Social Work Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Valérie; Genest Dufault, Sacha; Châteauvert, Joanie

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a professional development initiative organized by two junior university social work teachers. Along with three experienced colleagues, the two teachers experimented with a professional co-development group. The purpose of this group modality, which has much in common with peer supervision, is to reflect on professional…

  8. Socially Determined Variation in Ancient Rome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Brian D.; Wallace, Rex E.

    1992-01-01

    Social implications of phonological and morphological variation in Classical Latin is examined. Arguments for the social factor are instances of hypercorrection, private and domestic instances of certain datives and Augustus' use of rural "domos" for "domus." It is understood in terms of the model of urbanization. (35…

  9. Writing social determinants into and out of cancer control: an assessment of policy practice.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stacy M; Hooker, L Claire; Davey, Heather M

    2009-04-01

    A large literature concurs that social determinants of health (SDH) are demonstrable, important, and insufficiently attended to in policy and practice. A resulting priority for research should be to determine how the social determinants of health can best be addressed. In this paper we support the more effective transfer of social determinants research into policy by: (1) describing a qualitative analysis of thirty-two cancer control policy documents from six English-speaking OECD countries and two transnational organizations, demonstrating great variability in the treatment of social determinants in these policies; (2) critiquing these various policy practices in relation to their likely impact on social determinants of health; and (3) advancing a tool that policy writers can use to assess the way in which social determinants of health have been addressed in their work. In the sample of policy documents, the distinction between structural and intermediate determinants, population-based and targeted interventions, and their respective relationships to equity were not always clear. The authors identified four approaches to social determinants (acknowledging SDH, auditing SDH, stating aims regarding SDH and setting out actions on SDH), and five ways of writing about the relationship between social determinants and cancer risk. These five discourses implied, respectively: that group membership was intrinsically risky; that not enough was known about SDH; that risk arose from choices made by individuals; that groups were constrained by circumstance; or that structural change was necessary. Socio-cultural factors were generally presented negatively, though New Zealand policies modeled a possible alternative. Based on their empirical work, the authors propose a matrix and a set of questions to guide the development and assessment of health policy.

  10. Analytical Frameworks for Addressing Physical, Social, and Institutional Changes in Water Resources Planning and Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    source pollution involving nutrients and pesticides; • weather extremes ranging from droughts to floods; • changing social values regarding water-based...sociocultural conditions, and economic conditions within designated study areas. However, NEPA regulations call for impact studies related to policies...U.S. Congress 1972b), the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (U.S. Congress 1918), and the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act (U.S. Congress 1934). A major

  11. Identifying, Preventing, and Addressing Job Burnout and Vicarious Burnout for Social Work Professionals.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Felicia

    2016-01-01

    Genuineness, concern for others, and empathy are characteristics used to describe the professional social worker. To this end, the social worker tirelessly works on behalf of and in collaboration with the client to move them from stagnant life situations into positive life situations. While the fundamental principles of social work are wonderful, the result for some workers is job burnout and/or vicarious trauma. The concepts of job burnout, its antecedents, and manifestations are thoroughly discussed in this article to provide a holistic overview of this phenomenon. The six antecedents: workload, control, values, fairness, reward, and community are discussed and linked to the manifestations of job burnout. When working with individuals who have been exposed to the depravity of life, the professional can take on the client's vulnerabilities, victimizations, and stress. The common term for this phenomenon is vicarious trauma. Professionals who work with trauma victims can often have issues in their personal and professional life as evidenced by reduced professional efficacy, increased emotional concerns, and physical concerns. The purpose of the author in this article is to provide an overview of job burnout, vicarious trauma, and a discussion about self-care responsibilities.

  12. Leveraging social influence to address overweight and obesity using agent-based models: the role of adolescent social networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Tong, L; Lamberson, P J; Durazo-Arvizu, R A; Luke, A; Shoham, D A

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity (hereafter, simply "overweight") in the US has increased over the past several decades. Individually-targeted prevention and treatment strategies targeting individuals have been disappointing, leading some to propose leveraging social networks to improve interventions. We hypothesized that social network dynamics (social marginalization; homophily on body mass index, BMI) and the strength of peer influence would increase or decrease the proportion of network member (agents) becoming overweight over a simulated year, and that peer influence would operate differently in social networks with greater overweight. We built an agent-based model (ABM) using results from R-SIENA. ABMs allow for the exploration of potential interventions using simulated agents. Initial model specifications were drawn from Wave 1 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We focused on a single saturation school with complete network and BMI data over two waves (n = 624). The model was validated against empirical observations at Wave 2. We focused on overall overweight prevalence after a simulated year. Five experiments were conducted: (1) changing attractiveness of high-BMI agents; (2) changing homophily on BMI; (3) changing the strength of peer influence; (4) shifting the overall BMI distribution; and (5) targeting dietary interventions to highly connected individuals. Increasing peer influence showed a dramatic decrease in the prevalence of overweight; making peer influence negative (i.e., doing the opposite of friends) increased overweight. However, the effect of peer influence varied based on the underlying distribution of BMI; when BMI was increased overall, stronger peer influence increased proportion of overweight. Other interventions, including targeted dieting, had little impact. Peer influence may be a viable target in overweight interventions, but the distribution of body size in the population needs to

  13. Social determinants of health--a question of social or economic capital? Interaction effects of socioeconomic factors on health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ahnquist, Johanna; Wamala, Sarah P; Lindstrom, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Social structures and socioeconomic patterns are the major determinants of population health. However, very few previous studies have simultaneously analysed the "social" and the "economic" indicators when addressing social determinants of health. We focus on the relevance of economic and social capital as health determinants by analysing various indicators. The aim of this paper was to analyse independent associations, and interactions, of lack of economic capital (economic hardships) and social capital (social participation, interpersonal and political/institutional trust) on various health outcomes. Data was derived from the 2009 Swedish National Survey of Public Health, based on a randomly selected representative sample of 23,153 men and 28,261 women aged 16-84 year, with a participation rate of 53.8%. Economic hardships were measured by a combined economic hardships measure including low household income, inability to meet expenses and lacking cash reserves. Social capital was measured by social participation, interpersonal (horizontal) trust and political (vertical/institutional trust) trust in parliament. Health outcomes included; (i) self-rated health, (i) psychological distress (GHQ-12) and (iii) musculoskeletal disorders. Results from multivariate logistic regression show that both measures of economic capital and low social capital were significantly associated with poor health status, with only a few exceptions. Significant interactive effects measured as synergy index were observed between economic hardships and all various types of social capital. The synergy indices ranged from 1.4 to 2.3. The present study adds to the evidence that both economic hardships and social capital contribute to a range of different health outcomes. Furthermore, when combined they potentiate the risk of poor health.

  14. Breaking barriers: addressing structural obstacles to social service provision for Asian survivors of domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mihan

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have attributed the disproportionately high rate of domestic violence in Asian communities to Asian patriarchal "cultural norms" and the psychological and behavioral traits that these norms produce in individuals. This article seeks to expand the scope of domestic violence analysis beyond these individual and cultural frameworks, arguing that Asian domestic violence is also a product of larger scale, social systems of inequality. By examining the funding criteria of the Family Violence Prevention Services Administration (FVPSA) and the Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY) standard used by Robin Hood, my research shows how state and private organizations systematically devalue and underfund minority-targeted programs.

  15. Addressing the immunization coverage paradox: A matter of children's rights and social justice.

    PubMed

    Durrheim, David N; Cashman, Patrick

    2010-08-01

    The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the principles of social justice demand that all children have equal access to effective childhood immunization. Although there has been substantial progress in increasing global childhood immunization coverage, routinely reported data conceal marked disparities between and within countries. As a global community we still fall substantially short of our moral obligation to guarantee all children equal access to effective vaccines. Governments of developed and less-developed nations must unite to ensure the leadership planning, governance, and human and financial resources necessary to deliver on this critical global equity agenda.

  16. Using hydraulic modeling to address social impacts of small dam removals in southern New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Wyrick, Joshua R; Rischman, Brian A; Burke, Christopher A; McGee, Craig; Williams, Chasity

    2009-07-01

    Small relic mill dams are common in the watersheds of southern New Jersey, dotting the landscape with many small neighborhood lakes. Originally built in the late 1800s, most of these dams have become increasingly unable to handle current design storms due to increased urbanization of the watersheds. Several of these dams have also been classified as "high hazard" by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Dam Safety Division because their failure has the potential for loss of life or extensive property damage. The current private owners are generally unable to afford the high repair costs needed to rehabilitate the dams to current safety standards, and are therefore more inclined to remove them. This research analyses both the physical and social impacts of the removal of two small dams in southern New Jersey, and integrates the two seemingly disparate concepts. Using hydraulic modeling and previous case studies, it is predicted that there will be limited effects to the hydrological and biological characteristics of the stream corridor. A survey distributed to the affected homeowners that live on these lakes shows that the community, however, expects significant impacts to the bio-physical characteristics of the stream corridor, as well financial impacts to their property value and social impacts to their recreational activities. The current study exposes the widening gap between policy makers and landowners, and highlights where complete stakeholder interaction could and should occur.

  17. Addressing cancer disparities via community network mobilization and intersectoral partnerships: a social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramanadhan, Shoba; Salhi, Carmel; Achille, Erline; Baril, Nashira; D'Entremont, Kerrie; Grullon, Milagro; Judge, Christine; Oppenheimer, Sarah; Reeves, Chrasandra; Savage, Clara; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2012-01-01

    Community mobilization and collaboration among diverse partners are vital components of the effort to reduce and eliminate cancer disparities in the United States. We studied the development and impact of intersectoral connections among the members of the Massachusetts Community Network for Cancer Education, Research, and Training (MassCONECT). As one of the Community Network Program sites funded by the National Cancer Institute, this infrastructure-building initiative utilized principles of Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) to unite community coalitions, researchers, policymakers, and other important stakeholders to address cancer disparities in three Massachusetts communities: Boston, Lawrence, and Worcester. We conducted a cross-sectional, sociometric network analysis four years after the network was formed. A total of 38 of 55 members participated in the study (69% response rate). Over four years of collaboration, the number of intersectoral connections reported by members (intersectoral out-degree) increased, as did the extent to which such connections were reported reciprocally (intersectoral reciprocity). We assessed relationships between these markers of intersectoral collaboration and three intermediate outcomes in the effort to reduce and eliminate cancer disparities: delivery of community activities, policy engagement, and grants/publications. We found a positive and statistically significant relationship between intersectoral out-degree and community activities and policy engagement (the relationship was borderline significant for grants/publications). We found a positive and statistically significant relationship between intersectoral reciprocity and community activities and grants/publications (the relationship was borderline significant for policy engagement). The study suggests that intersectoral connections may be important drivers of diverse intermediate outcomes in the effort to reduce and eliminate cancer disparities. The findings

  18. Social determinants of violence in hockey: a review.

    PubMed

    Smith, M D

    1979-03-01

    Research on the social determinants of hockey violence is organized in this paper under three main headings: (1) the social organization of the hockey "system", (2) mass media portrayals of the professional game, and (3) the influence of players' reference others. It appears that these determinants all contribute to a social environment in which hockey performers perceive that the rewards of violence often outweigh the costs.

  19. [The challenge for healthcare systems in the XXI century: how to incorporate the focus of social determinants in healthcare?].

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, Cristóbal

    2015-10-20

    During the 20th century, a series of reflections on the role of biomedicine and social factors in the concept of health and disease processes served as a necessary prelude to the conceptual and empirical development of what later became known as the social determinants of health. In relation to this perspective, the question arises: What is the role of modern health systems from the perspective of the social determinants of health? This article presents an alternative view of the role of health systems from the focus of the social determinants of health, raising its importance and influence on the structural level, while addressing its implications as an intermediary determinant of health inequalities.

  20. The social ecology of resilience: addressing contextual and cultural ambiguity of a nascent construct.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Michael

    2011-01-01

    More than two decades after E. E. Werner and R. S. Smith (1982), N. Garmezy (1983), and M. Rutter (1987) published their research on protective mechanisms and processes that are most likely to foster resilience, ambiguity continues regarding how to define and operationalize positive development under adversity. This article argues that, because resilience occurs even when risk factors are plentiful, greater emphasis needs to be placed on the role social and physical ecologies play in positive developmental outcomes when individuals encounter significant amounts of stress. Four principles are presented as the basis for an ecological interpretation of the resilience construct: decentrality, complexity, atypicality, and cultural relativity. These 4 principles, and the research upon which they are based, inform a definition of resilience that emphasizes the environmental antecedents of positive growth. This framework can guide future theory development, research, and the design of interventions that promote well-being among populations who experience environments that inhibit resilience-promoting processes.

  1. Social Justice Approach to Road Safety in Kenya: Addressing the Uneven Distribution of Road Traffic Injuries and Deaths across Population Groups

    PubMed Central

    Azetsop, Jacquineau

    2010-01-01

    Road traffic injury and deaths (RTID) are an important public health problem in Kenya, primarily affecting uneducated and disenfranchised people from lower socioeconomic groups. Studies conducted by Kenyan experts from police reports and surveys have shown that pedestrian and driver behaviors are the most important proximal causes of crashes, signifying that the occurrence of crashes results directly from human action. However, behaviors and risk factors do not fully explain the magnitude of RTID neither does it account for socioeconomic gradient in RTID. Instead, a social justice approach to RTID highlights the need for emphasizing distal causal factors. They allow us to understand how social inequities determine risk for RTID. Hence, designing policies that focus on behaviors will simply mask the underlying systemic causes of this growing phenomenon. To eradicate the RTID and address the gradient, a broader policy framework that includes the social dimension of injury, a strong political will to address the underlying causes of RTID and an effective partnership with stakeholders needs to be developed. PMID:20664752

  2. Understanding Medicaid Managed Care Investments in Members' Social Determinants of Health.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Laura; Ackerman, Sara; Wing, Holly; Manchanda, Rishi

    2017-01-18

    Despite widespread interest in addressing social determinants of health (SDH) as a means to improve health and to reduce health care spending, little information is available about how to develop, sustain, and scale nonmedical interventions in diverse payer environments, including Medicaid Managed Care. This study aimed to explore how Medicaid Managed Care Organization (MMCO) leaders interpret their roles and responsibilities around SDH, how they garner resources to develop and sustain interventions to address SDH, and how they perceive the influences of external organizations on related activities. Semistructured qualitative key informant interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 26 Medicaid Managed Care corporate executives. Data were analyzed with an iterative coding, thematic development and interpretation process. MMCO leaders' interests and activities around interventions to address SDH are described, as well as their perceptions of existing and potential incentives and barriers to expanding these interventions. Despite significant experimentation and programmatic diversity of interventions addressing social determinants, MMCO leaders struggle with clinical integration, financing, and evaluation efforts that could promote sustainability. Though their efforts are nascent, MMCO leaders are investing in tackling social determinants to improve health and to decrease health care spending in managed care settings that serve low-income populations. Results highlight both opportunities and concerns about sustaining and scaling clinical interventions addressing SDH.

  3. Multiple determinants, common vulnerabilities, and creative responses: addressing the AIDS pandemic in diverse populations globally.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Kenneth H; Pape, Jean W; Wilson, Phill; Diallo, Dazon D; Saavedra, Jorge; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Koenig, Serena; Farmer, Paul

    2012-08-01

    The AIDS epidemic has been fueled by global inequities. Ranging from sexual inequality and underdevelopment to homophobia impeding health care access for men who have sex with men, imbalanced resource allocations, and social biases have potentiated the spread of the epidemic. However, recognition of culturally specific aspects of each microepidemic has yielded development of community-based organizations, which have resulted in locally effective responses to AIDS. This effective approach to HIV prevention, care, and treatment is illustrated through examples of community-based responses in Haiti, the United States, Africa, and other impoverished settings.

  4. Multiple Determinants, Common Vulnerabilities, and Creative Responses: Addressing the AIDS Pandemic in Diverse Populations Globally

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Kenneth H.; Pape, Jean William; Wilson, Phill; Diallo, Dazon Dixon; Saavedra, Jorge; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Koenig, Serena; Farmer, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic has been fueled by global inequities. Ranging from gender inequality and underdevelopment to homophobia impeding health care access for men who have sex with men (MSM), imbalanced resource allocations and social biases have potentiated the epidemic’s spread. However, recognition of culturally specific aspects of each microepidemic has yielded development of community-based organizations, which have resulted in locally effective responses to AIDS. This effective approach to HIV prevention, care and treatment is illustrated through examples of community-based responses in Haiti, the United States, Africa, and other impoverished settings. PMID:22772387

  5. Widening the Aim of Health Promotion to Include the Most Disadvantaged: Vulnerable Adolescents and the Social Determinants of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohajer, Nicole; Earnest, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Growing numbers of adolescents are marginalized by social factors beyond their control, leading to poor health outcomes for their families and future generations. Although the role of the social determinants of health has been recognized for many years, there is a gap in our knowledge about the strategies needed to address these factors in health…

  6. The impact of social determinants on cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Kreatsoulas, Catherine; Anand, Sonia S

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among high-income countries and is projected to be the leading cause of death worldwide by 2030. Much of the current research efforts have been aimed toward the identification, modification and treatment of individual-level risk factors. Despite significant advancements, gross inequalities continue to persist over space and time. Although increasing at different rates worldwide, the magnitude of increase in the prevalence of various cardiovascular risk factors has shifted research efforts to study the causes of the risk factors (ie, the ‘causes of the causes’), which include the social determinants of health. The social determinants of health reflect the impact of the social environment on health among people sharing a particular community. Imbalances in the social determinants of health have been attributed to the inequities in health observed between and within countries. The present article reviews the role of the social determinants of health on a global level, describing the epidemiological transition and the persistent trend known as the ‘inverse social gradient’. The impact of social determinants in Canada will also be examined, including data from ethnic and Aboriginal communities. Possible solutions and future directions to reduce the impact of social factors on cardiovascular health are proposed. PMID:20847985

  7. Oral health of foreign domestic workers: exploring the social determinants.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoli; Chan, Chi Wai; Mak, Siu Lun; Ng, Zevon; Kwong, Wai Hang; Kot, Ching Ching Shirley

    2014-10-01

    Foreign domestic helpers constitute a significant proportion of migrant workers worldwide. This population subgroup provides an opportunity for understanding social determinants of oral health in immigrant community. A random sample of 122 Indonesian domestic helpers in Hong Kong completed a questionnaire on their demographic background, social characteristics (competency in local languages, immigration history, living condition, social connections, and leisure activities) and oral health behaviours (knowledge, attitudes, practice and self-efficacy). Their tooth status and periodontal health were assessed. Participants tended to start flossing after settling in Hong Kong. Favourable oral health knowledge was found in more acculturated participants, as indicated by proficiency in local languages and immigration history. Engagement in social and/or religious activities and decent living condition provided by employers were associated with favourable oral health behaviours and/or better oral health. Social determinants explained 13.2 % of variance in caries severity. Our findings support the significant impact of social circumstances on oral health of domestic workers.

  8. Determinism versus Creativity: Which Way for Social Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peile, Colin

    1993-01-01

    Contends that dominant cosmology within social work is determinism. Argues for creative cosmology that can synthesize deterministic and random processes. Sees this development made possible by reconceptualization of relative nature of time. Discussion is grounded in relation to small example of social work practice, and implications of creative…

  9. Healthy people: a 2020 vision for the social determinants approach.

    PubMed

    Koh, Howard K; Piotrowski, Julie J; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2011-12-01

    For the past three decades, the Healthy People initiative has represented an ambitious yet achievable health promotion and disease prevention agenda for the nation. The recently released fourth version-Healthy People 2020-builds on the foundations of prior iterations while newly embracing and elevating a comprehensive "social determinants" perspective. By clearly articulating a new overarching goal to "create social and physical environments that promote good health for all" and a new topic area dedicated to defining the social determinants of health approach, it breaks new ground. Specifically, the 2020 plan emphasizes the need to consider factors such as poverty, education, and numerous aspects of the social structure that not only influence the health of populations but also limit the ability of many to achieve health equity. Improving health is too multifaceted to be left to those working in the health sector alone. Using a social determinants approach can reframe the way the public, policy makers, and the private sector think about achieving and sustaining health. This article describes why such a social determinants approach can enhance our collective efforts to improve population health. This is achieved by defining the context for this new perspective, the process by which the Healthy People 2020 goals and objectives were developed, and the challenges and opportunities ahead. Adding this broad, social determinants perspective and vision for shared societal responsibility for change leaves Healthy People 2020 poised to promote a stronger legacy for a healthier nation and reaffirm a unity of purpose for the future.

  10. Epigenetics and Understanding the Impact of Social Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Notterman, Daniel A; Mitchell, Colter

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Recently, a new research agenda emphasizing interactions between social factors and health has emerged. The term social determinant of health often refers to any nonmedical factor directly influencing health, including: values, attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Health across the life span is strongly and adversely affected by social disadvantage. Research in epigenetics indicates that alterations in DNA methylation may provide a causal link between social adversity and health disparity. Likewise, accelerated loss of telomeres (the protective ends of chromosomes) is highly correlated with chronic stress including social stress and aging, and may provide a link between adversity and some of the physiological stigmata associated with health disparities. Considerable research is still required to develop a sound mechanistic understanding of the role of epigenetics and perturbed telomere function in linking social adversity with health outcome. PMID:26318949

  11. Widening the aim of health promotion to include the most disadvantaged: vulnerable adolescents and the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Mohajer, Nicole; Earnest, Jaya

    2010-06-01

    Growing numbers of adolescents are marginalized by social factors beyond their control, leading to poor health outcomes for their families and future generations. Although the role of the social determinants of health has been recognized for many years, there is a gap in our knowledge about the strategies needed to address these factors in health promotion. Drawing on a review of literature on health promotion for marginalized and out-of-school adolescents, this paper highlights some urgent areas of focus for researchers and policy makers addressing adolescent health. Social determinants of health affecting marginalized adolescents identified by the review were education, gender, identity, homelessness, poverty, family structure, culture, religion and perceived racism, yet there is little solid evidence as to how to best address these factors. More systematic research, evaluation and global debate about long-term solutions to chronic poverty, lack of education and social marginalization are needed to break the cycle of ill health among vulnerable adolescents.

  12. Addressing Social Issues in the Classroom and Beyond: The Pedagogical Efforts of Pioneers in the Field. Research in Curriculum and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel, Ed.; Pedersen, Jon, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Addressing Social Issues in the Classroom and Beyond: The Pedagogical Efforts of Pioneers in the Field is comprised of essays that delineate the genesis and evolution of the thought and work of pioneers in the field of social issues and education. The authors (many of whom, themselves, are noted professors of education and who have done…

  13. What determines social capital in a social-ecological system? Insights from a network perspective.

    PubMed

    Barnes-Mauthe, Michele; Gray, Steven Allen; Arita, Shawn; Lynham, John; Leung, PingSun

    2015-02-01

    Social capital is an important resource that can be mobilized for purposive action or competitive gain. The distribution of social capital in social-ecological systems can determine who is more productive at extracting ecological resources and who emerges as influential in guiding their management, thereby empowering some while disempowering others. Despite its importance, the factors that contribute to variation in social capital among individuals have not been widely studied. We adopt a network perspective to examine what determines social capital among individuals in social-ecological systems. We begin by identifying network measures of social capital relevant for individuals in this context, and review existing evidence concerning their determinants. Using a complete social network dataset from Hawaii's longline fishery, we employ social network analysis and other statistical methods to empirically estimate these measures and determine the extent to which individual stakeholder attributes explain variation within them. We find that ethnicity is the strongest predictor of social capital. Measures of human capital (i.e., education, experience), years living in the community, and information-sharing attitudes are also important. Surprisingly, we find that when controlling for other factors, industry leaders and formal fishery representatives are generally not well connected. Our results offer new quantitative insights on the relationship between stakeholder diversity, social networks, and social capital in a coupled social-ecological system, which can aid in identifying barriers and opportunities for action to overcome resource management problems. Our results also have implications for achieving resource governance that is not only ecologically and economically sustainable, but also equitable.

  14. What Determines Social Capital in a Social-Ecological System? Insights from a Network Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes-Mauthe, Michele; Gray, Steven Allen; Arita, Shawn; Lynham, John; Leung, PingSun

    2015-02-01

    Social capital is an important resource that can be mobilized for purposive action or competitive gain. The distribution of social capital in social-ecological systems can determine who is more productive at extracting ecological resources and who emerges as influential in guiding their management, thereby empowering some while disempowering others. Despite its importance, the factors that contribute to variation in social capital among individuals have not been widely studied. We adopt a network perspective to examine what determines social capital among individuals in social-ecological systems. We begin by identifying network measures of social capital relevant for individuals in this context, and review existing evidence concerning their determinants. Using a complete social network dataset from Hawaii's longline fishery, we employ social network analysis and other statistical methods to empirically estimate these measures and determine the extent to which individual stakeholder attributes explain variation within them. We find that ethnicity is the strongest predictor of social capital. Measures of human capital (i.e., education, experience), years living in the community, and information-sharing attitudes are also important. Surprisingly, we find that when controlling for other factors, industry leaders and formal fishery representatives are generally not well connected. Our results offer new quantitative insights on the relationship between stakeholder diversity, social networks, and social capital in a coupled social-ecological system, which can aid in identifying barriers and opportunities for action to overcome resource management problems. Our results also have implications for achieving resource governance that is not only ecologically and economically sustainable, but also equitable.

  15. Social Determinants of Depression: Social Cohesion, Negative Life Events, and Depression Among People Living with HIV/Aids in Nigeria, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Shittu, Rasaki O.; Issa, Baba A.; Olanrewaju, Ganiyu T.; Mahmoud, Abdulraheem O.; Odeigah, Louis O.; Sule, Abdullateef G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) continue to face persistent and deep rooted social barriers. Incidentally, studies in social determinants of depression are very limited, necessitating this study, which examined social determinants of depression and the impact of these determinants on depression. Methods: This was a hospital based, cross sectional descriptive study of three hundred adult HIV/AIDS patients, attending the HIV clinic of Kwara State Specialist Hospital, Sobi, Ilorin, Nigeria. Depressive symptoms were measured by the PHQ-9 rating scale. Three variables of social determinants of depression: socio-economic status (years of school and self-reported economic status of family), social cohesion, and negative life events were examined. Results: The self-reported economic status of the family varied from good 35(11.7%), average 162(54%), and poor among 103(34.3%) of the respondents. Social cohesion was low in 199(66.3%), fair in 65(21.7%) and high among 36(12%) of the respondents. There was significant association between social cohesion, negative life events, and depression. Conclusion and Global Health Implications: Income was the most significant socio-economic determinant. Majority had very low social cohesion and more negative life events, while those with below average years of schooling were more depressed. These are statistically significant. Social determinants of depression should be given a lot of emphasis, when addressing the issue of depression, if we are to meaningfully tackle this increasing scourge in our society. PMID:27621970

  16. [Latin-American public policy regarding social determinants of health].

    PubMed

    García-Ramírez, Jorge A; Vélez-Álvarez, Consuelo

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed at identifying Latin-American countries' public policy which has been related to the social determinants of health. A topic review was thus made of papers kept in the 22 Latin-American countries' databases and official documents issued by their multilateral organisations and ministries of health. The World Health Organization's concept of the social determinants of health has been summarised and a history given of the pertinent work developed worldwide in regions such as Europe and Latin-America. Public policy regarding the field of study in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, México and Venezuela has been described. It was concluded that Latin-America provides a panorama of inequality regarding the application of policy concerning the social determinants of health and that there was segmented intervention, mainly regarding intermediate determinants of health, without taking an integrated approach from different entrance points into account, according to the stated conceptual framework.

  17. Social determinants of inequalities in child undernutrition in Bangladesh: A decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Huda, Tanvir M; Hayes, Alison; El Arifeen, Shams; Dibley, Michael J

    2017-03-08

    Socioeconomic inequalities in child undernutrition remain one of the main challenges in Bangladesh. The social determinants of health are mostly responsible for such inequalities across different population groups. However, no study has examined the relative contribution of different social determinants to the socioeconomic inequality in child undernutrition in Bangladesh. Our objective is to measure the extent of socioeconomic-related inequalities in childhood stunting and identify the key social determinants that potentially explain these inequalities in Bangladesh. We used data for children younger than 5 years of age for this analysis from 2 rounds of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2004 and 2014. We examined the socioeconomic inequality in stunting using the concentration curve and concentration index. We then decomposed the concentration index into the contributions of individual social determinants. We found significant inequality in stunting prevalence. The negative concentration index of stunting indicated that stunting was more concentrated among the poor than among the well-off. Our results suggest that inequalities in stunting increased between 2004 and 2014. Household economic status, maternal and paternal education, health-seeking behavior of the mothers, sanitation, fertility, and maternal stature were the major contributors to the disparity in stunting prevalence in Bangladesh. Equity is a critical component of sustainable development goals. Health policymakers should work together across sectors and develop strategies for effective intersectoral actions to adequately address the social determinants of equity and reduce inequalities in stunting and other health outcomes.

  18. Globalization and social determinants of health: Promoting health equity in global governance (part 3 of 3)

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, Ronald; Schrecker, Ted

    2007-01-01

    This article is the third in a three-part review of research on globalization and the social determinants of health (SDH). In the first article of the series, we identified and defended an economically oriented definition of globalization and addressed a number of important conceptual and metholodogical issues. In the second article, we identified and described seven key clusters of pathways relevant to globalization's influence on SDH. This discussion provided the basis for the premise from which we begin this article: interventions to reduce health inequities by way of SDH are inextricably linked with social protection, economic management and development strategy. Reflecting this insight, and against the background of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), we focus on the asymmetrical distribution of gains, losses and power that is characteristic of globalization in its current form and identify a number of areas for innovation on the part of the international community: making more resources available for health systems, as part of the more general task of expanding and improving development assistance; expanding debt relief and taking poverty reduction more seriously; reforming the international trade regime; considering the implications of health as a human right; and protecting the policy space available to national governments to address social determinants of health, notably with respect to the hypermobility of financial capital. We conclude by suggesting that responses to globalization's effects on social determinants of health can be classified with reference to two contrasting visions of the future, reflecting quite distinct values. PMID:17578570

  19. Globalization and social determinants of health: Promoting health equity in global governance (part 3 of 3).

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald; Schrecker, Ted

    2007-06-19

    This article is the third in a three-part review of research on globalization and the social determinants of health (SDH). In the first article of the series, we identified and defended an economically oriented definition of globalization and addressed a number of important conceptual and metholodogical issues. In the second article, we identified and described seven key clusters of pathways relevant to globalization's influence on SDH. This discussion provided the basis for the premise from which we begin this article: interventions to reduce health inequities by way of SDH are inextricably linked with social protection, economic management and development strategy. Reflecting this insight, and against the background of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), we focus on the asymmetrical distribution of gains, losses and power that is characteristic of globalization in its current form and identify a number of areas for innovation on the part of the international community: making more resources available for health systems, as part of the more general task of expanding and improving development assistance; expanding debt relief and taking poverty reduction more seriously; reforming the international trade regime; considering the implications of health as a human right; and protecting the policy space available to national governments to address social determinants of health, notably with respect to the hypermobility of financial capital. We conclude by suggesting that responses to globalization's effects on social determinants of health can be classified with reference to two contrasting visions of the future, reflecting quite distinct values.

  20. Screening for Social Determinants of Health Among Children and Families Living in Poverty: A Guide for Clinicians.

    PubMed

    Chung, Esther K; Siegel, Benjamin S; Garg, Arvin; Conroy, Kathleen; Gross, Rachel S; Long, Dayna A; Lewis, Gena; Osman, Cynthia J; Jo Messito, Mary; Wade, Roy; Shonna Yin, H; Cox, Joanne; Fierman, Arthur H

    2016-05-01

    Approximately 20% of all children in the United States live in poverty, which exists in rural, urban, and suburban areas. Thus, all child health clinicians need to be familiar with the effects of poverty on health and to understand associated, preventable, and modifiable social factors that impact health. Social determinants of health are identifiable root causes of medical problems. For children living in poverty, social determinants of health for which clinicians may play a role include the following: child maltreatment, child care and education, family financial support, physical environment, family social support, intimate partner violence, maternal depression and family mental illness, household substance abuse, firearm exposure, and parental health literacy. Children, particularly those living in poverty, exposed to adverse childhood experiences are susceptible to toxic stress and a variety of child and adult health problems, including developmental delay, asthma and heart disease. Despite the detrimental effects of social determinants on health, few child health clinicians routinely address the unmet social and psychosocial factors impacting children and their families during routine primary care visits. Clinicians need tools to screen for social determinants of health and to be familiar with available local and national resources to address these issues. These guidelines provide an overview of social determinants of health impacting children living in poverty and provide clinicians with practical screening tools and resources.

  1. Effects of workplace, family and cultural influences on low back pain: what opportunities exist to address social factors in general consultations?

    PubMed

    Shaw, William S; Campbell, Paul; Nelson, Candace C; Main, Chris J; Linton, Steven J

    2013-10-01

    Social factors are widely acknowledged in behavioural models of pain and pain management, but incorporating these factors into general medical consultations for low back pain (LBP) can be challenging. While there is no compelling evidence that social factors contribute to LBP onset, these factors have been shown to influence functional limitation and disability, especially the effects of organisational support in the workplace, spousal support, family conflict and social disadvantage. A number of barriers exist to address such social factors in routine medical encounters for LBP, but there is emerging evidence that improving social and organisational support may be an effective strategy to reduce the negative lifestyle consequences of LBP. For clinicians to address these factors in LBP treatment requires a clearer psychosocial framework in assessment and screening, more individualised problem-solving efforts, more patient-centred interventions involving family, peers and workplace supports and a less biomechanical and diagnostic approach.

  2. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating.

  3. Addressing the Photometric Calibration Challenge: Explicit Determination of the Instrumental Response and Atmospheric Response Functions, and Tying it All Together.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, C. W.; Tonry, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Photometric calibration is currently the dominant source of systematic uncertainty in exploiting type Ia supernovae to determine the nature of the dark energy. We review our ongoing program to address this calibration challenge by performing measurements of both the instrumental response function and the optical transmission function of the atmosphere. A key aspect of this approach is to complement standard star observations by using NIST-calibrated photodiodes as a metrology foundation for optical flux measurements. We present our first attempt to assess photometric consistency between synthetic photometry and observations, by comparing predictions based on a NIST-diode-based determination of the PanSTARRS-1 instrumental response and empirical atmospheric transmission measurements, with fluxes we obtained from observing spectrophotometric standards.

  4. Social Determinants and Health Behaviors: Conceptual Frames and Empirical Advances.

    PubMed

    Short, Susan E; Mollborn, Stefanie

    2015-10-01

    Health behaviors shape health and well-being in individuals and populations. Drawing on recent research, we review applications of the widely applied "social determinants" approach to health behaviors. This approach shifts the lens from individual attribution and responsibility to societal organization and the myriad institutions, structures, inequalities, and ideologies undergirding health behaviors. Recent scholarship integrates a social determinants perspective with biosocial approaches to health behavior dynamics. Empirical advances model feedback among social, psychological and biological factors. Health behaviors are increasingly recognized as multidimensional and embedded in health lifestyles, varying over the life course and across place and reflecting dialectic between structure and agency that necessitates situating individuals in context. Advances in measuring and modeling health behaviors promise to enhance representations of this complexity.

  5. Essentialism goes social: belief in social determinism as a component of psychological essentialism.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Ulrike; Keller, Johannes

    2011-06-01

    Individuals tend to explain the characteristics of others with reference to an underlying essence, a tendency that has been termed psychological essentialism. Drawing on current conceptualizations of essentialism as a fundamental mode of social thinking, and on prior studies investigating belief in genetic determinism (BGD) as a component of essentialism, we argue that BGD cannot constitute the sole basis of individuals' essentialist reasoning. Accordingly, we propose belief in social determinism (BSD) as a complementary component of essentialism, which relies on the belief that a person's essential character is shaped by social factors (e.g., upbringing, social background). We developed a scale to measure this social component of essentialism. Results of five correlational studies indicate that (a) BGD and BSD are largely independent, (b) BGD and BSD are related to important correlates of essentialist thinking (e.g., dispositionism, perceived group homogeneity), (c) BGD and BSD are associated with indicators of fundamental epistemic and ideological motives, and (d) the endorsement of each lay theory is associated with vital social-cognitive consequences (particularly stereotyping and prejudice). Two experimental studies examined the idea that the relationship between BSD and prejudice is bidirectional in nature. Study 6 reveals that rendering social-deterministic explanations salient results in increased levels of ingroup favoritism in individuals who chronically endorse BSD. Results of Study 7 show that priming of prejudice enhances endorsement of social-deterministic explanations particularly in persons habitually endorsing prejudiced attitudes.

  6. Social Determinants of Educational Outcomes in Indigenous Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    For the better part of two decades, the author and his research colleagues have been engaged in a broad program of research aimed at identifying certain of the "social determinants of health and wellbeing" common to Canadian First Nation, Metis, and Inuit youth. The present account samples from these ongoing research efforts by recapping…

  7. Self-Determination and the Social Education of Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senese, Guy B.

    This book is a critical analysis of the concept of self-determination as it has been developed in the federal government's American Indian social and educational policies since the 1950s. Analyses focus on the links between Indian educational policy and economic development concerns and on the ways in which the idealistic language of…

  8. "Healthy People": A 2020 Vision for the Social Determinants Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Howard K.; Piotrowski, Julie J.; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Fielding, Jonathan E.

    2011-01-01

    For the past three decades, the "Healthy People" initiative has represented an ambitious yet achievable health promotion and disease prevention agenda for the nation. The recently released fourth version--"Healthy People 2020"--builds on the foundations of prior iterations while newly embracing and elevating a comprehensive "social determinants"…

  9. Conducting Community Research in Rural China -Addressing the Methodological Challenges of Recruiting Participants in Rapidly Changing Social Environments.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jing; Chiu, Helen F K; Hou, Zai-Jin; Caine, Eric D

    2012-06-01

    BACKGROUND: The paper addressed a unique challenge for public health and community research in rural China, i.e., the very large percentage of young adults that comprises a highly mobile working population that has been an essential component of the country's economic transformation. Fluid local demographic patterns potentially have a substantial impact on sample representativeness and data validity. METHODS: This report is based upon a cross sectional survey with face-to-face interviews of residents aged 16-34 years in rural communities of Mianyang, Sichuan Province, China. Two waves of fieldwork and other strategies were adopted in response to recruitment challenges. RESULTS: 1654 of 3008 potential participants took part in the study; this constituted 98% of those individuals approached and 55% of the persons enumerated in the local household registration system (hukou). Analyses revealed substantial differences among those who were interviewed during September and October 2005, versus those seen during the Chinese Lunar New Year of 2006 when many migrant workers and students returned to their homes. Both groups together differed from those who were unavailable during either recruiting episode. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: We discuss potential responses to associated methodological challenges, including, (1) permanent hukou mismatches; (2) temporary hukou mismatches; (3) difficulties faced by potential participants to fully understand the purpose of research, the informed consent process, and specific research questions; and (4) appreciation of the importance of local social networks, as they pertain in particular to rural China. These findings underscore that there may be a need to make "on-the-ground" adjustments to varying local conditions to maximize sample representativeness and data validity.

  10. Why Police Kill Black Males with Impunity: Applying Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to Address the Determinants of Policing Behaviors and "Justifiable" Homicides in the USA.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Keon L; Ray, Rashawn

    2016-04-01

    Widespread awareness of the recent deaths of several black males at the hands of police has revealed an unaddressed public health challenge-determining the root causes of excessive use of force by police applied to black males that may result in "justifiable homicides." The criminalization of black males has a long history in the USA, which has resulted in an increase in policing behaviors by legal authorities and created inequitable life chances for black males. Currently, the discipline of public health has not applied an intersectional approach that investigates the intersection of race and gender to understanding police behaviors that lead to "justifiable homicides" for black males. This article applies the core tenets and processes of Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to develop a framework that can improve research and interventions to address the disparities observed in recent trend analyses of "justifiable homicides." Accordingly, we use PHCRP to offer an alternative framework on the social, legal, and health implications of violence-related incidents. We aim to move the literature in this area forward to help scholars, policymakers, and activists build the capacity of communities to address the excessive use of force by police to reduce mortality rates from "justifiable homicides."

  11. Social determinants of health: from observation to policy.

    PubMed

    Marmot, M

    2000-04-17

    Differences in the health of individuals reflect inherent features of the societies in which they live. The way a society organizes itself and delivers wellbeing to its members are major determinants of health. Social, economic and political factors have an important influence on health and longevity. Social position and lifestyle only partially explain ill health. Psychosocial factors, such as a sense of isolation, deprivation or loss of control, are also important. Governments can reduce health inequalities by ensuring that all policies are assessed for their potential impact on the health of all sectors of society.

  12. Social Determinants and the Classification of Disease: Descriptive Epidemiology of Selected Socially Mediated Disease Constellations

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Robert S.; Kilbourne, Barbara A.; Rust, George S.; Langston, Michael A.; Husaini, Baqar A.; Gittner, Lisaann S.; Sanderson, Maureen; Hennekens, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Most major diseases have important social determinants. In this context, classification of disease based on etiologic or anatomic criteria may be neither mutually exclusive nor optimal. Methods and Findings Units of analysis comprised large metropolitan central and fringe metropolitan counties with reliable mortality rates – (n = 416). Participants included infants and adults ages 25 to 64 years with selected causes of death (1999 to 2006). Exposures included that residential segregation and race-specific social deprivation variables. Main outcome measures were obtained via principal components analyses with an orthogonal rotation to identify a common factor. To discern whether the common factor was socially mediated, negative binomial multiple regression models were developed for which the dependent variable was the common factor. Results showed that infant deaths, mortality from assault, and malignant neoplasm of the trachea, bronchus and lung formed a common factor for race-gender groups (black/white and men/women). Regression analyses showed statistically significant, positive associations between low socio-economic status for all race-gender groups and this common factor. Conclusions Between 1999 and 2006, deaths classified as “assault” and “lung cancer”, as well as “infant mortality” formed a socially mediated factor detectable in population but not individual data. Despite limitations related to death certificate data, the results contribute important information to the formulation of several hypotheses: (a) disease classifications based on anatomic or etiologic criteria fail to account for social determinants; (b) social forces produce demographically and possibly geographically distinct population-based disease constellations; and (c) the individual components of population-based disease constellations (e.g., lung cancer) are phenotypically comparable from one population to another but genotypically different, in part, because

  13. Realizing human rights-based approaches for action on the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Rasanathan, Kumanan; Norenhag, Johanna; Valentine, Nicole

    2010-12-15

    Health inequities are clear evidence of violations of the right to health. Yet despite this common ground, action on the social determinants of health aiming to reduce health inequities is sometimes disconnected from implementation of human rights-based approaches. This is explained in part by differing histories, disciplines, and epistemologies. The capacity of human rights instruments to alter policies on social determinants can seem limited. An absolutist focus on individuals and processes can seem at odds with the attention to differences in population health outcomes central to the concern for health equity. However, developments in rights-based approaches have seen the terrain of human rights increasingly address social determinants. Human rights provide a firm legal basis for tackling the inequities in power and resources that the Commission on Social Determinants of Health identifies as fundamental to achieving health equity. Indicators and benchmarks developed for rights-based approaches to health systems can be developed further within health sectors and translated to other sectors and disciplines. The discourse and evidence base of social determinants can also contribute to implementing rights-based approaches, as its resultant policy momentum can provide essential levers to realize the right to health. Therefore, there is no clear-cut delineation between the human rights and health equity movements, and both may constructively work together to realize their goals. Such constructive collaboration will not prove straightforward; it will, instead, require profound engagement and innovations in both theory and practice. Yet this effort represents an important opportunity for those who seek social justice in health.

  14. Social Determinants of Population Health: A Systems Sciences Approach

    PubMed Central

    Fink, David S.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Cerdá, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Population distributions of health emerge from the complex interplay of health-related factors at multiple levels, from the biological to the societal level. Individuals are aggregated within social networks, affected by their locations, and influenced differently across time. From aggregations of individuals, group properties can emerge, including some exposures that are ubiquitous within populations but variant across populations. By combining a focus on social determinants of health with a conceptual framework for understanding how genetics, biology, behavior, psychology, society, and environment interact, a systems science approach can inform our understanding of the underlying causes of the unequal distribution of health across generations and populations, and can help us identify promising approaches to reduce such inequalities. In this paper, we discuss how systems science approaches have already made several substantive and methodological contributions to the study of population health from a social epidemiology perspective. PMID:27642548

  15. Social Determinants and Health Behaviors: Conceptual Frames and Empirical Advances

    PubMed Central

    Short, Susan E.; Mollborn, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Health behaviors shape health and well-being in individuals and populations. Drawing on recent research, we review applications of the widely applied “social determinants” approach to health behaviors. This approach shifts the lens from individual attribution and responsibility to societal organization and the myriad institutions, structures, inequalities, and ideologies undergirding health behaviors. Recent scholarship integrates a social determinants perspective with biosocial approaches to health behavior dynamics. Empirical advances model feedback among social, psychological and biological factors. Health behaviors are increasingly recognized as multidimensional and embedded in health lifestyles, varying over the life course and across place and reflecting dialectic between structure and agency that necessitates situating individuals in context. Advances in measuring and modeling health behaviors promise to enhance representations of this complexity. PMID:26213711

  16. [Social determinants of health and disability: updating the model for determination].

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Mauro; Besoaín, Álvaro; Rebolledo, Jame

    2017-03-05

    Social determinants of health (SDH) are conditions in which people live. These conditions impact their lives, health status and social inclusion level. In line with the conceptual and comprehensive progression of disability, it is important to update SDH due to their broad implications in implementing health interventions in society. This proposal supports incorporating disability in the model as a structural determinant, as it would lead to the same social inclusion/exclusion of people described in other structural SDH. This proposal encourages giving importance to designing and implementing public policies to improve societal conditions and contribute to social equity. This will be an act of reparation, justice and fulfilment with the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

  17. Social determinants of older adults' awareness of community support services in Hamilton, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Tindale, J; Denton, M; Ploeg, J; Lillie, J; Hutchison, B; Brazil, K; Akhtar-Danesh, N; Plenderleith, J

    2011-11-01

    Community support services (CSSs) have been developed in Canada and other Western nations to enable persons coping with health or social issues to continue to live in the community. This study addresses the extent to which awareness of CSSs is structured by the social determinants of health. In a telephone interview conducted in February-March 2006, 1152 community-dwelling older adults (response rate 12.4%) from Hamilton, Ontario, Canada were made to read a series of four vignettes and were asked whether they were able to identify a CSS they may turn to in that situation. Across the four vignettes, 40% of participants did name a CSS as a possible source of assistance. Logistic regression was used to determine factors related to awareness of CSSs. Respondents most likely to have awareness of CSS include the middle-aged and higher-income groups. Being knowledgeable about where to look for information about CSSs, having social support and being a member of a club or voluntary organisations are also significant predictors of awareness of CSSs. Study results suggest that efforts be made to improve the level of awareness and access to CSSs among older adults by targeting their social networks as well as their health and social care providers.

  18. Addressing Social, Emotional, and Organizational Goals for a Child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Using the Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czmowski, Gina M.; Willert, Shea L.; Nielsen, Sarah K.

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have social, emotional, and organizational skill deficits which are frequently addressed through behavioral-based skills training. However, these approaches often do not result in generalization of skills. This case study sought to understand if the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational…

  19. Sex-specific determinants of fitness in a social mammal.

    PubMed

    Lardy, Sophie; Allainé, Dominique; Bonenfant, Christophe; Cohas, Aurélie

    2015-11-01

    Sociality should evolve when the fitness benefits of group living outweigh the costs. Theoretical models predict an optimal group size maximizing individual fitness. However, beyond the number of individuals present in a group, the characteristics of these individuals, like their sex, are likely to affect the fitness payoffs of group living. Using 20 years of individually based data on a social mammal, the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota), we tested for the occurrence of an optimal group size and composition, and for sex-specific effects of group characteristics on fitness. Based on lifetime data of 52 males and 39 females, our findings support the existence of an optimal group size maximizing male fitness and an optimal group composition maximizing fitness of males and females. Additionally, although group characteristics (i.e., size, composition and instability) affecting male and female fitness differed, fitness depended strongly on the number of same-sex subordinates within the social group in the two sexes. By comparing multiple measures of social group characteristics and of fitness in both sexes, we highlighted the sex-specific determinants of fitness in the two sexes and revealed the crucial role of intrasexual competition in shaping social group composition.

  20. Social determinants of health in Canada: Are healthy living initiatives there yet? A policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Preventative strategies that focus on addressing the social determinants of health to improve healthy eating and physical activity have become an important strategy in British Columbia and Ontario for combating chronic diseases. What has not yet been examined is the extent to which healthy living initiatives implemented under these new policy frameworks successfully engage with and change the social determinants of health. Methods Initiatives active between January 1, 2006 and September 1, 2011 were found using provincial policy documents, web searches, health organization and government websites, and databases of initiatives that attempted to influence to nutrition and physical activity in order to prevent chronic diseases or improve overall health. Initiatives were reviewed, analyzed and grouped using the descriptive codes: lifestyle-based, environment-based or structure-based. Initiatives were also classified according to the mechanism by which they were administered: as direct programs (e.g. directly delivered), blueprints (or frameworks to tailor developed programs), and building blocks (resources to develop programs). Results 60 initiatives were identified in Ontario and 61 were identified in British Columbia. In British Columbia, 11.5% of initiatives were structure-based. In Ontario, of 60 provincial initiatives identified, 15% were structure-based. Ontario had a higher proportion of direct interventions than British Columbia for all intervention types. However, in both provinces, as the intervention became more upstream and attempted to target the social determinants of health more directly, the level of direct support for the intervention lessened. Conclusions The paucity of initiatives in British Columbia and Ontario that address healthy eating and active living through action on the social determinants of health is problematic. In the context of Canada's increasingly neoliberal political and economic policy, the public health sector may face

  1. 'We talk, we do not have shame': addressing stigma by reconstructing identity through enhancing social cohesion among female sex workers living with HIV in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Maria Augusta; Barrington, Clare; Kennedy, Caitlin; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2016-10-20

    This study explores social cohesion as a strategy used by female sex workers to address layered HIV and sex work-related stigma. Data derive from a thematic analysis of 23 in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups with female sex workers living with HIV enrolled in a multi-level HIV/STI prevention, treatment and care intervention in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Drawing on Foucault's conceptualisation of modern power, discipline and resistance, we argue that social cohesion provides the psychosocial space (of trust, solidarity and mutual aid) to subvert oppressive societal norms, enabling the reconstruction of identity. Among study participants, identity reconstruction happened through the production, repetition and performance of new de-stigmatised narratives that emerged and were solidified through collective interaction. Findings highlight that enabling the collective reconstruction of identity through social cohesion - rather than solely attempting to change individual beliefs - is a successful approach to addressing stigma.

  2. Evidence-based evolution of an integrated nutrition-focused agriculture approach to address the underlying determinants of stunting.

    PubMed

    Haselow, Nancy J; Stormer, Ame; Pries, Alissa

    2016-05-01

    Despite progress in reducing hunger and malnutrition since the 1990s, many still suffer from undernutrition and food insecurity, particularly women and young children, resulting in preterm birth, low birthweight and stunting, among other conditions. Helen Keller International (HKI) has addressed malnutrition and household food insecurity through implementation of an Enhanced Homestead Food Production (EHFP) programme that increases year-round availability and intake of diverse micronutrient-rich foods and promotes optimal nutrition and hygiene practices among poor households. This paper reviews the evolution and impact of HKI's EHFP programme and identifies core components of the model that address the underlying determinants of stunting. To date, evaluations of EHFP have shown impact on food production, consumption by women and children and household food security. Sale of surplus produce has increased household income, and the use of a transformative gender approach has empowered women. EHFP has also realized nutrition improvements in many project sites. Results from a randomized control trial (RCT) in Baitadi district, Nepal showed a significant improvement in a range of practices known to impact child growth, although no impact on stunting. Additional non-RCT evaluations in Kailali district of Nepal, demonstrated a 10.5% reduction in stunting and in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh, revealed an 18% decrease in stunting. Based on evidence, the EHFP has evolved into an integrated package that includes agriculture, nutrition, water/hygiene/sanitation, linkages to health care, women's empowerment, income generation and advocacy. Closing the stunting gap requires long-term exposure to targeted multi-sectoral solutions and rigorous evaluation to optimize impact.

  3. Addressing diarrhea prevalence in the West African Middle Belt: social and geographic dimensions in a case study for Benin

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Saket; Keyzer, Michiel A; Arouna, Aminou; Sonneveld, Ben GJS

    2008-01-01

    Background In West Africa, the Northern Sahelian zone and the coastal areas are densely populated but the Middle Belt in between is in general sparsely settled. Predictions of climate change foresee more frequent drought in the north and more frequent flooding in the coastal areas, while conditions in the Middle Belt will remain moderate. Consequently, the Middle Belt might become a major area for immigration but there may be constraining factors as well, particularly with respect to water availability. As a case study, the paper looks into the capacity of the Middle Belt zone of Benin, known as the Oueme River Basin (ORB), to reduce diarrhea prevalence. In Benin it links to the Millennium Development Goals on child mortality and environmental sustainability that are currently farthest from realization. However, diarrhea prevalence is only in part due to lack of availability of drinking water from a safe source. Social factors such as hygienic practices and poor sanitation are also at play. Furthermore, we consider these factors to possess the properties of a local public good that suffers from under provision and requires collective action, as individual actions to prevent illness are bound to fail as long as others free ride. Methods Combining data from the Demographic Health Survey with various spatial data sets for Benin, we apply mixed effect logit regression to arrive at a spatially explicit assessment of geographical and social determinants of diarrhea prevalence. Starting from an analysis of these factors separately at national level, we identify relevant proxies at household level, estimate a function with geo-referenced independent variables and apply it to evaluate the costs and impacts of improving access to good water in the basin. Results First, the study confirms the well established stylized fact on the causes of diarrhea that a household with access to clean water and with good hygienic practices will, irrespective of other conditions, not suffer

  4. Moving from theory to practice: A participatory social network mapping approach to address unmet need for family planning in Benin.

    PubMed

    Igras, Susan; Diakité, Mariam; Lundgren, Rebecka

    2016-03-07

    In West Africa, social factors influence whether couples with unmet need for family planning act on birth-spacing desires. Tékponon Jikuagou is testing a social network-based intervention to reduce social barriers by diffusing new ideas. Individuals and groups judged socially influential by their communities provide entrée to networks. A participatory social network mapping methodology was designed to identify these diffusion actors. Analysis of monitoring data, in-depth interviews, and evaluation reports assessed the methodology's acceptability to communities and staff and whether it produced valid, reliable data to identify influential individuals and groups who diffuse new ideas through their networks. Results indicated the methodology's acceptability. Communities were actively and equitably engaged. Staff appreciated its ability to yield timely, actionable information. The mapping methodology also provided valid and reliable information by enabling communities to identify highly connected and influential network actors. Consistent with social network theory, this methodology resulted in the selection of informal groups and individuals in both informal and formal positions. In-depth interview data suggest these actors were diffusing new ideas, further confirming their influence/connectivity. The participatory methodology generated insider knowledge of who has social influence, challenging commonly held assumptions. Collecting and displaying information fostered staff and community learning, laying groundwork for social change.

  5. Sociology, Music Education, and Social Change: The Prospect of Addressing Their Relations by Attending to Some Central, Expanded Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Geir

    2014-01-01

    Studies on sociology and music education are important because they can enlighten how music education relates to social change. By studying how music education changes and is changed by society we enable ourselves to describe how it can contribute to the understanding of social change generally. This may lay the ground for us in contributing to…

  6. Social and Medical Determinants of Cardiometabolic Health: The Big Picture.

    PubMed

    Puckrein, Gary A; Egan, Brent M; Howard, George

    2015-11-05

    Cardiometabolic diseases, including diabetes and heart disease, account for >12 million years of life lost annually among Black adults in the United States. Health disparities are geographically localized, with ~80% of health disparities occurring within ~6000 (16%) of all 38,000 US ZIP codes. Socio-economic status (SES), behavioral and environmental factors (social determinants) account for ~80% of variance in health outcomes and cluster geographically. Neighborhood SES is inversely associated with prevalent diabetes and hypertension, and Blacks are four times more likely than Whites to live in lowest SES neighborhoods. In ZIP code 48235 (Detroit, 97% Black, 16.2% unemployed, income/capita $18,343, 23.6% poverty), 1082 Medicare fee-for service (FFS) beneficiaries received care for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and coronary artery disease (CAD) in 2012. Collectively, these beneficiaries had 1082 inpatient admissions and 839 emergency department visits, mean cost $27,759/beneficiary and mortality 2.7%. Nationally in 2011, 236,222 Black Medicare FFS beneficiaries had 213,715 inpatient admissions, 191,346 emergency department visits, mean cost $25,580/beneficiary and 2.4% mortality. In addition to more prevalent hypertension and T2D, Blacks appear more susceptible to clinical complications of risk factors than Whites, including hypertension as a contributor to stroke. Cardiometabolic health equity in African Americans requires interventions on social determinants to reduce excess risk prevalence of risk factors. Social-medical interventions to promote timely access to, delivery of and adherence with evidence-based medicine are needed to counterbalance greater disease susceptibility. Place-based interventions on social and medical determinants of health could reduce the burden of life lost to cardiometabolic diseases in Blacks.

  7. Synergy for health equity: integrating health promotion and social determinants of health approaches in and beyond the Americas.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Suzanne F; Birn, Anne-Emanuelle; Fawcett, Stephen B; Poland, Blake; Schultz, Jerry A

    2013-12-01

    Health promotion and social determinants of health approaches, when integrated, can better contribute to understanding and addressing health inequities. Yet, they have typically been pursued as two solitudes. This paper presents the key elements, principles, actions, and potential synergies of these complementary frameworks for addressing health equity. The value-added of integrating these two approaches is illustrated by three examples drawn from the authors' experiences in the Americas: at the community level, through a community-based coalition for reducing chronic disease disparities among minorities in an urban center in the United States; at the national level, through healthy-settings interventions in Canada; and at the Regional level, through health cooperation based on social justice values in Latin America. Challenges to integrating health promotion and social determinants of health approaches in the Americas are also discussed.

  8. Egalitarian policies and social determinants of health in Bolivarian Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Caries; Benach, Joan; Páez Victor, María; Ng, Edwin; Chung, Haejoo

    2013-01-01

    In 1999, newly-elected Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez initiated a far-reaching social movement as part of a political project known as the Bolivarian Revolution. Inspired by the democratic ideologies of Simón Bolívar, this movement was committed to reducing intractable inequalities that defined Venezuela's Fourth Republic (1958-1998). Given the ambitious scope of these reforms, Venezuela serves as an instructive example to understand the political context of social inequalities and population health. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the impact of egalitarian policies in Venezuela, stressing: (a) the socialist reforms and social class changes initiated by the Bolivarian Movement; (b) the impact of these reforms and changes on poverty and social determinants of health; (c) the sustainability of economic growth to continue pro-poor policies; and (d) the implications of egalitarian policies for other Latin American countries. The significance and implications of Chávez's achievements are now further underscored given his recent passing, leading one to ask whether political support for Bolivarianism will continue without its revolutionary leader.

  9. Social determinants of health, inequality and social inclusion among people with disabilities1

    PubMed Central

    Fiorati, Regina Celia; Elui, Valeria Meirelles Carril

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyze the socio-familial and community inclusion and social participation of people with disabilities, as well as their inclusion in occupations in daily life. METHOD: qualitative study with data collected through open interviews concerning the participants' life histories and systematic observation. The sample was composed of ten individuals with acquired or congenital disabilities living in the region covered by a Family Health Center. The social conception of disability was the theoretical framework used. Data were analyzed according to an interpretative reconstructive approach based on Habermas' Theory of Communicative Action. RESULTS: the results show that the socio-familial and community inclusion of the study participants is conditioned to the social determinants of health and present high levels of social inequality expressed by difficult access to PHC and rehabilitation services, work and income, education, culture, transportation and social participation. CONCLUSION: there is a need to develop community-centered care programs in cooperation with PHC services aiming to cope with poverty and improve social inclusion. PMID:26039305

  10. Social Determinants of Infectious Diseases in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Bishwajit, Ghose; Ide, Seydou; Ghosh, Sharmistha

    2014-01-01

    South Asian countries have developed infectious disease control programs such as routine immunization, vaccination, and the provision of essential drugs which are operating nationwide in cooperation with many local and foreign NGOs. Most South Asian countries have a relatively low prevalence of HIV/AIDS until now, but issues like poverty, food insecurity, illiteracy, poor sanitation, and social stigma around AIDS are widespread and are creating formidable challenges to prevention of further spread of this epidemic. Besides that, resurgence of tuberculosis along with the emergence of the drug resistant (MDR-TB and XDRTB) strains and the coepidemic of TB and HIV are posing ever-growing threats to the underdeveloped healthcare infrastructure. The countries are undergoing an epidemiological transition where the disease burden is gradually shifting to noncommunicable diseases, but the infectious diseases still account for almost half of the total disease burden. Despite this huge burden of infectious diseases in South Asia, which is second only to Africa, there is yet any study on the social determinants of infectious diseases in a local context. This paper examines various issues surrounding the social determinants of infectious diseases in South Asian countries with a special reference to HIV and tuberculosis. And, by doing so, it attempts to provide a framework for formulating more efficient prevention and intervention strategies for the future. PMID:27350969

  11. A Social Media mHealth Solution to Address the Needs of Dengue Prevention and Management in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Rathnayake, Vajira Sampath; Lim, Gentatsu; Panchapakesan, Chitra; Foo, Schubert; Wijayamuni, Ruwan; Wimalaratne, Prasad; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton

    2016-01-01

    Background Sri Lanka has witnessed a series of dengue epidemics over the past five years, with the western province, home to the political capital of Colombo, bearing more than half of the dengue burden. Existing dengue monitoring prevention programs are exhausted as public health inspectors (PHIs) cope with increasing workloads and paper-based modes of surveillance and education, characterizing a reactive system unable to cope with the enormity of the problem. On the other hand, the unprecedented proliferation and affordability of mobile phones since 2009 and a supportive political climate have thus far remained unexploited for the use of mobile-based interventions for dengue management. Objective To conduct a needs assessment of PHIs in Colombo with respect to their dengue-related tasks and develop a new mobile-based system to address these needs while strengthening existing systems. Methods One-on-one in-depth interviews were conducted with 29 PHIs to a) gain a nuanced, in-depth understanding of the current state of surveillance practices, b) understand the logistical, technological and social challenges they confront, and c) identify opportunities for mobile-based interventions. Quantitative analysis included simple descriptive statistics while qualitative analysis comprised textual analysis of 209 pages of transcripts (or nearly 600 minutes of conversations) using grounded theory approaches. Results Current paper-based data collection practices for dengue surveillance involved a circuitous, time consuming process that could take between 7-10 days to officially report and record a single case. PHIs confronted challenges in terms of unreliable, standalone GIS devices, delays in registering mosquito breeding sites and lack of engagement from communities while delivering dengue education. These findings, in concert with a high motivation to use mobile-based systems, informed the development of Mo-Buzz, a mobile-based system that integrates three components

  12. Integrating the 3Ds--social determinants, health disparities, and health-care workforce diversity.

    PubMed

    LaVeist, Thomas A; Pierre, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    The established relationships among social determinants of health (SDH), health disparities, and race/ethnicity highlight the need for health-care professionals to adequately address SDH in their encounters with patients. The ethnic demographic transition slated to occur during the next several decades in the United States will have numerous effects on the health-care sector, particularly as it pertains to the need for a more diverse and culturally aware workforce. In recent years, a substantial body of literature has developed, exploring the extent to which diversity in the health-care workforce may be used as a tool to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care in the U.S. We explore existing literature on this topic, propose a conceptual framework, and identify next steps in health-care policy for reducing and eliminating health disparities by addressing SDH and diversification of the health-care workforce.

  13. Difference in social determinants of health between men in the poor and the wealthy social strata in a Caribbean nation

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Paul A.; Eldemire-Shearer, Denise

    2010-01-01

    Background: Studies that have examined social determinants of health have made their investigations on the population, but none have reviewed them from the perspective of particular social hierarchies. Aim: The study examined the factors determining the self-reported health of men of different socioeconomic status, by using models derived through econometric analyses. Materials & Methods: The study used a sample of 6,474 respondents: 2,704 from the two poor quintiles and 3,770 from the two wealthy quintiles. The survey used a random stratified probability sampling technique and involved the use of self-administered questionnaires. Multiple logistic regression technique was used to identify variables which are associated with health conditions of men in the two social hierarchies. Results: The findings revealed that the self-reported health of men in the two wealthiest quintiles were substantially influenced by private health insurance coverage (Odds Ratio (OR) = 32.9, 95%CI: 20.64, 52.45) and age of respondents (OR = 1.03, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.04) This was similar for men in the two poorest income quintiles; private health insurance coverage (OR = 16.97, 95%CI: 10.18, 28.27) and age (OR=1.05, 95%CI: 1.03, 1.06). Negative affective psychological conditions, consumption and medical expenditure affected the self-reported health of those in the two wealthiest quintiles, while positive affective, secondary levels of education and living alone influenced those in the two poorest quintiles. Conclusion: This research serves as a foundation for further work relating to the determinants of self-reported health conditions, inequity across socio-economic strata for men, and how patient care should be addressed. PMID:22574302

  14. Understanding veterinary students' use of and attitudes toward the social networking site, Facebook, to assist in developing curricula to address online professionalism.

    PubMed

    Coe, Jason B; Weijs, Cynthia A; Muise, Amy; Christofides, Emily; Desmarais, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Social media is an increasingly common form of communication, with Facebook being the preferred social-networking site among post-secondary students. Numerous studies suggest post-secondary students practice high self-disclosure on Facebook. Research evaluating veterinary students' use of social media found a notable proportion of student-posted content deemed inappropriate. Lack of discretion in posting content can have significant repercussions for aspiring veterinary professionals, their college of study, and the veterinary profession they represent. Veterinarians-in-training at three veterinary colleges across Canada were surveyed to explore their use of and attitude toward the social networking site, Facebook. Students were invited to complete an online survey with questions relating to their knowledge of privacy in relation to using Facebook, their views on the acceptability of posting certain types of information, and their level of professional accountability online. Linear regression modeling was used to further examine factors related to veterinary students' disclosure of personal information on Facebook. Need for popularity (p<.01) and awareness of consequences (p<.001) were found to be positively and negatively associated, respectively, with students' personal disclosure of information on Facebook. Understanding veterinary students' use of and attitudes toward social media, such as Facebook, reveals a need, and provides a basis, for developing educational programs to address online professionalism. Educators and administrators at veterinary schools may use this information to assist in developing veterinary curricula that addresses the escalating issue of online professionalism.

  15. Globalization, human rights, and the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2009-02-01

    Globalization, a process characterized by the growing interdependence of the world's people, impacts health systems and the social determinants of health in ways that are detrimental to health equity. In a world in which there are few countervailing normative and policy approaches to the dominant neoliberal regime underpinning globalization, the human rights paradigm constitutes a widely shared foundation for challenging globalization's effects. The substantive rights enumerated in human rights instruments include the right to the highest attainable level of physical and mental health and others that are relevant to the determinants of health. The rights stipulated in these documents impose extensive legal obligations on states that have ratified these documents and confer health entitlements on their residents. Human rights norms have also inspired civil society efforts to improve access to essential medicines and medical services, particularly for HIV/AIDS. Nevertheless, many factors reduce the potential counterweight human rights might exert, including and specifically the nature of the human rights approach, weak political commitments to promoting and protecting health rights on the part of some states and their lack of institutional and economic resources to do so. Global economic markets and the relative power of global economic institutions are also shrinking national policy space. This article reviews the potential contributions and limitations of human rights to achieving greater equity in shaping the social determinants of health.

  16. Beyond inequality: Acknowledging the complexity of social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Eckersley, Richard

    2015-12-01

    The impact of inequality on health is gaining more attention as public and political concern grows over increasing inequality. The income inequality hypothesis, which holds that inequality is detrimental to overall population health, is especially pertinent. However the emphasis on inequality can be challenged on both empirical and theoretical grounds. Empirically, the evidence is contradictory and contested; theoretically, it is inconsistent with our understanding of human societies as complex systems. Research and discussion, both scientific and political, need to reflect better this complexity, and give greater recognition to other social determinants of health.

  17. Social determinants of prescribed and non-prescribed medicine use

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to describe the use of prescribed and non prescribed medicines in a non-institutionalised population older than 15 years of an urban area during the year 2000, in terms of age and gender, social class, employment status and type of Primary Health Care. Methods Cross-sectional study. Information came from the 2000 Barcelona Health Interview Survey. The indicators used were the prevalence of use of prescribed and non-prescribed medicines in the two weeks prior to the interview. Descriptive analyses, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out. Results More women than men took medicines (75.8% vs. 60% respectively). The prevalence of use of prescribed medicines increased with age while the prevalence of non-prescribed use decreased. These age differences are smaller among those with poor perceived health. In terms of social class, a higher percentage of men with good health in the more advantaged classes took non-prescribed medicines compared with disadvantaged classes (38.7% vs 31.8%). In contrast, among the group with poor health, more people from the more advantaged classes took prescribed medicines, compared with disadvantaged classes (51.4% vs 33.3%). A higher proportion of people who were either retired, unemployed or students, with good health, used prescribed medicines. Conclusion This study shows that beside health needs, there are social determinants affecting medicine consumption in the city of Barcelona. PMID:20441578

  18. Addressing the Social and Academic Behavior of a Student with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in an Alternative Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swoszowski, N. C.; Jolivette, K.; Frederick, L. D.

    2013-01-01

    Check-In/Check-Out is a secondary tier positive behavior support program in which an adult mentor is paired with a student to address problem behavior and support appropriate behavior. This case study extended the implementation of the Check-In/Check-Out strategy to a residential facility for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. The…

  19. [Social determinants of marital fertility in Japan (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Atoh, M N

    1981-01-01

    The trends and social differentials in fertility for Japanese married women were examined, based mainly on the data from the censuses featuring fertility. The secular decline in Japanese marital fertility has resulted from the incerasing curtailment of births of higher parity, by the permeation of fertility control over all reproductive ages, and by almost complete curtailment of births for women aged 35 or older. At the same time, the proportion of childless couples has decreased continuously. Most Japanese women have only a limited number of children, mostly from 1-3, in the early reproductive years. Such a childbearing pattern has become prevalent among all social and economic strata of Japanese society; this holds true for women with husbands self-employed on farms, living in rural areas, those with low levels of education, as well as with husbands who are employed, living in urban areas, or who have a high level of education. Thus, fertility differentials by socioeconomic status, which were conspicuous among those who had their most reproductive years before the war, have gradually shrunk through the postwar years. By drawing on data from the (7JNFS) 7th Japanese National Fertility Survey in 1977, we examined the current levels of and differentials in marital fertility in Japan as compared with the Western countries. Marital fertility in Japan is among the lowest in the industrialized world and the social differentials in marital fertility are probably the smallest in the industrialized world. (MCA) Multiple classification analysis was done for the (NCEB) number of children ever born to identify the social determinants of marital fertility in contemporary Japan. The major findings are as follows. Among the explanatory variables included in the MCA model, spouses' age at marriage has the largest explanatory power. The proportion of the total variance of NCEB explained by social variables is relatively small. Wife's work in the early reproductive years has the

  20. The Social Determinants of Infant Mortality and Birth Outcomes in Western Developed Nations: A Cross-Country Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Saada, Adrianna

    2013-01-01

    Infant mortality (IM) and birth outcomes, key population health indicators, have lifelong implications for individuals, and are unequally distributed globally. Even among western industrialized nations, striking cross-country and within-country patterns are evident. We sought to better understand these variations across and within the United States of America (USA) and Western Europe (WE), by conceptualizing a social determinants of IM/birth outcomes framework, and systematically reviewing the empirical literature on hypothesized social determinants (e.g., social policies, neighbourhood deprivation, individual socioeconomic status (SES)) and intermediary determinants (e.g., health behaviours). To date, the evidence suggests that income inequality and social policies (e.g., maternal leave policies) may help to explain cross-country variations in IM/birth outcomes. Within countries, the evidence also supports neighbourhood SES (USA, WE) and income inequality (USA) as social determinants. By contrast, within-country social cohesion/social capital has been underexplored. At the individual level, mixed associations have been found between individual SES, race/ethnicity, and selected intermediary factors (e.g., psychosocial factors) with IM/birth outcomes. Meanwhile, this review identifies several methodological gaps, including the underuse of prospective designs and the presence of residual confounding in a number of studies. Ultimately, addressing such gaps including through novel approaches to strengthen causal inference and implementing both health and non-health policies may reduce inequities in IM/birth outcomes across the western developed world. PMID:23739649

  1. Impact Evaluation of Reactive Assessment Strategies to Address Social Loafing by Promoting Student Cooperation and Encouraging Mutual Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arevalillo-Herráez, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative work is an effective strategy when team members are kept motivated and collaborate towards the achievement of a common goal. However, social loafing may significantly reduce educational gains. In this article, we analyse whether assessment-based reactive strategies that exploit existing emotional relationships between the team members…

  2. Social Franchising: A Blockbuster to Address Unmet Need for Family Planning and to Advance Toward the FP2020 Goal.

    PubMed

    2015-06-17

    Social franchising has scaled-up provision of voluntary family planning, especially long-acting reversible contraceptives, across Africa and Asia at a rapid and remarkable pace. The approach should be pursued vigorously, especially in countries with a significant private-sector presence, to advance the FP2020 goal of providing access to modern contraception to 120 million additional clients by 2020.

  3. Poststroke Depression: Social Workers' Role in Addressing an Underrecognized Psychological Problem for Couples Who Have Experienced Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Michael J.; Powers, Laurie E.; Lyons, Karen S.

    2011-01-01

    Depression is the most common psychological challenge faced by many individuals and families following stroke. Fortunately, poststroke depression is treatable, and even preventable, if social work and other rehabilitation practitioners understand the most common risk factors and become familiar with measures for assessing for depression among…

  4. What we mean by social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Vicente

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the changes in health conditions and quality of life in the populations of developed and developing countries over the past 30 years, resulting from neoliberal policies developed by many governments and promoted by the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, World Health Organization, and other international agencies. It challenges interpretations by the analysts of "globalization", including the common assumption that states are disappearing. The author shows that what has been happening is not a reduction of state interventions but a change in the nature and character of those interventions, resulting from major changes in class (and race and gender) power relations in each country, with establishment of an alliance between the dominant classes of developed and developing countries-a class alliance responsible for the promotion of its ideology, neoliberalism. This is the cause of the enormous health inequalities in the world today. The article concludes with a critical analysis of the WHO report on social determinants of health, applauding its analysis and many of its recommendations, but faulting it for ignoring the power relations that shape these social determinants. It is not inequalities that kill people, as the report states; it is those who are responsible for these inequalities that kill people.

  5. Social determinants of health and health inequities in Nakuru (Kenya)

    PubMed Central

    Muchukuri, Esther; Grenier, Francis R

    2009-01-01

    Background Dramatic inequalities dominate global health today. The rapid urban growth sustained by Kenya in the last decades has created many difficulties that also led to worsening inequalities in health care. The continuous decline in its Human Development Index since the 1990s highlights the hardship that continues to worsen in the country, against the general trend of Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper examines the health status of residents in a major urban centre in Kenya and reviews the effects of selected social determinants on local health. Methods Through field surveys, focus group discussions and a literature review, this study canvasses past and current initiatives and recommends priority actions. Results Areas identified which unevenly affect the health of the most vulnerable segments of the population were: water supply, sanitation, solid waste management, food environments, housing, the organization of health care services and transportation. Conclusion The use of a participatory method proved to be a useful approach that could benefit other urban centres in their analysis of social determinants of health. PMID:19439105

  6. Common/Unity: an innovative program to address 3 root causes of many of the social ills seen in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Burris; Harris, Gail; Reedy, Jessica; Krahe, Sue; Gillis, Regina; Laguna, Michele

    2008-04-01

    Multiple community agencies coordinated their individual expertise to develop a comprehensive program for a planned community in a 24-apartment complex for single, young (age range, 18-21 years), homeless mothers and their infants and children. Although objective evaluation of the program proved difficult, "community" was established and lives were changed. The program was designed to address multiple issues faced by teenaged mothers but did not directly address critical factors of youths' internal motivation and decision-making processes. Attempting to reverse major impediments in the lives of young mothers with histories of violence, abuse, unstable early home environments, and lack of education while assuming the sole responsibility of raising a child, advancing their education, and maintaining employment is a daunting task, but a task that deserves our urgent attention.

  7. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  8. Combining Social Norms and Social Marketing to Address Underage Drinking: Development and Process Evaluation of a Whole-of-Community Intervention.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sandra C; Andrews, Kelly; Francis, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Youth alcohol consumption has been steadily declining in Australia, as in other countries; fewer young people are drinking and the age of initiation is increasing. However, young people, their parents and others in their communities continue to believe that adolescent (excessive) drinking is the norm. This perception, and the concurrent misperception that the majority of parents are happy to provide their underage children with alcohol, creates a perceived culture of acceptance of youth alcohol consumption. Young people believe that it is accepted, and even expected, that they will drink; and parents perceive that not providing their adolescent children with alcohol will lead to social exclusion. There is evidence that shifting social norms can have an immediate and lasting effect adolescents' (and adults') alcohol related attitudes and behaviors. This paper reports on a novel, community based social marketing intervention designed to correct misperceptions of alcohol related social norms in an Australian community. The project utilized a social marketing approach, informed by the full complement of Andreasen's social marketing benchmarking criteria, and concurrently targeted adolescents, parents of adolescents and the broader community. Using extensive formative research and multiple evaluation techniques, the study demonstrates that shifts in community social norms are possible and suggests that this approach could be used more widely to support the positive trends in youth alcohol consumption and parental supply.

  9. Combining Social Norms and Social Marketing to Address Underage Drinking: Development and Process Evaluation of a Whole-of-Community Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Kelly; Francis, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Youth alcohol consumption has been steadily declining in Australia, as in other countries; fewer young people are drinking and the age of initiation is increasing. However, young people, their parents and others in their communities continue to believe that adolescent (excessive) drinking is the norm. This perception, and the concurrent misperception that the majority of parents are happy to provide their underage children with alcohol, creates a perceived culture of acceptance of youth alcohol consumption. Young people believe that it is accepted, and even expected, that they will drink; and parents perceive that not providing their adolescent children with alcohol will lead to social exclusion. There is evidence that shifting social norms can have an immediate and lasting effect adolescents’ (and adults’) alcohol related attitudes and behaviors. This paper reports on a novel, community based social marketing intervention designed to correct misperceptions of alcohol related social norms in an Australian community. The project utilized a social marketing approach, informed by the full complement of Andreasen’s social marketing benchmarking criteria, and concurrently targeted adolescents, parents of adolescents and the broader community. Using extensive formative research and multiple evaluation techniques, the study demonstrates that shifts in community social norms are possible and suggests that this approach could be used more widely to support the positive trends in youth alcohol consumption and parental supply. PMID:28107374

  10. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  11. State of the (net)work address Developing criteria for applying social networking to the work environment.

    PubMed

    Valdez, André Calero; Schaar, Anne Kathrin; Ziefle, Martina

    2012-01-01

    In an increasingly faster paced innovative world, maintaining the ability to innovate in spite of an aging work force will become every company's strongest leverage for success. Tapping the latent knowledge resources and creativity of overlooked employees and persisting crucial information for business conduct are promising results for social networking sites (SNS) in a working context. Usability and usefulness are exponential factors in creating a successful SNS. In order to make a SNS usable for a heterogeneous user group, analyses of user diversity in regard to social media need to be done. Furthermore differences in communication medium and frequency in regard to age, content, hierarchy position, departmental thresholds and company size need to be analyzed. For analysis purposes both qualitative and quantitative research methods were applied. Strong effects of age and communication content were found in survey with 194 participants.

  12. Relative Importance of Social Status and Physiological Need in Determining Leadership in a Social Forager

    PubMed Central

    Öst, Markus; Jaatinen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Group decisions on the timing of mutually exclusive activities pose a dilemma: monopolized decision-making by a single leader compromises the optimal timing of activities by the others, while independent decision-making by all group members undermines group coherence. Theory suggests that initiation of foraging should be determined by physiological demand in social foragers, thereby resolving the dilemma of group coordination. However, empirical support is scant, perhaps because intrinsic qualities predisposing individuals to leadership (social status, experience or personality), or their interactions with satiation level, have seldom been simultaneously considered. Here, we examine which females initiated foraging in eider (Somateria mollissima) brood-rearing coalitions, characterized by female dominance hierarchies and potentially large individual differences in energy requirements due to strenuous breeding effort. Several physiological and social factors, except for female breeding experience and boldness towards predators, explained foraging initiation. Initiators spent a larger proportion of time submerged during foraging bouts, had poorer body condition and smaller structural size, but they were also aggressive and occupied central positions. Initiation probability also declined with female group size as expected given random assignment of initiators. However, the relative importance of physiological predictors of leadership propensity (active foraging time, body condition, structural size) exceeded those of social predictors (aggressiveness, spatial position) by an order of magnitude. These results confirm recent theoretical work suggesting that ‘leading according to need’ is an evolutionary viable strategy regardless of group heterogeneity or underlying dominance structure. PMID:23691258

  13. Relative importance of social status and physiological need in determining leadership in a social forager.

    PubMed

    Öst, Markus; Jaatinen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Group decisions on the timing of mutually exclusive activities pose a dilemma: monopolized decision-making by a single leader compromises the optimal timing of activities by the others, while independent decision-making by all group members undermines group coherence. Theory suggests that initiation of foraging should be determined by physiological demand in social foragers, thereby resolving the dilemma of group coordination. However, empirical support is scant, perhaps because intrinsic qualities predisposing individuals to leadership (social status, experience or personality), or their interactions with satiation level, have seldom been simultaneously considered. Here, we examine which females initiated foraging in eider (Somateria mollissima) brood-rearing coalitions, characterized by female dominance hierarchies and potentially large individual differences in energy requirements due to strenuous breeding effort. Several physiological and social factors, except for female breeding experience and boldness towards predators, explained foraging initiation. Initiators spent a larger proportion of time submerged during foraging bouts, had poorer body condition and smaller structural size, but they were also aggressive and occupied central positions. Initiation probability also declined with female group size as expected given random assignment of initiators. However, the relative importance of physiological predictors of leadership propensity (active foraging time, body condition, structural size) exceeded those of social predictors (aggressiveness, spatial position) by an order of magnitude. These results confirm recent theoretical work suggesting that 'leading according to need' is an evolutionary viable strategy regardless of group heterogeneity or underlying dominance structure.

  14. A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: social ecology, environmental determinants, and health systems.

    PubMed

    Gazzinelli, Andrea; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Yang, Guo-Jing; Boatin, Boakye A; Kloos, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), with the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps, focuses on the environmental, social, behavioural, and political determinants of human helminth infections and outlines a research and development agenda for the socioeconomic and health systems research required for the development of sustainable control programmes. Using Stockols' social-ecological approach, we describe the role of various social (poverty, policy, stigma, culture, and migration) and environmental determinants (the home environment, water resources development, and climate change) in the perpetuation of helminthic diseases, as well as their impact as contextual factors on health promotion interventions through both the regular and community-based health systems. We examine these interactions in regard to community participation, intersectoral collaboration, gender, and possibilities for upscaling helminthic disease control and elimination programmes within the context of integrated and interdisciplinary approaches. The research agenda summarises major gaps that need to be addressed.

  15. A Research Agenda for Helminth Diseases of Humans: Social Ecology, Environmental Determinants, and Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gazzinelli, Andrea; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Yang, Guo-Jing; Boatin, Boakye A.; Kloos, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), with the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps, focuses on the environmental, social, behavioural, and political determinants of human helminth infections and outlines a research and development agenda for the socioeconomic and health systems research required for the development of sustainable control programmes. Using Stockols' social-ecological approach, we describe the role of various social (poverty, policy, stigma, culture, and migration) and environmental determinants (the home environment, water resources development, and climate change) in the perpetuation of helminthic diseases, as well as their impact as contextual factors on health promotion interventions through both the regular and community-based health systems. We examine these interactions in regard to community participation, intersectoral collaboration, gender, and possibilities for upscaling helminthic disease control and elimination programmes within the context of integrated and interdisciplinary approaches. The research agenda summarises major gaps that need to be addressed. PMID:22545168

  16. Social acceleration and the network effect: a defence of social 'science fiction' and network determinism.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Robert

    2010-06-01

    This essay is a response to Judy Wajcman's essay 'Life in the fast lane? Towards a sociology of technology and time' (2008: 59-77). In that article Wajcman argued that recent developments in the sociology of temporal change had been marked by a tendency in social theory towards a form of 'science fiction'--a sociological theorizing, she maintains, that bears no real relation to actual, empirically provable developments in the field and should therefore be viewed as not contributing to 'a richer analysis of the relationship between technology and time' (2008: 61). This reply argues that as Wajcman suggests in her essay, there is indeed an 'urgent need for increased dialogue to connect social theory with detailed empirical studies' (2008: 59) but that the most fruitful way to proceed would not be through a constraining of 'science fiction' social theorizing but, rather, through its expansion--and more, that 'science fiction' should take the lead in the process. This essay suggests that the connection between social theory and empirical studies would be strengthened by a wider understanding of the function of knowledge and research in the context of what is termed 'true originality' and 'routine originality'. The former is the domain of social theory and the latter resides within traditional sociological disciplines. It is argued that both need each other to advance our understanding of society, especially in the context of the fast-changing processes of technological development. The example of 'technological determinism' is discussed as illustrative of how 'routine originality' can harden into dogma without the application of 'true originality' to continually question (sometimes through ideas that may appear to border on 'science fiction') comfortable assumptions that may have become 'routine' and shorn of their initial 'originality'.

  17. Issues in the measurement of social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Gavin; Fohtung, Nubong G

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the measurement of the social determinants of health, and specifically on issues relating to two key variables relevant to the analysis of public health information: poverty and inequality. Although the paper has been written from the perspective of economics, the discipline of the two authors, it is also of relevance to researchers in other disciplines. It is argued that there is a need to ensure that, when considering measurement in this largely neglected area of research, sufficient thought is given to the relationships that are being examined or assessed. We argue further that any attempt at measurement in this area must take into account the historical backdrop and the complex nature of the relationships between these key variables.

  18. The social determinants of multimorbidity in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Multimorbidity is a growing concern worldwide, with approximately 1 in 4 adults affected. Most of the evidence on multimorbidity, its prevalence and effects, comes from high income countries. Not much is known about multimorbidity in low income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of multimorbidity and examine its association with various social determinants of health in South Africa. Method The data used in this study are taken from the South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey (SA-NIDS) of 2008. Multimorbidity was defined as the coexistence of two or more chronic diseases in an individual. Multinomial logistic regression models were constructed to analyse the relationship between multimorbidity and several indicators including socioeconomic status, area of residence and obesity. Results The prevalence of multimorbidity in South Africa was 4% in the adult population. Over 70% of adults with multimorbidity were females. Factors associated with multimorbidity were social assistance (Odds ratio (OR) 2.35; Confidence Interval (CI) 1.59-3.49), residence (0.65; 0.46-0.93), smoking (0.61; 0.38-0.96); obesity (2.33; 1.60-3.39), depression (1.07; 1.02-1.11) and health facility visits (5.14; 3.75-7.05). Additionally, income was strongly positively associated with multimorbidity. The findings are similar to observations made in studies conducted in developed countries. Conclusion The findings point to a potential difference in the factors associated with single chronic disease and multimorbidity. Income was consistently significantly associated with multimorbidity, but not single chronic diseases. This should be investigated further in future research on the factors affecting multimorbidity. PMID:23962055

  19. A Minority Report for Social Work? The Predictive Risk Model (PRM) and the Tuituia Assessment Framework in addressing the needs of New Zealand's Vulnerable Children.

    PubMed

    Oak, Eileen

    2016-07-01

    This article examines the viability of the Risk Predictor Model (RPM) and its counterpart the actuarial risk assessment (ARA) tool in the form of the Tuituia Assessment Framework to address child vulnerability in New Zealand. In doing so, it suggests that these types of risk-assessment tools fail to address issues of contingency and complexity at the heart of the relationship-based nature of social work practice. Such developments have considerable implications for the capacity to enhance critical reflexive practice skills, whilst the introduction of these risk tools is occurring at a time when the reflexive space is being eroded as a result of the increased regulation of practice and supervision. It is further asserted that the primary aim of such instruments is not so much to detect risk, but rather to foster professional conformity with these managerialist risk-management systems so prevalent in contemporary Western societies.

  20. A Minority Report for Social Work? The Predictive Risk Model (PRM) and the Tuituia Assessment Framework in addressing the needs of New Zealand's Vulnerable Children

    PubMed Central

    Oak, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the viability of the Risk Predictor Model (RPM) and its counterpart the actuarial risk assessment (ARA) tool in the form of the Tuituia Assessment Framework to address child vulnerability in New Zealand. In doing so, it suggests that these types of risk-assessment tools fail to address issues of contingency and complexity at the heart of the relationship-based nature of social work practice. Such developments have considerable implications for the capacity to enhance critical reflexive practice skills, whilst the introduction of these risk tools is occurring at a time when the reflexive space is being eroded as a result of the increased regulation of practice and supervision. It is further asserted that the primary aim of such instruments is not so much to detect risk, but rather to foster professional conformity with these managerialist risk-management systems so prevalent in contemporary Western societies. PMID:27559223

  1. Socialization and Self- Determination in Different-Age Dyads of Students Who Are Deafblind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Susan M.; Zatta, Mary C.; Gavin, Mary; Stelzer, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Deafblindness limits access to social cues and social feedback, thus restricting the development of social skills. Many children with CHARGE syndrome, a leading cause of deafblindness, experience challenges with emotional self-regulation and anxiety that may interfere with socialization. Learning about self-determination skills such…

  2. Incorporating Social Determinants into a Groundwater Risk Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, M.; Allen, D. M.; Journeay, M.; Korteling, B.

    2009-12-01

    The remediation of polluted groundwater is often very costly, therefore water managers utilize various proactive measures, such as wellhead protection planning, to prevent contamination events. With limited available resources, it is essential to prioritize where these measures are introduced; systematic and integrated methodologies of assessing risk to groundwater can be utilized for this prioritization. To quantify the resistance of the physical system to pollution, Aquifer Vulnerability is commonly mapped for the area of interest. This information is useful for focusing monitoring efforts and identifying data gaps, but is a relative measure of contaminant risk. To more accurately assess the probability of contamination, an inventory of hazards can be integrated with intrinsic vulnerability of the physical system. This Threat indicator links land-use with chemicals and quantifies the risk based on the toxicity and environmental fate of these substances. Local knowledge of the quantity stored and likelihood of release can be utilized to further assess these threats. Both of these steps form part of an existing frameworks for assessing risk to groundwater. In this study, a groundwater risk framework is developed and tested in two study areas; Pender Island and the Lower Fraser Valley in British Columbia, Canada. Enhancements of a basic groundwater risk framework include not only incorporating points sources such as septic systems, landfills and fuel storage, but also various social determinants of risk. These social determinants include the Resistance of a community, which represents the planning and protection initiatives designed to safeguard the resource. These include items such as land-use planning that consider groundwater vulnerability and best management practices enforced by local governments. The ability to recover following an event is the Capacity of a community; indicators include the presence or absence of spill response plans, treatment systems or an

  3. Social Network Strategies to Address HIV Prevention and Treatment Continuum of Care Among At-risk and HIV-infected Substance Users: A Systematic Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debarchana; Krishnan, Archana; Gibson, Britton; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Latkin, Carl A; Altice, Frederick L

    2017-04-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) and social network-based interventions (SNI) are important analytical tools harnessing peer and family influences critical for HIV prevention and treatment among substance users. While SNA is an effective way to measure social network influences, SNI directly or indirectly involves network members in interventions. Even though these methods have been applied in heterogeneous ways, leading to extensive evidence-based practices, systematic reviews are however, lacking. We searched five bibliographic databases and identified 58 studies involving HIV in substance users that had utilized SNA or SNI as part of their methodology. SNA was used to measure network variables as inputs in statistical/mathematical models in 64 % of studies and only 22 % of studies used SNI. Most studies focused on HIV prevention and few addressed diagnosis (k = 4), care linkage and retention (k = 5), ART adherence (k = 2), and viral suppression (k = 1). This systematic review highlights both the advantages and disadvantages of social network approaches for HIV prevention and treatment and gaps in its use for HIV care continuum.

  4. The impact of 'social determinants of health' on epilepsy prevalence and reported medication use.

    PubMed

    Elliott, John O; Lu, Bo; Shneker, Bassel F; Moore, J Layne; McAuley, James W

    2009-04-01

    There is a limited understanding of the complex relationship between poverty and epilepsy. To address the complex interaction of environmental and psychosocial factors in epilepsy a 'social determinants of health' model is presented where individual factors are influenced through three pathways (social environment, work and material factors). In the 2005 California Health Interview Survey, 246 of 604 (41%) persons with a history of epilepsy were in poverty, defined as <200% Federal Poverty Level (FPL). Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed persons in poverty are not more likely to report a history of epilepsy compared to those not in poverty. However, persons with a history of epilepsy in poverty were significantly less likely than those not in poverty to report taking medication for epilepsy (OR 0.5) once material factors (annual income and living situation) and healthcare access were controlled for in the final sequential model. Healthcare practitioners must continue to recognize that connection to social services and the cost of medications are significant barriers to optimal care in persons with epilepsy. Improved connection to patient advocacy organizations and medication assistance programs may help close these gaps.

  5. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Individual Determinations of Social and Economic... Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage The following guidance is adapted, with minor modifications, from SBA regulations concerning social and...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Individual Determinations of Social and Economic... Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage The following guidance is adapted, with minor modifications, from SBA regulations concerning social and...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Individual Determinations of Social and Economic... Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage The following guidance is adapted, with minor modifications, from SBA regulations concerning social and...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual Determinations of Social and Economic... Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage The following guidance is adapted, with minor modifications, from SBA regulations concerning social and...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual Determinations of Social and Economic... Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage The following guidance is adapted, with minor modifications, from SBA regulations concerning social and...

  10. Preliminary findings exploring the social determinants of Black males' lay health perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mount, David L; Johnson, Darin M; Rego, Maria Isabel; Schofield, Kandyce; Amponsah, Alethea; Graham, Louis F

    2012-01-01

    The unequal discussion of Black males' health is a pressing social problem. This study addressed Black males' lay perspectives regarding their health, illness, and mortality, with attention to the determinants of men's health, prevention, lifestyle, and opportunities for health promotion using an exploratory/qualitative research methodology. Participants were 68 Black males aged 15 to 68 years, with an average age of 44 years (SD = 14.5). The narratives represented a complex interplay of biopsychosocial factors, ranging from intrapersonal attitudes, interpersonal experiences to discussions about community and public policy injustices. Five prominent themes emerged: (a) lack of chronic disease awareness, (b) fatalism, (c) fear and anxiety of academic-medical settings, (d) hyperactive masculinity fatigue, and (e) the gay-straight divide. The term Tired Black Male Health syndrome was coined in the forum. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of culturally relevant strategies for improving Black male community health engagement.

  11. Globalization and social determinants of health: The role of the global marketplace (part 2 of 3).

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald; Schrecker, Ted

    2007-06-19

    Globalization is a key context for the study of social determinants of health (SDH): broadly stated, SDH are the conditions in which people live and work, and that affect their opportunities to lead healthy lives. In the first article in this three part series, we described the origins of the series in work conducted for the Globalization Knowledge Network of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health and in the Commission's specific concern with health equity. We identified and defended a definition of globalization that gives primacy to the drivers and effects of transnational economic integration, and addressed a number of important conceptual and methodological issues in studying globalization's effects on SDH and their distribution, emphasizing the need for transdisciplinary approaches that reflect the complexity of the topic. In this second article, we identify and describe several, often interacting clusters of pathways leading from globalization to changes in SDH that are relevant to health equity. These involve: trade liberalization; the global reorganization of production and labour markets; debt crises and economic restructuring; financial liberalization; urban settings; influences that operate by way of the physical environment; and health systems changed by the global marketplace.

  12. Globalization and social determinants of health: The role of the global marketplace (part 2 of 3)

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, Ronald; Schrecker, Ted

    2007-01-01

    Globalization is a key context for the study of social determinants of health (SDH): broadly stated, SDH are the conditions in which people live and work, and that affect their opportunities to lead healthy lives. In the first article in this three part series, we described the origins of the series in work conducted for the Globalization Knowledge Network of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health and in the Commission's specific concern with health equity. We identified and defended a definition of globalization that gives primacy to the drivers and effects of transnational economic integration, and addressed a number of important conceptual and methodological issues in studying globalization's effects on SDH and their distribution, emphasizing the need for transdisciplinary approaches that reflect the complexity of the topic. In this second article, we identify and describe several, often interacting clusters of pathways leading from globalization to changes in SDH that are relevant to health equity. These involve: trade liberalization; the global reorganization of production and labour markets; debt crises and economic restructuring; financial liberalization; urban settings; influences that operate by way of the physical environment; and health systems changed by the global marketplace. PMID:17578569

  13. Equity and the social determinants of health in European cities.

    PubMed

    Ritsatakis, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Equity in health has been the underlying value of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Health for All policy for 30 years. This article examines how cities have translated this principle into action. Using information designed to help evaluate phase IV (2003-2008) of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network (WHO-EHCN) plus documentation from city programs and websites, an attempt is made to assess how far the concept of equity in health is understood, the political will to tackle the issue, and types of action taken. Results show that although cities continue to focus considerable support on vulnerable groups, rather than the full social gradient, most are now making the necessary shift towards more upstream policies to tackle determinants of health such as poverty, unemployment, education, housing, and the environment, without neglecting access to care. Although local level data reflecting inequalities in health is improving, there is still a long way to go in some cities. The Healthy Cities Project is becoming an integral part of structures for long-term planning and intersectoral action for health in cities, and Health Impact Assessment is gradually being developed. Participation in the WHO-EHCN appears to allow new members to leap-frog ahead established cities. However, this evaluation also exposes barriers to effective local policies and processes to reduce health inequalities. Armed with locally generated evidence of critical success factors, the WHO-EHCN has embarked on a more rigorous and determined effort to achieve the prerequisites for equity in health. More attention will be given to evaluating the effectiveness of action taken and to dealing not only with the most vulnerable but a greater part of the gradient in socioeconomic health inequalities.

  14. [Construction of health and social inequalities in health: genes versus social determinants?].

    PubMed

    Lang, Thierry; Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Lamy, Sébastien; Lepage, Benoit; Delpierre, Cyrille

    2016-01-01

    The cover of a recent issue of Science et Santé, the INSERM magazine, asked the following question concerning epigenetics: “What is the exact role played by the genome?”. Strangely, the first page of this same issue raised another question: “How to fight health inequalities?”. We will try to answer these two questions and determine the links between them by examining public health challenges and the questions raised by recent progress in biology, especially epigenetics. The results of this analysis support those of epidemiological studies highlighting the importance of examining the construction of health during life. These studies may throw new light on the issue of social inequalities in health and how to reduce these inequalities.

  15. The Environmental Protection Agency's Watershed-based Approach: where social and natural sciences meet to address today's water resource challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddle, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    A growing number of governmental organizations at the local, state, and federal level collaborate with nongovernmental organizations and individuals to solve watershed scale problems (Imperial and Koontz, 2007). Such a shift in policy approach from hierarchical regulation to bottom-up collaboration is largely a result of regulator’s recognition of the interdependence of natural and socio-economic systems on a watershed scale (Steelman and Carmin, 2002. Agencies throughout the federal government increasingly favored new governing institutions that encourage cooperation between local actors with conflicting interests, divergent geographic bases, and overlapping administrative jurisdictions to resolve continuing disputes over resource management (Bardach 1998). This favoritism of collaborative over command-and-control approaches for managing nonpoint source pollution led to the development of watershed partnerships and the watershed-based approach (Lubell et al., 2002). This study aims to further collaborative governance scholarship and aid decision-makers in identifying the critical elements of collaborative governance resulting in environmental improvements. To date, this relationship has not been empirically determined, in spite of the fact that collaborative governance is used routinely by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in resolving issues related to watershed management and other applications. This gap in the research is largely due to the lack of longitudinal data. In order to determine whether changes have occurred, environmental data must be collected over relatively long time periods (Koontz and Thomas, 2006; Sabatier, et al., 2005). However, collecting these data is often cost prohibitive. Monitoring water quality is expensive and requires technical expertise, and is often the first line item cut in environmental management budgets. This research is interdisciplinary, looking at the physical, chemical, and biological parameters for 44 waterbodies

  16. Social Determinants of Health: Implications for Environmental Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Amy; Northridge, Mary E.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors draw on the disciplines of sociology and environmental and social epidemiology to further understanding of mechanisms through which social factors contribute to disparate environmental exposures and health inequalities. They propose a conceptual framework for environmental health promotion that considers dynamic social…

  17. Social Harmony in Hong Kong: Level, Determinants and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Simon S. M.; Chan, Raymond S. Y.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims at ascertaining how Hong Kong people perceive Hong Kong as a harmonious society. It also identifies the elements that are most conducive to social harmony in Hong Kong, so that the government could take reference when formulating new policies. 1,062 adults residents were asked to rate their perceived level of social harmony and…

  18. SOME SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF VERBAL BEHAVIOR. WORKING PAPER NUMBER 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BLOM, JAN-PETTER; GUMPERZ, JOHN J.

    IN RECENT DISCUSSIONS OF THE PROBLEM OF LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY, BERNSTEIN (1961, 1964) EXPLORES THE HYPOTHESIS THAT SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS ACT AS INTERVENING VARIABLES BETWEEN LINGUISTIC STRUCTURES AND THEIR REALIZATION IN SPEECH. HIS FORMULATION SUGGESTS THAT THE ANTHROPOLOGISTS' ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL CONSTRAINTS GOVERNING INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS…

  19. Caste-, work-, and descent-based discrimination as a determinant of health in social epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rajan R

    2014-01-01

    Social epidemiology explores health in the context of broad social determinants of health, where the boundary lines between health and politics appear increasingly blurred. Social determinants of health such as caste, discrimination, and social exclusion are inherently political in nature, hence it becomes imperative to look at health through a broader perspective of political philosophy, ideology, and caste that imposes enormous obstacles to a person's full attainment of civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights. Caste is descent based and hereditary in nature. It is a characteristic determined by one's birth into a particular caste, irrespective of the faith practiced by the individual. Caste denotes a system of rigid social stratification into ranked groups defined by descent and occupation. Under various caste systems throughout the world, caste divisions also dominate in housing, marriage, and general social interaction divisions that are reinforced through the practice and threat of social ostracism, economic boycotts, and even physical violence-all of which undermine health equality.

  20. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system.

  1. Report Summary--Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of Health: A Snapshot of Canadian Actions 2015.

    PubMed

    Stankiewicz, A; Herel, M; DesMeules, M

    2015-09-01

    In 2012, Canada and other United Nations (UN) Member States endorsed the "Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of Health" (Rio Declaration), a non-binding pledge which calls on World Health Organization (WHO) Member States to improve/influence the working and living conditions that affect health and well-being. The Rio Declaration sets out actions to address health inequities in five themes: to adopt better governance for health and development; to promote participation in policy making and implementation; to further reorient the health sector towards reducing health inequities; to strengthen global governance and collaboration; and to monitor and increase accountability. In 2013, following the endorsement of the Rio Declaration, the Government of Canada released a report to begin to document Canadian actions related to its five themes. Building on this first report, and in anticipation of WHO reporting on Member State implementation of the Rio Declaration at the May 2015 World Health Assembly, the Government of Canada developed the report, Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of Health: A Snapshot of Canadian Actions 2015, which showcases Canada's recent actions since 2013 contributing to the advancement of the five Rio Declaration themes. The report provides a current picture of the diverse spectrum of activities undertaken across levels of government and sectors to advance health equity and address social determinants of health in Canada, and intends to stimulate global and domestic exchange and uptake of promising practices to advance health equity.

  2. Predicting post-event processing in social anxiety disorder following two prototypical social situations: state variables and dispositional determinants.

    PubMed

    Kiko, Sonja; Stevens, Stephan; Mall, Anna Katharina; Steil, Regina; Bohus, Martin; Hermann, Christiane

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated self-reported state (anxiety, physical symptoms, cognitions, internally focused attention, safety behaviors, social performance) and trait (social anxiety, depressive symptoms, dysfunctional self-consciousness) predictors of post-event processing (PEP) subsequent to two social situations (interaction, speech) in participants with a primary diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and healthy controls (HC). The speech triggered significantly more intense PEP, especially in SAD. Regardless of the type of social situation, PEP was best predicted by situational anxiety and dysfunctional cognitions among the state variables. If only trait variables were considered, PEP following both situations was accounted for by trait social anxiety. In addition, dysfunctional self-consciousness contributed to PEP-speech. If state and trait variables were jointly considered, for both situations, situational anxiety and dysfunctional cognitions were confirmed as the most powerful PEP predictors above and beyond trait social anxiety (interaction) and dysfunctional self-consciousness (speech). Hence, PEP as assessed on the day after a social situation seems to be mainly determined by state variables. Trait social anxiety and dysfunctional self-consciousness also significantly contribute to PEP depending on the type of social situation. The present findings support dysfunctional cognitions as a core cognitive mechanism for the maintenance of SAD. Implications for treatment are discussed.

  3. Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating competence by effecting preconjugal strategies and inferences in mock social trials via behavioral heuristics built from Hebbian-like associative learning. Heuristics embody serial patterns of socially relevant action that evolve into ordered, topologically invariant computational networks supporting intra- and intermate selection. S. ambiguum employs heuristics to acquire, store, plan, compare, modify, select, and execute sets of mating propaganda. One major adaptive constraint over formation and use of heuristics involves a ciliate’s initial subjective bias, responsiveness, or preparedness, as defined by Stevens’ Law of subjective stimulus intensity, for perceiving the meaningfulness of mechanical pressures accompanying cell-cell contacts and additional perimating events. This bias controls durations and valences of nonassociative learning, search rates for appropriate mating strategies, potential net reproductive payoffs, levels of social honesty and deception, successful error diagnosis and correction of mating signals, use of insight or analysis to solve mating dilemmas, bioenergetics expenditures, and governance of mating decisions by classical or quantum statistical mechanics. I now report this same social bias also differentially affects the spatiotemporal sparseness, as measured with metric entropy, of ciliate heuristics. Sparseness plays an important role in neural systems through optimizing the specificity, efficiency, and capacity of memory representations. The

  4. Information Certainty Determines Social and Private Information Use in Ants

    PubMed Central

    Stroeymeyt, Nathalie; Giurfa, Martin; Franks, Nigel R.

    2017-01-01

    Decision-making in uncertain environments requires animals to evaluate, contrast and integrate various information sources to choose appropriate actions. In consensus-making groups, quorum responses are commonly used to combine private and social information, leading to both robust and flexible decisions. Here we show that in house-hunting ant colonies, individuals fine-tune the parameters of their quorum responses depending on their private knowledge: informed ants evaluating a familiar new nest rely relatively more on social than private information when the certainty of their private information is low, and vice versa. This indicates that the ants follow a highly sophisticated ‘copy-when-uncertain’ social learning strategy similar to that observed in a few vertebrate species. Using simulations, we further show that this strategy improves colony performance during emigrations and confers well-informed individuals more weight in the decision process, thus representing a novel mechanism for the emergence of leadership in collective decision-making.

  5. Determinants of MSK health and disability--social determinants of inequities in MSK health.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Francis; Carruthers, Erin; Li, Linda C

    2014-06-01

    Even in most egalitarian societies, disparities in care exist to the disadvantage of some people with chronic musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders and related disability. These situations translate into inequality in health and health outcomes. The goal of this chapter is to review concepts and determinants associated with health inequity, and the effect of interventions to minimize their impact. Health inequities are avoidable, unnecessary, unfair and unjust. Inequities can occur across the health care continuum, from primary and secondary prevention to diagnosis and treatment. There are many ways to define and identify inequities, according for instance to ethical, philosophical, epidemiological, sociological, economic, or public health points of view. These complementary views can be applied to set a framework of analysis, identify determinants and suggest targets of action against inequity. Most determinants of inequity in MSK disorders are similar to those in the general population and other chronic diseases. People may be exposed to inequity as a result of policies and rules set by the health care system, individuals' demographic characteristics (e.g., education level), or some behavior of health professionals and of patients. Osteoarthritis (OA) represents a typical chronic MSK condition. The PROGRESS-Plus framework is useful for identifying the important role that place of residence, race and ethnicity, occupation, gender, education, socioeconomic status, social capital and networks, age, disability and sexual orientation may have in creating or maintaining inequities in this disease. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a consideration of international data led to the conclusion that not all RA patients who needed biologic therapy had access to it. The disparity in care was due partly to policies of a country and a health care system, or economic conditions. We conclude this chapter by discussing examples of interventions designed for reducing health inequity.

  6. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... individual's presumption of economic disadvantage is rebutted. You are not required to have a...

  7. The Role of Sport as a Social Status Determinant for Children: Thirty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Melissa A.; Machida, Moe

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of sport as a social status determinant among racially diverse children. Participants were 1,233 fourth- to seventh-grade children. Results indicated there were gender, grade, and racial differences for the selection of social status determinants. Boys placed more importance than girls on being…

  8. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... individual's presumption of economic disadvantage is rebutted. You are not required to have a...

  9. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... individual's presumption of economic disadvantage is rebutted. You are not required to have a...

  10. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... individual's presumption of economic disadvantage is rebutted. You are not required to have a...

  11. What determines observer-rated social performance in individuals with social anxiety disorder?

    PubMed

    Stevens, Stephan; Hofmann, Mareike; Kiko, Sonja; Mall, Anna Katharina; Steil, Regina; Bohus, Martin; Hermann, Christiane

    2010-12-01

    Clark and Wells (1995) proposed that cognitive variables and safety behaviors are related to social performance in social anxiety disorder (SAD). Here, we tested this relationship by concurrent assessment of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological variables and social performance in a prototypical social interaction situation. 103 participants with SAD and 23 healthy controls interacted with a confederate. Anxiety, self-focused attention, cognitions, and safety behaviors were assessed by self-report and by confederate ratings. Social performance was evaluated by independent observers using a behavioral coding system. Social performance was predicted using two regression models for self-report and confederate ratings. Between-group differences in social performance disappeared when talking time was taken into account. Talking time emerged as the most powerful predictor of social performance (54% and 58% accounted variance). Positive cognitions, self-focused attention and safety behaviors accounted for an additional, but marginal amount of variance. Reduced talking time might represent a safety behavior and may be considered an easy to measure final common behavioral outcome of cognitive processes underlying social anxiety.

  12. Stress coping style does not determine social status, but influences the consequences of social subordination stress.

    PubMed

    Boersma, Gretha J; Smeltzer, Michael D; Scott, Karen A; Scheurink, Anton J; Tamashiro, Kellie L; Sakai, Randall R

    2017-01-06

    Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual copes with stress, their "stress coping style", may influence the consequences of social stress. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that stress coping style may modulate social status and influence the consequences of having a lower social status. We formed 7 VBS colonies, with 1 proactive coping male, 1 passive coping male, and 4 female rats per colony to assess whether a rat's coping style prior to colony formation could predict whether that individual is more likely to become socially dominant. The rats remained in their respective colonies for 14days and the physiological and behavioral consequences of social stress were assessed. Our study shows that stress coping style does not predict social status. However, stress coping style may influence the consequences of having a lower social status. Subordinate passive and proactive rats had distinctly different wound patterns; proactive rats had more wounds on the front of their bodies. Behavioral analysis confirmed that proactive subordinate rats engaged in more offensive interactions. Furthermore, subordinate rats with a proactive stress coping style had larger adrenals, and increased stress responsivity to a novel acute stressor (restraint stress) compared to passive subordinate rats or dominant rats, suggesting that the allostatic load may have been larger in this group.

  13. Social determinants of eyeblinks in adult male macaques

    PubMed Central

    Ballesta, Sébastien; Mosher, Clayton P.; Szep, Jeno; Fischl, Kate D.; Gothard, Katalin M.

    2016-01-01

    Videos with rich social and emotional content elicit natural social behaviors in primates. Indeed, while watching videos of conspecifics, monkeys engage in eye contact, gaze follow, and reciprocate facial expressions. We hypothesized that the frequency and timing of eyeblinks also depends on the social signals contained in videos. We monitored the eyeblinks of four male adult macaques while they watched videos of conspecifics displaying facial expressions with direct or averted gaze. The instantaneous blink rate of all four animals decreased during videos. The temporal synchrony of blinking, however, increased in response to segments depicting appeasing or aggressive facial expressions directed at the viewer. Two of the four monkeys, who systematically reciprocated the direct gaze of the stimulus monkeys, also showed eyeblink entrainment, a temporal coordination of blinking between social partners engaged in dyadic interactions. Together, our results suggest that in macaques, as in humans, blinking depends not only on the physiological imperative to protect the eyes and spread a film of tears over the cornea, but also on several socio-emotional factors. PMID:27922101

  14. Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschly, Daniel J., Ed.; Myers, Tracy G., Ed.; Hartel, Christine R., Ed.

    The Social Security Administration (SSA) provides income support and medical benefits for adults with mental retardation unable to perform substantial gainful activity through the Disability Insurance (DI) program and the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. SSI benefits are also provided to families of children and adolescents who evidence…

  15. Psychological, Contextual, and Social Determinants of Safe Sex Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Anna V.; Iscoe, Ira; Holahan, Charles J.

    This paper reports on a study that developed a model of sexual risk-taking behavior that included psychological measures, as well as social or demographic factors, and contextual variables. The study seeks to contribute to the knowledge based used when designing health promotion or disease prevention programs that promote safer sexual practices…

  16. Immigrant and refugee social networks: determinants and consequences of social support among women newcomers to Canada.

    PubMed

    Hynie, Michaela; Crooks, Valorie A; Barragan, Jackeline

    2011-12-01

    Recent immigrants and refugees (newcomers) vary on many dimensions but do share similar challenges. Newcomers must rebuild social networks to obtain needed social support but often face social exclusion because of their race, language, religion, or immigrant status. In addition, most have limited access to personal, social, and community resources. Effects of situational and personal variables on the benefits and limitations associated with the social networks of female newcomers were explored through interviews and focus groups with 87 women from 7 communities. Using thematic analysis, the authors identify 5 sources of informal support across all 7 communities, which were almost exclusively limited to co-ethnic relationships, and the types of support, limitations, and reciprocity within each. Perceived support was strongest from family and close friends and, when support from close relationships was unavailable, from primary care providers. The results suggest that co-ethnic peer support networks may be overwhelmed in newcomer communities because of their limited size and resources.

  17. Public housing renewal and social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Arthurson, Kathy; Levin, Iris; Ziersch, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on the concept of residential context of housing and its relationship to health. It considers a bundle of changes through implementation of a housing renewal initiative as part of the Carlton Housing Estate Upgrading Project in Melbourne, Australia. Beyond the quality and appropriateness of the housing, pertinent factors explored include social networks, safety and security, and green open space. Data collection for the research project included in-depth interviews with public housing tenants, private residents, and service providers who live on and service the estate, as well as neighborhood observations and participation in on-site events. A key finding was that the relational processes of how tenants were related to by others-specifically, the way housing was reallocated during the processes of renewal-affected social housing tenants' self-perceived health and well-being.

  18. [Social participation in health: spaces and actors determining its development].

    PubMed

    Hersch-Martínez, P

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with an analysis of a rural experience of social participation (SP), defined as the possibility of communities gaining real access to the control of processes affecting health. This analysis evidences the relevance of peasant women in the promotion of SP in health, as well as the need to include health education and organization actions in regional organizational process, strengthened by local policies. The creation of a sanitary mediator to serve as a regulatory agent negotiating with the State is proposed.

  19. The Social Determinants of Health in Military Forces of Iran: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Sanaeinasab, Hormoz; Ghanei, Mostafa; Mehrabi Tavana, Ali; Ravangard, Ramin; Karamali, Mazyar

    2015-01-01

    Providing effective health interventions and achieving equity in health need to apply the community-based approaches such as social determinants of health. In the military organizations, these determinants have received less attention from the military health researchers and policymakers. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and explain the social determinants affecting the health of military forces in Iran. This was a qualitative study which was conducted in 2014. The required data were collected through semistructured interviews and analyzed through Conventional Content Analysis. The studied sample consisted of 22 military health experts, policymakers, and senior managers selected using purposeful sampling method with maximum variation sampling. MAXQDA.2007 was used to analyze the collected data. After analyzing the collected data, two main contents, that is, “general social determinants of health” and “military social determinants of health,” with 22 themes and 90 subthemes were identified as the social determinants of military forces' health. Main themes were religious rule, spirituality promotion policies, international military factors, military command, and so forth. Given the role and importance of social factors determining the military forces' health, it can be recommended that the military organizations should pay more attention to these determinants in making policies and creating social, economic, and cultural structures for their forces. PMID:26379716

  20. Leveraging the Social Determinants of Health: What Works?

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lauren A.; Tan, Annabel Xulin; Coyle, Caitlin E.; Ndumele, Chima; Rogan, Erika; Canavan, Maureen; Curry, Leslie A.; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2016-01-01

    We summarized the recently published, peer-reviewed literature that examined the impact of investments in social services or investments in integrated models of health care and social services on health outcomes and health care spending. Of 39 articles that met criteria for inclusion in the review, 32 (82%) reported some significant positive effects on either health outcomes (N = 20), health care costs (N = 5), or both (N = 7). Of the remaining 7 (18%) studies, 3 had non-significant results, 2 had mixed results, and 2 had negative results in which the interventions were associated with poorer health outcomes. Our analysis of the literature indicates that several interventions in the areas of housing, income support, nutrition support, and care coordination and community outreach have had positive impact in terms of health improvements or health care spending reductions. These interventions may be of interest to health care policymakers and practitioners seeking to leverage social services to improve health or reduce costs. Further testing of models that achieve better outcomes at less cost is needed. PMID:27532336

  1. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  2. Mapping the social determinants of substance use for pregnant-involved young Aboriginal women.

    PubMed

    Shahram, Sana Z; Bottorff, Joan L; Oelke, Nelly D; Kurtz, Donna L M; Thomas, Victoria; Spittal, Patricia M; And For The Cedar Project Partnership

    2017-12-01

    There is a dearth of knowledge about the social determinants of substance use among young pregnant-involved Indigenous women in Canada from their perspectives. As part of life history interviews, 17 young pregnant-involved Indigenous women with experiences with substances completed a participant-generated mapping activity CIRCLES (Charting Intersectional Relationships in the Context of Life Experiences with Substances). As women created their maps, they discussed how different social determinants impacted their experiences with pregnancy and substance use. The social determinants identified and used by women to explain determinants of their substance use were grouped into 10 themes: traumatic life histories; socioeconomic status; culture, identity and spirituality; shame and guilt; mental wellness; family connections; romantic and platonic relationships; strength and hope; mothering; and the intersections of determinants. We conclude that understanding the context and social determinants of substance use from a woman-informed perspective is paramount to informing effective and appropriate programs to support young Indigenous women who use substances.

  3. Mapping the social determinants of substance use for pregnant-involved young Aboriginal women

    PubMed Central

    Shahram, Sana Z.; Bottorff, Joan L.; Oelke, Nelly D.; Kurtz, Donna L. M.; Thomas, Victoria; Spittal, Patricia M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is a dearth of knowledge about the social determinants of substance use among young pregnant-involved Indigenous women in Canada from their perspectives. As part of life history interviews, 17 young pregnant-involved Indigenous women with experiences with substances completed a participant-generated mapping activity CIRCLES (Charting Intersectional Relationships in the Context of Life). As women created their maps, they discussed how different social determinants impacted their experiences with pregnancy and substance use. The social determinants identified and used by women to explain determinants of their substance use were grouped into 10 themes: traumatic life histories; socioeconomic status; culture, identity and spirituality; shame and guilt; mental wellness; family connections; romantic and platonic relationships; strength and hope; mothering; and the intersections of determinants. We conclude that understanding the context and social determinants of substance use from a woman-informed perspective is paramount to informing effective and appropriate programs to support young Indigenous women who use substances. PMID:28140776

  4. Impact of social determinants of health on outcomes for type 2 diabetes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rebekah J; Smalls, Brittany L; Campbell, Jennifer A; Strom Williams, Joni L; Egede, Leonard E

    2014-09-01

    Social determinants of health include the social and economic conditions that influence health status. Research into the impact of social determinants on individuals with type 2 diabetes has largely focused on the prevention of or risk of developing diabetes. No review exists summarizing the impact of social determinants of health outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. This systematic review examined whether social determinants of health have an impact on health outcomes in type 2 diabetes. Medline was searched for articles that (a) were published in English (b) targeted adults, ages 18 + years, (c) had a study population which was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, (d) the study was done in the United States, and (e) the study measured at least one of the outcome measures-glycemic control, cholesterol (LDL), blood pressure, quality of life or cost. Using a reproducible strategy, 2,110 articles were identified, and 61 were reviewed based on inclusion criteria. Twelve were categorized as Economic Stability and Education, 17 were categorized as Social and Community Context, 28 were categorized as Health and Health Care, and three were categorized as Neighborhood and Built Environment. Based on the studies reviewed, social determinants have an impact on glycemic control, LDL, and blood pressure to varying degrees. The impact on cost and quality of life was not often measured, but when quality of life was investigated, it did show significance. More research is needed to better characterize the direct impact of social determinants of health on health outcomes in diabetes.

  5. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Kakodkar, A

    1999-07-01

    This convocation addressed by Dr. Anil Kakodkar focuses on the challenges faced by graduating students. In his speech, he emphasized the high level of excellence achieved by the industrial sector; however, he noted that there has been a loss of initiative in maximizing value addition, which was worsened by an increasing population pressure. In facing a stiff competition in the external and domestic markets, it is imperative to maximize value addition within the country in a competitive manner and capture the highest possible market share. To achieve this, high-quality human resources are central. Likewise, family planning programs should become more effective and direct available resources toward national advantage. To boost the domestic market, he suggests the need to search for strengths to achieve leadership position in those areas. First, an insight into the relationship between the lifestyles and the needs of our people and the natural resource endowment must be gained. Second, remodeling of the education system must be undertaken to prepare the people for adding the necessary innovative content in our value addition activities. Lastly, Dr. Kakodkar emphasizes the significance of developing a strong bond between parents and children to provide a sound foundation and allow the education system to grow upon it.

  6. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  7. Language Structure Is Partly Determined by Social Structure

    PubMed Central

    Lupyan, Gary; Dale, Rick

    2010-01-01

    Background Languages differ greatly both in their syntactic and morphological systems and in the social environments in which they exist. We challenge the view that language grammars are unrelated to social environments in which they are learned and used. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a statistical analysis of >2,000 languages using a combination of demographic sources and the World Atlas of Language Structures— a database of structural language properties. We found strong relationships between linguistic factors related to morphological complexity, and demographic/socio-historical factors such as the number of language users, geographic spread, and degree of language contact. The analyses suggest that languages spoken by large groups have simpler inflectional morphology than languages spoken by smaller groups as measured on a variety of factors such as case systems and complexity of conjugations. Additionally, languages spoken by large groups are much more likely to use lexical strategies in place of inflectional morphology to encode evidentiality, negation, aspect, and possession. Our findings indicate that just as biological organisms are shaped by ecological niches, language structures appear to adapt to the environment (niche) in which they are being learned and used. As adults learn a language, features that are difficult for them to acquire, are less likely to be passed on to subsequent learners. Languages used for communication in large groups that include adult learners appear to have been subjected to such selection. Conversely, the morphological complexity common to languages used in small groups increases redundancy which may facilitate language learning by infants. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that language structures are subjected to different evolutionary pressures in different social environments. Just as biological organisms are shaped by ecological niches, language structures appear to adapt to the environment (niche) in

  8. Social determinates of health: focus on substance use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Malliarakis, Kate Driscoll; Lucey, Paula

    2007-01-01

    Addiction is a progressive, chronic, and relapsing disorder of the brain that cannot be cured but can be treated. It is imperative to recognize the social overlay when planning to meet the health care needs of clients with addiction care needs. The implications for society are significant as addiction is a multifarious disease that costs the individual as well as the taxpayers. Administrators have the opportunity to provide education for all health personnel on early intervention and screening. Denial is a hallmark of the disease of addiction. Health care personnel must not be in denial about addiction because they can take action to prevent and treat addictions.

  9. Conceptual understanding of social capital in a First Nations community: a social determinant of oral health in children.

    PubMed

    Salehyar, Mohammad H; Keenan, Louanne; Patterson, Steven; Amin, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of the study was: (a) to better understand the concept of social capital and its potential role in oral health of children in a First Nations community and (b) to identify the strengths and resources in terms of social capital and a health promotion model that the community has at its disposal to address its oral health issues. Methods. In this qualitative case study, participants were purposively selected in a First Nations community: Seven individual interviews and two focus groups involving 18 parents/care givers were selected. Putnam's concept of social capital guided all the interviews. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was employed using the NVivo software. Results. The community was close-knit and seemed to have strong moral fibre, which encouraged members to help each other. A strong bonding social capital was also found among the members, especially inside the clans (families). A need for improvement in bridging social capital that would help the community to reach external resources was observed. While members of the community were actively involved in religious rituals and cultural ceremonies, more efforts seemed to be required to recruit volunteers for other events or programs. Active engagement of community members in any program requires that members be given a voice as well as some ownership of the process. Mobilizing or building community's social capital can play a role when planning future interventions. Conclusions. A better understanding of social capital may enhance the community's investment and efforts by reinforcing healthy oral behaviours and improving access to external resources. With more dynamic collaboration, it may be possible to create more sustainable community-based oral health promotion programs.

  10. Conceptual understanding of social capital in a First Nations community: a social determinant of oral health in children

    PubMed Central

    Salehyar, Mohammad H.; Keenan, Louanne; Patterson, Steven; Amin, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the study was: (a) to better understand the concept of social capital and its potential role in oral health of children in a First Nations community and (b) to identify the strengths and resources in terms of social capital and a health promotion model that the community has at its disposal to address its oral health issues. Methods In this qualitative case study, participants were purposively selected in a First Nations community: Seven individual interviews and two focus groups involving 18 parents/care givers were selected. Putnam's concept of social capital guided all the interviews. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was employed using the NVivo software. Results The community was close-knit and seemed to have strong moral fibre, which encouraged members to help each other. A strong bonding social capital was also found among the members, especially inside the clans (families). A need for improvement in bridging social capital that would help the community to reach external resources was observed. While members of the community were actively involved in religious rituals and cultural ceremonies, more efforts seemed to be required to recruit volunteers for other events or programs. Active engagement of community members in any program requires that members be given a voice as well as some ownership of the process. Mobilizing or building community's social capital can play a role when planning future interventions. Conclusions A better understanding of social capital may enhance the community's investment and efforts by reinforcing healthy oral behaviours and improving access to external resources. With more dynamic collaboration, it may be possible to create more sustainable community-based oral health promotion programs. PMID:25623814

  11. [Malaria and social health determinants: a new heuristic framework from the perspective of Latin American social medicine].

    PubMed

    Piñeros, Juan Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, malaria research and study have followed the positivist scientific paradigm and its biomedical conception of disease. From this perspective, diverse control actions and strategies have been designed. However, despite a century of scientific experience and the depth and thoroughness achieved in the knowledge of malaria, this has not been translated into a constant and progressive decrease of its epidemiological burden. This essay argues for the need for a change in malaria conception, reconfiguring it as a process of biological and social character, where the geno-phenotypical possibilities of the host-parasite relationship and of the diseases clinical expression are articulated with the historic and social dynamics of the spaces in which they occur. In addition, it proposes rethinking the epidemiological research of this entity on the basis of the visualization of the dynamic, heterogeneous, dialectic and complex character of biosocial organizations that constitute the reality of malaria (from the social structure to the genetic and phenotypic level of parasite individuals, vectors and humans). To achieve this, it is suggested that: 1) the Latin American perspective on the social determinants of health be adopted; 2) new analytical categories (for instance, malaria social territory) and new investigation tools (matrices of critical processes of social determination) be incorporated, and 3) the conventional epidemiological categories of infectious diseases such as the transmission and infectiousness be reinterpreted.

  12. A Public Health Approach to Pediatric Residency Education: Responding to Social Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Alice A.; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Guerrero, Alma D.; Barreto, Patricia M.; Perez, Victor H.; Fond, Karen; Slusser, Wendelin

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of a public health approach to pediatric residency education on learner knowledge, skills, attitudes, beliefs, and career choice. Background Incorporating public health principles into traditional residency education can give pediatricians the population-oriented perspective to address social determinants of health. Methods The Community Health and Advocacy Training (CHAT) program is an educational intervention with a public health framework. From 2001–2007, 215 categorical pediatric residents and 37 residents in the CHAT program were evaluated by using an annual survey of community pediatrics exposure, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. American Board of Pediatrics (ABP) examination passage rates for both groups were also examined, as was career choice after graduation. Results While interns in both the categorical and CHAT programs scored similarly on attitudes, beliefs, skills, and knowledge of community pediatrics, the postgraduate level-3 (PL-3) year CHAT residents scored higher in attitudes (P < .001) and skills (P < .05). Exposure to both didactic (P < .05) and practical (P < .001) community pediatrics curricular experiences were higher for CHAT residents than for categorical residents. No significant differences between ABP examination scores were found for the 2 groups, although 100% of CHAT graduates passed on the first try compared to 91% of categorical graduates during this time period. A greater percentage of CHAT graduates (82%) than categorical graduates (53%) reported pursuing careers in primary care. Conclusion With a public health approach to residency education, residents gain the knowledge, attitudes, and skills to address child health problems from a population perspective. Participation in such a curriculum still resulted in high passage rates on the ABP examination. PMID:22655145

  13. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  14. Social and Proximate Determinants of the Frequency of Condom Use Among African, Caribbean, and Other Black People in a Canadian City: Results from the BLACCH Study.

    PubMed

    Baidoobonso, Shamara; Bauer, Greta R; Speechley, Kathy Nixon; Lawson, Erica

    2016-02-01

    African, Caribbean, and other Black (ACB) people are a priority group for HIV prevention in Canada, but little is known about condom use in this population. This exploratory community-based research project addresses this gap in knowledge. 125 sexually active ACB people completed a questionnaire covering condom use and social determinants of health. The data were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression and mediation analyses. 20.5 % of sexually active ACB adults used condoms consistently. Male gender, wealth, unstable immigration classes, and unsecure employment statuses were independently associated with more frequent condom use. Proximate determinants mediating these relationships included: not having a cohabiting regular partner, not disliking condoms, and having a history of unwanted sex. The proximate determinants mediated 85.7-97.6 % of the effects of the social determinants. These results link social context and proximate factors with condom use. They can be used to design evidence-informed interventions for ACB people.

  15. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crovini, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen To quote Mr Jean Terrien: "Physics must be one step ahead of metrology". A long-serving Director of the BIPM, he said these words when visiting the IMGC in 1970 as a member of the scientific board of our Institute. At that time it was still an open question whether the IMGC should start research work on the absolute measurement of silicon lattice spacing. Mr Terrien underlined the revolutionary character of x-ray interferometry and, eventually, he caused the balance needle to lean towards the ... right direction. Mr Terrien correctly foresaw that, like Michelson's interferometer of 1880, x-ray interferometry could have a prominent place in today's science and technology. And while, in the first case, after more than a century we can see instruments based on electromagnetic wave interaction within every one's reach in laboratories and, sometimes, in workshops, in the second case, twenty-five years since the first development of an x-ray interferometer we can witness its role in nanometrology. Today and tomorrow we meet to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal place in the value of the Avogadro constant. We are aware that the quest for this achievement requires the cooperation of scientists with complementary capabilities. I am sure that the present workshop is a very good opportunity to present and discuss results and to improve and extend existing cooperation. The new adjustment of fundamental constants envisaged by the CODATA Task Group is redoubling scientists' efforts to produce competitive values of NA. The results of the measurements of the silicon lattice spacing in terms of an optical wavelength, which were available for the 1986 adjustment, combined with the determination of silicon molar volume, demonstrate how such an NA determination produces a consistent set of other constants and opens the way to a possible redefinition of the kilogram. We shall see in these two days how far we have progressed along this road. For us at the

  16. Social Determinants of Health in Environmental Justice Communities: Examining Cumulative Risk in Terms of Environmental Exposures and Social Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Prochaska, John D.; Nolen, Alexandra B.; Kelley, Hilton; Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H.; Sullivan, John

    2014-01-01

    Residents of environmental justice (EJ) communities may bear a disproportionate burden of environmental health risk, and often face additional burdens from social determinants of health. Accounting for cumulative risk should include measures of risk from both environmental sources and social determinants. This study sought to better understand cumulative health risk from both social and environmental sources in a disadvantaged community in Texas. Key outcomes were determining what data are currently available for this assessment, clarifying data needs, identifying data gaps, and considering how those gaps could be filled. Analyses suggested that the traditionally defined EJ community in Port Arthur may have a lower environmental risk from air toxics than the rest of the City of Port Arthur (although the entire city has a higher risk than the average for the state), but may have a larger burden from social determinants of health. However, the results should be interpreted in light of the availability of data, the definitions of community boundaries, and the areal unit utilized. Continued focus on environmental justice communities and the cumulative risks faced by their residents is critical to protecting these residents and, ultimately, moving towards a more equitable distribution and acceptable level of risk throughout society. PMID:24771993

  17. Prioritizing the Determinants of Social-health Inequality in Iran: A Multiple Attribute Decision Making Application

    PubMed Central

    Zaboli, Rouhollah; Tourani, Sogand; Seyedin, Seyed Hesam; Oliaie Manesh, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the main challenges of healthcare systems of developing countries is health inequality. Health inequality means inequality in individuals’ ability and proper functioning, resulting in inequality in social status and living conditions, which thwarts social interventions implemented by the government. Objectives: This study aimed to determine and prioritize the social determinants of health inequality in Iran. Materials and Methods: This was a mixed method study with two phases of qualitative and quantitative research. The study population consisted of experts dealing with social determinants of health. A purposive, stratified and non-random sampling method was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect qualitative data along with a multiple attribute decision making method for the quantitative phase of the research in which the TOPSIS technique was employed for prioritization. The qualitative findings were entered into NVivo for analysis, as were the quantitative data entered into MATLAB software. Results: The results approved the suitability of the conceptual framework of social determinants of health suggested by the WHO (world health organization) for studying social determinants of health inequality; however, this framework general and theoretical rather than a guideline for practice. Thus, in this study, 15 themes and 31 sub-themes were determined as social determinants of social health inequality in Iran. Based on the findings of the quantitative phase of our research, socioeconomic status, living facilities such as housing, and social integrity had the greatest effect on decreasing health inequality. Conclusions: A major part of the inequality in health distribution is avoidable because they are mostly caused by adjustable factors like economic conditions, educational conditions, employment, living facilities, etc. As in the majority of developing countries the living and health conditions are the same as Iran, the

  18. The health of Canada's children. Part III: Public policy and the social determinants of children's health.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis

    2010-03-01

    The health of Canada's children does not compare well with other wealthy industrialized nations. Significant inequalities in health exist among Canadian children, and many of these inequalities are due to variations in Canadian children's life circumstances - the social determinants of health. The present article describes the social determinants of children's health and explains how the quality of these social determinants is shaped, in large part, by public policy decisions. The specific public policies that shape the quality of Canadian children's health are examined, and Canadian approaches in comparison with other wealthy developed nations are described. Policy directions that would improve the quality of the social determinants of children's health are presented and barriers to their implementation are considered.

  19. The polarizing effect of news media messages about the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Gollust, Sarah E; Lantz, Paula M; Ubel, Peter A

    2009-12-01

    Framing health problems in terms of the social determinants of health aims to shift policy attention to nonmedical strategies to improve population health, yet little is known about how the public responds to these messages. We conducted an experiment to test the effect of a news article describing the social determinants of type 2 diabetes on the public's support for diabetes prevention strategies. We found that exposure to the social determinants message led to a divergence between Republicans' and Democrats' opinions, relative to their opinions after viewing an article with no message about the causes of diabetes. These results signify that increasing public awareness of the social determinants of health may not uniformly increase public support for policy action.

  20. Confidentiality considerations for use of social-spatial data on the social determinants of health: Sexual and reproductive health case study.

    PubMed

    Haley, Danielle F; Matthews, Stephen A; Cooper, Hannah L F; Haardörfer, Regine; Adimora, Adaora A; Wingood, Gina M; Kramer, Michael R

    2016-10-01

    Understanding whether and how the places where people live, work, and play are associated with health behaviors and health is essential to understanding the social determinants of health. However, social-spatial data which link a person and their attributes to a geographic location (e.g., home address) create potential confidentiality risks. Despite the growing body of literature describing approaches to protect individual confidentiality when utilizing social-spatial data, peer-reviewed manuscripts displaying identifiable individual point data or quasi-identifiers (attributes associated with the individual or disease that narrow identification) in maps persist, suggesting that knowledge has not been effectively translated into public health research practices. Using sexual and reproductive health as a case study, we explore the extent to which maps appearing in recent peer-reviewed publications risk participant confidentiality. Our scoping review of sexual and reproductive health literature published and indexed in PubMed between January 1, 2013 and September 1, 2015 identified 45 manuscripts displaying participant data in maps as points or small-population geographic units, spanning 26 journals and representing studies conducted in 20 countries. Notably, 56% (13/23) of publications presenting point data on maps either did not describe approaches used to mask data or masked data inadequately. Furthermore, 18% (4/22) of publications displaying data using small-population geographic units included at least two quasi-identifiers. These findings highlight the need for heightened education for researchers, reviewers, and editorial teams. We aim to provide readers with a primer on key confidentiality considerations when utilizing linked social-spatial data for visualizing results. Given the widespread availability of place-based data and the ease of creating maps, it is critically important to raise awareness on when social-spatial data constitute protected health

  1. Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging.

    PubMed

    Dziechciaż, Małgorzata; Filip, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists' assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it.

  2. Social-physiological compliance as a determinant of team performance.

    PubMed

    Henning, R A; Boucsein, W; Gil, M C

    2001-04-01

    A cybernetic model of behavior predicts that team performance may depend on physiological compliance among participants. This laboratory study tested if compliance in electrodermal activity (EDA), heart rate or breathing in two-person teams (N=16) was predictive of team performance or coordination in a continuous tracking task simulating teleoperation. Visual contact among participants was manipulated. Physiological compliance was scored with weighted coherence and cross correlation. Separate multiple regression analyses revealed that the task completion time was predicted by coherence measures for EDA and heart, but only at a trend level for breathing. Task completion time was also predicted by heart cross correlation. Team tracking error was predicted by coherence measures for EDA, heart and breathing, and also heart cross correlation. While social-visual contact did not have an impact, physiological compliance was predictive of improved performance, with coherence robust over all three physiological measures. Heart cross correlation showed the strongest predictive relationships. These results provide evidence that physiological compliance among team members may benefit team performance. While further study is needed, physiological compliance may someday provide a needed tool for the study of team work, and an objective means to guide the ergonomic design of complex sociotechnical systems requiring a high degree of team proficiency.

  3. Social Capital and Determinants of Immigrant Family Educational Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Family educational involvement has been identified as a particularly beneficial practice for the achievement and behavioral outcomes of all students, including ethnic-minority students from families who have low levels of income, education, and English language proficiency. However, despite the associated benefits not all families are involved in their child's education and the explanation for differing involvement patterns has not been fully explored. This study examines precursors to parent educational involvement with an emphasis on immigrant families who may face more involvement barriers using the immigrant sample from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 189). Results provide limited support for the Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler theoretical model for family involvement; self-efficacy and perceived opportunities for involvement predicted immigrant families’ home-based involvement. No antecedents, however, predicted school-based involvement. In addition, results suggest expanding this model to include social capital, which significantly predicted immigrant families’ home-based involvement activities. PMID:26392635

  4. Opening address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castagnoli, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen My cordial thanks to you for participating in our workshop and to all those who have sponsored it. When in 1957 I attended the International Congress on Fundamental Constants held in Turin on the occasion of the first centenary of the death of Amedeo Avogadro, I did not expect that about thirty-five years later a small but representative number of distinguished scientists would meet here again, to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal figure of the Avogadro constant. At that time, the uncertainty of the value of this constant was linked to the fourth decimal figure, as reported in the book by DuMond and Cohen. The progress made in the meantime is universally acknowledged to be due to the discovery of x-ray interferometry. We are honoured that one of the two founding fathers, Prof. Ulrich Bonse, is here with us, but we regret that the other, Prof. Michael Hart, is not present. After Bonse and Hart's discovery, the x-ray crystal density method triggered, as in a chain reaction, the investigation of two other quantities related to the Avogadro constant—density and molar mass. Scientists became, so to speak, resonant and since then have directed their efforts, just to mention a few examples, to producing near-perfect silicon spheres and determining their density, to calibrating, with increasing accuracy, mass spectrometers, and to studying the degree of homogeneity of silicon specimens. Obviously, I do not need to explain to you why the Avogadro constant is important. I wish, however, to underline that it is not only because of its position among fundamental constants, as we all know very well its direct links with the fine structure constant, the Boltzmann and Faraday constants, the h/e ratio, but also because when a new value of NA is obtained, the whole structure of the fundamental constants is shaken to a lesser or greater extent. Let me also remind you that the second part of the title of this workshop concerns the silicon

  5. Explaining the role of the social determinants of health on health inequality in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ataguba, John Ele-Ojo; Day, Candy; McIntyre, Di

    2015-01-01

    Background Action on the social determinants of health (SDH) is relevant for reducing health inequalities. This is particularly the case for South Africa (SA) with its very high level of income inequality and inequalities in health and health outcomes. This paper provides evidence on the key SDH for reducing health inequalities in the country using a framework initially developed by the World Health Organization. Objective This paper assesses health inequalities in SA and explains the factors (i.e. SDH and other individual level factors) that account for large disparities in health. The relative contribution of different SDH to health inequality is also assessed. Design A cross-sectional design is used. Data come from the third wave of the nationally representative National Income Dynamics Study. A subsample of adults (18 years and older) is used. The main variable of interest is dichotomised good versus bad self-assessed health (SAH). Income-related health inequality is assessed using the standard concentration index (CI). A positive CI means that the rich report better health than the poor. A negative value signifies the opposite. The paper also decomposes the CI to assess its contributing factors. Results Good SAH is significantly concentrated among the rich rather than the poor (CI=0.008; p<0.01). Decomposition of this result shows that social protection and employment (contribution=0.012; p<0.01), knowledge and education (0.005; p<0.01), and housing and infrastructure (−0.003; p<0.01) contribute significantly to the disparities in good SAH in SA. After accounting for these other variables, the contribution of income and poverty is negligible. Conclusions Addressing health inequalities inter alia requires an increased government commitment in terms of budgetary allocations to key sectors (i.e. employment, social protection, education, housing, and other appropriate infrastructure). Attention should also be paid to equity in benefits from government

  6. Bacterial determinants of the social behavior of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Romero, Diego

    2013-09-01

    Bacteria utilize sophisticated cellular machinery to sense environmental changes and coordinate the most appropriate response. Fine sensors located on cell surfaces recognize a myriad of triggers and initiate genetic cascades leading to activation or repression of certain groups of genes. Structural elements such as pilli, exopolysaccharides and flagella are also exposed at the cell surface and contribute to modulating the intimate interaction with surfaces and host cells. This review will cover the latest advances in our understanding of the biology and functionality of these bacterial determinants within the context of biofilm formation of Bacillus subtilis.

  7. Rapid and wide-range determination of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II) in fish tissues using light addressable potentiometric sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Xu, Yiwei; Tahir, Haroon E; Zou, Xiaobo; Wang, Ping

    2017-04-15

    A rapid and wide-range method, based on light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS), is introduced into determination of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II) in fish tissues. A compact LAPS module is prepared by integrating four LAPS chips specifically sensitive to target elements. Its responses in digestions from various settings are investigated to find suitable factors. Analytical properties of this method are evaluated in consequent experiments under optimized conditions. Measurement range for each target element exceeds 0.1 to 1000mgL(-1), and response time is less than 10s. Accuracy, precision and selectivity of the proposed method are also well defined in measurements. It is successively performed to detect the target elements in real fish samples from 4 species, and obtained results are consistent with certified method.

  8. Mapping of capacities for research on health and its social determinants in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Borde, Elis; Akerman, Marco; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    This article describes tendencies in research on social determinants of health (SDH) and health inequities in Brazil (2005-2012) and maps research system structures to analyze capacities for research on health and its social determinants. Brazil has a strong national research system and counts on a wealth of research in the field of SDH drawing on a long tradition of research and political commitment in this area. While innovative strategies seeking to strengthen the links between research, policy and practice have been developed, the impact of SDH research continues to be largely restricted to the academic community with notable but still insufficient repercussions on public policy and the social determinants of health inequities. SDH research in Brazil will therefore need to become even more responsive to social urgencies and better attuned to political processes, enhancing its capacity to influence strategic policy decisions affecting health inequities and mobilize strategic agendas for health equity.

  9. Media created violence: a social determinant of mental health.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shamshad; Khowaja, Shaneela Sadruddin; Ali, Gulnar

    2012-12-01

    In today's high technological world, scientific discoveries contribute remarkable development to human life, but it could also have an adverse impact on mankind. Among all these advancements, media is one of the inventions which aims at capturing a countless group of viewers and transmit information via various mediums. Media violence is considered one of the hampering determinants which harms an individual psychologically. The primary goal of a health professional is to work for the maintenance of mental health. Therefore, it is imperative to create an understanding about the impact of media violence on mental health, particularly in the Pakistani context. Violence has become a major public health problem in Pakistan. The main cause of violence seems to be anger and frustration due to poverty, political conflicts, lack of education, and the overall governance approach in the country. Therefore, there is a prime need to think and work on this neglected area like conducting research and increasing public awareness, and to curb media violence.

  10. Social Determinants of HIV-Related Stigma in Faith-Based Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Allan D.; Gaddist, Bambi; White, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the association between social factors in faith-based settings (including religiosity and proximity to people living with HIV/AIDS) and HIV stigma. Methods. A total of 1747 congregants from primarily African American faith-based organizations of Project FAITH (Fostering AIDS Initiatives That Heal), a South Carolina statewide initiative to address HIV-related stigma, completed a survey. Results. Female gender (P = .001), higher education (P < .001), knowing someone with HIV/AIDS (P = .01), and knowing someone who is gay (P < .001), but not religiosity, were associated with lower levels of stigma and with lower odds of stigmatizing attitudes (P < .05). Conclusions. Opportunities for connection with people living with HIV/AIDS tailored to the social characteristics of faith-based organizations may address HIV stigma in African American communities. PMID:26794158

  11. Correlational selection on personality and social plasticity: morphology and social context determine behavioural effects on mating success.

    PubMed

    Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier; Wey, Tina W; Chang, Ann T; Fogarty, Sean; Sih, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    Despite a central line of research aimed at quantifying relationships between mating success and sexually dimorphic traits (e.g., ornaments), individual variation in sexually selected traits often explains only a modest portion of the variation in mating success. Another line of research suggests that a significant portion of the variation in mating success observed in animal populations could be explained by correlational selection, where the fitness advantage of a given trait depends on other components of an individual's phenotype and/or its environment. We tested the hypothesis that interactions between multiple traits within an individual (phenotype dependence) or between an individual's phenotype and its social environment (context dependence) can select for individual differences in behaviour (i.e., personality) and social plasticity. To quantify the importance of phenotype- and context-dependent selection on mating success, we repeatedly measured the behaviour, social environment and mating success of about 300 male stream water striders, Aquarius remigis. Rather than explaining individual differences in long-term mating success, we instead quantified how the combination of a male's phenotype interacted with the immediate social context to explain variation in hour-by-hour mating decisions. We suggest that this analysis captures more of the mechanisms leading to differences in mating success. Males differed consistently in activity, aggressiveness and social plasticity. The mating advantage of these behavioural traits depended on male morphology and varied with the number of rival males in the pool, suggesting mechanisms selecting for consistent differences in behaviour and social plasticity. Accounting for phenotype and context dependence improved the amount of variation in male mating success we explained statistically by 30-274%. Our analysis of the determinants of male mating success provides important insights into the evolutionary forces that shape

  12. Self-Determination, Social Abilities and the Quality of Life of People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nota, L.; Ferrari, L.; Soresi, S.; Wehmeyer, M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The international literature has documented that self-determination is impacted by environmental factors, including living or work settings; and by intraindividual factors, including intelligence level, age, gender, social skills and adaptive behaviour. In addition, self-determination has been correlated with improved quality of life…

  13. New English and Spanish Social Health Measures Will Facilitate Evaluating Health Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Elizabeth A.; DeWalt, Darren A.; Bode, Rita K.; Garcia, Sofia F.; DeVellis, Robert F.; Correia, Helena; Cella, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop psychometrically sound, culturally relevant and linguistically equivalent English and Spanish self-report measures of social health guided by a comprehensive conceptual model and applicable across chronic illnesses. Methods The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Social Health Workgroup implemented a mixed methods approach to evaluate earlier results (v1.0); expand and refine domain definitions and items; translate items into Spanish; and obtain qualitative feedback. Computer-based and paper/pencil questionnaire administration was conducted with a variety of U.S. respondent samples during 2009–2012. Analyses included exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), two-parameter logistic item response theory (IRT) modeling, evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF), and evaluation of criterion and construct validity. Results Qualitative feedback supported the conceptualization of the Social Health domain framework (Social Function and Social Relationships sub-components). Validation testing participants (n=2,208 English; n=644 Spanish) were diverse in terms of gender, age, education and ethnicity/race. EFA, CFA and IRT identified seven unidimensional factors with good model fit. There was no DIF by language, and good evidence of criterion and construct validity. Conclusions PROMIS English and Spanish language instruments (v2.0), including computer-adaptive tests and fixed-length short forms, are publicly available for assessment of Social Function (Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities, and Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities) and Social Relationships (Companionship; Emotional, Informational and Instrumental Support; and Social Isolation). Measures of social health will play a key role in applications that use ecologic (or determinants of health) models that emphasize how patients’ social environments influence their health. PMID:24447188

  14. If you build it will they come? Addressing social isolation within a technology-based HIV intervention for young black men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    LeGrand, Sara; Muessig, Kathryn E; Pike, Emily C; Baltierra, Nina; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B

    2014-01-01

    The rate of HIV infections among young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) continues to rise at an alarming pace. YBMSM are particularly vulnerable to social isolation and a lack of social support due to experiences with racism and homophobia, which may have implications for sexual risk behaviors. The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of social isolation and sense of community among YBMSM, the need for and receptivity to social networking features designed to reduce social isolation and build community within an Internet- and mobile phone-based primary and secondary HIV prevention intervention for YBMSM and to identify strategies to develop these features. Focus groups were conducted with 22 YBMSM aged 20-30 years at three sites in North Carolina. Data from the focus groups were thematically analyzed using NVivo. Feelings of social isolation and lack of a sense of community were strongly endorsed by participants with homophobia, lack of opportunities for social engagement, and a focus on sex rather than friendship in interpersonal relationships with other YBMSM cited as contributing factors. Participants were receptive to a social networking intervention designed to reduce social isolation and build community. Recommendations offered by participants to increase acceptability and usability of such features included: availability of information about healthy relationships, the ability to connect with other YBMSM and health care providers, and ensuring the site had ongoing facilitation by the study team as well as monitoring for inappropriate content. The development of a social networking feature of an HIV prevention intervention may present an opportunity to reduce social isolation, build community, and reduce risky sexual behaviors among YBMSM. The findings from this study are being used to inform the development of a social networking feature for an existing Internet- and mobile phone-based primary and secondary HIV prevention intervention for

  15. If you build it will they come? Addressing social isolation within a technology-based HIV intervention for young black men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    LeGrand, Sara; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Pike, Emily C.; Baltierra, Nina; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B.

    2014-01-01

    The rate of HIV infections among young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) continues to rise at an alarming pace. YBMSM are particularly vulnerable to social isolation and a lack of social support due to experiences with racism and homophobia, which may have implications for sexual risk behaviors. The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of social isolation and sense of community among YBMSM, the need for and receptivity to social networking features designed to reduce social isolation and build community within an internet and mobile phone-based primary and secondary HIV prevention intervention for YBMSM and to identify strategies to develop these features. Focus groups were conducted with 22 YBMSM ages 20–30 at three sites in North Carolina. Data from the focus groups were thematically analyzed using NVivo. Feelings of social isolation and lack of a sense of community were strongly endorsed by participants with homophobia, lack of opportunities for social engagement, and a focus on sex rather than friendship in interpersonal relationships with other YBMSM cited as contributing factors. Participants were receptive to a social networking intervention designed to reduce social isolation and build community. Recommendations offered by participants to increase acceptability and usability of such features included: availability of information about healthy relationships, the ability to connect with other YBMSM and health care providers, and ensuring the site had ongoing facilitation by the study team as well as monitoring for inappropriate content. The development of a social networking feature of an HIV prevention intervention may present an opportunity to reduce social isolation, build community and reduce risky sexual behaviors among YBMSM. The findings from this study are being used to inform the development of a social networking feature for an existing internet and mobile phone-based primary and secondary HIV prevention intervention for YBMSM

  16. Modeling the determinants of the social impacts of agricultural development projects

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadvand, Mostafa; Karami, Ezatollah; Iman, Mohammad Taghi

    2011-01-15

    In an attempt to help policy-makers improve the social sustainability of development projects, this study identifies the key determinants of farmers' attitudes relating to the social impacts of the floodwater spreading project (FWSP) on the Gareh-Bygone plain in Iran. In order to analyze the links between the various factors that affect the experience of social impact, a theoretical framework was developed. Stratified random sampling was used to survey 138 farm households from the four villages in the region. One male and one female from each house were interviewed face-to-face using a questionnaire, resulting in a total of 276 interviews. Structural factors were found to be the largest contribution to stakeholders' attitudes relating to the social impacts of the project. Results from a cluster analysis suggested that the level of floodwater information, level of participation, water access, ownership change, and environmental worldview were the most important factors explaining attitude towards social impact of the FWSP.

  17. Advancing Sustainability through Urban Green Space: Cultural Ecosystem Services, Equity, and Social Determinants of Health.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Viniece; Larson, Lincoln; Yun, Jessica

    2016-02-05

    Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants of health outlined in the United States Healthy People 2020 initiative. Specifically, we: (1) explore connections between cultural ecosystem services and social determinants of health; (2) examine cultural ecosystem services as nature-based health amenities to promote social equity; and (3) recommend areas for future research examining links between urban green space and public health within the context of environmental justice.

  18. Advancing Sustainability through Urban Green Space: Cultural Ecosystem Services, Equity, and Social Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Viniece; Larson, Lincoln; Yun, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants of health outlined in the United States Healthy People 2020 initiative. Specifically, we: (1) explore connections between cultural ecosystem services and social determinants of health; (2) examine cultural ecosystem services as nature-based health amenities to promote social equity; and (3) recommend areas for future research examining links between urban green space and public health within the context of environmental justice. PMID:26861365

  19. Examining Place As a Social Determinant of Health: Association Between Diabetes and US Geographic Region Among Non-Hispanic Whites and a Diverse Group of Hispanic/Latino Men.

    PubMed

    González, Gloria; Wilson-Frederick Wilson, Shondelle M; Thorpe, Roland J

    2015-01-01

    Place (geographic location), birthplace, the number of years in the United States, and gender are important social determinants of health essential to our understanding of health disparities. In this study, we examined the association between place and diabetes in white and Hispanic/Latino men and found that place and the number of years in the United States are important social determinants of health. Our findings provide implications for a nuanced perspective by highlighting the importance of examining social determinants of health to identify tailored interventions to address disparities in diabetes for diverse groups of Hispanic/Latino men.

  20. A National Content Analysis of PhD Program Objectives, Structures, and Curricula: Do Programs Address the Full Range of Social Work's Needs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drisko, James; Hunnicutt, Christie; Berenson, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The Group for the Advancement of Doctoral Education (GADE) promotes excellence in PhD education in Social Work. GADE's 2013 Quality Guidelines for PhD Programs heavily emphasize preparation for research. Little is known, however, about the details of the contemporary social work PhD program structure and curriculum. Several prior surveys have…

  1. 20 CFR 220.37 - When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.37 Section 220.37 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.37 When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

  2. 20 CFR 220.37 - When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.37 Section 220.37 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.37 When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

  3. 20 CFR 220.37 - When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.37 Section 220.37 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.37 When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

  4. 20 CFR 220.37 - When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.37 Section 220.37 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.37 When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

  5. The role of social determinants in explaining racial/ethnic disparities in perinatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Scott A; Enlow, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, there continue to be significant racial/ethnic disparities in preterm birth (PTB) rates, infant mortality, and fetal mortality rates. One potential mediator of these disparities is social determinants of health, including individual socioeconomic factors; community factors such as crime, poverty, housing, and the racial/ethnic makeup of the community; and the physical environment. Previous work has identified statistically significant associations between each of these factors and adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, there are recent studies that provide new, innovative insights into this subject, including adding social determinant data to population-based datasets; exploring multiple constructs in their analysis; and examining environmental factors. The objective of this review will be to examine this recent research on the association of each of these sets of social determinants on racial/ethnic disparities PTB, infant mortality, and fetal mortality to highlight potential areas for targeted intervention to reduce these differences.

  6. Social media, knowledge translation, and action on the social determinants of health and health equity: A survey of public health practices.

    PubMed

    Ndumbe-Eyoh, Sume; Mazzucco, Agnes

    2016-11-01

    The growth of social media presents opportunities for public health to increase its influence and impact on the social determinants of health and health equity. The National Collaborating Centre for Determinants of Health at St. Francis Xavier University conducted a survey during the first half of 2016 to assess how public health used social media for knowledge translation, relationship building, and specific public health roles to advance health equity. Respondents reported that social media had an important role in public health. Uptake of social media, while relatively high for personal use, was less present in professional settings and varied for different platforms. Over 20 per cent of those surveyed used Twitter or Facebook at least weekly for knowledge exchange. A lesser number used social media for specific health equity action. Opportunities to enhance the use of social media in public health persist. Capacity building and organizational policies that support social media use may help achieve this.

  7. Some lessons in tackling social determinants of health in resource-poor settings: health promotion with young people in Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Harris, Patrick; Ritchie, Jan; Tabi, Graham; Abel, Myriam; Lower, Tony

    2007-09-01

    Community based health promotion initiatives are recognised as important strategies to address the growing burden of non-communicable diseases in developing countries. However, limited knowledge exists on how such initiatives work in practice. One innovative health promotion program of work, the Pacific Action for Health Project, is working with young people and communities in the Pacific country of Vanuatu to offset the future effects of risk factors for these diseases, through optimising broad lifestyle and living conditions for the positive promotion of health. Recognising the established link between non-communicable diseases and their social determinants, the Pacific Action for Health Project works with young people to address these determinants at the community level including, but not limited to, unemployment. This paper appraises the program based on a constructivist approach to data gathering and analysis, with observations made in the field subsequently interpreted through the health promotion literature on community empowerment. From the data collected, six themes emerged as key attributes through which the program achieved its planned outcomes. Subsequent analysis through the community empowerment literature, specifically 'dynamic continuum' models of community development, provided deeper analysis of the program's strategies and offered insight into how the literature on community empowerment may work in practice in a resource poor context. In addition to the development of locally specific empowerment measures as indicators for future program evaluation, further ethnographic work and participatory-action research approaches are encouraged to assist the future development of the program.

  8. Ethnicity and nativity status as determinants of perceived social support: testing the concept of familism.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Joanna; Molnar, Beth E; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V

    2009-05-01

    Research has demonstrated a protective effect of social support on health. Social support is most often treated as an independent variable. However, as with disease risk factors, which are not randomly distributed, health-promoting resources such as social support are also systematically patterned. For example, in the USA, family support is thought to be high among Latinos, Mexican Americans in particular. Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, we explored the relationships between ethnicity/nativity status, socioeconomic status (SES) and perceived social support from family and friends. We also assessed the role of retention of culture-measured as primary language spoken at home-on social support. Finally, we tested whether SES moderated the relationship between ethnicity/nativity status and social support. Foreign and US-born Latinos, most notably, foreign-born Mexicans, reported higher family support compared to non-Latino whites. Primary language spoken at home seems to account for the relationship between ethnicity/nativity and familial social support. Mexican-born and US-born Latino immigrants reported lower social support from family at higher levels of SES. Each ethnic minority group reported lower perception of friend support compared to non-Latino whites. There was a strong SES gradient in subjective support from friends with higher support reported among those with higher SES. This study provides evidence for the notion that Latinos in the USA, specifically foreign-born Mexicans, may rely on family ties for support more than do non-Latino whites. Findings also help identify ethnicity/nativity status, primary language spoken and SES as determinants of social support. Specifically, the higher familial social support found among Latino immigrants may be due to retention of culture. Effect modification by SES suggests that Latinos of lower and higher SES may differ with regard to the traditionally-held value of familism.

  9. Learned fear to social out-group members are determined by ethnicity and prior exposure

    PubMed Central

    Golkar, Armita; Björnstjerna, Marie; Olsson, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Humans, like other animals, have a tendency to preferentially learn and retain some associations more readily than others. In humans, preferential learning was originally demonstrated for certain evolutionary prepared stimuli, such as snakes and angry faces and later extended to human social out-groups based on race (Olsson et al., 2005). To address the generality of this social learning bias, we examined if this learning bias extended to two separate classes of social out-groups represented by neutral Black and Middle-Eastern faces in 38 White (Swedish) participants. We found that other-ethnicity alone was not sufficient to induce an out-group learning bias; it was observed for Black, but not Middle-Eastern, out-group faces. Moreover, an exploratory analysis showed that growing up in an ethnically diverse environment was inversely related to the learning bias toward Middle-Eastern, but not Black, out-groups faces, suggesting that learned fears toward Middle-Eastern faces might be more permeable to environmental factors. Future research should address how both the quantity and quality of inter-group contact modulate out-group learning. PMID:25762953

  10. An interdisciplinary perspective on social and physical determinants of seismic risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, K.-H.; Chang, Y.-C.; Liu, G.-Y.; Chan, C.-H.; Lin, T.-H.; Yeh, C.-H.

    2015-01-01

    While disaster studies researchers usually view risk as a function of hazard, exposure, and vulnerability, few studies have systematically examined the relationships among the various physical and socioeconomic determinants underlying disasters, and fewer have done so through seismic risk analysis. In the context of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan, this study constructs five hypothetical models to test different determinants that affect disaster fatality at the village level, namely seismic hazard intensity, population, building fragility, demographics and socioeconomics. The Poisson Regression Model is used to estimate the impact of natural hazards and social factors on fatality. Results indicate that although all of the determinants have an impact on the specific dimension of seismic fatality, some indicators of social inequality, such as gender ratio, dependency ratio, income and its SD, are the driving determinants deteriorating vulnerability to seismic risk. These findings have strong social implications for policy interventions to mitigate such disasters. This study presents an interdisciplinary investigation into social and physical determinants in seismic risk.

  11. The social determinants of depression in elderly Korean immigrants in Canada: does acculturation matter?

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooksoo; Chen, Ya-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Depression in old age significantly decreases the quality of life and may lead to serious consequences, such as suicide. Existing literature indicates that elderly Korean immigrants may experience higher levels of depression than other racial ethnic group elders. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate factors that influence depression among older Korean immigrants in Toronto. A total of 148 participants, ages 60 years or older (mean age = 74.01, SD = 8.24), completed face-to-face interviews in Korean language. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted by adding variables in three steps: (1) demographic variables; (2) acculturation variables (years of immigration and English proficiency); and (3) social determinants (social integration variables, physical health, and financial satisfaction). Results showed that acculturation factors were not associated with depression. Instead, social determinants variables, including lower physical health status and lower financial status, living alone, and lower level of social activity, predicted higher level of depressive symptoms, along with lower education. The final regression model explained about 37% of variance of depression in the sample. These results suggest that social determinants, not acculturation, are important factors explaining the levels of depression in Korean immigrant elders living in a metropolitan city in Canada. Implications for practice are discussed.

  12. A social-ecological analysis of the self-determination literature.

    PubMed

    Shogren, Karrie A

    2013-12-01

    This paper uses a social-ecological lens to examine self-determination research, attempting to organize what is known (and unknown) about contextual factors that have the potential to impact the development and expression of self-determined behavior in people with disabilities across multiple ecological systems. Identifying and categorizing the contextual factors that researchers suggest influence self-determination have the potential to allow for the development of a framework that promotes systematic consideration of contextual factors when designing, implementing, and evaluating supports to promote self-determination. Directions for future research and practice are discussed.

  13. "Nature is there; its free": Urban greenspace and the social determinants of health of immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Hordyk, Shawn Renee; Hanley, Jill; Richard, Éric

    2015-07-01

    In this article, we draw on a 2012 Montreal-based study that examined the embodied, every day practices of immigrant children and families in the context of urban greenspaces such as parks, fields, backyards, streetscapes, gardens, forests and rivers. Results suggest that activities in the natural environment serve as a protective factor in the health and well-being of this population, providing emotional and physical nourishment in the face of adversity. Using the Social Determinants of Health model adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO, 1998), we analyze how participants accessed urban nature to minimize the effects of inadequate housing, to strengthen social cohesion and reduce emotional stress. We conclude with a discussion supporting the inclusion of the natural environment in the Social Determinants of Health Model.

  14. Dying as a social relationship: a sociological review of debates on the determination of death.

    PubMed

    Kellehear, Allan

    2008-04-01

    The research literature about 'brain death' is largely characterized by biomedical, bioethical and legal writing. This has led to overlooking wider but no less pertinent social, historical and cultural understandings about death. By ignoring the work of other social and clinical colleagues in the study of dying, the literature on the determination of death has become unnecessarily abstract and socially disconnected from parallel concerns about death and dying. This has led, and continues to lead to, incomplete suggestions and narrow discussions about the nature of death as well as an ongoing misunderstanding of general public and health care staff responses to brain death criteria. This paper provides a sociological outline of these problems through a review of the key literature on the determination of death.

  15. "Voicing" the social determinants of health on the backside of a horse racetrack.

    PubMed

    Kiesler, Joseph; Vaughn, Lisa M; Kaur, Gupreet

    2013-08-01

    Workers in the horse racing industry often live and work on the backside of the track, traveling from track to track as the racing season dictates. There has been little research on the social determinants of health and living conditions of the workers. We conducted a two-phase project: (1) a cross-sectional survey of backside workers; and (2) a community-based participatory research project with four workers who worked and lived at a local racetrack using Photovoice. Substance abuse, safety concerns, limited access to health care, a high rate of work-related injuries and social isolation were common problems reported by the workers. Six themes were identified: (1) safety and health; (2) coping; (3) life philosophy: fatalism vs. hope; (4) love of horses; (5) working conditions; (6) living conditions; and (7) backside culture. Results are discussed in relation to the social determinants of health.

  16. Determinants of Social Accountability in Iranian Nursing and Midwifery Schools: A Delphi Study

    PubMed Central

    Salehmoghaddam, Amir Reza; Mazloom, Seyed Reza; Sharafkhani, Mohammad; Gholami, Hassan; Emami Zeydi, Amir; Khorashadizadeh, Fatemeh; Emadzadeh, Ali

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Revising the medical education programs to meet the needs of society has become both a necessity and an important priority due to the considerable increase of population, changing patterns of diseases, and new health priorities. While this necessity has been highlighted in Iran’s Fifth Development Plan as well as its National 2025 Vision Plan, the determinants of social accountability have not been explained yet. This study aimed to develop determinants of social accountability in the Iranian Nursing and Midwifery Schools. Methods: This classic Delphi study included thirty experts in Nursing and Midwifery Education, Research and Services selected based on purposive sampling and three rounds of Delphi technique and conducted in Nursing and Midwifery School of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The primary data were collected using an initial structured questionnaire prepared through extensive review of literature. SPSS 11.5 software was used to analyze the data. The interquartile deviation and percentage of agreement were also used to study the consensus of opinion by experts. Results: Finding obtained from the rounds of Delphi resulted in selecting 69 determinants out of the initial pool of 128 primary determinants of social accountability. The items were selected based on experts’ consensus and categorized under three main activities of Nursing and Midwifery School, namely education, research, and service. Conclusion: Social accountability determinants were explained by 69 items for Schools of Nursing and Midwifery in Iran. The proposed determinants can be used by managers and authorities of Nursing and Midwifery School, policy makers, and evaluating institutions associated with them to ensure realizing social accountability goals.

  17. Reducing Oral Health Disparities: A Focus on Social and Cultural Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Donald L; Lee, Rosanna Shuk Yin; Nucci, Michele; Grembowski, David; Jolles, Carol Zane; Milgrom, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Oral health is essential to the general health and well-being of individuals and the population. Yet significant oral health disparities persist in the U.S. population because of a web of influences that include complex cultural and social processes that affect both oral health and access to effective dental health care. This paper introduces an organizing framework for addressing oral health disparities. We present and discuss how the multiple influences on oral health and oral health disparities operate using this framework. Interventions targeted at different causal pathways bring new directions and implications for research and policy in reducing oral health disparities. PMID:16934121

  18. Enhancing Curriculum through Service Learning in the Social Determinants of Health Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooks, Ronica Nicole; Rael, Christine Tagliaferri

    2013-01-01

    Service learning bridges classroom learning and community volunteerism and is anchored in the curriculum, classroom discussion, and community. We incorporated service learning projects (SLP) into three Social Determinants of Health courses (2008-2010) to promote: experiential learning; undergraduate scholarship; faculty career development through…

  19. The Role of Individual- and Macro-Level Social Determinants on Young Adolescents' Psychosomatic Complaints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottova, Veronika; Erhart, Michael; Vollebergh, Wilma; Kokonyei, Gyongyi; Morgan, Antony; Gobina, Inese; Jericek, Helena; Cavallo, Franco; Valimaa, Raili; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Gaspar, Tania; Schnohr, Christina W.; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the social determinants of psychosomatic complaints in young adolescents. Using data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, psychosomatic complaints are studied in 98,773 adolescents (11- and 13-year-olds; 48% 11-year-olds, 52% 13-year-olds; 52% females, 48% males) from 34 European countries.…

  20. Social Cohesion as Determined by the Levels and Types of Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, Henry Jefferson

    1987-01-01

    Asserts that all behavior is result of individual-group interaction, determined by attachment to and identification with various groups to which one belongs. Presents this social cohesion as a function of member's levels and types of group involvement. Describes types ranked according to degree of involvement (identification, alienation, autonomy,…

  1. Determination and Interpretation of the Norm Values of Preschool Social Skills Rating Scale Teacher Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omeroglu, Esra; Buyukozturk, Sener; Aydogan, Yasemin; Cakan, Mehtap; Cakmak, Ebru Kilic; Ozyurek, Arzu; Akduman, Gulumser Gultekin; Gunindi, Yunus; Kutlu, Omer; Coban, Aysel; Yurt, Ozlem; Kogar, Hakan; Karayol, Seda

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine and interpret norms of the Preschool Social Skills Rating Scale (PSSRS) teacher form. The sample included 224 independent preschools and 169 primary schools. The schools are distributed among 48 provinces and 3324 children were included. Data were obtained from the PSSRS teacher form. The validity and reliability…

  2. The Factors Determining Professional Career of Females from Different Social Groups: Reflexive Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peciuliauskiene, Palmira; Barkauskaite, Marija

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the factors determining professional careers of females from different social groups (convict, unemployed and those who achieved successful career). It is decided to classify those factors into two groups: subjective (education and personal qualities); and objective (age and parents' professional career). This article deals…

  3. Cultural, Human, and Social Capital as Determinants of Corporal Punishment: Toward an Integrated Theoretical Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xiaohe; Tung, Yuk-Ying; Dunaway, R. Gregory

    2000-01-01

    This article constructs a model to predict the likelihood of parental use of corporal punishment on children in two-parent families. Reports that corporal punishment is primarily determined by cultural, human, and social capital that are available to, or already acquired by parents. Discusses an integrated, resource-based theory for predicting use…

  4. Quality, Social Justice and Accountability--Crucial Determinants of Excellence in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossouw, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, the quality of education, social justice and accountability can be regarded as key elements of successful school systems and societies. Separately or jointly, these elements can be analysed and debated as distinct fields of study, and linked to an education system to determine the success thereof. Being a pivotal element of…

  5. Persons Living with HIV/AIDS: Employment as a Social Determinant of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Zeglin, Robert J.; Conyers, Liza; Misrok, Mark; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: For persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has increased their longevity and quality of life. As HIV progresses, many PLWHA present declined domains of functioning that impede their ability to work. The authors explore employment as a social determinant of health to identify issues…

  6. Enhancing John Rawls's Theory of Justice to Cover Health and Social Determinants of Health1

    PubMed Central

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif; Arda, Berna

    2015-01-01

    The vast improvements in medical technology reviled the crucial role of social determinants of health for the etiology, prevalence and prognosis of diseases. This changed the content of the right to health concept from a demand of health services, to a claim of having access to all social determinants of health. Thus, the just allocation of scarce resources of health and social determinants of health became an issue of ethical theories. John Rawls developed a theory of justice. His theory suggests that the principles of justice should be determined by individuals in a hypothetic initial position. In the initial position, individuals agree on principles of justice. Rawls puts forth that the institutions of the society should be structured in compliance with these principles to reach a fair social system. Although Rawls did not justify right to health in his theory, the efforts to enlarge the theory to cover right to health flourished quite fast. In this paper first the basic components of Rawls theory is explained. Then the most outstanding approaches to enlarge his theory to cover right to health is introduced and discussed within the discourse of Rawls theory of justice. PMID:27340331

  7. Enhancing John Rawls's Theory of Justice to Cover Health and Social Determinants of Health.

    PubMed

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif; Arda, Berna

    2015-11-01

    The vast improvements in medical technology reviled the crucial role of social determinants of health for the etiology, prevalence and prognosis of diseases. This changed the content of the right to health concept from a demand of health services, to a claim of having access to all social determinants of health. Thus, the just allocation of scarce resources of health and social determinants of health became an issue of ethical theories. John Rawls developed a theory of justice. His theory suggests that the principles of justice should be determined by individuals in a hypothetic initial position. In the initial position, individuals agree on principles of justice. Rawls puts forth that the institutions of the society should be structured in compliance with these principles to reach a fair social system. Although Rawls did not justify right to health in his theory, the efforts to enlarge the theory to cover right to health flourished quite fast. In this paper first the basic components of Rawls theory is explained. Then the most outstanding approaches to enlarge his theory to cover right to health is introduced and discussed within the discourse of Rawls theory of justice.

  8. Social Physique Anxiety and Intention to Be Physically Active: A Self-Determination Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicilia, Álvaro; Sáenz-Alvarez, Piedad; González-Cutre, David; Ferriz, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Based on self-determination theory, the purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between social physique anxiety and intention to be physically active, while taking into account the mediating effects of the basic psychological needs and behavioral regulations in exercise. Method: Having obtained parents' prior consent, 390…

  9. Psycho-Social Determinants of Gender Prejudice in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nnachi, N. O.; Okpube, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    This work focused on the "Psycho-social Determinants of Gender Prejudice in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)". The females were found to be underrepresented in STEM fields. The under-representation results from gender stereotype, differences in spatial skills, hierarchical and territorial segregations and…

  10. Human Capital, Social Classes, and the Earnings Determination Process in Brazilian Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neves, Jorge A.; Haller, Archibald O.; Fernandes, Danielle C.

    This paper examines the process of earnings determination in the agricultural sector of Brazil. Among the main causal factors analyzed are human capital (education and work experience), labor market segmentation, gender, social class position, level of development/modernization, and concentration of land ownership. Data on individuals employed in…

  11. Chronic Neglect and Services Without Borders: A Guiding Model for Social Service Enhancement to Address the Needs of Parents With Intellectual Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Azar, Sandra; Robinson, Lara; Proctor, Stephon

    Child neglect has negative effects throughout the lifespan. Although an argument for a link between intellectual disabilities and neglectful parenting can be made, this paper argues for a more fine grained view of the cognitive problems that underlie child neglect perpetration and provides evidence for a social information processing model of etiology. Based on this model and what is known about the efficacy of behaviorally-based interventions, implications for enhancements to the social service system to adapt to the needs of parents with intellectual disabilities are presented. The areas covered include improvements to screening and assessment of parents; provision of adapted services; and changes in selection processes and training of staff. Future directions for integrating social information processing elements into interventions are discussed with examples from empirically tested prevention programs.

  12. Inclusion in Urban Educational Environments: Addressing Issues of Diversity, Equity, and Social Justice. Issues in the Research, Theory, Policy, and Practice of Urban Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Denise E.; McMahon, Brenda J.

    2006-01-01

    This book is motivated by the authors' experiences in working with students and their families in urban communities. They are particularly concerned about the urgent imperative to address the endemic educational and societal challenges that pervade the lives of urban students, particularly those who live in poverty, are of minority and immigrant…

  13. Social determinants and psychological distress among Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander adults in the Australian state of Victoria: a cross-sectional population based study.

    PubMed

    Markwick, Alison; Ansari, Zahid; Sullivan, Mary; McNeil, John

    2015-03-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults in the Australian state of Victoria have a higher prevalence of psychological distress than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts. We sought to explain this inequality, focussing on the social determinants of health. We used population-based survey data from the 2008 Victorian Population Health Survey; a cross-sectional landline computer-assisted telephone survey of 34,168 randomly selected adults. We defined psychological distress as a score of 22 or more on the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress scale. We used logistic regression to identify socio-demographic characteristics and social capital indicators that were associated with psychological distress. We then created multivariable models to explore the association between psychological distress and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status that incorporated all significant socioeconomic status (SES) and social capital variables, adjusting for all non-SES socio-demographic characteristics. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians (24.5%) were more than twice as likely than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts (11.3%) to have psychological distress (odds ratio (OR) = 2.56, 95% confidence interval; 1.67-3.93). Controlling for SES, negative perceptions of the residential neighbourhood, lack of social support from family, social and civic distrust, and all non-SES socio-demographic variables (age, sex, marital status, household composition, and rurality), rendered the previously statistically significant inequality in the prevalence of psychological distress, between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians and their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts, insignificant at the p = 0.05 level (OR = 1.50; 0.97-2.32). Psychological distress is an important health risk factor for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults that has yet to be widely acknowledged and addressed. Addressing the

  14. The potential for multi-disciplinary primary health care services to take action on the social determinants of health: actions and constraints

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Commission on the Social Determinants of Health and the World Health Organization have called for action to address the social determinants of health. This paper considers the extent to which primary health care services in Australia are able to respond to this call. We report on interview data from an empirical study of primary health care centres in Adelaide and Alice Springs, Australia. Methods Sixty-eight interviews were held with staff and managers at six case study primary health care services, regional health executives, and departmental funders to explore how their work responded to the social determinants of health and the dilemmas in doing so. The six case study sites included an Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisation, a sexual health non-government organisation, and four services funded and managed by the South Australian government. Results While respondents varied in the extent to which they exhibited an understanding of social determinants most were reflexive about the constraints on their ability to take action. Services’ responses to social determinants included delivering services in a way that takes account of the limitations individuals face from their life circumstances, and physical spaces in the primary health care services being designed to do more than simply deliver services to individuals. The services also undertake advocacy for policies that create healthier communities but note barriers to them doing this work. Our findings suggest that primary health care workers are required to transverse “dilemmatic space” in their work. Conclusions The absence of systematic supportive policy, frameworks and structure means that it is hard for PHC services to act on the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health’s recommendations. Our study does, however, provide evidence of the potential for PHC services to be more responsive to social determinants given more support and by building alliances with communities and

  15. Address by Peter B. Edelman, Attorney, Keynoting "Mini-Conference" on Youth (National Conference on Social Welfare, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, May 14, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelman, Peter B.

    The present definition of social services for young people should be extended beyond the provision of counseling and therapy to include the provision of help for those who do not have psychological problems. For example, the role of probation officers should include helping probationers find a job and keep it, return to school, or obtain other…

  16. Providing Effective Support to Teachers in Addressing Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Mainstream Classrooms in a Bangalore Pre-Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Souza, Mildred; Jament, Johnson

    2015-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted on children's social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD) in a single pre-primary school in Bangalore, with the objective of developing a behaviour management policy for use by teachers. Limited evidence is available in the Indian literature in the area of SEBD and it remains important to know how…

  17. Juggling Priorities: Balancing Economic and Social Drivers to Address the Language, Literacy and Numeracy Needs of Students in the VET Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Mary; Gwinner, Karleen; Mallan, Kerry; Livock, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Economic success and commitment to the social benefits of inclusive training opportunities are important goals for public Vocational Education and Training (VET). Currently in Australia, VET policy is a shared responsibility between the Commonwealth and the States and Territories. Priorities for investment are juggled between improving efficiency…

  18. Chronic Neglect and Services without Borders: A Guiding Model for Social Service Enhancement to Address the Needs of Parents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azar, Sandra T.; Robinson, Lara R.; Proctor, Stephon N.

    2012-01-01

    Child neglect has negative effects throughout the life span. Although an argument for a link between intellectual disabilities and neglectful parenting can be made, this article argues for a more fine-grained view of the cognitive problems that underlie child neglect perpetration and provides evidence for a social information processing model of…

  19. A Single Case Design Evaluation of a Software and Tutor Intervention Addressing Emotion Recognition and Social Interaction in Four Boys with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacava, Paul G.; Rankin, Ana; Mahlios, Emily; Cook, Katie; Simpson, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Many students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have delays learning to recognize emotions. Social behavior is also challenging, including initiating interactions, responding to others, developing peer relationships, and so forth. In this single case design study we investigated the relationship between use of computer software ("Mind Reading:…

  20. Teaching about Modern Germany: Instructional Materials for the Social Studies Classroom. Correlation Charts Indicating Content and Skills Addressed by Each Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goethe House, New York, NY.

    This instructional booklet for the social studies classroom is a companion to a series about modern day Germany. The materials describe the documents in the series and present correlation charts for content and skills: (1) "A Kid Like Me across the Sea"; (2) "Communities and Regions"; (3) "Overview of Germany"; (4)…

  1. Addressing Social-Emotional Development and Infant Mental Health in Early Childhood Systems. Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series, Number 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Paula D.; Stafford, Brian S.; Nagle, Geoffrey A.; Rice, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The science of early development and our understanding of the impact of early experience on later social, emotional, and cognitive development has grown dramatically in the past three decades. Because the data are compelling and far-reaching, there has been increasing interest and concern about the quality of the infant's earliest experiences, and…

  2. Self-Reported Changes in Attractions and Social Determinants of Mental Health in Transgender Adults.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Reisner, Sari L; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Budge, Stephanie L

    2016-08-19

    This study examined associations between changes in self-reported attractions and mental health in a community-based sample of self-identified transgender adults. Participants were purposively recruited in 2013 using bimodal sampling methods and completed a one-time survey. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated adjusted risk ratios and 95 % confidence intervals to examine associations between changes in attractions and mental health outcomes (lifetime self-harm, suicide attempts, depression diagnosis; past-week clinically significant depressive distress assessed via CES-D 10) among the entire sample (N = 452; 285 female-to-male spectrum, 167 male-to-female spectrum) and after gender transition among those who had socially transitioned (n = 205; 156 female-to-male spectrum, 49 male-to-female spectrum). Models were adjusted for known population social determinants (age, race/ethnicity, gender identity, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation identity), transgender-specific determinants (age of transgender realization, social transition, medical transition, visual gender nonconformity, non-binary gender identification), and survey mode (online vs. in-person sampling). Lifetime changes in attractions were significantly associated with increased probability of all mental health outcomes; individuals reporting any change in attractions were more likely than individuals not reporting changes to indicate lifetime self-harm, suicide attempts, depression diagnosis, and current depressive distress (all ps < .05). Changes in attractions post-social transition were not significantly associated with mental health outcomes. Many, but not all, population and transgender-specific social determinants were significantly associated with mental health in the full sample and among those who had socially transitioned. Clinical implications of findings about changes in attractions and mental health are discussed for transgender individuals.

  3. Global health governance: commission on social determinants of health and the imperative for change.

    PubMed

    Bell, Ruth; Taylor, Sebastian; Marmot, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In May 2009 the World Health Assembly passed a resolution on reducing health inequities through action on the social determinants of health, based on the work of the global Commission on Social Determinants of Health, 2005-2008. The Commission's genesis and findings raise some important questions for global health governance. We draw out some of the essential elements, themes, and mechanisms that shaped the Commission. We start by examining the evolving nature of global health and the Commission's foundational inspiration--the universal pattern of health inequity and the imperative, driven by a sense of social justice, to make better and more equal health a global goal. We look at how the Commission was established, how it was structured internally, and how it developed external relationships--with the World Health Organization, with global networks of academics and practitioners, with country governments eager to spearhead action on health equity, and with civil society. We outline the Commission's recommendations as they relate to the architecture of global health governance. Finally, we look at how the Commission is catalyzing a movement to bring social determinants of health to the forefront of international and national policy discourse.

  4. Social Determinants and Disparities in Health: Their Crucifixion, Resurrection, and Ultimate Triumph(?) in Health Policy.

    PubMed

    House, James S

    2016-08-01

    David Mechanic has been a principal founder of modern sociological and social science approaches to health, especially in relation to health policy. These approaches have since the 1950s and 1960s resurrected ideas that had currency in the mid-nineteenth century but seemed crucified, dead, and buried by the rise of modern biomedicine from the mid-nineteenth century through the mid-twentieth century. Problems and lacunae in purely biomedical approaches to health in the later twentieth century, along with developments of new biopsychosocial approaches to health, have spawned a return toward ideas of Rudolf Virchow and mid-nineteenth-century social medicine that social determinants and disparities are major drivers of population health. Since individual health and population health constitute the major determinants of health care utilization and expenditures, social determinants and disparities in health are arguably the foundation of a new "demand-side" health policy that can resolve America's paradoxical health policy crisis of spending increasingly more than any nation on health care and insurance yet achieving increasingly worsening health outcomes relative to virtually all developed countries and some developing ones as well, something that current "supply-side" health policy, including Obamacare, cannot do, important as it is for expanding access to health insurance and care.

  5. Determinants of male health: the interaction of biological and social factors

    PubMed Central

    de Kretser, David M.

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the social and biological factors that may influence male development from conception to adulthood and also underlie the development of health disorders. It will provide assistance to those who may be considering the formulation of a male health policy. It aims to emphasize that social determinants function on a biological background that is profoundly influenced by a male's genome, inherited from his parents. The importance of the male-specific reproductive disorders is emphasized, but these also affect somatic structures through the secretion of androgens secreted from the testes. In turn, the function of the cardiovascular and nervous systems can significantly influence reproductive processes such as erectile dysfunction. PMID:20364153

  6. Association of social determinants of health with self-rated health among Australian gay and bisexual men living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Koelmeyer, Rachel; English, Dallas R; Smith, Anthony; Grierson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Despite a vast improvement in the survival of people living with HIV (PLHIV) since the introduction of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART), little change in the self-rated health of PLHIV has been observed since the introduction of cART in Australia. Difficulties with attaining employment or achieving financial security have been noted as some of the key challenges still facing PLHIV in the post-cART era. As a result, we investigated the independent association of a number of key social determinants of health with self-rated health among HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in Australia. Data from two recent national, cross-sectional surveys of PLHIV (the HIV Futures 5 and 6 surveys) were used. Logistic regression was used to assess the independent association of ethnicity, region of residence, education level, employment status, after-tax income, experience of HIV-related discrimination, level of social support, relationship status and recent sexual activity with reporting good-excellent self-rated health, after adjusting for clinical factors and other social determinants of health. Multiple imputation was used to estimate missing data for variables with >5% missing data. Of the 1713 HIV-positive gay/bisexual men who responded to the HIV Futures 5 and 6 surveys, information on self-rated health was available for 99.3%. Close to three-quarters of these respondents (72.1%) reported their self-rated health as good or excellent; the remainder (27.9%) reported their self-rated health as poor or fair. In multivariable analysis involving 89.3% of respondents, being employed, reporting recent sexual activity, a greater number of sources of social support and a higher weekly after-tax income were found to be independently associated with reporting good-excellent self-rated health. Despite the inability of this study to detect causal associations, addressing barriers to employment and sexual activity, and mechanisms to increase social support, is likely to have

  7. Development and trialling of a tool to support a systems approach to improve social determinants of health in rural and remote Australian communities: the healthy community assessment tool

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The residents of many Australian rural and remote communities do not have the essential infrastructure and services required to support healthy living conditions and community members choosing healthy lifestyle options. Improving these social determinants of health is seen to offer real opportunities to improve health among such disadvantaged populations. In this paper, we describe the development and trialling of a tool to measure, monitor and evaluate key social determinants of health at community level. Methods The tool was developed and piloted through a multi-phase and iterative process that involved a series of consultations with community members and key stakeholders and trialling the tool in remote Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory of Australia. Results The indicators were found to be robust, and by testing the tool on a number of different levels, face validity was confirmed. The scoring system was well understood and easily followed by Indigenous and non-Indigenous study participants. A facilitated small group process was found to reduce bias in scoring of indicators. Conclusion The Healthy Community Assessment Tool offers a useful vehicle and process to help those involved in planning, service provision and more generally promoting improvements in community social determinants of health. The tool offers many potential uses and benefits for those seeking to address inequities in the social determinants of health in remote communities. Maximum benefits in using the tool are likely to be gained with cross-sector involvement and when assessments are part of a continuous quality improvement program. PMID:23442804

  8. Addressing social barriers and closing the gender knowledge gap: exposure to road shows is associated with more knowledge and more positive beliefs, attitudes and social norms regarding exclusive breastfeeding in rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Alison L; Tavengwa, Naume V; Chasekwa, Bernard; Chatora, Kumbirai; Taruberekera, Noah; Mushayi, Wellington; Madzima, Rufaro C; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N

    2012-10-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is rarely practiced despite its significant child survival benefits. A key constraint to increasing EBF rates in Zimbabwe and most of the developing world is that key decision makers (fathers/partners and other family members) are often poorly informed about EBF and do not attend antenatal clinics where health information is routinely provided. Informed by formative research, a district-wide campaign was conducted in rural Zimbabwe to encourage EBF and expressing and heat treating (EHT) breast milk as a means to maintain EBF. The campaign combined traditional strategies of education, counselling and outreach through health service delivery with a novel road show 'edutainment' intervention to reach men and other community members. A post campaign evaluation measured the association of road show exposure with 20 knowledge items and summative scores of social norms, beliefs and attitudes obtained through exploratory factor analysis. In adjusted models, road show exposure was associated with correct EBF knowledge (β=1.0, 0.001), EHT knowledge (β=1.3, P<0.001) and greater perceived benefits of condom use during pregnancy and breastfeeding (β=0.5, P<0.001), and more positive EBF social norms (β=0.6, P<0.001), EBF beliefs and attitudes (β=1.0, P<0.001) and attitudes towards condom use during breastfeeding (β=0.6, P<0.001). Road show exposure was more strongly associated with EBF knowledge among men (P-value for gender×exposure group interaction=0.03), suggesting that it also closed the knowledge gap between men and women. Longitudinal studies will determine whether road shows were associated with changes in EBF practices.

  9. Taking action on the social determinants of health: improving health access for the urban poor in Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, the country of Mongolia (population 2.8 million) has experienced rapid social changes associated with economic growth, persisting socio-economic inequities and internal migration. In order to improve health access for the urban poor, the Ministry of Health developed a "Reaching Every District" strategy (RED strategy) to deliver an integrated package of key health and social services. The aim of this article is to present findings of an assessment of the implementation of the RED strategy, and, on the basis of this assessment, articulate lessons learned for equitable urban health planning. Methods Principal methods for data collection and analysis included literature review, barrier analysis of health access and in-depth interviews and group discussions with health managers and providers. Findings The main barriers to health access for the urban poor relate to interacting effects of poverty, unhealthy daily living environments, social vulnerability and isolation. Implementation of the RED strategy has resulted in increased health access for the urban poor, as demonstrated by health staff having reached new clients with immunization, family planning and ante-natal care services, and increased civil registrations which enable social service provision. Organizational effects have included improved partnerships for health and increased motivation of the health workforce. Important lessons learned from the early implementation of the RED strategy include the need to form strong partnerships among stakeholders at each level of the health system and in the community, as well as the need to develop a specific financing strategy to address the needs of the very poor. The diverse social context for health in an urban poor setting calls for a decentralized planning and partnership strategy, but with central level commitment towards policy guidance and financing of pro-poor urban health strategies. Conclusions Lessons from Mongolia mirror other

  10. Position of Social Determinants of Health in Urban Man-Made Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Shojaei, Parisa; Karimlou, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Afzali, Hosein Malek; Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: A social determinants approach proposes that enhancing living conditions in areas such as income, housing, transportation, employment, education, social support, and health services is central to improving the health of urban populations. Urban development projects can be costly but have health impacts. The benefit derived from the creation of man-made lakes in developing countries is usually associated with great risks; however, the evidence for physical and non-physical health benefits of urban man-made lake is unclear. The aim of this paper is to formulate a conceptual framework of associations between urban man-made lakes and social determinants of health. Method: This study was a qualitative study carried out using one focus group discussion and 16 individual interviews. Data were analyzed based on deductive-inductive content analysis approach. Results: Participants’ points of view were analyzed within 261 codes. Data analysis matrix was the conceptual framework of social determinants of health commission and its sub-groups, thus, two structural and mediating determinants categories as well as their sub-sets were created accordingly. In addition, some extra sub-sets including environment, air quality, weather changes, noise pollution, pathogenesis, quality of life, shortage of available resources, region popularity, ethnicity, tourism, social and physical development of children, unintentional injuries, aesthetic, and spirituality were extracted beyond the matrix factors, which were placed in each of above categories based on their thematic content. Conclusion: This paper has illustrated that the quality and type of man-made lake provided within communities can have a significant and sustained impact on community’s health and wellbeing. Therefore, in order to strengthen positive effects and reduce negative effects of any developmental projects within community, their impacts on public health should be taken into consideration

  11. A systems-based conceptual framework for assessing the determinants of a social license to operate in the mining industry.

    PubMed

    Prno, Jason; Slocombe, D Scott

    2014-03-01

    The concept of a "social license to operate" (SLO) was coined in the 1990s and gained popularity as one way in which "social" considerations can be addressed in mineral development decision making. The need for a SLO implies that developers require the widespread approval of local community members for their projects to avoid exposure to potentially costly conflict and business risks. Only a limited amount of scholarship exists on the topic, and there is a need for research that specifically addresses the complex and changeable nature of SLO outcomes. In response to these challenges, this paper advances a novel, systems-based conceptual framework for assessing SLO determinants and outcomes in the mining industry. Two strands of systems theory are specifically highlighted-complex adaptive systems and resilience-and the roles of context, key system variables, emergence, change, uncertainty, feedbacks, cross-scale effects, multiple stable states, thresholds, and resilience are discussed. The framework was developed from the results of a multi-year research project which involved international mining case study investigations, a comprehensive literature review, and interviews conducted with mining stakeholders and observers. The framework can help guide SLO analysis and management efforts, by encouraging users to account for important contextual and complexity-oriented elements present in SLO settings. We apply the framework to a case study in Alaska, USA before discussing its merits and challenges. We also illustrate knowledge gaps associated with applications of complex adaptive systems and resilience theories to the study of SLO dynamics, and discuss opportunities for future research.

  12. A Systems-Based Conceptual Framework for Assessing the Determinants of a Social License to Operate in the Mining Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prno, Jason; Slocombe, D. Scott

    2014-03-01

    The concept of a "social license to operate" (SLO) was coined in the 1990s and gained popularity as one way in which "social" considerations can be addressed in mineral development decision making. The need for a SLO implies that developers require the widespread approval of local community members for their projects to avoid exposure to potentially costly conflict and business risks. Only a limited amount of scholarship exists on the topic, and there is a need for research that specifically addresses the complex and changeable nature of SLO outcomes. In response to these challenges, this paper advances a novel, systems-based conceptual framework for assessing SLO determinants and outcomes in the mining industry. Two strands of systems theory are specifically highlighted—complex adaptive systems and resilience—and the roles of context, key system variables, emergence, change, uncertainty, feedbacks, cross-scale effects, multiple stable states, thresholds, and resilience are discussed. The framework was developed from the results of a multi-year research project which involved international mining case study investigations, a comprehensive literature review, and interviews conducted with mining stakeholders and observers. The framework can help guide SLO analysis and management efforts, by encouraging users to account for important contextual and complexity-oriented elements present in SLO settings. We apply the framework to a case study in Alaska, USA before discussing its merits and challenges. We also illustrate knowledge gaps associated with applications of complex adaptive systems and resilience theories to the study of SLO dynamics, and discuss opportunities for future research.

  13. 20 CFR 220.37 - When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Inclusion as a disabled child in the employee's annuity rate under the social security overall minimum. (2... governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.37 Section 220.37 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.37 When...

  14. 2 CFR 2339.500 - Who in the Social Security Administration determines that a recipient other than an individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Who in the Social Security Administration... 2339.500 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements SOCIAL SECURITY... Consequences § 2339.500 Who in the Social Security Administration determines that a recipient other than...

  15. 2 CFR 2339.500 - Who in the Social Security Administration determines that a recipient other than an individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who in the Social Security Administration... 2339.500 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements SOCIAL SECURITY... Consequences § 2339.500 Who in the Social Security Administration determines that a recipient other than...

  16. 2 CFR 2339.500 - Who in the Social Security Administration determines that a recipient other than an individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Who in the Social Security Administration... 2339.500 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements SOCIAL SECURITY... Consequences § 2339.500 Who in the Social Security Administration determines that a recipient other than...

  17. 2 CFR 2339.500 - Who in the Social Security Administration determines that a recipient other than an individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Who in the Social Security Administration... 2339.500 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements SOCIAL SECURITY... Consequences § 2339.500 Who in the Social Security Administration determines that a recipient other than...

  18. How events determine spreading patterns: information transmission via internal and external influences on social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuang; Zhan, Xiu-Xiu; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Sun, Gui-Quan; Hui, Pak Ming

    2015-11-01

    Recently, information transmission models motivated by the classical epidemic propagation, have been applied to a wide-range of social systems, generally assume that information mainly transmits among individuals via peer-to-peer interactions on social networks. In this paper, we consider one more approach for users to get information: the out-of-social-network influence. Empirical analyzes of eight typical events’ diffusion on a very large micro-blogging system, Sina Weibo, show that the external influence has significant impact on information spreading along with social activities. In addition, we propose a theoretical model to interpret the spreading process via both internal and external channels, considering three essential properties: (i) memory effect; (ii) role of spreaders; and (iii) non-redundancy of contacts. Experimental and mathematical results indicate that the information indeed spreads much quicker and broader with mutual effects of the internal and external influences. More importantly, the present model reveals that the event characteristic would highly determine the essential spreading patterns once the network structure is established. The results may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the underlying dynamics of information transmission on real social networks.

  19. The health of European populations: introduction to the special supplement on the 2014 European Social Survey (ESS) rotating module on the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Beckfield, Jason; Balaj, Mirza; McNamara, Courtney L; Huijts, Tim; Bambra, Clare; Eikemo, Terje A

    2017-02-01

    This introduction summarizes the main findings of the Supplement 'Social inequalities in health and their determinants' to the European Journal of Public Health. The 16 articles that constitute this supplement use the new ESS (2014) health module data to analyze the distribution of health across European populations. Three main themes run across these articles: documentation of cross-national variation in the magnitude and patterning of health inequalities; assessment of health determinants variation across populations and in their contribution to health inequalities; and the examination of the effects of health outcomes across social groups. Social inequalities in health are investigated from an intersectional stance providing ample evidence of inequalities based on socioeconomic status (occupation, education, income), gender, age, geographical location, migrant status and their interactions. Comparison of results across these articles, which employ a wide range of health outcomes, social determinants and social stratification measures, is facilitated by a shared theoretical and analytical approach developed by the authors in this supplement.

  20. Social psychological determinants of the use of performance-enhancing drugs by gym users.

    PubMed

    Wiefferink, C H; Detmar, S B; Coumans, B; Vogels, T; Paulussen, T G W

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the social psychological determinants of the use of performance-enhancing drugs by gym users who practice bodybuilding, fitness, powerlifting or combat sports. In this questionnaire-based study, 144 respondents answered questions on their actual use and intention to use such drugs and also on their background characteristics and beliefs, such as their attitudes, social influences and self-efficacy. While all social psychological determinants correlated with intention to use these drugs, the most important predictors were personal norms, beliefs about performance outcomes and the perceived behavior of others. Non-users held more restrictive norms about using performance-enhancing drugs, were less optimistic about the performance-enhancing outcomes and believed that fewer significant others used performance-enhancing drugs than users and ex-users. The results of this study indicate that users attribute advantages to performance-enhancing drugs and are inclined to overlook the risks of using them. Preventive interventions should focus on influencing personal norms and social processes.

  1. The Social Determinants of Health: It's Time to Consider the Causes of the Causes

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Laura

    2014-01-01

    During the past two decades, the public health community's attention has been drawn increasingly to the social determinants of health (SDH)—the factors apart from medical care that can be influenced by social policies and shape health in powerful ways. We use “medical care” rather than “health care” to refer to clinical services, to avoid potential confusion between “health” and “health care.” The World Health Organization's Commission on the Social Determinants of Health has defined SDH as “the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age” and “the fundamental drivers of these conditions.” The term “social determinants” often evokes factors such as health-related features of neighborhoods (e.g., walkability, recreational areas, and accessibility of healthful foods), which can influence health-related behaviors. Evidence has accumulated, however, pointing to socioeconomic factors such as income, wealth, and education as the fundamental causes of a wide range of health outcomes. This article broadly reviews some of the knowledge accumulated to date that highlights the importance of social—and particularly socioeconomic—factors in shaping health, and plausible pathways and biological mechanisms that may explain their effects. We also discuss challenges to advancing this knowledge and how they might be overcome. PMID:24385661

  2. WHO European review of social determinants of health and the health divide.

    PubMed

    Marmot, Michael; Allen, Jessica; Bell, Ruth; Bloomer, Ellen; Goldblatt, Peter

    2012-09-15

    The European region has seen remarkable heath gains in those populations that have experienced progressive improvements in the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, and work. However, inequities, both between and within countries, persist. The review reported here, of inequities in health between and within countries across the 53 Member States of the WHO European region, was commissioned to support the development of the new health policy framework for Europe: Health 2020. Much more is understood now about the extent, and social causes, of these inequities, particularly since the publication in 2008 of the report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The European review builds on the global evidence and recommends policies to ensure that progress can be made in reducing health inequities and the health divide across all countries, including those with low incomes. Action is needed--on the social determinants of health, across the life course, and in wider social and economic spheres--to achieve greater health equity and protect future generations.

  3. Fundamental Interventions: How Clinicians Can Address the Fundamental Causes of Disease.

    PubMed

    Reich, Adam D; Hansen, Helena B; Link, Bruce G

    2016-06-01

    In order to enhance the "structural competency" of medicine-the capability of clinicians to address social and institutional determinants of their patients' health-physicians need a theoretical lens to see how social conditions influence health and how they might address them. We consider one such theoretical lens, fundamental cause theory, and propose how it might contribute to a more structurally competent medical profession. We first describe fundamental cause theory and how it makes the social causes of disease and health visible. We then outline the sorts of "fundamental interventions" that physicians might make in order to address the fundamental causes.

  4. The role of sport as a social status determinant for children: thirty years later.

    PubMed

    Chase, Melissa A; Machida, Moe

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of sport as a social status determinant among racially diverse children. Participants were 1,233 fourth- to seventh-grade children. Results indicated there were gender, grade, and racial differences for the selection of social status determinants. Boys placed more importance than girls on being good at sports and wealth. Girls placed more importance than boys on getting good grades and being attractive. Fourth- and fifth-grade students ranked getting good grades as most important, while sixth- and seventh-grade students ranked being attractive as most important. Non-Hispanic Caucasian students ranked being good at sports and being attractive as most important, while African American students ranked getting good grades and wealth as most important

  5. Asian Indian views on diet and health in the United States: importance of understanding cultural and social factors to address disparities.

    PubMed

    Mukherjea, Arnab; Underwood, Kelsey Clark; Stewart, Anita L; Ivey, Susan L; Kanaya, Alka M

    2013-01-01

    This study describes Asian Indian immigrant perspectives surrounding dietary beliefs and practices to identify intervention targets for diabetes and heart disease prevention. Participants were asked about conceptualizations of relationships between culture, food, and health during 4 focus groups (n = 38). Findings reveal influences of beliefs from respondents' native India, preservation of cultural practices within the US social structure, conflicts with subsequent generations, and reinterpretation of health-related knowledge through a lens, hybridizing both "native" and "host" contexts. Galvanization of ethnically valued beliefs incorporating family and community structures is needed for multipronged approaches to reduce disproportionate burdens of disease among this understudied minority community.

  6. Social determinants and risk factors for tuberculosis in national surveillance systems in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hovhannesyan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Setting: National tuberculosis programmes (NTPs) of the 53 Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. Objectives: To identify the social determinants and underlying risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) as routinely monitored by NTPs and to identify those feasible and appropriate to be included in the annual reporting to the joint European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) WHO reporting platform. Design: A semi-structured questionnaire sent to 53 national TB surveillance correspondents. Results: A total of 47 countries submitted questionnaires; most of the countries collect a number of social determinants and risk factors that are not requested for reporting to the Joint ECDC-WHO Reporting Platform. Occupation/employment, homelessness, diabetes mellitus and use of alcohol are collected by the majority of countries, but without standardised definitions. Conclusions: Four social determinants/risk factors are already included in the national TB surveillance systems of the majority of countries and could be incorporated in the annual reporting to the Joint ECDC/WHO Reporting Platform. Standardised epidemiological case definitions need to be adopted. PMID:26399291

  7. Personal and social determinants sustaining smoking practices in rural China: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco use in China is disproportionally distributed among rural and urban populations with rural people smoking more. While there is a wealth of evidence on the association between tobacco use among rural people and their lower socio-economic status (SES), how social structural factors contribute to rural smoking is not well understood. Guided by a socio-ecological model, the objective of this study was to explore the personal and social determinants that play a key role in sustaining smoking practices among Chinese rural people. Methods An ethnographic study was conducted in a rural area of Central Jiangsu, China. Participants (n = 29) were recruited from families where there was at least one smoking resident and there were young children. In-depth interviews and unstructured observations were used to collect data, which were then analyzed with an interpretive lens. Results Although individuals had limited knowledge about the risks of smoking and lack of motivation to quit, social factors were in effect the main barriers to quitting smoking. Cigarette exchange and cigarette gifting permeated every aspect of rural family life, from economic activities to leisure pastimes, in family and wider social interactions. Traditional familism and collectivism interplayed with the pro-smoking environment and supported rural people’s smoking practices at the community level. Living in the rural area was also a barrier to quitting smoking because of the lack of information on smoking cessation and the influence of courtyard-based leisure activities that facilitated smoking. Conclusion Development of comprehensive smoking cessation interventions in rural China needs to extend beyond an individual level to take into account the social determinants influencing smoking practices. PMID:24484610

  8. An interdisciplinary perspective on social and physical determinants of seismic risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, K.-H. E.; Chang, Y.-C.; Liu, G.-Y.; Chan, C.-H.; Lin, T.-H.; Yeh, C.-H.

    2015-10-01

    While disaster studies researchers usually view risk as a function of hazard, exposure, and vulnerability, few studies have systematically examined the relationships among the various physical and socioeconomic determinants underlying disasters, and fewer have done so through seismic risk analysis. In the context of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan, this study constructs three statistical models to test different determinants that affect disaster fatality at the village level, including seismic hazard, exposure of population and fragile buildings, and demographic and socioeconomic vulnerability. The Poisson regression model is used to estimate the impact of these factors on fatalities. Research results indicate that although all of the determinants have an impact on seismic fatality, some indicators of vulnerability, such as gender ratio, percentages of young and aged population, income and its standard deviation, are the important determinants deteriorating seismic risk. These findings have strong social implications for policy interventions to mitigate such disasters.

  9. Collaborative family health care, civil rights, and social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Mauksch, Larry B; Fogarty, Colleen T

    2017-03-01

    Social and economic disadvantage and civil rights infringement, worsens overall health (Adler, Glymour, & Fielding, 2016; McGowan, Lee, Meneses, Perkins, & Youdelman, 2016; Teitelbaum, 2005). While addressing these challenges is not new, there is reason to believe that the administration of Donald Trump and a republican majority in congress will exacerbate these challenges and their effects. How can collaborative family health care (CFHC) practitioners and our field help? The editors pondered this question and also asked a selection of leaders in the field. The editors will first share their ideas about the potential of CFHC to make a difference in daily interactions with patients. Next, they will identify key areas of risk and vulnerability. Finally, using the contributions of respected colleagues, they will propose a partial agenda for CFHC clinicians and the field. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Clustering social cues to determine social signals: developing learning algorithms using the "n-most likely states" approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Andrew; Kapalo, Katelynn A.; Warta, Samantha F.; Fiore, Stephen M.

    2016-05-01

    Human-robot teaming largely relies on the ability of machines to respond and relate to human social signals. Prior work in Social Signal Processing has drawn a distinction between social cues (discrete, observable features) and social signals (underlying meaning). For machines to attribute meaning to behavior, they must first understand some probabilistic relationship between the cues presented and the signal conveyed. Using data derived from a study in which participants identified a set of salient social signals in a simulated scenario and indicated the cues related to the perceived signals, we detail a learning algorithm, which clusters social cue observations and defines an "N-Most Likely States" set for each cluster. Since multiple signals may be co-present in a given simulation and a set of social cues often maps to multiple social signals, the "N-Most Likely States" approach provides a dramatic improvement over typical linear classifiers. We find that the target social signal appears in a "3 most-likely signals" set with up to 85% probability. This results in increased speed and accuracy on large amounts of data, which is critical for modeling social cognition mechanisms in robots to facilitate more natural human-robot interaction. These results also demonstrate the utility of such an approach in deployed scenarios where robots need to communicate with human teammates quickly and efficiently. In this paper, we detail our algorithm, comparative results, and offer potential applications for robot social signal detection and machine-aided human social signal detection.

  11. How will a life course framework be used to tackle wider social determinants of health?

    PubMed

    Nicolau, Belinda; Marcenes, Wagner

    2012-10-01

    The life course framework, proposed by Kuh and Schlomo in 1997, offers policy makers the means to understand the interaction between nature and nurture. This conceptual model illustrates how an individual's biological resources are influenced by their genetic endowment, their prenatal and postnatal development and their social and physical environment, both in early life and throughout the life course. Health is conceptualized as a dynamic process connecting biological and social elements that are affected by previous experiences and by present circumstances. Therefore, exposure at different stages of people's lives can either enhance or deplete the individual's health resources. Indeed, life course processes are of many kinds, including parent-child relationships, levels of social deprivation, the acquisition of emotional and behavioural assets in adolescence and the long-term effects of occupational hazards and work stress. The long-term effects of nature and nurture combine to influence disease outcomes. It is only in the last decade that theories, methods and new data have begun to be amalgamated, allowing us to further our understanding of health over the life course in ways that may eventually lead to more effective health policies and better health care. This article discusses life course concepts and how this framework can enlighten our understanding of wider social determinants of health, and provides a few examples of potential interventions to tackle their impact on health.

  12. Difference in health inequity between two population groups due to a social determinant of health.

    PubMed

    Moonesinghe, Ramal; Bouye, Karen; Penman-Aguilar, Ana

    2014-12-01

    The World Health Organization defines social determinants of health as "complex, integrated, and overlapping social structures and economic systems" that are responsible for most health inequities. Similar to the individual-level risk factors such as behavioral and biological risk factors that influence disease, we consider social determinants of health such as the distribution of income, wealth, influence and power as risk factors for risk of disease. We operationally define health inequity in a disease within a population due to a risk factor that is unfair and avoidable as the difference between the disease outcome with and without the risk factor in the population. We derive expressions for difference in health inequity between two populations due to a risk factor that is unfair and avoidable for a given disease. The difference in heath inequity between two population groups due to a risk factor increases with increasing difference in relative risks and the difference in prevalence of the risk factor in the two populations. The difference in health inequity could be larger than the difference in health outcomes between the two populations in some situations. Compared to health disparities which are typically measured and monitored using absolute or relative disparities of health outcomes, the methods presented in this manuscript provide a different, yet complementary, picture because they parse out the contributions of unfair and avoidable risk factors.

  13. Cooperative context is a determinant of the social influence on outcome evaluation: An electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kenta; Katayama, Jun'ichi

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined whether or not a cooperative context is a determinant of the social influence on the evaluation of two action outcomes: a monetary outcome and a conflict of opinion with other group members. In the present study, three-person groups were randomly assigned to be either a cooperative or individual group and asked to perform a gambling task. The monetary outcomes in the cooperative group were interrelated among group members, whereas those in the individual group did not influence each other. The present results showed that monetary outcomes elicited feedback-related negativity (FRN) and a conflict of opinion with other group members elicited FRN-like negativity, which reflect an evaluation of the motivational significance of action outcomes. The FRN elicited by monetary outcomes was reduced when participants shared decisions with other group members only in the cooperative group, indicating that the cooperative context reduced the motivational significance of monetary outcomes through the diffusion of responsibility. The FRN-like negativity elicited by a conflict of opinion showed a different pattern between the cooperative and individual groups, indicating that the cooperative context can influence the evaluation of a conflict of opinion, possibly via the modulation of group cohesiveness or conflict processing. The present results suggest that a cooperative context, rather than the social setting, is a determinant of the social influence on outcome evaluation.

  14. Ranking the Effects of Urban Development Projects on Social Determinants of Health: Health Impact Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Shojaei, Parisa; Karimlou, Masoud; Nouri, Jafar; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Afzali, Hosein Malek; Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Health impact assessment (HIA) offer a very logical and interesting approach for those aiming to integrate health issues into planning processes. With a lot of works and plans waiting to be done (e.g., developing and updating plans, counseling planning commissions, cooperation with other organizations), planners find it difficult to prioritize health among a variety of possible issues and solutions they confront. Method: In the present article, first, the list of social determinants of health associated with Chitgar man-made lake was extracted out using a qualitative method and with content analysis approach, and then they were prioritized using analytic hierarchy process. Results: 28 social determinants of health including “intermediary” and “structural” determinants were extracted out. Regarding positive effects of lake on these determinants, “recreational services” and “traffic” received the highest and the lowest weights with 0.895 and 0.638 respectively among structural determinants and with consideration to “construction” option. Furthermore, among intermediary determinants for “construction” option, sub-criteria of both “physical activity” and “air quality” received the final highest weight (0.889) and “pathogenesis” indicated the lowest weight with 0.617. Moreover, lake demonstrated the highest negative effects on “housing” among “structural” determinants which it takes the highest weight (0.476) in “non-construction” option. Additionally, lake had the highest negative effects on “noise pollution” among “intermediary determinants” and it takes the highest weight (0.467) in “non-construction” option. Conclusion: It has been shown that urban development projects such as green spaces, man-made lakes … have a huge range of effects on community’s health, and having not considered these effects by urban planners and mangers is going to confront urban health with many

  15. Reaching for Health Equity and Social Justice in Baltimore: The Evolution of an Academic-Community Partnership and Conceptual Framework to Address Hypertension Disparities.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Lisa A; Purnell, Tanjala S; Ibe, Chidinma A; Halbert, Jennifer P; Bone, Lee R; Carson, Kathryn A; Hickman, Debra; Simmons, Michelle; Vachon, Ann; Robb, Inez; Martin-Daniels, Michelle; Dietz, Katherine B; Golden, Sherita Hill; Crews, Deidra C; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Marsteller, Jill A; Boulware, L Ebony; Miller, Edgar R Iii; Levine, David M

    2016-07-21

    Cardiovascular health disparities persist despite decades of recognition and the availability of evidence-based clinical and public health interventions. Racial and ethnic minorities and adults in urban and low-income communities are high-risk groups for uncontrolled hypertension (HTN), a major contributor to cardiovascular health disparities, in part due to inequitable social structures and economic systems that negatively impact daily environments and risk behaviors. This commentary presents the Johns Hopkins Center to Eliminate Cardiovascular Health Disparities as a case study for highlighting the evolution of an academic-community partnership to overcome HTN disparities. Key elements of the iterative development process of a Community Advisory Board (CAB) are summarized, and major CAB activities and engagement with the Baltimore community are highlighted. Using a conceptual framework adapted from O'Mara-Eves and colleagues, the authors discuss how different population groups and needs, motivations, types and intensity of community participation, contextual factors, and actions have shaped the Center's approach to stakeholder engagement in research and community outreach efforts to achieve health equity.

  16. Reaching for Health Equity and Social Justice in Baltimore: The Evolution of an Academic-Community Partnership and Conceptual Framework to Address Hypertension Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Lisa A.; Purnell, Tanjala S.; Ibe, Chidinma A.; Halbert, Jennifer P.; Bone, Lee R.; Carson, Kathryn A.; Hickman, Debra; Simmons, Michelle; Vachon, Ann; Robb, Inez; Martin-Daniels, Michelle; Dietz, Katherine B.; Golden, Sherita Hill; Crews, Deidra C.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Marsteller, Jill A.; Boulware, L. Ebony; Miller, Edgar R. III; Levine, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular health disparities persist despite decades of recognition and the availability of evidence-based clinical and public health interventions. Racial and ethnic minorities and adults in urban and low-income communities are high-risk groups for uncontrolled hypertension (HTN), a major contributor to cardiovascular health disparities, in part due to inequitable social structures and economic systems that negatively impact daily environments and risk behaviors. This commentary presents the Johns Hopkins Center to Eliminate Cardiovascular Health Disparities as a case study for highlighting the evolution of an academic-community partnership to overcome HTN disparities. Key elements of the iterative development process of a Community Advisory Board (CAB) are summarized, and major CAB activities and engagement with the Baltimore community are highlighted. Using a conceptual framework adapted from O’Mara-Eves and colleagues, the authors discuss how different population groups and needs, motivations, types and intensity of community participation, contextual factors, and actions have shaped the Center’s approach to stakeholder engagement in research and community outreach efforts to achieve health equity. PMID:27440977

  17. "Community vital signs": incorporating geocoded social determinants into electronic records to promote patient and population health.

    PubMed

    Bazemore, Andrew W; Cottrell, Erika K; Gold, Rachel; Hughes, Lauren S; Phillips, Robert L; Angier, Heather; Burdick, Timothy E; Carrozza, Mark A; DeVoe, Jennifer E

    2016-03-01

    Social determinants of health significantly impact morbidity and mortality; however, physicians lack ready access to this information in patient care and population management. Just as traditional vital signs give providers a biometric assessment of any patient, "community vital signs" (Community VS) can provide an aggregated overview of the social and environmental factors impacting patient health. Knowing Community VS could inform clinical recommendations for individual patients, facilitate referrals to community services, and expand understanding of factors impacting treatment adherence and health outcomes. This information could also help care teams target disease prevention initiatives and other health improvement efforts for clinic panels and populations. Given the proliferation of big data, geospatial technologies, and democratization of data, the time has come to integrate Community VS into the electronic health record (EHR). Here, the authors describe (i) historical precedent for this concept, (ii) opportunities to expand upon these historical foundations, and (iii) a novel approach to EHR integration.

  18. Can education policy be health policy? Implications of research on the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Low, M David; Low, Barbara J; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Huynh, Phuong T

    2005-12-01

    Research on the social determinants of health has demonstrated robust correlations between several social factors, health status, and life expectancy. Some of these factors could be modified through policy intervention. National-level public policies explicitly based on population health research are in various stages of development in many Western countries, but in spite of evident need, seemingly not at all in the United States. Because research shows such a strong association between education and good health, we offer evidence to show that at least two pressing problems in American society, namely the uneven distribution of educational attainment and health disparities linked to socioeconomic position, may be ameliorated through policy initiatives that link quality early childhood care, child development programs, and parental training in a seamless continuum with strengthened K-12 education.

  19. Non-communicable diseases and the social determinants of health in the Nordic countries: Findings from the European Social Survey (2014) special module on the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Balaj, Mirza; Huijts, Tim; McNamara, Courtney L; Stornes, Per; Bambra, Clare; Eikemo, Terje A

    2017-03-01

    Comparative studies examining non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and determinants of health in the Nordic countries are scarce, outdated and focus only on a limited range of NCDs and health determinants. This study is the first to present a comprehensive overview of the distribution of social and behavioural determinants of health and of physical and mental NCDs in the Nordic population. We examined regional, country and gender differences for 17 health outcomes and 20 determinants of health. We use data from the 7th wave of the European Social Survey. All results were age-standardised by weighting up or down the unstandardized (crude) prevalence rates for five year age groups in each country to a common standard. We present pooled estimates for the combined regional samples as well as country-specific results for the Nordic region. Overall, the population of the Nordic region reported among the highest prevalence for one or both genders in 10 out of 17 health outcomes. Despite being the region with the highest prevalence for most health outcomes, overall self-rated health levels tend to be better in the Nordic region. Similarly, we found that the Nordic countries adhere to a healthier lifestyle and have better access to health care. Future studies should consider investigating further the association between health outcomes and determinants of health and how they are distributed in the Nordic societies.

  20. Media communication strategies for climate-friendly lifestyles - Addressing middle and lower class consumers for social-cultural change via Entertainment-Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubjuhn, S.; Pratt, N.

    2009-11-01

    This paper argues that Entertainment-Education (E-E) is a striking communication strategy for reaching middle and lower socio-economic classes with climate-friendly lifestyle messages. On the international level (e.g. in the US and the Netherlands) E-E approaches are being theoretically grounded, whereas in Germany they are not yet. Therefore further theoretical discussion and mapping of E-E approaches is central for future research. As a first step towards providing further theoretical foundations for E-E in the field of sustainability, the authors suggest a threefold mapping of E-E approaches. The threefold mapping of E-E approaches for communicating climate-friendly lifestyles to middle and lower class consumers is based on recent results from academic research and practical developments on the media market. The commonalities among the three is that they all promote pro-sustainability messages in an affective-orientated rather than cognitive-orientated, factual manner. Differences can be found in: the sender of the sustainability message, the targeted consumer groups and the media approach in use. Based on this, the paper draws the conclusion that two new paths for further research activities in the field of Entertainment-Education can be proposed: (1) Improving the existing approaches in practice by using theoretical foundation from the E-E field. This comprises at its core (A) to do formative, process and summative effect research on the messages and (B) to use E-E theory from the field of social psychology, sociology and communication science for further improvement and (2) Generating new E-E theories by analyzing the existing practical approaches in the media to communicate climate change.

  1. March 10, 2006, Transportation Conformity Rule That Addresses Requirements for Project-level Conformity Determinations in PM2.5 and PM10 Nonattainment and Maintenance Areas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This final rule, published March 10, 2006, establishes requirements for project-level conformity determinations in particulate matter (PM) 2.5 nonattainment and maintenance areas, and revises existing requirements for projects in PM10 areas.

  2. Recent Updates in the Social and Environmental Determinants of Sleep Health.

    PubMed

    Hale, Lauren; Emanuele, Erin; James, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    In this brief review article, we provide an overview of recent (since 2010) scientific contributions to our understanding of the social and environmental determinants of sleep health. In particular, we focus on three areas where we saw the most contributions to the determinants of sleep health among children, adolescents, and adults. First, studies of neighborhood context and sleep health find that sleep quality and quantity are lower in disadvantaged neighborhoods. These negative associations are often stronger for women than for men. Second, family factors matter for sleep health. Children from families with more parental resources sleep better than do children from families without such resources. Adults with children sleep less than those without, and work-family conflict is an impediment to good sleep. Third, media use is problematic for sleep health. Around the world, higher levels of screen media use are associated with lower quality and quantity of sleep. Future research on the social and environmental determinants of sleep health will grow out of these three areas of current research. In addition, we anticipate new research in the international realm and in the area of interventions designed to improve the population's sleep health.

  3. Poverty concentration and determinants in China's urban low-income neighbourhoods and social groups.

    PubMed

    He, Shenjing; Wu, Fulong; Webster, Chris; Liu, Yuting

    2010-01-01

    Based on a large-scale household survey conducted in 2007, this article reports on poverty concentration and determinants in China's low-income neighbourhoods and social groups. Three types of neighbourhood are recognized: dilapidated inner-city neighbourhoods, declining workers' villages and urban villages. Respondents are grouped into four categories: working, laid-off/unemployed and retired urban residents, together with rural migrants. We first measure poverty concentration across different types of neighbourhood and different groups. The highest concentrations are found in dilapidated inner-city neighbourhoods and among the laid-off/unemployed. Mismatches are found between actual hardships, sense of deprivation and distribution of social welfare provision. Second, we examine poverty determinants. Variations in institutional protection and market remuneration are becoming equally important in predicting poverty generation, but are differently associated with it in the different neighbourhoods and groups. As China's urban economy is increasingly shaped by markets, the mechanism of market remuneration is becoming a more important determinant of poverty patterns, especially for people who are excluded from state institutions, notably laid-off workers and rural migrants.

  4. Recent Updates in the Social and Environmental Determinants of Sleep Health

    PubMed Central

    Emanuele, Erin; James, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In this brief review article, we provide an overview of recent (since 2010) scientific contributions to our understanding of the social and environmental determinants of sleep health. In particular, we focus on three areas where we saw the most contributions to the determinants of sleep health among children, adolescents, and adults. First, studies of neighborhood context and sleep health find that sleep quality and quantity are lower in disadvantaged neighborhoods. These negative associations are often stronger for women than for men. Second, family factors matter for sleep health. Children from families with more parental resources sleep better than do children from families without such resources. Adults with children sleep less than those without, and work-family conflict is an impediment to good sleep. Third, media use is problematic for sleep health. Around the world, higher levels of screen media use are associated with lower quality and quantity of sleep. Future research on the social and environmental determinants of sleep health will grow out of these three areas of current research. In addition, we anticipate new research in the international realm and in the area of interventions designed to improve the population’s sleep health. PMID:27540510

  5. Diet quality, social determinants and weight status in 12-year-old Puerto Rican children

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Roxana; Santos, Elvia; Orraca, Luis; Elias, Augusto; Palacios, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Diet quality may be influenced by social determinants and weight status. This has not been studied in Puerto Rico (PR); therefore, this cross-sectional study examined if diet quality, assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), differs by social determinants (gender, school type and region) and weight status in children in PR. As part of an “island-wide” study to evaluate oral health in 1,550 12-year-old children, dietary intake was assessed in a representative subset (n=796) using a 24-hr diet recall. Diet quality was evaluated from the diet recall results using the HEI-2005. Overall mean HEI-2005 score was 40.9, out of a total maximum score of 100. Girls had significantly higher scores for whole fruit, total vegetables, whole grains, and sodium but lower scores for total grains and milk compared to boys (p<0.05). Children from public schools had higher scores for total fruit, whole fruit, dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, but lower scores for whole grains and milk compared to those from private schools (p<0.05). Children from the Central Mountains had higher scores for the dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes and whole fruit compared to the other regions (p<0.05). Overweight children had significantly higher scores for total vegetables and milk but lower scores for total fruit and sodium as compared to non-overweight children (p<0.01). In conclusion, some components of diet quality were associated with the social determinants studied and with weight status in this sample. Overall diet quality needs improvement in PR children so that it is better aligned with dietary recommendations. PMID:24656710

  6. Teaching critical health literacy in the US as a means to action on the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Mogford, Elizabeth; Gould, Linn; Devoght, Andra

    2011-03-01

    In spite of improvements in global health over the 20th century, health inequities are increasing. Mounting evidence suggests that reducing health inequities requires taking action on the social determinants of health (SDOH), which include income, education, employment, political empowerment and other factors. This paper introduces an alternative health education curriculum, developed by the US-based non-profit organization Just Health Action, which teaches critical health literacy as a step towards empowering people to achieve health equity. Critical health literacy is defined as an individual's understanding of the SDOH combined with the skills to take action at both the individual and the community level. Prior to describing our curricular framework, we connect the recommendations of the World Health Organization Commission on the SDOH with the objectives of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion by arguing that achieving them is reliant on critical health literacy. Then we describe our four-part curricular framework for teaching critical health literacy. Part 1, Knowledge, focuses on teaching the SDOH and the paradigm of health as a human right. Part 2, Compass, refers to activities that help students find their own direction as a social change agent. Part 3, Skills, refers to teaching specific advocacy tools and strategies. Part 4, Action, refers to the development and implementation of an action intended to increase health equity by addressing the SDOH. We describe activities that we use to motivate, engage and empower students to take action on the SDOH and provide examples of advocacy skills students have learned and actions they have implemented.

  7. Psychiatric, Psychological, and Social Determinants of Health in the Nurses’ Health Study Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Singh, Ankura; Okereke, Olivia I.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHS) on factors that influence mental and physical health. Methods. Narrative review of all published articles using data from the NHS, the NHS II, and the Growing Up Today Study focusing on mental health conditions (e.g., depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety) and psychosocial resources and stressors (e.g., job strain, interpersonal violence, social relationships, sexual orientation) between 1990 and 2016. Results. Studies have considered a broad array of determinants (e.g., genes, biomarkers, air pollution) and consequent behavioral and disease-related outcomes (e.g., body weight, smoking, cardiometabolic diseases, cancer, autism). Findings suggest anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, childhood violence, caregiver burden, and job insecurity may increase the risk of coronary heart disease and diabetes, whereas findings with cancer are mixed. This work directly affects public health actions, as demonstrated by recent inclusion of a gender expression measure in state surveys. Conclusions. The NHS cohorts have produced novel and influential research on the interplay of psychological and social factors with health. Psychological and social variables are important contributors to the maintenance or decline of physical and mental health. PMID:27459447

  8. Social Determinants and Access to Induced Abortion in Burkina Faso: From Two Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, Ramatou

    2014-01-01

    Unsafe abortion constitutes a major public health problem in Burkina Faso and concerns mainly young women. The legal restriction and social stigma make abortions most often clandestine and risky for women who decide to terminate a pregnancy. However, the exposure to the risk of unsafe induced abortion is not the same for all the women who faced unwanted pregnancy and decide to have an abortion. Drawn from a qualitative study on the issue of abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso's capital, the contrasting cases of two young women who had abortion allow us to show how the women's personal resources (such as the school level, financial resources, the compliance to social norms, the social network, etc.) may determine the degree of vulnerability of women, the delay to have an abortion, the type of care they are likely to benefit from, and the cost they have to face. This study concludes that the poorest always pay more (cost and consequences), take longer to have an abortion, and have more exposure to the risk of unsafe abortion. PMID:24790605

  9. Making mental health an integral part of sustainable development: the contribution of a social determinants framework.

    PubMed

    De Silva, M J

    2015-04-01

    There have been repeated calls to include mental health in the sustainable development goals (SDGs), arguing that progress in development will not be made without improvements in mental health. Although these calls are starting to gain political traction, currently only a tiny fraction of international development work includes mental health. A social determinants framework may be useful in incorporating mental health into sustainable development because it promotes a multi-sectorial and multi-disciplinary approach which is the corner stone of good development practice. Two approaches are suggested to make mental health a part of sustainable development: (1) integrate mental health into existing development programmes to promote social and economic environments that prevent mental health problems developing; (2) ensure that mental health programmes are better at promoting sustainable development by preventing the negative social and economic consequences of mental illness. Real-world examples of these approaches are provided. To achieve this, the mental health impact of wider development programmes, and the social and economic consequences of mental health interventions, must be evaluated. Development agencies should ensure that they have equity for mental health in all their policies, and investment must be increased for those mental health prevention, promotion and treatment programmes which have the greatest impact on sustainable development. The SDGs bring the promise of a more holistic approach to development. It is now the task of global mental health to demonstrate not just that mental health is an integral part of sustainable development, but that affordable and effective solutions exist which can improve mental health and development more broadly.

  10. [Social determinants of health: community features and nurse work in family health care].

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Cynthia Fontella; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Cardoso, Leticia Silveira; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Soares, Jorgana Fernanda de Souza

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the Social Determinants of Health Care which emerge in nurses' statements as they characterize the community, analyzing its relation to the work carried out by them. It is an exploratory and descriptive study containing a qualitative analysis in the theoretical categories of the determinants. We used a semi-structured interview, recorded with the permission of the 65 nurses of the Family Health Care, members of the 3rd Regional Health Care Coordination of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It has been shown the inter- and intra-relation in the health determinant factors, obtaining 104 citations for the anatomo-physiological features of the corresponding individuals/community to the proximal correspondents and in association, mainly, to the work carried out by the nurses. For intermediate determinants there were 27 citations and, for distals, 166, with predominant reference to the territorial localization of communities in rural areas and peripheries. The nurses have stated a narrow relation between the proximal features and the work carried out by them, as well as the connection with other determinants in the relation with the process of getting sick.

  11. Getting serious about the social determinants of health: new directions for public health workers.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis

    2008-09-01

    International interest in the social determinants of health and their public policy antecedents is increasing. Despite evidence that as compared to other wealthy nations Canada presents a mediocre population health profile and public policy environments increasingly less supportive of health, the Canadian public health gaze is firmly - and narrowly - focused on lifestyle issues of diet, physical activity and tobacco use. Much of this has to do with Canada being identified as being driven by a liberal political economy, a situation shared with a cluster of other developed nations. Reasons for Canada's neglect of structural and public policy issues are explored and ways by which public health workers in Canada and elsewhere can help to shift policymakers and the general public's understandings of the determinants of health are outlined.

  12. Mainstream media and the social determinants of health in Canada: is it time to call it a day?

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis

    2011-06-01

    This article explores the dearth of coverage of the social determinants of health by the Canadian mainstream media. It is argued that this neglect is primarily a reflection of political and economic societal structures that has been associated with increasing corporate control of the mainstream media. Applying a critical political economy lens, it is argued that the barriers to having the Canadian mainstream media report on the social determinants of health are so numerous that it may indeed be 'time to call it a day' in regard to having them assist in the dissemination of social determinants of health findings. Recognizing this reality should spur the development of alternative means of communicating with the public in order to develop a citizens' movement to create health-promoting public policy. Recent dissemination efforts related to the Social Determinants of Health: The Canadian Facts provide an example of how this might be accomplished.

  13. Message Design Strategies to Raise Public Awareness of Social Determinants of Health and Population Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Bu, Q Lisa; Borah, Porismita; Kindig, David A; Robert, Stephanie A

    2008-01-01

    Context Raising public awareness of the importance of social determinants of health (SDH) and health disparities presents formidable communication challenges. Methods This article reviews three message strategies that could be used to raise awareness of SDH and health disparities: message framing, narratives, and visual imagery. Findings Although few studies have directly tested message strategies for raising awareness of SDH and health disparities, the accumulated evidence from other domains suggests that population health advocates should frame messages to acknowledge a role for individual decisions about behavior but emphasize SDH. These messages might use narratives to provide examples of individuals facing structural barriers (unsafe working conditions, neighborhood safety concerns, lack of civic opportunities) in efforts to avoid poverty, unemployment, racial discrimination, and other social determinants. Evocative visual images that invite generalizations, suggest causal interpretations, highlight contrasts, and create analogies could accompany these narratives. These narratives and images should not distract attention from SDH and population health disparities, activate negative stereotypes, or provoke counterproductive emotional responses directed at the source of the message. Conclusions The field of communication science offers valuable insights into ways that population health advocates and researchers might develop better messages to shape public opinion and debate about the social conditions that shape the health and well-being of populations. The time has arrived to begin thinking systematically about issues in communicating about SDH and health disparities. This article offers a broad framework for these efforts and concludes with an agenda for future research to refine message strategies to raise awareness of SDH and health disparities. PMID:18798887

  14. Drivers of tuberculosis epidemics: the role of risk factors and social determinants.

    PubMed

    Lönnroth, Knut; Jaramillo, Ernesto; Williams, Brian G; Dye, Christopher; Raviglione, Mario

    2009-06-01

    The main thrust of the World Health Organization's global tuberculosis (TB) control strategy is to ensure effective and equitable delivery of quality assured diagnosis and treatment of TB. Options for including preventive efforts have not yet been fully considered. This paper presents a narrative review of the historical and recent progress in TB control and the role of TB risk factors and social determinants. The review was conducted with a view to assess the prospects of effectively controlling TB under the current strategy, and the potential to increase epidemiological impact through additional preventive interventions. The review suggests that, while the current strategy is effective in curing patients and saving lives, the epidemiological impact has so far been less than predicted. In order to reach long-term epidemiological targets for global TB control, additional interventions to reduce peoples' vulnerability for TB may therefore be required. Risk factors that seem to be of importance at the population level include poor living and working conditions associated with high risk of TB transmission, and factors that impair the host's defence against TB infection and disease, such as HIV infection, malnutrition, smoking, diabetes, alcohol abuse, and indoor air pollution. Preventive interventions may target these factors directly or via their underlying social determinants. The identification of risk groups also helps to target strategies for early detection of people in need of TB treatment. More research is needed on the suitability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of these intervention options.

  15. Globalization and social determinants of health: Introduction and methodological background (part 1 of 3)

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, Ronald; Schrecker, Ted

    2007-01-01

    Globalization is a key context for the study of social determinants of health (SDH). Broadly stated, SDH are the conditions in which people live and work, and that affect their opportunities to lead healthy lives. In this first article of a three-part series, we describe the origins of the series in work conducted for the Globalization Knowledge Network of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health and in the Commission's specific concern with health equity. We explain our rationale for defining globalization with reference to the emergence of a global marketplace, and the economic and political choices that have facilitated that emergence. We identify a number of conceptual milestones in studying the relation between globalization and SDH over the period 1987–2005, and then show that because globalization comprises multiple, interacting policy dynamics, reliance on evidence from multiple disciplines (transdisciplinarity) and research methodologies is required. So, too, is explicit recognition of the uncertainties associated with linking globalization – the quintessential "upstream" variable – with changes in SDH and in health outcomes. PMID:17578568

  16. Globalization and social determinants of health: Introduction and methodological background (part 1 of 3).

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald; Schrecker, Ted

    2007-06-19

    Globalization is a key context for the study of social determinants of health (SDH). Broadly stated, SDH are the conditions in which people live and work, and that affect their opportunities to lead healthy lives.In this first article of a three-part series, we describe the origins of the series in work conducted for the Globalization Knowledge Network of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health and in the Commission's specific concern with health equity. We explain our rationale for defining globalization with reference to the emergence of a global marketplace, and the economic and political choices that have facilitated that emergence. We identify a number of conceptual milestones in studying the relation between globalization and SDH over the period 1987-2005, and then show that because globalization comprises multiple, interacting policy dynamics, reliance on evidence from multiple disciplines (transdisciplinarity) and research methodologies is required. So, too, is explicit recognition of the uncertainties associated with linking globalization - the quintessential "upstream" variable - with changes in SDH and in health outcomes.

  17. Individual and social determinants of obesity in strategic health messages: Interaction with political ideology.

    PubMed

    Young, Rachel; Hinnant, Amanda; Leshner, Glenn

    2016-07-01

    Antiobesity health communication campaigns often target individual behavior, but these ads might inflate the role of individual responsibility at the expense of other health determinants. In a 2 × 2 full-factorial, randomized, online experiment, 162 American adults viewed antiobesity advertisements that varied in emphasizing social or individual causation for obesity through text and images. Locus for attribution of responsibility for obesity causes and solutions was measured, as was how these responses were moderated by political ideology. Participants who viewed text emphasizing individual responsibility were less likely to agree that genetic factors caused obesity. Conservative participants who viewed images of overweight individuals were less likely than liberal participants to agree that social factors were responsible for causing obesity. In addition, among conservative participants who viewed images of fast food versus images of overweight individuals, agreement that the food industry bore some responsibility mediated support for policy solutions to obesity. These findings, among others, demonstrate that awareness of multilevel determinants of health outcomes can be a precursor of support for policy solutions to obesity among those not politically inclined to support antiobesity policy. In addition, stigmatizing images of overweight individuals in antiobesity campaigns might overemphasize the role of individual behavior in obesity at the expense of other factors.

  18. Exploring the influence of social determinants on HIV risk behaviors and the potential application of structural interventions to prevent HIV in women

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Arlene E.; Collins, Charles B.

    2016-01-01

    When seeking to prevent HIV/AIDS in women, attending to aspects of their lived experience provides opportunities to address the presence of social determinants in prevention strategies. According to the CDC, in 2010, the rate of new HIV infections among Black women was 20 times that of White women, while among Hispanic/Latino women it was 4 times the rate of White women. Additionally, 86% of HIV infections in women were attributed to heterosexual contact and 14% to injection drug use. The WHO indicates that worldwide, 49% of individuals infected by HIV are women, with a predominant source of infection tied to heterosexual transmission. This paper presents social determinants as influential factors in terms of women’s sexual behavior decision-making, along with suggested structural interventions to address the social determinants of their HIV risks. Secondary analysis was conducted on data from an earlier study (Abdul-Quader and Collins, 2011) which used concept-mapping to examine the feasibility, evaluability, and sustainability of structural interventions for HIV prevention. The current analysis focused on structural interventions applicable to women and their HIV prevention needs. Three themes emerged: economic interventions, responses to violence against women, and integrated health service delivery strategies. The themes provide a foundation for next steps regarding research, policy planning, and intervention implementation that is inclusive of women’s lived experience. The paper concludes with suggestions such as attention to innovative projects and a paradigm shift regarding policy planning as key next steps towards HIV prevention that reflects the contextual complexity of women’s lived experiences. PMID:27134801

  19. Social determinants of child mortality in Niger: Results from the 2012 National Verbal and Social Autopsy Study

    PubMed Central

    Koffi, Alain K; Maina, Abdou; Yaroh, Asma Gali; Habi, Oumarou; Bensaïd, Khaled; Kalter, Henry D

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding the determinants of preventable deaths of children under the age of five is important for accelerated annual declines – even as countries achieve the UN’s Millennium Development Goals and the target date of 2015 has been reached. While research has documented the extent and nature of the overall rapid decline in child mortality in Niger, there is less clear evidence to provide insight into the contributors to such deaths. This issue is the central focus of this paper. Methods We analyzed a nationally representative cross–sectional sample of 620 child deaths from the 2012 Niger Verbal Autopsy/Social Autopsy (VASA) Survey. We conducted a descriptive analysis of the data on preventive and curative care, guided by the coverage of proven indicators along the continuum of well child care and illness recognition and care–seeking for child illnesses encompassed by the BASICS/CDC Pathway to Survival model. Results Six hundred twenty deaths of children (1–59 months of age) were confirmed from the VASA survey. The majority of these children lived in households with precarious socio–economic conditions. Among the 414 children whose fatal illnesses began at age 0–23 months, just 24.4% were appropriately fed. About 24% of children aged 12–59 months were fully immunized. Of 601 children tracked through the Pathway to Survival, 62.4% could reach the first health care provider after about 67 minutes travel time. Of the 306 children who left the first health care provider alive, 161 (52.6%) were not referred for further care nor received any home care recommendations, and just 19% were referred to a second provider. About 113 of the caregivers reported cost (35%), distance (35%) and lack of transport (30%) as constraints to care–seeking at a health facility. Conclusion Despite Niger’s recent major achievements in reducing child mortality, the following determinants are crucial to continue building on the gains the country has made

  20. Addressing the Social, Academic, and Behavioral Needs of Students with Challenging Behavior in Inclusive and Alternative Settings. Highlights from the Forum on Comprehensive Programming for a Diverse Population of Children and Youth with Challenging Behavior: Addressing Social, Academic, and Behavioral Needs within Inclusive and Alternative Settings (Las Vegas, Nevada, February 9-10, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Lyndal M., Ed.; Gable, Robert A., Ed.

    This document presents the texts of 11 major presentations and conference highlights from a February 2001 conference on the social, academic, and behavioral needs of students with challenging behavior in inclusive and alternative settings as required under the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The presentations…

  1. Social determinants of health and health equity policy research: exploring the use, misuse, and nonuse of policy analysis theory.

    PubMed

    Embrett, Mark G; Randall, G E

    2014-05-01

    Despite a dramatic growth in SDH/HE (social determinants of health/health equity) public policy research and demonstrated government interest in promoting equity in health policies, health inequities are actually growing among some populations and there is little evidence that "healthy public policies" are being adopted and implemented. Moreover, these issues are typically failing to even reach governments' policy agendas, which is a critical step towards serious debate and the identification of policy options. This systematic review pursues three main objectives. First, is to identify barriers to SDH/HE issues reaching the government policy agenda. Second, to evaluate the characteristics of peer-reviewed research articles that utilize common policy analysis theories. And third, to determine the extent to which the SDH/HE literature utilizes common policy analysis theories. Our systematic review, conducted in June 2012, identified 6200 SDH/HE related articles in the peer-reviewed literature; however, only seven articles explicitly used a commonly recognized policy analysis theory to inform their analysis. Our analysis revealed that the SDH/HE policy literature appears to be focused on advocacy rather than analysis and that the use of policy analysis theory is extremely limited. Our results also suggest that when such theories are incorporated into an analysis they are often not comprehensively employed. We propose explanations for this non-use and misuse of policy analysis theory, and conclude that researchers may have greater influence in helping to get SDH/HE issues onto government policy agendas if they gain a greater understanding of the policy process and the value of incorporating policy analysis theories into their research. Using a policy analysis lens to help identify why healthy public policies are typically not being adopted is an important step towards moving beyond advocacy to understanding and addressing some of the political barriers to reforms.

  2. Social determinants of health inequalities: towards a theoretical perspective using systems science.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Saroj

    2015-08-25

    A systems approach offers a novel conceptualization to natural and social systems. In recent years, this has led to perceiving population health outcomes as an emergent property of a dynamic and open, complex adaptive system. The current paper explores these themes further and applies the principles of systems approach and complexity science (i.e. systems science) to conceptualize social determinants of health inequalities. The conceptualization can be done in two steps: viewing health inequalities from a systems approach and extending it to include complexity science. Systems approach views health inequalities as patterns within the larger rubric of other facets of the human condition, such as educational outcomes and economic development. This anlysis requires more sophisticated models such as systems dynamic models. An extension of the approach is to view systems as complex adaptive systems, i.e. systems that are 'open' and adapt to the environment. They consist of dynamic adapting subsystems that exhibit non-linear interactions, while being 'open' to a similarly dynamic environment of interconnected systems. They exhibit emergent properties that cannot be estimated with precision by using the known interactions among its components (such as economic development, political freedom, health system, culture etc.). Different combinations of the same bundle of factors or determinants give rise to similar patterns or outcomes (i.e. property of convergence), and minor variations in the initial condition could give rise to widely divergent outcomes. Novel approaches using computer simulation models (e.g. agent-based models) would shed light on possible mechanisms as to how factors or determinants interact and lead to emergent patterns of health inequalities of populations.

  3. Evolution of social parasitism in ants: size of sexuals, sex ratio and mechanisms of caste determination

    PubMed Central

    Aron, S.; Passera, L.; Keller, L.

    1999-01-01

    Social parasitism, one of the most intriguing phenomena in ants, has evolved to various levels, the most extreme form being parasites that have lost the worker caste and rely completely on the host's worker force to raise their brood. A remarkable feature of workerless social parasites is the small size of sexuals. It has been suggested that reduced size evolved as a means to take advantage of the host's caste-determination system, so that parasite larvae develop into sexuals with less food than is required to produce host workers. An important consequence of size reduction is that it might restrict the host workers' ability to discriminate between the brood of the social parasite and their own brood and might protect parasite sexuals from elimination. We found that sexuals of the workerless inquiline ant Plagiolepis xene were significantly smaller than the sexuals of their host Plagiolepis pygmaea, but remarkably similar to the host workers. The size variance of parasite sexuals was much lower than that of their host; this result possibly suggests that there is very stabilizing selection acting on size of the parasite sexuals. Comparison of the primary (egg) and secondary (adult) sex ratios of the parasite and host showed that miniaturization of P. xene sexuals has been accompanied by their ability to develop into sexuals even when the host P. pygmaea actively prevents production of its own sexuals. These results suggest that the inquiline's size and caste threshold have been reduced such that all individuals in a parasite brood will develop into sexuals. We also found that the adult sex ratio of P. xene was heavily female-biased. This bias probably stems from local mate competition that arises from sexuals mating within the nest. There was no significant difference between the proportion of haploid eggs and adult males produced; this observation indicates that a female-biased sex ratio is achieved by queens producing a higher proportion of diploid eggs rather

  4. Understanding the social determinants of health among Indigenous Canadians: priorities for health promotion policies and actions

    PubMed Central

    Kolahdooz, Fariba; Nader, Forouz; Yi, Kyoung J.; Sharma, Sangita

    2015-01-01

    Background Indigenous Canadians have a life expectancy 12 years lower than the national average and experience higher rates of preventable chronic diseases compared with non-Indigenous Canadians. Transgenerational trauma from past assimilation policies have affected the health of Indigenous populations. Objective The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively examine the social determinants of health (SDH), in order to identify priorities for health promotion policies and actions. Design We undertook a series of systematic reviews focusing on four major SDH (i.e. income, education, employment, and housing) among Indigenous peoples in Alberta, following the protocol Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis-Equity. Results We found that the four SDH disproportionately affect the health of Indigenous peoples. Our systematic review highlighted 1) limited information regarding relationships and interactions among income, personal and social circumstances, and health outcomes; 2) limited knowledge of factors contributing to current housing status and its impacts on health outcomes; and 3) the limited number of studies involving the barriers to, and opportunities for, education. Conclusions These findings may help to inform efforts to promote health equity and improve health outcomes of Indigenous Canadians. However, there is still a great need for in-depth subgroup studies to understand SDH (e.g. age, Indigenous ethnicity, dwelling area, etc.) and intersectoral collaborations (e.g. community and various government departments) to reduce health disparities faced by Indigenous Canadians. PMID:26187697

  5. Health literacy and the social determinants of health: a qualitative model from adult learners.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, Gillian; Shaw, Adrienne; Jaswal, Sabrena; Smith, Sian; Harpham, Trudy

    2015-09-27

    Health literacy, 'the personal characteristics and social resources needed for individuals and communities to access, understand, appraise and use information and services to make decisions about health', is key to improving peoples' control over modifiable social determinants of health (SDH). This study listened to adult learners to understand their perspectives on gathering, understanding and using information for health. This qualitative project recruited participants from community skills courses to identify relevant 'health information' factors. Subsequently different learners put these together to develop a model of their 'Journey to health'. Twenty-seven participants were recruited; twenty from community health literacy courses and seven from an adult basic literacy and numeracy course. Participants described health as a 'journey' starting from an individual's family, ethnicity and culture. Basic (functional) health literacy skills were needed to gather and understand information. More complex interactive health literacy skills were needed to evaluate the importance and relevance of information in context, and make health decisions. Critical health literacy skills could be used to adapt negative external factors that might inhibit health-promotion. Our model is an iterative linear one moving from ethnicity, community and culture, through lifestyle, to health, with learning revisited in the context of different sources of support. It builds on existing models by highlighting the importance of SDH in the translation of new health knowledge into healthy behaviours, and the importance of health literacy in enabling people to overcome barriers to health.

  6. Aboriginal health promotion through addressing employment discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Perry, Ryan; Kelaher, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Localities Embracing and Accepting Diversity (LEAD) program aimed to improve the mental health of Aboriginal Victorians by addressing racial discrimination and facilitating social and economic participation. As part of LEAD, Whittlesea Council adopted the Aboriginal Employment Pathways Strategy (AEPS) to increase Aboriginal employment and retention within the organisation. The Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Training Program was developed to build internal cultural competency and skills in recruiting and retaining Aboriginal staff. Analysis of surveys conducted before (pre; n=124) and after (post; n=107) the training program indicated a significant increase in participant understanding across all program objectives and in support of organisational policies to improve Aboriginal recruitment and retention. Participants ended the training with concrete ideas about intended changes, as well as how these changes could be supported by their supervisors and the wider organisation. Significant resources have since been allocated to implementing the AEPS over 5 years. In line with principles underpinning the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013-23, particularly the focus on addressing racism as a determinant of health, this paper explores the AEPS and training program as promising approaches to health promotion through addressing barriers to Aboriginal employment. Possible implications for other large organisations are also considered.

  7. The Social Determinants of Health (SDH) in Iran: A Systematic Review Article

    PubMed Central

    BAHADORI, Mohammadkarim; SANAEINASAB, Hormoz; GHANEI, Mostafa; MEHRABI TAVANA, Ali; RAVANGARD, Ramin; KARAMALI, Mazyar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many studies have been conducted in Iran in order to investigate the status of social determinants of health (SDH) and their associations with health indicators. This study aimed to review the Iranian studies conducted on SDH. Methods: A systematic review of all Iranian Persian and English languages articles published between 2005 and 2014 on the SDH was conducted using the search of SID, Iran Medex, Iran Doc, Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. The eligibility criteria were studies describing SDH status, designed based on the WHO conceptual framework of SDH, published in Persian or English languages, and full text articles. The structured narrative approach was used to synthesize the data. Results: The entire review process led to the selection of 21 papers. Most of studies had been conducted on the intermediary (38%) and structural (33%) components and determinants in Iran, 4 studies (19%) on the study of all components affecting the health and health inequality and, finally, the minimum number of studies (10%) on the context components and determinants. The focus of 43% of selected studies was on the WHO conceptual framework of SDH and had evaluated this model as an appropriate conceptual framework. Conclusion: In order to fill the gap in the scientific evidence of SDH and make appropriate policies and plans in Iran, it is needed to conduct studies on all SDH according to the WHO conceptual framework. PMID:26258086

  8. The Antsy Social Network: Determinants of Nest Structure and Arrangement in Asian Weaver Ants

    PubMed Central

    Devarajan, Kadambari

    2016-01-01

    Asian weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina) are arboreal ants that are known to form mutualistic complexes with their host trees. They are eusocial ants that build elaborate nests in the canopy in tropical areas. A colony comprises of multiple nests, usually on multiple trees, and the boundaries of the colony may be difficult to identify. However, they provide the ideal model for studying group living in invertebrates since there are a definite number of nests for a given substrate, the tree. Here, we briefly examine the structure of the nests and the processes involved in the construction and maintenance of these nests. We have described the spatial arrangement of weaver ant nests on trees in two distinct tropical clusters, a few hundred kilometres apart in India. Measurements were made for 13 trees with a total of 71 nests in the two field sites. We have considered a host of biotic and abiotic factors that may be crucial in determining the location of the nesting site by Asian weaver ants. Our results indicate that tree characteristics and architecture followed by leaf features help determine nest location in Asian weaver ants. While environmental factors may not be as influential to nest arrangement, they seem to be important determinants of nest structure. The parameters that may be considered in establishing the nests could be crucial in picking the evolutionary drivers for colonial living in social organisms. PMID:27271037

  9. Rearing-group size determines social competence and brain structure in a cooperatively breeding cichlid.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Stefan; Bessert-Nettelbeck, Mathilde; Kotrschal, Alexander; Taborsky, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    Social animals can greatly benefit from well-developed social skills. Because the frequency and diversity of social interactions often increase with the size of social groups, the benefits of advanced social skills can be expected to increase with group size. Variation in social skills often arises during ontogeny, depending on early social experience. Whether variation of social-group sizes affects development of social skills and related changes in brain structures remains unexplored. We investigated whether, in a cooperatively breeding cichlid, early group size (1) shapes social behavior and social skills and (2) induces lasting plastic changes in gross brain structures and (3) whether the development of social skills is confined to a sensitive ontogenetic period. Rearing-group size and the time juveniles spent in these groups interactively influenced the development of social skills and the relative sizes of four main brain regions. We did not detect a sensitive developmental period for the shaping of social behavior within the 2-month experience phase. Instead, our results suggest continuous plastic behavioral changes over time. We discuss how developmental effects on social behavior and brain architecture may adaptively tune phenotypes to their current or future environments.

  10. We Need Action on Social Determinants of Health – but Do We Want It, too?

    PubMed Central

    de Leeuw, Evelyne

    2016-01-01

    Recently a number of calls have been made to mobilise the arsenal of political science insights to investigate – and point to improvements in – the social determinants of health (SDH), and health equity. Recently, in this journal, such a rallying appeal was made for the field of public administration. This commentary argues that, although scholarly potential should justifiably be redirected to resolve these critical issues for humanity, a key ingredient in taking action may have been neglected. This factor is ‘community.’ Community health has been a standard element of the public health and health promotion, even political, repertoire for decades now. But this commentary claims that communities are insufficiently charged, equipped or appreciated to play the role that scholarship attributes (or occasionally avoids to identify) to them. Community is too important to not fully engage and understand. Rhetorical tools and inquiries can support their quintessential role. PMID:27285516

  11. Community Health Records: Establishing a Systematic Approach to Improving Social and Physical Determinants of Health.

    PubMed

    Van Brunt, Deryk

    2017-03-01

    To systematically improve population health in the United States, community health records (CHRs) must be defined, developed, and implemented. Like electronic and personal health records, CHRs have both unique and overlapping information. CHRs contain data about communities, including the social, physical, and lifestyle determinants of health. These records will serve to complement electronic and personal health records to provide a more complete view of population health, allowing stakeholders to target community health and quality-of-life interventions in a data-driven and evidence-based manner, establishing the basis from which organizations can develop a systematic approach to improving community health. This commentary calls on the United States to conduct a set of consensus activities to define and implement CHRs.

  12. Historical Perspective: The social determinants of disease – some roots of the movement

    PubMed Central

    Syme, S Leonard

    2005-01-01

    This is an account of the early days of research on social determinants as I experienced them. I describe my time as one of four Fellows in a new training program in Medical Sociology at Yale University and how I came to be the first Sociologist employed in the U.S. Public Health Service. I then became the first Executive Secretary of a new Study Section at NIH dealing with a small number of research grant proposals in the field of Epidemiology. My account deals with some of my experiences in this developing field, culminating with my appointment as the first Sociologist to become a Professor of Epidemiology in a School of Public Health. PMID:15840175

  13. Community Health Records: Establishing a Systematic Approach to Improving Social and Physical Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    To systematically improve population health in the United States, community health records (CHRs) must be defined, developed, and implemented. Like electronic and personal health records, CHRs have both unique and overlapping information. CHRs contain data about communities, including the social, physical, and lifestyle determinants of health. These records will serve to complement electronic and personal health records to provide a more complete view of population health, allowing stakeholders to target community health and quality-of-life interventions in a data-driven and evidence-based manner, establishing the basis from which organizations can develop a systematic approach to improving community health. This commentary calls on the United States to conduct a set of consensus activities to define and implement CHRs. PMID:28103072

  14. Counting the Homeless: A Previously Incalculable Tuberculosis Risk and Its Social Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Teeter, Larry D.; Musser, James M.; Graviss, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) surveillance among the homeless is not supported by the political will necessary for TB elimination. We merged the first stakeholder-accepted enumeration of homeless persons with existing surveillance data to assess TB risk among the homeless in Houston, Texas. The average incidence per 100 000 was 411 among homeless and 9.5 among housed persons. The homeless were more likely than the housed to be US-born, clustered, and in a larger-sized cluster. Multivariate analysis revealed that TB rates among the homeless were driven not by comorbidities but by social determinants. Homeless patients were hospitalized more days than the housed and required more follow-up time. Reporting of TB rates for populations with known health disparities could help reframe TB prevention and better target limited funds. PMID:23488504

  15. Undocumented Status as a Social Determinant of Occupational Safety and Health: The Workers’ Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Michael A.; Eggerth, Donald E.; Jacobson, C. Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Background Undocumented immigration to the United States has grown dramatically over the past 25 years. This study explores undocumented status as a social determinant of occupational health by examining its perceived consequences on workplace safety of Latino immigrants. Methods Guided by the Theory of Work Adjustment, qualitative analysis was conducted on transcripts from focus groups and individual interviews conducted with a convenience sample of Latino immigrant workers. Results Participants reported that unauthorized status negatively impacted their safety at work and resulted in a degree of alienation that exceeded the specific proscriptions of the law. Participants overwhelming used a strategy of disengagement to cope with the challenges they face as undocumented immigrants. Conclusion This study describes the complex web of consequences resulting from undocumented status and its impact on occupational health. This study presents a framework connecting the daily work experiences of immigrants, the coping strategy of disengagement, and efforts to minimize the impact of structural violence. PMID:26471878

  16. Social and gender determinants of risk of cryptosporidiosis, an emerging zoonosis, in Dagoretti, Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kimani, Violet N; Mitoko, Grace; McDermott, Brigid; Grace, Delia; Ambia, Julie; Kiragu, Monica W; Njehu, Alice N; Sinja, Judith; Monda, Joseph G; Kang'ethe, Erastus K

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the social and gender determinants of the risk of exposure to Cryptosporidium from urban dairying in Dagoretti, Nairobi. Focus group discussions were held in six locations to obtain qualitative information on risk of exposure. A repeated cross-sectional descriptive study included participatory assessment and household questionnaires (300 randomly selected urban dairy farming households and 100 non-dairying neighbours). One-hundred dairy households randomly selected from the 300 dairy households participated in an additional economic survey along with 40 neighbouring non-dairy households. We found that exposure to Cryptosporidium was influenced by gender, age and role in the household. Farm workers and people aged 50 to 65 years had most contact with cattle, and women had greater contact with raw milk. However, children had relatively higher consumption of raw milk than other age groups. Adult women had more daily contact with cattle faeces than adult men, and older women had more contact than older men. Employees had greater contact with cattle than other groups and cattle faeces, and most (77 %) were male. Women took more care of sick people and were more at risk from exposure by this route. Poverty did not affect the level of exposure to cattle but did decrease consumption of milk. There was no significant difference between men and women as regards levels of knowledge on symptoms of cryptosporidiosis infections or other zoonotic diseases associated with dairy farming. Awareness of cryptosporidiosis and its transmission increased significantly with rising levels of education. Members of non-dairy households and children under the age of 12 years had significantly higher odds of reporting diarrhoea: gender, season and contact with cattle or cattle dung were not significantly linked with diarrhoea. In conclusion, social and gender factors are important determinants of exposure to zoonotic disease in Nairobi.

  17. Scoping review: national monitoring frameworks for social determinants of health and health equity

    PubMed Central

    Pedrana, Leo; Pamponet, Marina; Walker, Ruth; Costa, Federico; Rasella, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Background The strategic importance of monitoring social determinants of health (SDH) and health equity and inequity has been a central focus in global discussions around the 2011 Rio Political Declaration on SDH and the Millennium Development Goals. This study is part of the World Health Organization (WHO) equity-oriented analysis of linkages between health and other sectors (EQuAL) project, which aims to define a framework for monitoring SDH and health equity. Objectives This review provides a global summary and analysis of the domains and indicators that have been used in recent studies covering the SDH. These studies are considered here within the context of indicators proposed by the WHO EQuAL project. The objectives are as follows: to describe the range of international and national studies and the types of indicators most frequently used; report how they are used in causal explanation of the SDH; and identify key priorities and challenges reported in current research for national monitoring of the SDH. Design We conducted a scoping review of published SDH studies in the PubMed® database to obtain evidence of socio-economic indicators. We evaluated, selected, and extracted data from national scale studies published from 2004 to 2014. The research included papers published in English, Italian, French, Portuguese, and Spanish. Results The final sample consisted of 96 articles. SDH monitoring is well reported in the scientific literature independent of the economic level of the country and magnitude of deprivation in population groups. The research methods were mostly quantitative and many papers used multilevel and multivariable statistical analyses and indexes to measure health inequalities and SDH. In addition to the usual economic indicators, a high number of socio-economic indicators were used. The indicators covered a broad range of social dimensions, which were given consideration within and across different social groups. Many indicators included in the

  18. Social stigma as an epidemiological determinant for leprosy elimination in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Nsagha, Dickson S; Bissek, Anne-Cécile Z K; Nsagha, Sarah M; Njunda, Anna L; Assob, Jules C N; Tabah, Earnest N; Bamgboye, Elijah A; Oyediran, Alain Bankole O O; Nde, Peter F; Njamnshi, Alfred K

    2011-03-01

    Leprosy has been eliminated as a public health problem in most countries of the world according to the WHO, but the social stigma to the disease is still very high. The present study was performed to investigate the role of social stigma as a determinant for leprosy elimination in a leprosy endemic region of Cameroon. Focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and structured questionnaires were used to investigate leprosy social stigma among lepers, their contacts and a control group consisting of patients attending a health facility for reasons other than leprosy. Informed consent was sought and gained prior to starting the study. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews identified three types of stigma: lack of self-esteem, tribal stigma and complete rejection by society. From the 480 structured questionnaires administered, there were overall positive attitudes to lepers among the study population and within the divisions (P=0.0). The proportion of participants that felt sympathetic with deformed lepers was 78.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 74.4-81.8%] from a total of 480. Three hundred and ninety nine (83.1%) respondents indicated that they could share a meal or drink at the same table with a deformed leper (95% CI: 79.7-86.5%). Four hundred and three (83.9%) participants indicated that they could have a handshake and embrace a deformed leper (95% CI: 80.7-87.3%). A total of 85.2% (95.0% CI: 81.9-88.4%) participants affirmed that they could move with a deformed leper to the market or church. A high proportion of 71.5% (95.0% CI: 67.5%-75.5%) participants stated that they could offer a job to a deformed leper. The results indicate that Menchum division had the lowest mean score of 3.3 on positive attitudes to leprosy compared with Mezam (4.1) and Boyo (4.8) divisions. The high proportion of positive attitudes among the participants and in different divisions is a positive indicator that the elimination of leprosy social stigma is progressing in the

  19. Scoping review: national monitoring frameworks for social determinants of health and health equity.

    PubMed

    Pedrana, Leo; Pamponet, Marina; Walker, Ruth; Costa, Federico; Rasella, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Background The strategic importance of monitoring social determinants of health (SDH) and health equity and inequity has been a central focus in global discussions around the 2011 Rio Political Declaration on SDH and the Millennium Development Goals. This study is part of the World Health Organization (WHO) equity-oriented analysis of linkages between health and other sectors (EQuAL) project, which aims to define a framework for monitoring SDH and health equity. Objectives This review provides a global summary and analysis of the domains and indicators that have been used in recent studies covering the SDH. These studies are considered here within the context of indicators proposed by the WHO EQuAL project. The objectives are as follows: to describe the range of international and national studies and the types of indicators most frequently used; report how they are used in causal explanation of the SDH; and identify key priorities and challenges reported in current research for national monitoring of the SDH. Design We conducted a scoping review of published SDH studies in the PubMed(®) database to obtain evidence of socio-economic indicators. We evaluated, selected, and extracted data from national scale studies published from 2004 to 2014. The research included papers published in English, Italian, French, Portuguese, and Spanish. Results The final sample consisted of 96 articles. SDH monitoring is well reported in the scientific literature independent of the economic level of the country and magnitude of deprivation in population groups. The research methods were mostly quantitative and many papers used multilevel and multivariable statistical analyses and indexes to measure health inequalities and SDH. In addition to the usual economic indicators, a high number of socio-economic indicators were used. The indicators covered a broad range of social dimensions, which were given consideration within and across different social groups. Many indicators included in

  20. Social stigma as an epidemiological determinant for leprosy elimination in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nsagha, Dickson S.; Bissek, Anne-Cécile Z.K.; Nsagha, Sarah M.; Njunda, Anna L.; Assob, Jules C.N.; Tabah, Earnest N.; Bamgboye, Elijah A.; Oyediran, Alain Bankole O.O.; Nde, Peter F.; Njamnshi, Alfred K.

    2011-01-01

    Leprosy has been eliminated as a public health problem in most countries of the world according to the WHO, but the social stigma to the disease is still very high. The present study was performed to investigate the role of social stigma as a determinant for leprosy elimination in a leprosy endemic region of Cameroon. Focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and structured questionnaires were used to investigate leprosy social stigma among lepers, their contacts and a control group consisting of patients attending a health facility for reasons other than leprosy. Informed consent was sought and gained prior to starting the study. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews identified three types of stigma: lack of self-esteem, tribal stigma and complete rejection by society. From the 480 structured questionnaires administered, there were overall positive attitudes to lepers among the study population and within the divisions (P=0.0). The proportion of participants that felt sympathetic with deformed lepers was 78.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 74.4–81.8%] from a total of 480. Three hundred and ninety nine (83.1%) respondents indicated that they could share a meal or drink at the same table with a deformed leper (95% CI: 79.7–86.5%). Four hundred and three (83.9%) participants indicated that they could have a handshake and embrace a deformed leper (95% CI: 80.7–87.3%). A total of 85.2% (95.0% CI: 81.9–88.4%) participants affirmed that they could move with a deformed leper to the market or church. A high proportion of 71.5% (95.0% CI: 67.5%–75.5%) participants stated that they could offer a job to a deformed leper. The results indicate that Menchum division had the lowest mean score of 3.3 on positive attitudes to leprosy compared with Mezam (4.1) and Boyo (4.8) divisions. The high proportion of positive attitudes among the participants and in different divisions is a positive indicator that the elimination of leprosy social stigma is progressing

  1. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding…

  2. Impact of Income Inequality and Other Social Determinants on Suicide Rate in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Daiane Borges; Rasella, Davide; dos Santos, Darci Neves

    2015-01-01

    Studies about suicide worldwide have mainly focused on individual-level psychiatric risk factors. In Brazil, suicide is an important public health problem. Brazil has evidenced important socioeconomic changes over the last decades, leading to decreasing income inequality. However, the impact of income inequality on suicide rate has never been studied in the country. Purpose To analyze whether income inequality and other social determinants are associated with suicide rate in Brazil. Method This study used panel data from all 5,507 Brazilian municipalities from 2000 to 2011. Suicide rates were calculated by sex and standardized by age for each municipality and year. The independent variables of the regression model included the Gini Index, per capita income, percentage of individuals with up to eight years of education, urbanization, average number of residents per household, percentage of divorced people, of Catholics, Pentecostals, and Evangelicals. A multivariable negative binomial regression for panel data with fixed-effects specification was performed. Results The Gini index was positively associated with suicide rates; the rate ratio (RR) was 1.055 (95% CI: 1.011–1.101). Of the other social determinants, income had a significant negative association with suicide rates (RR: 0.968, 95% CI: 0.948–0.988), whereas a low-level education had a positive association (RR: 1.015, 95% CI: 1.010–1.021). Conclusions Income inequality represents a community-level risk factor for suicide rates in Brazil. The decrease in income inequality, increase in income per capita, and decrease in the percentage of individuals who did not complete basic studies may have counteracted the increase in suicides in the last decade. Other changes, such as the decrease in the mean residents per household, may have contributed to their increase. Therefore, the implementation of social policies that may improve the population’s socioeconomic conditions and reduce income inequality in

  3. Determinants of Subjective Social Status and Health Among Latin American Women Immigrants in Spain: A Qualitative Approach.

    PubMed

    Sanchón-Macias, Ma Visitación; Bover-Bover, Andreu; Prieto-Salceda, Dolores; Paz-Zulueta, María; Torres, Blanca; Gastaldo, Denise

    2016-04-01

    This qualitative study was carried out to better understand factors that determine the subjective social status of Latin Americans in Spain. The study was conducted following a theoretical framework and forms part of broader study on subjective social status and health. Ten immigrant participants engaged in semi-structured interviews, from which data were collected. The study results show that socioeconomic aspects of the crisis and of policies adopted have shaped immigrant living conditions in Spain. Four major themes that emerged from the analysis were related to non-recognition of educational credentials, precarious working conditions, unemployment and loneliness. These results illustrate the outcomes of current policies on health and suggest a need for health professionals to orient practices toward social determinants, thus utilizing evaluations of subjective social status to reduce inequalities in health.

  4. Assessing the relevance of indicators in tracking social determinants and progress toward equitable population health in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rasella, Davide; Machado, Daiane Borges; Castellanos, Marcelo Eduardo Pfeirrer; Paim, Jairnilson; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann; Lima, Diana; Magno, Laio; Pedrana, Leo; Medina, Maria Guadalupe; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Barreto, Mauricio Lima

    2016-01-01

    Background The importance of the social determinants of health (SDH) and barriers to the access and utilization of healthcare have been widely recognized but not previously studied in the context of universal healthcare coverage (UHC) in Brazil and other developing countries. Objective To evaluate a set of proposed indicators of SDH and barriers to the access and utilization of healthcare – proposed by the SDH unit of the World Health Organization – with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in moving toward equitable population health and UHC in Brazil. Design This study had a mixed methodology, combining a quantitative analysis of secondary data from governmental sources with a qualitative study comprising two focus group discussions and six key informant interviews. The set of indicators tested covered a broad range of dimensions classified by three different domains: environment quality; accountability and inclusion; and livelihood and skills. Indicators were stratified according to income quintiles, urbanization, race, and geographical region. Results Overall, the indicators were adequate for tracking progress in terms of the SDH, equity, gender, and human rights in Brazil. Stratifications showed inequalities. The qualitative analysis revealed that many of the indicators were well known and already used by policymakers and health sector managers, whereas others were considered less useful in the Brazilian context. Conclusions Monitoring and evaluation practices have been developed in Brazil, and the set of indicators assessed in this study could further improve these practices, especially from a health equity perspective. Socioeconomic inequalities have been reduced in Brazil in the last decade, but there is still much work to be done in relation to addressing the SDH. PMID:26853898

  5. The Quality of Social Networks: Its Determinants and Impacts on Helping and Volunteering in Macao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Kwok Kit; Hung, Eva P. W.; Yuen, Sze Man

    2011-01-01

    Pro-social behaviors serve essential societal functions. This study examines the factors affecting the quality of social networks, in terms of network size and perceived respect. It further explores the role of social networks in enhancing helping intention and helping behaviors. Eight hundred and eighty people were randomly interviewed by phone.…

  6. Social relationships and physiological determinants of longevity across the human life span

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang Claire; Boen, Courtney; Gerken, Karen; Li, Ting; Schorpp, Kristen; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2016-01-01

    Two decades of research indicate causal associations between social relationships and mortality, but important questions remain as to how social relationships affect health, when effects emerge, and how long they last. Drawing on data from four nationally representative longitudinal samples of the US population, we implemented an innovative life course design to assess the prospective association of both structural and functional dimensions of social relationships (social integration, social support, and social strain) with objectively measured biomarkers of physical health (C-reactive protein, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and body mass index) within each life stage, including adolescence and young, middle, and late adulthood, and compare such associations across life stages. We found that a higher degree of social integration was associated with lower risk of physiological dysregulation in a dose–response manner in both early and later life. Conversely, lack of social connections was associated with vastly elevated risk in specific life stages. For example, social isolation increased the risk of inflammation by the same magnitude as physical inactivity in adolescence, and the effect of social isolation on hypertension exceeded that of clinical risk factors such as diabetes in old age. Analyses of multiple dimensions of social relationships within multiple samples across the life course produced consistent and robust associations with health. Physiological impacts of structural and functional dimensions of social relationships emerge uniquely in adolescence and midlife and persist into old age. PMID:26729882

  7. Perceived Social Support from Friends as Determinant of Loneliness in a Sample of Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalkan, Melek; Epli-Koc, Hatice

    2011-01-01

    The peer group is the important social network in children's lives and has a high predictive value of an individual's later social and emotional adjustment. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the perceived social support from friends as predictor of the loneliness for primary school students. Two tools were used for data gathering.…

  8. Social determinants and health-related dimensions of quality of life in adult patients with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Dolatkhah, R; Fakhari, A; Pezeshki, M Z; Shabanlouei, R; Tavassoli, N; Gholchin, M

    2014-05-01

    The availability of safe and effective factor replacement therapies, in persons with haemophilia (PWH), has in some countries answered the basic need for treatment of these patients. The findings suggest that adult patients who have always been on prophylaxis reported significantly better physical functioning, and thus better quality of life. This study is designed to evaluate the QoL in adult PWH, by focusing on social determinants of QoL and their relationship with health-related dimensions, in Tabriz, Iran. The survey instrument was a self-report 36 items questionnaire, 'A36 Hemofilia - QoL', which is a disease-specific questionnaire for the assessment of the health-related QoL in adults living with haemophilia. A total of 100 haemophilia A and B patients, aged over 17 years participated in this study within 1 year. QoL total score was 71.88 (±26.89 SD). Patients who treat in our Hemophilia Treatment Center, had better QoL score (P = 0.000), and education has a significant impact on the social aspects of QoL (P = 0.18). The QoL was very poor in urban area in contrast to patients who lived in the city (54.45 vs. 74.21 respectively). Single patients have a better QoL than married patients (76.56 vs. 68.50 respectively). Our results showed that low education and lack of awareness of the diseases among PWH lead to reduce of QoL and more disease complications. More and wider treatment and psychological care for improving quality of life of these patients are seriously recommended.

  9. 20 CFR 220.38 - When a widow(er)'s disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.38 Section 220.38 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.38 When a widow(er)'s disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social...

  10. 20 CFR 220.38 - When a widow(er)'s disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.38 Section 220.38 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.38 When a widow(er)'s disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social...

  11. 20 CFR 220.38 - When a widow(er)'s disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.38 Section 220.38 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.38 When a widow(er)'s disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social...

  12. 20 CFR 220.38 - When a widow(er)'s disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.38 Section 220.38 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.38 When a widow(er)'s disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social...

  13. 20 CFR 220.38 - When a widow(er)'s disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.38 Section 220.38 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.38 When a widow(er)'s disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social...

  14. Acknowledging individual responsibility while emphasizing social determinants in narratives to promote obesity-reducing public policy: a randomized experiment.

    PubMed

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Roh, Sungjong; Shapiro, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    This study tests whether policy narratives designed to increase support for obesity-reducing public policies should explicitly acknowledge individual responsibility while emphasizing social, physical, and economic (social) determinants of obesity. We use a web-based, randomized experiment with a nationally representative sample of American adults (n = 718) to test hypotheses derived from theory and research on narrative persuasion. Respondents exposed to narratives that acknowledged individual responsibility while emphasizing obesity's social determinants were less likely to engage in counterargument and felt more empathy for the story's main character than those exposed to a message that did not acknowledge individual responsibility. Counterarguing and affective empathy fully mediated the relationship between message condition and support for policies to reduce rates of obesity. Failure to acknowledge individual responsibility in narratives emphasizing social determinants of obesity may undermine the persuasiveness of policy narratives. Omitting information about individual responsibility, a strongly-held American value, invites the public to engage in counterargument about the narratives and reduces feelings of empathy for a character that experiences the challenges and benefits of social determinants of obesity.

  15. Acknowledging Individual Responsibility while Emphasizing Social Determinants in Narratives to Promote Obesity-Reducing Public Policy: A Randomized Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Roh, Sungjong; Shapiro, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    This study tests whether policy narratives designed to increase support for obesity-reducing public policies should explicitly acknowledge individual responsibility while emphasizing social, physical, and economic (social) determinants of obesity. We use a web-based, randomized experiment with a nationally representative sample of American adults (n = 718) to test hypotheses derived from theory and research on narrative persuasion. Respondents exposed to narratives that acknowledged individual responsibility while emphasizing obesity’s social determinants were less likely to engage in counterargument and felt more empathy for the story’s main character than those exposed to a message that did not acknowledge individual responsibility. Counterarguing and affective empathy fully mediated the relationship between message condition and support for policies to reduce rates of obesity. Failure to acknowledge individual responsibility in narratives emphasizing social determinants of obesity may undermine the persuasiveness of policy narratives. Omitting information about individual responsibility, a strongly-held American value, invites the public to engage in counterargument about the narratives and reduces feelings of empathy for a character that experiences the challenges and benefits of social determinants of obesity. PMID:25706743

  16. Determinants on the quality of social networks among Hong Kong Chinese.

    PubMed

    Rochelle, Tina L; Chan, O F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine prospectively the quality of social networks of Hong Kong Chinese adults. A randomized household survey was employed. A total of 1170 Hong Kong Chinese respondents were recruited to the study. Participants ranged in age from 18 to 79 years, 43% of respondents were male. Findings revealed a negative association between familial trust and social network size. Network trust, social identification, and structural networks were all found to be positively associated with social network size and perceived respect from social network. The importance of family and the prioritization of the needs of the family over individual needs has implications on social network size and formation for Hong Kong Chinese individuals. More research is needed to further examine the importance of familial relationships and the prioritization of family and the impact this has on social network development and maintenance among Hong Kong Chinese.

  17. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  18. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance.

  19. Access and utilisation of social and health services as a social determinant of health: the case of undocumented Latin American immigrant women working in Lleida (Catalonia, Spain).

    PubMed

    Gea-Sánchez, Montserrat; Gastaldo, Denise; Molina-Luque, Fidel; Otero-García, Laura

    2017-03-01

    Although Spain has social and healthcare systems based on universal coverage, little is known about how undocumented immigrant women access and utilise them. This is particularly true in the case of Latin Americans who are overrepresented in the informal labour market, taking on traditionally female roles of caregivers and cleaners in private homes. This study describes access and utilisation of social and healthcare services by undocumented Latin American women working and living in rural and urban areas, and the barriers these women may face. An exploratory qualitative study was designed with 12 in-depth interviews with Latin American women living and working in three different settings: an urban city, a rural city and rural villages in the Pyrenees. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed, yielding four key themes: health is a tool for work which worsens due to precarious working conditions; lack of legal status traps Latin American women in precarious jobs; lack of access to and use of social services; and limited access to and use of healthcare services. While residing and working in different areas of the province impacted the utilisation of services, working conditions was the main barrier experienced by the participants. In conclusion, decent working conditions are the key to ensuring undocumented immigrant women's right to social and healthcare. To create a pathway to immigrant women's health promotion, the 'trap of illegality' should be challenged and the impact of being considered 'illegal' should be considered as a social determinant of health, even where the right to access services is legal.

  20. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  1. Environmental and social determinants of youth physical activity intensity levels at neighborhood parks in Las Vegas, NV.

    PubMed

    Coughenour, Courtney; Coker, Lisa; Bungum, Tim J

    2014-12-01

    Parks can play an important role in youth activity. This study used observational data to evaluate the relationship of environmental and social determinants to youth physical activity intensity levels in Las Vegas neighborhood parks. System for observing play and leisure activity in youth was used to code activity levels as sedentary, walking, or vigorous in five low-income and five high-income parks. Environmental determinants included amenities, incivilities, size, high-speed streets, sidewalk condition, and temperature. Social determinants included percent minority and Hispanic, gender, and income. A multinomial logistic regression model was performed. We observed 1,421 youth, 59% male, 41% female; 21% were sedentary, 38% walking, and 41% vigorous. Males were more likely to be observed walking (OR 1.42) and vigorous (OR 2.21) when compared to sedentary. High-speed streets (OR 0.76), sidewalks condition (OR 0.34), and low-income neighborhoods (OR 0.07) was associated with decreased odds of vigorous activity; incivilities (OR 1.34) and amenities (OR 1.27) were associated with greater odds of being vigorous. Environmental and social determinants are associated with physical activity intensity levels at parks. Stakeholders should ensure quality parks, as they relate to physical activity levels in youth. Understanding environmental and social determinants that influence physical activity at parks is critical to utilizing their full potential in an effort to combat childhood obesity.

  2. Toxic trace elements in maternal and cord blood and social determinants in a Bolivian mining city

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Flavia L.; Gardon, Jacques; Ruiz-Castell, María; Paco V., Pamela; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Casiot, Corinne; Freydier, Rémi; Duprey, Jean-Louis; Chen, Chih-Mei; Müller-Nordhorn, Jacqueline; Keil, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed lead, arsenic, and antimony in maternal and cord blood, and associations between maternal concentrations and social determinants in the Bolivian mining city of Oruro using the baseline assessment of the ToxBol/Mine-Niño birth cohort. We recruited 467 pregnant women, collecting venous blood and sociodemographic information as well as placental cord blood at birth. Metallic/semimetallic trace elements were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Lead medians in maternal and cord blood were significantly correlated (Spearman coefficient = 0.59; p < 0.001; 19.35 and 13.50 μg/L, respectively). Arsenic concentrations were above detection limit (3.30 μg/L) in 17.9 % of maternal and 34.6 % of cord blood samples. They were not associated (Fischer’s p = 0.72). Antimony medians in maternal and cord blood were weakly correlated (Spearman coefficient = 0.15; p < 0.03; 9.00 and 8.62 μg/L, respectively). Higher concentrations of toxic elements in maternal blood were associated with maternal smoking, low educational level, and partner involved in mining. PMID:26179629

  3. Toxic trace elements in maternal and cord blood and social determinants in a Bolivian mining city.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Flavia L; Gardon, Jacques; Ruiz-Castell, María; Paco V, Pamela; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Casiot, Corinne; Freydier, Rémi; Duprey, Jean-Louis; Chen, Chih-Mei; Müller-Nordhorn, Jacqueline; Keil, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed lead, arsenic, and antimony in maternal and cord blood, and associations between maternal concentrations and social determinants in the Bolivian mining city of Oruro using the baseline assessment of the ToxBol/Mine-Niño birth cohort. We recruited 467 pregnant women, collecting venous blood and sociodemographic information as well as placental cord blood at birth. Metallic/semimetallic trace elements were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Lead medians in maternal and cord blood were significantly correlated (Spearman coefficient = 0.59; p < 0.001; 19.35 and 13.50 μg/L, respectively). Arsenic concentrations were above detection limit (3.30 μg/L) in 17.9% of maternal and 34.6% of cord blood samples. They were not associated (Fischer's p = 0.72). Antimony medians in maternal and cord blood were weakly correlated (Spearman coefficient = 0.15; p < 0.03; 9.00 and 8.62 μg/L, respectively). Higher concentrations of toxic elements in maternal blood were associated with maternal smoking, low educational level, and partner involved in mining.

  4. Driver licensing: descriptive epidemiology of a social determinant of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Kate; Clapham, Kathleen; Helps, Yvonne; Senserrick, Teresa; Byrne, Jake; Martiniuk, Alexandra; Daniels, John; Harrison, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Education, employment and equitable access to services are commonly accepted as important underlying social determinants of health. For most Australians, access to health, education and other services is facilitated by private transport and a driver licence. This study aimed to examine licensing rates and predictors of licensing in a sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, as these have previously been poorly described. Methods: Interviewer‐administered surveys were conducted with 625 people 16 years or older in four Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services in New South Wales and South Australia over a two‐week period in 2012–2013. Results: Licensing rates varied from 51% to 77% by site. Compared to not having a licence, having a driver licence was significantly associated with higher odds of full‐time employment (adjusted OR 4.0, 95%CI 2.5–6.3) and educational attainment (adjusted OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.2–2.8 for trade or certificate; adjusted OR 4.0, 95%CI 1.6–9.5 for degree qualification). Conclusions: Variation in driver licensing rates suggests different yet pervasive barriers to access. There is a strong association between driver licensing, education and employment. Implications: Licensing inequality has far‐reaching impacts on the broader health and wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, reinforcing the need for appropriate and accessible pathways to achieving and maintaining driver licensing. PMID:27481274

  5. Adaptive Policies for Reducing Inequalities in the Social Determinants of Health.

    PubMed

    Carey, Gemma; Crammond, Brad; Malbon, Eleanor; Carey, Nic

    2015-09-18

    Inequalities in the social determinants of health (SDH), which drive avoidable health disparities between different individuals or groups, is a major concern for a number of international organisations, including the World Health Organization (WHO). Despite this, the pathways to changing inequalities in the SDH remain elusive. The methodologies and concepts within system science are now viewed as important domains of knowledge, ideas and skills for tackling issues of inequality, which are increasingly understood as emergent properties of complex systems. In this paper, we introduce and expand the concept of adaptive policies to reduce inequalities in the distribution of the SDH. The concept of adaptive policy for health equity was developed through reviewing the literature on learning and adaptive policies. Using a series of illustrative examples from education and poverty alleviation, which have their basis in real world policies, we demonstrate how an adaptive policy approach is more suited to the management of the emergent properties of inequalities in the SDH than traditional policy approaches. This is because they are better placed to handle future uncertainties. Our intention is that these examples are illustrative, rather than prescriptive, and serve to create a conversation regarding appropriate adaptive policies for progressing policy action on the SDH.

  6. [Malnutrition in the elderly: clinical features, psychological and social determinants. Preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Morrone, A; Donini, L M; Scardella, P; Piombo, L; Pinto, A; Giusti, A M; Neri, B; Hagedorn, T; Proietti, A R; Cataldi, S; Cucinotta, D; Di Bella, G; Barbagallo, M; Cannella, C

    2011-01-01

    In industrialized Countries malnutrition is a very frequent condition in frail groups of the population, people with low income and elderly subjects above all if institutionalized. The aim of the study is to: analyse the prevalence of malnutrition in a sample of elderly people located in different geographical areas in Italy; identify the psychological, social, economic, environmental, cultural and demographic determinants of malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition (estimated through the MNA) is high in both sexes (28% of F and 21.9% of M. Age, institutionalisation, health status, autonomy status, cognitive status and education level are some of the factors that correlate with the presence of malnutrition. Loneliness and poverty seem to have a negative impact on nutritional status but further data are needed to confirm this hypothesis. The data collected confirm the need to activate services dedicated to assess the nutritional status of elderly people, to implement campaigns in particular on food education for the elderly population, to set tools and guide lines for caregivers.

  7. Adaptive Policies for Reducing Inequalities in the Social Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Gemma; Crammond, Brad; Malbon, Eleanor; Carey, Nic

    2015-01-01

    Inequalities in the social determinants of health (SDH), which drive avoidable health disparities between different individuals or groups, is a major concern for a number of international organisations, including the World Health Organization (WHO). Despite this, the pathways to changing inequalities in the SDH remain elusive. The methodologies and concepts within system science are now viewed as important domains of knowledge, ideas and skills for tackling issues of inequality, which are increasingly understood as emergent properties of complex systems. In this paper, we introduce and expand the concept of adaptive policies to reduce inequalities in the distribution of the SDH. The concept of adaptive policy for health equity was developed through reviewing the literature on learning and adaptive policies. Using a series of illustrative examples from education and poverty alleviation, which have their basis in real world policies, we demonstrate how an adaptive policy approach is more suited to the management of the emergent properties of inequalities in the SDH than traditional policy approaches. This is because they are better placed to handle future uncertainties. Our intention is that these examples are illustrative, rather than prescriptive, and serve to create a conversation regarding appropriate adaptive policies for progressing policy action on the SDH. PMID:26673337

  8. Social chromosome variants differentially affect queen determination and the survival of workers in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Buechel, Séverine D; Wurm, Yanick; Keller, Laurent

    2014-10-01

    Intraspecific variation in social organization is common, yet the underlying causes are rarely known. An exception is the fire ant Solenopsis invicta in which the existence of two distinct forms of social colony organization is under the control of the two variants of a pair of social chromosomes, SB and Sb. Colonies containing exclusively SB/SB workers accept only one single queen and she must be SB/SB. By contrast, when colonies contain more than 10% of SB/Sb workers, they accept several queens but only SB/Sb queens. The variants of the social chromosome are associated with several additional important phenotypic differences, including the size, fecundity and dispersal strategies of queens, aggressiveness of workers, and sperm count in males. However, little is known about whether social chromosome variants affect fitness in other life stages. Here, we perform experiments to determine whether differential selection occurs during development and in adult workers. We find evidence that the Sb variant of the social chromosome increases the likelihood of female brood to develop into queens and that adult SB/Sb workers, the workers that cull SB/SB queens, are overrepresented in comparison to SB/SB workers. This demonstrates that supergenes such as the social chromosome can have complex effects on phenotypes at various stages of development.

  9. Integrating Social Determinants of Health With Treatment and Prevention: A New Tool to Assess Local Area Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Thao M.; Arno, Peter S.; Hubel, Megan; Yi, Shirley; Viola, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the appropriate geographic scale to apply an area deprivation index (ADI), which reflects a geographic area’s level of socioeconomic deprivation and is associated with health outcomes, to identify and screen patients for social determinants of health. We estimated the relative strength of the association between the ADI at various geographic levels and a range of hospitalization rates by using age-adjusted odds ratios in an 8-county region of New York State. The 10-km local ADI estimates had the strongest associations with all hospitalization rates (higher odds ratios) followed by estimates at 20 km, 30 km, and the regional scale. A locally sensitive ADI is an ideal measure to identify and screen for the health care and social services needs and to advance the integration of social determinants of health with clinical treatment and disease prevention. PMID:27634778

  10. A Latent Class Growth Analysis of School Bullying and Its Social Context: The Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Shui-fong; Law, Wilbert; Chan, Chi-Keung; Wong, Bernard P. H.; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of social context to school bullying was examined from the self-determination theory perspective in this longitudinal study of 536 adolescents from 3 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Latent class growth analysis of the student-reported data at 5 time points from grade 7 to grade 9 identified 4 groups of students: bullies (9.8%),…

  11. Exploring the Social-Ecological Determinants of Physical Fighting in U.S. Schools: What about Youth in Immigrant Families?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jun Sung; Merrin, Gabriel J.; Peguero, Anthony A.; Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio; Lee, Na Youn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the growing presence of immigrant families in the US, little is known about physical fighting in school among youth from those families. Objective: The present study examines the social-ecological determinants of school physical fighting among youth in immigrant families. Implications for practice are also discussed. Method:…

  12. The Perceptions, Social Determinants, and Negative Health Outcomes Associated with Depressive Symptoms among U.S. Chinese Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, XinQi; Chang, E-Shien; Wong, Esther; Simon, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Recent demographic growth of the U.S. Chinese aging population calls for comprehensive understanding of their unique health needs. The objective of this study is to examine the perceptions, social determinants of depressive symptoms as well as their impact on health and well-being in a community-dwelling U.S. Chinese aging…

  13. Preparing Ex-Offenders for Work: Applying the Self-Determination Theory to Social Cognitive Career Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kaprea F.

    2013-01-01

    Ex-offenders, persons with criminal and limited job histories, are being released into communities every year. Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) focuses on several cognitive-person variables and on the interaction effect with the environment. Conceptually, the author views the integration of SCCT and the self-determination theory as a…

  14. Home and School Environments as Determinant of Social Skills Deficit among Learners with Intellectual Disability in Lagos State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isawumi, Oyeyinka David; Oyundoyin, John Olusegun

    2016-01-01

    The study examined home and school environmental factors as determinant of social skills deficit among learners with intellectual disability in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study adopted survey research method using a sample size of fifty (50) pupils with intellectual disability who were purposively selected from five special primary schools in Lagos…

  15. Show Me Again What I Can Do: Documentation and Self-Determination for Students with Social Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Stephanie Cox

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the use of documentation by teachers and their children with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) to develop skills of self-determination. Visual feedback, such as photos and video, help teachers plan and children evaluate their performance in social situations, such as finding a friend to play with at recess. This…

  16. Determining Advanced and Basic Financial Literacy Relations and Overconfidence, and Informative Social Media Association of University Students in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaa, Ibrahim E.; Kugu, Tayfun D.

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of the paper are, first, to investigate financial literacy in university students and to determine the relationship between basic and advanced financial literacy; second, to present a positive association between social media usage and financial literacy; third, to examine demographic factors consistent with previous studies; and,…

  17. Personal circumstances and social characteristics as determinants of landholder participation in biodiversity conservation programs.

    PubMed

    Moon, Katie; Marshall, Nadine; Cocklin, Chris

    2012-12-30

    Adequate conservation of biodiversity on private land remains elusive due, in part, to a failure to understand the personal circumstances and social characteristics of private landholders. Our aim was to identify those personal and social dimensions of landholders that might contribute to improved conservation policy and program design and, thereby, participation in private land conservation. We tested whether personal circumstances of landholders (e.g., lifestyle and wellbeing, information and knowledge, financial security) and social characteristics (e.g., attitudes, norms, and trust) would be important predictors of landholders' capacity and willingness to participate in biodiversity conservation programs. Forty-five participants and twenty-nine non-participants of biodiversity conservation programs in north Queensland, Australia, were surveyed to: 1) examine differences between their personal circumstances and social characteristics that may influence participation; and 2) explore whether personal circumstances and social characteristics were influenced by participation. The results revealed that, compared to participants, non-participants in conservation programs had significantly different personal circumstances and social characteristics for four of eight measured variables. Compared to participants, non-participants demonstrated a reduced capacity and willingness to participate in conservation programs. Participation did not appear to have a strong influence on participants' personal circumstances or social characteristics, and when social norms supported conservation, programs did not demonstrate additionality. Conservation policies that maintain or improve landholders' personal circumstances and that promote pro-environmental norms may result in increased participation and thereby conservation outcomes.

  18. The Examination of the Factors Determining Career Engagement for Students Preparing for a Social Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhász-Klér, Andrea; Varga, Erika

    2015-01-01

    The higher education courses for social experts started more than 25 years ago in Hungary. Since then more than 20 thousand students have earned a degree in social areas. Some of them quit their original jobs whereas a lot of these specialists still provide support as human assistants and regard their profession a career. Due to the huge amount of…

  19. Determinants of Social Networking Software Acceptance: A Multi-Theoretical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shittu, Ahmed Tajudeen; Madarsha, Kamal Basha; AbduRahman, Nik Suryani Nik; Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku

    2013-01-01

    Understanding reasons why students use social media has become a major preoccupation of researchers in recent time due to the rate of its adoption among the present generation of students. Some of the few study on social media phenomenon employed a single theory as a framework in order to understand the factors that influence the acceptance of it…

  20. Social determinants of health and retention in HIV care in a clinical cohort in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rachlis, Beth; Burchell, Ann N; Gardner, Sandra; Light, Lucia; Raboud, Janet; Antoniou, Tony; Bacon, Jean; Benoit, Anita; Cooper, Curtis; Kendall, Claire; Loutfy, Mona; Wobeser, Wendy; McGee, Frank; Rachlis, Anita; Rourke, Sean B

    2016-12-27

    Continuous HIV care supports antiretroviral therapy initiation and adherence, and prolongs survival. We investigated the association of social determinants of health (SDH) and subsequent retention in HIV care in a clinical cohort in Ontario, Canada. The Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study is a multi-site cohort of patients at 10 HIV clinics. Data were collected from medical charts, interviews, and via record linkage with the provincial public health laboratory for viral load tests. For participants interviewed in 2009, we used three-category multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of retention in 2010-2012, defined as (1) continuous care (≥2 viral loads ≥90 days in all years; reference category); (2) discontinuous care (only 1 viral load/year in ≥1 year); and (3) a gap in care (≥1 year in 2010-2012 with no viral load). In total, 1838 participants were included. In 2010-2012, 71.7% had continuous care, 20.9% had discontinuous care, and 7.5% had a gap in care. Discontinuous care in 2009 was predictive (p < .0001) of future retention. SDH associated with discontinuous care were Indigenous ethnicity, being born in Canada, being employed, reporting hazardous drinking, and non-injection drug use. Being a heterosexual male was associated with having a gap in care, and being single and younger were associated with discontinuous care and a gap in care. Various SDH were associated with retention. Care discontinuity was highly predictive of future gaps. Targeted strategic interventions that better engage those at risk of suboptimal retention merit exploration.

  1. Terms of Address in Libyan Arabic Compared to Other Arabic Varieties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abugharsa, ?Azza B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion about the terms of address used mainly in Libyan Arabic, and how they are similar and/or different from the terms used in other Arabic societies. In addition, the current paper describes how the use of such terms is determined by various social factors and perceptions, and how it is emphasized that these titles…

  2. Social learning of fear and safety is determined by the demonstrator's racial group.

    PubMed

    Golkar, Armita; Castro, Vasco; Olsson, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Social learning offers an efficient route through which humans and other animals learn about potential dangers in the environment. Such learning inherently relies on the transmission of social information and should imply selectivity in what to learn from whom. Here, we conducted two observational learning experiments to assess how humans learn about danger and safety from members ('demonstrators') of an other social group than their own. We show that both fear and safety learning from a racial in-group demonstrator was more potent than learning from a racial out-group demonstrator.

  3. Invitational Addresses, 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Arthur I.; And Others

    The full texts of invitational addresses given at the 1965 International Reading Association (IRA) Convention in Detroit, Michigan, by six recipients of IRA citation awards are presented. Gates suggests steps IRA should take to revive and redirect reading research. McCallister discusses the implications of the changing and expanding vocabulary of…

  4. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  5. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  6. La Situación Económica: Social Determinants of Contraceptive Use in Rural Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Marissa G.; Garrett, Jenna J.; Barrington, Clare L.

    2015-01-01

    Contraceptive use is an important determinant of unintended pregnancy, but little is known about the social and structural factors that determine women’s contraceptive use in rural Honduras. In this study, we aim to characterize the individual and social determinants of contraceptive use among women in rural Honduras. In 2011 and 2012, we conducted 14 interviews and two focus groups with women 18 years and older. In our analysis, we created a family planning narrative for each participant and coded transcripts around key emergent themes related to these determinants. We found that social determinants – including poverty, gender dynamics, and availability of family planning methods – had a strong influence on contraceptive use among women in our sample. Study participants stated that they were faced with a difficult economic situation compounded by rising prices of basic goods and diminishing job opportunities. Paradoxically, at the same time that the economic situation led women to seek contraception, it also contributed to the structural barriers that limited their ability to obtain their method of choice and maintain continuous contraceptive use. Our findings suggest the need for multi-level efforts to create an enabling and sustainable environment for family planning among women in rural Honduras. PMID:24593192

  7. La situación económica: social determinants of contraceptive use in rural Honduras.

    PubMed

    Hall, Marissa G; Garrett, Jenna J; Barrington, Clare

    2014-01-01

    Contraceptive use is an important determinant of unintended pregnancy, but little is known about the social and structural factors that determine women's contraceptive use in rural Honduras. In this study, we aim to characterise the individual and social determinants of contraceptive use among women in rural Honduras. In 2011 and 2012, we conducted 14 interviews and 2 focus groups with women 18 years and older. In our analysis, we created a family-planning narrative for each participant and coded transcripts around key emergent themes related to these determinants. We found that social determinants--including poverty, gender dynamics and availability of family-planning methods--had a strong influence on contraceptive use among women in our sample. Study participants stated that they were faced with a difficult economic situation compounded by rising prices of basic goods and diminishing job opportunities. Paradoxically, at the same time that the economic situation led women to seek contraception, it also contributed to the structural barriers that limited their ability to obtain their method of choice and maintain continuous contraceptive use. Our findings suggest the need for multi-level efforts to create an enabling and sustainable environment for family planning among women in rural Honduras.

  8. Social determinants of child abuse: evidence of factors associated with maternal abuse from the Egypt demographic and health survey

    PubMed Central

    Antai, Diddy; Braithwaite, Patrick; Clerk., George

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Child abuse or maltreatment is a significant global public health problem of unknown global prevalence. About 40 million children aged 0 - 14 years require health and social care globally. The prevalence, determinants, and trends of national or global rates of child abuse and maltreatment are largely unknown. Methods: Data for this retrospective cross-sectional study were derived from the 2005 Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey (2005 EDHS), and included 19474 women aged 15-49 years. Multivariate logistic regression analyses by stepwise regression, backward method were used to determine the independent contribution of the possible social determinants of child abuse, with the direction and magnitude of associations expressed as odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confident interval levels (95% CI). Results: Identified determinants of child abuse included exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), justifying wife beating, exposure to generational IPV, and such factors as younger age of the women, male sex, partners’ lower education, poverty, residence in urban areas, younger children, and residence in households with 3 - 5 children. Conclusions: Experience of IPV, mothers’ justification of wife beating, and generational IPV were associated with elevated odds of child abuse. Findings indicate possible high levels of unmet child protection needs, and stress the need for professionals working with children to employ culturally-sensitive methods in investigating social determinants of child abuse. PMID:26401957

  9. [Social determinants of health associated to the human immunodeficiency virus of indigenous women in north Oaxaca, México].

    PubMed

    Juan-Martínez, Berenice; Castillo-Arcos, Lubia Del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The vulnerability to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may increase based on specific social determinants of health, which can also affect the lack of adherence to a safe sexual behavior and access to antiretroviral treatment in indigenous women. Consequently, it is necessary to review, through a documentary study, what are those determinants in the case of a group of indigenous women from the North of Oaxaca and how these aspects affect those women, as well as the important role of nursing for the best approach. Social determinants are classified into 3 levels: macro (socioeconomic status, income, migration and education), meso (culture, gender and access to health services) and micro (lifestyles and adoption of safe sex). Indigenous women with limited resources become easy targets of HIV by engaging in risky sexual behaviors inadvertently. The nurse is a key professional who can influence behaviors of women through effective interventions that help foster self-confidence and empowerment, using the resources that the person possesses.

  10. Perceptions of the social determinants of health by two groups more and less affiliated with public health in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite strong academic recognition of the SDOH both in Canada and internationally, acknowledgement and uptake of the SDOH in health policy and public consciousness have remained weak. This paper aims to discern reasons for limited action on the SDOH by examining the perceptions of the SDOH held by two groups more and less affiliated with public health in Canada. We conducted formal consultation with group members on their interpretation of the SDOH and their thoughts on the nature and basis of differences between those more and less aligned with the SDOH as a basis for action. Thematic analysis was used to evaluate the views of the two groups. Findings Group 1 (community/public health workers) felt overwhelmed when confronted with questions regarding action on the SDOH within the context of their professional lives. They suggested an expanded list of health determinants that included factors such as voluntarism and happiness, transcending traditional notions of “root causes.” Furthermore, they did not articulate value-based reasons why others would oppose the SDOH; rather, in line with their professional roles, they adopted a value-neutral and pragmatic approach to working to improve health. Group 2 (child and youth advocacy organization members) seemed rooted in the 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion framework, with their recommendations aligned with strategies such as building healthy public policy and reorienting health services. Neither group made reference to issues of social justice or inequity when they made suggestions for improving health. Conclusions We found that two groups with different affiliations to formal public health could discuss the SDOH without acknowledging the inequitable distribution of power and resources that lies at its root. We also found that those working in public health had difficulty moving beyond individual actions that they or their clients could take to improve health. For a group more focused on advocacy

  11. Beyond ‘Run, Knit and Relax’: Can Health Promotion in Canada Advance the Social Determinants of Health Agenda?

    PubMed Central

    Schrecker, Ted

    2013-01-01

    Can health promotion in Canada effectively respond to the challenge of reducing health inequities presented by the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health? Against a background of failure to take seriously issues of social structure, I focus in particular on treatments of stress and its effects on health, and on the destructive congruence of Canadian health promotion initiatives with the neoliberal “individualization” of responsibility for (ill) health. I suggest that the necessary reinvention of the health promotion enterprise is possible, but implausible. PMID:24289939

  12. Determining the Social Effects of a Legal Reform; the British Breathalyser Crackdown of 1967

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, H. Laurence; And Others

    1970-01-01

    An application of the Interrupted Time-Series, a quasi-experimental research design, in the sociology of law (law and social change). The effects of British Road Safety Act of 1967, concerning drinking and driving, were analyzed. (SE)

  13. Social autopsy study identifies determinants of neonatal mortality in Doume, Nguelemendouka and Abong–Mbang health districts, Eastern Region of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Koffi, Alain K.; Libite, Paul–Roger; Moluh, Seidou; Wounang, Romain; Kalter, Henry D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Reducing preventable medical causes of neonatal death for faster progress toward the MGD4 will require Cameroon to adequately address the social factors contributing to these deaths. The objective of this paper is to explore the social, behavioral and health systems determinants of newborn death in Doume, Nguelemendouka and Abong–Mbang health districts, in Eastern Region of Cameroon, from 2007–2010. Methods Data come from the 2012 Verbal/Social Autopsy (VASA) study, which aimed to determine the biological causes and social, behavioral and health systems determinants of under–five deaths in Doume, Nguelemendouka and Abong–Mbang health districts in Eastern Region of Cameroon. The analysis of the data was guided by the review of the coverage of key interventions along the continuum of normal maternal and newborn care and by the description of breakdowns in the care provided for severe neonatal illnesses within the Pathway to Survival conceptual framework. Results One hundred sixty–four newborn deaths were confirmed from the VASA survey. The majority of the deceased newborns were living in households with poor socio–economic conditions. Most (60–80%) neonates were born to mothers who had one or more pregnancy or labor and delivery complications. Only 23% of the deceased newborns benefited from hygienic cord care after birth. Half received appropriate thermal care and only 6% were breastfed within one hour after birth. Sixty percent of the deaths occurred during the first day of life. Fifty–five percent of the babies were born at home. More than half of the deaths (57%) occurred at home. Of the 64 neonates born at a health facility, about 63% died in the health facility without leaving. Careseeking was delayed for several neonates who became sick after the first week of life and whose illnesses were less serious at the onset until they became more severely ill. Cost, including for transport, health care and other expenses, emerged as main

  14. Dynamics of social health insurance development: examining the determinants of Chinese basic health insurance coverage with panel data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Qiang

    2011-08-01

    Social health insurance (SHI) is gaining popularity in many developing countries, but there are few systematic empirical studies on the dynamics of SHI development. This study investigates the determinants of coverage of the Basic Healthcare Insurance for Urban Employees (BHI) in China. Using a panel database ranging from 1999 to 2007, the study finds that: (1) economic development plays a valuable role in BHI development; (2) strong financial capacity and administrative capacity in the government contributes to BHI progress; (3) higher trade union density is closely related to more rapid BHI expansion; and (4) taxation agencies are better at collecting SHI premiums. These findings provide evidence-based lessons for new and ongoing SHI programs. In addition, this article aims to make a more general contribution to the study of social policy development by expanding the scope of current theories on social policy development.

  15. Social and environmental health determinants and their relationship with parasitic diseases in asymptomatic children from a shantytown in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Garbossa, Graciela; Pía Buyayisqui, María; Geffner, Laura; López Arias, Ludmila; de la Fournière, Sofía; Haedo, Ana S; Marconi, Adela E; Frid, Juan C; Nesse, Alcira B; Bordoni, Noemí

    2013-04-01

    Health inequities are a common problem for all countries and are the result of not only adverse social conditions but also poor public policies. Today chronic diseases represent the most relevant threats and are a current challenge. Parasitic infections, a leading cause of child morbidity affecting low-income populations, can be transmitted because of an unhealthy environment. Notwithstanding, scarce data have been published on the epidemiological profile of intestinal parasitoses in asymptomatic children living in shantytowns. Vulnerable populations settled in slums are growing in Argentina, particularly in Buenos Aires city. Consequently, this work intended to screen healthy carriers of enteric parasites and determine the epidemiologic profile in asymptomatic children residing in one of those communities, to explore risk factors associated with the transmission of parasites, and to initiate a basic health education campaign to promote healthy behavior in the community. Fecal samples (n = 138) were analyzed by conventional parasitological methods and a survey gathered data on symptoms, family composition, and environmental and hygiene-related variables. High prevalence of feco-orally-transmitted parasitoses (83·3%) and polyparasitism were remarkable findings. The main environmental health determinants were those related to excreta disposal and water provision. Health promotion actions were performed through the diffusion of a set of posters with iconic images and brief messages for health education. Results suggest the need for an environmental sanitation policy to complement health promotion actions. It is essential to spread the results of investigations that address inequities and social determinants of health in order to integrate data with local political processes and alert on acceptable actions for developing appropriate interventions.

  16. Social and environmental health determinants and their relationship with parasitic diseases in asymptomatic children from a shantytown in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Garbossa, Graciela; Pía Buyayisqui, María; Geffner, Laura; López Arias, Ludmila; de la Fournière, Sofía; Haedo, Ana S; Marconi, Adela E; Frid, Juan C; Nesse, Alcira B; Bordoni, Noemí

    2013-01-01

    Health inequities are a common problem for all countries and are the result of not only adverse social conditions but also poor public policies. Today chronic diseases represent the most relevant threats and are a current challenge. Parasitic infections, a leading cause of child morbidity affecting low-income populations, can be transmitted because of an unhealthy environment. Notwithstanding, scarce data have been published on the epidemiological profile of intestinal parasitoses in asymptomatic children living in shantytowns. Vulnerable populations settled in slums are growing in Argentina, particularly in Buenos Aires city. Consequently, this work intended to screen healthy carriers of enteric parasites and determine the epidemiologic profile in asymptomatic children residing in one of those communities, to explore risk factors associated with the transmission of parasites, and to initiate a basic health education campaign to promote healthy behavior in the community. Fecal samples (n = 138) were analyzed by conventional parasitological methods and a survey gathered data on symptoms, family composition, and environmental and hygiene-related variables. High prevalence of feco-orally-transmitted parasitoses (83.3%) and polyparasitism were remarkable findings. The main environmental health determinants were those related to excreta disposal and water provision. Health promotion actions were performed through the diffusion of a set of posters with iconic images and brief messages for health education. Results suggest the need for an environmental sanitation policy to complement health promotion actions. It is essential to spread the results of investigations that address inequities and social determinants of health in order to integrate data with local political processes and alert on acceptable actions for developing appropriate interventions. PMID:23683369

  17. Content Addressable Memory Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    The Content Addressable M1-emory Project consists of the development of several experimental software systems on an AMT Distributed Array Processor...searching (database) compiler algorithms memory management other systems software) Linear C is an unlovely hybrid language which imports the CAM...memory from AMT’s operating system for the DAP; how- ever, other than this limitation, the memory management routines work exactly as their C counterparts

  18. A survey of retirement intentions of baby boomers: an overview of health, social and economic determinants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Governments have been implementing policies aimed at halting the trend towards early retirement for Baby Boomers. Public policies can have a strong effect on when a person retires and this analysis contributes to an improved understanding of retirement aspirations in regards to health, social, workplace and economic determinants. Methods In October 2011 a telephone survey was undertaken with participants aged 50 to 65 years who were in paid employment and who had been in the workforce for the previous three years. Participants were obtained from two identical South Australian cohort studies - the North West Adelaide Health Study and the Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study. The results of the telephone survey were linked to the original cohort data. Data were weighted by sex, age, postcode and probability of selection in the household. Work related questions included how much they thought about their retirement, current occupation, employment status, type of workplace and hours worked per week. Health related questions included current smoking status, physical activity, body mass index, self-reported health status and overall life satisfaction. Uni-variable and multi-variable analyses were undertaken to compare the different associations between people who were and were not intending to retire. Results In total, 25.9% (n = 210) of people who were currently in paid employment indicated that they intend to retire completely from the workforce. The remainder indicated that they will continue to work (41.8% retire from full-time work but work part-time, 25.7% continue working part-time but reduce their current hours, and 6.7% never retire). The multi-variable results indicate that those with lower education, having a savings habit, and sales workers more likely to anticipate complete retirement. The self-employed, and those thinking only moderately about retirement, were more likely to extend their working life beyond age 65. Conclusion An important

  19. Severity as an independent determinant of the social value of a health service.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jeff R J; McKie, John; Peacock, Stuart J; Iezzi, Angelo

    2011-04-01

    This paper has two objectives, first to review the relevant literature concerning the social importance of severity of pre-treatment condition, and second to present the results of a new analysis of the relationship between social value, individual assessment of health improvement and the severity of illness. The present study differs methodologically from others reported in the literature. The underlying hypothesis is that members of the public have an aversion to patients being in a severe health state irrespective of the reason for their being there, and that this aversion will affect the social valuation of a health program after taking account of the magnitude of the health improvement. This effect will be observable in a program which (compared to another) takes a person out of a severe health state--the usual case discussed in the literature--or in a program which (compared to another) leaves a person in a severe health state. The present study tests this second implication of the hypothesis. We present data consistent with the view that after taking account of health improvement, health programs are preferred which do not leave people in severe health states. Alternative explanations are considered and particularly the possibility that data reflect a social preference for individuals achieving their health potential. Both explanations imply the need to reconsider the rules for prioritizing programs. In this analysis, Person Trade-Off (PTO) scores are used to measure social preferences ('value' or 'social utility') and Time Trade-Off (TTO) scores are used to measure individual assessments of health improvement and initial severity. Econometric results suggest that severity is highly significant and may more than double the index of social value of a health service.

  20. Interactions between social structure, demography, and transmission determine disease persistence in primates.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Sadie J; Jones, James H; Dobson, Andrew P

    2013-01-01

    Catastrophic declines in African great ape populations due to disease outbreaks have been reported in recent years, yet we rarely hear of similar disease impacts for the more solitary Asian great apes, or for smaller primates. We used an age-structured model of different primate social systems to illustrate that interactions between social structure and demography create 'dynamic constraints' on the pathogens that can establish and persist in primate host species with different social systems. We showed that this varies by disease transmission mode. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) require high rates of transmissibility to persist within a primate population. In particular, for a unimale social system, STIs require extremely high rates of transmissibility for persistence, and remain at extremely low prevalence in small primates, but this is less constrained in longer-lived, larger-bodied primates. In contrast, aerosol transmitted infections (ATIs) spread and persist at high prevalence in medium and large primates with moderate transmissibility;, establishment and persistence in small-bodied primates require higher relative rates of transmissibility. Intragroup contact structure - the social network - creates different constraints for different transmission modes, and our model underscores the importance of intragroup contacts on infection prior to intergroup movement in a structured population. When alpha males dominate sexual encounters, the resulting disease transmission dynamics differ from when social interactions are dominated by mother-infant grooming events, for example. This has important repercussions for pathogen spread across populations. Our framework reveals essential social and demographic characteristics of primates that predispose them to different disease risks that will be important for disease management and conservation planning for protected primate populations.

  1. Correlation between Social Determinants of Health and Women’s Empowerment in Reproductive Decision-Making among Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Zahra; Simbar, Masuomeh; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Zayeri, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Women empowerment is one of millennium development goals which is effective on fertility, population’s stability and wellbeing. The influence of social determinants of health (SDH) on women empowerment is documented, however the correlation between SDH and women’s empowerment in fertility has not been figured out yet. This study was conducted to assess correlation between social determinants of health and women’s empowerment in reproductive decisions. Material and Methods: This was a descriptive-correlation study on 400 women who attended health centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Tehran-Iran. Four hundred women were recruited using multistage cluster sampling method. The tools for data collection were 6 questionnaires including; 1) socio-demographic characteristics 2) women’s empowerment in reproductive decision-making, 3) perceived social support, 4) self-esteem, 5) marital satisfaction, 6) access to health services. Data were analyzed by SPSS-17 and using Pearson and Spearman correlation tests. Results: Results showed 82.54 ± 14.00 (Mean±SD) of total score 152 of women’s empowerment in reproductive decision making. All structural and intermediate variables were correlated with women’s empowerment in reproductive decisions. The highest correlations were demonstrated between education (among structural determinants; r= 0.44, P< 0.001), and Self-esteem (among intermediate determinants; r= 0.34, P< 0.001) with women’s empowerment in fertility decision making. Conclusion: Social determinants of health have a significant correlation with women’s empowerment in reproductive decision-making. PMID:27157184

  2. A trans-disciplinary approach to the evaluation of social determinants of health in a hispanic population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Individual and community health are adversely impacted by disparities in health outcomes among disadvantaged and vulnerable populations. Understanding the underlying causes for variations in health outcomes is an essential step towards developing effective interventions to ameliorate inequalities and subsequently improve overall community health. Working at the neighborhood scale, this study examines multiple social determinates that can cause health disparities including low neighborhood wealth, weak social networks, inadequate public infrastructure, the presence of hazardous materials in or near a neighborhood, and the lack of access to primary care services. The goal of this research is to develop innovative and replicable strategies to improve community health in disadvantaged communities such as newly arrived Hispanic immigrants. Methods/design This project is taking place within a primary care practice-based research network (PBRN) using key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Associations between social determinants and rates of hospitalizations, emergency department (ED) use, and ED use for primary care treatable or preventable conditions are being examined. Geospatial models are in development using both hospital and community level data to identify local areas where interventions to improve disparities would have the greatest impact. The developed associations between social determinants and health outcomes as well as the geospatial models will be validated using community surveys and qualitative methods. A rapidly growing and underserved Hispanic immigrant population will be the target of an intervention informed by the research process to impact utilization of primary care services and designed, deployed, and evaluated using the geospatial tools and qualitative research findings. The purpose of this intervention will be to reduce health disparities by improving access to, and utilization of, primary care and

  3. First- and second-order sociality determine survival and reproduction in cooperative cichlids

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative breeders serve as a model to study the evolution of cooperation, where costs and benefits of helping are typically scrutinized at the level of group membership. However, cooperation is often observed in multi-level social organizations involving interactions among individuals at various levels. Here, we argue that a full understanding of the adaptive value of cooperation and the evolution of complex social organization requires identifying the effect of different levels of social organization on direct and indirect fitness components. Our long-term field data show that in the cooperatively breeding, colonial cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher, both large group size and high colony density significantly raised group persistence. Neither group size nor density affected survival at the individual level, but they had interactive effects on reproductive output; large group size raised productivity when local population density was low, whereas in contrast, small groups were more productive at high densities. Fitness estimates of individually marked fish revealed indirect fitness benefits associated with staying in large groups. Inclusive fitness, however, was not significantly affected by group size, because the direct fitness component was not increased in larger groups. Together, our findings highlight that the reproductive output of groups may be affected in opposite directions by different levels of sociality, and that complex forms of sociality and costly cooperation may evolve in the absence of large indirect fitness benefits and the influence of kin selection. PMID:26582022

  4. Social class and mental health: testing exploitation as a relational determinant of depression.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Carles; Ng, Edwin; Prins, Seth J; Bones-Rocha, Katia; Espelt, Albert; Chung, Haejoo

    2015-01-01

    This study tests whether social class exploitation operates as a relational mechanism that generates mental health inequalities in the nursing home industry. We ask, does social class exploitation (i.e., the acquisition of economic benefits from the labor of those who are dominated) have a systematic and predictable impact on depression among nursing assistants? Using cross-sectional data from 868 nursing assistants employed in 50 nursing homes in three U.S. states, we measure social class exploitation as "ownership type" (private for-profit, private not-for-profit, and public) and "managerial domination" (labor relations violations, perceptions of labor-management conflict). Depression is assessed using the original and revised versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D and CESD-R). Using two-level logistic regressions, we find that private for-profit ownership and higher managerial domination are predictive of depression among nursing assistants even after adjustment for potential confounders and mediators. Our findings confirm the theoretical and empirical value of applying a social class approach to understanding how mental health inequalities are generated through exploitative mechanisms. Ownership type and managerial domination appear to affect depression through social relations that generate mental health inequalities through the process of acquiring profits, controlling production, supervising and monitoring labor, and enforcing disciplinary sanctions.

  5. Social Class and Mental Health: Testing Exploitation as a Relational Determinant of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Muntaner, Carles; Ng, Edwin; Prins, Seth J.; Bones-Rocha, Katia; Espelt, Albert; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-01-01

    This study tests whether social class exploitation operates as a relational mechanism that generates mental health inequalities in the nursing home industry. We ask, does social class exploitation (i.e., the acquisition of economic benefits from the labor of those who are dominated) have a systematic and predictable impact on depression among nursing assistants? Using cross-sectional data from 868 nursing assistants employed in 50 nursing homes in three U.S. states, we measure social class exploitation as “ownership type” (private for-profit, private not-for-profit, and public) and “managerial domination” (labor relations violations, perceptions of labor-management conflict). Depression is assessed using the original and revised versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D and CESD-R). Using two-level logistic regressions, we find that private for-profit ownership and higher managerial domination are predictive of depression among nursing assistants even after adjustment for potential confounders and mediators. Our findings confirm the theoretical and empirical value of applying a social class approach to understanding how mental health inequalities are generated through exploitative mechanisms. Ownership type and managerial domination appear to affect depression through social relations that generate mental health inequalities through the process of acquiring profits, controlling production, supervising and monitoring labor, and enforcing disciplinary sanctions. PMID:25813501

  6. First- and second-order sociality determine survival and reproduction in cooperative cichlids.

    PubMed

    Jungwirth, Arne; Taborsky, Michael

    2015-11-22

    Cooperative breeders serve as a model to study the evolution of cooperation, where costs and benefits of helping are typically scrutinized at the level of group membership. However, cooperation is often observed in multi-level social organizations involving interactions among individuals at various levels. Here, we argue that a full understanding of the adaptive value of cooperation and the evolution of complex social organization requires identifying the effect of different levels of social organization on direct and indirect fitness components. Our long-term field data show that in the cooperatively breeding, colonial cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher, both large group size and high colony density significantly raised group persistence. Neither group size nor density affected survival at the individual level, but they had interactive effects on reproductive output; large group size raised productivity when local population density was low, whereas in contrast, small groups were more productive at high densities. Fitness estimates of individually marked fish revealed indirect fitness benefits associated with staying in large groups. Inclusive fitness, however, was not significantly affected by group size, because the direct fitness component was not increased in larger groups. Together, our findings highlight that the reproductive output of groups may be affected in opposite directions by different levels of sociality, and that complex forms of sociality and costly cooperation may evolve in the absence of large indirect fitness benefits and the influence of kin selection.

  7. MEG premotor abnormalities in children with Asperger's syndrome: determinants of social behavior?

    PubMed

    Hauswald, Anne; Weisz, Nathan; Bentin, Shlomo; Kissler, Johanna

    2013-07-01

    Children with Asperger's syndrome show deficits in social functioning while their intellectual and language development is intact suggesting a specific dysfunction in mechanisms mediating social cognition. An action observation/execution matching system might be one such mechanism. Recent studies indeed showed that electrophysiological modulation of the "Mu-rhythm" in the 10-12Hz range is weaker when individuals with Asperger's syndrome observe actions performed by others compared to controls. However, electrophysiological studies typically fall short in revealing the neural generators of this activity. To fill this gap we assessed magnetoencephalographic Mu-modulations in Asperger's and typically developed children, while observing grasping movements. Mu-power increased at frontal and central sensors during movement observation. This modulation was stronger in typical than in Asperger children. Source localization revealed stronger sources in premotor cortex, the intraparietal lobule (IPL) and the mid-occipito-temporal gyrus (MOTG) and weaker sources in prefrontal cortex in typical participants compared to Asperger. Activity in premotor regions, IPL and MOTG correlated positively with social competence, whereas prefrontal Mu-sources correlated negatively with social competence. No correlation with intellectual ability was found at any of these sites. These findings localize abnormal Mu-activity in the brain of Asperger children providing evidence which associates motor-system abnormalities with social-function deficits.

  8. Diagnosis as a social determinant: the development of prosocial behaviour before and after an autism spectrum diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Russell, Ginny; Kelly, Susan E; Ford, Tamsin; Steer, Colin

    2012-11-01

    Jutel and Nettleton (2011) discuss diagnosis as not only a major classification tool for medicine but also an interactive social process that itself may have ramifications for health. Consideration of diagnosis as a social determinant of health outcomes led to the formulation of our research question: Can we detect a change in the development of prosocial symptoms before and after an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnosis? We examined the developmental trajectory of prosocial skills of children, as impairment in social skills is given as a core symptom for children with ASD. We used a validated scale measuring prosocial behaviour for a sample of 57 children where the measure was repeatedly recorded over ten years. We plotted the developmental trajectory of the prosocial trait in this sample who were enrolled in a longitudinal birth cohort study based in South West England. Multi-factorial fixed effect modelling suggests that the developmental trajectory of this measure of behaviour was not significantly altered by ASD diagnosis, or the consequences of diagnosis, either for better or worse. Further analysis was conducted on a subset of 33 of the children who had both pre-diagnosis and post-diagnosis information, and the same result obtained. The results indicate that prosocial behaviours may be resistant to typical 'treatments': provision of educational and specialist health services triggered by a clinical ASD diagnosis. The implications of this for considering diagnosis as a social determinant are discussed.

  9. Social pressure, coercion, and client engagement at treatment entry: a self-determination theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Wild, T Cameron; Cunningham, John A; Ryan, Richard M

    2006-10-01

    Research on coercion in addiction treatment typically investigates objective sources of social pressure among legally mandated clients. Little research has examined the impact of clients' perceptions of social pressures in generalist addiction services. Clients seeking substance abuse treatment (N=300; 221 males and 79 females; M age=36.6 years) rated the extent to which treatment was being sought because of coercive social pressures (external motivation; alpha=.89), guilt about continued substance abuse (introjected motivation; alpha=.84), or a personal choice and commitment to the goals of the program (identified motivation; alpha=.85). External treatment motivation was positively correlated with legal referral, social network pressures to enter treatment, and was inversely related to problem severity. In contrast, identified treatment motivation was positively correlated with self-referral and problem severity, and was inversely related to perceived coercion (ps<.05). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that referral source (i.e., mandated treatment status), legal history, and social network pressures did not predict any of 6 measures of client engagement at the time treatment was sought. However, treatment motivation variables accounted for unique variance in these outcomes when added to each model (DeltaR(2)s=.06-.23, ps<.05). Specifically, identified treatment motivation predicted perceived benefits of reducing substance use, attempts to reduce drinking and drug use, as well as self (and therapist) ratings of interest in the upcoming treatment episode (betas=.18-.31, ps<.05). Results suggest that the presence of legal referral and/or social network pressures to quit, cut down, and/or enter treatment does not affect client engagement at treatment entry.

  10. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  11. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  12. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  13. Tuberculosis stigma as a social determinant of health: a systematic mapping review of research in low incidence countries.

    PubMed

    Craig, G M; Daftary, A; Engel, N; O'Driscoll, S; Ioannaki, A

    2017-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB)-related stigma is an important social determinant of health. Research generally highlights how stigma can have a considerable impact on individuals and communities, including delays in seeking health care and adherence to treatment. There is scant research into the assessment of TB-related stigma in low incidence countries. This study aimed to systematically map out the research into stigma. A particular emphasis was placed on the methods employed to measure stigma, the conceptual frameworks used to understand stigma, and whether structural factors were theorized. Twenty-two studies were identified; the majority adopted a qualitative approach and aimed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about TB. Few studies included stigma as a substantive topic. Only one study aimed to reduce stigma. A number of studies suggested that TB control measures and representations of migrants in the media reporting of TB were implicated in the production of stigma. The paucity of conceptual models and theories about how the social and structural determinants intersect with stigma was apparent. Future interventions to reduce stigma, and measurements of effectiveness, would benefit from a stronger theoretical underpinning in relation to TB stigma and the intersection between the social and structural determinants of health.

  14. Economic, Social, and Cultural Determinants of Life Satisfaction: Are There Differences between Asia and Europe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagodzinski, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of the economic, social, and cultural variables on life satisfaction in Asia and Europe. The second section sets a unifying theoretical framework for all three domains by defining life satisfaction as a function of aspirations and expectations which in turn are affected by micro- and macro-level variables. On…

  15. Self-Determined Motivation and Social Achievement Goals in Children's Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouratidis, Athanasios; Michou, Aikaterini

    2011-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study we investigated to what extent autonomous and controlled motivation and social achievement goals are associated with students' emotional experiences at school. We found in a sample of 426 elementary school students, aged from 10 to 12 years, autonomous motivation (i.e. students' engagement in class activities because…

  16. Early Childhood Experiences and Health. Exploring the Social Determinants of Health. Issue Brief #2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braveman, Paula; Sadegh-Nobari, Tabashir; Egerter, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The earliest years of one's life are crucial in many ways, including how they set one on paths leading toward--or away from--good health. Family income, education, and neighborhood resources and other social and economic factors affect health at every stage of life, but the effects on young children are particularly dramatic. While all parents…

  17. ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION, AFFILIATION MOTIVATION, AND TASK DIFFICULTY AS DETERMINANTS OF SOCIAL CONFORMITY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    subjected to contrived group pressures toward erroneous perceptual judgments. An analysis of variance of frequencies of conforming behavior revealed (a... conformity to group pressures disappear when predispositional motivational factors are controlled. (Author)...Extending from the differentiation of normative and informational processes of social influence an investigation of interactions between two

  18. The Social Buffering of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis in Humans: Developmental and Experiential Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Gunnar, Megan R.; Hostinar, Camelia E.

    2015-01-01

    Social buffering, a subset of social support, is the process through which the availability of a conspecific reduces the activity of stress-mediating neurobiological systems. While its role in coping and resilience is significant, we know little about its developmental history in humans. This brief review presents an integrative developmental account of the social buffering of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) stress reactivity in humans, from infancy to adulthood. During infancy, parents are powerful stress-regulators for children, but child temperament also plays a role and interacts with parenting quality to predict the magnitude of stress responses to fear or pain stimuli. Recent work indicates that parental support remains a potent stress buffer into late childhood, but that it loses its effectiveness as a buffer of the HPA axis by adolescence. Puberty may be the switch that alters the potency of parental buffering. In Beginning in middle childhood, friends may serve as stress buffers, particularly when other peers are the source of stress. By adulthood romantic partners assume this protective role, though studies often reveal sex differences that are currently not well understood. Translational research across species will be critical for developing a mechanistic understanding of social buffering and the processes involved in developmental changes noted in this review. PMID:26230646

  19. Both information and social cohesion determine collective decisions in animal groups

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Noam; Garnier, Simon; Hartnett, Andrew T.; Couzin, Iain D.

    2013-01-01

    During consensus decision making, individuals in groups balance personal information (based on their own past experiences) with social information (based on the behavior of other individuals), allowing the group to reach a single collective choice. Previous studies of consensus decision making processes have focused on the informational aspects of behavioral choice, assuming that individuals make choices based solely on their likelihood of being beneficial (e.g., rewarded). However, decisions by both humans and nonhuman animals systematically violate such expectations. Furthermore, the typical experimental paradigm of assessing binary decisions, those between two mutually exclusive options, confounds two aspects common to most group decisions: minimizing uncertainty (through the use of personal and social information) and maintaining group cohesion (for example, to reduce predation risk). Here we experimentally disassociate cohesion-based decisions from information-based decisions using a three-choice paradigm and demonstrate that both factors are crucial to understanding the collective decision making of schooling fish. In addition, we demonstrate how multiple informational dimensions (here color and stripe orientation) are integrated within groups to achieve consensus, even though no individual is explicitly aware of, or has a unique preference for, the consensus option. Balancing of personal information and social cues by individuals in key frontal positions in the group is shown to be essential for such group-level capabilities. Our results demonstrate the importance of integrating informational with other social considerations when explaining the collective capabilities of group-living animals. PMID:23440218

  20. Both information and social cohesion determine collective decisions in animal groups.

    PubMed

    Miller, Noam; Garnier, Simon; Hartnett, Andrew T; Couzin, Iain D

    2013-03-26

    During consensus decision making, individuals in groups balance personal information (based on their own past experiences) with social information (based on the behavior of other individuals), allowing the group to reach a single collective choice. Previous studies of consensus decision making processes have focused on the informational aspects of behavioral choice, assuming that individuals make choices based solely on their likelihood of being beneficial (e.g., rewarded). However, decisions by both humans and nonhuman animals systematically violate such expectations. Furthermore, the typical experimental paradigm of assessing binary decisions, those between two mutually exclusive options, confounds two aspects common to most group decisions: minimizing uncertainty (through the use of personal and social information) and maintaining group cohesion (for example, to reduce predation risk). Here we experimentally disassociate cohesion-based decisions from information-based decisions using a three-choice paradigm and demonstrate that both factors are crucial to understanding the collective decision making of schooling fish. In addition, we demonstrate how multiple informational dimensions (here color and stripe orientation) are integrated within groups to achieve consensus, even though no individual is explicitly aware of, or has a unique preference for, the consensus option. Balancing of personal information and social cues by individuals in key frontal positions in the group is shown to be essential for such group-level capabilities. Our results demonstrate the importance of integrating informational with other social considerations when explaining the collective capabilities of group-living animals.