Science.gov

Sample records for address social security

  1. Addressing social resistance in emerging security technologies.

    PubMed

    Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In their efforts to enhance the safety and security of citizens, governments and law enforcement agencies look to scientists and engineers to produce modern methods for preventing, detecting, and prosecuting criminal activities. Whole body scanners, lie detection technologies, biometrics, etc., are all being developed for incorporation into the criminal justice apparatus. Yet despite their purported security benefits these technologies often evoke social resistance. Concerns over privacy, ethics, and function-creep appear repeatedly in analyses of these technologies. It is argued here that scientists and engineers continue to pay insufficient attention to this resistance; acknowledging the presence of these social concerns yet failing to meaningfully address them. In so doing they place at risk the very technologies and techniques they are seeking to develop, for socially controversial security technologies face restrictions and in some cases outright banning. By identifying sources of potential social resistance early in the research and design process, scientists can both engage with the public in meaningful debate and modify their security technologies before deployment so as to minimize social resistance and enhance uptake. PMID:23970863

  2. Addressing social resistance in emerging security technologies

    PubMed Central

    Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In their efforts to enhance the safety and security of citizens, governments and law enforcement agencies look to scientists and engineers to produce modern methods for preventing, detecting, and prosecuting criminal activities. Whole body scanners, lie detection technologies, biometrics, etc., are all being developed for incorporation into the criminal justice apparatus.1 Yet despite their purported security benefits these technologies often evoke social resistance. Concerns over privacy, ethics, and function-creep appear repeatedly in analyses of these technologies. It is argued here that scientists and engineers continue to pay insufficient attention to this resistance; acknowledging the presence of these social concerns yet failing to meaningfully address them. In so doing they place at risk the very technologies and techniques they are seeking to develop, for socially controversial security technologies face restrictions and in some cases outright banning. By identifying sources of potential social resistance early in the research and design process, scientists can both engage with the public in meaningful debate and modify their security technologies before deployment so as to minimize social resistance and enhance uptake. PMID:23970863

  3. Addressing Software Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Historically security within organizations was thought of as an IT function (web sites/servers, email, workstation patching, etc.) Threat landscape has evolved (Script Kiddies, Hackers, Advanced Persistent Threat (APT), Nation States, etc.) Attack surface has expanded -Networks interconnected!! Some security posture factors Network Layer (Routers, Firewalls, etc.) Computer Network Defense (IPS/IDS, Sensors, Continuous Monitoring, etc.) Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Software Security (COTS, FOSS, Custom, etc.)

  4. Addressing Information Security Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qayoumi, Mohammad H.; Woody, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Good information security does not just happen--and often does not happen at all. Resources are always in short supply, and there are always other needs that seem more pressing. Why? Because information security is hard to define, the required tasks are unclear, and the work never seems to be finished. However, the loss to the organization can be…

  5. Social Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This group of articles discusses a variety of studies related to social security and retirement benefits. These studies are related to both developing and developed nations and are also concerned with studying work conditions and government role in administering a democratic social security system. (SSH)

  6. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  7. Statistical security for Social Security.

    PubMed

    Soneji, Samir; King, Gary

    2012-08-01

    The financial viability of Social Security, the single largest U.S. government program, depends on accurate forecasts of the solvency of its intergenerational trust fund. We begin by detailing information necessary for replicating the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) forecasting procedures, which until now has been unavailable in the public domain. We then offer a way to improve the quality of these procedures via age- and sex-specific mortality forecasts. The most recent SSA mortality forecasts were based on the best available technology at the time, which was a combination of linear extrapolation and qualitative judgments. Unfortunately, linear extrapolation excludes known risk factors and is inconsistent with long-standing demographic patterns, such as the smoothness of age profiles. Modern statistical methods typically outperform even the best qualitative judgments in these contexts. We show how to use such methods, enabling researchers to forecast using far more information, such as the known risk factors of smoking and obesity and known demographic patterns. Including this extra information makes a substantial difference. For example, by improving only mortality forecasting methods, we predict three fewer years of net surplus, $730 billion less in Social Security Trust Funds, and program costs that are 0.66% greater for projected taxable payroll by 2031 compared with SSA projections. More important than specific numerical estimates are the advantages of transparency, replicability, reduction of uncertainty, and what may be the resulting lower vulnerability to the politicization of program forecasts. In addition, by offering with this article software and detailed replication information, we hope to marshal the efforts of the research community to include ever more informative inputs and to continue to reduce uncertainties in Social Security forecasts. PMID:22592944

  8. Save Social Security Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. McCotter, Thaddeus G. [R-MI-11

    2011-09-12

    09/19/2011 Referred for a period ending not later than September 19, 2011, (or for a later time if the Chairman so designates) to the Subcommittee on Social Security, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the subcommittee concerned. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Social security financing.

    PubMed

    1980-05-01

    After nearly 2 years of study, the 1979 Advisory Council on Social Security submitted its findings and recommendations in December. In February the Bulletin published the Executive Summary of the Council's report. Because of the continuing wide public interest in the future of social security financing, the Council's detailed findings and recommendations on that subject are published below. The Council unanimously reports that all current and future beneficiaries can count on receiving the payments to which they are entitled. Among the recommendations it calls for are partial financing with nonpayroll-tax revenues. Suggested changes include hospital insurance (HI) financed through portins of personal and corporate income taxes and a part of the HI insurance payroll tax diverted to cash benefits with the balance of this tax repealed. The Council also recommends that the social security cash benefits program be brought into long-run actuarial balance--with a payroll-tax rate increase in the year 2005. It rejects the idea of a value-added tax as being inflationary. Parenthetical remarks represent additional views of the Council members cited. PMID:7423348

  10. Hydrocomplexity: Addressing water security and emergent environmental risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Praveen

    2015-07-01

    Water security and emergent environmental risks are among the most significant societal concerns. They are highly interlinked to other global risks such as those related to climate, human health, food, human migration, biodiversity loss, urban sustainability, etc. Emergent risks result from the confluence of unanticipated interactions from evolving interdependencies between complex systems, such as those embedded in the water cycle. They are associated with the novelty of dynamical possibilities that have significant potential consequences to human and ecological systems, and not with probabilities based on historical precedence. To ensure water security we need to be able to anticipate the likelihood of risk possibilities as they present the prospect of the most impact through cascade of vulnerabilities. They arise due to a confluence of nonstationary drivers that include growing population, climate change, demographic shifts, urban growth, and economic expansion, among others, which create novel interdependencies leading to a potential of cascading network effects. Hydrocomplexity aims to address water security and emergent risks through the development of science, methods, and practices with the potential to foster a "Blue Revolution" akin to the Green revolution for food security. It blends both hard infrastructure based solution with soft knowledge driven solutions to increase the range of planning and design, management, mitigation and adaptation strategies. It provides a conceptual and synthetic framework to enable us to integrate discovery science and engineering, observational and information science, computational and communication systems, and social and institutional approaches to address consequential water and environmental challenges.

  11. Addressing software security risk mitigations in the life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David; Powell, John; Haugh, Eric; Bishop, Matt

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) has funded the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with a Center Initiative, 'Reducing Software Security Risk through an Integrated Approach' (RSSR), to address this need. The Initiative is a formal approach to addressing software security in the life cycle through the instantiation of a Software Security Assessment Instrument (SSAI) for the development and maintenance life cycles.

  12. Social Security and Supplemental Security Income Benefits for Children with Disabilities. The Arc Q & A Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    Basic information about Social Security and Supplementary Security Income benefits for children with disabilities is presented in a question-and-answer format. The following questions are addressed: "How can a child get benefits from Social Security or Supplemental Security Income (SSI)?"; "How is eligibility determined?"; "What is the definition…

  13. Africa: addressing growing threats to food security.

    PubMed

    Rukuni, Mandivamba

    2002-11-01

    Africa remains the only region in the world where the number of hungry people will still be on the increase in 2020, and the number of malnourished children will have increased correspondingly. In this report I have acknowledged the general public policy trends across Africa in terms of macroeconomic policy reforms and political transitions. These welcome trends have to still produce stable nations and economies. Although economic development is the long-term solution to Africa's challenge on hunger and poverty, this will take time. And it follows therefore that African nations have to pursue policies and strategies that promote long-term growth while at the same time offering short-term safety nets for the poorest of the poor. The growth and development strategy will have at its core the need to increase significantly the levels of public-sector investment in agriculture and rural development and to give top priority to the commercialization of smallholder agriculture so as to increase productivity and competitiveness. But food security at the household level is ultimately a balance between availability and access, and in this regard governments need complementary food security policies that increase the probability of food access by the vulnerable groups. PMID:12421867

  14. Social Security at the Crossroads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Social security schemes need to be streamlined and the underlying policies made more coherent to obtain the fullest possible return on expenditure. Third World countries need to reflect very seriously on the role of social security in the development process and on the management problems involved. (CT)

  15. Social Security and Undergraduates with Disabilities: An Analysis of the National Postsecondary Student Aid Survey. Addressing Trends in Development in Secondary Education and Transition. Information Brief. Vol. 3, Issue 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Hugh; Conway, Megan A.; Change, Kelly B.T.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this brief is to describe the characteristics of undergraduate students receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and Social Security Administration (SSI) benefits as they relate to issues of participation in postsecondary education and employment. This brief describes results from the National Postsecondary Student Aid…

  16. Women and social security: a progressive approach.

    PubMed

    Olson, L K

    1994-01-01

    This article explores some major assumptions underlying the Social Security system and alternative approaches to rendering the system more economically viable, meeting the income needs of the elderly and/or providing greater equity under its benefit and taxation provisions. It attempts to show that the current structure of Social Security not only reinforces but also exacerbates the underlying economic inequalities in our nation's political economy under the guise of a social insurance program. In addressing selected benefit and taxation issues, the article focuses on how working and older women are faring in the 1990s under the Social Security system. It argues that although the program theoretically is gender neutral, its impact is not. Women, particularly those who are single, are poorly served. The article concludes that a progressive restructuring of the Social Security system itself is imperative if we are to meet the needs of a large percentage of workers, older people, and the economic and social demands of the 1990s and beyond. It also offers some suggestions for such change.

  17. Social Security Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Waste or Abuse Site Map Website Policies Other Government Websites: Benefits.gov Disability.gov Healthcare.gov MyMoney.gov Regulations.gov USA.gov Other Government Sites Follow: Twitter Facebook YouTube Blog More Social ...

  18. Making the invisible visible: are health social workers addressing the social determinants of health?

    PubMed

    Craig, Shelley L; Bejan, Raluca; Muskat, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the ways in which health social workers (HSW) address the social determinants of health (SDH) within their social work practice. Social workers (n = 54) employed at major hospitals across Toronto had many years of practice in health care (M = 11 years; SD = 10.32) and indicated that SDH were a top priority in their daily work; with 98% intentionally intervening with at least one and 91% attending to three or more. Health care services were most often addressed (92%), followed by housing (72%), disability (79%), income (72%), and employment security (70%). Few HSW were tackling racism, Aboriginal status, gender, or social exclusion in their daily practice.

  19. 20 CFR 638.528 - Social Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Social Security. 638.528 Section 638.528... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.528 Social Security. The Act provides that students are covered by title II of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.) and...

  20. 20 CFR 638.528 - Social Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Social Security. 638.528 Section 638.528... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.528 Social Security. The Act provides that students are covered by title II of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.) and...

  1. 20 CFR 638.528 - Social Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Social Security. 638.528 Section 638.528... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.528 Social Security. The Act provides that students are covered by title II of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.) and...

  2. Social Security's special minimum benefit.

    PubMed

    Olsen, K A; Hoffmeyer, D

    Social Security's special minimum primary insurance amount (PIA) provision was enacted in 1972 to increase the adequacy of benefits for regular long-term, low-earning covered workers and their dependents or survivors. At the time, Social Security also had a regular minimum benefit provision for persons with low lifetime average earnings and their families. Concerns were rising that the low lifetime average earnings of many regular minimum beneficiaries resulted from sporadic attachment to the covered workforce rather than from low wages. The special minimum benefit was seen as a way to reward regular, low-earning workers without providing the windfalls that would have resulted from raising the regular minimum benefit to a much higher level. The regular minimum benefit was subsequently eliminated for workers reaching age 62, becoming disabled, or dying after 1981. Under current law, the special minimum benefit will phase out over time, although it is not clear from the legislative history that this was Congress's explicit intent. The phaseout results from two factors: (1) special minimum benefits are paid only if they are higher than benefits payable under the regular PIA formula, and (2) the value of the regular PIA formula, which is indexed to wages before benefit eligibility, has increased faster than that of the special minimum PIA, which is indexed to inflation. Under the Social Security Trustees' 2000 intermediate assumptions, the special minimum benefit will cease to be payable to retired workers attaining eligibility in 2013 and later. Their benefits will always be larger under the regular benefit formula. As policymakers consider Social Security solvency initiatives--particularly proposals that would reduce benefits or introduce investment risk--interest may increase in restoring some type of special minimum benefit as a targeted protection for long-term low earners. Two of the three reform proposals offered by the President's Commission to Strengthen

  3. Addressing Breastfeeding Disparities in Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Carol Grace

    2007-01-01

    This article examines social justice issues affecting breastfeeding in the United States. Public health goals for breastfeeding initiation and duration and barriers to breastfeeding among low-income groups are discussed. Suggestions are made about ways social workers may more assertively support breastfeeding in the context of social work practice.

  4. Social Influences on Interest. Presidential Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergin, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Where does enduring individual interest come from? One answer is, through social experience that derives from a need for belongingness. Because of this need, students seek social links that influence the development of individual interest. This may occur through experiences with parents, friends, passionate affinity groups, competition, public…

  5. Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2008-03-01

    One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the

  6. Addressing the social determinants of children's health: a cliff analogy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Camara Phyllis; Jones, Clara Yvonne; Perry, Geraldine S; Barclay, Gillian; Jones, Camille Arnel

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a "Cliff Analogy" illustrating three dimensions of health intervention to help people who are falling off of the cliff of good health: providing health services, addressing the social determinants of health, and addressing the social determinants of equity. In the terms of the analogy, health services include an ambulance at the bottom of the cliff, a net or trampoline halfway down, and a fence at the top of the cliff. Addressing the social determinants of health involves the deliberate movement of the population away from the edge of the cliff. Addressing the social determinants of equity acknowledges that the cliff is three-dimensional and involves interventions on the structures, policies, practices, norms, and values that differentially distribute resources and risks along the cliff face. The authors affirm that we need to address both the social determinants of health, including poverty, and the social determinants of equity, including racism, if we are to improve health outcomes and eliminate health disparities.

  7. Addressing therapeutic boundaries in social networking.

    PubMed

    Ginory, Almari; Sabatier, Laura Mayol; Eth, Spencer

    2012-01-01

    Facebook is the leading social networking website, with over 500 million users. Prior studies have shown an increasing number of housestaff accessing the site. While Facebook can be used to foster camaraderie, it can also create difficulties in the doctor-patient relationship, especially when boundaries are crossed. This study explored the prevalence of such boundary crossings and offers recommendations for training. An anonymous voluntary survey regarding Facebook use was distributed to current psychiatry residents through the American Psychiatric Association (APA) listserv. Of the 182 respondents, 95.7% had current Facebook profiles, and 9.7% had received friend requests from patients. In addition, 18.7% admitted to viewing patient profiles on Facebook. There is a substantial utilization of Facebook among psychiatric residents as compared with prior studies. Specific guidance regarding social media websites and the potential for ethical difficulties should be offered to trainees. PMID:22397540

  8. Social Security and Part-Time Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euzeby, Alain

    1988-01-01

    Discusses rules governing social security and their implications for part-time employees in various countries. Topics include (1) methods of financing social security, (2) benefits, (3) measures concerning the unemployed, (4) a floor for employers' contributions, (5) graduated contribution rates, and (6) financial incentives. (CH)

  9. [Universalization of health or of social security?].

    PubMed

    Levy-Algazi, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the architecture of Mexico's health system based on the main economic problem, failing to achieve a GDP growth rate to increase real wages and give workers in formal employment coverage social security. This analysis describes the relationship between social security of the population and employment status of it (either formal or informal employment) and the impact that this situation poses to our health system. Also, it ends with a reform proposal that will give all workers the same social rights, ie to grant universal social security. PMID:22116175

  10. Addressing software security and mitigations in the life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David; Powell, John; Haugh, Eric; Bishop, Matt

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, security is viewed as an organizational and Information Technology (IIJ systems function comprising of Firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS), system security settings and patches to the operating system (OS) and applications running on it. Until recently, little thought has been given to the importance of security as a formal approach in the software life cycle. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has approached the problem through the development of an integrated formal Software Security Assessment Instrument (SSAI) with six foci for the software life cycle.

  11. Addressing software security and mitigations in the life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David; Powell, John; Haugh, Eric; Bishop, Matt

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, security is viewed as an organizational and Information Technology (IT) systems function comprising of firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS), system security settings and patches to the operating system (OS) and applications running on it. Until recently, little thought has been given to the importance of security as a formal approach in the software life cycle. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has approached the problem through the development of an integrated formal Software Security Assessment Instrument (SSAI) with six foci for the software life cycle.

  12. NNSA Administrator Addresses the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Professionals: Part 1

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2016-07-12

    Administrator Thomas DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration addressed the next generation of nuclear security professionals during the opening session of todays 2009 Department of Energy (DOE) Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Annual Conference. Administrator DAgostino discussed NNSAs role in implementing President Obamas nuclear security agenda and encouraged the computing science fellows to consider careers in nuclear security.

  13. NNSA Administrator Addresses the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Professionals: Part 2

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2016-07-12

    Administrator Thomas DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration addressed the next generation of nuclear security professionals during the opening session of todays 2009 Department of Energy (DOE) Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Annual Conference. Administrator DAgostino discussed NNSAs role in implementing President Obamas nuclear security agenda and encouraged the computing science fellows to consider careers in nuclear security.

  14. NNSA Administrator Addresses the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Professionals: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2009-07-14

    Administrator Thomas DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration addressed the next generation of nuclear security professionals during the opening session of todays 2009 Department of Energy (DOE) Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Annual Conference. Administrator DAgostino discussed NNSAs role in implementing President Obamas nuclear security agenda and encouraged the computing science fellows to consider careers in nuclear security.

  15. NNSA Administrator Addresses the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Professionals: Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2009-07-14

    Administrator Thomas DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration addressed the next generation of nuclear security professionals during the opening session of todays 2009 Department of Energy (DOE) Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Annual Conference. Administrator DAgostino discussed NNSAs role in implementing President Obamas nuclear security agenda and encouraged the computing science fellows to consider careers in nuclear security.

  16. The story of the social security number.

    PubMed

    Puckett, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The use of the Social Security number (SSN) has expanded significantly since its inception in 1936. Created merely to keep track of the earnings history of U.S. workers for Social Security entitlement and benefit computation purposes, it has come to be used as a nearly universal identifier. Assigned at birth, the SSN enables government agencies to identify individuals in their records and businesses to track an individual's financial information. This article explores the history and meaning of the SSN and the Social Security card, as well as the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) SSN master file, generally known as the Numident. The article also traces the historical expansion of SSN use and the steps SSA has taken to enhance SSN integrity.

  17. Corporate social responsibility initiatives addressing social exclusion in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Werner, Wendy J

    2009-08-01

    The private sector is often seen as a driver of exclusionary processes rather than a partner in improving the health and welfare of socially-excluded populations. However, private-sector initiatives and partnerships- collectively labelled corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives-may be able to positively impact social status, earning potential, and access to services and resources for socially-excluded populations. This paper presents case studies of CSR projects in Bangladesh that are designed to reduce social exclusion among marginalized populations and explores whether CSR initiatives can increase economic and social capabilities to reduce exclusion. The examples provide snapshots of projects that (a) increase job-skills and employment opportunities for women, disabled women, and rehabilitated drug-users and (b) provide healthcare services to female workers and their communities. The CSR case studies cover a limited number of people but characteristics and practices replicable and scaleable across different industries, countries, and populations are identified. Common success factors from the case studies form the basis for recommendations to design and implement more CSR initiatives targeting socially-excluded groups. The analysis found that CSR has potential for positive and lasting impact on developing countries, especifically on socially-excluded populations. However, there is a need for additional monitoring and critical evaluation.

  18. Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives Addressing Social Exclusion in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The private sector is often seen as a driver of exclusionary processes rather than a partner in improving the health and welfare of socially-excluded populations. However, private-sector initiatives and partnerships—collectively labelled corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives—may be able to positively impact social status, earning potential, and access to services and resources for socially-excluded populations. This paper presents case studies of CSR projects in Bangladesh that are designed to reduce social exclusion among marginalized populations and explores whether CSR initiatives can increase economic and social capabilities to reduce exclusion. The examples provide snapshots of projects that (a) increase job-skills and employment opportunities for women, disabled women, and rehabilitated drug-users and (b) provide healthcare services to female workers and their communities. The CSR case studies cover a limited number of people but characteristics and practices replicable and scaleable across different industries, countries, and populations are identified. Common success factors from the case studies form the basis for recommendations to design and implement more CSR initiatives targeting socially-excluded groups. The analysis found that CSR has potential for positive and lasting impact on developing countries, especifically on socially-excluded populations. However, there is a need for additional monitoring and critical evaluation. PMID:19761088

  19. Addressing security, collaboration, and usability with tactical edge mobile devices and strategic cloud-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Christopher J.

    2012-05-01

    Success in the future battle space is increasingly dependent on rapid access to the right information. Faced with a shrinking budget, the Government has a mandate to improve intelligence productivity, quality, and reliability. To achieve increased ISR effectiveness, leverage of tactical edge mobile devices via integration with strategic cloud-based infrastructure is the single, most likely candidate area for dramatic near-term impact. This paper discusses security, collaboration, and usability components of this evolving space. These three paramount tenets outlined below, embody how mission information is exchanged securely, efficiently, with social media cooperativeness. Tenet 1: Complete security, privacy, and data integrity, must be ensured within the net-centric battle space. This paper discusses data security on a mobile device, data at rest on a cloud-based system, authorization and access control, and securing data transport between entities. Tenet 2: Lack of collaborative information sharing and content reliability jeopardizes mission objectives and limits the end user capability. This paper discusses cooperative pairing of mobile devices and cloud systems, enabling social media style interaction via tagging, meta-data refinement, and sharing of pertinent data. Tenet 3: Fielded mobile solutions must address usability and complexity. Simplicity is a powerful paradigm on mobile platforms, where complex applications are not utilized, and simple, yet powerful, applications flourish. This paper discusses strategies for ensuring mobile applications are streamlined and usable at the tactical edge through focused features sets, leveraging the power of the back-end cloud, minimization of differing HMI concepts, and directed end-user feedback.teInput=

  20. Addressing the Pilot security problem with gLExec

    SciTech Connect

    Sfiligoi, I.; Koeroo, O.; Venekamp, G.; Yocum, D.; Groep, D.; Petravick, D.; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    The Grid security mechanisms were designed under the assumption that users would submit their jobs directly to the Grid gatekeepers. Many groups are however starting to use pilot-based infrastructures, where users submit jobs to a centralized queue and are successively transferred to the Grid resources by the pilot infrastructure. While this approach greatly improves the user experience, it does introduce several security and policy issues, the more serious being the lack of system level protection between the users and the inability for Grid sites to apply fine grained authorization policies. One possible solution to the problem is provided by gLExec, a X.509 aware suexec derivative. By using gLExec, the pilot workflow becomes as secure as any traditional one.

  1. Social Security and Social Welfare Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Ida C.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the resources devoted by the United States to public social welfare programs. Compares these expenditures with those by other industrial nations and notes possible future trends. For journal availability, see SO 506 144. (Author/DB)

  2. Retirement responses to social security changes.

    PubMed

    Gohmann, S F; Clark, R L

    1989-11-01

    Workers often retire at an age later than the age at which they accept Social Security benefits. This study employed a life-cycle model of individual utility to examine the effects of Social Security provisions on the timing of benefit acceptance and retirement. The behavioral responses of older workers are estimated with a two-equation logit model using data from the Retirement History Study. The results indicate that the legislated increase in the age of eligibility for full Social Security benefits beginning in the 21st century will have relatively small effects on the ages of retirement and benefit acceptance. The mandated decrease in the earnings test tax also is predicted to have only a small effect on the behavior of older persons.

  3. Cultural and Social Interpretation of Chinese Addressing Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Yahui

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of Chinese cultural factors on the addressing terms, together with the history of their use, the social dynamics involved in their use. Through the examination of exact terms, the author demonstrates to the reader, the deeply rooted cultural factors behind it and different ways that these terms can be used,…

  4. 2011 AERA Presidential Address: Designing Resilient Ecologies--Social Design Experiments and a New Social Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutiérrez, Kris D.

    2016-01-01

    This article is about designing for educational possibilities--designs that in their inception, social organization, and implementation squarely address issues of cultural diversity, social inequality, and robust learning. I discuss an approach to design-based research, social design experiments, that privileges a social scientific inquiry…

  5. Algebra and Social Security: A Perfect Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Arthur C.

    1998-01-01

    Describes class exercises where undergraduates construct and test mathematical models using data and issues related to social security. The students collect data and forecast economic and demographic variables that determine future tax rates. They then discuss government policies that are derived from their models. (MJP)

  6. 38 CFR 3.153 - Claims filed with Social Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims filed with Social... Social Security. An application on a form jointly prescribed by the Secretary and the Commissioner of Social Security filed with the Social Security Administration on or after January 1, 1957, will...

  7. 38 CFR 3.153 - Claims filed with Social Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims filed with Social... Social Security. An application on a form jointly prescribed by the Secretary and the Commissioner of Social Security filed with the Social Security Administration on or after January 1, 1957, will...

  8. 38 CFR 3.153 - Claims filed with Social Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claims filed with Social... Social Security. An application on a form jointly prescribed by the Secretary and the Commissioner of Social Security filed with the Social Security Administration on or after January 1, 1957, will...

  9. 38 CFR 3.153 - Claims filed with Social Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims filed with Social... Social Security. An application on a form jointly prescribed by the Secretary and the Commissioner of Social Security filed with the Social Security Administration on or after January 1, 1957, will...

  10. 38 CFR 3.153 - Claims filed with Social Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims filed with Social... Social Security. An application on a form jointly prescribed by the Secretary and the Commissioner of Social Security filed with the Social Security Administration on or after January 1, 1957, will...

  11. Predicting Social Security numbers from public data.

    PubMed

    Acquisti, Alessandro; Gross, Ralph

    2009-07-01

    Information about an individual's place and date of birth can be exploited to predict his or her Social Security number (SSN). Using only publicly available information, we observed a correlation between individuals' SSNs and their birth data and found that for younger cohorts the correlation allows statistical inference of private SSNs. The inferences are made possible by the public availability of the Social Security Administration's Death Master File and the widespread accessibility of personal information from multiple sources, such as data brokers or profiles on social networking sites. Our results highlight the unexpected privacy consequences of the complex interactions among multiple data sources in modern information economies and quantify privacy risks associated with information revelation in public forums.

  12. Predicting Social Security numbers from public data

    PubMed Central

    Acquisti, Alessandro; Gross, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Information about an individual's place and date of birth can be exploited to predict his or her Social Security number (SSN). Using only publicly available information, we observed a correlation between individuals' SSNs and their birth data and found that for younger cohorts the correlation allows statistical inference of private SSNs. The inferences are made possible by the public availability of the Social Security Administration's Death Master File and the widespread accessibility of personal information from multiple sources, such as data brokers or profiles on social networking sites. Our results highlight the unexpected privacy consequences of the complex interactions among multiple data sources in modern information economies and quantify privacy risks associated with information revelation in public forums. PMID:19581585

  13. 32 CFR 806b.12 - Requesting the Social Security Number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requesting the Social Security Number. 806b.12... ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Collecting Personal Information § 806b.12 Requesting the Social Security Number. When asking an individual for his or her Social Security Number, always give a Privacy...

  14. 26 CFR 301.7701-11 - Social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Social security number. 301.7701-11 Section 301... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701-11 Social security number. For purposes of this chapter, the term social security number means the taxpayer identifying number of an individual...

  15. 14 CFR 1212.604 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Social security numbers. 1212.604 Section... REGULATIONS Instructions for NASA Employees § 1212.604 Social security numbers. (a) It is unlawful for NASA to...' refusal to disclose their social security numbers, except where: (1) The disclosure is required by law;...

  16. 42 CFR 408.43 - Deduction from social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Deduction from social security benefits. 408.43... § 408.43 Deduction from social security benefits. SSA, acting as CMS's agent, deducts the premiums from the monthly social security benefits if the enrollee is not entitled to railroad retirement...

  17. 26 CFR 301.7701-11 - Social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Social security number. 301.7701-11 Section 301... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701-11 Social security number. For purposes of this chapter, the term social security number means the taxpayer identifying number of an individual...

  18. 32 CFR 806b.12 - Requesting the Social Security Number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requesting the Social Security Number. 806b.12... ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Collecting Personal Information § 806b.12 Requesting the Social Security Number. When asking an individual for his or her Social Security Number, always give a Privacy...

  19. 34 CFR 668.36 - Social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Social security number. 668.36 Section 668.36 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Student Eligibility § 668.36 Social security... Islands, and the Republic of Palau, the Secretary attempts to confirm the social security number a...

  20. 42 CFR 408.43 - Deduction from social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Deduction from social security benefits. 408.43... § 408.43 Deduction from social security benefits. SSA, acting as CMS's agent, deducts the premiums from the monthly social security benefits if the enrollee is not entitled to railroad retirement...

  1. 42 CFR 408.43 - Deduction from social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Deduction from social security benefits. 408.43... § 408.43 Deduction from social security benefits. SSA, acting as CMS's agent, deducts the premiums from the monthly social security benefits if the enrollee is not entitled to railroad retirement...

  2. 34 CFR 668.36 - Social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Social security number. 668.36 Section 668.36 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Student Eligibility § 668.36 Social security... Islands, and the Republic of Palau, the Secretary attempts to confirm the social security number a...

  3. 20 CFR 209.3 - Social security number required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Social security number required. 209.3 Section... RAILROAD EMPLOYERS' REPORTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES § 209.3 Social security number required. Each employer shall furnish to the Board a social security number for each employee for whom any report is...

  4. 20 CFR 209.3 - Social security number required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Social security number required. 209.3... RAILROAD EMPLOYERS' REPORTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES § 209.3 Social security number required. Each employer shall furnish to the Board a social security number for each employee for whom any report is...

  5. 34 CFR 668.36 - Social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Social security number. 668.36 Section 668.36 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Student Eligibility § 668.36 Social security... Islands, and the Republic of Palau, the Secretary attempts to confirm the social security number a...

  6. 32 CFR 806b.12 - Requesting the Social Security Number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requesting the Social Security Number. 806b.12... ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Collecting Personal Information § 806b.12 Requesting the Social Security Number. When asking an individual for his or her Social Security Number, always give a Privacy...

  7. 14 CFR § 1212.604 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Social security numbers. § 1212.604... REGULATIONS Instructions for NASA Employees § 1212.604 Social security numbers. (a) It is unlawful for NASA to...' refusal to disclose their social security numbers, except where: (1) The disclosure is required by law;...

  8. 20 CFR 209.3 - Social security number required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Social security number required. 209.3 Section... RAILROAD EMPLOYERS' REPORTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES § 209.3 Social security number required. Each employer shall furnish to the Board a social security number for each employee for whom any report is...

  9. 26 CFR 301.7701-11 - Social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Social security number. 301.7701-11 Section 301... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701-11 Social security number. For purposes of this chapter, the term social security number means the taxpayer identifying number of an individual...

  10. 34 CFR 668.36 - Social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... security number on the FAFSA, or the institution has reason to believe that the verified social security... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Social security number. 668.36 Section 668.36 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Student Eligibility § 668.36 Social...

  11. 32 CFR 806b.12 - Requesting the Social Security Number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requesting the Social Security Number. 806b.12... ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Collecting Personal Information § 806b.12 Requesting the Social Security Number. When asking an individual for his or her Social Security Number, always give a Privacy...

  12. 20 CFR 209.3 - Social security number required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Social security number required. 209.3... RAILROAD EMPLOYERS' REPORTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES § 209.3 Social security number required. Each employer shall furnish to the Board a social security number for each employee for whom any report is...

  13. 14 CFR 1212.604 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Social security numbers. 1212.604 Section... REGULATIONS Instructions for NASA Employees § 1212.604 Social security numbers. (a) It is unlawful for NASA to...' refusal to disclose their social security numbers, except where: (1) The disclosure is required by law;...

  14. 26 CFR 301.7701-11 - Social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Social security number. 301.7701-11 Section 301... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701-11 Social security number. For purposes of this chapter, the term social security number means the taxpayer identifying number of an individual...

  15. 42 CFR 408.43 - Deduction from social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deduction from social security benefits. 408.43... § 408.43 Deduction from social security benefits. SSA, acting as CMS's agent, deducts the premiums from the monthly social security benefits if the enrollee is not entitled to railroad retirement...

  16. 42 CFR 408.43 - Deduction from social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Deduction from social security benefits. 408.43... § 408.43 Deduction from social security benefits. SSA, acting as CMS's agent, deducts the premiums from the monthly social security benefits if the enrollee is not entitled to railroad retirement...

  17. 34 CFR 668.36 - Social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Social security number. 668.36 Section 668.36 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Student Eligibility § 668.36 Social security... Islands, and the Republic of Palau, the Secretary attempts to confirm the social security number a...

  18. 32 CFR 806b.12 - Requesting the Social Security Number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requesting the Social Security Number. 806b.12... ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Collecting Personal Information § 806b.12 Requesting the Social Security Number. When asking an individual for his or her Social Security Number, always give a Privacy...

  19. 26 CFR 301.7701-11 - Social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Social security number. 301.7701-11 Section 301... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701-11 Social security number. For purposes of this chapter, the term social security number means the taxpayer identifying number of an individual...

  20. 20 CFR 209.3 - Social security number required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Social security number required. 209.3... RAILROAD EMPLOYERS' REPORTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES § 209.3 Social security number required. Each employer shall furnish to the Board a social security number for each employee for whom any report is...

  1. 14 CFR 1212.604 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Social security numbers. 1212.604 Section... REGULATIONS Instructions for NASA Employees § 1212.604 Social security numbers. (a) It is unlawful for NASA to...' refusal to disclose their social security numbers, except where: (1) The disclosure is required by law;...

  2. Social Security preclusions in personal injury litigation.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2005-08-01

    This editorial scrutinises the impact of preclusion periods for social security entitlements upon personal injury practice. It identifies the differences in calculation in respect of the compensation part of lump sum payments, depending upon whether a plaintiff's case is settled or resolved by litigation. It examines the effect of s 1184K of the Social Security Act 1991 (Cth) and the circumstances in which the discretion to reduce or waive the preclusion period has been exercised in favour of recipients of lump sum payments. It argues that room remains for creative arguments on behalf of plaintiffs, highlighting the potential for the compensatory effect of the lump sum to be undercut if the preclusion provisions are fully applied. PMID:16117154

  3. Social Security Child Protection Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Marchant, Kenny [R-TX-24

    2011-09-22

    09/28/2011 Referred for a period ending not later than September 28, 2011, (or for a later time if the Chairman so designates) to the Subcommittee on Social Security, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the subcommittee concerned. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Secure it now or secure it later: the benefits of addressing cyber-security from the outset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Nutaro, James

    2013-05-01

    The majority of funding for research and development (R&D) in cyber-security is focused on the end of the software lifecycle where systems have been deployed or are nearing deployment. Recruiting of cyber-security personnel is similarly focused on end-of-life expertise. By emphasizing cyber-security at these late stages, security problems are found and corrected when it is most expensive to do so, thus increasing the cost of owning and operating complex software systems. Worse, expenditures on expensive security measures often mean less money for innovative developments. These unwanted increases in cost and potential slowing of innovation are unavoidable consequences of an approach to security that finds and remediate faults after software has been implemented. We argue that software security can be improved and the total cost of a software system can be substantially reduced by an appropriate allocation of resources to the early stages of a software project. By adopting a similar allocation of R&D funds to the early stages of the software lifecycle, we propose that the costs of cyber-security can be better controlled and, consequently, the positive effects of this R&D on industry will be much more pronounced.

  5. Secure Naming and Addressing Operations for Store, Carry and Forward Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddy, Wesley M.; Ivancic, William D.; Iannicca, Dennis C.; Ishac, Joseph; Hylton, Alan G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes concepts for secure naming and addressing directed at Store, Carry and Forward (SCF) distributed applications, where disconnection and intermittent connectivity between forwarding systems is the norm. The paper provides a brief overview of store, carry and forward distributed applications followed by an in depth discussion of how to securely: create a namespace; allocate names within the namespace; query for names known within a local processing system or connected subnetwork; validate ownership of a given name; authenticate data from a given name; and, encrypt data to a given name. Critical issues such as revocation of names, mobility and the ability to use various namespaces to secure operations or for Quality-of-Service are also presented. Although the concepts presented for naming and addressing have been developed for SCF, they are directly applicable to fully connected systems.

  6. Social Security and Elderly Living Arrangements--Evidence from Social Security Notch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Gary V.; Gruber, Jonathan; Perry, Cynthia D.

    2005-01-01

    Social Security program has over the period become unsustainable from tax finance and imply reforms that would cut down on benefits of the elderly. The implications are that elderly may have to increase their post-retirement working, reduce consumption and opt for shared living rather than independent living conditions. The last of the three…

  7. 49 CFR 10.29 - Social Security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Social Security numbers. 10.29 Section 10.29... INDIVIDUALS Maintenance of Records § 10.29 Social Security numbers. (a) No individual is denied any right, benefit, or privilege provided by law because of such individual's refusal to disclose his Social...

  8. 49 CFR 10.29 - Social Security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Social Security numbers. 10.29 Section 10.29... INDIVIDUALS Maintenance of Records § 10.29 Social Security numbers. (a) No individual is denied any right, benefit, or privilege provided by law because of such individual's refusal to disclose his Social...

  9. 49 CFR 10.29 - Social Security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Social Security numbers. 10.29 Section 10.29... INDIVIDUALS Maintenance of Records § 10.29 Social Security numbers. (a) No individual is denied any right, benefit, or privilege provided by law because of such individual's refusal to disclose his Social...

  10. 42 CFR 435.910 - Use of social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of social security number. 435.910 Section 435... of social security number. (a) The agency must require, as a condition of eligibility, that each individual (including children) requesting Medicaid services furnish each of his or her social...

  11. 49 CFR 10.29 - Social Security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Social Security numbers. 10.29 Section 10.29... INDIVIDUALS Maintenance of Records § 10.29 Social Security numbers. (a) No individual is denied any right, benefit, or privilege provided by law because of such individual's refusal to disclose his Social...

  12. 49 CFR 10.29 - Social Security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Social Security numbers. 10.29 Section 10.29... INDIVIDUALS Maintenance of Records § 10.29 Social Security numbers. (a) No individual is denied any right, benefit, or privilege provided by law because of such individual's refusal to disclose his Social...

  13. For telehealth to succeed, privacy and security risks must be identified and addressed.

    PubMed

    Hall, Joseph L; McGraw, Deven

    2014-02-01

    The success of telehealth could be undermined if serious privacy and security risks are not addressed. For example, sensors that are located in a patient's home or that interface with the patient's body to detect safety issues or medical emergencies may inadvertently transmit sensitive information about household activities. Similarly, routine data transmissions from an app or medical device, such as an insulin pump, may be shared with third-party advertisers. Without adequate security and privacy protections for underlying telehealth data and systems, providers and patients will lack trust in the use of telehealth solutions. Although some federal and state guidelines for telehealth security and privacy have been established, many gaps remain. No federal agency currently has authority to enact privacy and security requirements to cover the telehealth ecosystem. This article examines privacy risks and security threats to telehealth applications and summarizes the extent to which technical controls and federal law adequately address these risks. We argue for a comprehensive federal regulatory framework for telehealth, developed and enforced by a single federal entity, the Federal Trade Commission, to bolster trust and fully realize the benefits of telehealth.

  14. Correlation Analysis of Cultural Development and Social Security in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, K.; Alizadeh, H.; Meshkini, A.; Kohsari, M. J.

    In recent years, politicians have paid more attention to planning methods considering environmental, economical, social and cultural potentials of place. According to general principles and experiences has been achieved by the developed countries, there is a direct link between social security and cultural development. Where the society and region is culturally more developed, social security level is higher and vice versa. Considering this leading point, this research aims to establish a rational correlation between the provinces of Iran considering cultural development ranking and social security levels using planning models and analysis. To reach this goal, different variables in various sectors such as physical, social, economical, etc. were classified leading to developmental indicators of the provinces in the related sectors. In addition to this, many variables concerning the social security levels in provinces such as homicide, robbery, suicide, etc. were also classified to identify the social security level in each province. According to the results, more culturally developed and wealthier provinces, like Tehran, Khorasan, Fars, have lower social security degree and less culturally developed provinces, like Sistan va Baloochestan, Kurdistan, Elam have higher social security level. In other words, the mentioned principle, the correlation between social security and cultural development, does not work in the same direction in Iranian context.

  15. Addressing Social Aggression in State Anti-Bullying Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temkin, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Social aggression, or victimization using social exclusion, rumors, and body language, has been overlooked in state anti-bullying policies since the policy surge following the 1999 Columbine Massacres. Social aggression has been associated with social anxiety disorder, depression and suicide, and lowered academic achievement and involvement. An…

  16. 76 FR 68243 - Social Security Rulings, SSR 91-1c and SSR 66-18c; Rescission of Social Security Rulings (SSR) 66...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... ADMINISTRATION Social Security Rulings, SSR 91-1c and SSR 66-18c; Rescission of Social Security Rulings (SSR) 66-18c and SSR 91-1c AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of rescission of Social... gives notice of the rescission of Social Security Rulings (SSR) 66-18c and SSR 91-1c. DATES:...

  17. The NCSS Presidential Addresses, 1936-1969: Perspectives on the Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Previte, Mark A., Ed.; Sheehan, James J., Ed.

    This collection of the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) presidential addresses seeks to provide a valuable window to the history of NCSS and the field of social studies. Following the "Introduction" (James J. Sheehan), addresses appear chronologically: 1936 "Social Sanity through the Social Studies" (R. O. Hughes); 1937 "The Dilemma…

  18. Reforming the Ghanaian social security system: prospects and challenges.

    PubMed

    Darkwa, O K

    1997-06-01

    This paper examines the major features of the Ghanaian social security system. It discusses the Ghanaian scheme by examining the extent of coverage, criteria for eligibility, and the method of administration and financing. The paper undertakes an assessment of the existing security scheme and highlights its major limitations and weaknesses. It proposes measures for reforming the security system by suggesting an extension in coverage, adjusting the benefit formula, increasing expenditure on social services for the elderly, adjusting benefits to reflect the cost of living index, creating employer-based private pension schemes, and exploring alternative ways of investing social security accumulated funds.

  19. Disincentives To Work under Social Security Laws: Topic Paper C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    As one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, this paper outlines several ways in which existing Social Security laws serve to discourage and penalize people with disabilities if they seek to become employed and self-supporting. Programs funded under the Social Security Act are…

  20. 20 CFR 221.3 - Social Security Administration jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Social Security Administration jurisdiction... RETIREMENT ACT JURISDICTION DETERMINATIONS § 221.3 Social Security Administration jurisdiction. The Board transfers jurisdiction (railroad service and compensation credits earned by the employee which the...

  1. 20 CFR 221.3 - Social Security Administration jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Social Security Administration jurisdiction... RETIREMENT ACT JURISDICTION DETERMINATIONS § 221.3 Social Security Administration jurisdiction. The Board transfers jurisdiction (railroad service and compensation credits earned by the employee which the...

  2. 20 CFR 221.3 - Social Security Administration jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Social Security Administration jurisdiction... RETIREMENT ACT JURISDICTION DETERMINATIONS § 221.3 Social Security Administration jurisdiction. The Board transfers jurisdiction (railroad service and compensation credits earned by the employee which the...

  3. 20 CFR 221.3 - Social Security Administration jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Social Security Administration jurisdiction... RETIREMENT ACT JURISDICTION DETERMINATIONS § 221.3 Social Security Administration jurisdiction. The Board transfers jurisdiction (railroad service and compensation credits earned by the employee which the...

  4. 14 CFR 1212.604 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Social security numbers. 1212.604 Section 1212.604 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT-NASA... individual(s). (b) Any time individuals are requested to disclose their social security numbers, NASA...

  5. Social Security: Strengthening a Vital Safety Net for Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Since 1935, Social Security has provided a vital safety net for millions of Americans who cannot work because of age or disability. This safety net has been especially critical for Americans of Latino decent, who number more than 50 million or nearly one out of every six Americans. Social Security is critical to Latinos because it is much more…

  6. 20 CFR 221.3 - Social Security Administration jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Social Security Administration jurisdiction... RETIREMENT ACT JURISDICTION DETERMINATIONS § 221.3 Social Security Administration jurisdiction. The Board transfers jurisdiction (railroad service and compensation credits earned by the employee which the...

  7. The Social Security Earnings Test and Work Incentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benitez-Silva, Hugo; Heiland, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The labor supply and benefit claiming incentives provided by the early retirement rules of the Social Security Old Age benefits program are of growing importance as the Normal Retirement Age (NRA) increases to 67, the labor force participation of Older Americans rises, and a variety of reforms to the Social Security system are considered. Any…

  8. Uncovered: Social Security, Retirement Uncertainty, and 1 Million Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Leslie; Aldeman, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Retirement savings are often described as a three-legged stool: Social Security, employer retirement plans, and personal savings. For many American workers, Social Security is the most consistent portion of the three-legged model, providing a solid plank of retirement savings. But nationwide, more than 1 million teachers--about 40 percent of all…

  9. [Welfare and health in the century of social security].

    PubMed

    Westin, S

    1999-12-10

    Great achievements for public health in this century include penicillin, oral contraception, vaccination and transplantation, but the greatest contribution to the health of Norwegians may have been made by social security and the welfare state policies. The beneficial effects of social security include: less social inequality, a factor which in itself makes for better health, some degree of financial security for people who are ill and unable to support themselves or their families, universal availability of medical and health services. This paper explores the ideas and sources from which present-day social security legislation stems. The emergence of state based welfare legislation was inspired by developments in Germany under Bismarck; accident insurance for industrial workers was the first to be introduced in 1894. Several periods of active social security legislation followed at times when labour unions and socialist ideas were strong, supported, to some degree, by radical clergy and public health doctors. Social democratic governments, inspired by the British Beveridge plan towards the end of World War II, took the lead during the long post-war period until the mid 1970s. The Scandinavian model of social security is based on universal coverage and a single payer system. However, since the 1980s, as in other countries of Northern Europe, the social security system has come under pressure from market liberalism. Now at the turn of the century, increasing social inequalities cause some concern for the future of the welfare state. PMID:10827494

  10. 20 CFR 229.10 - What the social security overall minimum guarantee is.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true What the social security overall minimum... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Social Security Overall Minimum Guarantee Defined § 229.10 What the social security overall minimum guarantee is. The social security...

  11. 20 CFR 229.10 - What the social security overall minimum guarantee is.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What the social security overall minimum... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Social Security Overall Minimum Guarantee Defined § 229.10 What the social security overall minimum guarantee is. The social security...

  12. 20 CFR 229.10 - What the social security overall minimum guarantee is.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true What the social security overall minimum... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Social Security Overall Minimum Guarantee Defined § 229.10 What the social security overall minimum guarantee is. The social security...

  13. 20 CFR 229.10 - What the social security overall minimum guarantee is.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What the social security overall minimum... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Social Security Overall Minimum Guarantee Defined § 229.10 What the social security overall minimum guarantee is. The social security...

  14. 20 CFR 229.10 - What the social security overall minimum guarantee is.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What the social security overall minimum... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Social Security Overall Minimum Guarantee Defined § 229.10 What the social security overall minimum guarantee is. The social security...

  15. Creating Art Environments That Address Social Justice Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Gail

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I examine strategies for teaching students to make socially conscious art using a variety of media that emphasizes installation work. I present issues of social justice in the contemporary art world and include concerns of censorship that artists sometimes confront. I offer examples of team taught coordinated studies programs…

  16. Career Psychology in South Africa: Addressing and Redressing Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the definition of social justice in career psychology and how this might be understood in the South African context. In particular, macro-contextual factors that define social justice issues in South African career psychology are described. The extent to which the discipline of career psychology in South Africa has addressed…

  17. The NCSS Presidential Addresses, 1970-2000: Perspectives on the Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Previte, Mark A., Ed.; Sheehan, James J., Ed.

    This collection of the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) presidential addresses seeks to provide a valuable window to NCSS and the field of social studies from 1970 to 2000. Following "Introduction to the NCSS Presidential Addresses, 1970-2000 (J. J. Sheehan), Volume 2 contains the following addresses: 1970: "Exploring the Meaning of…

  18. [Social security for health system transformation].

    PubMed

    Echevarría-Zuno, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present the management and medical components within the public health institutions that can contribute to the transformation of the National Health System (NHS). It is expected that these will have an impact in the extent of the medical coverage and will improve the health care services delivered to the Mexican population. A diagnostic study revealed the existence of fragmentation in the NHS. The health institutions are vertically established and operate under isolated mechanisms of financing and administration. Additionally, it is pointed out the problematic derived from the multiplicity in the public insurance conditions among individuals and the lack of census of the insured population within the institutions. As part of the universalization of health services, it is necessary to integrate the health care system; accordingly, a variety of mechanisms for the partial and total integration are arise, such as the exchange of the health care services and the portability and convergence of the institutions. Particularly, we listed the actions carried out by the Mexican Institute of Social Security for the integration of the NHS such as, the independent management medical areas, diagnosis-related groups (DRG), the performing evaluation of the medical units, and the preventive and curative strategies in the implemented programs. Finally, is dealt some reflections in order to improve the public health care.

  19. Strategies to Address Identified Education Gaps in the Preparation of a National Security Workforce

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-30

    This report will discuss strategies available to address identified gaps and weaknesses in education efforts aimed at the preparation of a skilled and properly trained national security workforce.The need to adequately train and educate a national security workforce is at a critical juncture. Even though there are an increasing number of college graduates in the appropriate fields, many of these graduates choose to work in the private sector because of more desirable salary and benefit packages. This is contributing to an inability to fill vacant positions at NNSA resulting from high personnel turnover from the large number of retirements. Further, many of the retirees are practically irreplaceable because they are Cold War scientists that have experience and expertise with nuclear weapons.

  20. Arm yourself for the coming battle over Social Security.

    PubMed

    Pozen, Robert C

    2002-11-01

    The U.S. Social Security system is in deep trouble--and that's not just bad news for your friends and family. It's also bad news for your company. Unless the Social Security system is changed, by 2017 the cash flowing out of it will exceed the cash coming in, and by 2041 the system will be utterly insolvent. But the trouble will start sooner than that: In the next decade, the very prospect of the rising deficit will mean serious pressure on recent tax cuts, higher long-term interest rates, increased pension-funding costs, and other punishing conditions for U.S. businesses. Clearly, there's a lot at stake for companies, which is why executives need to participate in the growing debate about Social Security reform, says Robert Pozen, a visiting professor at Harvard Law School who served on the President's Commission to Strengthen Social Security. In this article, he urges business leaders to take a stance on how the system should be reformed, suggesting they work with interest groups to make their voices heard. After taking a comprehensive look at the debates surrounding Social Security reform, Pozen outlines the three main alternatives executives might choose to support: increasing contributions to Social Security, decreasing the growth of benefits for more-affluent workers, and increasing investment returns on Social Security assets. What's needed to fix the current system, he contends, is a careful balance of all three.

  1. 75 FR 5166 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration/Railroad Retirement Board (SSA/RRB))-- Match Number 1308 AGENCY: Social Security Administration...

  2. Borrowing to Save: A Critique of Recent Proposals to Partially Privatize Social Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dattalo, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Concern over Social Security's forecasted long-run deficit is occurring at a time when the program has a short-term surplus. One proposed strategy to address this forecasted deficit is to allow the investment of a portion of payroll taxes into private savings accounts (PSAs). The author analyzes recent proposals for PSAs and concludes that PSAs…

  3. AARP Online Portrayal of Social Security: Engaging Aging Baby Boomers through Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilt, Michael L.; Lipschultz, Jeremy H.

    2006-01-01

    Although baby boomers were not the sole focus of the American Association of Retired Persons' (AARP) website content on the issue of Social Security reform, their interests were addressed in a variety of ways. AARP provided information, position statements, a live chat forum, and message boards. Additionally, AARP had a partnership with the Rock…

  4. Imaginative Thinking: Addressing Social Justice Issues through MovieMaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boske, Christa A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the experiences of aspiring school leaders who utilized artmaking in this case, photography, poetry, music, collage, and short films through Microsoft MovieMaker as a means for addressing injustices within surrounding school communities. The paper aims to explore how aspiring school leaders…

  5. Catholic Social Teaching: Addressing Globalization in Catholic Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, James B.; Martinez, Zaida; Toyne, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Although business schools are increasingly aware of the importance of globalization in educating future business leaders, their business programs have addressed globalization from a limited perspective that fails to provide students with a broader understanding of its impact on societies and its moral consequences. The conventional approach to the…

  6. Aspiring School Leaders Addressing Social Justice through Art Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boske, Christa

    2012-01-01

    There is little in the professional literature about how school leaders or other professionals committed to promoting social justice deal with and manage their emotional responses to the challenges that await them in educational arenas. Even less has been written about how art making can be utilized as a means of developing new understandings and…

  7. Social Entrepreneurship in Religious Congregations’ Efforts to Address Health Needs

    PubMed Central

    Werber, Laura; Mendel, Peter J.; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Examine how religious congregations engage in social entrepreneurship as they strive to meet health-related needs in their communities. Design Multiple case studies. Setting Los Angeles County, California. Participants Purposive sample of 14 congregations representing diverse races-ethnicities (African American, Latino, and white) and faith traditions (Jewish and various Christian). Method Congregations were recruited based on screening data and consultation of a community advisory board. In each congregation, researchers conducted interviews with clergy and lay leaders (n=57); administered a congregational questionnaire; observed health activities, worship services, and neighborhood context; and reviewed archival information. Interviews were analyzed using a qualitative, code-based approach. Results Congregations’ health-related activities tended to be episodic, small in scale, and local in scope. Trust and social capital played important roles in congregations’ health initiatives, providing a safe, confidential environment and leveraging resources from – and for – faith-based and secular organizations in their community networks. Congregations also served as “incubators” for members to engage in social entrepreneurship. Conclusion Although the small scale of congregations’ health initiatives suggest they may not have the capacity to provide the main infrastructure for service provision, congregations can complement the efforts of health and social providers with their unique strengths. Specifically, congregations are distinctive in their ability to identify unmet local needs, and congregations’ position in their communities permit them to network in productive ways. PMID:23875986

  8. Developing Social Marketing Capacity to Address Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, S.; Smart, E.; Kopela, J.; Gibson, T.; King, V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Social marketing is increasingly being seen as a potentially effective means of pursuing health education practice generally and within various specific areas such as mental health and wellbeing and more broadly in tackling health inequalities. This paper aims to report and reflect on the authors' experiences of undertaking a health…

  9. Helping Social Workers Address the Educational Needs of Foster Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zetlin, A.G.; Weinberg, L.A.; Kimm, C.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: The main aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Education Initiative, an intervention program in one of the largest urban counties in the US seeking to increase the responsiveness of social workers to the educational needs of foster children. Method:: A pre-post test control group design was used. Data from case files and social…

  10. Urban Problems: Social Security and the Teaching Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallez, Gabriel

    1973-01-01

    Social security can stifle the teaching hospital's development through increasing expenses and budgetary considerations. These problems are discussed in relation to the hospital organization and university structure in Paris, France. (Author/PG)

  11. Popular opinion on tax cuts and Social Security.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, R

    2000-01-01

    A review of recent opinion polls reveals the U.S. public's views on budget priorities and Social Security. The public wants more spending on Social Security, Medicare, and other domestic programs, chiefly education and health care, and prefers these spending priorities--by up to a 70 percent majority--to paying down the national debt and cutting taxes. The public supports the Social Security system but doubts it can continue to deliver the goods. To remedy this problem, it is willing not only to use part of the surplus but to raise the cap on payroll taxes. The public does not support benefit cuts or an increase in the retirement age. And the public remains unsure to hostile about the role of the stock market, whether in individual accounts or in the Social Security trust fund. PMID:10862384

  12. 20 CFR 422.103 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... regulation 26 CFR 31.6011(b)-2. (b) Applying for a number—(1) Form SS-5. An individual needing a social... security numbers to newborn children. Where an agreement is in effect, a parent, as part of the official... security number to the newborn child. (3) Immigration form. SSA may enter into an agreement with...

  13. Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschly, Daniel J., Ed.; Myers, Tracy G., Ed.; Hartel, Christine R., Ed.

    The Social Security Administration (SSA) provides income support and medical benefits for adults with mental retardation unable to perform substantial gainful activity through the Disability Insurance (DI) program and the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. SSI benefits are also provided to families of children and adolescents who evidence…

  14. Associations between Attachment Security and Social Competence in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veríssimo, Manuela; Santos, António J.; Fernandes, Carla; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theorists suggest that attachment security with parents supports the quality of social adaptation in peer groups during early childhood, and numerous studies supporting this conjecture have been published. Most of these studies used enacted representations rather than mental representations of attachment security, and most studies…

  15. A Game-Theoretical Approach to Multimedia Social Networks Security

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Enqiang; Liu, Zengliang; Shao, Fei; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    The contents access and sharing in multimedia social networks (MSNs) mainly rely on access control models and mechanisms. Simple adoptions of security policies in the traditional access control model cannot effectively establish a trust relationship among parties. This paper proposed a novel two-party trust architecture (TPTA) to apply in a generic MSN scenario. According to the architecture, security policies are adopted through game-theoretic analyses and decisions. Based on formalized utilities of security policies and security rules, the choice of security policies in content access is described as a game between the content provider and the content requester. By the game method for the combination of security policies utility and its influences on each party's benefits, the Nash equilibrium is achieved, that is, an optimal and stable combination of security policies, to establish and enhance trust among stakeholders. PMID:24977226

  16. A game-theoretical approach to multimedia social networks security.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enqiang; Liu, Zengliang; Shao, Fei; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    The contents access and sharing in multimedia social networks (MSNs) mainly rely on access control models and mechanisms. Simple adoptions of security policies in the traditional access control model cannot effectively establish a trust relationship among parties. This paper proposed a novel two-party trust architecture (TPTA) to apply in a generic MSN scenario. According to the architecture, security policies are adopted through game-theoretic analyses and decisions. Based on formalized utilities of security policies and security rules, the choice of security policies in content access is described as a game between the content provider and the content requester. By the game method for the combination of security policies utility and its influences on each party's benefits, the Nash equilibrium is achieved, that is, an optimal and stable combination of security policies, to establish and enhance trust among stakeholders.

  17. Social Security privatization in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Kritzer, B E

    2000-01-01

    The new, partially privatized social security system adopted by Chile in 1981 has attracted attention in many parts of the world. Since then, a number of Latin American countries have implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either with a single- or multi-tier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of a privatized program with individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems have a privatized component and retain some form of public program. This article describes each of the new programs in Latin America, their background, and similarities and differences among them. Much more information is available for Chile than for the other countries (in part because Chile has the oldest system), enough to be able to evaluate what, in most cases, is the most accurate information. That is often not the case for the other countries, especially when dealing with subjects such as transition costs and net rates of return (rates of return minus administrative fees). No country has copied the Chilean system exactly. Bolivia, El Salvador, and Mexico have closed their public systems and set up mandatory individual accounts. Argentina has a mixed public/private system with three tiers. In Colombia and Peru, workers have a choice between the public and private programs. Uruguay created a two-tier mixed system. Costa Rica has a voluntary program for individual accounts as a supplement to the pay-as-you-go program and has just passed a law setting up mandatory accounts containing employer contributions for severance pay. All of the countries continue to face unresolved issues, including: High rates of noncompliance--the percentage of enrollees who do not actively and regularly contribute to their accounts--which could lead to low benefits and greater costs to the governments that offer a guaranteed minimum benefit; Proportionately lower benefits for

  18. Population dynamics: Social security, markets, and families

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ronald D.; Lee, Sang-Hyop

    2015-01-01

    Upward intergenerational flows – from the working ages to old age – are increasing substantially in the advanced industrialized countries and are much larger than in developing countries. Population aging is the most important factor leading to this change. Thus, in the absence of a major demographic shift, e.g., a return to high fertility, an increase in upward flows is inevitable. Even so, three other important factors will influence the magnitudes of upward flows. First, labor income varies at older ages due to differences in average age at retirement, productivity, unemployment, and hours worked. Second, the age patterns of consumption at older ages vary primarily due to differences in spending on health. Third, spending on human capital, i.e., spending child health and education, varies. Human capital spending competes with spending on the elderly, but it also increases the productivity of subsequent generations of workers and the resources available to support consumption in old age. All contemporary societies rely on a variety of institutions and economic mechanisms to shift economic resources from the working ages to the dependent ages – the young and the old. Three institutions dominate intergenerational flows: governments which implement social security, education, and other public transfer programs; markets which are key to the accumulation of assets, e.g., funded pensions and housing; and families which provide economic support to children in all societies and to the elderly in many. The objectives of this paper are, first, to describe how population aging and other changes influence the direction and magnitude of intergenerational flows; and, second, to contrast the institutional approaches to intergenerational flows as they are practiced around the world. The paper relies extensively on National Transfer Accounts, a system for measuring economic flows across age in a manner consistent with the UN System of National Accounts. These accounts are

  19. Addressing food security through public policy action in a community-based participatory research partnership.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Victoria Breckwich; Lanza, Dana; Hennessey-Lavery, Susana; Facente, Shelley; Halpin, Helen Ann; Minkler, Meredith

    2007-10-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an increasingly utilized research approach that involves the affected community identifying a health-related problem, developing a research agenda, and planning an appropriate intervention to address the problem. This report on a CBPR partnership in San Francisco's Bayview Hunters Point neighborhood documents the rise of a community food security policy in response to youth-involved research that found poor access to quality food in an economically disadvantaged area of the city. To analyze the impact of the research on public policy, a framework of specific steps in the policy-making process is used to organize and better understand the partnership's objectives, activities, strategies, and successes. This community-health department partnership has been able to achieve an innovative and sustainable public policy solution, the Good Neighbor Program, by working closely with policy makers and local businesses to expand community accessibility to healthy food. PMID:17728199

  20. Addressing China's grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-02-01

    China's increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies.

  1. Addressing China's grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-02-01

    China's increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies. PMID:26601127

  2. Addressing China’s grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C.; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J.; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-01-01

    China’s increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies. PMID:26601127

  3. Identifying the Enemy: Social Categorization and National Security Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Kristene

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to understand the interplay between informal articulations of social categories and formal instantiations of those categories in official language. Specifically, it explores the process of social categorization as it is used to identify threats to national security. The research employed a qualitative, document-based,…

  4. Bilateral Social Security Instruments Concluded between European Socialist Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popescu, Andrei

    1982-01-01

    Presents a review of existing bilateral treaties, conventions, and agreements in the field of social policy concluded between European socialist countries. It summarizes their basic principles, their social security provisions (old-age benefit, employment injury benefits, cash benefits for sickness and maternity), and the provisions concerning…

  5. 20 CFR 422.103 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... name and social security number identify the record so that the wages or self-employment income... regulation 26 CFR 31.6011(b)-2. (b) Applying for a number—(1) Form SS-5. An individual needing a social... necessary, to assist SSA in establishing the age, U.S. citizenship or alien status, true identity,...

  6. The social security system of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    PubMed

    Eska, B

    1980-03-01

    This article summarizes the major provisions of the West German social security system, briefly outlining coverage, funding sources, and unique features of insurance programs concerned with old age, invalidity and death, sickness and maternity, work injury, and unemployment. The universal program of family allowance and the means-tested program of social aid are also reviewed. PMID:10313638

  7. An Examination of Organizational Information Protection in the Era of Social Media: A Study of Social Network Security and Privacy Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maar, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates information protection for professional users of online social networks. It addresses management's desire to motivate their employees to adopt protective measures while accessing online social networks and to help their employees improve their proficiency in information security and ability to detect deceptive…

  8. Use of Social Software to Address Literacy and Identity Issues in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Jill

    2009-01-01

    The emerging trend of social software technology can address many different second language (L2) learner needs through authentic social interaction and a variety of scaffolding processes. Social software connects education with real-life learning and interests, and engages and motivates students. It can facilitate learning environments that are…

  9. 12 CFR 792.68 - Use and collection of Social Security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use and collection of Social Security numbers... Act § 792.68 Use and collection of Social Security numbers. The head of each NCUA Office shall take... furnish Social Security numbers, and that individuals who are requested to provide Social Security...

  10. 20 CFR 235.3 - Who is paid social security benefits by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Who is paid social security benefits by the... RETIREMENT ACT PAYMENT OF SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS BY THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 235.3 Who is paid social security benefits by the Board. The following individuals, if entitled to social security...

  11. 12 CFR 792.68 - Use and collection of Social Security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use and collection of Social Security numbers... Act § 792.68 Use and collection of Social Security numbers. The head of each NCUA Office shall take... furnish Social Security numbers, and that individuals who are requested to provide Social Security...

  12. 20 CFR 225.13 - Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. 225... Spouse Annuities § 225.13 Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Social Security... certain eligibility requirements as described in part 216 of this chapter. The Social Security...

  13. 20 CFR 235.3 - Who is paid social security benefits by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Who is paid social security benefits by the... RETIREMENT ACT PAYMENT OF SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS BY THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 235.3 Who is paid social security benefits by the Board. The following individuals, if entitled to social security...

  14. 20 CFR 225.13 - Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. 225... Spouse Annuities § 225.13 Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Social Security... certain eligibility requirements as described in part 216 of this chapter. The Social Security...

  15. 20 CFR 235.3 - Who is paid social security benefits by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Who is paid social security benefits by the... RETIREMENT ACT PAYMENT OF SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS BY THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 235.3 Who is paid social security benefits by the Board. The following individuals, if entitled to social security...

  16. 12 CFR 792.68 - Use and collection of Social Security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use and collection of Social Security numbers... Act § 792.68 Use and collection of Social Security numbers. The head of each NCUA Office shall take... furnish Social Security numbers, and that individuals who are requested to provide Social Security...

  17. 20 CFR 225.13 - Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA... Spouse Annuities § 225.13 Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Social Security... certain eligibility requirements as described in part 216 of this chapter. The Social Security...

  18. 12 CFR 792.68 - Use and collection of Social Security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use and collection of Social Security numbers... Act § 792.68 Use and collection of Social Security numbers. The head of each NCUA Office shall take... furnish Social Security numbers, and that individuals who are requested to provide Social Security...

  19. 76 FR 65558 - Rescission of Social Security Ruling 97-2p

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Rescission of Social Security Ruling 97-2p AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of rescission of Social Security Ruling. SUMMARY: In accordance with 20 CFR 402.35(b)(1),...

  20. 20 CFR 225.13 - Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA... Spouse Annuities § 225.13 Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Social Security... certain eligibility requirements as described in part 216 of this chapter. The Social Security...

  1. 20 CFR 235.3 - Who is paid social security benefits by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is paid social security benefits by the... RETIREMENT ACT PAYMENT OF SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS BY THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 235.3 Who is paid social security benefits by the Board. The following individuals, if entitled to social security...

  2. 20 CFR 225.13 - Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA... Spouse Annuities § 225.13 Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Social Security... certain eligibility requirements as described in part 216 of this chapter. The Social Security...

  3. 20 CFR 235.3 - Who is paid social security benefits by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who is paid social security benefits by the... RETIREMENT ACT PAYMENT OF SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS BY THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 235.3 Who is paid social security benefits by the Board. The following individuals, if entitled to social security...

  4. 12 CFR 792.68 - Use and collection of Social Security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use and collection of Social Security numbers... Act § 792.68 Use and collection of Social Security numbers. The head of each NCUA Office shall take... furnish Social Security numbers, and that individuals who are requested to provide Social Security...

  5. Recent advances to address European Union Health Security from cross border chemical health threats.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Davidson, R; Orford, R; Wyke, S; Griffiths, M; Amlôt, R; Chilcott, R

    2014-11-01

    The European Union (EU) Decision (1082/2013/EU) on serious cross border threats to health was adopted by the European Parliament in November 2013, in recognition of the need to strengthen the capacity of Member States to coordinate the public health response to cross border threats, whether from biological, chemical, environmental events or events which have an unknown origin. Although mechanisms have been in place for years for reporting cross border health threats from communicable diseases, this has not been the case for incidents involving chemicals and/or environmental events. A variety of collaborative EU projects have been funded over the past 10 years through the Health Programme to address gaps in knowledge on health security and to improve resilience and response to major incidents involving chemicals. This paper looks at the EU Health Programme that underpins recent research activities to address gaps in resilience, planning, responding to and recovering from a cross border chemical incident. It also looks at how the outputs from the research programme will contribute to improving public health management of transnational incidents that have the potential to overwhelm national capabilities, putting this into context with the new requirements as the Decision on serious cross border threats to health as well as highlighting areas for future development.

  6. Social Security: a financial appraisal for the median voter.

    PubMed

    Galasso, V

    Several explanations have been proposed for why voters continue to support unfunded social security systems. Browning (1975) suggests that the extremely large unfunded pension systems of most democracies depend on the existence of a voting majority composed of middle-aged and older people who fail to fully internalize the cost of financing the system. In fact, when voting, economically rational workers consider only their current and future contributions to the system and their expected pension benefits--not their past contributions, which they regard as sunk costs. If, for a majority of voters, the expected continuation return from social security exceeds the return from alternative assets, an unfunded social security system is politically sustainable. This article explores the validity of Browning's proposition by quantifying the returns that U.S. voters in presidential elections from 1964 to 1996 have obtained, or expect to obtain, from Social Security. Did "investments" in Social Security outperform alternative forms of investment, such as mutual funds or pension funds, for a majority of the voters? What can be expected for the future? The U.S. Social Security system redistributes income within age cohorts on the basis of sex, income, and marital status. To account for some of these features, the median voter is represented by a family unit whose members--a husband who accounts for 70 percent of household earnings and a wife who accounts for 30 percent--make joint economic and voting decisions. Thus, retirement and survival benefits paid out to the spouse of an insured worker can be included in the calculation of Social Security returns. Interval estimates of voters' family incomes from the U.S. Census Bureau were used to obtain the median voter's household earnings. The median voter's age is derived from the ages of those who voted in presidential elections, not from the ages of the entire electorate. The median voter's contributions to Social Security are the

  7. Borrowing to save: a critique of recent proposals to partially privatize Social Security.

    PubMed

    Dattalo, Patrick

    2007-07-01

    Concern over Social Security's forecasted long-run deficit is occurring at a time when the program has a short-term surplus. One proposed strategy to address this forecasted deficit is to allow the investment of a portion of payroll taxes into private savings accounts (PSAs). The author analyzes recent proposals for PSAs and concludes that PSAs are more likely to be a problem than a solution. Paradoxically, PSAs require the government to borrow to encourage current workers to save. The author recommends resources to help social workers remain informed about proposed program reforms and prepared to advocate for the concept of social insurance. PMID:17850031

  8. How to supplement Social Security fairly and effectively.

    PubMed

    Ghilarducci, Teresa

    2010-04-01

    Over the past 3 decades, the base upon which Americans obtain income for retirement has become increasingly tied to fluctuations in the financial markets. Because Social Security provides a small percentage of pre-retirement income in retirement, most of the nation's workers need a supplement to Social Security. This study demonstrates the failure of the 401(k) system and advances a bold, but realistic, solution to America's crumbling retirement system: guaranteed retirement accounts (GRAs), a universal government program that supplements Social Security by providing guaranteed rates of return, by locking up balances until retirement, and by mandating annuities at retirement-with survivor's benefits. The GRA plan is compared to other proposals, including President Obama's, which aims to expand the voluntary, commercial, individually directed account-based system.

  9. Male Labor Force Participation and Social Security in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aguila, Emma

    2014-04-01

    Labor-force participation among Mexican males in their early retirement years (60 to 64 years of age) has decreased in recent decades, from 94.6 percent in 1960 to 65.2 percent in 2010. Similar trends are evident elsewhere in Latin America, and have occurred in the developed world. Such trends pose challenges to financial sustainability of social security systems as working-age populations decrease and those in retirement increase both because of demographic trends and decisions to take early retirement. In this study, we find that the Mexican social security system provides incentives to retire early. The retirement incentives of the Mexican social security system affect retirement behavior, and may be one of the main contributors to early retirement decisions, particularly for lower-income populations. We simulated the effect of the reform from a Pay-As-You-Go (PAYG) to the new Personal Retirement Accounts (PRA) system and we find that the PRA system also provides incentives to early retirement. Further analysis is needed to assess the financial sustainability of the social security system and financial security in old age for the largest cohorts in Mexico that will begin to retire by 2040.

  10. Male Labor Force Participation and Social Security in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Labor-force participation among Mexican males in their early retirement years (60 to 64 years of age) has decreased in recent decades, from 94.6 percent in 1960 to 65.2 percent in 2010. Similar trends are evident elsewhere in Latin America, and have occurred in the developed world. Such trends pose challenges to financial sustainability of social security systems as working-age populations decrease and those in retirement increase both because of demographic trends and decisions to take early retirement. In this study, we find that the Mexican social security system provides incentives to retire early. The retirement incentives of the Mexican social security system affect retirement behavior, and may be one of the main contributors to early retirement decisions, particularly for lower-income populations. We simulated the effect of the reform from a Pay-As-You-Go (PAYG) to the new Personal Retirement Accounts (PRA) system and we find that the PRA system also provides incentives to early retirement. Further analysis is needed to assess the financial sustainability of the social security system and financial security in old age for the largest cohorts in Mexico that will begin to retire by 2040. PMID:25328441

  11. Individuals’ Uncertainty about Future Social Security Benefits and Portfolio Choice

    PubMed Central

    Delavande, Adeline

    2013-01-01

    Summary Little is known about the degree to which individuals are uncertain about their future Social Security benefits, how this varies within the U.S. population, and whether this uncertainty influences financial decisions related to retirement planning. To illuminate these issues, we present empirical evidence from the Health and Retirement Study Internet Survey and document systematic variation in respondents’ uncertainty about their future Social Security benefits by individual characteristics. We find that respondents with higher levels of uncertainty about future benefits hold a smaller share of their wealth in stocks. PMID:23914049

  12. How can we exploit above–belowground interactions to assist in addressing the challenges of food security?

    PubMed Central

    Orrell, Peter; Bennett, Alison E.

    2013-01-01

    Can above–belowground interactions help address issues of food security? We address this question in this manuscript, and review the intersection of above–belowground interactions and food security. We propose that above–belowground interactions could address two strategies identified by Godfray etal. (2010): reducing the Yield Gap, and Increasing Production Limits. In particular, to minimize the difference between potential and realized production (The Yield Gap) above–belowground interactions could be manipulated to reduce losses to pests and increase crop growth (and therefore yields). To Increase Production Limits we propose two mechanisms: utilizing intercropping (which uses multiple aspects of above–belowground interactions) and breeding for traits that promote beneficial above–belowground interactions, as well as breeding mutualistic organisms to improve their provided benefit. As a result, if they are managed correctly, there is great potential for above–belowground interactions to contribute to food security. PMID:24198821

  13. How can we exploit above-belowground interactions to assist in addressing the challenges of food security?

    PubMed

    Orrell, Peter; Bennett, Alison E

    2013-10-30

    Can above-belowground interactions help address issues of food security? We address this question in this manuscript, and review the intersection of above-belowground interactions and food security. We propose that above-belowground interactions could address two strategies identified by Godfray etal. (2010): reducing the Yield Gap, and Increasing Production Limits. In particular, to minimize the difference between potential and realized production (The Yield Gap) above-belowground interactions could be manipulated to reduce losses to pests and increase crop growth (and therefore yields). To Increase Production Limits we propose two mechanisms: utilizing intercropping (which uses multiple aspects of above-belowground interactions) and breeding for traits that promote beneficial above-belowground interactions, as well as breeding mutualistic organisms to improve their provided benefit. As a result, if they are managed correctly, there is great potential for above-belowground interactions to contribute to food security.

  14. How to Address the Volitional Dimension of the Engineer's Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkero, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I argue that volitional aspects, i.e. ethos, attitude, pathos, will, underlying emotion, in engineering action need to be addressed when teaching social responsibility within the engineering curriculum. After presenting reasons for this claim, I look at two different, but not mutually exclusive, approaches to address volitional…

  15. Addressing the Academic and Social Needs of Young Male Students through School-Based Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Curtis E.

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed the problem within the U.S. public school system to sustainably meet the academic and social needs of its African American male students. The administrative team of the elementary school in this study desired an evaluation of a school-based male mentoring program that was designed to address these needs. The program, Gentlemen…

  16. Language Socialization and Interculturality: Address Terms in Intergenerational Talk in Chinese Diasporic Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Zhu

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the current debate on "interculturality" (IC) by investigating the process of language socialization whereby different generations of diasporic families negotiate, construct, and renew their sociocultural values and identities through interaction. Focusing on the use of address terms and "talk about social,…

  17. 20 CFR 404.408b - Reduction of retroactive monthly social security benefits where supplemental security income (SSI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... security benefits where supplemental security income (SSI) payments were received for the same period. 404... retroactive monthly social security benefits where supplemental security income (SSI) payments were received... first month in which those benefits are paid; and (2) SSI payments (including federally...

  18. Debating the Future: A Social Security Political Leadership Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rackaway, Chapman; Goertzen, Brent J.

    2008-01-01

    Students are well served by course simulations that employ active learning styles and student-driven interaction. For debate on political issues, particular public policies are quite effective in stimulating that discussion. We developed an in-class simulation of political debate on the issue of Social Security. We describe the simulation itself,…

  19. Ensuring a Minimum: Social Security Reform and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herd, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The potential effects of implementing three different minimum benefits in Social Security, which have accompanied proposals to privatize the program and reform family benefits, are examined in relation to the adequacy of benefits for women reaching age 62 between 2020 and 2030. Design and Methods: The 1992 Health and Retirement Study is…

  20. Social Security Disability Insurance: Time for Fundamental Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhauser, Richard V.; Daly, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    The Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) program is growing at an unsustainable pace. Over the past 40 years the number of disabled worker beneficiaries has increased nearly sixfold, rising from 1.5 million in 1970 to 8.2 million in 2010. Rapid growth in the rolls has put increasing pressure on program finances. The rapid rise in SSDI…

  1. 42 CFR 435.910 - Use of social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... non-work reason in accordance with 20 CFR 422.104; or (iii) Refuses to obtain an SSN because of well... each of his or her Social Security numbers (SSN). (b) The agency must advise the applicant of— (1) (2) The statute or other authority under which the agency is requesting the applicant's SSN; and (3)...

  2. 4 CFR 83.9 - Social Security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... number. (a) GAO may not require individuals to disclose their Social Security Number (SSN) unless... existence and operating prior to January 1, 1975, to request the SSN as a necessary means of verifying the identity of an individual. (b) Individuals asked to voluntarily provide their SSN shall suffer no...

  3. 45 CFR 205.52 - Furnishing of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... furnish to the State or local agency a social security account number, hereinafter referred to as the SSN (or numbers, if more than one has been issued); and (2) If he cannot furnish a SSN (either because such SSN has not been issued or is not known), to apply for such number through procedures adopted...

  4. 4 CFR 83.9 - Social Security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... number. (a) GAO may not require individuals to disclose their Social Security Number (SSN) unless... existence and operating prior to January 1, 1975, to request the SSN as a necessary means of verifying the identity of an individual. (b) Individuals asked to voluntarily provide their SSN shall suffer no...

  5. 45 CFR 205.52 - Furnishing of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... furnish to the State or local agency a social security account number, hereinafter referred to as the SSN (or numbers, if more than one has been issued); and (2) If he cannot furnish a SSN (either because such SSN has not been issued or is not known), to apply for such number through procedures adopted...

  6. 7 CFR 273.6 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... State agency with the social security number (SSN) of each household member or apply for one before... explain to applicants and participants that refusal or failure without good cause to provide an SSN will result in disqualification of the individual for whom an SSN is not obtained. (b) Obtaining SSNs for...

  7. 42 CFR 435.910 - Use of social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... non-work reason in accordance with 20 CFR 422.104; or (iii) Refuses to obtain an SSN because of well... each of his or her Social Security numbers (SSN). (b) The agency must advise the applicant of— (1) (2) The statute or other authority under which the agency is requesting the applicant's SSN; and (3)...

  8. 7 CFR 273.6 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... State agency with the social security number (SSN) of each household member or apply for one before... explain to applicants and participants that refusal or failure without good cause to provide an SSN will result in disqualification of the individual for whom an SSN is not obtained. (b) Obtaining SSNs for...

  9. 4 CFR 83.9 - Social Security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... number. (a) GAO may not require individuals to disclose their Social Security Number (SSN) unless... existence and operating prior to January 1, 1975, to request the SSN as a necessary means of verifying the identity of an individual. (b) Individuals asked to voluntarily provide their SSN shall suffer no...

  10. 45 CFR 205.52 - Furnishing of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... furnish to the State or local agency a social security account number, hereinafter referred to as the SSN (or numbers, if more than one has been issued); and (2) If he cannot furnish a SSN (either because such SSN has not been issued or is not known), to apply for such number through procedures adopted...

  11. 45 CFR 205.52 - Furnishing of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... furnish to the State or local agency a social security account number, hereinafter referred to as the SSN (or numbers, if more than one has been issued); and (2) If he cannot furnish a SSN (either because such SSN has not been issued or is not known), to apply for such number through procedures adopted...

  12. 45 CFR 205.52 - Furnishing of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... furnish to the State or local agency a social security account number, hereinafter referred to as the SSN (or numbers, if more than one has been issued); and (2) If he cannot furnish a SSN (either because such SSN has not been issued or is not known), to apply for such number through procedures adopted...

  13. 4 CFR 83.9 - Social Security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... number. (a) GAO may not require individuals to disclose their Social Security Number (SSN) unless... existence and operating prior to January 1, 1975, to request the SSN as a necessary means of verifying the identity of an individual. (b) Individuals asked to voluntarily provide their SSN shall suffer no...

  14. 7 CFR 273.6 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... State agency with the social security number (SSN) of each household member or apply for one before... explain to applicants and participants that refusal or failure without good cause to provide an SSN will result in disqualification of the individual for whom an SSN is not obtained. (b) Obtaining SSNs for...

  15. 7 CFR 273.6 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... State agency with the social security number (SSN) of each household member or apply for one before... explain to applicants and participants that refusal or failure without good cause to provide an SSN will result in disqualification of the individual for whom an SSN is not obtained. (b) Obtaining SSNs for...

  16. 4 CFR 83.9 - Social Security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... number. (a) GAO may not require individuals to disclose their Social Security Number (SSN) unless... existence and operating prior to January 1, 1975, to request the SSN as a necessary means of verifying the identity of an individual. (b) Individuals asked to voluntarily provide their SSN shall suffer no...

  17. Social Security Disability Insurance: Essential Protection when Work Incapacity Strikes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reno, Virginia P.; Ekman, Lisa D.

    2012-01-01

    Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) is an essential lifeline for millions of Americans. Without it, many families would be in deep financial distress. SSDI is insurance that workers pay for through premiums deducted from their pay. In return, workers gain the right to monthly benefits if a disabling condition ends their capacity to earn a…

  18. Social Security Data: An Aid to Manpower Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commins, William D.

    The report examines the potential of Social Security Administration data for manpower training evaluation. It assesses the utility of SSA data for comparing the economic gains of on-the-job training and institutional trainees before and after training. The methodology developed incorporates multiple correlation analysis, analysis of variance, and…

  19. Women and Social Security: Law and Policy in Five Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Dalmer; Bixby, Lenore E.

    An increased interest in the position of women, stimulated by increasing numbers of women in the labor force as well as the women's movement, has resulted in a reexamination of women's status under social security programs in many countries. Five case studies (Belgium, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Great Britain, and United States), which…

  20. 78 FR 12129 - Rescission of Social Security Acquiescence Rulings 92-2(6)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... regulations, 63 FR 24927 (May 6, 1998). Dated: February 12, 2013. Michael J. Astrue, Commissioner of Social... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Rescission of Social Security Acquiescence Rulings 92-2(6) AGENCY: Social Security...

  1. 20 CFR 422.120 - Earnings reported without a social security number or with an incorrect employee name or social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Earnings reported without a social security number or with an incorrect employee name or social security number. 422.120 Section 422.120 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General Procedures § 422.120...

  2. 20 CFR 422.120 - Earnings reported without a social security number or with an incorrect employee name or social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Earnings reported without a social security number or with an incorrect employee name or social security number. 422.120 Section 422.120 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General Procedures § 422.120...

  3. 20 CFR 422.120 - Earnings reported without a social security number or with an incorrect employee name or social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Earnings reported without a social security number or with an incorrect employee name or social security number. 422.120 Section 422.120 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General Procedures § 422.120...

  4. 20 CFR 422.120 - Earnings reported without a social security number or with an incorrect employee name or social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earnings reported without a social security number or with an incorrect employee name or social security number. 422.120 Section 422.120 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General Procedures § 422.120...

  5. 20 CFR 422.120 - Earnings reported without a social security number or with an incorrect employee name or social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Earnings reported without a social security number or with an incorrect employee name or social security number. 422.120 Section 422.120 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General Procedures § 422.120...

  6. Which Social Elements Are Visible in Virtual Groups? Addressing the Categorization of Social Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Mateo, M.; Guitert, M.

    2012-01-01

    Learning is a social process. That is why it is extremely important to understand how students interact socially in online courses and how it affects the learning process. However, social aspects, understood as those expressions or comments that go beyond strictly academic interaction, i.e. the need to carry out group work, are not clearly…

  7. The Mexican Social Security counterreform: pensions for profit.

    PubMed

    Laurell, A C

    1999-01-01

    The social security counterreform, initiated in 1997, forms part of the neoliberal reorganization of Mexican society. The reform implies a profound change in the guiding principles of social security, as the public model based on integrality, solidarity, and redistribution is replaced by a model based on private administration of funds and services, individualization of entitlement, and reduction of rights. Its economic purpose is to move social services and benefits into the direct sphere of private capital accumulation. Although these changes will involve the whole social security system--old-age and disability pensions, health care, child care, and workers' compensation--they are most immediately evident in the pension scheme. The pay-as-you-go scheme is being replaced by privately managed individual retirement accounts which especially favor the big financial groups. These groups are gaining control over huge amounts of capital, are authorized to charge a high commission, and run no financial risks. The privatization of the system requires decisive state intervention with a legal change and a sizable state subsidy (1 to 1.5 percent of GNP) over five decades. The supposed positive impact on economic growth and employment is uncertain. A review of the new law and of the estimates of future annuities reveals shrinking pension coverage and inadequate incomes from pensions. PMID:10379457

  8. The Mexican Social Security counterreform: pensions for profit.

    PubMed

    Laurell, A C

    1999-01-01

    The social security counterreform, initiated in 1997, forms part of the neoliberal reorganization of Mexican society. The reform implies a profound change in the guiding principles of social security, as the public model based on integrality, solidarity, and redistribution is replaced by a model based on private administration of funds and services, individualization of entitlement, and reduction of rights. Its economic purpose is to move social services and benefits into the direct sphere of private capital accumulation. Although these changes will involve the whole social security system--old-age and disability pensions, health care, child care, and workers' compensation--they are most immediately evident in the pension scheme. The pay-as-you-go scheme is being replaced by privately managed individual retirement accounts which especially favor the big financial groups. These groups are gaining control over huge amounts of capital, are authorized to charge a high commission, and run no financial risks. The privatization of the system requires decisive state intervention with a legal change and a sizable state subsidy (1 to 1.5 percent of GNP) over five decades. The supposed positive impact on economic growth and employment is uncertain. A review of the new law and of the estimates of future annuities reveals shrinking pension coverage and inadequate incomes from pensions.

  9. Individual social security accounts: issues in assessing administrative feasibility and costs.

    PubMed

    Olsen, K A; Salisbury, D L

    1998-11-01

    Whether to add individual accounts (IAs) to the Social Security system is a highly political issue. But almost lost in the debate so far have been any practical considerations about how to administer such accounts. Any discussion of whether to create individual accounts must also address the basic but critical questions of how they would work: Who would run them? What would they cost? Logistically, are they even possible? This EBRI Issue Brief provides an overview of the most salient administrative issues facing the current Social Security reform debate--issues that challenge proponents to carefully think through how their proposals could be implemented so as to achieve their policy goals. The options and difficulties in administering IAs raise concerns that cut across ideology. The object of this report is neither to dissuade the advocates nor support the critics of individual accounts. Rather, it is to bring practical considerations to a political debate that has largely ignored the pragmatic challenges of whether IAs would be too complex for participants to understand or too difficult for record keepers to administer. The major findings in this analysis include: Adding individual accounts to Social Security could be the largest undertaking in the history of the U.S. financial market, and no system to date has the capacity to administer such a system. The number of workers currently covered by Social Security--the largest single entitlement program in the nation--is at least four times higher than the combined number of all tax-favored employment-based retirement accounts in the United States, which are administered by hundreds of entities. Direct comparisons between employment-based retirement savings plans and Social Security reform are tenuous at best. Social Security covers workers and businesses that are disproportionately excluded from employment-based plans. Because of these differences, a system of individual Social Security accounts would be more

  10. Addressing vaccine hesitancy: The potential value of commercial and social marketing principles and practices.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Glen J; Gellin, Bruce G; MacDonald, Noni E; Butler, Robb

    2015-08-14

    Many countries and communities are dealing with groups and growing numbers of individuals who are delaying or refusing recommended vaccinations for themselves or their children. This has created a need for immunization programs to find approaches and strategies to address vaccine hesitancy. An important source of useful approaches and strategies is found in the frameworks, practices, and principles used by commercial and social marketers, many of which have been used by immunization programs. This review examines how social and commercial marketing principles and practices can be used to help address vaccine hesitancy. It provides an introduction to key marketing and social marketing concepts, identifies some of the major challenges to applying commercial and social marketing approaches to immunization programs, illustrates how immunization advocates and programs can use marketing and social marketing approaches to address vaccine hesitancy, and identifies some of the lessons that commercial and non-immunization sectors have learned that may have relevance for immunization. While the use of commercial and social marketing practices and principles does not guarantee success, the evidence, lessons learned, and applications to date indicate that they have considerable value in fostering vaccine acceptance.

  11. Addressing vaccine hesitancy: The potential value of commercial and social marketing principles and practices.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Glen J; Gellin, Bruce G; MacDonald, Noni E; Butler, Robb

    2015-08-14

    Many countries and communities are dealing with groups and growing numbers of individuals who are delaying or refusing recommended vaccinations for themselves or their children. This has created a need for immunization programs to find approaches and strategies to address vaccine hesitancy. An important source of useful approaches and strategies is found in the frameworks, practices, and principles used by commercial and social marketers, many of which have been used by immunization programs. This review examines how social and commercial marketing principles and practices can be used to help address vaccine hesitancy. It provides an introduction to key marketing and social marketing concepts, identifies some of the major challenges to applying commercial and social marketing approaches to immunization programs, illustrates how immunization advocates and programs can use marketing and social marketing approaches to address vaccine hesitancy, and identifies some of the lessons that commercial and non-immunization sectors have learned that may have relevance for immunization. While the use of commercial and social marketing practices and principles does not guarantee success, the evidence, lessons learned, and applications to date indicate that they have considerable value in fostering vaccine acceptance. PMID:25900132

  12. 28 CFR 700.25 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use and collection of social security... to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 700.25 Use and collection of social security numbers. (a) Each system manager of a system of records that utilizes Social Security numbers as a...

  13. 20 CFR 235.4 - How the Board pays social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true How the Board pays social security benefits... RETIREMENT ACT PAYMENT OF SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS BY THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 235.4 How the Board pays social security benefits. (a) When an individual described in § 235.3 of this part is...

  14. 20 CFR 404.611 - How do I file an application for Social Security benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? 404.611 Section 404.611 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD... § 404.611 How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? (a) General rule. You must...

  15. 24 CFR 206.40 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 206.40 Section 206.40 Housing and Urban Development... Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgagors § 206.40 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and... verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers, as provided by part 200, subpart U,...

  16. 24 CFR 201.6 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 201.6 Section 201.6 Housing and Urban Development... HOME LOANS General § 201.6 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification... the disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers, as provided...

  17. 38 CFR 1.575 - Social security numbers in veterans' benefits matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Social security numbers... Affairs Records § 1.575 Social security numbers in veterans' benefits matters. (a) Except as provided in... because of refusal to disclose to the Department of Veterans Affairs a social security number. (b)...

  18. 24 CFR 242.68 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Requirements § 242.68 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. The requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, regarding the disclosure and verification of Social Security Numbers... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 242.68 Section 242.68 Housing and Urban...

  19. 42 CFR 408.46 - Effect of suspension of social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effect of suspension of social security benefits... Benefits § 408.46 Effect of suspension of social security benefits. (a) Benefit payments to be resumed during the taxable year. (1) If social security benefit payments are scheduled to be resumed during...

  20. 20 CFR 228.19 - Reduction for a social security benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reduction for a social security benefit. 228... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.19 Reduction for a social security benefit. The tier I annuity component is reduced for the amount of any social security benefit...

  1. 24 CFR 201.6 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 201.6 Section 201.6 Housing and Urban Development... HOME LOANS General § 201.6 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification... the disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers, as provided...

  2. 20 CFR 235.4 - How the Board pays social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true How the Board pays social security benefits... RETIREMENT ACT PAYMENT OF SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS BY THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 235.4 How the Board pays social security benefits. (a) When an individual described in § 235.3 of this part is...

  3. 28 CFR 16.53 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use and collection of social security... 1974 § 16.53 Use and collection of social security numbers. Each component shall ensure that employees... privilege as a result of refusing to provide their social security numbers, unless the collection...

  4. 42 CFR 408.46 - Effect of suspension of social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Effect of suspension of social security benefits... Benefits § 408.46 Effect of suspension of social security benefits. (a) Benefit payments to be resumed during the taxable year. (1) If social security benefit payments are scheduled to be resumed during...

  5. 38 CFR 1.521 - Special restrictions concerning social security records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... concerning social security records. 1.521 Section 1.521 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Records § 1.521 Special restrictions concerning social security records. Information received from the Social Security Administration may be filed in the veteran's claims folder without special...

  6. 12 CFR 1070.63 - Use and collection of Social Security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use and collection of Social Security numbers... AND INFORMATION The Privacy Act § 1070.63 Use and collection of Social Security numbers. The CFPB will... any right, benefit, or privilege as a result of refusing to provide their social security...

  7. 20 CFR 235.4 - How the Board pays social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How the Board pays social security benefits... RETIREMENT ACT PAYMENT OF SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS BY THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 235.4 How the Board pays social security benefits. (a) When an individual described in § 235.3 of this part is...

  8. 24 CFR 242.68 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Requirements § 242.68 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. The requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, regarding the disclosure and verification of Social Security Numbers... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 242.68 Section 242.68 Housing and Urban...

  9. 24 CFR 206.40 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 206.40 Section 206.40 Housing and Urban Development... Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgagors § 206.40 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and... verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers, as provided by part 200, subpart U,...

  10. 24 CFR 206.40 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 206.40 Section 206.40 Housing and Urban Development... Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgagors § 206.40 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and... verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers, as provided by part 200, subpart U,...

  11. 20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs. 422.501 Section 422.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... used in Social Security Administration programs. This subpart lists the applications and some of...

  12. 20 CFR 228.19 - Reduction for a social security benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Reduction for a social security benefit. 228... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.19 Reduction for a social security benefit. The tier I annuity component is reduced for the amount of any social security benefit...

  13. 20 CFR 404.611 - How do I file an application for Social Security benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? 404.611 Section 404.611 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD... § 404.611 How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? (a) General rule. You must...

  14. 38 CFR 3.216 - Mandatory disclosure of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... social security numbers. 3.216 Section 3.216 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 3.216 Mandatory disclosure of social security numbers. Any person who applies for or receives..., furnish the Department of Veterans Affairs upon request with his or her social security number and...

  15. 38 CFR 1.521 - Special restrictions concerning social security records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... concerning social security records. 1.521 Section 1.521 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Records § 1.521 Special restrictions concerning social security records. Information received from the Social Security Administration may be filed in the veteran's claims folder without special...

  16. 38 CFR 1.521 - Special restrictions concerning social security records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... concerning social security records. 1.521 Section 1.521 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Records § 1.521 Special restrictions concerning social security records. Information received from the Social Security Administration may be filed in the veteran's claims folder without special...

  17. 20 CFR 404.611 - How do I file an application for Social Security benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? 404.611 Section 404.611 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD... § 404.611 How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? (a) General rule. You must...

  18. 12 CFR 404.21 - Submission of social security and passport numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Submission of social security and passport... DISCLOSURE Access to Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 404.21 Submission of social security and... an Ex-Im Bank transaction, Ex-Im Bank may request social security and/or U.S. passport numbers...

  19. 29 CFR 71.12 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 71.12... RECORDS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 71.12 Use and collection of social security numbers. (a) Each component unit that requests an individual to disclose his social security account number...

  20. 20 CFR 229.56 - Reduction for child's social security benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Reduction for child's social security benefit... RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.56 Reduction for child's social security benefit. A child's benefit under the overall minimum, after...

  1. 12 CFR 1070.63 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers... AND INFORMATION The Privacy Act § 1070.63 Use and collection of social security numbers. The CFPB will... any right, benefit, or privilege as a result of refusing to provide their social security...

  2. 24 CFR 242.68 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Requirements § 242.68 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. The requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, regarding the disclosure and verification of Social Security Numbers... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 242.68 Section 242.68 Housing and Urban...

  3. 20 CFR 229.53 - Reduction for social security benefits on employee's wage record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Reduction for social security benefits on... UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.53 Reduction for social security benefits on employee's wage record. The total...

  4. 20 CFR 229.55 - Reduction for spouse social security benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reduction for spouse social security benefit... RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.55 Reduction for spouse social security benefit. A spouse benefit under the overall minimum, after...

  5. 12 CFR 1070.63 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers... AND INFORMATION The Privacy Act § 1070.63 Use and collection of social security numbers. The CFPB will... any right, benefit, or privilege as a result of refusing to provide their social security...

  6. 20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs. 422.501 Section 422.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... used in Social Security Administration programs. This subpart lists the applications and some of...

  7. 31 CFR 1.32 - Use and disclosure of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use and disclosure of social security... OF RECORDS Privacy Act § 1.32 Use and disclosure of social security numbers. (a) In general. An... such individual's refusal to disclose his social security number. (b) Exceptions. The provisions...

  8. 29 CFR 71.12 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Use and collection of social security numbers. 71.12 Section... UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 71.12 Use and collection of social security numbers. (a) Each component unit that requests an individual to disclose his social security account number shall provide...

  9. 20 CFR 423.5 - Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities. 423.5 Section 423.5 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.5 Process against Social Security Administration officials in...

  10. 24 CFR 232.616 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 232.616 Section 232.616 Housing and Urban... Borrowers § 232.616 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. To... the disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers, as provided...

  11. 20 CFR 229.53 - Reduction for social security benefits on employee's wage record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Reduction for social security benefits on... UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.53 Reduction for social security benefits on employee's wage record. The total...

  12. 29 CFR 71.12 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 71.12... RECORDS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 71.12 Use and collection of social security numbers. (a) Each component unit that requests an individual to disclose his social security account number...

  13. 20 CFR 228.19 - Reduction for a social security benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Reduction for a social security benefit. 228... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.19 Reduction for a social security benefit. The tier I annuity component is reduced for the amount of any social security benefit...

  14. 20 CFR 229.56 - Reduction for child's social security benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reduction for child's social security benefit... RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.56 Reduction for child's social security benefit. A child's benefit under the overall minimum, after...

  15. 24 CFR 232.616 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 232.616 Section 232.616 Housing and Urban... Borrowers § 232.616 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. To... the disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers, as provided...

  16. 24 CFR 201.6 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 201.6 Section 201.6 Housing and Urban Development... HOME LOANS General § 201.6 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification... the disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers, as provided...

  17. 20 CFR 423.5 - Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities. 423.5 Section 423.5 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.5 Process against Social Security Administration officials in...

  18. 20 CFR 423.3 - Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or the Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or the Commissioner. 423.3 Section 423.3 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.3 Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or...

  19. 12 CFR 404.21 - Submission of social security and passport numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Submission of social security and passport... DISCLOSURE Access to Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 404.21 Submission of social security and... an Ex-Im Bank transaction, Ex-Im Bank may request social security and/or U.S. passport numbers...

  20. 28 CFR 700.25 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use and collection of social security... to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 700.25 Use and collection of social security numbers. (a) Each system manager of a system of records that utilizes Social Security numbers as a...

  1. 42 CFR 408.46 - Effect of suspension of social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Effect of suspension of social security benefits... Benefits § 408.46 Effect of suspension of social security benefits. (a) Benefit payments to be resumed during the taxable year. (1) If social security benefit payments are scheduled to be resumed during...

  2. 28 CFR 700.25 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use and collection of social security... to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 700.25 Use and collection of social security numbers. (a) Each system manager of a system of records that utilizes Social Security numbers as a...

  3. 38 CFR 3.201 - Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; Social Security and Department of Veterans Affairs. 3.201 Section 3.201 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.201 Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans... Social Security Administration or to have the Department of Veterans Affairs obtain such evidence...

  4. 20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs. 422.501 Section 422.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... used in Social Security Administration programs. This subpart lists the applications and some of...

  5. 38 CFR 3.216 - Mandatory disclosure of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... social security numbers. 3.216 Section 3.216 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 3.216 Mandatory disclosure of social security numbers. Any person who applies for or receives..., furnish the Department of Veterans Affairs upon request with his or her social security number and...

  6. 12 CFR 404.21 - Submission of social security and passport numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Submission of social security and passport... DISCLOSURE Access to Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 404.21 Submission of social security and... an Ex-Im Bank transaction, Ex-Im Bank may request social security and/or U.S. passport numbers...

  7. 24 CFR 232.616 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 232.616 Section 232.616 Housing and Urban... Borrowers § 232.616 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. To... the disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers, as provided...

  8. 20 CFR 229.53 - Reduction for social security benefits on employee's wage record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reduction for social security benefits on... UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.53 Reduction for social security benefits on employee's wage record. The total...

  9. 38 CFR 3.216 - Mandatory disclosure of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... social security numbers. 3.216 Section 3.216 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 3.216 Mandatory disclosure of social security numbers. Any person who applies for or receives..., furnish the Department of Veterans Affairs upon request with his or her social security number and...

  10. 38 CFR 1.575 - Social security numbers in veterans' benefits matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Social security numbers... Affairs Records § 1.575 Social security numbers in veterans' benefits matters. (a) Except as provided in... because of refusal to disclose to the Department of Veterans Affairs a social security number. (b)...

  11. 20 CFR 229.56 - Reduction for child's social security benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Reduction for child's social security benefit... RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.56 Reduction for child's social security benefit. A child's benefit under the overall minimum, after...

  12. 20 CFR 422.104 - Who can be assigned a social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Who can be assigned a social security number. 422.104 Section 422.104 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General Procedures § 422.104 Who can be assigned a social security number. (a) Persons eligible for...

  13. 31 CFR 1.32 - Use and disclosure of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use and disclosure of social security... OF RECORDS Privacy Act § 1.32 Use and disclosure of social security numbers. (a) In general. An... such individual's refusal to disclose his social security number. (b) Exceptions. The provisions...

  14. 31 CFR 1.32 - Use and disclosure of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use and disclosure of social security... OF RECORDS Privacy Act § 1.32 Use and disclosure of social security numbers. (a) In general. An... such individual's refusal to disclose his social security number. (b) Exceptions. The provisions...

  15. 20 CFR 229.55 - Reduction for spouse social security benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Reduction for spouse social security benefit... RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.55 Reduction for spouse social security benefit. A spouse benefit under the overall minimum, after...

  16. 20 CFR 229.55 - Reduction for spouse social security benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Reduction for spouse social security benefit... RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.55 Reduction for spouse social security benefit. A spouse benefit under the overall minimum, after...

  17. 20 CFR 423.5 - Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities. 423.5 Section 423.5 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.5 Process against Social Security Administration officials in...

  18. 38 CFR 1.575 - Social security numbers in veterans' benefits matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Social security numbers... Affairs Records § 1.575 Social security numbers in veterans' benefits matters. (a) Except as provided in... because of refusal to disclose to the Department of Veterans Affairs a social security number. (b)...

  19. 20 CFR 228.19 - Reduction for a social security benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction for a social security benefit. 228... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.19 Reduction for a social security benefit. The tier I annuity component is reduced for the amount of any social security benefit...

  20. 31 CFR 1.32 - Use and disclosure of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use and disclosure of social security... OF RECORDS Privacy Act § 1.32 Use and disclosure of social security numbers. (a) In general. An... such individual's refusal to disclose his social security number. (b) Exceptions. The provisions...

  1. 20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs. 422.501 Section 422.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... used in Social Security Administration programs. This subpart lists the applications and some of...

  2. 20 CFR 423.5 - Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities. 423.5 Section 423.5 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.5 Process against Social Security Administration officials in...

  3. 38 CFR 3.216 - Mandatory disclosure of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... social security numbers. 3.216 Section 3.216 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 3.216 Mandatory disclosure of social security numbers. Any person who applies for or receives..., furnish the Department of Veterans Affairs upon request with his or her social security number and...

  4. 28 CFR 16.53 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use and collection of social security... 1974 § 16.53 Use and collection of social security numbers. Each component shall ensure that employees... privilege as a result of refusing to provide their social security numbers, unless the collection...

  5. 42 CFR 408.46 - Effect of suspension of social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of suspension of social security benefits... Benefits § 408.46 Effect of suspension of social security benefits. (a) Benefit payments to be resumed during the taxable year. (1) If social security benefit payments are scheduled to be resumed during...

  6. 10 CFR 1008.22 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 1008.22... (PRIVACY ACT) Maintenance and Establishment of Systems of Records § 1008.22 Use and collection of social security numbers. (a) The System Manager of each system of records which utilizes social security...

  7. 20 CFR 422.104 - Who can be assigned a social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who can be assigned a social security number. 422.104 Section 422.104 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General Procedures § 422.104 Who can be assigned a social security number. (a) Persons eligible for...

  8. 20 CFR 229.55 - Reduction for spouse social security benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction for spouse social security benefit... RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.55 Reduction for spouse social security benefit. A spouse benefit under the overall minimum, after...

  9. 28 CFR 700.25 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use and collection of social security... to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 700.25 Use and collection of social security numbers. (a) Each system manager of a system of records that utilizes Social Security numbers as a...

  10. 20 CFR 229.56 - Reduction for child's social security benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction for child's social security benefit... RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.56 Reduction for child's social security benefit. A child's benefit under the overall minimum, after...

  11. 29 CFR 71.12 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Use and collection of social security numbers. 71.12 Section... UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 71.12 Use and collection of social security numbers. (a) Each component unit that requests an individual to disclose his social security account number shall provide...

  12. 38 CFR 1.521 - Special restrictions concerning social security records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... concerning social security records. 1.521 Section 1.521 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Records § 1.521 Special restrictions concerning social security records. Information received from the Social Security Administration may be filed in the veteran's claims folder without special...

  13. 20 CFR 235.4 - How the Board pays social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How the Board pays social security benefits... RETIREMENT ACT PAYMENT OF SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS BY THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 235.4 How the Board pays social security benefits. (a) When an individual described in § 235.3 of this part is...

  14. 20 CFR 404.611 - How do I file an application for Social Security benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? 404.611 Section 404.611 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD... § 404.611 How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? (a) General rule. You must...

  15. 20 CFR 229.53 - Reduction for social security benefits on employee's wage record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction for social security benefits on... UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.53 Reduction for social security benefits on employee's wage record. The total...

  16. 38 CFR 1.575 - Social security numbers in veterans' benefits matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Social security numbers... Affairs Records § 1.575 Social security numbers in veterans' benefits matters. (a) Except as provided in... because of refusal to disclose to the Department of Veterans Affairs a social security number. (b)...

  17. The Role of Earnings and Financial Risk in Distributional Analyses of Social Security Reform Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    The Social Security Trustees project that the Social Security program faces longterm financing difficulties. Several proposals that have been offered to shore-up the finances of the Social Security program would create individual retirement accounts funded with part of the payroll tax. The authors of many of these proposals claim that future…

  18. 20 CFR 423.3 - Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or the Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or the Commissioner. 423.3 Section 423.3 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.3 Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or...

  19. 20 CFR 422.104 - Who can be assigned a social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who can be assigned a social security number. 422.104 Section 422.104 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General Procedures § 422.104 Who can be assigned a social security number. (a) Persons eligible for...

  20. 20 CFR 229.53 - Reduction for social security benefits on employee's wage record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduction for social security benefits on... UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.53 Reduction for social security benefits on employee's wage record. The total...

  1. 20 CFR 229.56 - Reduction for child's social security benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduction for child's social security benefit... RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.56 Reduction for child's social security benefit. A child's benefit under the overall minimum, after...

  2. 24 CFR 242.68 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Requirements § 242.68 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. The requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, regarding the disclosure and verification of Social Security Numbers... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 242.68 Section 242.68 Housing and Urban...

  3. 38 CFR 1.575 - Social security numbers in veterans' benefits matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Social security numbers... Affairs Records § 1.575 Social security numbers in veterans' benefits matters. (a) Except as provided in... because of refusal to disclose to the Department of Veterans Affairs a social security number. (b)...

  4. 20 CFR 228.19 - Reduction for a social security benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduction for a social security benefit. 228... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.19 Reduction for a social security benefit. The tier I annuity component is reduced for the amount of any social security benefit...

  5. 20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs. 422.501 Section 422.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... used in Social Security Administration programs. This subpart lists the applications and some of...

  6. 12 CFR 404.21 - Submission of social security and passport numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Submission of social security and passport... DISCLOSURE Access to Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 404.21 Submission of social security and... an Ex-Im Bank transaction, Ex-Im Bank may request social security and/or U.S. passport numbers...

  7. 20 CFR 229.55 - Reduction for spouse social security benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduction for spouse social security benefit... RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.55 Reduction for spouse social security benefit. A spouse benefit under the overall minimum, after...

  8. 20 CFR 404.611 - How do I file an application for Social Security benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? 404.611 Section 404.611 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD... § 404.611 How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? (a) General rule. You must...

  9. 28 CFR 700.25 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use and collection of social security... to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 700.25 Use and collection of social security numbers. (a) Each system manager of a system of records that utilizes Social Security numbers as a...

  10. 38 CFR 3.216 - Mandatory disclosure of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... social security numbers. 3.216 Section 3.216 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 3.216 Mandatory disclosure of social security numbers. Any person who applies for or receives..., furnish the Department of Veterans Affairs upon request with his or her social security number and...

  11. 42 CFR 408.46 - Effect of suspension of social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect of suspension of social security benefits... Benefits § 408.46 Effect of suspension of social security benefits. (a) Benefit payments to be resumed during the taxable year. (1) If social security benefit payments are scheduled to be resumed during...

  12. 28 CFR 16.53 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use and collection of social security... 1974 § 16.53 Use and collection of social security numbers. Each component shall ensure that employees... privilege as a result of refusing to provide their social security numbers, unless the collection...

  13. 20 CFR 423.5 - Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities. 423.5 Section 423.5 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.5 Process against Social Security Administration officials in...

  14. 38 CFR 1.521 - Special restrictions concerning social security records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... concerning social security records. 1.521 Section 1.521 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Records § 1.521 Special restrictions concerning social security records. Information received from the Social Security Administration may be filed in the veteran's claims folder without special...

  15. 20 CFR 235.4 - How the Board pays social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How the Board pays social security benefits... RETIREMENT ACT PAYMENT OF SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS BY THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 235.4 How the Board pays social security benefits. (a) When an individual described in § 235.3 of this part is...

  16. 29 CFR 71.12 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 71.12... RECORDS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 71.12 Use and collection of social security numbers. (a) Each component unit that requests an individual to disclose his social security account number...

  17. 20 CFR 422.104 - Who can be assigned a social security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who can be assigned a social security number. 422.104 Section 422.104 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General Procedures § 422.104 Who can be assigned a social security number. (a) Persons eligible for...

  18. 31 CFR 1.32 - Use and disclosure of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use and disclosure of social security... OF RECORDS Privacy Act § 1.32 Use and disclosure of social security numbers. (a) In general. An... such individual's refusal to disclose his social security number. (b) Exceptions. The provisions...

  19. 24 CFR 232.616 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 232.616 Section 232.616 Housing and Urban... Borrowers § 232.616 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. To... the disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers, as provided...

  20. 24 CFR 206.40 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 206.40 Section 206.40 Housing and Urban Development... Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgagors § 206.40 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and... verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers, as provided by part 200, subpart U,...

  1. 12 CFR 1204.9 - Does FHFA collect and use Social Security numbers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Does FHFA collect and use Social Security... OPERATIONS PRIVACY ACT IMPLEMENTATION § 1204.9 Does FHFA collect and use Social Security numbers? FHFA collects Social Security numbers only when it is necessary and authorized. At least annually, the...

  2. 24 CFR 201.6 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 201.6 Section 201.6 Housing and Urban Development... HOME LOANS General § 201.6 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification... the disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers, as provided...

  3. International developments in social security privatization: what risk to women?

    PubMed

    Schulz, J H; Rosenman, L; Rix, S E

    1999-03-01

    Throughout the world, older women are generally poorer than men. In an era when Social Security programs are increasingly under challenge by advocates of savings and pension schemes administered by the private sector, there is a need to assess the relative advantages of different public/private approaches for dealing with older women's financial needs. What would happen to women if more of the burden were shifted from the public sector to the private sector? This article presents an overview of women's vulnerability in old age and examines the role of public and private pensions in meeting their income needs. It then discusses approaches to Social Security privatization and the special issues for women raised by these issues. Finally, the issues and approaches discussed are illustrated by developments in the United States and Australia. PMID:14617894

  4. Employment among Social Security disability program beneficiaries, 1996-2007.

    PubMed

    Mamun, Arif; O'Leary, Paul; Wittenburg, David C; Gregory, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    We use linked administrative data from program and earnings records to summarize the 2007 employment rates of Social Security disability program beneficiaries at the national and state levels, as well as changes in employment since 1996. The findings provide new information on the employment activities of beneficiaries that should be useful in assessing current agency policies and providing benchmarks for ongoing demonstration projects and future return-to-work initiatives. The overall employment rate--which we define as annual earnings over $1,000--was 12 percent in 2007. Substantial variation exists within the population. Disability Insurance beneficiaries and those younger than age 40 were much more likely to work relative to other Social Security beneficiaries. Additionally, substantial regional variation exists across states; employment rates ranged from 7 percent (West Virginia) to 23 percent (North Dakota). Moreover, we find that the employment rates among beneficiaries were sensitive to the business cycle and persistent over time.

  5. Death and taxes: longer life, consumption, and social security.

    PubMed

    Lee, R; Tuljapurkar, S

    1997-02-01

    We analyze in three steps the influence of the projected mortality decline on the long run finances of the Social Security System. First, on a theoretical level, mortality decline adds person years of life which are distributed across the life cycle. The interaction of this distribution with the age distribution of labor earnings minus consumption, or of taxes minus benefits, partially determines the corresponding steady state financial consequences of mortality decline. The effect of mortality decline on population growth rates also matters, but is negligible in low mortality populations. Second, examination of past mortality trends in the United States and of international trends in low mortality populations, suggests that mortality will decline faster than foreseen by the Social Security Administration's forecasts. Third, we combine the work of the first two parts in dynamic simulations to examine the implications of mortality decline and of alternative forecasts of mortality for the finances of the social security system. Also, we use stochastic population forecasts to assess the influence of uncertainty about mortality decline on uncertainty about finances; we find that uncertainty about fertility still has more important implications than uncertainty about mortality, contrary to sensitivity tests in the official forecasts.

  6. Beyond engagement in working with children in eight Nairobi slums to address safety, security, and housing: Digital tools for policy and community dialogue.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Claudia; Chege, Fatuma; Maina, Lucy; Rothman, Margot

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the ways in which researchers working in the area of health and social research and using participatory visual methods might extend the reach of participant-generated creations such as photos and drawings to engage community leaders and policy-makers. Framed as going 'beyond engagement', the article explores the idea of the production of researcher-led digital dialogue tools, focusing on one example, based on a series of visual arts-based workshops with children from eight slums in Nairobi addressing issues of safety, security, and well-being in relation to housing. The authors conclude that there is a need for researchers to embark upon the use of visual tools to expand the life and use of visual productions, and in particular to ensure meaningful participation of communities in social change. PMID:27132645

  7. Beyond engagement in working with children in eight Nairobi slums to address safety, security, and housing: Digital tools for policy and community dialogue.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Claudia; Chege, Fatuma; Maina, Lucy; Rothman, Margot

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the ways in which researchers working in the area of health and social research and using participatory visual methods might extend the reach of participant-generated creations such as photos and drawings to engage community leaders and policy-makers. Framed as going 'beyond engagement', the article explores the idea of the production of researcher-led digital dialogue tools, focusing on one example, based on a series of visual arts-based workshops with children from eight slums in Nairobi addressing issues of safety, security, and well-being in relation to housing. The authors conclude that there is a need for researchers to embark upon the use of visual tools to expand the life and use of visual productions, and in particular to ensure meaningful participation of communities in social change.

  8. An Approach for Addressing the Multiple Testing Problem in Social Policy Impact Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.

    2009-01-01

    In social policy evaluations, the multiple testing problem occurs due to the many hypothesis tests that are typically conducted across multiple outcomes and subgroups, which can lead to spurious impact findings. This article discusses a framework for addressing this problem that balances Types I and II errors. The framework involves specifying…

  9. Benefit adequacy among elderly Social Security retired-worker beneficiaries and the SSI federal benefit rate.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Kalman; Strand, Alexander; Davies, Paul; Sears, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Both target effectiveness and administrative simplicity are desirable properties in the design of minimum benefit packages for public retirement programs. The federal benefit rate (FBR) of the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program has been proposed by some analysts as a potentially attractive basis of establishing a new minimum benefit for Social Security on both of these grounds. This type of proposal is related to a broader array of minimum benefit proposals that would establish a Social Security benefit floor based on the poverty rate. In contrast to Social Security, the SSI program is means tested, including both an income and asset screen and also a categorical eligibility screen (the requirement to qualify as aged or disabled). The SSI FBR provides an inflation-adjusted, guaranteed income floor for aged and disabled people with low assets. The FBR has been perceived by proponents as a minimal measure of Social Security benefit adequacy because it represents a subpoverty income level for a family of one or two depending on marital status. For this same reason it has been seen as a target-effective tool of designing a minimum Social Security benefit. An FBR-based minimum benefit has also been viewed as administratively simple to implement; the benefit can be calculated from Social Security administrative records using a completely automated electronic process. Therefore-in contrast to the SSI program itself-an FBR-based minimum benefit would incur virtually no ongoing administrative costs, would not require a separate application for a means-tested program, and would avoid the perception of welfare stigma. While these ideas have been discussed in the literature and among policymakers in the United States over the years, and similar proposals have been considered or implemented in several foreign countries, there have been no previous analyses measuring the size of the potentially affected beneficiary population. Nor has there been any systematic assessment

  10. Teaching and addressing health disparities through the family medicine social and community context of care project.

    PubMed

    White, Jordan; Heney, Jessica; Esquibel, Angela Y; Dimock, Camia; Goldman, Roberta; Anthony, David

    2014-09-01

    By training future physicians to care for patients with backgrounds different from their own, medical schools can help reduce health disparities. To address the need for education in this area, the leaders of the Family Medicine Clerkship at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University developed the Social and Community Context of Care project, required of all medical students rotating through this clerkship. Students develop a hypothetical intervention addressing a health issue seen at their preceptor site, and are assessed on their grasp of the social and contextual issues affecting that health issue in their particular community. Some interventions are actualized in later clerkships or independent study projects; one example, a health class for pregnant and parenting teens at Central Falls High School, is described here. If made a routine part of medical education, projects such as these may help medical students address the health disparities they will encounter in future practice.

  11. The Need to Address Mobile Device Security in the Higher Education IT Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Karen P.; Harris, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Mobile devices, including smartphones and tablets, enable users to access corporate data from anywhere. In 2013, people will purchase 1.2 billion mobile devices, surpassing personal computers as the most common method for accessing the Internet. However, security of these mobile devices is a major concern for organizations. The two leading…

  12. Women's receipt of Social Security retirement benefits: expectations compared to elections.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Martie; Heath, Claudia J

    2013-01-01

    This research contributes knowledge regarding the options of early, normal, or delayed receipt of Social Security retirement benefits and research-based findings regarding women's expected and actual timing of election of Social Security retirement benefits. First, descriptive analyses of alternative retirement options, based on Social Security retirement benefit rules, are provided. Second, the 2000, 2002, 2004, and 2006 waves of Health and Retirement Study (HRS) data are used to analyze women's anticipated and actual election of Social Security retirement benefits. Third, based on these considerations, recommendations are made regarding Social Security retirement benefit receipt alternatives.

  13. [Family medicine and practice in the Mexican Social Security Institute].

    PubMed

    Casas Patiño, Donovan; Jarillo Soto, Edgar; Rodríguez Torres, Alejandra

    2014-06-26

    The central ideas of this research paper are related to the practice of family medicine as a specialty. It focuses in its origins, problems, unique characteristics, limitations, scope, management, and processes within the context of primary care of the Mexican Social Security System. This approach was based on a qualitative, hermeneutical study closely related to the Structural Functionalism Theory. Within this framework, medical practice is seen as an equation: Meaning = action + function/structure. This offers an approach to the understanding of reality through surveys and observations in five categories: identity, activity, purpose, values/norms, and power/relationship. The practice of family medicine is defined as a medical act in the Mexican Social Security Institute. This act is limited to a brief encounter and a prescription, which makes it a short, fleeting, medicalized interaction. The result is a negative social imaginary of the physician, the patient and the whole of society. Thus, individuals and society host a negative social imaginary bestowed on doctors and users of the health system.

  14. Health and Social Security Needs of Rickshaw Pullers in Ranchi.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anant; Thomas, Joe; Wadhwa, Sonal S; Mishra, Aprajita; Dasgupta, Smita

    2016-07-01

    A significant number of "marginalized" population groups are denied their health rights, healthcare access, benefits of government health programs, and other health-related social security benefits. These population groups, particularly the rickshaw pullers of India, are vulnerable because of their poor social and economic status, migration history, lack of permanent settlements, lack of social capital, and so on. These reasons, coupled with other social-political reasons, lead to no or limited access to health services and poor health conditions. This study intends to explore and understand the context and health seeking behavior of rickshaw pullers in Ranchi, the capital city of Jharkhand state in India, with special reference to wider social determinants of health such as, access, affordability, and delivery of health services. The data was collected from 1,000 rickshaw pullers from 40 "rickshaw garages" in Ranchi. The findings of the study show that rickshaw pullers can't afford to "attach" much importance to their health due to various reasons and suffer from a variety of occupational and other illnesses. The health conditions of the rickshaw pullers are affected by poverty, negligence, illiteracy, lack of awareness and unavailability of affordable, quality health services. These are only a symptom of the larger structural issues affecting health. The study suggests that rickshaw pullers, being a marginalized and excluded population group, require special health and social security programs that include safe, affordable, and accessible services along with a special focus on health education, behavior change, and promotion of appropriate health-seeking behavior. PMID:27050732

  15. Status of Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Activities Underway to Address Major Domestic Radiological Security Challenges - 12105

    SciTech Connect

    Cuthbertson, Abigail; Jennison, Meaghan

    2012-07-01

    During their service lives, radioactive sealed sources are used for a wide variety of essential purposes. However, each year, thousands of radioactive sealed sources that pose a potential risk to national security, health, and safety become disused and unwanted in the United States. Due to their concentrated activity and portability, these sources could be used in radiological dispersal devices ('dirty bombs'). For more than a decade, the National Nuclear Security Administration and the U.S. Department of Energy, through the Global Threat Reduction Initiative Offsite Source Recovery Project (GTRI/OSRP), have facilitated the removal and disposition of thousands of disused/unwanted sources worldwide. However, the ability of GTRI/OSRP to continue its work is critically dependent on the ability to transport and appropriately dispose of these sources. On that front, GTRI/OSRP progress includes development of two prototype Type B transport containers and significant efforts toward certification, increased commercial disposal access for risk-significant sealed sources at commercial sites, and cooperation through the International Atomic Energy Agency to increase source repatriation. Disused sealed sources continue to pose a national security concern. The impact of a dirty bomb detonation could be costly both financially and to those exposed to the resulting radiation. However, significant progress has been made since 2008 on each of the challenges identified in the DHS Sealed Source Security Workshop. Not only will there be increased opportunity for commercial disposal of many sizes and types of sealed sources, but also stakeholders are studying front-end solutions to the problem of disused sealed sources, such as financial assurance and recycle. The lack of sealed source transport containers is also likely to be mitigated with the development and certification by NNSA of two new Type B models. Internationally, increased efforts at source repatriation will mitigate the

  16. Public social monitoring reports and their effect on a policy programme aimed at addressing the social determinants of health to improve health equity in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Pega, Frank; Valentine, Nicole B; Matheson, Don; Rasanathan, Kumanan

    2014-01-01

    The important role that monitoring plays in advancing global health is well established. However, the role of social monitoring as a tool for addressing social determinants of health (SDH) and health equity-focused policies remains under-researched. This paper assesses the extent and ways in which New Zealand's (NZ) Social Reports (SRs) supported a SDH- and health equity-oriented policy programme nationally over the 2000-2008 period by documenting the SRs' history and assessing its impact on policies across sectors in government and civil society. We conducted key-informant interviews with five senior policy-makers and an e-mail survey with 24 government and civil society representatives on SRs' history and policy impact. We identified common themes across these data and classified them accordingly to assess the intensity of the reports' use and their impact on SDH- and health equity-focused policies. Bibliometric analyses of government publications and media items were undertaken to empirically assess SRs' impact on government and civil society. SRs in NZ arose out of the role played by government as the "benevolent social welfare planner" and an understanding of the necessity of economic and social security for "progress". The SRs were linked to establishing a government-wide programme aimed at reducing inequalities. They have been used moderately to highly in central and local government and in civil society, both within and outside the health sector, but have neither entered public treasury and economic development departments nor the commercial sector. The SRs have not reached the more universal status of economic indicators. However, they have had some success at raising awareness of, and have stimulated isolated action on, SDH. The NZ case suggests that national-level social monitoring provides a valuable tool for raising awareness of SDH across government and civil society. A number of strategies could improve social reports' effectiveness in stimulating

  17. 6 CFR 5.33 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 5... OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Privacy Act § 5.33 Use and collection of social security numbers. Each... not be denied any right, benefit, or privilege as a result of refusing to provide their...

  18. 6 CFR 5.33 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 5... OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Privacy Act § 5.33 Use and collection of social security numbers. Each... not be denied any right, benefit, or privilege as a result of refusing to provide their...

  19. 6 CFR 5.33 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 5... OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Privacy Act § 5.33 Use and collection of social security numbers. Each... not be denied any right, benefit, or privilege as a result of refusing to provide their...

  20. 6 CFR 5.33 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 5... OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Privacy Act § 5.33 Use and collection of social security numbers. Each... not be denied any right, benefit, or privilege as a result of refusing to provide their...

  1. 6 CFR 5.33 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 5... OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Privacy Act § 5.33 Use and collection of social security numbers. Each... not be denied any right, benefit, or privilege as a result of refusing to provide their...

  2. Security and Vulnerability Assessment of Social Media Sites: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jensen; Zhao, Sherry Y.

    2015-01-01

    While the growing popularity of social media has brought many benefits to society, it has also resulted in privacy and security threats. The authors assessed the security and vulnerability of 50 social media sites. The findings indicate that most sites (a) posted privacy and security policies but only a minority stated clearly their execution of…

  3. [Disintegration of the prison system, public security and social exclusion].

    PubMed

    Freixo, Marcelo

    2016-06-01

    The defense of human rights, namely one of the most important duties of the legislature, is a considerable challenge in the day-to-day business of parliament. The opinions and practices of elected representatives reflect the security concerns and fears of society that engender a vast process of social exclusion. In this context, the defense of the right to health of persons deprived of liberty seems an especially difficult task, as shown in the interview of State Congressman Marcelo Freixo, the Coordinator of the Human Rights Commission of the Legislative Assembly in Rio de Janeiro and creator of the State Mechanism for Preventing and Combating Torture. PMID:27383350

  4. Demographic Change, Social Security Systems, and Savings1

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, David E.; Canning, David; Mansfield, Richard K.; Moore, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In theory, improvements in healthy life expectancy should generate increases in the average age of retirement, with little effect on savings rates. In many countries, however, retirement incentives in social security programs prevent retirement ages from keeping pace with changes in life expectancy, leading to an increased need for life-cycle savings. Analyzing a cross-country panel of macroeconomic data, we find that increased longevity raises aggregate savings rates in countries with universal pension coverage and retirement incentives, though the effect disappears in countries with pay-as-you-go systems and high replacement rates. PMID:19865594

  5. REVIEW OF THE POTENTIAL OF NUCLEAR HYDROGEN FOR ADDRESSING ENERGY SECURITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien

    2010-06-01

    Nuclear energy has the potential to exert a major positive impact on energy security and climate change by coupling it to the transportation sector, primarily through hydrogen production. In the short term, this coupling will provide carbon-free hydrogen for upgrading increasingly lower quality petroleum resources such as oil sands, offsetting carbon emissions associated with steam methane reforming. In the intermediate term, nuclear hydrogen will be needed for large-scale production of infrastructure-compatible synthetic liquid fuels. In the long term, there is great potential for the use of hydrogen as a direct vehicle fuel, most likely in the form of light-duty pluggable hybrid hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. This paper presents a review of the potential benefits of large-scale nuclear hydrogen production for energy security (i.e. displacing imported petroleum) and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Lifecycle benefits of nuclear energy in this context are presented, with reference to recent major publications on this topic. The status of US and international nuclear hydrogen research programs are discussed. Industry progress toward consumer-grade hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are also be examined.

  6. Feeling addressed! The role of body orientation and co-speech gesture in social communication.

    PubMed

    Nagels, Arne; Kircher, Tilo; Steines, Miriam; Straube, Benjamin

    2015-05-01

    During face-to-face communication, body orientation and coverbal gestures influence how information is conveyed. The neural pathways underpinning the comprehension of such nonverbal social cues in everyday interaction are to some part still unknown. During fMRI data acquisition, 37 participants were presented with video clips showing an actor speaking short sentences. The actor produced speech-associated iconic gestures (IC) or no gestures (NG) while he was visible either from an egocentric (ego) or from an allocentric (allo) position. Participants were asked to indicate via button press whether they felt addressed or not. We found a significant interaction of body orientation and gesture in addressment evaluations, indicating that participants evaluated IC-ego conditions as most addressing. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and left fusiform gyrus were stronger activated for egocentric versus allocentric actor position in gesture context. Activation increase in the ACC for IC-ego>IC-allo further correlated positively with increased addressment ratings in the egocentric gesture condition. Gesture-related activation increase in the supplementary motor area, left inferior frontal gyrus and right insula correlated positively with gesture-related increase of addressment evaluations in the egocentric context. Results indicate that gesture use and body-orientation contribute to the feeling of being addressed and together influence neural processing in brain regions involved in motor simulation, empathy and mentalizing. PMID:25640962

  7. Feeling addressed! The role of body orientation and co-speech gesture in social communication.

    PubMed

    Nagels, Arne; Kircher, Tilo; Steines, Miriam; Straube, Benjamin

    2015-05-01

    During face-to-face communication, body orientation and coverbal gestures influence how information is conveyed. The neural pathways underpinning the comprehension of such nonverbal social cues in everyday interaction are to some part still unknown. During fMRI data acquisition, 37 participants were presented with video clips showing an actor speaking short sentences. The actor produced speech-associated iconic gestures (IC) or no gestures (NG) while he was visible either from an egocentric (ego) or from an allocentric (allo) position. Participants were asked to indicate via button press whether they felt addressed or not. We found a significant interaction of body orientation and gesture in addressment evaluations, indicating that participants evaluated IC-ego conditions as most addressing. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and left fusiform gyrus were stronger activated for egocentric versus allocentric actor position in gesture context. Activation increase in the ACC for IC-ego>IC-allo further correlated positively with increased addressment ratings in the egocentric gesture condition. Gesture-related activation increase in the supplementary motor area, left inferior frontal gyrus and right insula correlated positively with gesture-related increase of addressment evaluations in the egocentric context. Results indicate that gesture use and body-orientation contribute to the feeling of being addressed and together influence neural processing in brain regions involved in motor simulation, empathy and mentalizing.

  8. A community health worker intervention to address the social determinants of health through policy change.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Maia; Schachter, Ken A; Sabo, Samantha J; Reinschmidt, Kerstin M; Gomez, Sofia; De Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Carvajal, Scott C

    2014-04-01

    Public policy that seeks to achieve sustainable improvements in the social determinants of health, such as income, education, housing, food security and neighborhood conditions, can create positive and sustainable health effects. This paper describes preliminary results of Acción para la Salud, a public health intervention in which Community health workers (CHWs) from five health agencies engaged their community in the process of making positive systems and environmental changes. Academic-community partners trained Acción CHWs in community advocacy and provided ongoing technical assistance in developing strategic advocacy plans. The CHWs documented community advocacy activities through encounter forms in which they identified problems, formulated solutions, and described systems and policy change efforts. Strategy maps described the steps of the advocacy plans. Findings demonstrate that CHWs worked to initiate discussions about underlying social determinants and environment-related factors that impact health, and identified solutions to improve neighborhood conditions, create community opportunities, and increase access to services. PMID:24363179

  9. 20 CFR 404.1363 - Treatment of social security benefits or payments where Federal benefit payable other than by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Treatment of social security benefits or... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950... Social Security Benefits and Payments § 404.1363 Treatment of social security benefits or payments...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1363 - Treatment of social security benefits or payments where Federal benefit payable other than by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Treatment of social security benefits or... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950... Social Security Benefits and Payments § 404.1363 Treatment of social security benefits or payments...

  11. 20 CFR 423.1 - Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees in their official capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Administration and its employees in their official capacities. 423.1 Section 423.1 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.1 Suits against the Social Security Administration and its... the Social Security Administration or the Commissioner of Social Security should be sent to the...

  12. 77 FR 43640 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 12-2p; Titles II and XVI: Evaluation of Fibromyalgia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Social Security Ruling, SSR 12-2p; Titles II and XVI: Evaluation of Fibromyalgia AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Social Security Ruling (SSR). SUMMARY: In accordance with 20...

  13. Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  14. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... social security laws and regulations. 252.222-7004 Section 252.222-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social... Spanish Social Security Laws and Regulations (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall comply with all...

  15. 24 CFR 203.35 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 203.35 Section 203.35 Housing and Urban Development... Requirements and Underwriting Procedures Eligible Mortgagors § 203.35 Disclosure and verification of Social... mortgagor must meet the requirements for the disclosure and verification of Social Security and...

  16. 28 CFR 802.23 - Use and disclosure of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use and disclosure of social security... THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS Privacy Act § 802.23 Use and disclosure of social... provided by law because of such individual's refusal to disclose his or her social security number....

  17. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... social security laws and regulations. 252.222-7004 Section 252.222-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social... Spanish Social Security Laws and Regulations (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall comply with all...

  18. 24 CFR 203.35 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 203.35 Section 203.35 Housing and Urban Development... Requirements and Underwriting Procedures Eligible Mortgagors § 203.35 Disclosure and verification of Social... mortgagor must meet the requirements for the disclosure and verification of Social Security and...

  19. 24 CFR 203.35 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 203.35 Section 203.35 Housing and Urban Development... Requirements and Underwriting Procedures Eligible Mortgagors § 203.35 Disclosure and verification of Social... mortgagor must meet the requirements for the disclosure and verification of Social Security and...

  20. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... social security laws and regulations. 252.222-7004 Section 252.222-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social... Spanish Social Security Laws and Regulations (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall comply with all...

  1. 28 CFR 802.23 - Use and disclosure of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use and disclosure of social security... THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS Privacy Act § 802.23 Use and disclosure of social... provided by law because of such individual's refusal to disclose his or her social security number....

  2. 28 CFR 802.23 - Use and disclosure of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use and disclosure of social security... THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS Privacy Act § 802.23 Use and disclosure of social... provided by law because of such individual's refusal to disclose his or her social security number....

  3. 8 CFR 103.35 - Use and collection of Social Security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS POWERS AND DUTIES; AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 103.35 Use and collection of Social Security numbers. The use and collection of Social Security numbers shall be in accordance with 28 CFR 16.56. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use and collection of Social...

  4. 13 CFR 102.35 - Use and collection of Social Security Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 102.35 Use and collection of Social Security Numbers. Each Program/Support Office Head or designee... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use and collection of Social... their social security numbers, unless: (1) The collection is authorized either by a statute; or (2)...

  5. 13 CFR 102.35 - Use and collection of Social Security Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 102.35 Use and collection of Social Security Numbers. Each Program/Support Office Head or designee... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use and collection of Social... their social security numbers, unless: (1) The collection is authorized either by a statute; or (2)...

  6. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... social security laws and regulations. 252.222-7004 Section 252.222-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social... Spanish Social Security Laws and Regulations (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall comply with all...

  7. 8 CFR 103.35 - Use and collection of Social Security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS POWERS AND DUTIES; AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 103.35 Use and collection of Social Security numbers. The use and collection of Social Security numbers shall be in accordance with 28 CFR 16.56. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use and collection of Social...

  8. 24 CFR 203.35 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 203.35 Section 203.35 Housing and Urban Development... Requirements and Underwriting Procedures Eligible Mortgagors § 203.35 Disclosure and verification of Social... mortgagor must meet the requirements for the disclosure and verification of Social Security and...

  9. An evaluation of security measures implemented to address physical threats to water infrastructure in the state of Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Jason R; French, P Edward

    2013-01-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, increased and intensified domestic preparedness efforts in the United States against terrorism and other threats. The heightened focus on protecting this nation's critical infrastructure included legislation requiring implementation of extensive new security measures to better defend water supply systems against physical, chemical/biological, and cyber attacks. In response, municipal officials have implemented numerous safeguards to reduce the vulnerability of these systems to purposeful intrusions including ongoing vulnerability assessments, extensive personnel training, and highly detailed emergency response and communication plans. This study evaluates fiscal year 2010 annual compliance assessments of public water systems with security measures that were implemented by Mississippi's Department of Health as a response to federal requirements to address these potential terrorist threats to water distribution systems. The results show that 20 percent of the water systems in this state had at least one security violation on their 2010 Capacity Development Assessment, and continued perseverance from local governments is needed to enhance the resiliency and robustness of these systems against physical threats.

  10. An evaluation of security measures implemented to address physical threats to water infrastructure in the state of Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Jason R; French, P Edward

    2013-01-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, increased and intensified domestic preparedness efforts in the United States against terrorism and other threats. The heightened focus on protecting this nation's critical infrastructure included legislation requiring implementation of extensive new security measures to better defend water supply systems against physical, chemical/biological, and cyber attacks. In response, municipal officials have implemented numerous safeguards to reduce the vulnerability of these systems to purposeful intrusions including ongoing vulnerability assessments, extensive personnel training, and highly detailed emergency response and communication plans. This study evaluates fiscal year 2010 annual compliance assessments of public water systems with security measures that were implemented by Mississippi's Department of Health as a response to federal requirements to address these potential terrorist threats to water distribution systems. The results show that 20 percent of the water systems in this state had at least one security violation on their 2010 Capacity Development Assessment, and continued perseverance from local governments is needed to enhance the resiliency and robustness of these systems against physical threats. PMID:24187744

  11. The first federal budget under Prime Minister Justin Trudeau: Addressing social determinants of health?

    PubMed

    Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    A challenging budget environment during the Harper years has meant that crucial investments in the social determinants of health (SDHs) have increasingly been neglected. The tabling of what is widely considered a more progressive budget with expansionary fiscal elements under the new Prime Minister, Justin Trudeau, raises the question as to what extent this budget invests in policy areas that are crucial for achieving a more equitable distribution in the social determinants of health, as promised in the Liberal party platform. In this commentary, we argue that the first Liberal budget represents a step in the right direction, but that this first step needs to be followed up with a sustained commitment to address the pervasive (and unfair) social inequalities that are the root cause of persistent health inequities in Canada. We conclude that the first Trudeau budget, while moving in the right direction, does not fully embody the sustained policy changes needed to effectively address SDHs, including a more expansive role for the federal government in the redistribution of income and wealth. PMID:27526222

  12. Welfare, Liberty, and Security for All? U.S. Sex Education Policy and the 1996 Title V Section 510 of the Social Security Act.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Justin E; Hawkins, Robert L

    2016-07-01

    When adolescents delay (meaning they wait until after middle school) engaging in sexual intercourse, they use condoms at higher rates and have fewer sexual partners than those who have sex earlier, thus resulting in a lower risk for unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. The 1996 Section 510 of Title V of the Social Security Act (often referred to as A-H) is a policy that promotes abstinence-only-until-marriage education (AOE) within public schools. Using Stone's (2012) policy analysis framework, this article explores how A-H limits welfare, liberty, and security among adolescents due to the poor empirical outcomes of AOE policy. We recommend incorporating theory-informed comprehensive sex education in addition to theory-informed abstinence education that utilizes Fishbein and Ajzen's (2010) reasoned action model within schools in order to begin to address adolescent welfare, liberty, and security.

  13. Welfare, Liberty, and Security for All? U.S. Sex Education Policy and the 1996 Title V Section 510 of the Social Security Act.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Justin E; Hawkins, Robert L

    2016-07-01

    When adolescents delay (meaning they wait until after middle school) engaging in sexual intercourse, they use condoms at higher rates and have fewer sexual partners than those who have sex earlier, thus resulting in a lower risk for unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. The 1996 Section 510 of Title V of the Social Security Act (often referred to as A-H) is a policy that promotes abstinence-only-until-marriage education (AOE) within public schools. Using Stone's (2012) policy analysis framework, this article explores how A-H limits welfare, liberty, and security among adolescents due to the poor empirical outcomes of AOE policy. We recommend incorporating theory-informed comprehensive sex education in addition to theory-informed abstinence education that utilizes Fishbein and Ajzen's (2010) reasoned action model within schools in order to begin to address adolescent welfare, liberty, and security. PMID:27098762

  14. Addressing social determinants of health inequities through settings: a rapid review.

    PubMed

    Newman, Lareen; Baum, Fran; Javanparast, Sara; O'Rourke, Kerryn; Carlon, Leanne

    2015-09-01

    Changing settings to be more supportive of health and healthy choices is an optimum way to improve population health and health equity. This article uses the World Health Organisation's (1998) (WHO Health Promotion Glossary. WHO Collaborating Centre for Health Promotion, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Sydney, NSW) definition of settings approaches to health promotion as those focused on modifying settings' structure and nature. A rapid literature review was undertaken in the period June-August 2014, combining a systematically conducted search of two major databases with targeted searches. The review focused on identifying what works in settings approaches to address the social determinants of health inequities, using Fair Foundations: the VicHealth framework for health equity. This depicts the social determinants of health inequities as three layers of influence, and entry points for action to promote health equity. The evidence review identified work in 12 settings (cities; communities and neighbourhoods; educational; healthcare; online; faith-based; sports; workplaces; prisons; and nightlife, green and temporary settings), and work at the socioeconomic, political and cultural context layer of the Fair Foundations framework (governance, legislation, regulation and policy). It located a relatively small amount of evidence that settings themselves are being changed in ways which address the social determinants of health inequities. Rather, many initiatives focus on individual behaviour change within settings. There is considerable potential for health promotion professionals to focus settings work more upstream and so replace or integrate individual approaches with those addressing daily living conditions and higher level structures, and a significant need for programmes to be evaluated for differential equity impacts and published to provide a more solid evidence base. PMID:26420808

  15. Addressing social determinants of health inequities: what can the state and civil society do?

    PubMed

    Blas, Erik; Gilson, Lucy; Kelly, Michael P; Labonté, Ronald; Lapitan, Jostacio; Muntaner, Carles; Ostlin, Piroska; Popay, Jennie; Sadana, Ritu; Sen, Gita; Schrecker, Ted; Vaghri, Ziba

    2008-11-01

    In this Health Policy article, we selected and reviewed evidence synthesised by nine knowledge networks established by WHO to support the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. We have indicated the part that national governments and civil society can play in reducing health inequity. Government action can take three forms: (1) as provider or guarantor of human rights and essential services; (2) as facilitator of policy frameworks that provide the basis for equitable health improvement; and (3) as gatherer and monitor of data about their populations in ways that generate health information about mortality and morbidity and data about health equity. We use examples from the knowledge networks to illustrate some of the options governments have in fulfilling this role. Civil society takes many forms: here, we have used examples of community groups and social movements. Governments and civil society can have important positive roles in addressing health inequity if political will exists.

  16. Addressing social determinants of health inequities: what can the state and civil society do?

    PubMed

    Blas, Erik; Gilson, Lucy; Kelly, Michael P; Labonté, Ronald; Lapitan, Jostacio; Muntaner, Carles; Ostlin, Piroska; Popay, Jennie; Sadana, Ritu; Sen, Gita; Schrecker, Ted; Vaghri, Ziba

    2008-11-01

    In this Health Policy article, we selected and reviewed evidence synthesised by nine knowledge networks established by WHO to support the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. We have indicated the part that national governments and civil society can play in reducing health inequity. Government action can take three forms: (1) as provider or guarantor of human rights and essential services; (2) as facilitator of policy frameworks that provide the basis for equitable health improvement; and (3) as gatherer and monitor of data about their populations in ways that generate health information about mortality and morbidity and data about health equity. We use examples from the knowledge networks to illustrate some of the options governments have in fulfilling this role. Civil society takes many forms: here, we have used examples of community groups and social movements. Governments and civil society can have important positive roles in addressing health inequity if political will exists. PMID:18994667

  17. The corporate impact of addressing social issues: a financial case study of a project in Peru.

    PubMed

    Dabbs, Alan; Bateson, Matthew

    2002-05-01

    Large, multinational resource development projects can affect many aspects, including social, economic and ecological realities, in the regions where they operate. Social and environmental issues that are usually ignored in such projects are increasingly affecting the financial future of multinational corporations in negative ways. In this article, we advance the argument that corporations can successfully manage these issues and that if they choose to view these management efforts as an investment rather than an expense, they may well acquire a competitive advantage over companies that do not. We describe as a case study the Camisea natural gas and condensates development project in Peru, operated by Shell Prospecting and Development Peru (SPDP). Camisea is one of the first projects anywhere in the world to conduct a detailed analysis of key industry-related social issues and the processes, required investment and financial impact of managing them. The Camisea example supports the argument that addressing social and environmental concerns makes financial sense. In present value terms, the benefit of managing these concerns was expected to surpass the cost investment by approximately US$50 million. PMID:12125747

  18. Using social marketing to address barriers and motivators to agricultural safety and health best practices.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Aaron M; Murphy, Dennis J

    2012-01-01

    Social marketing is an intervention development strategy that pays considerable attention to barriers to and motivators for behavioral change or adoption of recommended behaviors. Barriers are obstacles that prevent individuals from changing or adopting behaviors and are often referred to as the "cons" or "costs" of doing something. Motivators, on the other hand, are factors that encourage individuals to change or adopt behaviors and are often referred to as the "pros," "benefits," or "influencing factors" of doing something. Importantly, social marketing does not target education or knowledge change as an end point; rather, it targets behavior change. Studies across several types of desired behaviors (e.g., smoking cessation, weight control, more exercise, sunscreen use, radon testing) using the Stages of Change model have found systematic relationships between stages of change and pros and cons of changing behavior. A review of literature identifies numerous research and intervention studies that directly reference social marketing in agricultural safety and health, studies that identify reasons why parents allow their children to be exposed to hazardous situations on the farm, and reasons why youth engage in risky behaviors, but only two studies were found that show evidence of systematically researching specific behavioral change motivating factors. The authors offer several suggestions to help address issues relating to social marketing and agricultural safety and health.

  19. The corporate impact of addressing social issues: a financial case study of a project in Peru.

    PubMed

    Dabbs, Alan; Bateson, Matthew

    2002-05-01

    Large, multinational resource development projects can affect many aspects, including social, economic and ecological realities, in the regions where they operate. Social and environmental issues that are usually ignored in such projects are increasingly affecting the financial future of multinational corporations in negative ways. In this article, we advance the argument that corporations can successfully manage these issues and that if they choose to view these management efforts as an investment rather than an expense, they may well acquire a competitive advantage over companies that do not. We describe as a case study the Camisea natural gas and condensates development project in Peru, operated by Shell Prospecting and Development Peru (SPDP). Camisea is one of the first projects anywhere in the world to conduct a detailed analysis of key industry-related social issues and the processes, required investment and financial impact of managing them. The Camisea example supports the argument that addressing social and environmental concerns makes financial sense. In present value terms, the benefit of managing these concerns was expected to surpass the cost investment by approximately US$50 million.

  20. Informal Workers in Thailand: Occupational Health and Social Security Disparities.

    PubMed

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig

    2015-08-01

    Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer's premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers' compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage. PMID:25995374

  1. Informal Workers in Thailand: Occupational Health and Social Security Disparities.

    PubMed

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig

    2015-08-01

    Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer's premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers' compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage.

  2. Lifetime distributional effects of Social Security retirement benefits.

    PubMed

    Smith, Karen; Toder, Eric; Iams, Howard

    This article presents three measures of the distribution of actual and projected net benefits (benefits minus payroll taxes) from Social Security's Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) for people born between 1931 and 1960. The results are based on simulations with the Social Security Administration's Model of Income in the Near Term (MINT), which projects retirement income through 2020. The base sample for MINT is the U.S. Census Bureau's Survey of Income and Program Participation panels for 1990 to 1993, matched with Social Security administrative records. The study population is grouped into 5-year birth cohorts and then ranked by economic status in three ways. First, the population is divided into five groups on the basis of individual lifetime covered earnings, and their lifetime present values of OASI benefits received and payroll taxes paid are calculated. By this measure, OASI provides much higher benefits to the lowest quintile of earners than to other groups, but it becomes less redistributive toward lower earners in more recent birth cohorts. Second, people are ranked by shared lifetime covered earnings, and the values of shared benefits received and payroll taxes paid are computed. Individuals are assumed to split covered earnings, benefits, and payroll taxes with their spouses in the years they are married. By the shared covered earnings measure, OASI is still much more favorable to persons in the lower income quintiles, although to a lesser degree than when people are ranked by individual covered earnings. OASI becomes more progressive among recent cohorts, even as net lifetime benefits decline for the entire population. Finally, individuals are ranked on the basis of their shared permanent income from age 62, when they become eligible for early retirement benefits, until death. Their annual Social Security benefits are compared with the benefits they would have received if they had saved their payroll taxes in individual accounts and used the

  3. 20 CFR 423.1 - Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees in their official capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal Register, and are available on-line at the Social Security Administration's Internet site, http... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suits against the Social Security... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.1 Suits against the Social Security Administration and...

  4. Rural system addresses social, economic needs. Cooperation, education, and advocacy revitalize a region's healthcare delivery.

    PubMed

    Rheinecker, P

    1992-01-01

    In recent years leaders at Presentation Health System (PHS), Sioux Falls, SD, have expanded their mission to help strengthen local communities economically and socially. PHS now offers support to rural leaders in business, politics, and healthcare through its Center for Rural Health and Economic Development. In addition, educational outreach coordinators have created programs that address the needs of the entire rural community. To establish an effective network of services in the region, two of the system's tertiary care hospitals are collaborating to provide emergency helicopter service. These larger facilities also extend outreach services to rural hospitals and clinics. PHS assists rural hospitals in grant writing and in adapting to changing government reimbursement rules. In addition, the healthcare system coordinates a group purchasing program and a debt collection agency. An important voice for its region's healthcare needs, PHS has worked with the state of South Dakota to address problems and concerns about emergency medical services. The system also publishes Report, a quarterly newsletter that keeps rural residents abreast of healthcare issues affecting them. Two years ago, PHS's Center for Rural Health and Economic Development sponsored its first Invitational Rural Health Leadership Conference. These annual conferences bring together leaders to examine ways to improve rural healthcare delivery by strengthening the social and economic fabric of rural communities. PMID:10119539

  5. Medical Student Volunteerism Addresses Patients' Social Needs: A Novel Approach to Patient-Centered Care

    PubMed Central

    Onyekere, Chinwe; Ross, Sandra; Namba, Alexa; Ross, Justin C.; Mann, Barry D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Healthcare providers must be equipped to recognize and address patients' psychosocial needs to improve overall health outcomes. To give future healthcare providers the tools and training necessary to identify and address psychosocial issues, Lankenau Medical Center in partnership with the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine designed the Medical Student Advocate (MSA) program. Methods: The MSA program places volunteer second-year osteopathic medical students in care coordination teams at Lankenau Medical Associates, a primary care practice serving a diverse patient population in the Philadelphia, PA, region. As active members of the team, MSAs are referred high-risk patients who have resource needs such as food, employment, child care, and transportation. MSAs work collaboratively with patients and the multidisciplinary team to address patients' nonmedical needs. Results: From August 2013 to August 2015, 31 osteopathic medical students volunteered for the MSA program and served 369 patients with 720 identified needs. Faculty and participating medical students report that the MSA program provided an enhanced understanding of the holistic nature of patient care and a comprehensive view of patient needs. Conclusion: The MSA program provides students with a unique educational opportunity that encompasses early exposure to patient interaction, social determinants of health, population health, and interdisciplinary collaboration. Students develop skills to help them build patient relationships, understand the psychosocial factors shaping health outcomes, and engage with other healthcare professionals. This work in the preclinical years provides students with the knowledge to help them perform more effectively in the changing healthcare environment. PMID:27046404

  6. Narratives and images used by public communication campaigns addressing social determinants of health and health disparities.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Christopher E; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Lundell, Helen C

    2012-12-01

    Researchers have increasingly focused on how social determinants of health (SDH) influence health outcomes and disparities. They have also explored strategies for raising public awareness and mobilizing support for policies to address SDH, with particular attention to narrative and image-based information. These efforts will need to overcome low public awareness and concern about SDH; few organized campaigns; and limited descriptions of existing message content. To begin addressing these challenges, we analyzed characteristics of 58 narratives and 135 visual images disseminated by two national SDH awareness initiatives: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Commission to Build a Healthier America and the PBS-produced documentary film Unnatural Causes. Certain types of SDH, including income/wealth and one's home and workplace environment, were emphasized more heavily than others. Solutions for addressing SDH often involved combinations of self-driven motivation (such as changes in personal health behaviors) along with externally-driven factors such as government policy related to urban revitilization. Images, especially graphs and charts, drew connections among SDH, health outcomes, and other variables, such as the relationship between mother's education and infant mortality as well as the link between heart disease and education levels within communities. We discuss implications of these findings for raising awareness of SDH and health disparities in the US through narrative and visual means. PMID:23330220

  7. Narratives and images used by public communication campaigns addressing social determinants of health and health disparities.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Christopher E; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Lundell, Helen C

    2012-12-01

    Researchers have increasingly focused on how social determinants of health (SDH) influence health outcomes and disparities. They have also explored strategies for raising public awareness and mobilizing support for policies to address SDH, with particular attention to narrative and image-based information. These efforts will need to overcome low public awareness and concern about SDH; few organized campaigns; and limited descriptions of existing message content. To begin addressing these challenges, we analyzed characteristics of 58 narratives and 135 visual images disseminated by two national SDH awareness initiatives: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Commission to Build a Healthier America and the PBS-produced documentary film Unnatural Causes. Certain types of SDH, including income/wealth and one's home and workplace environment, were emphasized more heavily than others. Solutions for addressing SDH often involved combinations of self-driven motivation (such as changes in personal health behaviors) along with externally-driven factors such as government policy related to urban revitilization. Images, especially graphs and charts, drew connections among SDH, health outcomes, and other variables, such as the relationship between mother's education and infant mortality as well as the link between heart disease and education levels within communities. We discuss implications of these findings for raising awareness of SDH and health disparities in the US through narrative and visual means.

  8. Narratives and Images Used by Public Communication Campaigns Addressing Social Determinants of Health and Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Christopher E.; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Lundell, Helen C.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have increasingly focused on how social determinants of health (SDH) influence health outcomes and disparities. They have also explored strategies for raising public awareness and mobilizing support for policies to address SDH, with particular attention to narrative and image-based information. These efforts will need to overcome low public awareness and concern about SDH; few organized campaigns; and limited descriptions of existing message content. To begin addressing these challenges, we analyzed characteristics of 58 narratives and 135 visual images disseminated by two national SDH awareness initiatives: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Commission to Build a Healthier America and the PBS-produced documentary film Unnatural Causes. Certain types of SDH, including income/wealth and one’s home and workplace environment, were emphasized more heavily than others. Solutions for addressing SDH often involved combinations of self-driven motivation (such as changes in personal health behaviors) along with externally-driven factors such as government policy related to urban revitilization. Images, especially graphs and charts, drew connections among SDH, health outcomes, and other variables, such as the relationship between mother’s education and infant mortality as well as the link between heart disease and education levels within communities. We discuss implications of these findings for raising awareness of SDH and health disparities in the US through narrative and visual means. PMID:23330220

  9. Supplemental security income and social security disability insurance coverage among long-term childhood cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Kirchhoff, Anne C; Parsons, Helen M; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Leisenring, Wendy; Donelan, Karen; Warner, Echo L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Robison, Leslie L; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Park, Elyse R

    2015-06-01

    Supplemental security income (SSI) and social security disability insurance (DI) are federal programs that provide disability benefits. We report on SSI/DI enrollment in a random sample of adult, long-term survivors of childhood cancer (n = 698) vs a comparison group without cancer (n = 210) from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study who completed a health insurance survey. A total of 13.5% and 10.0% of survivors had ever been enrolled on SSI or DI, respectively, compared with 2.6% and 5.4% of the comparison group. Cranial radiation doses of 25 Gy or more were associated with a higher risk of current SSI (relative risk [RR] = 3.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.05 to 7.56) and DI (RR = 3.65, 95% CI = 1.65 to 8.06) enrollment. Survivors with severe/life-threatening conditions were more often enrolled on SSI (RR = 3.77, 95% CI = 2.04 to 6.96) and DI (RR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.45 to 5.14) compared with those with mild/moderate or no health conditions. Further research is needed on disability-related financial challenges after childhood cancer.

  10. Addressing risk factors of cognitive impairment in adults aging with HIV: a social work model.

    PubMed

    Vance, David E; Struzick, Thomas C

    2007-01-01

    With advances in life-extending medications and later- life infections, the number of older adults with HIV is increasing. Unfortunately, the synergistic effects of aging with HIV may place many people at risk of developing cognitive impairments which can disrupt everyday functioning. Fortunately, cognitive reserve may be maintained, or in some cases improved, by taking action to prevent or mitigate such loss. Preventative and treatment strategies that support biopsychosocial aspects of cognition include reducing alcohol and substance use; improving nutrition; diminishing the effects of comorbidities; increasing social contact; reducing depression and stress levels; engaging in cognitively stimulating activities; applying cognitive remediation therapies; and incorporating psychopharmacological interventions. Such strategies can improve the physiological integrity and health of the brain, thus supporting neuroplasticity and increasing cognitive reserve. Social workers are in a favorable position to recognize cognitive decline in clients and recommend or administer solutions to address such problems. A model for social workers advocating for older clients with HIV who have cognitive problems is provided. PMID:17953062

  11. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH. PMID:26928215

  12. Policy approaches to address the social and environmental determinants of health inequity in Asia-pacific.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Loring, Belinda; Aungkasuvapala, Narongsakdi; Baum, Fran; Blaiklock, Alison; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Cho, Youngtae; Dakulala, Paison; Guo, Yan; Hashimoto, Hideki; Horton, Kellie; Jayasinghe, Saroj; Matheson, Don; Nguyen, Huong Thanh; Otto, Caleb; Rao, Mala; Reid, Paaparangi; Surjadi, Charles

    2012-11-01

    Asia Pacific is home to over 60% of the world's population and the fastest growing economies. Many of the leadership in the Asia Pacific region is becoming increasingly aware that improving the conditions for health would go a long way to sustaining economic prosperity in the region, as well as improving global and local health equity. There is no biological reason why males born in Cambodia can expect to live 23 years less than males born in Japan, or why females born in Tuvalu live 23 years shorter than females in New Zealand or why non-Indigenous Australian males live 12 years longer than Indigenous men. The nature and drivers of health inequities vary greatly among different social, cultural and geo-political contexts and effective solutions must take this into account. This paper utilizes the CSDH global recommendations as a basis for looking at the actions that are taking place to address the structural drivers and conditions of daily living that affect health inequities in the Asia Pacific context. While there are signs of action and hope, substantial challenges remain for health equity in Asia Pacific. The gains that have been made to date are not equally distributed and may be unsustainable as the world encounters new economic, social and environmental challenges. Tackling health inequities is a political imperative that requires leadership, political courage, social action, a sound evidence base and progressive public policy. PMID:23070757

  13. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH. PMID:26928215

  14. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH.

  15. 41 CFR 105-64.105 - When may Social Security Numbers (SSNs) be collected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When may Social Security... Offices-General Services Administration 64-GSA PRIVACY ACT RULES 64.1-Policies and Responsibilities § 105-64.105 When may Social Security Numbers (SSNs) be collected? (a) Statutory or regulatory...

  16. 12 CFR 404.21 - Submission of social security and passport numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission of social security and passport... DISCLOSURE Access to Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 404.21 Submission of social security and...-publicly traded entity applies for participation in an Ex-Im Bank program or is proposed as a guarantor...

  17. 24 CFR 200.6 - Employer identification and social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... identification and social security numbers. The requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, regarding the disclosure and verification of social security numbers and employer identification numbers by applicants and... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Employer identification and...

  18. 22 CFR 308.7 - Use of social security account number in records systems. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Use of social security account number in records systems. 308.7 Section 308.7 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 308.7 Use of social security account number in records systems....

  19. 1 CFR 304.31 - Use and collection of social security numbers and other information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers... Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 304.31 Use and collection of social security numbers and other... individuals may not be denied any right, benefit, or privilege as a result of refusing to provide their...

  20. 1 CFR 304.31 - Use and collection of social security numbers and other information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Use and collection of social security numbers... Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 304.31 Use and collection of social security numbers and other... individuals may not be denied any right, benefit, or privilege as a result of refusing to provide their...

  1. 24 CFR 200.6 - Employer identification and social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... identification and social security numbers. The requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, regarding the disclosure and verification of social security numbers and employer identification numbers by applicants and... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Employer identification and...

  2. 24 CFR 200.6 - Employer identification and social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... identification and social security numbers. The requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, regarding the disclosure and verification of social security numbers and employer identification numbers by applicants and... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Employer identification and...

  3. 20 CFR 217.7 - Claim filed with the Social Security Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Claim filed with the Social Security... RETIREMENT ACT APPLICATION FOR ANNUITY OR LUMP SUM Applications § 217.7 Claim filed with the Social Security Administration. (a) Claim is for life benefits. An application for life benefits under title II of the...

  4. 1 CFR 304.31 - Use and collection of social security numbers and other information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Use and collection of social security numbers... Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 304.31 Use and collection of social security numbers and other... individuals may not be denied any right, benefit, or privilege as a result of refusing to provide their...

  5. 22 CFR 308.7 - Use of social security account number in records systems. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of social security account number in records systems. 308.7 Section 308.7 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 308.7 Use of social security account number in records systems....

  6. 20 CFR 217.7 - Claim filed with the Social Security Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Claim filed with the Social Security... RETIREMENT ACT APPLICATION FOR ANNUITY OR LUMP SUM Applications § 217.7 Claim filed with the Social Security Administration. (a) Claim is for life benefits. An application for life benefits under title II of the...

  7. 45 CFR 287.105 - What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program? 287.105 Section 287.105 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE....105 What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program? NEW Programs are subject...

  8. 22 CFR 308.7 - Use of social security account number in records systems. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Use of social security account number in records systems. 308.7 Section 308.7 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 308.7 Use of social security account number in records systems....

  9. 20 CFR 217.7 - Claim filed with the Social Security Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Claim filed with the Social Security... RETIREMENT ACT APPLICATION FOR ANNUITY OR LUMP SUM Applications § 217.7 Claim filed with the Social Security Administration. (a) Claim is for life benefits. An application for life benefits under title II of the...

  10. 24 CFR 241.626 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 241.626 Section 241.626 Housing and Urban... verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. To be eligible for loan insurance under this subpart, the borrower must meet the requirements for the disclosure and verification of...

  11. 22 CFR 308.7 - Use of social security account number in records systems. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Use of social security account number in records systems. 308.7 Section 308.7 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 308.7 Use of social security account number in records systems....

  12. 20 CFR 217.7 - Claim filed with the Social Security Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claim filed with the Social Security... RETIREMENT ACT APPLICATION FOR ANNUITY OR LUMP SUM Applications § 217.7 Claim filed with the Social Security Administration. (a) Claim is for life benefits. An application for life benefits under title II of the...

  13. 38 CFR 3.201 - Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; Social Security and Department of Veterans Affairs. 3.201 Section 3.201 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.201 Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans... of Veterans Affairs in support of that claim copies of evidence which was previously furnished to...

  14. 38 CFR 3.201 - Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; Social Security and Department of Veterans Affairs. 3.201 Section 3.201 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.201 Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans... of Veterans Affairs in support of that claim copies of evidence which was previously furnished to...

  15. 38 CFR 3.201 - Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; Social Security and Department of Veterans Affairs. 3.201 Section 3.201 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.201 Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans... of Veterans Affairs in support of that claim copies of evidence which was previously furnished to...

  16. 38 CFR 3.201 - Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; Social Security and Department of Veterans Affairs. 3.201 Section 3.201 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.201 Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans... of Veterans Affairs in support of that claim copies of evidence which was previously furnished to...

  17. 59 FR- Agreement on Social Security Between the United States and Greece; Entry Into Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-11-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agreement on Social Security Between the United States and Greece; Entry Into Force The... social security systems is effective beginning September 1, 1994. The agreement with Greece, which was... United States to work in Greece for 5 years or less remains covered only by the U.S. system....

  18. First Annual Report to Congress on Title XX of the Social Security Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC.

    This annual report to Congress on Title XX of the Social Security Act reports on the operation of the 1976 fiscal year program. Preceding the report are descriptive highlights of the program. Title XX of the Social Security Act changes the role and relationships of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; the individual states; and…

  19. 28 CFR 16.53 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 16.53 Section 16.53 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF... 1974 § 16.53 Use and collection of social security numbers. Each component shall ensure that...

  20. 28 CFR 16.53 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 16.53 Section 16.53 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF... 1974 § 16.53 Use and collection of social security numbers. Each component shall ensure that...

  1. 12 CFR 1204.9 - Does FHFA collect and use Social Security numbers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Does FHFA collect and use Social Security numbers? 1204.9 Section 1204.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS PRIVACY ACT IMPLEMENTATION § 1204.9 Does FHFA collect and use Social Security numbers?...

  2. 24 CFR 200.6 - Employer identification and social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employer identification and social security numbers. 200.6 Section 200.6 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... identification and social security numbers. The requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, regarding the...

  3. 24 CFR 242.68 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 242.68 Section 242.68 Housing and Urban Development... requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, regarding the disclosure and verification of Social Security...

  4. 78 FR 9765 - Assigning New Social Security Numbers (SSN) for Children Age 13 and Under

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... ADMINISTRATION Assigning New Social Security Numbers (SSN) for Children Age 13 and Under AGENCY: Social Security... assigning new SSNs to children age 13 and under. We are requesting information from the public to ensure... an SSN for a child age 13 and under. DATES: To ensure that your comments are considered, we...

  5. 24 CFR 200.6 - Employer identification and social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... identification and social security numbers. The requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, regarding the disclosure and verification of social security numbers and employer identification numbers by applicants and... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employer identification and...

  6. 24 CFR 241.626 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 241.626 Section 241.626 Housing and Urban... verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. To be eligible for loan insurance under this subpart, the borrower must meet the requirements for the disclosure and verification of...

  7. 22 CFR 308.7 - Use of social security account number in records systems. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Use of social security account number in records systems. 308.7 Section 308.7 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 308.7 Use of social security account number in records systems....

  8. 20 CFR 217.7 - Claim filed with the Social Security Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Claim filed with the Social Security... RETIREMENT ACT APPLICATION FOR ANNUITY OR LUMP SUM Applications § 217.7 Claim filed with the Social Security Administration. (a) Claim is for life benefits. An application for life benefits under title II of the...

  9. 45 CFR 287.105 - What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program? 287.105 Section 287.105 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE....105 What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program? NEW Programs are subject...

  10. 78 FR 6168 - Public Availability of Social Security Administration Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Service Contract...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Public Availability of Social Security Administration Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Public Availability of FY 2012 Service... Appropriations Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-117), we are publishing this notice to advise the public of...

  11. 77 FR 3836 - Public Availability of Social Security Administration Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 Service Contract...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... ADMINISTRATION Public Availability of Social Security Administration Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Public Availability of FY 2011 Service... Appropriations Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-117), we are publishing this notice to advise the public of...

  12. 77 FR 43639 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration (SSA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration (SSA.... ACTION: Notice of a renewal of an existing computer matching program that expired on May 10,...

  13. 78 FR 37244 - Submission for Review: We Need Important Information About Your Eligibility for Social Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: We Need Important Information About Your Eligibility for Social Security... currently approved information collection request (ICR) 3206-0216, We Need Important Information About Your... Important Information About Your Eligibility for Social Security Disability Benefits. OMB Number:...

  14. [Evolution of worker's health in the social security medical examination in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Pinto Júnior, Afrânio Gomes; Braga, Ana Maria Cheble Bahia; Roselli-Cruz, Amadeu

    2012-10-01

    In order to analyze the practice of the social security medical examination starting from the introduction of the worker's health paradigms, data was gathered on the granting of social security disability benefits to assess worker illness based on notification of work-related accidents in the cement industries of Rio de Janeiro. From 2007 to 2009 there was only one notification, which involved a worker handling toxic waste instead of the energy matrix. However, the analysis revealed sources and mechanisms of illness overlooked in the social security medical examination, which is still focused on the one-cause-only logic of occupational medicine. To achieve the worker's health paradigms, changes are required to alter the way of conducting the social security medical examination, by re-establishing partnerships, training human resources, adopting epidemiological indicators, as well as setting and assessing social security goals that transcend the mere granting of disability benefits.

  15. Commentary: what role should physician organizations play in addressing social justice issues?

    PubMed

    Bright, Cedric M

    2012-06-01

    A study by Peek and colleagues in this issue reveals that although racial and ethnic health disparities are recognized as a major national challenge, few physician organizations with both the influence and ability to change practice standards and address disparities appear to be effectively directing their resources to mitigate health disparities. In this commentary, the author examines the history of U.S. health disparities through the lens of social justice. He argues that today, physician organizations have the opportunity to change the paradigm of medicine from being a reactive industry to becoming a proactive industry through collaborations such as the Commission to End Health Disparities, which brings together more than 60 organizations, and the National Medical Association's "We Stand With You" program to improve health and combat disparities. Physician organizations can also address health disparities through advocacy for fair reimbursement policies, funding for pipeline programs to increase the diversity of the workforce, diversity in clinical trials, and other issues. Health disparities present to us in organized medicine a challenge that is cleverly disguised as an immovable object but that is truly a great opportunity for innovation, improvement, and growth. Physician organizations have a unique opportunity to provide avenues of innovation and accomplishment.

  16. Ideological and organizational components of differing public health strategies for addressing the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis; Brassolotto, Julia; Baldeo, Navindra

    2015-12-01

    Despite a history of conceptual contributions to reducing health inequalities by addressing the social determinants of health (SDH), Canadian governmental authorities have struggled to put these concepts into action. Ontario's-Canada's most populous province-public health scene shows a similar pattern. In statements and reports, governmental ministries, professional associations and local public health units (PHUs) recognize the importance of these issues, yet there has been varying implementation of these concepts into public health activity. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the key features responsible for differences in SDH-related activities among local PHUs. We interviewed Medical Officers of Health (MOH) and key staff members from nine local PHUs in Ontario varying in SDH activity as to their understandings of the SDH, public health's role in addressing the SDH, and their units' SDH-related activities. We also reviewed their unit's documents and their organizational structures in relation to acting on the SDH. Three clusters of PHUs are identified based on their SDH-related activities: service-delivery-oriented; intersectoral and community-based; and public policy/public education-focused. The two key factors that differentiate PHUs are specific ideological commitments held by MOHs and staff and the organizational structures established to carry out SDH-related activities. The ideological commitments and the organizational structures of the most active PHUs showed congruence with frameworks adopted by national jurisdictions known for addressing health inequalities. These include a structural analysis of the SDH and a centralized organizational structure that coordinates SDH-related activities.

  17. Barriers to addressing the social determinants of health: insights from the Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis; Curry-Stevens, Ann; Bryant, Toba

    2008-12-01

    Despite Canada's reputation as a leader in health promotion and population health, implementation of public policies in support of the social determinants of health has been woefully inadequate. The continuing presence of income, housing, and food insecurity has led to Canada being the subject of a series of rebukes from the United Nations for failing to address child and family poverty, discrimination against women and Aboriginal groups, and most recently the crisis of homelessness and housing insecurity. In this article we consider some of the reasons why this might be the case. These include the epistemological dominance of positivist approaches to the health sciences, the ideology of individualism prevalent in North America, and the increasing influence on public policy of the marketplace. Various models of public policy provide pathways by which these barriers can be surmounted. Considering that the International Commission on the Social Determinants of Health will soon be releasing its findings and recommendations, such an analysis seems especially timely for understanding both the Canadian scene and developments in other nations.

  18. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning: Addressing Challenging Behavior in Infants and Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Amy; Hemmeter, Mary Louise

    2009-01-01

    The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (CSEFEL) is a federally funded national resource center designed to support early care and education providers address the social-emotional needs of children birth through age 5 years. Recent research has found that an extraordinarily high number of young children are being…

  19. The case for the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health to address gender identity.

    PubMed

    Pega, Frank; Veale, Jaimie F

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed the case of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, which did not address gender identity in their final report. We argue that gender identity is increasingly being recognized as an important social determinant of health (SDH) that results in health inequities. We identify right to health mechanisms, such as established human rights instruments, as suitable policy tools for addressing gender identity as an SDH to improve health equity. We urge the World Health Organization to add gender identity as an SDH in its conceptual framework for action on the SDHs and to develop and implement specific recommendations for addressing gender identity as an SDH. PMID:25602894

  20. The case for the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health to address gender identity.

    PubMed

    Pega, Frank; Veale, Jaimie F

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed the case of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, which did not address gender identity in their final report. We argue that gender identity is increasingly being recognized as an important social determinant of health (SDH) that results in health inequities. We identify right to health mechanisms, such as established human rights instruments, as suitable policy tools for addressing gender identity as an SDH to improve health equity. We urge the World Health Organization to add gender identity as an SDH in its conceptual framework for action on the SDHs and to develop and implement specific recommendations for addressing gender identity as an SDH.

  1. Disabled workers and the indexing of Social Security benefits.

    PubMed

    Strand, Alexander; Rupp, Kalman

    2007-01-01

    We examine how benefit amounts and family income would change in response to changing the Social Security (Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance, OASDI) benefit indexing scheme. We are interested in a class of reform options designed to gradually slow the growth of benefits across the board. These options include the "price indexing" and "longevity indexing" proposals that have been part of the recent Social Security reform debate in the United States as well as a range of proposals developed in Europe. In this article, we focus on the distributional effects on the disabled. This focus leads to two comparisons. First, we compare disabled-worker beneficiaries to another group that would be affected by the changes, retired-worker beneficiaries. Second, we examine relative changes for particularly vulnerable subgroups of disabled workers. In the empirical analysis, we use two illustrative examples of potential indexing changes: Shifting from wage indexing to price indexing of the initial level of OASDI benefits; and Adjusting the initial benefit level for changes in life expectancy at retirement, that is, longevity indexing. We employ a historical counterfactual simulation to evaluate outcomes that would have resulted from changing the indexing scheme at one particular point in time. The hypothetical implementation period begins with the historical start of the current regime of indexing in 1979 and ends with one of the reference periods of the 1996 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), a 17-year period. However, we briefly assess the extent to which the results would be applicable to other time horizons. The analysis uses a cross-sectional sample of OASDI beneficiaries from the 1996 SIPP matched to Social Security administrative records. Further, we use total income from the SIPP (as adjusted to correspond to the calculated OASDI benefit amounts) to simulate eligibility for Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and SSI benefit amounts. Our overall

  2. Disabled workers and the indexing of Social Security benefits.

    PubMed

    Strand, Alexander; Rupp, Kalman

    2007-01-01

    We examine how benefit amounts and family income would change in response to changing the Social Security (Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance, OASDI) benefit indexing scheme. We are interested in a class of reform options designed to gradually slow the growth of benefits across the board. These options include the "price indexing" and "longevity indexing" proposals that have been part of the recent Social Security reform debate in the United States as well as a range of proposals developed in Europe. In this article, we focus on the distributional effects on the disabled. This focus leads to two comparisons. First, we compare disabled-worker beneficiaries to another group that would be affected by the changes, retired-worker beneficiaries. Second, we examine relative changes for particularly vulnerable subgroups of disabled workers. In the empirical analysis, we use two illustrative examples of potential indexing changes: Shifting from wage indexing to price indexing of the initial level of OASDI benefits; and Adjusting the initial benefit level for changes in life expectancy at retirement, that is, longevity indexing. We employ a historical counterfactual simulation to evaluate outcomes that would have resulted from changing the indexing scheme at one particular point in time. The hypothetical implementation period begins with the historical start of the current regime of indexing in 1979 and ends with one of the reference periods of the 1996 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), a 17-year period. However, we briefly assess the extent to which the results would be applicable to other time horizons. The analysis uses a cross-sectional sample of OASDI beneficiaries from the 1996 SIPP matched to Social Security administrative records. Further, we use total income from the SIPP (as adjusted to correspond to the calculated OASDI benefit amounts) to simulate eligibility for Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and SSI benefit amounts. Our overall

  3. 20 CFR 229.54 - Reduction for social security benefit paid to employee on another person's earnings record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reduction for social security benefit paid to... BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.54 Reduction for social security benefit paid to employee...

  4. 20 CFR 255.14 - Waiver not available when recovery can be made from accrual of social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... from accrual of social security benefits. 255.14 Section 255.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT... available when recovery can be made from accrual of social security benefits. Where the overpayment is the... individual's entitlement to social security benefits and recovery of such overpayment may be made by...

  5. 20 CFR 255.14 - Waiver not available when recovery can be made from accrual of social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... made from accrual of social security benefits. 255.14 Section 255.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD... available when recovery can be made from accrual of social security benefits. Where the overpayment is the... individual's entitlement to social security benefits and recovery of such overpayment may be made by...

  6. 20 CFR 404.469 - Nonpayment of benefits where individual has not furnished or applied for a Social Security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... not furnished or applied for a Social Security number. 404.469 Section 404.469 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Deductions... or applied for a Social Security number. No monthly benefits will be paid to an entitled...

  7. 20 CFR 229.54 - Reduction for social security benefit paid to employee on another person's earnings record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Reduction for social security benefit paid to... BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.54 Reduction for social security benefit paid to employee...

  8. 20 CFR 220.37 - When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.37 Section 220.37 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.37 When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

  9. 20 CFR 404.469 - Nonpayment of benefits where individual has not furnished or applied for a Social Security number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... not furnished or applied for a Social Security number. 404.469 Section 404.469 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Deductions... or applied for a Social Security number. No monthly benefits will be paid to an entitled...

  10. 24 CFR 886.305 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers by owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers by owners. 886.305 Section 886.305 Housing and Urban... Disposition of HUD-Owned Projects § 886.305 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer... owner must meet the disclosure and verification requirements for Social Security and...

  11. 20 CFR 423.1 - Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees in their official capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees in their official capacities. 423.1 Section 423.1 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.1 Suits against the Social Security Administration and...

  12. 20 CFR 243.5 - Assignment of a portion of an annuity paid under the social security overall minimum provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... under the social security overall minimum provision. 243.5 Section 243.5 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD... § 243.5 Assignment of a portion of an annuity paid under the social security overall minimum provision. Section 3(f)(3) of the Railroad Retirement Act, the social security overall minimum provision,...

  13. 20 CFR 220.37 - When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.37 Section 220.37 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.37 When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

  14. 20 CFR 243.5 - Assignment of a portion of an annuity paid under the social security overall minimum provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... under the social security overall minimum provision. 243.5 Section 243.5 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD... § 243.5 Assignment of a portion of an annuity paid under the social security overall minimum provision. Section 3(f)(3) of the Railroad Retirement Act, the social security overall minimum provision,...

  15. 20 CFR 220.37 - When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.37 Section 220.37 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.37 When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

  16. 3 CFR 8546 - Proclamation 8546 of August 13, 2010. 75th Anniversary of the Social Security Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Anniversary of the Social Security Act 8546 Proclamation 8546 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8546 of August 13, 2010 Proc. 8546 75th Anniversary of the Social Security ActBy the President of... into law the Social Security Act to protect ordinary Americans “against the loss of a job and...

  17. 20 CFR 220.37 - When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Inclusion as a disabled child in the employee's annuity rate under the social security overall minimum. (2... governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.37 Section 220.37 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.37 When...

  18. 20 CFR 220.37 - When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.37 Section 220.37 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.37 When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

  19. 20 CFR 243.5 - Assignment of a portion of an annuity paid under the social security overall minimum provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... under the social security overall minimum provision. 243.5 Section 243.5 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD... § 243.5 Assignment of a portion of an annuity paid under the social security overall minimum provision. Section 3(f)(3) of the Railroad Retirement Act, the social security overall minimum provision,...

  20. 20 CFR 255.14 - Waiver not available when recovery can be made from accrual of social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... made from accrual of social security benefits. 255.14 Section 255.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD... available when recovery can be made from accrual of social security benefits. Where the overpayment is the... individual's entitlement to social security benefits and recovery of such overpayment may be made by...

  1. 20 CFR 229.54 - Reduction for social security benefit paid to employee on another person's earnings record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduction for social security benefit paid to... BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.54 Reduction for social security benefit paid to employee...

  2. The Treatment of Peace and Security Issues in Social Studies Textbooks in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Dan B.

    This examination of the treatment given to peace and security issues in American social studies textbooks begins by summarizing the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) Curriculum Guidelines and a 1983 study of high school social studies topic priorities. Following a review of past textbook studies and a brief discussion of textbook…

  3. Policy Framework for Addressing Personal Security Issues Concerning Women and Girls. National Strategy on Community Safety and Crime Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Crime Prevention Centre, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This document presents a policy framework for improving the personal security of women and girls. The document includes: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Policy Background" (the concept of personal security, the societal context of women's personal security, consequences of violence for women and girls, long-term policy concern, and building an integrated…

  4. Income distribution patterns from a complete social security database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derzsy, N.; Néda, Z.; Santos, M. A.

    2012-11-01

    We analyze the income distribution of employees for 9 consecutive years (2001-2009) using a complete social security database for an economically important district of Romania. The database contains detailed information on more than half million taxpayers, including their monthly salaries from all employers where they worked. Besides studying the characteristic distribution functions in the high and low/medium income limits, the database allows us a detailed dynamical study by following the time-evolution of the taxpayers income. To our knowledge, this is the first extensive study of this kind (a previous Japanese taxpayers survey was limited to two years). In the high income limit we prove once again the validity of Pareto’s law, obtaining a perfect scaling on four orders of magnitude in the rank for all the studied years. The obtained Pareto exponents are quite stable with values around α≈2.5, in spite of the fact that during this period the economy developed rapidly and also a financial-economic crisis hit Romania in 2007-2008. For the low and medium income category we confirmed the exponential-type income distribution. Following the income of employees in time, we have found that the top limit of the income distribution is a highly dynamical region with strong fluctuations in the rank. In this region, the observed dynamics is consistent with a multiplicative random growth hypothesis. Contrarily with previous results obtained for the Japanese employees, we find that the logarithmic growth-rate is not independent of the income.

  5. Social Security and the Retirement and Savings Behavior of Low Income Households.

    PubMed

    van der Klaauw, Wilbert; Wolpin, Kenneth I

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, we develop and estimate a model of retirement and savings incorporating limited borrowing, stochastic wage offers, health status and survival, social security benefits, Medicare and employer provided health insurance coverage, and intentional bequests. The model is estimated on sample of relatively poor households from the first three waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), for whom we would expect social security income to be of particular importance. The estimated model is used to simulate the responses to changes in social security rules, including changes in benefit levels, in the payroll tax, in the social security earnings tax and in early and normal retirement ages. Welfare and budget consequences are estimated. PMID:21566719

  6. Social Security and the Retirement and Savings Behavior of Low Income Households1

    PubMed Central

    van der Klaauw, Wilbert; Wolpin, Kenneth I.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and estimate a model of retirement and savings incorporating limited borrowing, stochastic wage offers, health status and survival, social security benefits, Medicare and employer provided health insurance coverage, and intentional bequests. The model is estimated on sample of relatively poor households from the first three waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), for whom we would expect social security income to be of particular importance. The estimated model is used to simulate the responses to changes in social security rules, including changes in benefit levels, in the payroll tax, in the social security earnings tax and in early and normal retirement ages. Welfare and budget consequences are estimated. PMID:21566719

  7. The Impact of Social Security on Return Migration among Latin American Elderly in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Alma

    2014-01-01

    International migration has long been considered the preserve of working-age adults. However, the rapid diversification of the elderly population calls for increased attention to the migration patterns of this group and its possible motivations. This study examines whether Latin American immigrants who are primary Social Security beneficiaries are more likely to return to their home countries during later life if they receive lower Social Security benefits. Using a regression discontinuity approach on restricted data from the U.S. Social Security Administration (N=1,515), this study presents the results of a natural experiment whereby the Social Security Administration unexpectedly lowered the Social Security benefits of the 1917-1921 birth cohorts due to a miscalculation in the benefit-calculation formula. Results suggest that approximately 10% of primary Social Security beneficiaries from Latin America born close to these dates return migrated, the probability of which was not affected by Social Security benefit levels. PMID:26279596

  8. The case for the World Health Organization's Commission on the Social Determinants of Health to address sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Logie, Carmen

    2012-07-01

    The World Health Organization's (WHO's) social determinants of health discussion underscores the need for health equity and social justice. Yet sexual orientation was not addressed within the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health final report Closing the Gap in a Generation. This omission of sexual orientation as a social determinant of health stands in stark contrast with a body of evidence that demonstrates that sexual minorities are disproportionately affected by health problems associated with stigma and discrimination, such as mental health disorders. I propose strategies to integrate sexual orientation into the WHO's social determinants of health dialogue. Recognizing sexual orientation as a social determinant of health is an important first step toward health equity for sexual minorities.

  9. Rules of Address in Secondary Schools in Catania: Linguistic Variation and Its Social/Cultural Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consoli, Eleonora

    1987-01-01

    Reports on research investigating nonreciprocity of address to female teachers in secondary schools in Catania, Sicily, where male teachers were always addressed with their academic, professional titles (which have great, overt prestige in southern Italy) and women were frequently addressed as "signora" or "signorina" in the vocative form.…

  10. Addressing Social Determinants of Health at Well Child Care Visits: A Cluster RCT

    PubMed Central

    Toy, Sarah; Tripodis, Yorghos; Silverstein, Michael; Freeman, Elmer

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a clinic-based screening and referral system (Well Child Care, Evaluation, Community Resources, Advocacy, Referral, Education [WE CARE]) on families’ receipt of community-based resources for unmet basic needs. METHODS: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial at 8 urban community health centers, recruiting mothers of healthy infants. In the 4 WE CARE clinics, mothers completed a self-report screening instrument that assessed needs for child care, education, employment, food security, household heat, and housing. Providers made referrals for families; staff provided requisite applications and telephoned referred mothers within 1 month. Families at the 4 control community health centers received the usual care. We analyzed the results with generalized mixed-effect models. RESULTS: Three hundred thirty-six mothers were enrolled in the study (168 per arm). The majority of families had household incomes <$20 000 (57%), and 68% had ≥2 unmet basic needs. More WE CARE mothers received ≥1 referral at the index visit (70% vs 8%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 29.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 14.7–59.6). At the 12-month visit, more WE CARE mothers had enrolled in a new community resource (39% vs 24%; aOR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2–3.7). WE CARE mothers had greater odds of being employed (aOR = 44.4; 95% CI, 9.8–201.4). WE CARE children had greater odds of being in child care (aOR = 6.3; 95% CI, 1.5–26.0). WE CARE families had greater odds of receiving fuel assistance (aOR = 11.9; 95% CI, 1.7–82.9) and lower odds of being in a homeless shelter (aOR = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1–0.9). CONCLUSIONS: Systematically screening and referring for social determinants during well child care can lead to the receipt of more community resources for families. PMID:25560448

  11. Large system change challenges: addressing complex critical issues in linked physical and social domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddell, Steve; Cornell, Sarah; Hsueh, Joe; Ozer, Ceren; McLachlan, Milla; Birney, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Most action to address contemporary complex challenges, including the urgent issues of global sustainability, occurs piecemeal and without meaningful guidance from leading complex change knowledge and methods. The potential benefit of using such knowledge is greater efficacy of effort and investment. However, this knowledge and its associated tools and methods are under-utilized because understanding about them is low, fragmented between diverse knowledge traditions, and often requires shifts in mindsets and skills from expert-led to participant-based action. We have been engaged in diverse action-oriented research efforts in Large System Change for sustainability. For us, "large" systems can be characterized as large-scale systems - up to global - with many components, of many kinds (physical, biological, institutional, cultural/conceptual), operating at multiple levels, driven by multiple forces, and presenting major challenges for people involved. We see change of such systems as complex challenges, in contrast with simple or complicated problems, or chaotic situations. In other words, issues and sub-systems have unclear boundaries, interact with each other, and are often contradictory; dynamics are non-linear; issues are not "controllable", and "solutions" are "emergent" and often paradoxical. Since choices are opportunity-, power- and value-driven, these social, institutional and cultural factors need to be made explicit in any actionable theory of change. Our emerging network is sharing and building a knowledge base of experience, heuristics, and theories of change from multiple disciplines and practice domains. We will present our views on focal issues for the development of the field of large system change, which include processes of goal-setting and alignment; leverage of systemic transitions and transformation; and the role of choice in influencing critical change processes, when only some sub-systems or levels of the system behave in purposeful ways

  12. Protecting the Privacy of Social Security Numbers Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Frelinghuysen, Rodney P. [R-NJ-11

    2013-05-22

    06/14/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. A Framework for Educating Health Professionals to Address the Social Determinants of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization defines the social determinants of health as "the conditions in which people are born, grow, work, live, and age, and the wider set of forces and systems shaping the conditions of daily life." These forces and systems include economic policies, development agendas, cultural and social norms, social policies,…

  14. Integrating Education on Addressing Health Disparities into the Graduate Social Work Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jamie Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose an elective social work course as a means of better preparing social workers entering practice in healthcare to meet the challenges of promoting health and reducing health disparities in minority and underserved communities. Course offerings specifically targeting health or medical social work training…

  15. Social Security. Little Success Achieved in Rehabilitating Disabled Beneficiaries. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Social Security, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    The relationship between the Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) Program and vocational rehabilitation (VR) programs was reviewed. Focus was on the extent to which VR services are successful in returning SSDI beneficiaries to productive employment. The review was carried out in 10 states with widely varying practices in referring SSDI…

  16. [Changes in workers' rehabilitation procedures under the Brazilian social security system: modernization or undermining of social protection?].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mara Alice Batista Conti; Iguti, Aparecida Mari

    2008-11-01

    This article describes the changes in workers' rehabilitation practices under the Brazilian National Social Security Institute (INSS) in the 1990s, in the context of neoliberal economic adjustment measures, based on an analysis of INSS documents from 1992 to 1997. The INSS plan for "modernization" of workers' rehabilitation led to: (1) dismantling of multidisciplinary teams; (2) induction of workers to accept proportional retirement pensions and voluntary layoffs; (3) under-utilization of the remaining INSS professional staff; (4) elimination of treatment programs for workers' rehabilitation; and (5) dismantling of INSS rehabilitation centers and clinics. The changes in the Brazilian social security system undermined the county's social security project and hegemony and reduced social security reform to a mere management and fiscal issue. Current "rehabilitation" falls far short of the institution's original purpose of social protection for workers, while aiming at economic regulation of the system to contain costs of workers' benefits. Workers that suffer work-related accidents are denied occupational rehabilitation, which aggravates their social disadvantage when they return to work. PMID:19009146

  17. Social information processing, security of attachment, and emotion regulation in children with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Bauminger, Nirit; Kimhi-Kind, Ilanit

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of attachment security and emotion regulation (ER) to the explanation of social information processing (SIP) in middle childhood boys with learning disabilities (LD) and without LD matched on age and grade level. Children analyzed four social vignettes using Dodge's SIP model and completed the Kerns security scale and the children's self-control scale. Study results demonstrated major difficulties in SIP, lower attachment security, and less ER in children with LD compared to children without LD. Attachment as well as the interaction between attachment and ER emerged as important contributors to most SIP steps, suggesting that children with higher security who also have better ER skills will have better SIP capabilities along the different steps, beyond group inclusion. Results were discussed in terms of practical and clinical implications regarding the importance of mother-child attachment and ER skills for social cognitive capabilities in children with LD. PMID:18443148

  18. Fragmentation in social security old-age benefit provision in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianhong; Turner, John A

    2015-01-01

    Currently, in many countries most workers are covered by a national social security benefits program that applies equally in all parts of the country. In China, however, social security old-age benefits are provided in a highly fragmented manner. This article documents the high degree of fragmentation. It discusses both why that has occurred and the effects of the fragmentation on participants. It examines effects of the fragmentation on benefit levels, focusing on variations in the generosity of benefit formulas but also considering other measures of benefit adequacy. Fragmentation is seen to cause differences in benefit levels even within a single city. While the new National Rural Pension Scheme is a major improvement in the provision of retirement security for rural workers, important differences still exist in the social security programs for urban and rural workers.

  19. Infusing Aging and Public Policy Content into Gerontology Courses: Collaborative Learning Methods To Teach about Social Security and Medicare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cianciolo, Patricia K.; Henderson, Tammy L.

    2003-01-01

    Describes modules on Social Security and Medicare for gerontology policy courses. Discusses collaborative exercises in which students explore Internet resources on Social Security and health care finance, identity major concerns about reforms, and enact scenarios about retirees with varying degrees of income and health care security. (Contains 33…

  20. Social Information Processing, Security of Attachment, and Emotion Regulation in Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauminger, Nirit; Kimhi-Kind, Ilanit

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of attachment security and emotion regulation (ER) to the explanation of social information processing (SIP) in middle childhood boys with learning disabilities (LD) and without LD matched on age and grade level. Children analyzed four social vignettes using Dodge's SIP model and completed the Kerns security…

  1. Post-Social Politics, Employability, and the Security Effects of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frauley, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Trends within Western capitalist societies toward the individualizing of social problems, the responsibilizing of individuals for such problems, the treating of social problems as problems of control, ongoing attempts to shift the burden for safety and security from the state to the market, and changing conceptions of citizenship, have produced a…

  2. Social Climate within Secure Inpatient Services for People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, P. E.; Swift, A.; Budd, R.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The social climate of inpatient facilities is thought to be an important contributor to treatment outcome. However, little research has focused on this construct within secure forensic services for people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the social climate of two different…

  3. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Condition of the Enterprise) from the Ministerio de Trabajo y S.S., Tesoreria General de la Seguridad Social... social security laws and regulations. 252.222-7004 Section 252.222-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish...

  4. 36 CFR 1202.22 - Will NARA need my Social Security Number?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will NARA need my Social... ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTING THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Collecting Information § 1202.22 Will NARA need my Social Security Number? (a) Before a NARA employee or NARA contractor asks you...

  5. 75 FR 11610 - Notice Announcing Addresses for Service of Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... responsible for the jurisdiction in which the complaint has been filed. This notice replaces 70 FR 73320-01... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Notice Announcing Addresses for Service of Process AGENCY: Social Security Administration....

  6. Averting the perfect storm: addressing youth substance use risk from social media use.

    PubMed

    Salimian, Parissa K; Chunara, Rumi; Weitzman, Elissa R

    2014-10-01

    Adolescents are developmentally sensitive to pathways that influence alcohol and other drug (AOD) use. In the absence of guidance, their routine engagement with social media may add a further layer of risk. There are several potential mechanisms for social media use to influence AOD risk, including exposure to peer portrayals of AOD use, socially amplified advertising, misinformation, and predatory marketing against a backdrop of lax regulatory systems and privacy controls. Here the authors summarize the influences of the social media world and suggest how pediatricians in everyday practice can alert youth and their parents to these risks to foster conversation, awareness, and harm reduction. PMID:25290130

  7. Alternate measures of replacement rates for social security benefits and retirement income.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Andrew G; Springstead, Glenn R

    2008-01-01

    Discussions of retirement planning and Social Security policy often focus on replacement rates, which represent retirement income or Social Security benefits relative to preretirement earnings. Replacement rates are a rule of thumb designed to simplify the process of smoothing consumption over individuals' lifetimes. Despite their widespread use, however, there is no common means of measuring replacement rates. Various measures of preretirement earnings mean that the denominators used in replacement rate calculations are often inconsistent and can lead to confusion. Whether a given replacement rate represents an adequate retirement income depends on whether the denominator in the replacement rate calculation is an appropriate measure of preretirement earnings. This article illustrates replacement rates using four measures of preretirement earnings: final earnings; the constant income payable from the present value (PV) of lifetime earnings (PV payment); the wage-indexed average of all earnings prior to claiming Social Security benefits; and the inflation-adjusted average of all earnings prior to claiming Social Security benefits (consumer price index (CPI) average). The article then measures replacement rates against a sample of the Social Security beneficiary population using the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT) microsimulation model. Replacement rates are shown based on Social Security benefits alone, to indicate the adequacy of the current benefit structure, as well as on total retirement income including defined benefit pensions and financial assets, to indicate total preparedness for retirement. The results show that replacement rates can vary considerably based on the definition of preretirement earnings used and whether replacement rates are measured on an individual or a shared basis. For current new retirees, replacement rates based on all sources of retirement income seem strong by most measures and are projected to

  8. Racial Socialization of Biracial Youth: Maternal Messages and Approaches to Address Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Alethea; Hunter, Andrea G.

    2013-01-01

    We explored how mothers of biracial youth prepare their children to navigate diverse racial ecologies and experiences of racism and discrimination. A qualitative thematic analysis was used to identify racial socialization messages mothers used and emergent racial socialization approaches. Mothers of biracial youth engaged in the full range of…

  9. Education Technologies in Addressing the Problem of Forming the Socially Active Individual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popova, Irina N.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of technological support of the educational process in solving the problem of forming the socially active individual. The authors studied the value of the category "social activity" and analyzed educational technologies that have an impact on its formation. The obtained results gave the possibility…

  10. How Is Corporate Social Responsibility Addressed by Biotech Firms? a Case Study Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez-Bustamante, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the biotech high-tech sector as a way to achieve competitive advantages. After presenting the importance of science for high-tech firms, the paper focuses on the social and economic role of CSR. Next, the primary reasons for firms' engagement in CSR activities are presented,…

  11. Addressing Dilemmas of Social Justice Mathematics Instruction through Collaboration of Students, Educators, and Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokka, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Social justice mathematics educators explicitly aim to develop students' sociopolitical consciousness in addition to teaching mathematics content (Gutiérrez 2013; Gutstein 2006). Sociopolitical consciousness refers to Paulo Freire's (1970) concept of "conscientização," or learning to perceive social, political, and economic…

  12. Teaching to Transform? Addressing Race and Racism in the Teaching of Clinical Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varghese, Rani

    2016-01-01

    Faculty members are key stakeholders to support social work students' learning about race and racism in practice and to promote the professional standards established by the field. This qualitative study examines how 15 clinical social work faculty members teaching advanced practice in the Northeast conceptualize and incorporate their…

  13. 7 CFR 273.6 - Social security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... security number (SSN) of each household member or apply for one before certification. If individuals have... participants that refusal or failure without good cause to provide an SSN will result in disqualification of the individual for whom an SSN is not obtained. (b) Obtaining SSNs for food stamp household...

  14. Caregiver Sensitivity, Contingent Social Responsiveness, and Secure Infant Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Kassow, Danielle Z.

    2008-01-01

    Findings from two research syntheses of the relationship between caregiver sensitivity and secure infant attachment and one research synthesis of factors associated with increased caregiver use of a sensitive interactional style are presented. The main focus of analysis was the extent to which different measures of caregiver contingent social…

  15. [Social medicine service of undergraduate medicine students in the Hospitalary Donation Coordination area of the Mexican Institute of Social Security].

    PubMed

    Maya-Álvarez, Jorge Arturo; Lechuga-García, Rafael; Querevalú-Murillo, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The cadaveric or donor-related transplant is a worldwide priority program. In Mexico, the human hospitalary resources primarily assigned to issues about donation and transplant are scarce. In our country, recent legal changes permit that undergraduate medicine students under University linking programs can be integrated in activities that guarantee a social profit, for example, the hospitalary donation coordination of the Mexican Institute of Social Security. This is a proposal with a legal framework, based in experiences of the Barcelona Provincial Hospital Clínic, that integrate undergraduate medicine students as monitors in the Hospitalary Donation Coordination area of the Mexican Institute of Social Security who are available 24 hours. During this social service stage, undergraduate medical students can benefit their community by optimizing potential for transplants via hospital organ donations.

  16. 24 CFR 884.117 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers by owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers, as provided by 24 CFR part 5. (Approved by the... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers by owners. 884.117 Section 884.117 Housing and Urban... PROJECTS Applicability, Scope and Basic Policies § 884.117 Disclosure and verification of Social...

  17. 12 CFR 1204.9 - Does FHFA or FHFA-OIG collect and use Social Security numbers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Does FHFA or FHFA-OIG collect and use Social... OPERATIONS PRIVACY ACT IMPLEMENTATION § 1204.9 Does FHFA or FHFA-OIG collect and use Social Security numbers? FHFA and FHFA-OIG collect Social Security numbers only when it is necessary and authorized. At...

  18. 20 CFR 404.452 - Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment. 404.452 Section 404.452 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL...; and Nonpayments of Benefits § 404.452 Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings;...

  19. 20 CFR 404.452 - Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment. 404.452 Section 404.452 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL...; and Nonpayments of Benefits § 404.452 Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings;...

  20. 26 CFR 32.1 - Social security taxes with respect to payments on account of sickness or accident disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Social security taxes with respect to payments... TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ACT OF DECEMBER 29, 1981 (PUB. L. 97-123) § 32.1 Social... if the employee is not subject to income or social security taxes on the reduction in compensation....