Science.gov

Sample records for address specific challenges

  1. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  2. GEOSS: Addressing Big Data Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Ochiai, O.

    2014-12-01

    In the sector of Earth Observation, the explosion of data is due to many factors including: new satellite constellations, the increased capabilities of sensor technologies, social media, crowdsourcing, and the need for multidisciplinary and collaborative research to face Global Changes. In this area, there are many expectations and concerns about Big Data. Vendors have attempted to use this term for their commercial purposes. It is necessary to understand whether Big Data is a radical shift or an incremental change for the existing digital infrastructures. This presentation tries to explore and discuss the impact of Big Data challenges and new capabilities on the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and particularly on its common digital infrastructure called GCI. GEOSS is a global and flexible network of content providers allowing decision makers to access an extraordinary range of data and information at their desk. The impact of the Big Data dimensionalities (commonly known as 'V' axes: volume, variety, velocity, veracity, visualization) on GEOSS is discussed. The main solutions and experimentation developed by GEOSS along these axes are introduced and analyzed. GEOSS is a pioneering framework for global and multidisciplinary data sharing in the Earth Observation realm; its experience on Big Data is valuable for the many lessons learned.

  3. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Scott P; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T; Bergstrom, Carl T; Denison, R Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B; Strauss, Sharon Y; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2014-10-17

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens, and pests that evolve too quickly and the second, from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This Review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental, and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development.

  4. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Scott P.; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Denison, R. Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B.; Strauss, Sharon Y.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens and pests that evolve too quickly, and the second from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution, or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development. PMID:25213376

  5. Addressing tomorrow's DMO technical challenges today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, James R.

    2009-05-01

    Distributed Mission Operations (DMO) is essentially a type of networked training that pulls in participants from all the armed services and, increasingly, allies to permit them to "game" and rehearse highly complex campaigns, using a mix of local, distant, and virtual players. The United States Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is pursuing Science and Technology (S&T) solutions to address technical challenges associated with distributed communications and information management as DMO continues to progressively scale up the number, diversity, and geographic dispersal of participants in training and rehearsal exercises.

  6. USGS Science: Addressing Our Nation's Challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Tania M.

    2009-01-01

    With 6.6 billion people already living on Earth, and that number increasing every day, human influence on our planet is ever more apparent. Changes to the natural world combined with increasing human demands threaten our health and safety, our national security, our economy, and our quality of life. As a planet and a Nation, we face unprecedented challenges: loss of critical and unique ecosystems, the effects of climate change, increasing demand for limited energy and mineral resources, increasing vulnerability to natural hazards, the effects of emerging diseases on wildlife and human health, and growing needs for clean water. The time to respond to these challenges is now, but policymakers and decisionmakers face difficult choices. With competing priorities to balance, and potentially serious - perhaps irreversible - consequences at stake, our leaders need reliable scientific information to guide their decisions. As the Nation's earth and natural science agency, the USGS monitors and conducts scientific research on natural hazards and resources and how these elements and human activities influence our environment. Because the challenges we face are complex, the science needed to better understand and deal with these challenges must reflect the complex interplay among natural and human systems. With world-class expertise in biology, geology, geography, hydrology, geospatial information, and remote sensing, the USGS is uniquely capable of conducting the comprehensive scientific research needed to better understand the interdependent interactions of Earth's systems. Every day, the USGS helps decisionmakers to minimize loss of life and property, manage our natural resources, and protect and enhance our quality of life. This brochure provides examples of the challenges we face and how USGS science helps decisionmakers to address these challenges.

  7. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  8. Addressing Asthma Health Disparities: A Multilevel Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Canino, Glorisa; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Rand, Cynthia S.

    2009-01-01

    Substantial research has documented pervasive disparities in the prevalence, severity, and morbidity of asthma among minority populations compared to non-Latino whites. The underlying causes of these disparities are not well understood, and as a result, the leverage points to address them remain unclear. A multilevel framework for integrating research in asthma health disparities is proposed in order to advance both future research and clinical practice. The components of the proposed model include health care policies and regulations, operation of the health care system, provider/clinician-level factors, social/environmental factors, and individual/family attitudes and behaviors. The body of research suggests that asthma disparities have multiple, complex and inter-related sources. Disparities occur when individual, environmental, health system, and provider factors interact with one another over time. Given that the causes of asthma disparities are complex and multilevel, clinical strategies to address these disparities must therefore be comparably multilevel and target many aspects of asthma care. Clinical Implications: Several strategies that could be applied in clinical settings to reduce asthma disparities are described including the need for routine assessment of the patient’s beliefs, financial barriers to disease management, and health literacy, and the provision of cultural competence training and communication skills to health care provider groups. PMID:19447484

  9. Advanced Cyberinfrastructure Investments Addressing Earth Science Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, A. L.; Spengler, S. J.; Zanzerkia, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    The National Science Foundation supports infrastructure development and research into Big Data challenges as part of its long-term cyberinfrastructure strategy. This strategy highlights the critical need to leverage and partner with other agencies, resources and service providers to the U.S. research community. The current cyberinfrastructure and research activities within NSF support advanced technology development, pilot demonstrations of new capabilities for the scientific community in general, and integration and interoperability of data resources across the Geoscience community. These activities include the Data Infrastructure Building Blocks, Big Data and EarthCube programs, among others. Investments are competitively solicited; the resulting portfolio of high performance computing, advanced information systems, new software capabilities, analytics and modeling supports a range of science disciplines. This presentation provides an overview of these research programs, highlighting some of the key investments in advanced analytics, coupled modeling, and seamless collaboration. Examples related to the geosciences, computer-aided discovery and hypothesis generation are highlighted.

  10. Addressing climate challenges in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmes, Simone; Monaghan, Andrew; Done, James

    2012-04-01

    Advanced Study Program/Early Career Scientist Assembly Workshop on Regional Climate Issues in Developing Countries; Boulder, Colorado, 19-22 October 2011 The Early Career Scientist Assembly (ECSA) and the Advanced Study Program of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) invited 35 early-career scientists from nearly 20 countries to attend a 3-day workshop at the NCAR Mesa Laboratory prior to the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Open Science Conference in October 2011. The goal of the workshop was to examine a range of regional climate challenges in developing countries. Topics included regional climate modeling, climate impacts, water resources, and air quality. The workshop fostered new ideas and collaborations between early-career scientists from around the world. The discussions underscored the importance of establishing partnerships with scientists located in typically underrepresented countries to understand and account for the local political, economic, and cultural factors on which climate change is superimposed.

  11. A specific nanomanufacturing challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, M. J.; Dean, M. C.

    2016-03-01

    For a science to become a technology, a certain level of control has to have been established over the way items are fabricated for manufacture and use. Here we first consider the challenge of making and using a LEGO® brick scaled down by a factor of 10 n for n = 0-6 in each spatial dimension, i.e. from millimetres to nanometres. We consider both the manufacture and the subsequent properties of the nanobricks that pertain to their use in constructing and dismantling structures. As n increases, the ability to use fails first, to manufacture fails second and to fabricate fails last. Applied to the vast literature in nanoscience, this process emphasises the unmanufacturability of most nanoscale artefacts.

  12. ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CHALLENGES WITH COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the status and application of Computational Fluid Dynamics )CFD) models to address environmental engineering challenges for more detailed understanding of air pollutant source emissions, atmospheric dispersion and resulting human exposure. CFD simulations ...

  13. Addressing the challenges of thermal imaging for firefighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewa, Joseph; Meyer, William H.; Poe, George; Terre, William A.; Salapow, Thomas M.; Raimondi, John

    2003-09-01

    By providing visibility through smoke and absolute darkness, thermal imaging has the potential to radically improve the effectiveness and safety of the modern firefighter. Some of the roles of thermal imaging are assisting in detection of victims; navigating through dark, smoke-filled structures; detecting indications of imminent flash-over/roll-over; identifying and attacking the seat and extension of a fire; and surveying for lingering hot spots after a fire is nearly extinguished. In many respects, thermal imaging is ideally suited for these functions. However, firefighting applications present the infrared community some unique and challenging design constraints, not the least of which is an operating environment that is in some ways more harsh than most aerospace applications. While many previous papers have described the benefits of thermal imaging for firefighters, this paper describes several specific engineering challenges of this application. These include large ambient temperature range, rapidly changing scene dynamics, extreme demands on AGC, and large dynamic range requirements. This paper describes these and other challenges in detail and explains how they were addressed and overcome in the design of Evolution 5000, a state-of-the-art thermal imager designed and manufactured by Mine Safety Appliances (MSA) using Indigo System"s Omega miniature uncooled camera core.

  14. Opportunities and challenges of using technology to address health disparities.

    PubMed

    Rivers, Brian M; Bernhardt, Jay M; Fleisher, Linda; Green, Bernard Lee

    2014-03-01

    During a panel presentation at the American Association for Cancer Research Cancer Health Disparities Conference titled 'Opportunities and challenges of using technology to address health disparities', the latest scientific advances in the application and utilization of mobile technology and/or mobile-health (mHealth) interventions to address cancer health disparities were discussed. The session included: an examination of overall population trends in the uptake of technology and the potential of addressing health disparities through such media; an exploration of the conceptual issues and challenges in the construction of mHealth interventions to address disparate and underserved populations; and a presentation of pilot study findings on the acceptability and feasibility of using mHealth interventions to address prostate cancer disparities among African-American men.

  15. Challenges to using a business case for addressing health disparities.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Nicole; Somers, Stephen A; Fremont, Allen; Angeles, January; Murphy, Erin K; Hamblin, Allison

    2008-01-01

    The authors consider the challenges to quantifying both the business case and the social case for addressing disparities, which is central to achieving equity in the U.S. health care system. They describe the practical and methodological challenges faced by health plans exploring the business and social cases for undertaking disparity-reducing interventions. Despite these challenges, sound business and quality improvement principles can guide health care organizations seeking to reduce disparities. Place-based interventions may help focus resources and engage health care and community partners who can share in the costs of-and gains from-such efforts.

  16. Addressing challenges and needs in patient education targeting hardly reached patients with chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Varming, Annemarie Reinhardt; Torenholt, Rikke; Møller, Birgitte Lund; Vestergaard, Susanne; Engelund, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Some patients do not benefit from participation in patient education due to reasons related to disease burden, literacy, and socioeconomic challenges. In this communication, we address more specifically both the challenges that these hardly reached patients face in relation to patient education programs and the challenges educators face when conducting patient education with hardly reached patients. We define principles for the format and content of dialogue tools to better support this patient group within the population of individuals with diabetes.

  17. Addressing challenges and needs in patient education targeting hardly reached patients with chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Varming, Annemarie Reinhardt; Torenholt, Rikke; Møller, Birgitte Lund; Vestergaard, Susanne; Engelund, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Some patients do not benefit from participation in patient education due to reasons related to disease burden, literacy, and socioeconomic challenges. In this communication, we address more specifically both the challenges that these hardly reached patients face in relation to patient education programs and the challenges educators face when conducting patient education with hardly reached patients. We define principles for the format and content of dialogue tools to better support this patient group within the population of individuals with diabetes. PMID:25729695

  18. Connectivity and complex systems in geomorphology: addressing some key challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöppl, Ronald; Turnbull-Lloyd, Laura; Parsons, Anthony; Bracken, Louise; Keesstra, Saskia; Masselink, Rens

    2016-04-01

    "Connectivity thinking" and related concepts have a long history in geomorphology. Since the beginning of the 21st century connectivity research experienced a huge boom in geomorphology as geomorphologists started to develop new concepts on connectivity to better understand the complexity of geomorphic systems and system response to change. However, progress in the field of connectivity in geomorphology has mostly been developing in a parallel manner, resulting in a multiplicity of definitions, concepts and methodological approaches. Nevertheless, a set of common key challenges amongst the different connectivity concepts and approaches used to understand complex geomorphic systems are also evident. In the course of a theory think tank of the COST Action ES1306 (CONNECTEUR - Connecting European Connectivity Research) the following five different key challenges were detected (Turnbull et al., in prep.): (i) defining the fundamental unit, (ii) distinguishing between structural and functional boundaries, (iii) emergent behavior, (iv) memory effects, (v) measuring connectivity. In this presentation we will a) discuss how these key challenges are addressed and approached in connectivity research in geomorphology, b) evaluate ways in which cross-disciplinary advances may be made by exploring potential for a common toolbox approach to the study of connectivity.

  19. Addressing global change challenges for Central Asian socio-ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jiaguo; Bobushev, Temirbek S.; Kulmatov, Rashid; Groisman, Pavel; Gutman, Garik

    2012-06-01

    Central Asia is one of the most vulnerable regions on the planet earth to global climate change, depending on very fragile natural resources. The Soviet legacy has left the five countries (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) with a highly integrated system but they are facing great challenges with tensions that hinder regional coordination of food and water resources. With increasing climate variability and warming trend in the region, food and water security issues become even more crucial now and, if not addressed properly, could affect the regional stability. The long-term drivers of these two most critical elements, food and water, are climate change; the immediate and probably more drastic factors affecting the food and water security are land uses driven by institutional change and economic incentives. As a feedback, changes in land use and land cover have directly implications on water uses, food production, and lifestyles of the rural community in the region. Regional and international efforts have been made to holistically understand the cause, extent, rate and societal implications of land use changes in the region. Much of these have been understood, or under investigation by various projects, but solutions or research effort to develop solutions, to these urgent regional issues are lacking. This article, serves as an introduction to the special issue, provides a brief overview of the challenges facing the Central Asian countries and various international efforts in place that resulted in the publications of this special issue.

  20. Evaluating complex community-based health promotion: addressing the challenges.

    PubMed

    Jolley, Gwyneth

    2014-08-01

    Community-based health promotion is poorly theorised and lacks an agreed evidence-base. This paper examines characteristics of community-based health promotion and the challenges they present to evaluation. A review of health promotion evaluation leads to an exploration of more recent approaches, drawing on ideas from complexity theory and developmental evaluation. A reflexive analysis of three program evaluations previously undertaken as an evaluation consultant is used to develop a conceptual model to help in the design and conduct of health promotion evaluation. The model is further explored by applying it retrospectively to one evaluation. Findings suggest that the context-contingent nature of health promotion programs; turbulence in the community context and players; multiple stakeholders, goals and strategies; and uncertainty of outcomes all contribute to the complexity of interventions. Bringing together insights from developmental evaluation and complexity theory can help to address some evaluation challenges. The proposed model emphasises recognising and responding to changing contexts and emerging outcomes, providing rapid feedback and facilitating reflexive practice. This will enable the evaluator to gain a better understanding of the influence of context and other implementation factors in a complex setting. Use of the model should contribute to building cumulative evidence and knowledge in order to identify the principles of health promotion effectiveness that may be transferable to new situations.

  1. Addressing malaria vector control challenges in South Sudan: proposed recommendations.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Emmanuel; Doggale, Constantino; Pasquale, Harriet; Azairwe, Robert; Baba, Samson; Mnzava, Abraham

    2013-02-08

    Upon the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005, the Republic of South Sudan (RSS) has faced a lot of challenges, such as a lack of infrastructure, human resources and an enormous burden of vector borne diseases including malaria. While a national malaria strategic plan 2006-2011 was developed, the vector control component has remained relatively weak. The strategy endorses the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) as the frontline intervention with other interventions recommended only when technical and institutional capacity is available. In 2006, a draft integrated vector management (IVM) strategic plan 2007-2012 was developed but never implemented, resulting in minimal coordination, implementation and coverage of malaria vector control tools including their inherent impact. To address this challenge, the vector control team of the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) is being strengthened. With the objective of building national capacity and technical collaboration for effective implementation of the IVM strategy, a national malaria vector control conference was held from 15-17th October 2012 in Juba. A range of NMCP partners, state ministries, acadaemia, private sector, national and international non-governmental organizations, including regional and global policymakers attended the meeting. The conference represented a major milestone and made recommendations revolving around the five key elements of the IVM approach. The meeting endorsed that vector control efforts in RSS be augmented with other interventions within the confines of the IVM strategy as a national approach, with strong adherence to its key elements.

  2. Interweaving Knowledge Resources to Address Complex Environmental Health Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Beth Ellen; Suk, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Complex problems do not respect academic disciplinary boundaries. Environmental health research is complex and often moves beyond these boundaries, integrating diverse knowledge resources to solve such challenges. Here we describe an evolving paradigm for interweaving approaches that integrates widely diverse resources outside of traditional academic environments in full partnerships of mutual respect and understanding. We demonstrate that scientists, social scientists, and engineers can work with government agencies, industry, and communities to interweave their expertise into metaphorical knowledge fabrics to share understanding, resources, and enthusiasm. Objective Our goal is to acknowledge and validate how interweaving research approaches can contribute to research-driven, solution-oriented problem solving in environmental health, and to inspire more members of the environmental health community to consider this approach. Discussion The National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program (SRP), as mandated by Congress, has evolved to become a program that reaches across a wide range of knowledge resources. SRP fosters interweaving multiple knowledge resources to develop innovative multidirectional partnerships for research and training. Here we describe examples of how motivation, ideas, knowledge, and expertise from different people, institutions, and agencies can integrate to tackle challenges that can be as complex as the resources they bring to bear on it. Conclusions By providing structure for interweaving science with its stakeholders, we are better able to leverage resources, increase potential for innovation, and proactively ensure a more fully developed spectrum of beneficial outcomes of research investments. Citation Anderson BE, Naujokas MF, Suk WA. 2015. Interweaving knowledge resources to address complex environmental health challenges. Environ Health Perspect 123:1095–1099

  3. Addressing Earth Science Data Access Challenges through User Experience Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmings, S. N.; Banks, B.; Kendall, J.; Lee, C. M.; Irwin, D.; Toll, D. L.; Searby, N. D.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Capacity Building Program (Earth Science Division, Applied Sciences Program) works to enhance end-user capabilities to employ Earth observation and Earth science (EO/ES) data in decision-making. Open data access and user-tailored data delivery strategies are critical elements towards this end. User Experience (UX) and User Interface (UI) research methods can offer important contributions towards addressing data access challenges, particularly at the interface of science application/product development and product transition to end-users. This presentation focuses on developing nation contexts and describes methods, results, and lessons learned from two recent UX/UI efforts conducted in collaboration with NASA: the SERVIRglobal.net redesign project and the U.S. Water Partnership (USWP) Portal development effort. SERVIR, a collaborative venture among NASA, USAID, and global partners, seeks to improve environmental management and climate change response by helping governments and other stakeholders integrate EO and geospatial technologies into decision-making. The USWP, a collaboration among U.S. public and private sectors, harnesses U.S.-based resources and expertise to address water challenges in developing nations. SERVIR's study, conducted from 2010-2012, assessed and tested user needs, preferences, and online experiences to generate a more user-friendly online data portal at SERVIRglobal.net. The portal provides a central access interface to data and products from SERVIR's network of hubs in East Africa, the Hindu Kush Himalayas, and Mesoamerica. The second study, conducted by the USWP Secretariat and funded by the U.S. Department of State, seeks to match U.S.-based water information resources with developing nation stakeholder needs. The USWP study utilizes a multi-pronged approach to identify key design requirements and to understand the existing water data portal landscape. Adopting UX methods allows data distributors to design customized UIs that

  4. Addressing the Mathematics-Specific Needs of Beginning Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Beginning mathematics teachers at the secondary level (middle and high school grades) have mathematics-specific needs that induction programs should address more substantially. However, a number of issues in how programs can accomplish this are more complex than often framed in discussions occurring in the induction programs and the field of…

  5. Addressing Physics Grand Challenges Using the Jefferson Lab FEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Gwyn P.

    2006-11-01

    The Jefferson Lab Free Electron Laser[1] is the first of the so-called 4^th generation light sources to go operational. Capable of delivering extraordinarily bright, tunable light in ultrafast pulses from THz[2] through infrared to UV, the facility extends the experimental reach of accelerator-based light-sources by many orders of magnitude. This allows new opportunities to study many of the ``Grand Challenges'' recently defined by the Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences Division, most of which are concerned with understandings of equilibrium and non-equilibrium behavior of materials in physics, chemistry and biology using precise pump and probe techniques. Specifically, in condensed matter physics, the JLab FEL permits new studies which go beyond earlier studies of reductionist behavior to those which examine emergent behavior. Thus, the understanding of high Tc superconductivity, colossal magneto-resistance, and observations of the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, are examples of collective behavior which is now treated theoretically via the concept of quasiparticles. In this presentation we will describe the dual pathways of light source development and physics challenges, and then show how they are combined in experiments that allow new insights to be developed to understand material function. We will illustrate this with details of the evolution of accelerator-based light sources, and with examples of work performed to date. References: [1] Neil et al. Phys. Rev.Letts 84, 662 (2000). [2] Carr, Martin, McKinney, Neil, Jordan & Williams, Nature 420, 153 (2002).

  6. Expanding the role for psychology in addressing environmental challenges.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Susan; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Swim, Janet; Bonnes, Mirilia; Steg, Linda; Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Carrico, Amanda

    2016-04-01

    Environmental challenges, though daunting, present an important area for psychologists to apply their knowledge. Psychological theories, research methods, and interventions are essential for examining the questions about human impacts, tendencies, and capacities that are integral to constructing effective responses to these challenges. Although a great deal of relevant research has been done, there is scope for psychologists to be more extensively involved. Following a brief review of existing research, we outline some important new directions. We also highlight 2 key divergences, arguing that psychological research needs to expand beyond a traditional, theory-based and decontextualized approach to environmental issues to incorporate a contextualized or "place-based" approach and a willingness to collaborate in interdisciplinary research teams that focus on specific environmental problems. Suggestions for promoting such interdisciplinary collaborations are reviewed. We encourage psychologists to expand their engagement with important environmental issues through multiple research approaches in order to further their understanding of human behavior, contributions to human well-being, and relevance to other disciplines and to society.

  7. Challenges faced by multidisplinary new investigators on addressing grand challenges in global health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The grand challenges approach aims to spark innovative and transformative strategies to overcome barriers to significant global health issues. Grand Challenges Canada endorses an ‘Integrated Innovation™’ approach that focuses on the intersection of scientific/technological, social and business innovation. In this article we explore themes emerging from a dialogue between the authors, who are multidisciplinary recipients of the ‘Rising Stars in Global Health’ award from Grand Challenges Canada, regarding benefits of engaging in integrated innovation research, and recommendations for how this approach may develop in the future. Discussion Our dialogue followed a semi-structured interview format that addressed three topics: 1) reflections on applying an Integrated Innovation™ approach for global health; 2) thoughts on participation in the Grand Challenges 2012 meeting; and 3) authors’ visions of Grand Challenges Canada and the Grand Challenge movement towards 2020. The dialogue was transcribed verbatim and we used thematic analysis techniques to identify, analyze and report themes in the data. Benefits of working using the Grand Challenges approach centered on two themes: a) the potential for scientific breakthrough and b) building interdisciplinary collaborations and a community of scholars. Challenges and opportunities for Grand Challenges in moving forward included: a) capacity building, particularly regarding Integrated Innovation™ and scale-up planning; b) interdisciplinary and international mentorship for new investigators; and c) potential for future commercialization. Conclusions Our discussion highlighted that Integrated Innovation™ offers the opportunity to develop new theories, methods and approaches to global health while simultaneously fostering a collaborative spirit grounded in international, interdisciplinary collaborations. However, the arguable over-emphasis on corporatization poses a major challenge for new investigators

  8. Addressing new analytical challenges in protein formulation development.

    PubMed

    Mach, Henryk; Arvinte, Tudor

    2011-06-01

    As the share of therapeutic proteins in the arsenal of modern medicine continue increasing, relatively little progress has been made in the development of analytical methods that would address specific needs encountered during the development of these new drugs. Consequently, the researchers resort to adaptation of existing instrumentation to meet the demands of rigorous bioprocess and formulation development. In this report, we present a number of such adaptations as well as new instruments that allow efficient and precise measurement of critical parameters throughout the development stage. The techniques include use of atomic force microscopy to visualize proteinacious sub-visible particles, use of extrinsic fluorescent dyes to visualize protein aggregates, particle tracking analysis, determination of the concentration of monoclonal antibodies by the analysis of second-derivative UV spectra, flow cytometry for the determination of subvisible particle counts, high-throughput fluorescence spectroscopy to study phase separation phenomena, an adaptation of a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) system for the measurement of solution viscosity and a variable-speed streamlined analytical ultracentrifugation method. An ex vivo model for understanding the factors that affect bioavailability after subcutaneous injections is also described. Most of these approaches allow not only a more precise insight into the nature of the formulated proteins, but also offer increased throughput while minimizing sample requirements.

  9. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  10. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  11. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  12. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Wyoming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  13. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. West Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  14. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  15. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  16. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  17. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. New Hampshire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  18. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  19. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  20. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers; (2) significant financial shortfalls; and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  1. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  2. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  3. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  4. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  5. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  6. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  7. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  8. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  9. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  10. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  11. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  12. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Indiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  13. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  14. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  15. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  16. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  17. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  18. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  19. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  20. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. North Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  1. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  2. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  3. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  4. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  5. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  6. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  7. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  8. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Utah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  9. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  10. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  11. Building Connections: Strategies to Address Rurality and Accessibility Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Sara; Hines-Bergmeier, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Operating a museum in a high poverty, underserved area creates many challenges related to accessibility, programming, and funding. Over the course of nearly a decade, the Ohio Valley Museum of Discovery (OVMoD) has identified several organizational practices that help mitigate these challenges. Located in the southeastern corner of Appalachian…

  12. A Framework for Addressing Challenges to Classroom Technology Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Jennifer; Mouza, Chrystalla

    2008-01-01

    Creating effective learning environments with technology remains a challenge for teachers. Despite the tremendous push for educators to integrate technology into their classrooms, many have yet to do so and struggle to find consistent success with technology-based instruction. The challenges to effective technology integration have been…

  13. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  14. ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CHALLENGES WITH COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the field of environmental engineering, modeling tools are playing an ever larger role in addressing air quality issues, including source pollutant emissions, atmospheric dispersion and human exposure risks. More detailed modeling of environmental flows requires tools for c...

  15. A Canadian Effort to Address Fractions Teaching and Learning Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yearley, Shelley; Bruce, Catherine D.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching and learning fraction concepts provides challenges in primary schools all over the world. In this article, Shelley Yearley and Catherine Bruce describe a fractions-based research project conducted in Ontario, Canada.

  16. Teaching Digital Natives: Promoting Information Literacy and Addressing Instructional Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    Technology must be used as a teaching and learning tool to help students succeed. However, educators must be proactive in identifying some of the pitfalls of technology, such as information illiteracy. The phenomenological study covers how English instructors from Indianapolis, who teach first year students, address information literacy and the…

  17. Challenges in an Aging Society: Presidential Address to APPAM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The United States is at a critical crossroads in its history right now. The public policy problems that the people are facing are complex and interrelated, and the demographic changes that are about to significantly change their country are not well understood by large numbers of people. In this presidential address to the Association for Public…

  18. Addressing Reticence: The Challenge of Engaging Reluctant Adult ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Steven J.; Henrichsen, Lynn E.

    2015-01-01

    Reticence frequently prevents adult ESL learners from learning as much as they otherwise might. The nature of second-language learning requires frequent performance that may challenge students' self-concepts, leading to reticence and self-consciousness. To reduce or prevent this problem, teachers must employ appropriate pedagogical and classroom…

  19. Addressing a Nation's Challenge: Graduate Programs in Gerontology in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmel, Sara; Lowenstein, Ariela

    2007-01-01

    Like other developed nations, Israel has rapidly aged. This demographic revolution has created new challenges for Israeli society. We describe the societal background, including the emerging societal needs, solutions, and problems, as well as the professional principles, which guided us in developing the first two Israeli academic programs in…

  20. Preventing and Addressing Challenging Behavior: Common Questions and Practical Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Corso, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer preschool teachers strategies for preventing challenging behavior and supporting the development of social skills and emotional competencies. This article is framed in a question and answer format using questions from teachers who the authors have worked with in the past. These questions and strategies are…

  1. Addressing the Challenges of Conducting Research in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Amerson, Roxanne M.; Strang, Cecily W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To explore the unique challenges that occur when conducting research in developing countries so the reader can consider approaches for providing ethically and culturally-appropriate research strategies applicable for the context of the host country. Organizing Construct This article presents an overview of the challenges, which are organized based on the phases of the research period: pre-enrollment, enrollment, and post-enrollment. At each stage, examples of adaptation to meet the challenges are presented and recommendations are posited. Conclusions Strategies for research should protect the rights of the most vulnerable and disadvantaged populations while balancing the needs of society at-large, provide culturally relevant ethical informed consent while balancing institutional review board requirements, and conduct research in a culturally-appropriate manner for the host country while balancing the principles of ethical research established by developed countries. Clinical Relevance Researchers are implored to focus on the ethical and cultural appropriateness of each aspect of the study process to afford the highest level of research credibility and validity. PMID:26444697

  2. Strategies to Address Common Challenges When Teaching in an Active Learning Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Christina I.; Gorman, Kristen S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides practical strategies for addressing common challenges that arise for teachers in active learning classrooms. Our strategies come from instructors with experience teaching in these environments.

  3. Oral health in Libya: addressing the future challenges.

    PubMed

    Peeran, Syed Wali; Altaher, Omar Basheer; Peeran, Syed Ali; Alsaid, Fatma Mojtaba; Mugrabi, Marei Hamed; Ahmed, Aisha Mojtaba; Grain, Abdulgader

    2014-01-01

    Libya is a vast country situated in North Africa, having a relatively better functioning economy with a scanty population. This article is the first known attempt to review the current state of oral health care in Libya and to explore the present trends and future challenges. Libyan health system, oral health care, and human resources with the present status of dental education are reviewed comprehensively. A bibliographic study of oral health research and publications has been carried out. The results point toward a common indicator that oral health-related research is low. Strategies have to be developed to educate the medical and dental professionals, to update the current curriculum and enable the system to be competent in all aspects of oral health care management.

  4. Addressing the right targets in oncology: challenges and alternative approaches.

    PubMed

    Stock, Julie K; Jones, Neil P; Hammonds, Tim; Roffey, Jon; Dillon, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Translating existing and emerging knowledge of cancer biology into effective novel therapies remains a great challenge in drug discovery. A firm understanding of the target biology, confidence in the supporting preclinical research, and access to diverse chemical matter is required to lower attrition rates and prosecute targets effectively. Understanding past successes and failures will aid in refining this process to deliver further therapeutic benefit to patients. In this review, we suggest that early oncology drug discovery should focus on selection and prosecution of cancer targets with strong disease biology rather than on more chemically "druggable" targets with only modest disease-linkage. This approach offers higher potential benefit but also increases the need for innovative and alternative approaches. These include using different methods to validate novel targets and identify chemical matter, as well as raising the standards and our interpretation of the scientific literature. The combination of skills required for this emphasizes the need for broader early collaborations between academia and industry.

  5. Oral health in Libya: addressing the future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Peeran, Syed Wali; Altaher, Omar Basheer; Peeran, Syed Ali; Alsaid, Fatma Mojtaba; Mugrabi, Marei Hamed; Ahmed, Aisha Mojtaba; Grain, Abdulgader

    2014-01-01

    Libya is a vast country situated in North Africa, having a relatively better functioning economy with a scanty population. This article is the first known attempt to review the current state of oral health care in Libya and to explore the present trends and future challenges. Libyan health system, oral health care, and human resources with the present status of dental education are reviewed comprehensively. A bibliographic study of oral health research and publications has been carried out. The results point toward a common indicator that oral health–related research is low. Strategies have to be developed to educate the medical and dental professionals, to update the current curriculum and enable the system to be competent in all aspects of oral health care management. PMID:24666627

  6. Strengthening health information systems to address health equity challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Nolen, Lexi Bambas; Braveman, Paula; Dachs, J. Norberto W.; Delgado, Iris; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Moser, Kath; Rolfe, Liz; Vega, Jeanette; Zarowsky, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Special studies and isolated initiatives over the past several decades in low-, middle- and high-income countries have consistently shown inequalities in health among socioeconomic groups and by gender, race or ethnicity, geographical area and other measures associated with social advantage. Significant health inequalities linked to social (dis)advantage rather than to inherent biological differences are generally considered unfair or inequitable. Such health inequities are the main object of health development efforts, including global targets such as the Millennium Development Goals, which require monitoring to evaluate progress. However, most national health information systems (HIS) lack key information needed to assess and address health inequities, namely, reliable, longitudinal and representative data linking measures of health with measures of social status or advantage at the individual or small-area level. Without empirical documentation and monitoring of such inequities, as well as country-level capacity to use this information for effective planning and monitoring of progress in response to interventions, movement towards equity is unlikely to occur. This paper reviews core information requirements and potential databases and proposes short-term and longer term strategies for strengthening the capabilities of HIS for the analysis of health equity and discusses HIS-related entry points for supporting a culture of equity-oriented decision-making and policy development. PMID:16184279

  7. Addressing a nation's challenge: graduate programs in gerontology in Israel.

    PubMed

    Carmel, Sara; Lowenstein, Ariela

    2007-01-01

    Like other developed nations, Israel has rapidly aged. This demographic revolution has created new challenges for Israeli society. We describe the societal background, including the emerging societal needs, solutions, and problems, as well as the professional principles, which guided us in developing the first two Israeli academic programs in gerontology in Beer-Sheva and Haifa. We further discuss the structures of both programs and their accomplishments. Although both programs were guided by identical needs and principles, geared toward the same multidisciplinary target population, and are dynamic and responsive to the emerging needs and difficulties, they differ in structure. While Haifa's program is flexible, Beer-Sheva's program is structured and divided into three distinct programs, of which only one-the research track-is designed and tailored to the students' interest. The two programs have contributed to increasing interest and research in aging in Israel, enhancing professional cooperation within the universities and with the international scientific community, opening the labor market for the programs' graduates, creating fruitful collaborations with community services, and accelerating the improvement of elderly quality of care.

  8. Elections: DOD Needs More Comprehensive Planning to Address Military and Overseas Absentee Voting Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    ELECTIONS DOD Needs More Comprehensive Planning to Address Military and Overseas Absentee Voting Challenges...Accountability Office Highlights of GAO-16-378, a report to congressional addressees April 2016 ELECTIONS DOD Needs More Comprehensive Planning to...with its military and overseas voting assistance efforts and developed plans to address those challenges, and (2) implemented strategic planning

  9. Next-generation clinical trials: Novel strategies to address the challenge of tumor molecular heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Catenacci, Daniel V.T.

    2014-01-01

    The promise of ‘personalized cancer care’ with therapies toward specific molecular aberrations has potential to improve outcomes. However, there is recognized heterogeneity within any given tumor-type from patient to patient (inter-patient heterogeneity), and within an individual (intra-patient heterogeneity) as demonstrated by molecular evolution through space (primary tumor to metastasis) and time (after therapy). These issues have become hurdles to advancing cancer treatment outcomes with novel molecularly targeted agents. Classic trial design paradigms are challenged by heterogeneity, as they are unable to test targeted therapeutics against low frequency genomic ‘oncogenic driver’ aberrations with adequate power. Usual accrual difficulties to clinical trials are exacerbated by low frequencies of any given molecular driver. To address these challenges, there is need for innovative clinical trial designs and strategies implementing novel diagnostic biomarker technologies to account for inter-patient molecular diversity and scarce tissue for analysis. Importantly, there is also need for pre-defined treatment priority algorithms given numerous aberrations commonly observed within any one individual sample. Access to multiple available therapeutic agents simultaneously is crucial. Finally intra-patient heterogeneity through time may be addressed by serial biomarker assessment at the time of tumor progression. This report discusses various ‘next-generation’ biomarker-driven trial designs and their potentials and limitations to tackle these recognized molecular heterogeneity challenges. Regulatory hurdles, with respect to drug and companion diagnostic development and approval, are considered. Focus is on the ‘Expansion Platform Design Types I and II’, the latter demonstrated with a first example, ‘PANGEA: Personalized Anti-Neoplastics for Gastro-Esophageal Adenocarcinoma’. Applying integral medium-throughput genomic and proteomic assays along with

  10. Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2011-03-07

    AMO is developing advanced technologies that cut energy use and carbon emissions in some of the most energy-intensive processes within U.S. manufacturing. The brochure describes the AMO R&D projects that address these challenges.

  11. Addressing practical challenges in utility optimization of mobile wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eswaran, Sharanya; Misra, Archan; La Porta, Thomas; Leung, Kin

    2008-04-01

    This paper examines the practical challenges in the application of the distributed network utility maximization (NUM) framework to the problem of resource allocation and sensor device adaptation in a mission-centric wireless sensor network (WSN) environment. By providing rich (multi-modal), real-time information about a variety of (often inaccessible or hostile) operating environments, sensors such as video, acoustic and short-aperture radar enhance the situational awareness of many battlefield missions. Prior work on the applicability of the NUM framework to mission-centric WSNs has focused on tackling the challenges introduced by i) the definition of an individual mission's utility as a collective function of multiple sensor flows and ii) the dissemination of an individual sensor's data via a multicast tree to multiple consuming missions. However, the practical application and performance of this framework is influenced by several parameters internal to the framework and also by implementation-specific decisions. This is made further complex due to mobile nodes. In this paper, we use discrete-event simulations to study the effects of these parameters on the performance of the protocol in terms of speed of convergence, packet loss, and signaling overhead thereby addressing the challenges posed by wireless interference and node mobility in ad-hoc battlefield scenarios. This study provides better understanding of the issues involved in the practical adaptation of the NUM framework. It also helps identify potential avenues of improvement within the framework and protocol.

  12. Veterans Affairs: Sustained Management Attention Needed to Address Numerous IT Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-22

    VETERANS AFFAIRS Sustained Management Attention Needed to Address Numerous IT Challenges Statement of Valerie C. Melvin...Sustained Management Attention Needed to Address Numerous IT Challenges What GAO Found In February 2015, GAO designated Veterans Affairs (VA) health care...as a high- risk area based on its concerns about the department’s ability to ensure the quality and safety of veterans’ health care in five broad

  13. [Research in social psychiatry - addressing future challenges of health- and social systems].

    PubMed

    Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2009-01-01

    Demographic change, limited financial resources and increasing social exclusion of individuals suffering chronic illness are major challenges for health and social systems in general and for psychiatry in particular. The paper analyses to what extent social psychiatric research currently addresses this challenges. Future perspectives are discussed, exploring the relationship of clinical neuroscience and social psychiatry.

  14. Making Pedagogical Decisions to Address Challenges of Joint Jewish-Bedouin Environmental Projects in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkaher, Iris; Tal, Tali

    2016-01-01

    This interpretive study identifies challenges of working with Bedouin and Jewish Israeli youth in two multicultural projects: education for sustainability and place-conscious education. It also describes the ways the adult project leaders addressed these challenges and their views on the effectiveness of their decisions. Participants comprised 16…

  15. Addressing the Grand Challenge of atmospheric carbon dioxide: geologic sequestration vs. biological recycling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    On February 15, 2008, the National Academy of Engineering unveiled their list of 14 Grand Challenges for Engineering. Building off of tremendous advancements in the past century, these challenges were selected for their role in assuring a sustainable existence for the rapidly increasing global community. It is no accident that the first five Challenges on the list involve the development of sustainable energy sources and management of environmental resources. While the focus of this review is to address the single Grand Challenge of "develop carbon sequestration methods", is will soon be clear that several other Challenges are intrinsically tied to it through the principles of sustainability. How does the realm of biological engineering play a role in addressing these Grand Challenges? PMID:22047501

  16. Biological approaches for addressing the grand challenge of providing access to clean drinking water

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) recently published a document presenting "Grand Challenges for Engineering". This list was proposed by leading engineers and scientists from around the world at the request of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). Fourteen topics were selected for these grand challenges, and at least seven can be addressed using the tools and methods of biological engineering. Here we describe how biological engineers can address the challenge of providing access to clean drinking water. This issue must be addressed in part by removing or inactivating microbial and chemical contaminants in order to properly deliver water safe for human consumption. Despite many advances in technologies this challenge is expanding due to increased pressure on fresh water supplies and to new opportunities for growth of potentially pathogenic organisms. PMID:21453515

  17. Biological approaches for addressing the grand challenge of providing access to clean drinking water.

    PubMed

    Riley, Mark R; Gerba, Charles P; Elimelech, Menachem

    2011-03-31

    The U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) recently published a document presenting "Grand Challenges for Engineering". This list was proposed by leading engineers and scientists from around the world at the request of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). Fourteen topics were selected for these grand challenges, and at least seven can be addressed using the tools and methods of biological engineering. Here we describe how biological engineers can address the challenge of providing access to clean drinking water. This issue must be addressed in part by removing or inactivating microbial and chemical contaminants in order to properly deliver water safe for human consumption. Despite many advances in technologies this challenge is expanding due to increased pressure on fresh water supplies and to new opportunities for growth of potentially pathogenic organisms.

  18. Identifying and addressing specific student difficulties in advanced thermal physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Trevor I.

    As part of an ongoing multi-university research study on student understanding of concepts in thermal physics at the upper division, I identified several student difficulties with topics related to heat engines (especially the Carnot cycle), as well as difficulties related to the Boltzmann factor. In an effort to address these difficulties, I developed two guided-inquiry worksheet activities (a.k.a. tutorials) for use in advanced undergraduate thermal physics courses. Both tutorials seek to improve student understanding of the utility and physical background of a particular mathematical expression. One tutorial focuses on a derivation of Carnot's theorem regarding the limit on thermodynamic efficiency, starting from the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The other tutorial helps students gain an appreciation for the origin of the Boltzmann factor and when it is applicable; focusing on the physical justification of its mathematical derivation, with emphasis on the connections between probability, multiplicity, entropy, and energy. Student understanding of the use and physical implications of Carnot's theorem and the Boltzmann factor was assessed using written surveys both before and after tutorial instruction within the advanced thermal physics courses at the University of Maine and at other institutions. Classroom tutorial sessions at the University of Maine were videotaped to allow in-depth scrutiny of student successes and failures following tutorial prompts. I also interviewed students on various topics related to the Boltzmann factor to gain a more complete picture of their understanding and inform tutorial revisions. Results from several implementations of my tutorials at the University of Maine indicate that students did not have a robust understanding of these physical principles after lectures alone, and that they gain a better understanding of relevant topics after tutorial instruction; Fisher's exact tests yield statistically significant improvement at the

  19. Addressing Emerging Risks: Scientific and Regulatory Challenges Associated with Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Tammy R.; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Cormier, Stephania A.; Dellinger, Barry; Reams, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Airborne fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) are often generated through widely-used thermal processes such as the combustion of fuels or the thermal decomposition of waste. Residents near Superfund sites are exposed to PM through the inhalation of windblown dust, ingestion of soil and sediments, and inhalation of emissions from the on-site thermal treatment of contaminated soils. Epidemiological evidence supports a link between exposure to airborne PM and an increased risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. It is well-known that during combustion processes, incomplete combustion can lead to the production of organic pollutants that can adsorb to the surface of PM. Recent studies have demonstrated that their interaction with metal centers can lead to the generation of a surface stabilized metal-radical complex capable of redox cycling to produce ROS. Moreover, these free radicals can persist in the environment, hence their designation as Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFR). EPFR has been demonstrated in both ambient air PM2.5 (diameter < 2.5 µm) and in PM from a variety of combustion sources. Thus, low-temperature, thermal treatment of soils can potentially increase the concentration of EPFR in areas in and around Superfund sites. In this review, we will outline the evidence to date supporting EPFR formation and its environmental significance. Furthermore, we will address the lack of methodologies for specifically addressing its risk assessment and challenges associated with regulating this new, emerging contaminant. PMID:27338429

  20. Addressing Emerging Risks: Scientific and Regulatory Challenges Associated with Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Tammy R; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Cormier, Stephania A; Dellinger, Barry; Reams, Margaret

    2016-06-08

    Airborne fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) are often generated through widely-used thermal processes such as the combustion of fuels or the thermal decomposition of waste. Residents near Superfund sites are exposed to PM through the inhalation of windblown dust, ingestion of soil and sediments, and inhalation of emissions from the on-site thermal treatment of contaminated soils. Epidemiological evidence supports a link between exposure to airborne PM and an increased risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. It is well-known that during combustion processes, incomplete combustion can lead to the production of organic pollutants that can adsorb to the surface of PM. Recent studies have demonstrated that their interaction with metal centers can lead to the generation of a surface stabilized metal-radical complex capable of redox cycling to produce ROS. Moreover, these free radicals can persist in the environment, hence their designation as Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFR). EPFR has been demonstrated in both ambient air PM2.5 (diameter < 2.5 µm) and in PM from a variety of combustion sources. Thus, low-temperature, thermal treatment of soils can potentially increase the concentration of EPFR in areas in and around Superfund sites. In this review, we will outline the evidence to date supporting EPFR formation and its environmental significance. Furthermore, we will address the lack of methodologies for specifically addressing its risk assessment and challenges associated with regulating this new, emerging contaminant.

  1. Megacities and Large Urban Complexes - WMO Role in Addressing Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terblanche, Deon; Jalkanen, Liisa

    2013-04-01

    counterparts. The urban environment also provides numerous opportunities. One example being the better use of weather and environmental predictions to proactively optimize the functioning of the urban environment in terms of the use of energy, goods and services. Another is the providing of air quality forecasting services to benefit the health of the population. To address the challenges and opportunities facing megacities and large urban complexes, WMO has established the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Urban Research Meteorology and Environment (GURME). Air pollution questions in urban areas, in particular megacities, is the main focus, building observational and modelling capabilities in developing countries through pilot projects and transfer of scientific expertise. GURME contributes to improving capabilities to handle meteorological and related features of air pollution by addressing end-to-end aspects of air quality, linking observational capabilities with the needs of chemical weather prediction, with the goal of providing high quality air quality services. Using examples from around the world but with specific reference to Africa, the unique challenges and opportunities related to megacities and large urban complexes, as perceived by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) are highlighted.

  2. Resources and Recommendations for Using Transcriptomics to Address Grand Challenges in Comparative Biology

    PubMed Central

    Mykles, Donald L.; Burnett, Karen G.; Durica, David S.; Joyce, Blake L.; McCarthy, Fiona M.; Schmidt, Carl J.; Stillman, Jonathon H.

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology has become an important tool for studying physiological responses of organisms to changes in their environment. De novo assembly of RNA-seq data has allowed researchers to create a comprehensive catalog of genes expressed in a tissue and to quantify their expression without a complete genome sequence. The contributions from the “Tapping the Power of Crustacean Transcriptomics to Address Grand Challenges in Comparative Biology” symposium in this issue show the successes and limitations of using RNA-seq in the study of crustaceans. In conjunction with the symposium, the Animal Genome to Phenome Research Coordination Network collated comments from participants at the meeting regarding the challenges encountered when using transcriptomics in their research. Input came from novices and experts ranging from graduate students to principal investigators. Many were unaware of the bioinformatics analysis resources currently available on the CyVerse platform. Our analysis of community responses led to three recommendations for advancing the field: (1) integration of genomic and RNA-seq sequence assemblies for crustacean gene annotation and comparative expression; (2) development of methodologies for the functional analysis of genes; and (3) information and training exchange among laboratories for transmission of best practices. The field lacks the methods for manipulating tissue-specific gene expression. The decapod crustacean research community should consider the cherry shrimp, Neocaridina denticulata, as a decapod model for the application of transgenic tools for functional genomics. This would require a multi-investigator effort. PMID:27639274

  3. Resources and Recommendations for Using Transcriptomics to Address Grand Challenges in Comparative Biology.

    PubMed

    Mykles, Donald L; Burnett, Karen G; Durica, David S; Joyce, Blake L; McCarthy, Fiona M; Schmidt, Carl J; Stillman, Jonathon H

    2016-12-01

    High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology has become an important tool for studying physiological responses of organisms to changes in their environment. De novo assembly of RNA-seq data has allowed researchers to create a comprehensive catalog of genes expressed in a tissue and to quantify their expression without a complete genome sequence. The contributions from the "Tapping the Power of Crustacean Transcriptomics to Address Grand Challenges in Comparative Biology" symposium in this issue show the successes and limitations of using RNA-seq in the study of crustaceans. In conjunction with the symposium, the Animal Genome to Phenome Research Coordination Network collated comments from participants at the meeting regarding the challenges encountered when using transcriptomics in their research. Input came from novices and experts ranging from graduate students to principal investigators. Many were unaware of the bioinformatics analysis resources currently available on the CyVerse platform. Our analysis of community responses led to three recommendations for advancing the field: (1) integration of genomic and RNA-seq sequence assemblies for crustacean gene annotation and comparative expression; (2) development of methodologies for the functional analysis of genes; and (3) information and training exchange among laboratories for transmission of best practices. The field lacks the methods for manipulating tissue-specific gene expression. The decapod crustacean research community should consider the cherry shrimp, Neocaridina denticulata, as a decapod model for the application of transgenic tools for functional genomics. This would require a multi-investigator effort.

  4. Social Justice Leadership and Inclusion: Exploring Challenges in an Urban District Struggling to Address Inequities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMatthews, David; Mawhinney, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Research Approach: This cross case study describes the challenges that two principals working in one urban school district addressed while attempting to transform their school cultures to embrace an inclusion model. Analysis of interviews and observations in each school revealed the actions, values, and orientations of the individual leaders and…

  5. The Flipped Class: A Method to Address the Challenges of an Undergraduate Statistics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Stephanie Gray

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate statistics courses are perceived as challenging by both students and instructors. Students' attitudes, motivation, math anxiety, and preparedness can negatively impact the student and instructor experience and have the potential to negatively impact student learning. This article describes an attempt to address some of these…

  6. Addressing Challenging Behaviors in Head Start: A Closer Look at Program Policies and Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quesenberry, Amanda C.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, Head Start policies and procedures related to child guidance and addressing challenging behaviors were examined. Data were gathered from six Head Start programs in the Midwest, through interviews and document analysis. The findings provide a glimpse into how Head Start programs support children's social and emotional competence and…

  7. Managing Human Resources. Greater OPM Leadership Needed To Address Critical Challenges. Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. General Government Div.

    The General Accounting Office examined the Office of Personnel Management's (OPM's) leadership role in addressing critical human resource problems and preparing the government to meet future challenges. Federal managers, OPM employees, and federal personnel officials were surveyed to study federal government problems in hiring, managing, and…

  8. Grid-Integrated Distributed Solar: Addressing Challenges for Operations and Planning, Greening the Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Coddington, Michael; Miller, Mackay; Katz, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document introduces a brief overview of common technical impacts of PV on distribution systems and operations, as well as emerging strategies for successfully addressing some of the priority issues.

  9. Addressing the Challenges Encountered during a Developmental Evaluation: Implications for Evaluation Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poth, Cheryl-Anne; Pinto, Dorothy; Howery, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This article describes three challenges encountered during a developmental evaluation and explains how these were addressed from the evaluators' perspective. The evaluation was conducted to support the implementation of a three-year educational technology leadership project funded by the Alberta provincial government. The developmental evaluation…

  10. Addressing the Challenges and Needs of English-Speaking Caribbean Immigrant Students: Guidelines for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Stephaney; Bryan, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Caribbean students are among the distinct immigrant groups in U.S. public schools with particular needs to be addressed by school counselors. This article discusses the challenges Caribbean immigrant students face that create obstacles to their academic and personal/social success. Guidelines for school counselors are outlined, which can be used…

  11. Challenges of collaboration to address health disparities in the rapidly growing community of Las Vegas, Nevada.

    PubMed

    Woodson, Joyce M; Braxton-Calhoun, Millicent; Black, Jacqueline; Marinelli, Rosalie; O'Hair, Alyssa; Constantino, Nora L

    2009-08-01

    Collaboration was established between a university and the faith-based community in Clark County, Nevada to develop a coalition to address chronic disease in the African American population. The university faculty enlisted several churches and health related agencies to join the coalition. The challenges of collaborating with a community coalition to develop and implement a grant are discussed.

  12. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Toni A.

    2014-01-01

    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed

  13. Advances in addressing technical challenges of point-of-care diagnostics in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Wang, ShuQi; Lifson, Mark A; Inci, Fatih; Liang, Li-Guo; Sheng, Ye-Feng; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-01-01

    The striking prevalence of HIV, TB and malaria, as well as outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, such as influenza A (H7N9), Ebola and MERS, poses great challenges for patient care in resource-limited settings (RLS). However, advanced diagnostic technologies cannot be implemented in RLS largely due to economic constraints. Simple and inexpensive point-of-care (POC) diagnostics, which rely less on environmental context and operator training, have thus been extensively studied to achieve early diagnosis and treatment monitoring in non-laboratory settings. Despite great input from material science, biomedical engineering and nanotechnology for developing POC diagnostics, significant technical challenges are yet to be overcome. Summarized here are the technical challenges associated with POC diagnostics from a RLS perspective and the latest advances in addressing these challenges are reviewed.

  14. Advances in addressing technical challenges of point-of-care diagnostics in resource-limited settings

    PubMed Central

    Wang, ShuQi; Lifson, Mark A.; Inci, Fatih; Liang, Li-Guo; Sheng, Ye-Feng; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-01-01

    The striking prevalence of HIV, TB and malaria, as well as outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, such as influenza A (H7N9), Ebola and MERS, poses great challenges for patient care in resource-limited settings (RLS). However, advanced diagnostic technologies cannot be implemented in RLS largely due to economic constraints. Simple and inexpensive point-of-care (POC) diagnostics, which rely less on environmental context and operator training, have thus been extensively studied to achieve early diagnosis and treatment monitoring in non-laboratory settings. Despite great input from material science, biomedical engineering and nanotechnology for developing POC diagnostics, significant technical challenges are yet to be overcome. Summarized here are the technical challenges associated with POC diagnostics from a RLS perspective and the latest advances in addressing these challenges are reviewed. PMID:26777725

  15. Addressing challenging behaviour in children with Down syndrome: the use of applied behaviour analysis for assessment and intervention.

    PubMed

    Feeley, Kathleen M; Jones, Emily A

    2006-09-01

    Children with Down syndrome are at an increased risk for engaging in challenging behaviour that may be part of a behavioural phenotype characteristic of Down syndrome. The methodology of applied behaviour analysis has been demonstrated effective with a wide range of challenging behaviours, across various disabilities. Applications to children with Down syndrome and the examination of behaviourally based strategies to specifically address the unique characteristics of children with Down syndrome are limited. However, there are several studies in which a subset of the participants did have Down syndrome. A handful of these studies are reviewed within the context of functional behaviour assessment and Positive Behavioural Supports. Drawing from these studies and the behavioural literature, as well as the authors' clinical experience and research, suggestions regarding early intervention for challenging behaviour with children with Down syndrome are provided.

  16. Challenges Addressing Unmet Need for Contraception: Voices of Family Planning Service Providers in Rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Baraka, Jitihada; Rusibamayila, Asinath; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Baynes, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Provider perspectives have been overlooked in efforts to address the challenges of unmet need for family planning (FP). This qualitative study was undertaken in Tanzania, using 22 key informant interviews and 4 focus group discussions. The research documents perceptions of healthcare managers and providers in a rural district on the barriers to meeting latent demand for contraception. Social-ecological theory is used to interpret the findings, illustrating how service capability is determined by the social, structural and organizational environment. Providers' efforts to address unmet need for FP services are constrained by unstable reproductive preferences, low educational attainment, and misconceptions about contraceptive side effects. Societal and organizational factors--such as gender dynamics, economic conditions, religious and cultural norms, and supply chain bottlenecks, respectively--also contribute to an adverse environment for meeting needs for care. Challenges that healthcare providers face interact and produce an effect which hinders efforts to address unmet need. Interventions to address this are not sufficient unless the supply of services is combined with systems strengthening and social engagement strategies in a way that reflects the multi-layered, social institutional problems.

  17. Academic Research Library as Broker in Addressing Interoperability Challenges for the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P., II

    2015-12-01

    Data capture is an important process in the research lifecycle. Complete descriptive and representative information of the data or database is necessary during data collection whether in the field or in the research lab. The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Public Access Plan (2015) mandates the need for federally funded projects to make their research data more openly available. Developing, implementing, and integrating metadata workflows into to the research process of the data lifecycle facilitates improved data access while also addressing interoperability challenges for the geosciences such as data description and representation. Lack of metadata or data curation can contribute to (1) semantic, (2) ontology, and (3) data integration issues within and across disciplinary domains and projects. Some researchers of EarthCube funded projects have identified these issues as gaps. These gaps can contribute to interoperability data access, discovery, and integration issues between domain-specific and general data repositories. Academic Research Libraries have expertise in providing long-term discovery and access through the use of metadata standards and provision of access to research data, datasets, and publications via institutional repositories. Metadata crosswalks, open archival information systems (OAIS), trusted-repositories, data seal of approval, persistent URL, linking data, objects, resources, and publications in institutional repositories and digital content management systems are common components in the library discipline. These components contribute to a library perspective on data access and discovery that can benefit the geosciences. The USGS Community for Data Integration (CDI) has developed the Science Support Framework (SSF) for data management and integration within its community of practice for contribution to improved understanding of the Earth's physical and biological systems. The USGS CDI SSF can be used as a reference model to map to Earth

  18. Fiscal Year 2015 U.S. Government Financial Statements: Need to Address the Governments Remaining Financial Management Challenges and Long Term Fiscal Path

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-06

    FINANCIAL STATEMENTS Need to Address the Government’s Remaining Financial Management Challenges and Long- Term Fiscal Path Statement of Gene L. Dodaro... Management Challenges and Long-Term Fiscal Path Why GAO Did This Study Congress and the President need reliable, useful, and timely financial and...discusses the federal government’s remaining financial management challenges and long-term fiscal path, specifically in the context of GAO’s report on

  19. 46 CFR 107.317 - Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications, and calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications, and calculations. 107.317 Section 107.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Plan Approval § 107.317 Addresses...

  20. 46 CFR 107.317 - Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications, and calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications, and calculations. 107.317 Section 107.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Plan Approval § 107.317 Addresses...

  1. 46 CFR 107.317 - Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications, and calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications, and calculations. 107.317 Section 107.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Plan Approval § 107.317 Addresses...

  2. North American Water Program (NAWP): A Vision to Address North America's Freshwater Sustainability Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belvedere, D. R.; Houser, P.; van Oevelen, P. J.; Schiffer, R. A.; Entin, J. K.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Schlosser, C. A.; Wood, E. F.; Ek, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    Dramatically changing climates has had an indelible impact on North America's water crisis; the rapid melting of glaciers has profound implications for the sustainability of Canada's rivers. However, projected increases in water demand from increasing population, industrial, energy, and agriculture needs may have four times more impact on the water supply-demand imbalance than climate change. Reliable prediction of hydrologic change and extremes is of critical importance for policy and decision makers to adapt to these future water challenges. However, the models that we use to understand and forecast water availability, flooding, and drought are simply not up to the task of addressing our most pressing societal issues and national security. We need a decisive and coordinated effort to systematically improve water cycle prediction skill, coupled with reliable methodologies to translate those predictions into actionable water supply and quality information to support sustainable water management - this a primary motivation for the proposed North American Water Program (NAWP). To decisively address these challenges, we recommend that NAWP coalesce an interdisciplinary, international and interagency effort to make significant contributions to continental-to decision-scale hydroclimate science and solutions. By entraining, integrating and coordinating the vast array of interdisciplinary observational and prediction resources available, NAWP will significantly advance skill in predicting, assessing and managing variability and changes in North American water resources, as an integral part of the global climate system. We adopt three challenges to organize NAWP efforts. The first deals with developing a scientific basis and tools for mitigating and adapting to changes in the water supply-demand balance. The second challenge is benchmarking; to use incomplete and uncertain observations to assess water storage and quality dynamics, and to characterize the information

  3. North American Water Program (NAWP): A Vision to Address North America's Freshwater Sustainability Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, P. R.

    2013-05-01

    Dramatically changing climates has had an indelible impact on North America's water crisis; the rapid melting of glaciers has profound implications for the sustainability of Canada's rivers. However, projected increases in water demand from increasing population, industrial, energy, and agriculture needs may have four times more impact on the water supply-demand imbalance than climate change. Reliable prediction of hydrologic change and extremes is of critical importance for policy and decision makers to adapt to these future water challenges. However, the models that we use to understand and forecast water availability, flooding, and drought are simply not up to the task of addressing our most pressing societal issues and national security. We need a decisive and coordinated effort to systematically improve water cycle prediction skill, coupled with reliable methodologies to translate those predictions into actionable water supply and quality information to support sustainable water management - this a primary motivation for the proposed North American Water Program (NAWP). To decisively address these challenges, we recommend that NAWP coalesce an interdisciplinary, international and interagency effort to make significant contributions to continental-to decision-scale hydroclimate science and solutions. By entraining, integrating and coordinating the vast array of interdisciplinary observational and prediction resources available, NAWP will significantly advance skill in predicting, assessing and managing variability and changes in North American water resources, as an integral part of the global climate system. We adopt three challenges to organize NAWP efforts. The first deals with developing a scientific basis and tools for mitigating and adapting to changes in the water supply-demand balance. The second challenge is benchmarking; to use incomplete and uncertain observations to assess water storage and quality dynamics, and to characterize the information

  4. North American Water Program (NAWP): A Vision to Address North America's Freshwater Sustainability Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belvedere, D. R.; Houser, P. R.; Schiffer, R. A.; Entin, J. K.

    2013-12-01

    Dramatically changing climates has had an indelible impact on North America's water crisis; the rapid melting of glaciers has profound implications for the sustainability of Canada's rivers. However, projective increases in water demand from increasing population, industrial energy, and agriculture needs may have four times more impact on the water supply-demand imbalance than climate change. Reliable prediction of hydrologic change and extremes is of critical importance for policy and decision makers to adapt to these future water challenges. However, the models that we use to understand and forecast water availability, flooding, and drought are simply not up to the task of addressing our most pressing societal issues and national security. We need a decisive and coordinative effort to systematically improve water cycle prediction skill, coupled with reliable methodologies to translate those predictions into actionable water supply and quality information to support sustainable water management - this is a primary motivation for the proposed North American Water Program (NAWP). To decisively address these challenges, we recommend that NAWP coalesce an interdisciplinary, international and interagency effort to make significant contributions to continental-to-decision-scale hydroclimate science and solutions. By entraining, integrating and coordinating the vast array of interdisciplinary observationable and prediction resources available, NAWP will significantly advance skill in predicting, assessing, and managing variability and changes in North American water resources, as an integral part of the global climate system. We adopt three challenges to organize NAWP efforts. The first deals with developing a scientific basis and tools for mitigating and adapting to changes in the water supply-demand balance. The second challenge is benchmarking; to use incomplete and uncertain observations to assess water storage and quality dynamics, and to characterize the

  5. Moving beyond regression techniques in cardiovascular risk prediction: applying machine learning to address analytic challenges.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Benjamin A; Navar, Ann Marie; Carter, Rickey E

    2016-07-19

    Risk prediction plays an important role in clinical cardiology research. Traditionally, most risk models have been based on regression models. While useful and robust, these statistical methods are limited to using a small number of predictors which operate in the same way on everyone, and uniformly throughout their range. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the use of machine-learning methods for development of risk prediction models. Typically presented as black box approaches, most machine-learning methods are aimed at solving particular challenges that arise in data analysis that are not well addressed by typical regression approaches. To illustrate these challenges, as well as how different methods can address them, we consider trying to predicting mortality after diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. We use data derived from our institution's electronic health record and abstract data on 13 regularly measured laboratory markers. We walk through different challenges that arise in modelling these data and then introduce different machine-learning approaches. Finally, we discuss general issues in the application of machine-learning methods including tuning parameters, loss functions, variable importance, and missing data. Overall, this review serves as an introduction for those working on risk modelling to approach the diffuse field of machine learning.

  6. Addressing the Big-Earth-Data Variety Challenge with the Hierarchical Triangular Mesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rilee, Michael L.; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Clune, Thomas; Oloso, Amidu; Brown, Paul G.; Yu, Honfeng

    2016-01-01

    We have implemented an updated Hierarchical Triangular Mesh (HTM) as the basis for a unified data model and an indexing scheme for geoscience data to address the variety challenge of Big Earth Data. We observe that, in the absence of variety, the volume challenge of Big Data is relatively easily addressable with parallel processing. The more important challenge in achieving optimal value with a Big Data solution for Earth Science (ES) data analysis, however, is being able to achieve good scalability with variety. With HTM unifying at least the three popular data models, i.e. Grid, Swath, and Point, used by current ES data products, data preparation time for integrative analysis of diverse datasets can be drastically reduced and better variety scaling can be achieved. In addition, since HTM is also an indexing scheme, when it is used to index all ES datasets, data placement alignment (or co-location) on the shared nothing architecture, which most Big Data systems are based on, is guaranteed and better performance is ensured. Moreover, our updated HTM encoding turns most geospatial set operations into integer interval operations, gaining further performance advantages.

  7. The role and challenges of the food industry in addressing chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Summary Increasingly, food companies play an important role in stemming the rising burden of nutrition-related chronic diseases. Concrete actions taken by these companies include global public commitments to address food reformulation, consumer information, responsible marketing, promotion of healthy lifestyles, and public-private partnerships. These actions are reviewed together with eleven specific PepsiCo goals and commitments that address products, the marketplace, and communities at large. Interim progress on these goals and commitments are discussed as well as constraints hampering faster progress. Further disease prevention depends on increasing implementation of private-public initiatives. PMID:20509876

  8. COOP+ project: Promoting the cooperation among international Research Infrastructures to address global environmental challenges.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonet-García, Francisco; Materia, Paola; Kutsch, Werner; de Lucas, Jesús Marco; Tjulin, Anders

    2016-04-01

    During the Anthropocene, mankind will face several global environmental challenges. One of the first and more successful responses provided by Science to these challenges is the collecting of long-term series of biophysical variables in order to improve our knowledge of natural systems. The huge amount of information gathered during the last decades by Research Infrastructures (RIs) has helped to understand the structure and functioning of natural systems at local and regional scales. But how can we address the global cross-scale and cross-disciplinary challenges posed by the global environment change? We believe that it will be necessary to observe, model better and understand the whole biosphere using long term data generated by international RIs. RIs play a key role on many of the last advances and discoveries in science, from the observation of the Higgs Boson at CERN to the exploration of the Universe by the telescopes of the European Southern Observatory in Chile. The scale of complexity, instrumentation, computing resources, technological advances, and also of the investments, and the size of research collaborations, do not have precedents in Science. RIs in environmental field are developing fast, but the corresponding communities need yet to further reflect the need for a wider global collaboration because the challenges to tackle are in essence of global nature. This contribution describes how COOP+ project (EU Horizon 2020 Coordination and Support Action) will promote the cooperation among RIs at a global scale to address global environmental challenges. Our project evolves from the experience of the sucessful FP7 COOPEUS project (see http://www.coopeus.eu), which explored the use and access to data from RIs in environmental research in Europe and USA. The general goal of COOP+ is to strengthen the links and coordination of the ESFRI RIs related to Marine Science (EMSO), Arctic and Atmospheric Research (EISCAT), Carbon Observation (ICOS) and Biodiversity

  9. ICD-10 Medical Coding: The Role of Perioperative Services in Addressing Implementation Challenges.

    PubMed

    Wing, Toni L

    2016-02-01

    The International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) was adopted in the United States on October 1, 2015. Replacing the outdated ICD, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) coding system was long overdue, and the updated classifications were needed to accurately collect data and improve patient care. However, the complexity of ICD-10 may present substantial challenges for health information management coders and affect hospital revenue collection. Because the OR generates a large share of a hospital's overall revenue, perioperative services personnel must take a critical look at ICD-10 changes and address adoption challenges to minimize the negative effects ICD-10 may have on surgical revenue and help personnel identify perioperative services' important role in ICD-10 implementation.

  10. Addressing the challenges for sustainable production of algal biofuels: II. Harvesting and conversion to biofuels.

    PubMed

    Abdelaziz, Ahmed E M; Leite, Gustavo B; Hallenbeck, Patrick C

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure the sustainability of algal biofuel production, a number of issues need to be addressed. Previously, we reviewed some of the questions in this area involving algal species and the important challenges of nutrient supply and how these might be met. Here, we take up issues involving harvesting and the conversion ofbiomass to biofuels. Advances in both these areas are required if these third-generation fuels are to have a sufficiently high net energy ratio and a sustainable footprint. A variety of harvesting technologies are under investigation and recent studies in this area are presented and discussed. A number of different energy uses are available for algal biomass, each with their own advantages as well as challenges in terms of efficiencies and yields. Recent advances in these areas are presented and some of the especially promising conversion processes are highlighted.

  11. MO-FG-BRB-01: Investing to Address the Global Cancer Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Atun, R.

    2015-06-15

    corresponding potential benefits of addressing this challenge. To describe what radiation therapy infrastructure, in terms of facilities, equipment and personnel, will be required to address this challenge. To describe models of addressing personnel and infrastructure mobilization and capacity building within regions where significant cancer treatment disparities exist.

  12. MO-FG-BRB-03: Addressing the Cancer Challenge: International Cancer Experts Corps

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, N.

    2015-06-15

    corresponding potential benefits of addressing this challenge. To describe what radiation therapy infrastructure, in terms of facilities, equipment and personnel, will be required to address this challenge. To describe models of addressing personnel and infrastructure mobilization and capacity building within regions where significant cancer treatment disparities exist.

  13. Multiscale Modeling in Computational Biomechanics: Determining Computational Priorities and Addressing Current Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Tawhai, Merryn; Bischoff, Jeff; Einstein, Daniel R.; Erdemir, Ahmet; Guess, Trent; Reinbolt, Jeff

    2009-05-01

    Abstract In this article, we describe some current multiscale modeling issues in computational biomechanics from the perspective of the musculoskeletal and respiratory systems and mechanotransduction. First, we outline the necessity of multiscale simulations in these biological systems. Then we summarize challenges inherent to multiscale biomechanics modeling, regardless of the subdiscipline, followed by computational challenges that are system-specific. We discuss some of the current tools that have been utilized to aid research in multiscale mechanics simulations, and the priorities to further the field of multiscale biomechanics computation.

  14. Addressing the next challenges: A summary of the 22nd international symposium on hepatitis C virus and related viruses.

    PubMed

    Baumert, Thomas F; Schuster, Catherine; Cosset, François-Loïc; Dubuisson, Jean; Hofmann, Maike; Tautz, Norbert; Zeisel, Mirjam B; Thimme, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Following the discovery of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) more than 25 years ago the field has succeeded to develop methods that have changed the safety of blood products, understand the molecular virology, epidemiology and clinical disease of HCV, and identify specific targets for the development of direct-acting antivirals for HCV cure. Nevertheless, major clinical and scientific challenges remain: therapy is still only available to a fraction of infected patients worldwide and many patients remain undiagnosed and/or live in countries where therapy is unattainable. An urgently needed HCV vaccine to eradicate infection remains still elusive. Scientifically, major questions remain regarding the life cycle, pathogenesis and mechanisms of viral clearance and persistence. Addressing these challenges, this meeting report reviews key findings of the 22nd International Symposium on Hepatitis C Virus and Related Viruses in Strasbourg, France from October 9 to 13, 2015.

  15. Species-specific challenges in dog cloning.

    PubMed

    Kim, G A; Oh, H J; Park, J E; Kim, M J; Park, E J; Jo, Y K; Jang, G; Kim, M K; Kim, H J; Lee, B C

    2012-12-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is now an established procedure used in cloning of several species. SCNT in dogs involves multiple steps including the removal of the nuclear material, injection of a donor cell, fusion, activation of the reconstructed oocytes and finally transfer to a synchronized female recipient. There are therefore many factors that contribute to cloning efficiency. By performing a retrospective analysis of 2005-2012 published papers regarding dog cloning, we define the optimum procedure and summarize the specific feature for dog cloning.

  16. The Role of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in Addressing the World's Energy Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, James

    2014-03-01

    The Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) at Brookhaven National Laboratory in the United States provides state-of-the-art capabilities for the fabrication and study of nanoscale materials, with an emphasis on atomic-level tailoring to achieve desired properties and functions. The CFN is a science-based user facility, simultaneously developing strong scientific programs while offering broad access to its capabilities and collaboration through an active user program. The overarching scientific theme of the CFN is the development and understanding of nanoscale materials that address the Nations' challenges in energy security, consistent with the Department of Energy mission. The CFN is one of five Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) funded by the Office of Science of the United States Department of Energy. The CFN supports Brookhaven's goal of leadership in the development of advanced materials and processes for selected energy applications. In my presentation, I will highlight the role that the CFN, through its scientific staff and this scientific user community, is playing in addressing the world's energy challenges. I will focus on several trajectories of research that are being executed at CFN, including work on photovoltaics, novel nanostructured materials for catalysis, soft and biological materials, and our state-of-the-art electron microscopy and proximal probe microscopy facilities.

  17. A survey of genetic counselors' strategies for addressing ethical and professional challenges in practice.

    PubMed

    Bower, Matthew A; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; Bartels, Dianne M; LeRoy, Bonnie S

    2002-06-01

    There is limited research about ethical and professional dilemmas that genetic counselors encounter in their practice and their strategies for addressing them. In this study, 454 genetic counselors rated the frequency with which they encounter each of 16 ethical/professional challenges identified and categorized previously (McCarthy Veach P., Bartels DM, LeRoy BS (2001) J Genet Couns 10(2):97-119). Over 40% indicated these issues occurred frequently: patient emotions, diversity, financial constraints, uncertainty, and colleague error. Two hundred and fifty-five respondents provided personal anecdotes describing exceptionally challenging situations and recommended strategies for addressing them. Most of their anecdotes involved informed consent, value conflicts, confidentiality, colleague error, withholding information, and resource allocation. The most frequently recommended strategies were further discussion with patients, consultation with other professionals, and referral to other health sources. Thirty-five respondents were unable to/did not offer strategies. Respondent demographics were not related to frequency of issues, type of anecdote, or recommended strategies. Practice, policy, and research implications are discussed.

  18. Challenges for a local service agency to address domestic violence -a case study from rural Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hayati, Elli Nur; Emmelin, Maria; Eriksson, Malin

    2014-08-15

    Since the launch of a Zero Tolerance Policy in Indonesia, several policies to address domestic violence have been enacted. The obligation of local governments to establish service units for women survivors of domestic violence is one of them. Since domestic violence is a sensitive and complex issue in Indonesia it is important to understand how governmentally regulated services function in practice. This case study aimed to explore challenges faced by a local service agency in managing service provision for women survivors of domestic violence in rural Indonesia. Data from one focus group discussion (12 participants), four individual interviews, six short narratives, two days of participant observation, as well as archive reviews were collected. All data were analyzed using Grounded Theory Situational Analysis. The major challenge faced by the local agency was the low priority that was given them by the local authorities, mirrored also in low involvement by the assigned volunteers in the daily service. The study also identified a gap between the socio-cultural arena and the law & policy arena that needs to be bridged to avoid that the two arenas address domestic violence in a contradictory way. Budget allocation to support the sustainability of the daily routines of service agencies has to be given priority. There is also a need for careful considerations regarding the composition of personnel involved within daily management of service agencies addressing domestic violence. To bridge the gap between the legal systems and traditional cultural values, culturally adjusted alternative justice systems could be developed to increase women's access to legal support.

  19. STaRRS in Yellowstone: Addressing Challenges Facing Student-Teacher-Scientist Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houseal, A.; Gallagher, R.; Fuhrmann, B.; Sanford, R.

    2010-12-01

    The literature outlines many challenges faced by Student-Teacher-Scientist Partnerships (STSPs) including cultural differences between the scientific research and education communities. For example, shared vocabulary terms with dissimilar definitions can create communication problems. Other issues include accuracy in data collection, meeting the needs of a very diverse group of partners, connecting students with research science in a meaningful way, and maintaining the infrastructure necessary to develop and maintain these partnerships. Additionally, evidence, other than anecdotal, of the success of these partnerships is limited, especially as school year and research cycles are often on different schedules or have very different goals. Students, Teachers, and Rangers & Research Scientists: Investigating Systems at Mammoth Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park (STaRRS) was an STSP developed to address some of these challenges, model some solutions within an STSP, and identify some possible outcomes for participating teachers and their students. Three strategies used to address some of these challenges that will be discussed briefly in this presentation include: (a) embedding the STSP in an already existing National Park Service environmental education program; (b) development of three types of research activities connecting teachers, students, and scientists to the research, and (c) a professional development (PD) model that included all partners in an on-going year-long process. Results from an accompanying research study will also be presented. Using a pretest-intervention-posttest design, this study revealed significant changes in attitude regarding science and scientists of participating STaRRS teachers. Student data gathered using a quasi-experimental pretest-intervention-posttest treatment and comparison group design also demonstrated significant changes in their attitudes and gains in earth science content knowledge.

  20. Time for a change: addressing R&D and commercialization challenges for antibacterials

    PubMed Central

    Payne, David J.; Miller, Linda Federici; Findlay, David; Anderson, James; Marks, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial therapeutic area has been described as the perfect storm. Resistance is increasing to the point that our hospitals encounter patients infected with untreatable pathogens, the overall industry pipeline is described as dry and most multinational pharmaceutical companies have withdrawn from the area. Major contributing factors to the declining antibacterial industry pipeline include scientific challenges, clinical/regulatory hurdles and low return on investment. This paper examines these challenges and proposes approaches to address them. There is a need for a broader scientific agenda to explore new approaches to discover and develop antibacterial agents. Additionally, ideas of how industry and academia could be better integrated will be presented. While promising progress in the regulatory environment has been made, more streamlined regulatory paths are still required and the solutions will lie in global harmonization and clearly defined guidance. Creating the right incentives for antibacterial research and development is critical and a new commercial model for antibacterial agents will be proposed. One key solution to help resolve both the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and lack of new drug development are rapid, cost-effective, accurate point of care diagnostics that will transform antibacterial prescribing and enable more cost-effective and efficient antibacterial clinical trials. The challenges of AMR are too great for any one group to resolve and success will require leadership and partnerships among academia, industry and governments globally. PMID:25918443

  1. Addressing Grand Challenges in Earth Observation Science: The Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, W.; Fröhlich, J.; Wotawa, G.; Stowasser, R.; Staudinger, M.; Hoffmann, C.; Walli, A.; Federspiel, C.; Aspetsberger, M.; Atzberger, C.; Briese, C.; Notarnicola, C.; Zebisch, M.; Boresch, A.; Enenkel, M.; Kidd, R.; von Beringe, A.; Hasenauer, S.; Naeimi, V.; Mücke, W.

    2014-09-01

    Earth observation is entering a new era where the increasing availability of free and open global satellite data sets combined with the computing power offered by modern information technologies opens up the possibility to process high-resolution data sets at global scale and short repeat intervals in a fully automatic fashion. This will not only boost the availability of higher level earth observation data in purely quantitative terms, but can also be expected to trigger a step change in the quality and usability of earth observation data. However, the technical, scientific, and organisational challenges that need to be overcome to arrive at this point are significant. First of all, Petabyte-scale data centres are needed for storing and processing complete satellite data records. Second, innovative processing chains that allow fully automatic processing of the satellite data from the raw sensor records to higher-level geophysical products need to be developed. Last but not least, new models of cooperation between public and private actors need to be found in order to live up to the first two challenges. This paper offers a discussion of how the Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring (EODC) - a catalyser for an open and international cooperation of public and private organisations - will address these three grand challenges with the aim to foster the use of earth observation for monitoring of global water resources.

  2. Consensus Statement on Electronic Health Predictive Analytics: A Guiding Framework to Address Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Amarasingham, Ruben; Audet, Anne-Marie J.; Bates, David W.; Glenn Cohen, I.; Entwistle, Martin; Escobar, G. J.; Liu, Vincent; Etheredge, Lynn; Lo, Bernard; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Ram, Sudha; Saria, Suchi; Schilling, Lisa M.; Shahi, Anand; Stewart, Walter F.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Xie, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Context: The recent explosion in available electronic health record (EHR) data is motivating a rapid expansion of electronic health care predictive analytic (e-HPA) applications, defined as the use of electronic algorithms that forecast clinical events in real time with the intent to improve patient outcomes and reduce costs. There is an urgent need for a systematic framework to guide the development and application of e-HPA to ensure that the field develops in a scientifically sound, ethical, and efficient manner. Objectives: Building upon earlier frameworks of model development and utilization, we identify the emerging opportunities and challenges of e-HPA, propose a framework that enables us to realize these opportunities, address these challenges, and motivate e-HPA stakeholders to both adopt and continuously refine the framework as the applications of e-HPA emerge. Methods: To achieve these objectives, 17 experts with diverse expertise including methodology, ethics, legal, regulation, and health care delivery systems were assembled to identify emerging opportunities and challenges of e-HPA and to propose a framework to guide the development and application of e-HPA. Findings: The framework proposed by the panel includes three key domains where e-HPA differs qualitatively from earlier generations of models and algorithms (Data Barriers, Transparency, and Ethics) and areas where current frameworks are insufficient to address the emerging opportunities and challenges of e-HPA (Regulation and Certification; and Education and Training). The following list of recommendations summarizes the key points of the framework: Data Barriers: Establish mechanisms within the scientific community to support data sharing for predictive model development and testing.Transparency: Set standards around e-HPA validation based on principles of scientific transparency and reproducibility.Ethics: Develop both individual-centered and society-centered risk-benefit approaches to evaluate

  3. Addressing the Challenges of Hepatitis C Virus Resistance and Treatment Failure.

    PubMed

    Colpitts, Che C; Baumert, Thomas F

    2016-08-16

    Chronic hepatitis C is a major cause of chronic liver disease, including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The development of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) revolutionized hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment by offering genuine prospects for the first comprehensive cure of a chronic viral infection in humans. While antiviral resistance is a significant limitation for interferon-based therapies, resistance and treatment failure still appear to be present in a small fraction of patients even in state-of-the-art DAA combination therapies. Therefore, treatment failure and resistance still remain a clinical challenge for the management of patients not responding to DAAs. In this special issue of Viruses on HCV drug resistance, mechanisms of antiviral resistance for different classes of antiviral drugs are described. Furthermore, the detection and monitoring of resistance in clinical practice, the clinical impact of resistance in different patient groups and strategies to prevent and address resistance and treatment failure using complementary antiviral strategies are reviewed.

  4. Using Systems Approaches to Address Challenges for Clinical Implementation of Pharmacogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Karnes, Jason H; Van Driest, Sara; Bowton, Erica A; Weeke, Peter E; Mosley, Jonathan D; Peterson, Josh F; Denny, Joshua C

    2014-01-01

    Many genetic variants have been shown to affect drug response through changes in drug efficacy and likelihood of adverse effects. Much of pharmacogenomic science has focused on discovering and clinically implementing single gene variants with large effect sizes. Given the increasing complexities of drug responses and their variability, a systems approach may be enabling for discovery of new biology in this area. Further, systems approaches may be useful in addressing challenges in moving these data to clinical implementation, including creation of predictive models of drug response phenotypes, improved clinical decision-making through complex biological models, improving strategies for integrating genomics into clinical practice, and evaluating the impact of implementation programs on public health. PMID:24319008

  5. The Challenges and Potential of Nuclear Energy for Addressing Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Son H.; Edmonds, James A.

    2007-10-24

    The response to climate change and the stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations has major implications for the global energy system. Stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations requires a peak and an indefinite decline of global CO2 emissions. Nuclear energy, along with other technologies, has the potential to contribute to the growing demand for energy without emitting CO2. Nuclear energy is of particular interest because of its global prevalence and its current significant contribution, nearly 20%, to the world’s electricity supply. We have investigated the value of nuclear energy in addressing climate change, and have explored the potential challenges for the rapid and large-scale expansion of nuclear energy as a response to climate change. The scope of this study is long-term and the modeling time frame extends out a century because the nature of nuclear energy and climate change dictate that perspective. Our results indicate that the value of the nuclear technology option for addressing climate change is denominated in trillions of dollars. Several-fold increases to the value of the nuclear option can be expected if there is limited availability of competing carbon-free technologies, particularly fossil-fuel based technologies that can capture and sequester carbon. Challenges for the expanded global use of nuclear energy include the global capacity for nuclear construction, proliferation, uranium availability, and waste disposal. While the economic costs of nuclear fuel and power are important, non-economic issues transcend the issues of costs. In this regard, advanced nuclear technologies and new vision for the global use of nuclear energy are important considerations for the future of nuclear power and climate change.

  6. Addressing the Challenges of a Quarter Century of Giscience Education: A Flexible Higher Education Curriculum Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veenendaal, B.

    2014-04-01

    A wide range of geographic information science (GIScience) educational programs currently exist, the oldest now over 25 years. Offerings vary from those specifically focussed on geographic information science, to those that utilise geographic information systems in various applications and disciplines. Over the past two decades, there have been a number of initiatives to design curricula for GIScience, including the NCGIA Core Curriculum, GIS&T Body of Knowledge and the Geospatial Technology Competency Model developments. The rapid developments in geospatial technology, applications and organisations have added to the challenges that higher educational institutions face in order to ensure that GIScience education is relevant and responsive to the changing needs of students and industry. This paper discusses some of the challenges being faced in higher education in general, and GIScience education in particular, and outlines a flexible higher education curriculum framework for GIScience.

  7. Addressing London's modern urban health challenges: learning from other global cities.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Y G; Mills, A J; Korkodilos, M

    2017-03-18

    Around 150 cities have emerged as notable at a global scale. With a global population of fewer than 12%, they generate 46% of world gross domestic product. There is growing interest in how cities can accelerate health improvements through wider social and economic collaboration. A team led by Public Health England in London visited counterparts in New York City and Paris to examine how city health leaders addressed public health challenges. The three cities have similar health challenges but different legal, political and fiscal resources for promoting and protecting health. Consequently, there is no single model that every city could adopt. Organizational structures, interpersonal relationships and individual skills can play an important part in effective delivery of better city health. Lack of access to published evidence on how practice has been influenced by city health policies hampers learning between cities. There is little easily comparable data to guide those interested in such learning. Municipal governments are ideally situated to join researchers to fill this gap in the literature.

  8. Addressing China's grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-02-01

    China's increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies.

  9. Integrated Strategy to Address Hanford’s Deep Vadose Zone Remediation Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Triplett, Mark B.; Freshley, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Charboneau, Briant L.; Morse, John G.; Lober, Robert W.; Chronister, Glen B.

    2010-10-03

    A vast majority of Hanford’s remaining in-ground contaminants reside in the vadose zone of the Central Plateau, where reprocessing operations occurred. The vadose zone is comprised of about 75 meters of water-unsaturated sediments above groundwater. These contaminants have, and continue to release into groundwater that discharges to the Columbia River. If left untreated, these contaminants could remain a threat for centuries. Much of this contamination resides deep in the vadose zone, below the effective depth of tradition surface remedy influence. In 2008, the Department of Energy initiated deep vadose zone treatability testing to seek remedies for technetium-99 and uranium contamination. These tests include the application of desiccation for technetium-99 and reactive gas technologies for uranium. To complement these efforts, the Department of Energy has initiated a “defense-in-depth” approach to address the unique challenges for characterization and remediation of the deep vadose zone. This defense-in-depth approach will implement multiple approaches to understand and control contaminant flux from the deep vadose zone to the groundwater. Among these approaches is an increased investment in science and technology solutions to resolve deep vadose zone challenges including characterization, prediction, remediation, and monitoring.

  10. Addressing challenges for future strategic-level emergency management: reframing, networking, and capacity-building.

    PubMed

    Bosomworth, Karyn; Owen, Christine; Curnin, Steven

    2017-04-01

    The mounting frequency and intensity of natural hazards, alongside growing interdependencies between social-technical and ecological systems, are placing increased pressure on emergency management. This is particularly true at the strategic level of emergency management, which involves planning for and managing non-routine, high-consequence events. Drawing on the literature, a survey, and interviews and workshops with Australia's senior emergency managers, this paper presents an analysis of five core challenges that these pressures are creating for strategic-level emergency management. It argues that emphasising 'emergency management' as a primary adaptation strategy is a retrograde step that ignores the importance of addressing socio-political drivers of vulnerabilities. Three key suggestions are presented that could assist the country's strategic-level emergency management in tackling these challenges: (i) reframe emergency management as a component of disaster risk reduction rather than them being one and the same; (ii) adopt a network governance approach; and (iii) further develop the capacities of strategic-level emergency managers.

  11. Addressing China’s grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C.; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J.; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-01-01

    China’s increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies. PMID:26601127

  12. Technological challenges of addressing new and more complex migrating products from novel food packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Munro, Ian C; Haighton, Lois A; Lynch, Barry S; Tafazoli, Shahrzad

    2009-12-01

    The risk assessment of migration products resulting from packaging material has and continues to pose a difficult challenge. In most jurisdictions, there are regulatory requirements for the approval or notification of food contact substances that will be used in packaging. These processes generally require risk assessment to ensure safety concerns are addressed. The science of assessing food contact materials was instrumental in the development of the concept of Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern procedures. While the risk assessment process is in place, the technology of food packaging continues to evolve to include new initiatives, such as the inclusion of antimicrobial substances or enzyme systems to prevent spoilage, use of plastic packaging intended to remain on foods as they are being cooked, to the introduction of more rigid, stable and reusable materials, and active packaging to extend the shelf-life of food. Each new technology brings with it the potential for exposure to new and possibly novel substances as a result of migration, interaction with other chemical packaging components, or, in the case of plastics now used in direct cooking of products, degradation products formed during heating. Furthermore, the presence of trace levels of certain chemicals from packaging that were once accepted as being of low risk based on traditional toxicology studies are being challenged on the basis of reports of adverse effects, particularly with respect to endocrine disruption, alleged to occur at very low doses. A recent example is the case of bisphenol A. The way forward to assess new packaging technologies and reports of very low dose effects in non-standard studies of food contact substances is likely to remain controversial. However, the risk assessment paradigm is sufficiently robust and flexible to be adapted to meet these challenges. The use of the Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern concepts may

  13. Ethics in occupational health: deliberations of an international workgroup addressing challenges in an African context

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background International codes of ethics play an important role in guiding professional practice in developing countries. In the occupational health setting, codes developed by international agencies have substantial import on protecting working populations from harm. This is particularly so under globalisation which has transformed processes of production in fundamental ways across the globe. As part of the process of revising the Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health, an Africa Working Group addressed key challenges for the relevance and cogency of an ethical code in occupational health for an African context through an iterative consultative process. Discussion Firstly, even in the absence of strong legal systems of enforcement, and notwithstanding the value of legal institutionalisation of ethical codes, guidelines alone may offer advantageous routes to enhancing ethical practice in occupational health. Secondly, globalisation has particularly impacted on health and safety at workplaces in Africa, challenging occupational health professionals to be sensitive to, and actively redress imbalance of power. Thirdly, the different ways in which vulnerability is exemplified in the workplace in Africa often places the occupational health professional in invidious positions of Dual Loyalty. Fourth, the particular cultural emphasis in traditional African societies on collective responsibilities within the community impacts directly on how consent should be sought in occupational health practice, and how stigma should be dealt with, balancing individual autonomy with ideas of personhood that are more collective as in the African philosophy of ubuntu. To address stigma, practitioners need to be additionally sensitive to how power imbalances at the workplace intersect with traditional cultural norms related to solidarity. Lastly, particularly in the African context, the inseparability of workplace and community means that efforts to address

  14. Addressing educational challenges in veterinary medicine through the use of distance education.

    PubMed

    Murray, Amanda L; Sischo, William M

    2007-01-01

    The veterinary profession is currently facing many educational challenges, including an insufficient capacity to train and educate veterinarians for the multiple disciplines within the profession, a shortage of veterinarians in private and public practice, a shortage of faculty, a lack of human and professional diversity, and a rising cost of education resulting in extreme student debt loads. As a methodology for teaching, distance education (DE) has the potential to address many of these issues. By its very nature, DE can increase the capacity of current facilities and faculty. In addition, DE can allow students to acquire the necessary knowledge at less cost. This article describes a model for incorporating DE in the form of interactive Web-based courses, in conjunction with short, intensive residential programs, for the lecture portions of courses taught in the pre-veterinary, veterinary, and post-veterinary educational periods. In this model, the Web-based courses are used to convey the necessary core knowledge required at each step of the educational process. The residential portions are then used to apply the knowledge in such a way as to combine clinical applications with research in basic and applied sciences. Distance education can provide increased flexibility, high-quality educational experiences, and a less costly alternative for students while maximizing the reach of current faculty efforts and the capacity of existing physical structures.

  15. Event-Specific Prevention: Addressing College Student Drinking During Known Windows of Risk

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Walters, Scott T.; Lee, Christine M.; Vader, Amanda M.; Vehige, Tamara; Szigethy, Thomas; DeJong, William

    2007-01-01

    The unique drinking patterns of college students call for Event-Specific Prevention (ESP) strategies that address college student drinking associated with peak times and events. Despite limited research evaluating ESP, many college campuses are currently implementing programming for specific events. The present paper provides a review of existing literature related to ESP and offers practical guidance for research and practice. The prevention typology proposed by DeJong and Langford (2002) provides a framework for strategic planning, suggesting that programs and policies should address problems at the individual, group, institution, community, state, and society level, and that these interventions should focus on knowledge change, environmental change, health protection, and intervention and treatment services. From this typology, specific examples are provided for comprehensive program planning related to orientation/beginning of school year, homecoming, 21st birthday celebrations, spring break, and graduation. In addition, the University of Connecticut’s efforts to address problems resulting from its annual Spring Weekend are described as an illustration of how advance planning by campus and community partners can produce a successful ESP effort. PMID:17616260

  16. A proposed reductionist solution to address the methodological challenges of inconsistent reflexology maps and poor experimental controls in reflexology research: a discussion paper.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jenny; Thomson, Patricia; Lauder, William; Leslie, Stephen J

    2013-03-01

    Reflexology is a complex massage intervention, based on the concept that specific areas of the feet (reflex points) correspond to individual internal organs within the body. Reflexologists trained in the popular Ingham reflexology method claim that massage to these points, using massage techniques unique to reflexology, stimulates an increase in blood supply to the corresponding organ. Reflexology researchers face two key methodological challenges that need to be addressed if a specific treatment-related hemodynamic effect is to be scientifically demonstrated. The first is the problem of inconsistent reflexology foot maps; the second is the issue of poor experimental controls. This article proposes a potential experimental solution that we believe can address both methodological challenges and in doing so, allow any specific hemodynamic treatment effect unique to reflexology to experimentally reveal itself.

  17. Addressing challenges in combining GOES and LEO satellite products of the CONUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, R. A.; Dworak, R.

    2012-12-01

    The challenges of transforming data from the next generation of satellites into information and products for the weather and science purposes presents a major challenge to both the research and applications communities. This will be especially difficult over land, where the process of integrating observations from multiple instruments and platforms in real time is complicated by the influence of the land surface on the observations themselves. In addition, effective merging of the mixture of time-continuous GEO and less frequent but higher spectral resolution LEO observations with other new surface-based observations will be essential and require new product processing strategies. The material shown in this presentation will begin to address some of these issues. It will describe results of efforts to inter-calibrate moisture products derived from existing GEO and LEO data sets over land designed 1) to identify and remove biases from the GOES moisture retrievals, 2) to determine the seasonally varying information content of the GOES relative to NWP model 'first guess' fields, 3) to determine the similarities and differences in error structures between GOES and AIRS retrievals, and 4) to determine the vertical structure of the errors in both systems. For example, comparisons have been made between GOES Total Precipitable Water (TPW) using the Li retrieval system (GOES-Li) and data from Raman Lidar (RL), Microwave Radiometer (MWR) and surface-based GPS-Met systems at the ARM CART site. The test showed for using one year of derived TPW products, the NWP model first guess (GFS) and GOES-Li products are wetter, however the GOES-Li beats the GFS in the warm season, especially in August when the NWP precipitation skill is least. During the warm season GOES-Li is noticeably better than GFS (which was too wet) during daytime. In addition, the GPS-Met data are best during the daytime, while the Ramon Lidar performs best at night. AIRS products were also evaluated for several

  18. The importance of fungi and mycology for addressing major global challenges*.

    PubMed

    Lange, Lene

    2014-12-01

    In the new bioeconomy, fungi play a very important role in addressing major global challenges, being instrumental for improved resource efficiency, making renewable substitutes for products from fossil resources, upgrading waste streams to valuable food and feed ingredients, counteracting life-style diseases and antibiotic resistance through strengthening the gut biota, making crop plants more robust to survive climate change conditions, and functioning as host organisms for production of new biological drugs. This range of new uses of fungi all stand on the shoulders of the efforts of mycologists over generations: the scientific discipline mycology has built comprehensive understanding within fungal biodiversity, classification, evolution, genetics, physiology, ecology, pathogenesis, and nutrition. Applied mycology could not make progress without this platform. To unfold the full potentials of what fungi can do for both environment and man we need to strengthen the field of mycology on a global scale. The current mission statement gives an overview of where we are, what needs to be done, what obstacles to overcome, and which potentials are within reach. It further provides a vision for how mycology can be strengthened: The time is right to make the world aware of the immense importance of fungi and mycology for sustainable global development, where land, water and biological materials are used in a more efficient and more sustainable manner. This is an opportunity for profiling mycology by narrating the role played by fungi in the bioeconomy. Greater awareness and appreciation of the role of fungi can be used to build support for mycology around the world. Support will attract more talent to our field of study, empower mycologists around the world to generate more funds for necessary basic research, and strengthen the global mycology network. The use of fungi for unlocking the full potentials of the bioeconomy relies on such progress. The fungal kingdom can be an

  19. Addressing current and future challenges for the NHS: the role of good leadership.

    PubMed

    Elton, Lotte

    2016-10-03

    Purpose This paper aims to describe and analyse some of the ways in which good leadership can enable those working within the National Health Service (NHS) to weather the changes and difficulties likely to arise in the coming years, and takes the format of an essay written by the prize-winner of the Faculty of Medical Leadership and Management's Student Prize. The Faculty of Medical Leadership and Management ran its inaugural Student Prize in 2015-2016, which aimed at medical students with an interest in medical leadership. In running the Prize, the Faculty hoped to foster an enthusiasm for and understanding of the importance of leadership in medicine. Design/methodology/approach The Faculty asked entrants to discuss the role of good leadership in addressing the current and future challenges faced by the NHS, making reference to the Leadership and Management Standards for Medical Professionals published by the Faculty in 2015. These standards were intended to help guide current and future leaders and were grouped into three categories, namely, self, team and corporate responsibility. Findings This paper highlights the political nature of health care in the UK and the increasing impetus on medical professionals to navigate debates on austerity measures and health-care costs, particularly given the projected deficit in NHS funding. It stresses the importance of building organisational cultures prizing transparency to prevent future breaches in standards of care and the value of patient-centred approaches in improving satisfaction for both patients and staff. Identification of opportunities for collaboration and partnership is emphasised as crucial to assuage the burden that lack of appropriate social care places on clinical services. Originality/value This paper offers a novel perspective - that of a medical student - on the complex issues faced by the NHS over the coming years and utilises a well-regarded set of standards in conceptualising the role that health

  20. Polar Engineering and Research to Address Operational Challenges in Austere Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, J. L.; Richter-Menge, J.; Weale, J. C.; Lever, J. H.; Knuth, M. A.; Shoop, S. A.; Haehnel, R.; Arcone, S. A.; Bjella, K.; Finnegan, D. C.; Courville, Z.; Tracy, B. T.

    2009-12-01

    Logistics constraints and operational challenges in the austere environs of the polar regions present unique technological and engineering problems. Working closely with universities, government agencies and industry, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab (CRREL) routinely conducts scientific research and engineering in the Arctic, sub-Arctic and Antarctic covering a wide range of topics and applications. Current areas of focus include: improved mobility techniques for overland traverses; robotic vehicles for traversing, sampling and data collection; snow road and transportation characterization; integrated operational systems including airfield consolidation proof-of-concept studies; infrastructure technology such as firn air cooling, building design, snow foundations and sewage handling; remote/renewable autonomous power solutions for data collection; subsurface radar for crevasse detection and cryosphere characterization; ground-based lidar topographic scanning and near-real-time climate/environmental monitoring linked to AIS infrastructure. While these research and engineering efforts provide solutions and improved technology for specific problems, the impacts are many and wide-reaching and the results are often applicable to other challenging environments. Here, an overview of current research foci and projects is presented along with in-the-field applications, effects and future implications. The results and solutions of these efforts typically lead to technological improvements in operations and logistics which are cost-beneficial, thus freeing up funding dollars for fundamental scientific research. The links between basic research and applied solutions delivering far-reaching impacts (both large- and small-scale) on society, the environment, industry and scientific research are also demonstrated.

  1. Key challenges of offshore wind power: Three essays addressing public acceptance, stakeholder conflict, and wildlife impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Alison Waterbury

    Society is facing a pressing need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to limit anthropogenic climate change, which has far reaching implications for humans and the environment. Transforming the energy infrastructure to carbon-free sources is one solution to curb greenhouse gas emissions, but this transformation has been slow to materialize in many places, such as the United States (U.S.). Offshore wind energy is one of the most promising renewable energy sources available, which can be deployed in large-scale developments in many parts of the world. Yet, offshore wind has faced many challenges, which are more social and regulatory than technical. This dissertation addresses social and regulatory issues surrounding offshore wind development through three stand-alone essays, which, in combination, address a decision-making framework of where to locate offshore wind turbines, by minimizing effects on people and wildlife. The challenges to offshore wind that are addressed by this dissertation include (1) understanding underlying factors that drive support for or opposition to offshore wind energy; (2) conflict with existing ocean uses and users; and (3) public concern and regulatory processes related to wildlife impacts. The first paper identifies unique factors that drive public opinion of proposed offshore wind projects in nearby coastal communities. Wind energy development on land has faced local opposition for reasons such as effects on cultural landscapes and wildlife, which can be instrumental in whether or not and the speed with which a project moves ahead toward completion. Factors leading to support for, or opposition to, offshore wind energy are not well known, particularly for developments that are near-shore and in-view of coastal communities. Results are presented from a survey of 699 residents (35.5% response rate) completed in 2013 in greater Atlantic City, New Jersey and coastal Delaware, United States, where near-shore wind demonstration projects had

  2. Addressing Challenges to Public Understanding of Science: Epistemic Cognition, Motivated Reasoning, and Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinatra, Gale M.; Kienhues, Dorothe; Hofer, Barbara K.

    2014-01-01

    Science is of critical importance to daily life in a knowledge society and has a significant influence on many everyday decisions. As scientific problems increase in their number and complexity, so do the challenges facing the public in understanding these issues. Our objective is to focus on 3 of those challenges: the challenge of reasoning about…

  3. Cross-sector partnerships and public health: challenges and opportunities for addressing obesity and noncommunicable diseases through engagement with the private sector.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lee M; Finegood, Diane T

    2015-03-18

    Over the past few decades, cross-sector partnerships with the private sector have become an increasingly accepted practice in public health, particularly in efforts to address infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Now these partnerships are becoming a popular tool in efforts to reduce and prevent obesity and the epidemic of noncommunicable diseases. Partnering with businesses presents a means to acquire resources, as well as opportunities to influence the private sector toward more healthful practices. Yet even though collaboration is a core principle of public health practice, public-private or nonprofit-private partnerships present risks and challenges that warrant specific consideration. In this article, we review the role of public health partnerships with the private sector, with a focus on efforts to address obesity and noncommunicable diseases in high-income settings. We identify key challenges-including goal alignment and conflict of interest-and consider how changes to partnership practice might address these.

  4. Conducting Community Research in Rural China -Addressing the Methodological Challenges of Recruiting Participants in Rapidly Changing Social Environments.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jing; Chiu, Helen F K; Hou, Zai-Jin; Caine, Eric D

    2012-06-01

    BACKGROUND: The paper addressed a unique challenge for public health and community research in rural China, i.e., the very large percentage of young adults that comprises a highly mobile working population that has been an essential component of the country's economic transformation. Fluid local demographic patterns potentially have a substantial impact on sample representativeness and data validity. METHODS: This report is based upon a cross sectional survey with face-to-face interviews of residents aged 16-34 years in rural communities of Mianyang, Sichuan Province, China. Two waves of fieldwork and other strategies were adopted in response to recruitment challenges. RESULTS: 1654 of 3008 potential participants took part in the study; this constituted 98% of those individuals approached and 55% of the persons enumerated in the local household registration system (hukou). Analyses revealed substantial differences among those who were interviewed during September and October 2005, versus those seen during the Chinese Lunar New Year of 2006 when many migrant workers and students returned to their homes. Both groups together differed from those who were unavailable during either recruiting episode. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: We discuss potential responses to associated methodological challenges, including, (1) permanent hukou mismatches; (2) temporary hukou mismatches; (3) difficulties faced by potential participants to fully understand the purpose of research, the informed consent process, and specific research questions; and (4) appreciation of the importance of local social networks, as they pertain in particular to rural China. These findings underscore that there may be a need to make "on-the-ground" adjustments to varying local conditions to maximize sample representativeness and data validity.

  5. Addressing the ethical challenges in genetic testing and sequencing of children.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Ellen Wright; McCullough, Laurence B; Biesecker, Leslie G; Joffe, Steven; Ross, Lainie Friedman; Wolf, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) recently provided two recommendations about predictive genetic testing of children. The Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium's Pediatrics Working Group compared these recommendations, focusing on operational and ethical issues specific to decision making for children. Content analysis of the statements addresses two issues: (1) how these recommendations characterize and analyze locus of decision making, as well as the risks and benefits of testing, and (2) whether the guidelines conflict or come to different but compatible conclusions because they consider different testing scenarios. These statements differ in ethically significant ways. AAP/ACMG analyzes risks and benefits using best interests of the child and recommends that, absent ameliorative interventions available during childhood, clinicians should generally decline to order testing. Parents authorize focused tests. ACMG analyzes risks and benefits using the interests of the child and other family members and recommends that sequencing results be examined for additional variants that can lead to ameliorative interventions, regardless of age, which laboratories should report to clinicians who should contextualize the results. Parents must accept additional analysis. The ethical arguments in these statements appear to be in tension with each other.

  6. Vocal imitation in parrots allows addressing of specific individuals in a dynamic communication network.

    PubMed

    Balsby, Thorsten J S; Momberg, Jane Vestergaard; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Parrots in captivity are known for their ability to vocally imitate humans and recently it has been shown that wild-living orange-fronted conures are able to immediately imitate other individuals' contact calls. The function of this exceptional ability to imitate remains unclear. However, orange-fronted conures live in fission-fusion flocks where they encounter many different individuals every day, and it is possible that their vocal imitation ability is a flexible means to address a specific individual within a flock. We tested this via playback to short-term captive wild conures. Test birds were placed together in pairs in outdoor aviaries to form simple flocks. To simulate imitation of a specific individual these pairs received playback of contact calls that primarily imitate one of the two birds. Overall, individuals that received simulated vocal imitations of its calls responded more frequently and faster than the other individual. This suggests that orange-fronted conures can use imitations of contact calls to address specific individuals of a flock. In the discussion we argue that the fission-fusion flock dynamics of many parrot species has been an important factor in evolving conures' and other parrots' exceptional ability to imitate.

  7. 17th Workshop on MHD Stability Control: addressing the disruption challenge for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttery, Richard

    2013-08-01

    This annual workshop on magnetohydrodynamic stability control was held on 5-7 November 2012 at Columbia University in the city of New York, in the aftermath of a violent hydrodynamic instability event termed 'Hurricane Sandy'. Despite these challenging circumstances, Columbia University managed an excellent meeting, enabling the full participation of the community. This Workshop has been held since 1996 to help in the development of understanding and control of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities for future fusion reactors. It covers a wide range of stability topics—from disruptions, to tearing modes, error fields, edge-localized modes (ELMs), resistive wall modes (RWMs) and ideal MHD—spanning many device types (tokamaks, stellarators and reversed field pinches) to identify commonalities in the physics and a means of control. The theme for 2012 was 'addressing the disruption challenge for ITER', and thus the first day had a heavy focus on both the avoidance and mitigation of disruptions in ITER. Key elements included understanding how to apply 3D fields to maintain stability, as well as managing the disruption process itself through mitigating loads in the thermal quench and handling so called 'runaway electrons'. This culminated in a panel discussion on the disruption mitigation strategy for ITER, which noted that heat load asymmetries during the thermal quench appear to be an artifact of MHD processes, and that runaway electron generation may be inevitable, suggesting research should focus on control and dissipation of the runaway beam. The workshop was combined this year with the annual US-Japan MHD Workshop, with a special section looking more deeply at 'Fundamentals of 3D Perturbed Equilibrium Control', with interesting sessions on 3D equilibrium reconstruction, RWM physics, novel control concepts such as non-magnetic sensing, adaptive control, q < 2 tokamak operation, and the effects of flow. The final day turned to tearing mode interactions

  8. Estimating the Health Effects of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies: Addressing Parametric, Model, and Valuation Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Jeremy J.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Markandya, Anil; Balbus, John M.; Wilkinson, Paul; Haines, Andy; Chalabi, Zaid

    2014-01-01

    simultaneously improving health. Citation: Remais JV, Hess JJ, Ebi KL, Markandya A, Balbus JM, Wilkinson P, Haines A, Chalabi Z. 2014. Estimating the health effects of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies: addressing parametric, model, and valuation challenges. Environ Health Perspect 122:447–455; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306744 PMID:24583270

  9. Novel developments in benthic modelling to address scientific and policy challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessin, Gennadi; Artioli, Yuri; Bruggeman, Jorn; Aldridge, John; Blackford, Jerry

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the role of benthic systems in supporting, regulating and providing marine ecosystem services requires better understanding of their functioning and their response and resilience to stressors. Novel observational methods for the investigation of dynamics of benthic-pelagic coupling in shelf seas are being developed and new data is being collected. Therefore there is an increasing demand for robust representation of benthic processes in marine biogeochemical and ecosystem models, which would improve our understanding of whole systems and benthic-pelagic coupling, rather than act as mere closure terms for pelagic models. However, for several decades development of benthic models has lagged behind their pelagic counterparts. To address contemporary scientific, policy and societal challenges, the biogeochemical and ecological model ERSEM (European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model), including its benthic sub-model, was recently recoded in a scalable and modular format adopting the approach of FABM (Framework for Aquatic Biogeochemical Models). Within the Shelf Sea Biogeochemistry research programme, a series of additional processes have been included, such as a sedimentary carbonate system, a resuspendable fluff layer, and the simulation of advective sediments. It was shown that the inclusion of these processes changes the dynamics of benthic-pelagic fluxes as well as modifying the benthic food web. Comparison of model results with in-situ data demonstrated a general improvement of model performance and highlighted the importance of the benthic system in overall ecosystem dynamics. As an example, our simulations have shown that inclusion of a resuspendable fluff layer facilitates regeneration of inorganic nutrients in the water column due to degradation of resuspended organic material by pelagic bacteria. Moreover, the composition of fluff was found to be important for trophic interactions, and therefore indirectly affects benthic community composition. Where

  10. Strategies to Address Challenging Behaviour in Young Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeley, Kathleen; Jones, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome are at an increased risk for engaging in challenging behaviour that may present problems within community, leisure, and educational settings, and, in many instances, precludes them from accessing these environments. Factors contributing to the occurrence of challenging behaviours include characteristics associated with…

  11. Strategies for Helping Parents of Young Children Address Challenging Behaviors in the Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, Zhen; Lieberman-Betz, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Challenging behavior can be defined as any repeated pattern of behavior, or perception of behavior, that interferes with or is at risk of interfering with optimal learning or engagement in prosocial interactions with peers and adults. It is generally accepted in young children that challenging behaviors serve some sort of communicative purpose--to…

  12. Getting People Involved: The Benefit of Intellectual Capital Management for Addressing HR Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pook, Katja

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the benefits of intellectual capital assessment for facing current challenges of human resources work and organizational development. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes findings of studies on challenges in HR work and maps them with features of intellectual capital assessment methods. It is thus a…

  13. A Holistic Approach towards Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for Addressing Education Challenges in Asia and the Pacific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ra, Sungsup; Chin, Brian; Lim, Cher Ping

    2016-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) offers opportunities for governments to address key education challenges of quality, equity, and efficiency. While governments and educational institutions in developed countries may have taken up these opportunities, many developing countries in Asia and the Pacific region have often missed them out.…

  14. In silico regenerative medicine: how computational tools allow regulatory and financial challenges to be addressed in a volatile market

    PubMed Central

    Geris, L.; Guyot, Y.; Schrooten, J.; Papantoniou, I.

    2016-01-01

    The cell therapy market is a highly volatile one, due to the use of disruptive technologies, the current economic situation and the small size of the market. In such a market, companies as well as academic research institutes are in need of tools to advance their understanding and, at the same time, reduce their R&D costs, increase product quality and productivity, and reduce the time to market. An additional difficulty is the regulatory path that needs to be followed, which is challenging in the case of cell-based therapeutic products and should rely on the implementation of quality by design (QbD) principles. In silico modelling is a tool that allows the above-mentioned challenges to be addressed in the field of regenerative medicine. This review discusses such in silico models and focuses more specifically on the bioprocess. Three (clusters of) examples related to this subject are discussed. The first example comes from the pharmaceutical engineering field where QbD principles and their implementation through the use of in silico models are both a regulatory and economic necessity. The second example is related to the production of red blood cells. The described in silico model is mainly used to investigate the manufacturing process of the cell-therapeutic product, and pays special attention to the economic viability of the process. Finally, we describe the set-up of a model capturing essential events in the development of a tissue-engineered combination product in the context of bone tissue engineering. For each of the examples, a short introduction to some economic aspects is given, followed by a description of the in silico tool or tools that have been developed to allow the implementation of QbD principles and optimal design. PMID:27051516

  15. In silico regenerative medicine: how computational tools allow regulatory and financial challenges to be addressed in a volatile market.

    PubMed

    Geris, L; Guyot, Y; Schrooten, J; Papantoniou, I

    2016-04-06

    The cell therapy market is a highly volatile one, due to the use of disruptive technologies, the current economic situation and the small size of the market. In such a market, companies as well as academic research institutes are in need of tools to advance their understanding and, at the same time, reduce their R&D costs, increase product quality and productivity, and reduce the time to market. An additional difficulty is the regulatory path that needs to be followed, which is challenging in the case of cell-based therapeutic products and should rely on the implementation of quality by design (QbD) principles. In silico modelling is a tool that allows the above-mentioned challenges to be addressed in the field of regenerative medicine. This review discusses such in silico models and focuses more specifically on the bioprocess. Three (clusters of) examples related to this subject are discussed. The first example comes from the pharmaceutical engineering field where QbD principles and their implementation through the use of in silico models are both a regulatory and economic necessity. The second example is related to the production of red blood cells. The described in silico model is mainly used to investigate the manufacturing process of the cell-therapeutic product, and pays special attention to the economic viability of the process. Finally, we describe the set-up of a model capturing essential events in the development of a tissue-engineered combination product in the context of bone tissue engineering. For each of the examples, a short introduction to some economic aspects is given, followed by a description of the in silico tool or tools that have been developed to allow the implementation of QbD principles and optimal design.

  16. Organization for rare diseases India (ORDI) - addressing the challenges and opportunities for the Indian rare diseases' community.

    PubMed

    Rajasimha, Harsha Karur; Shirol, Prasannakumar Basayya; Ramamoorthy, Preveen; Hegde, Madhuri; Barde, Sangeeta; Chandru, Vijay; Ravinandan, M E; Ramchandran, Ramani; Haldar, Kasturi; Lin, Jimmy C; Babar, Imran A; Girisha, Katta M; Srinivasan, Sudha; Navaneetham, Duraiswamy; Battu, Rajani; Devarakonda, Rajashree; Kini, Usha; Vijayachandra, Kinnimulki; Verma, Ishwar C

    2014-08-13

    In order to address the unmet needs and create opportunities that benefit patients with rare disease in India, a group of volunteers created a not-for-profit organization named Organization for Rare Diseases India (ORDI; www.ordindia.org). ORDI plans to represent the collective voice and advocate the needs of patients with rare diseases and other stakeholders in India. The ORDI team members come from diverse backgrounds such as genetics, molecular diagnostics, drug development, bioinformatics, communications, information technology, patient advocacy and public service. ORDI builds on the lessons learned from numerous similar organizations in the USA, European Union and disease-specific rare disease foundations in India. In this review, we provide a background on the landscape of rare diseases and the organizations that are active in this area globally and in India. We discuss the unique challenges in tackling rare diseases in India, and highlight the unmet needs of the key stakeholders of rare diseases. Finally, we define the vision, mission, goals and objectives of ORDI, identify the key developments in the health care context in India and welcome community feedback and comments on our approach.

  17. Building organizational technical capabilities: a new approach to address the office of environmental management cleanup challenges in the 21. century

    SciTech Connect

    Fiore, J.J.; Rizkalla, E.I.

    2007-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for the nations nuclear weapons program legacy wastes cleanup. The EM cleanup efforts continue to progress, however the cleanup continues to be technologically complex, heavily regulated, long-term, and a high life cycle cost estimate (LCCE) effort. Over the past few years, the EM program has undergone several changes to accelerate its cleanup efforts with varying degrees of success. Several cleanup projects continued to experience schedule delays and cost growth. The schedule delays and cost growth have been attributed to several factors such as changes in technical scope, regulatory and safety considerations, inadequacy of acquisition approach and project management. This article will briefly review the background and schools of thought on strategic management and organizational change practiced in the United States over the last few decades to improve an organisation's competitive edge and cost performance. The article will briefly review examples such as the change at General Electric, and the recent experience obtained from the nuclear industry, namely the long-term response to the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The long-term response to Chernobyl, though not a case of organizational change, could provide some insight in the strategic management approaches used to address people issues. The article will discuss briefly EM attempts to accelerate cleanup over the past few years, and the subsequent paradigm shift. The paradigm shift targets enhancing and/or creating organizational capabilities to achieve cost savings. To improve its ability to address the 21. century environmental cleanup challenges and achieve cost savings, EM has initiated new corporate changes to develop new and enhance existing capabilities. These new and enhanced organizational capabilities include a renewed emphasis on basics, especially technical capabilities including safety, project management

  18. An Assessment of the Challenges Associated with Individual Battlefield Power: Addressing the Power Budget Burdens of the Warfighter and Squad

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    provide objective analyses of national security issues, particularly those requiring scientific and technical expertise, and conduct related research on...power (IBP) • While the term IBP is retained within this report , we believe more apt terms are dismounted warfighter power and dismounted squad...storage, analysis needs  Metrics addressed: Characterizes link to capability, context-specific technical power specifications – IBP Information

  19. Addressing Evaluation Challenges of Grassroots Family Support Programs: The MIHOW Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Erin; Davis, Kenneth

    This paper describes the process used by the Maternal Infant Health Outreach Worker Program (MIHOW), a program of the Center for Health Services at Vanderbilt University, to develop its program evaluation with limited evaluation resources. The evaluation addresses the empowerment of grassroots participants in two projects: the MIHOW Pre- and…

  20. Voiced and Unvoiced Concerns of Mothers: Psychodynamic Principles Address the Challenges of Early Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Leon; Nachman, Patricia; Rosenman, Alice

    2006-01-01

    New mothers recognize that motherhood is a special task in their lives and realize that input from others provides assistance on behalf of their babies and toddlers. The Pacella Parent Child Center of the New York Psychoanalytic Institute and Society is a community of mothers and babies/toddlers where the staff helps mothers address the challenges…

  1. Addressing Wife Abuse in Mexican Immigrant Couples: Challenges for Family Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Tina

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses wife abuse in undocumented Mexican immigrant couples and suggests an ecosystems treatment approach that takes into consideration the structural forces of oppression and discrimination on abusive behaviors in the home and combines individual, family and community level interventions to help immigrant men stop the abuse.…

  2. Facilitators, Challenges, and Collaborative Activities in Faith and Health Partnerships to Address Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegler, Michelle C.; Hall, Sarah M.; Kiser, Mimi

    2010-01-01

    Interest in partnering with faith-based organizations (FBOs) to address health disparities has grown in recent years. Yet relatively little is known about these types of partnerships. As part of an evaluation of the Institute for Faith and Public Health Collaborations, representatives of 34 faith--health teams (n = 61) completed semi-structured…

  3. A Problem-Solving Approach to Addressing Current Global Challenges in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Judith D.; Aspin, David N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper begins with an analysis of global problems shaping education, particularly as they impact upon learning and life chances. In addressing these problems a range of philosophical positions and controversies are considered, including: traditional romantic and institutional views of schooling; and more recent maximalist, neo-liberal,…

  4. Addressing Challenges in Studies of Behavioral Responses of Whales to Noise.

    PubMed

    Cato, Douglas H; Dunlop, Rebecca A; Noad, Michael J; McCauley, Robert D; Kniest, Eric; Paton, David; Kavanagh, Ailbhe S

    2016-01-01

    Studying the behavioral response of whales to noise presents numerous challenges. In addition to the characteristics of the noise exposure, many factors may affect the response and these must be measured and accounted for in the analysis. An adequate sample size that includes matching controls is crucial if meaningful results are to be obtained. Field work is thus complicated, logistically difficult, and expensive. This paper discusses some of the challenges and how they are being met in a large-scale multiplatform project in which humpback whales are exposed to the noise of seismic air guns.

  5. Next biotech plants: new traits, crops, developers and technologies for addressing global challenges.

    PubMed

    Ricroch, Agnès E; Hénard-Damave, Marie-Cécile

    2016-08-01

    Most of the genetically modified (GM) plants currently commercialized encompass a handful of crop species (soybean, corn, cotton and canola) with agronomic characters (traits) directed against some biotic stresses (pest resistance, herbicide tolerance or both) and created by multinational companies. The same crops with agronomic traits already on the market today will continue to be commercialized, but there will be also a wider range of species with combined traits. The timeframe anticipated for market release of the next biotech plants will not only depend on science progress in research and development (R&D) in laboratories and fields, but also primarily on how demanding regulatory requirements are in countries where marketing approvals are pending. Regulatory constraints, including environmental and health impact assessments, have increased significantly in the past decades, delaying approvals and increasing their costs. This has sometimes discouraged public research entities and small and medium size plant breeding companies from using biotechnology and given preference to other technologies, not as stringently regulated. Nevertheless, R&D programs are flourishing in developing countries, boosted by the necessity to meet the global challenges that are food security of a booming world population while mitigating climate change impacts. Biotechnology is an instrument at the service of these imperatives and a wide variety of plants are currently tested for their high yield despite biotic and abiotic stresses. Many plants with higher water or nitrogen use efficiency, tolerant to cold, salinity or water submergence are being developed. Food security is not only a question of quantity but also of quality of agricultural and food products, to be available and accessible for the ones who need it the most. Many biotech plants (especially staple food) are therefore being developed with nutritional traits, such as biofortification in vitamins and metals. The main

  6. Family Connections: Helping Early Head Start/Head Start Staff and Parents Address Mental Health Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardslee, William R.; Avery, Mary Watson; Ayoub, Catherine; Watts, Caroline L.

    2009-01-01

    Early Head Start/Head Start teachers and staff encounter parents who have wrestled with depression and other adversities every day. This article describes an innovative program of trainings for and consultation to Early Head Start/Head Start staff to help them effectively deal with mental heath challenges faced by parents and children. The program…

  7. Addressing Quality Challenges in the Private University Sector in Bangladesh: From Policy Formulation to Institutional Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco Ramírez, Gerardo; Jahirul Haque, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Private higher education is growing, especially in developing and transitioning countries. Rapid growth frequently comes with concerns about quality. This article explores challenges and opportunities for higher education quality among private universities in Bangladesh. By presenting a vertical case study that explores interactions among actors…

  8. A Model Driven Framework to Address Challenges in a Mobile Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaddage, Ferial; Christensen, Rhonda; Lai, Wing; Knezek, Gerald; Norris, Cathie; Soloway, Elliot

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a review of the pedagogical, technological, policy and research challenges and concepts underlying mobile learning is presented, followed by a brief description of categories of implementations. A model Mobile learning framework and dynamic criteria for mobile learning implementations are proposed, along with a case study of one site…

  9. The role of public-private partnerships in addressing the biomedical innovation challenge.

    PubMed

    Said, Maya; Zerhouni, Elias

    2014-11-01

    Without a step change in the productivity of pharmaceutical research and development, it will be difficult to tackle the public health challenges facing societies worldwide. Public–private partnerships could play a key role in achieving this step change, but they need to be well designed and led.

  10. Narrative Research Addressing the Challenges of a Career in Professional Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankl, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the challenges that accomplished young athletes face as they aspire to become professional athletes. The data used in this study was derived from selected lived and told sport experiences of undergraduate and graduate kinesiology majors who were former competitive athletes. Additional data was derived…

  11. Year of Coordinated Observations, Modeling and Forecasting: Addressing the Challenge of Organized Tropical Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waliser, Duane E.

    2006-01-01

    The multi-scale organization of tropical convection and scale interaction are grand challenges in the prediction of weather and climate. As part of a international effort UN Year of Planet Earth, this proposed effort to observe, model and forecast the effects of organized tropical convection is reviewed. This viewgraph presentation reviews the proposal.

  12. Government Information Focus. The Digital Divide: Understanding and Addressing the Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latimer, Christopher P.

    This report discusses the challenges of the Digital Divide. Part I examines the issues concerning access as it relates to schools, communities, free Internet service providers, and broadband. Part II defines technological literacy and how it pertains to the Digital Divide debate. Part III examines those who are affected by the divide and…

  13. A Promising Approach to Addressing America's Biggest Challenges. Needle-Moving Community Collaboratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolin, Michele; Schmitz, Paul; Seldon, Willa

    2012-01-01

    Communities face powerful challenges--a high-school dropout epidemic, youth unemployment, teen pregnancy--that require powerful solutions. In a climate of increasingly constrained resources, those solutions must help communities to achieve more with less. A new kind of community collaborative--an approach that aspires to significant,…

  14. Addressing Challenges in Web Accessibility for the Blind and Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guercio, Angela; Stirbens, Kathleen A.; Williams, Joseph; Haiber, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Searching for relevant information on the web is an important aspect of distance learning. This activity is a challenge for visually impaired distance learners. While sighted people have the ability to filter information in a fast and non sequential way, blind persons rely on tools that process the information in a sequential way. Learning is…

  15. Toward a Predictive Understanding of Earth’s Microbiomes to Address 21st Century Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Blaser, Martin J.; Cardon, Zoe G.; Cho, Mildred K.; Dangl, Jeffrey L.; Green, Jessica L.; Knight, Rob; Maxon, Mary E.; Northen, Trent R.; Pollard, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microorganisms have shaped our planet and its inhabitants for over 3.5 billion years. Humankind has had a profound influence on the biosphere, manifested as global climate and land use changes, and extensive urbanization in response to a growing population. The challenges we face to supply food, energy, and clean water while maintaining and improving the health of our population and ecosystems are significant. Given the extensive influence of microorganisms across our biosphere, we propose that a coordinated, cross-disciplinary effort is required to understand, predict, and harness microbiome function. From the parallelization of gene function testing to precision manipulation of genes, communities, and model ecosystems and development of novel analytical and simulation approaches, we outline strategies to move microbiome research into an era of causality. These efforts will improve prediction of ecosystem response and enable the development of new, responsible, microbiome-based solutions to significant challenges of our time. PMID:27178263

  16. Can microfluidics address biomanufacturing challenges in drug/gene/cell therapies?

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Hon Fai; Ma, Siying; Leong, Kam W.

    2016-01-01

    Translation of any inventions into products requires manufacturing. Development of drug/gene/cell delivery systems will eventually face manufacturing challenges, which require the establishment of standardized processes to produce biologically-relevant products of high quality without incurring prohibitive cost. Microfluidicu technologies present many advantages to improve the quality of drug/gene/cell delivery systems. They also offer the benefits of automation. What remains unclear is whether they can meet the scale-up requirement. In this perspective, we discuss the advantages of microfluidic-assisted synthesis of nanoscale drug/gene delivery systems, formation of microscale drug/cell-encapsulated particles, generation of genetically engineered cells and fabrication of macroscale drug/cell-loaded micro-/nano-fibers. We also highlight the scale-up challenges one would face in adopting microfluidic technologies for the manufacturing of these therapeutic delivery systems. PMID:27047674

  17. Toward a Predictive Understanding of Earth's Microbiomes to Address 21st Century Challenges.

    PubMed

    Blaser, Martin J; Cardon, Zoe G; Cho, Mildred K; Dangl, Jeffrey L; Donohue, Timothy J; Green, Jessica L; Knight, Rob; Maxon, Mary E; Northen, Trent R; Pollard, Katherine S; Brodie, Eoin L

    2016-05-13

    Microorganisms have shaped our planet and its inhabitants for over 3.5 billion years. Humankind has had a profound influence on the biosphere, manifested as global climate and land use changes, and extensive urbanization in response to a growing population. The challenges we face to supply food, energy, and clean water while maintaining and improving the health of our population and ecosystems are significant. Given the extensive influence of microorganisms across our biosphere, we propose that a coordinated, cross-disciplinary effort is required to understand, predict, and harness microbiome function. From the parallelization of gene function testing to precision manipulation of genes, communities, and model ecosystems and development of novel analytical and simulation approaches, we outline strategies to move microbiome research into an era of causality. These efforts will improve prediction of ecosystem response and enable the development of new, responsible, microbiome-based solutions to significant challenges of our time.

  18. Defense Weather Satellites: DOD Faces Acquisition Challenges for Addressing Capability Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-07

    as weather forecasting and climate research. As existing weather satellite systems age, DOD faces potential gaps in its space-based weather...planning, execution, and sustainment of U.S. military operations and for civilian uses, such as weather forecasting and climate research. As DOD’s...4GAO, Space Acquisitions: Challenges Facing DOD as it Changes Approaches to Space Acquisitions, GAO-16-471T (Washington, D.C.: Mar. 9, 2016); GAO

  19. An Overview of Interdisciplinary Research at Notre Dame Addressing "Grand Challenges" in the Midwest and Great Lakes Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlet, A. F.; Bolster, D.; Tank, J. L.; Hellmann, J.; Christopher, S. F.; Sharma, A.; Chiu, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Midwest and Great Lakes region face a number of "Grand Challenges" associated with climate, land use, agriculture, and water resources infrastructure. These include sustainability of agricultural systems and related impacts to food security and the regional economy; sustainability of Great Lakes water levels; changing storm statistics and impacts to stormwater management and flooding; water quality in rivers and downstream receiving water bodies related to non-point source pollution on agricultural lands and combined sewer overflows in urban areas; urban impacts related to aging infrastructure and climate change, and ecosystem management and restoration. In the context of water management, groundwater resources are poorly understood in comparison with surface water resources, and regional-scale simulation models are needed to address questions of sustainability both in terms of supply and water quality. Interdisciplinary research at the University of Notre Dame is attempting to address these research challenges via 1) integrated macro-scale groundwater and surface water modeling to address issues related to sustainable water supply, ecosystem restoration, and agricultural impacts; 2) development of high-resolution regional climate models dynamically coupled to the Great Lakes to address urban impacts, changing storm statistics and to quantify precipitation and evaporation over the Great Lakes; 3) and integrated macro-scale hydrology and water quality modeling to assess the large-scale performance of innovative land management BMPs on agricultural land (such as the two-stage ditch, cover crops, and dynamic drainage control) intended to improve water quality.

  20. Addressing the urban pipeline challenge for the physician workforce: the Sophie Davis model.

    PubMed

    Roman, Stanford A

    2004-12-01

    The convergence of numerous trends indicates that a physician shortage by 2020 is likely. There is a 25% growth in the overall population, but that of the college-age sector is increasing by only 5%. The numbers of African Americans and Latinos in that sector will increase more than will members of other population groups; these two groups are most affected by the uneven quality of science education in urban high schools. Challenges to create a pipeline of a large, diverse, and qualified pool of medical school applicants are great, and are influenced by the actual and perceived cost of medical school tuition and the competition from other professions. Since 1973, the Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, a seven-year joint BS/MD program, has expanded access to medical school education for talented inner-city youths, including minorities and those with limited financial resources. Students receive a BS degree and their first two years of medical school education and, upon successful completion of the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1, transfer to one of five cooperating medical schools in New York State that confer the terminal MD degree. Sophie Davis integrates medical studies in the baccalaureate program, using actual performance in medical studies as a predictor of success. Of the more than 1,400 of its graduates, 25% are African American, 8% are Latino, 28% are Asian American, and 39% are white. Over 25% of its current student body comes from federally defined low-income families, and almost three-quarters qualify for New York State financial aid. The Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education is a model that offers a partial response to those factors that will challenge the achievement of an adequate supply of physicians for our urban communities. The author describes the model in detail and explains how it helps talented but unevenly educated students rise to the challenge of a medical education.

  1. Cancer Core Europe: a consortium to address the cancer care-cancer research continuum challenge.

    PubMed

    Eggermont, Alexander M M; Caldas, Carlos; Ringborg, Ulrik; Medema, René; Tabernero, Josep; Wiestler, Otmar

    2014-11-01

    European cancer research for a transformative initiative by creating a consortium of six leading excellent comprehensive cancer centres that will work together to address the cancer care-cancer research continuum. Prerequisites for joint translational and clinical research programs are very demanding. These require the creation of a virtual single 'e-hospital' and a powerful translational platform, inter-compatible clinical molecular profiling laboratories with a robust underlying computational biology pipeline, standardised functional and molecular imaging, commonly agreed Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for liquid and tissue biopsy procurement, storage and processing, for molecular diagnostics, 'omics', functional genetics, immune-monitoring and other assessments. Importantly also it requires a culture of data collection and data storage that provides complete longitudinal data sets to allow for: effective data sharing and common database building, and to achieve a level of completeness of data that is required for conducting outcome research, taking into account our current understanding of cancers as communities of evolving clones. Cutting edge basic research and technology development serve as an important driving force for innovative translational and clinical studies. Given the excellent track records of the six participants in these areas, Cancer Core Europe will be able to support the full spectrum of research required to address the cancer research- cancer care continuum. Cancer Core Europe also constitutes a unique environment to train the next generation of talents in innovative translational and clinical oncology.

  2. Defense Infrastructure: DOD Needs to Take Actions to Address Challenges in Meeting Federal Renewable Energy Goals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    renewable energy be generated by sources placed into service in 1999 or later; and (3) the 2007 Defense Authorization Act directed that at least 25 percent of electricity consumed by DoD come from renewable sources in fiscal year 2025. GAO was asked to examine the following: (1) DoD’s progress toward these three key goals for consuming renewable energy in fiscal years 2007 and 2008, (2) challenges to DoD meeting those goals, and (3) DoD’s plans to meet the goals. GAO reviewed relevant laws and DoD and Department of Energy (DOE) policy,

  3. Navigating the road ahead: addressing challenges for use of metabolomics in epidemiology studies.

    PubMed

    Haznadar, Majda; Maruvada, Padma; Mette, Eliza; Milner, John; Moore, Steven C; Nicastro, Holly L; Sampson, Joshua N; Su, L Joseph; Verma, Mukesh; Zanetti, Krista A

    2014-04-01

    Metabolomics platforms allow for the measurement of hundreds to thousands of unique small chemical entities, as well as offer extensive coverage of metabolic markers related to obesity, diet, smoking, and other exposures of high interest to health scientists. Nevertheless, its potential use as a tool in population-based study design has not been fully explored. As the field of metabolomics continues to mature, and in part, accelerate through the National Institutes of Health (NIH) investment of ≤65 million in the Common Fund's Metabolomics Program (https://common fund.nih.gov/metabolomics/index), it is time to consider those challenges most pertinent to epidemiologic studies.

  4. On the road to a stronger public health workforce: visual tools to address complex challenges.

    PubMed

    Drehobl, Patricia; Stover, Beth H; Koo, Denise

    2014-11-01

    The public health workforce is vital to protecting the health and safety of the public, yet for years, state and local governmental public health agencies have reported substantial workforce losses and other challenges to the workforce that threaten the public's health. These challenges are complex, often involve multiple influencing or related causal factors, and demand comprehensive solutions. However, proposed solutions often focus on selected factors and might be fragmented rather than comprehensive. This paper describes approaches to characterizing the situation more comprehensively and includes two visual tools: (1) a fishbone, or Ishikawa, diagram that depicts multiple factors affecting the public health workforce; and (2) a roadmap that displays key elements-goals and strategies-to strengthen the public health workforce, thus moving from the problems depicted in the fishbone toward solutions. The visual tools aid thinking about ways to strengthen the public health workforce through collective solutions and to help leverage resources and build on each other's work. The strategic roadmap is intended to serve as a dynamic tool for partnership, prioritization, and gap assessment. These tools reflect and support CDC's commitment to working with partners on the highest priorities for strengthening the workforce to improve the public's health.

  5. Addressing methodological challenges in implementing the nursing home pain management algorithm randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ersek, Mary; Polissar, Nayak; Du Pen, Anna; Jablonski, Anita; Herr, Keela; Neradilek, Moni B

    2015-01-01

    Background Unrelieved pain among nursing home (NH) residents is a well-documented problem. Attempts have been made to enhance pain management for older adults, including those in NHs. Several evidence-based clinical guidelines have been published to assist providers in assessing and managing acute and chronic pain in older adults. Despite the proliferation and dissemination of these practice guidelines, research has shown that intensive systems-level implementation strategies are necessary to change clinical practice and patient outcomes within a health-care setting. One promising approach is the embedding of guidelines into explicit protocols and algorithms to enhance decision making. Purpose The goal of the article is to describe several issues that arose in the design and conduct of a study that compared the effectiveness of pain management algorithms coupled with a comprehensive adoption program versus the effectiveness of education alone in improving evidence-based pain assessment and management practices, decreasing pain and depressive symptoms, and enhancing mobility among NH residents. Methods The study used a cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT) design in which the individual NH was the unit of randomization. The Roger's Diffusion of Innovations theory provided the framework for the intervention. Outcome measures were surrogate-reported usual pain, self-reported usual and worst pain, and self-reported pain-related interference with activities, depression, and mobility. Results The final sample consisted of 485 NH residents from 27 NHs. The investigators were able to use a staggered enrollment strategy to recruit and retain facilities. The adaptive randomization procedures were successful in balancing intervention and control sites on key NH characteristics. Several strategies were successfully implemented to enhance the adoption of the algorithm. Limitations/Lessons The investigators encountered several methodological challenges that were inherent to

  6. Replicating a self-affirmation intervention to address gender differences: Successes and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kost-Smith, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Ito, Tiffany A.; Miyake, Akira

    2012-02-01

    We previously reported on the success of a psychological intervention implemented to reduce gender differences in achievement in an introductory college physics course. In this prior study, we found that the gender gap on exams and the FMCE among students who completed two 15-minute self-affirmation writing exercises was significantly reduced compared to the gender gap among students who completed neutral writing exercises. In a follow-up study we replicated the self-affirmation intervention in a later semester of the same course, with the same instructor. In this paper, we report the details and preliminary results of the replication study, where we find similar patterns along exams and course grades, but do not observe these patterns along the FMCE. We begin to investigate the critical features of replicating educational interventions, finding that replicating educational interventions is challenging, complex, and involves potentially subtle factors, some of which we explore and others that require further research.

  7. [Addressing intimate partner violence in substance-abuse treatment programmes: a challenge for the future].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; López-Goñi, José Javier

    2011-01-01

    There is a close relationship between substance abuse (alcohol and other drugs) and intimate partner violence. Studies carried out with male offenders and with addicted patients show a high comorbidity rate between these two phenomena. However, few batterer intervention programmes have been implemented to date in the field of drug addiction. This paper proposes, first, the need to detect cases of intimate partner violence that are camouflaged beneath a drug problem. Thus, it is important to determine the prevalence rate of intimate partner aggressors among users of drug-addiction treatment programmes, as well as identifying the specific characteristics of these patients. Second, once aggressors are identified, it would be possible to develop specific programmes for the simultaneous treatment of the two problems (addiction and intimate partner violence). Some studies have already been carried with joint treatments for addiction and intimate partner violence. The results obtained are encouraging, and show that intervention programs with addictions can be a useful framework for applying also, where necessary, specific treatments for those addicted patients with an associated problem of intimate partner violence. Finally, implications for clinical practice and future research in this field are discussed.

  8. Medical mycology and fungal immunology: new research perspectives addressing a major world health challenge.

    PubMed

    Gow, Neil A R; Netea, Mihai G

    2016-12-05

    Fungi cause more than a billion skin infections, more than 100 million mucosal infections, 10 million serious allergies and more than a million deaths each year. Global mortality owing to fungal infections is greater than for malaria and breast cancer and is equivalent to that owing to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV. These statistics evidence fungal infections as a major threat to human health and a major burden to healthcare budgets worldwide. Those patients who are at greatest risk of life-threatening fungal infections include those who have weakened immunity or have suffered trauma or other predisposing infections such as HIV. To address these global threats to human health, more research is urgently needed to understand the immunopathology of fungal disease and human disease susceptibility in order to augment the advances being made in fungal diagnostics and drug development. Here, we highlight some recent advances in basic research in medical mycology and fungal immunology that are beginning to inform clinical decisions and options for personalized medicine, vaccine development and adjunct immunotherapies.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'.

  9. A global Fine-Root Ecology Database to address below-ground challenges in plant ecology.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Colleen M; McCormack, M Luke; Powell, A Shafer; Blackwood, Christopher B; Freschet, Grégoire T; Kattge, Jens; Roumet, Catherine; Stover, Daniel B; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A; Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar J; van Bodegom, Peter M; Violle, Cyrille

    2017-02-28

    Variation and tradeoffs within and among plant traits are increasingly being harnessed by empiricists and modelers to understand and predict ecosystem processes under changing environmental conditions. While fine roots play an important role in ecosystem functioning, fine-root traits are underrepresented in global trait databases. This has hindered efforts to analyze fine-root trait variation and link it with plant function and environmental conditions at a global scale. This Viewpoint addresses the need for a centralized fine-root trait database, and introduces the Fine-Root Ecology Database (FRED, http://roots.ornl.gov) which so far includes > 70 000 observations encompassing a broad range of root traits and also includes associated environmental data. FRED represents a critical step toward improving our understanding of below-ground plant ecology. For example, FRED facilitates the quantification of variation in fine-root traits across root orders, species, biomes, and environmental gradients while also providing a platform for assessments of covariation among root, leaf, and wood traits, the role of fine roots in ecosystem functioning, and the representation of fine roots in terrestrial biosphere models. Continued input of observations into FRED to fill gaps in trait coverage will improve our understanding of changes in fine-root traits across space and time.

  10. Medical mycology and fungal immunology: new research perspectives addressing a major world health challenge

    PubMed Central

    Gow, Neil A. R.; Netea, Mihai G.

    2016-01-01

    Fungi cause more than a billion skin infections, more than 100 million mucosal infections, 10 million serious allergies and more than a million deaths each year. Global mortality owing to fungal infections is greater than for malaria and breast cancer and is equivalent to that owing to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV. These statistics evidence fungal infections as a major threat to human health and a major burden to healthcare budgets worldwide. Those patients who are at greatest risk of life-threatening fungal infections include those who have weakened immunity or have suffered trauma or other predisposing infections such as HIV. To address these global threats to human health, more research is urgently needed to understand the immunopathology of fungal disease and human disease susceptibility in order to augment the advances being made in fungal diagnostics and drug development. Here, we highlight some recent advances in basic research in medical mycology and fungal immunology that are beginning to inform clinical decisions and options for personalized medicine, vaccine development and adjunct immunotherapies. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience’. PMID:28080988

  11. PM₂.₅ opened a door to public participation addressing environmental challenges in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ganlin

    2015-02-01

    China has long been regarded as a centralized society where the public has little influence on decision-making. Such a top-down management scheme is perceived as a major obstacle to address complicated environment issues. The recent public campaign in China to urge creation of a nationwide PM₂.₅ monitoring network and mitigation plan provides an unprecedented case of how the public participated and influenced policy-making in a centralized society. This paper reviews key incidents in the campaign chronologically. Here we identify information technology, public awareness of air quality's health impacts and the fact air quality affects everyone as public goods as the major factors promoting public participation. This case demonstrates that public participation can happen in a centralized, top-down society such as China. Continued environmental deterioration may stimulate similar campaigns for other issues. We anticipate this essay to be a starting point for more studies on how environmental issues stimulate incremental social change by making people involved in decision-making process, especially in societies where they are rarely able to do so.

  12. Status of Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Activities Underway to Address Major Domestic Radiological Security Challenges - 12105

    SciTech Connect

    Cuthbertson, Abigail; Jennison, Meaghan

    2012-07-01

    During their service lives, radioactive sealed sources are used for a wide variety of essential purposes. However, each year, thousands of radioactive sealed sources that pose a potential risk to national security, health, and safety become disused and unwanted in the United States. Due to their concentrated activity and portability, these sources could be used in radiological dispersal devices ('dirty bombs'). For more than a decade, the National Nuclear Security Administration and the U.S. Department of Energy, through the Global Threat Reduction Initiative Offsite Source Recovery Project (GTRI/OSRP), have facilitated the removal and disposition of thousands of disused/unwanted sources worldwide. However, the ability of GTRI/OSRP to continue its work is critically dependent on the ability to transport and appropriately dispose of these sources. On that front, GTRI/OSRP progress includes development of two prototype Type B transport containers and significant efforts toward certification, increased commercial disposal access for risk-significant sealed sources at commercial sites, and cooperation through the International Atomic Energy Agency to increase source repatriation. Disused sealed sources continue to pose a national security concern. The impact of a dirty bomb detonation could be costly both financially and to those exposed to the resulting radiation. However, significant progress has been made since 2008 on each of the challenges identified in the DHS Sealed Source Security Workshop. Not only will there be increased opportunity for commercial disposal of many sizes and types of sealed sources, but also stakeholders are studying front-end solutions to the problem of disused sealed sources, such as financial assurance and recycle. The lack of sealed source transport containers is also likely to be mitigated with the development and certification by NNSA of two new Type B models. Internationally, increased efforts at source repatriation will mitigate the

  13. Addressing the ethical, policy, and social challenges of preclinical Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Karlawish, Jason

    2011-10-11

    Research suggests that Alzheimer disease (AD) pathophysiology begins prior to the clinical expression of the disease and that biomarker measures may provide direct evidence of this process. As a result, it may be possible to uncouple the diagnosis of AD from the clinical expression of the disease. The shifting boundaries between normal brain aging and disease present 3 challenges: 1) establishing guidelines for researchers and clinicians to safely and effectively communicate the diagnosis of preclinical AD, 2) setting up a process that effectively translates this diagnosis into practice and policy, and 3) adapting laws, regulations, and professional practices to the diagnosis of preclinical AD. The field of genetic testing for AD suggests how to balance a patient's desire to know his or her risk of developing dementia with a clinician's desire to mitigate the potential harms of that information. The development of diagnostic and treatment guidelines for other diseases of aging, such as cardiovascular disease, suggests the need for a National Alzheimer's Education Program to develop policies and procedures to translate preclinical AD into both clinical practice and policy. Revisions are needed to laws, regulations, and professional practices governing driving, financial management and planning, and privacy and confidentiality.

  14. Screening for Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes: Matching Pathophysiology and Addressing Current Challenges.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Valérie; Reynaud, Quitterie; Dubois, Catherine Lehoux; Coriati, Adèle; Desjardins, Katherine; Durieu, Isabelle; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2016-10-01

    Nearly 50% of adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have diabetes. The occurrence of CF-related diabetes (CFRD) is preceded and is associated with deterioration of lung function and nutritional status. Microvascular complications can occur, but the main cause of death is respiratory failure rather than cardiovascular causes as in type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Because other methods such as glycated hemoglobin (A1C) levels are less sensitive in patients with CF, the recommended screening test is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with a 75 g glucose dose. However, OGTT is poorly suited for patients with CF, who are already facing a high disease-care burden, and appropriate CF-glucose cut-off for diagnosis and prognosis are also questioned. Thus, alternative screening methods are compared to the classical test (2-hour OGTT), including shorter OGTTs and continuous glucose monitoring. Moreover, many challenges complicate the screening for diabetes such as the complex medical care time for a patient, which is reflected by low adherence to screening tests. The best screening test should take into account the particularities of CFRD and the complexity of the CF medical care.

  15. Addressing the Challenges of Anomaly Detection for Cyber Physical Energy Grid Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ferragut, Erik M; Laska, Jason A; Melin, Alexander M; Czejdo, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    The consolidation of cyber communications networks and physical control systems within the energy smart grid introduces a number of new risks. Unfortunately, these risks are largely unknown and poorly understood, yet include very high impact losses from attack and component failures. One important aspect of risk management is the detection of anomalies and changes. However, anomaly detection within cyber security remains a difficult, open problem, with special challenges in dealing with false alert rates and heterogeneous data. Furthermore, the integration of cyber and physical dynamics is often intractable. And, because of their broad scope, energy grid cyber-physical systems must be analyzed at multiple scales, from individual components, up to network level dynamics. We describe an improved approach to anomaly detection that combines three important aspects. First, system dynamics are modeled using a reduced order model for greater computational tractability. Second, a probabilistic and principled approach to anomaly detection is adopted that allows for regulation of false alerts and comparison of anomalies across heterogeneous data sources. Third, a hierarchy of aggregations are constructed to support interactive and automated analyses of anomalies at multiple scales.

  16. Addressing the ethical, policy, and social challenges of preclinical Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that Alzheimer disease (AD) pathophysiology begins prior to the clinical expression of the disease and that biomarker measures may provide direct evidence of this process. As a result, it may be possible to uncouple the diagnosis of AD from the clinical expression of the disease. The shifting boundaries between normal brain aging and disease present 3 challenges: 1) establishing guidelines for researchers and clinicians to safely and effectively communicate the diagnosis of preclinical AD, 2) setting up a process that effectively translates this diagnosis into practice and policy, and 3) adapting laws, regulations, and professional practices to the diagnosis of preclinical AD. The field of genetic testing for AD suggests how to balance a patient's desire to know his or her risk of developing dementia with a clinician's desire to mitigate the potential harms of that information. The development of diagnostic and treatment guidelines for other diseases of aging, such as cardiovascular disease, suggests the need for a National Alzheimer's Education Program to develop policies and procedures to translate preclinical AD into both clinical practice and policy. Revisions are needed to laws, regulations, and professional practices governing driving, financial management and planning, and privacy and confidentiality. PMID:21917767

  17. Addressing fundamental architectural challenges of an activity-based intelligence and advanced analytics (ABIAA) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, Kevin; Albert, Thomas; Brower, Bernard V.; Pellechia, Matthew F.

    2015-06-01

    The domain of Geospatial Intelligence Analysis is rapidly shifting toward a new paradigm of Activity Based Intelligence (ABI) and information-based Tipping and Cueing. General requirements for an advanced ABIAA system present significant challenges in architectural design, computing resources, data volumes, workflow efficiency, data mining and analysis algorithms, and database structures. These sophisticated ABI software systems must include advanced algorithms that automatically flag activities of interest in less time and within larger data volumes than can be processed by human analysts. In doing this, they must also maintain the geospatial accuracy necessary for cross-correlation of multi-intelligence data sources. Historically, serial architectural workflows have been employed in ABIAA system design for tasking, collection, processing, exploitation, and dissemination. These simpler architectures may produce implementations that solve short term requirements; however, they have serious limitations that preclude them from being used effectively in an automated ABIAA system with multiple data sources. This paper discusses modern ABIAA architectural considerations providing an overview of an advanced ABIAA system and comparisons to legacy systems. It concludes with a recommended strategy and incremental approach to the research, development, and construction of a fully automated ABIAA system.

  18. Changing roles for primary-care physicians: addressing challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, C P; Kaluzny, A D; Kibbe, D C; Tredway, R

    2005-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising is but one example of a process called disintermediation that is directly affecting primary-care physicians and their patients. This paper examines the trends and the actors involved in disintermediation, which threatens the traditional patient-physician relationship. The paper outlines the social forces behind these threats and illustrates the resulting challenges and opportunities. A rationale and strategies are presented to rebuild, maintain and strengthen the patient-physician relationship in an era of growing disintermediation and anticipated advancements in cost-effective office-based information systems. Primary care--as we know it--is under siege from a number of trends in healthcare delivery, resulting in loss of physician autonomy, disrupted continuity of care and potential erosion of professional values (Rastegar 2004; Future of Family Medicine Project Leadership Committee 2004). The halcyon days of medicine as a craft guild with a monopoly on (1) technical knowledge and (2) the means of implementation, reached its zenith in the mid-twentieth century and has been under pressure ever since (Starr 1982; Schlesinger 2002). While this is a trend within the US health system, it is likely to affect other delivery systems in the years ahead.

  19. Vision for cross-layer optimization to address the dual challenges of energy and reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Heather M; Dehon, Andre; Carter, Nicholas P

    2009-01-01

    We are rapidly approaching an inflection point where the conventional target of producing perfect, identical transistors that operate without upset can no longer be maintained while continuing to reduce the energy per operation. With power requirements already limiting chip performance, continuing to demand perfect, upset-free transistors would mean the end of scaling benefits. The big challenges in device variability and reliability are driven by uncommon tails in distributions, infrequent upsets, one-size-fits-all technology requirements, and a lack of information about the context of each operation. Solutions co-designed across traditional layer boundaries in our system stack can change the game, allowing architecture and software (a) to compensate for uncommon variation, environments, and events, (b) to pass down invariants and requirements for the computation, and (c) to monitor the health of collections of deVices. Cross-layer codesign provides a path to continue extracting benefits from further scaled technologies despite the fact that they may be less predictable and more variable. While some limited multi-layer mitigation strategies do exist, to move forward redefining traditional layer abstractions and developing a framework that facilitates cross-layer collaboration is necessary.

  20. Addressing the challenges of solar thermal fuels via atomic-scale computational design and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolpak, Alexie; Kucharski, Timothy; Grossman, Jeffrey

    2012-02-01

    By reversibly storing solar energy in the conformations of photo-isomers, solar thermal fuels (STFs) provide a mechanism for emissions-free, renewable energy storage and conversion in a single system. Development of STFs as a large-scale energy technology has been hampered by technical challenges that beset the photo-isomers of interest: low energy density, storage lifetime, and quantum yield; UV absorption; and irreversible degradation upon repeated cycling. In this talk, we discuss our efforts to design new STFs that overcome these hurdles. We present computational results on various STFs based on our recently proposed photo-isomer/template STF concept [Kolpak and Grossman, Nano Letters 11, 3156 (2011)], as well as new experimental results on azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotube STFs. Our approach yields significant improvements with respect to STFs studied in the past, with energy densities similar to Li-ion batteries, storage lifetimes > 1 year, and increased quantum yield and absorption efficiency. Our strategy also suggests mechanisms for inhibiting photo-isomer degradation. With a large phase space yet to be explored, there remain numerous possibilites for property enhancement, suggesting that STFs could become a competitive renewable energy technology.

  1. Addressing the Real-World Challenges in the Development of Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Chicatelli, Amy; Fulton, Christopher E.; Balaban, Edward; Sweet, Adam; Hayden, Sandra Claire; Bajwa, Anupa

    2005-01-01

    The Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX) has been an on-going research effort conducted over several years. PITEX has developed and applied a model-based diagnostic system for the main propulsion system of the X-34 reusable launch vehicle, a space-launch technology demonstrator. The application was simulation-based using detailed models of the propulsion subsystem to generate nominal and failure scenarios during captive carry, which is the most safety-critical portion of the X-34 flight. Since no system-level testing of the X-34 Main Propulsion System (MPS) was performed, these simulated data were used to verify and validate the software system. Advanced diagnostic and signal processing algorithms were developed and tested in real-time on flight-like hardware. In an attempt to expose potential performance problems, these PITEX algorithms were subject to numerous real-world effects in the simulated data including noise, sensor resolution, command/valve talkback information, and nominal build variations. The current research has demonstrated the potential benefits of model-based diagnostics, defined the performance metrics required to evaluate the diagnostic system, and studied the impact of real-world challenges encountered when monitoring propulsion subsystems.

  2. Technical Reference Suite Addressing Challenges of Providing Assurance for Fault Management Architectural Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitz, Rhonda; Whitman, Gerek

    2016-01-01

    Research into complexities of software systems Fault Management (FM) and how architectural design decisions affect safety, preservation of assets, and maintenance of desired system functionality has coalesced into a technical reference (TR) suite that advances the provision of safety and mission assurance. The NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) Program, with Software Assurance Research Program support, extracted FM architectures across the IV&V portfolio to evaluate robustness, assess visibility for validation and test, and define software assurance methods applied to the architectures and designs. This investigation spanned IV&V projects with seven different primary developers, a wide range of sizes and complexities, and encompassed Deep Space Robotic, Human Spaceflight, and Earth Orbiter mission FM architectures. The initiative continues with an expansion of the TR suite to include Launch Vehicles, adding the benefit of investigating differences intrinsic to model-based FM architectures and insight into complexities of FM within an Agile software development environment, in order to improve awareness of how nontraditional processes affect FM architectural design and system health management. The identification of particular FM architectures, visibility, and associated IV&V techniques provides a TR suite that enables greater assurance that critical software systems will adequately protect against faults and respond to adverse conditions. Additionally, the role FM has with regard to strengthened security requirements, with potential to advance overall asset protection of flight software systems, is being addressed with the development of an adverse conditions database encompassing flight software vulnerabilities. Capitalizing on the established framework, this TR suite provides assurance capability for a variety of FM architectures and varied development approaches. Research results are being disseminated across NASA, other agencies, and the

  3. Addressing the Challenges of Multi-Domain Data Integration with the SemantEco Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, E. W.; Seyed, P.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Data integration across multiple domains will continue to be a challenge with the proliferation of big data in the sciences. Data origination issues and how data are manipulated are critical to enable scientists to understand and consume disparate datasets as research becomes more multidisciplinary. We present the SemantEco framework as an exemplar for designing an integrative portal for data discovery, exploration, and interpretation that uses best practice W3C Recommendations. We use the Resource Description Framework (RDF) with extensible ontologies described in the Web Ontology Language (OWL) to provide graph-based data representation. Furthermore, SemantEco ingests data via the software package csv2rdf4lod, which generates data provenance using the W3C provenance recommendation (PROV). Our presentation will discuss benefits and challenges of semantic integration, their effect on runtime performance, and how the SemantEco framework assisted in identifying performance issues and improved query performance across multiple domains by an order of magnitude. SemantEco benefits from a semantic approach that provides an 'open world', which allows data to incrementally change just as it does in the real world. SemantEco modules may load new ontologies and data using the W3C's SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language via HTTP. Modules may also provide user interface elements for applications and query capabilities to support new use cases. Modules can associate with domains, which are first-class objects in SemantEco. This enables SemantEco to perform integration and reasoning both within and across domains on module-provided data. The SemantEco framework has been used to construct a web portal for environmental and ecological data. The portal includes water and air quality data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and species observation counts for birds and fish from the Avian Knowledge Network and the Santa Barbara Long Term

  4. A Framework to Address Challenges in Communicating the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Winett, Liana; Wallack, Lawrence; Richardson, Dawn; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Messer, Lynne

    2016-09-01

    Findings from the field of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) suggest that some of the most pressing public health problems facing communities today may begin much earlier than previously understood. In particular, this body of work provides evidence that social, physical, chemical, environmental, and behavioral influences in early life play a significant role in establishing vulnerabilities for chronic disease later in life. Further, because this work points to the importance of adverse environmental exposures that cluster in population groups, it suggests that existing opportunities to intervene at a population level may need to refocus their efforts "upstream" to sufficiently combat the fundamental causes of disease. To translate these findings into improved public health, however, the distance between scientific discovery and population application will need to be bridged by conversations across a breadth of disciplines and social roles. And importantly, those involved will likely begin without a shared vocabulary or conceptual starting point. The purpose of this paper is to support and inform the translation of DOHaD findings from the bench to population-level health promotion and disease prevention, by: (1) discussing the unique communication challenges inherent to translation of DOHaD for broad audiences, (2) introducing the First-hit/Second-hit Framework with an epidemiologic planning matrix as a model for conceptualizing and structuring communication around DOHaD, and (3) discussing the ways in which patterns of communicating DOHaD findings can expand the range of solutions considered and encourage discussion of population-level solutions in relation to one another, rather than in isolation.

  5. Ecological Momentary Assessment in Behavioral Research: Addressing Technological and Human Participant Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Saul; Music, Edvin; Styn, Mindi A; Kriska, Andrea; Smailagic, Asim; Siewiorek, Daniel; Ewing, Linda J; Chasens, Eileen; French, Brian; Mancino, Juliet; Mendez, Dara; Strollo, Patrick; Rathbun, Stephen L

    2017-01-01

    the 12-month study interval, adherence to completing EMA surveys was high, with 88.3% (66,978/75,888) completion of random assessments and around 90% (23,411/25,929 and 23,343/26,010) completion of time-contingent assessments, despite the duration of EMA data collection and challenges with implementation. Conclusions This work informed us of the necessary preliminary steps to plan and prepare a longitudinal study using smartphone technology and the critical elements to ensure participant engagement in the potentially burdensome protocol, which spanned 12 months. While this was a technology-supported and -programmed study, it required close oversight to ensure all elements were functioning correctly, particularly once human participants became involved. PMID:28298264

  6. New and improved proteomics technologies for understanding complex biological systems: Addressing a grand challenge in the life sciences

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Leroy E.; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Moritz, Robert L.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Yamamoto, Keith R.; Amos, Michael; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Locascio, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    This White Paper sets out a Life Sciences Grand Challenge for Proteomics Technologies to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, link genomes with phenotypes, and bring broad benefits to the biosciences and the US economy. The paper is based on a workshop hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, 14–15 February 2011, with participants from many federal R&D agencies and research communities, under the aegis of the US National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Opportunities are identified for a coordinated R&D effort to achieve major technology-based goals and address societal challenges in health, agriculture, nutrition, energy, environment, national security, and economic development. PMID:22807061

  7. New and improved proteomics technologies for understanding complex biological systems: addressing a grand challenge in the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Hood, Leroy E; Omenn, Gilbert S; Moritz, Robert L; Aebersold, Ruedi; Yamamoto, Keith R; Amos, Michael; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Locascio, Laurie

    2012-09-01

    This White Paper sets out a Life Sciences Grand Challenge for Proteomics Technologies to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, link genomes with phenotypes, and bring broad benefits to the biosciences and the US economy. The paper is based on a workshop hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, 14-15 February 2011, with participants from many federal R&D agencies and research communities, under the aegis of the US National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Opportunities are identified for a coordinated R&D effort to achieve major technology-based goals and address societal challenges in health, agriculture, nutrition, energy, environment, national security, and economic development.

  8. Perspectives on the strategic uses of concept mapping to address public health challenges.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lynda A; Slonim, Amy

    2017-02-01

    We examine the adaptation of approaches used to plan and implement the steps of concept mapping to meet specialized needs and requirements in several public health projects. Seven published concept mapping projects are detailed to document how each of the phases were modified to meet the specific aims of each project. Concept mapping was found to be a useful tool to complement public health roles such as assessment, program development, and priority setting. The phases of concept mapping allow for a blending of diverse perspectives, which is critical to public health efforts. The adaptability of concept mapping permits the use of multiple modalities such as the addition of face-to-face brainstorming; use of qualitative methods, including structured interviews; and review and use of published literature and guidelines. Another positive aspect of concept mapping for public health practice is its ability to identify program elements, provide a visual map of generated ideas and their relationships to one another, and assist in identifying priorities. Our reflections on the adaptability should help inform another generation in designing concept mapping projects and related products that may benefit from unique adaptations and the rapidly expanding social media technology and platforms.

  9. Lameness detection challenges in automated milking systems addressed with partial least squares discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Garcia, E; Klaas, I; Amigo, J M; Bro, R; Enevoldsen, C

    2014-12-01

    Lameness causes decreased animal welfare and leads to higher production costs. This study explored data from an automatic milking system (AMS) to model on-farm gait scoring from a commercial farm. A total of 88 cows were gait scored once per week, for 2 5-wk periods. Eighty variables retrieved from AMS were summarized week-wise and used to predict 2 defined classes: nonlame and clinically lame cows. Variables were represented with 2 transformations of the week summarized variables, using 2-wk data blocks before gait scoring, totaling 320 variables (2 × 2 × 80). The reference gait scoring error was estimated in the first week of the study and was, on average, 15%. Two partial least squares discriminant analysis models were fitted to parity 1 and parity 2 groups, respectively, to assign the lameness class according to the predicted probability of being lame (score 3 or 4/4) or not lame (score 1/4). Both models achieved sensitivity and specificity values around 80%, both in calibration and cross-validation. At the optimum values in the receiver operating characteristic curve, the false-positive rate was 28% in the parity 1 model, whereas in the parity 2 model it was about half (16%), which makes it more suitable for practical application; the model error rates were, 23 and 19%, respectively. Based on data registered automatically from one AMS farm, we were able to discriminate nonlame and lame cows, where partial least squares discriminant analysis achieved similar performance to the reference method.

  10. To What Extent Is Criminal Justice Content Specifically Addressed in MSW Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epperson, Matthew W.; Roberts, Leslie E.; Ivanoff, Andre; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Gilmer, Christy N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which criminal justice content is addressed in all CSWE-accredited MSW programs in the United States ("N"?=?192). Criminal justice content was measured in three areas: (1) dual or joint degree programs, (2) concentrations or specializations, and (3) coursework. Excluding social work and law classes, 22%…

  11. Challenges for a Local Service Agency to Address Domestic Violence –A Case Study From Rural Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Hayati, Elli Nur; Emmelin, Maria; Eriksson, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Since the launch of a Zero Tolerance Policy in Indonesia, several policies to address domestic violence have been enacted. The obligation of local governments to establish service units for women survivors of domestic violence is one of them. Since domestic violence is a sensitive and complex issue in Indonesia it is important to understand how governmentally regulated services function in practice. This case study aimed to explore challenges faced by a local service agency in managing service provision for women survivors of domestic violence in rural Indonesia. Data from one focus group discussion (12 participants), four individual interviews, six short narratives, two days of participant observation, as well as archive reviews were collected. All data were analyzed using Grounded Theory Situational Analysis. The major challenge faced by the local agency was the low priority that was given them by the local authorities, mirrored also in low involvement by the assigned volunteers in the daily service. The study also identified a gap between the socio-cultural arena and the law & policy arena that needs to be bridged to avoid that the two arenas address domestic violence in a contradictory way. Budget allocation to support the sustainability of the daily routines of service agencies has to be given priority. There is also a need for careful considerations regarding the composition of personnel involved within daily management of service agencies addressing domestic violence. To bridge the gap between the legal systems and traditional cultural values, culturally adjusted alternative justice systems could be developed to increase women’s access to legal support. PMID:25363105

  12. Commentary and challenges to Grusec and Davidov's domain-specific approach.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Judy

    2010-01-01

    J. E. Grusec and M. Davidov's article (this issue) about domains of parenting and their links with different aspects of childhood outcome raises both interesting questions and challenges. Four of these concerns are discussed in relation to early childhood. First is the issue of bidirectionality. Recent studies highlight the contribution of individual differences in children, and of dyadic measures that include both child and parent, to the quality of parent-child relationships. Second, the specification of domains can be problematic, given the evidence of overlap between domains, and of combinations of different domains in real-life interactions. Third, developmental issues need to be addressed, as do cultural and cohort influences. Finally, children need to be considered as family members who monitor interactions between other family members, learn from and influence these others. The challenge to their account posed by models of family environments that include effects not shared by siblings merit attention.

  13. Addressing recent docking challenges: A hybrid strategy to integrate template-based and free protein-protein docking.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yumeng; Wen, Zeyu; Wang, Xinxiang; Huang, Sheng-You

    2017-03-01

    Protein-protein docking is an important computational tool for predicting protein-protein interactions. With the rapid development of proteomics projects, more and more experimental binding information ranging from mutagenesis data to three-dimensional structures of protein complexes are becoming available. Therefore, how to appropriately incorporate the biological information into traditional ab initio docking has been an important issue and challenge in the field of protein-protein docking. To address these challenges, we have developed a Hybrid DOCKing protocol of template-based and template-free approaches, referred to as HDOCK. The basic procedure of HDOCK is to model the structures of individual components based on the template complex by a template-based method if a template is available; otherwise, the component structures will be modeled based on monomer proteins by regular homology modeling. Then, the complex structure of the component models is predicted by traditional protein-protein docking. With the HDOCK protocol, we have participated in the CPARI experiment for rounds 28-35. Out of the 25 CASP-CAPRI targets for oligomer modeling, our HDOCK protocol predicted correct models for 16 targets, ranking one of the top algorithms in this challenge. Our docking method also made correct predictions on other CAPRI challenges such as protein-peptide binding for 6 out of 8 targets and water predictions for 2 out of 2 targets. The advantage of our hybrid docking approach over pure template-based docking was further confirmed by a comparative evaluation on 20 CASP-CAPRI targets. Proteins 2017; 85:497-512. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Addressing the Photometric Calibration Challenge: Explicit Determination of the Instrumental Response and Atmospheric Response Functions, and Tying it All Together.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, C. W.; Tonry, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Photometric calibration is currently the dominant source of systematic uncertainty in exploiting type Ia supernovae to determine the nature of the dark energy. We review our ongoing program to address this calibration challenge by performing measurements of both the instrumental response function and the optical transmission function of the atmosphere. A key aspect of this approach is to complement standard star observations by using NIST-calibrated photodiodes as a metrology foundation for optical flux measurements. We present our first attempt to assess photometric consistency between synthetic photometry and observations, by comparing predictions based on a NIST-diode-based determination of the PanSTARRS-1 instrumental response and empirical atmospheric transmission measurements, with fluxes we obtained from observing spectrophotometric standards.

  15. Issue-Specific Barriers to Addressing Environmental Issues in the Classroom: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chankook; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    2006-01-01

    To explore issue-specific barriers to teaching environmental issues, the authors investigated secondary science teachers' perceived current and preferred teaching levels for 23 environmental issues and perceived barriers to teaching the selected issues. Subjects in this graduate project were 41 secondary science teachers self-selected to answer a…

  16. Increasing value: a research agenda for addressing the managerial and organizational challenges facing health care delivery in the United States.

    PubMed

    Shortell, Stephen M

    2004-09-01

    There is growing consensus that the U.S. health care system is not producing value relative to the resources invested. Unwarranted variation exists in quality and outcomes of care and underutilization of both evidence-based medicine and evidence-management practices. To address these issues, this article calls for a broad-based social science approach focused on obtaining a greater understanding of change at the individual, group, organizational, and environmental levels as they influence each other. Specific examples and questions for research are suggested with regard to the redesign of care systems, enhancing learning and transferring knowledge, and creating effective financial incentives. The specific measurement, analysis, and study design issues involved in under-taking such a research agenda are discussed.

  17. Discovery and Subtyping of Neo-Epitope Specific T-Cell Responses for Cancer Immunotherapy: Addressing the Mutanome.

    PubMed

    Diken, Mustafa; Vormehr, Mathias; Grunwitz, Christian; Kreiter, Sebastian; Türeci, Özlem; Sahin, Ugur

    2017-01-01

    Cancer accumulates 10s to 1000s of genomic mutations of which a fraction is immunogenic and may serve as an Achilles' heel of tumor cells. Mutation-specific T cells can recognize these antigens and destroy malignant cells. Strategies to immunotherapeutically address individual tumor mutations employing peptide or mRNA based vaccines are now actively investigated in mice and humans. An important step of determining the therapeutic potential of a mutanome vaccine is the detection of mutation reactive T-cell responses. In this chapter we provide protocols to identify and subtype mutation specific T cells in mice based on IFN-γ ELISpot and flow cytometry.

  18. Addressing Methodological Challenges in Large Communication Datasets: Collecting and Coding Longitudinal Interactions in Home Hospice Cancer Care

    PubMed Central

    Reblin, Maija; Clayton, Margaret F; John, Kevin K; Ellington, Lee

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present strategies for collecting and coding a large longitudinal communication dataset collected across multiple sites, consisting of over 2000 hours of digital audio recordings from approximately 300 families. We describe our methods within the context of implementing a large-scale study of communication during cancer home hospice nurse visits, but this procedure could be adapted to communication datasets across a wide variety of settings. This research is the first study designed to capture home hospice nurse-caregiver communication, a highly understudied location and type of communication event. We present a detailed example protocol encompassing data collection in the home environment, large-scale, multi-site secure data management, the development of theoretically-based communication coding, and strategies for preventing coder drift and ensuring reliability of analyses. Although each of these challenges have the potential to undermine the utility of the data, reliability between coders is often the only issue consistently reported and addressed in the literature. Overall, our approach demonstrates rigor and provides a “how-to” example for managing large, digitally-recorded data sets from collection through analysis. These strategies can inform other large-scale health communication research. PMID:26580414

  19. Addressing Challenges to Enhance the Bioactives of Withania somnifera through Organ, Tissue, and Cell Culture Based Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pritika; Guleri, Rupam; Angurala, Amrita; Kaur, Kuldeep; Kaur, Kulwinder; Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu

    2017-01-01

    Withania somnifera is a highly valued medicinal plant in traditional home medicine and is known for a wide range of bioactivities. Its commercial cultivation is adversely affected by poor seed viability and germination. Infestation by various pests and pathogens, survival under unfavourable environmental conditions, narrow genetic base, and meager information regarding biosynthesis of secondary metabolites are some of the other existing challenges in the crop. Biotechnological interventions through organ, tissue, and cell culture provide promising options for addressing some of these issues. In vitro propagation facilitates conservation and sustainable utilization of the existing germplasms and broadening the genetic base. It would also provide means for efficient and rapid mass propagation of elite chemotypes and generating uniform plant material round the year for experimentation and industrial applications. The potential of in vitro cell/organ cultures for the production of therapeutically valuable compounds and their large-scale production in bioreactors has received significant attention in recent years. In vitro culture system further provides distinct advantage for studying various cellular and molecular processes leading to secondary metabolite accumulation and their regulation. Engineering plants through genetic transformation and development of hairy root culture system are powerful strategies for modulation of secondary metabolites. The present review highlights the developments and sketches current scenario in this field. PMID:28299323

  20. Addressing Challenges to Enhance the Bioactives of Withania somnifera through Organ, Tissue, and Cell Culture Based Approaches.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pritika; Guleri, Rupam; Angurala, Amrita; Kaur, Kuldeep; Kaur, Kulwinder; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu; Pati, Pratap Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Withania somnifera is a highly valued medicinal plant in traditional home medicine and is known for a wide range of bioactivities. Its commercial cultivation is adversely affected by poor seed viability and germination. Infestation by various pests and pathogens, survival under unfavourable environmental conditions, narrow genetic base, and meager information regarding biosynthesis of secondary metabolites are some of the other existing challenges in the crop. Biotechnological interventions through organ, tissue, and cell culture provide promising options for addressing some of these issues. In vitro propagation facilitates conservation and sustainable utilization of the existing germplasms and broadening the genetic base. It would also provide means for efficient and rapid mass propagation of elite chemotypes and generating uniform plant material round the year for experimentation and industrial applications. The potential of in vitro cell/organ cultures for the production of therapeutically valuable compounds and their large-scale production in bioreactors has received significant attention in recent years. In vitro culture system further provides distinct advantage for studying various cellular and molecular processes leading to secondary metabolite accumulation and their regulation. Engineering plants through genetic transformation and development of hairy root culture system are powerful strategies for modulation of secondary metabolites. The present review highlights the developments and sketches current scenario in this field.

  1. Progress in Aptamer-Mediated Drug Delivery Vehicles for Cancer Targeting and Its Implications in Addressing Chemotherapeutic Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jie; Huang, He; Dong, Shiwu; Ge, Liang; Zhang, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Aptamers are novel oligonucleotides with flexible three-dimensional configurations that recognize and bind to their cognate targets, including tumor surface receptors, in a high-affinity and highly specific manner. Because of their unique intrinsic properties, a variety of aptamer-mediated nanovehicles have been developed to directionally transport anti-cancer drugs to tumor sites to minimize systemic cytotoxicity and to enhance permeation by these tumoricidal agents. Despite advances in the selection and synthesis of aptamers and in the conjugation and self-assembly of nanotechnologies, current chemotherapy and drug delivery systems face great challenges. These challenges are due to the limitations of aptamers and vehicles and because of complicated tumor mechanisms, including heterogeneity, anti-cancer drug resistance, and hypoxia-induced aberrances. In this review, we will summarize current approaches utilizing tumor surface hallmarks and aptamers and their roles and mechanisms in therapeutic nanovehicles targeting tumors. Delivery forms include nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanogels, aptamer-drug conjugates, and novel molecular trains. Moreover, the obstacles posed by the aforementioned issues will be highlighted, and possible solutions will be acknowledged. Furthermore, future perspectives will be presented, including cutting-edge integration with RNA interference nanotechnology and personalized chemotherapy, which will facilitate innovative approaches to aptamer-based therapeutics. PMID:25057317

  2. Addressing the challenge of the emerging NCD epidemic: lessons learned from Botswana's response to the HIV epidemic.

    PubMed

    Reid, M J A; Mosepele, M; Tsima, B M; Gross, R

    2012-09-21

    Botswana has the second highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in the world, and yet it has built one of Africa's most progressive and comprehensive HIV programs. While public health infrastructure has responded remarkably to the HIV epidemic, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), particularly diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, in both HIV-infected and non-infected individuals, is increasing rapidly. Applying lessons learned from the scale-up of HIV/AIDS services may help with the implementation of an effective response to the challenges of the emerging NCD epidemic. We suggest that a successful response should include integrated service delivery, capacity building to provide disease-specific care, and strong partnerships to mobilize communities.

  3. The SSC cycle: a PDCA approach to address site-specific characteristics in a continuous shallow water quality monitoring project.

    PubMed

    Miles, Eduardo J

    2008-05-01

    In any water quality-monitoring project there are several critical success factors that must be adequately addressed in order to ensure the implementation and realization of the monitoring objectives. Site selection is one of these critical success factors. The monitoring sites must be selected to comply with the monitoring and data quality objectives. In the real world, ideal monitoring setting conditions are difficult to achieve, and compromises must be made in order to locate the monitoring stations that best represent the environment to be monitored. Site-specific characteristics are all the environmental, logistical and management factors particular to the monitoring site, that could influence the fulfilment of the monitoring and data quality objectives. Therefore, during the site selection process, it is essential to properly consider and evaluate these site-specific characteristics. The SSC cycle was developed with this goal in mind, to assist the monitoring team to systematically address site-specific characteristics. The cycle is a methodology to organize the site-specific characteristics in different categories, and to ensure a comprehensive overview of these characteristics throughout the project life cycle.

  4. Addressing the challenges of using ferromagnetic electrodes in the magnetic tunnel junction-based molecular spintronics devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Pawan; Friebe, Edward; Baker, Collin

    2015-11-01

    Addressing the challenges of using high-Curie temperature ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes is critical for molecular spintronics devices (MSDs) research. Two FM electrodes simultaneously chemically bonded with a thiol-functionalized molecule can produce novel MSDs to exploring new quantum mechanical phenomenon and computer technologies. For developing a commercially viable MSD, it is crucial to developing a device fabrication scheme that carefully considers FM electrodes' susceptibility to oxidation, chemical etching, and stress-induced deformations during fabrication and usage. This paper studies NiFe, an alloy extensively used in present-day memory devices and high-temperature engineering applications, as a candidate FM electrode for the fabrication of MSDs. Our spectroscopic reflectance studies show that NiFe oxidized aggressively after heating beyond 90 °C. The NiFe surfaces, aged for several months or heated for several minutes below 90 °C, exhibited remarkable electrochemical activity and were found suitable for chemical bonding with the thiol-functionalized molecular device elements. NiFe also demonstrated excellent etching resistance against commonly used solvents and lithography related chemicals. Additionally, NiFe mitigated the adverse effects of mechanical stress by subsiding the stress-induced deformities. A magnetic tunnel junction-based MSD approach was designed by carefully considering the merits and limitations of NiFe. The device fabrication protocol considers the safe temperature limit to avoiding irreversible surface oxidation, the effect of mechanical stresses, surface roughness, and chemical etching. This paper provides foundational experimental insights in realizing a versatile MSD allowing a wide range of transport and magnetic studies.

  5. Innovative patient-centered skills training addressing challenging issues in cancer communications: Using patient's stories that teach.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Thomas W; Gorniewicz, James; Floyd, Michael; Tudiver, Fred; Odom, Amy; Zoppi, Kathy

    2016-05-01

    This workshop demonstrated the utility of a patient-centered web-based/digital Breaking Bad News communication training module designed to educate learners of various levels and disciplines. This training module is designed for independent, self-directed learning as well as group instruction. These interactive educational interventions are based upon video-recorded patient stories. Curriculum development was the result of an interdisciplinary, collaborative effort involving faculty from the East Tennessee State University (ETSU) Graduate Storytelling Program and the departments of Family and Internal Medicine at the James H. Quillen College of Medicine. The specific goals of the BBN training module are to assist learners in: (1) understanding a five-step patient-centered model that is based upon needs, preferences, and expectations of patients with cancer and (2) individualizing communication that is consistent with patient preferences in discussing emotions, informational detail, prognosis and timeline, and whether or not to discuss end-of-life issues. The pedagogical approach to the training module is to cycle through Emotional Engagement, Data, Modeled Practices, Adaptation Opportunities, and Feedback. The communication skills addressed are rooted in concepts found within the Reaching Common Ground communication training. A randomized control study investigating the effectiveness of the Breaking Bad News module found that medical students as well as resident physicians improved their communication skills as measured by an Objective Structured Clinical Examination. Four other similarly designed modules were also created: Living Through Treatment, Transitions: From Curable to Treatable/From Treatable to End-of-Life, Spirituality, and Family.

  6. Technical Study Addresses a Key Challenge to Harmonizing U.S. and International PV Module Standards (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    NREL builds community and industry support by addressing concerns voiced by key standards organizations. Photovoltaic (PV) manufacturers in the United States test the safety of their products using standards developed through consensus processes. Because U.S. PV module safety standards are not aligned with international standards, manufacturers must test their modules twice - and sometimes maintain separate product lines. By meeting with standards organizations such as the Solar ABCs and Underwriters Laboratories (UL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) leaders have worked to identify different stakeholders priorities and concerns. UL, specifically, has expressed concern that the international standards do not address all possible risks. For example, new encapsulant materials could soften at high temperatures and frameless modules could slide apart, exposing live electrical parts or allowing glass to fall on a person below. The deformation of a solid material under the influence of mechanical stresses is known as 'creep.' Current module qualification tests are limited to 85 C, whereas modules can, for short times, reach 105 C outdoors. In response to UL's concern, NREL designed and executed an experiment to compare on-sun and accelerated rates of creep for modules fabricated with various encapsulants, including some that have low melting points. Objectives were to (1) evaluate the potential for creep in outdoor exposure, (2) provide guidance on the risks and design needs with thermoplastic materials, and (3) provide a basis for modifying standards to account for materials with potential to creep. The study tested experimental materials with eight representative encapsulants in both outdoor and indoor (chamber) exposure. The study found that modules with materials that were expected to creep did so in the indoor exposure, but not in most outdoor environments and mounting configurations. The results provide a basis for defining an accelerated test needed to

  7. A Biodiversity Indicators Dashboard: Addressing Challenges to Monitoring Progress towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets Using Disaggregated Global Data

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xuemei; Smyth, Regan L.; Young, Bruce E.; Brooks, Thomas M.; Sánchez de Lozada, Alexandra; Bubb, Philip; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Larsen, Frank W.; Hamilton, Healy; Hansen, Matthew C.; Turner, Will R.

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the imperiled status of biodiversity and its benefit to human well-being, the world's governments committed in 2010 to take effective and urgent action to halt biodiversity loss through the Convention on Biological Diversity's “Aichi Targets”. These targets, and many conservation programs, require monitoring to assess progress toward specific goals. However, comprehensive and easily understood information on biodiversity trends at appropriate spatial scales is often not available to the policy makers, managers, and scientists who require it. We surveyed conservation stakeholders in three geographically diverse regions of critical biodiversity concern (the Tropical Andes, the African Great Lakes, and the Greater Mekong) and found high demand for biodiversity indicator information but uneven availability. To begin to address this need, we present a biodiversity “dashboard” – a visualization of biodiversity indicators designed to enable tracking of biodiversity and conservation performance data in a clear, user-friendly format. This builds on previous, more conceptual, indicator work to create an operationalized online interface communicating multiple indicators at multiple spatial scales. We structured this dashboard around the Pressure-State-Response-Benefit framework, selecting four indicators to measure pressure on biodiversity (deforestation rate), state of species (Red List Index), conservation response (protection of key biodiversity areas), and benefits to human populations (freshwater provision). Disaggregating global data, we present dashboard maps and graphics for the three regions surveyed and their component countries. These visualizations provide charts showing regional and national trends and lay the foundation for a web-enabled, interactive biodiversity indicators dashboard. This new tool can help track progress toward the Aichi Targets, support national monitoring and reporting, and inform outcome-based policy-making for the

  8. A biodiversity indicators dashboard: addressing challenges to monitoring progress towards the Aichi biodiversity targets using disaggregated global data.

    PubMed

    Han, Xuemei; Smyth, Regan L; Young, Bruce E; Brooks, Thomas M; Sánchez de Lozada, Alexandra; Bubb, Philip; Butchart, Stuart H M; Larsen, Frank W; Hamilton, Healy; Hansen, Matthew C; Turner, Will R

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the imperiled status of biodiversity and its benefit to human well-being, the world's governments committed in 2010 to take effective and urgent action to halt biodiversity loss through the Convention on Biological Diversity's "Aichi Targets". These targets, and many conservation programs, require monitoring to assess progress toward specific goals. However, comprehensive and easily understood information on biodiversity trends at appropriate spatial scales is often not available to the policy makers, managers, and scientists who require it. We surveyed conservation stakeholders in three geographically diverse regions of critical biodiversity concern (the Tropical Andes, the African Great Lakes, and the Greater Mekong) and found high demand for biodiversity indicator information but uneven availability. To begin to address this need, we present a biodiversity "dashboard"--a visualization of biodiversity indicators designed to enable tracking of biodiversity and conservation performance data in a clear, user-friendly format. This builds on previous, more conceptual, indicator work to create an operationalized online interface communicating multiple indicators at multiple spatial scales. We structured this dashboard around the Pressure-State-Response-Benefit framework, selecting four indicators to measure pressure on biodiversity (deforestation rate), state of species (Red List Index), conservation response (protection of key biodiversity areas), and benefits to human populations (freshwater provision). Disaggregating global data, we present dashboard maps and graphics for the three regions surveyed and their component countries. These visualizations provide charts showing regional and national trends and lay the foundation for a web-enabled, interactive biodiversity indicators dashboard. This new tool can help track progress toward the Aichi Targets, support national monitoring and reporting, and inform outcome-based policy-making for the protection of

  9. Data Lakes and Data Visualization: An Innovative Approach to Address the Challenges of Access to Health Care in Mississippi

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Denise D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are a variety of challenges to developing strategies to improve access to health care, but access to data is critical for effective evidence-based decision-making. Many agencies and organizations throughout Mississippi have been collecting quality health data for many years. However, those data have historically resided in data silos and have not been readily shared. A strategy was developed to build and coordinate infrastructure, capacity, tools, and resources to facilitate health workforce and population health planning throughout the state. Objective: Realizing data as the foundation upon which to build, the primary objective was to develop the capacity to collect, store, maintain, visualize, and analyze data from a variety of disparate sources -- with the ultimate goal of improving access to health care. Specific aims were to: 1) build a centralized data repository and scalable informatics platform, 2) develop a data management solution for this platform and then, 3) derive value from this platform by facilitating data visualization and analysis. Methods: A managed data lake was designed and constructed for health data from disparate sources throughout the state of Mississippi. A data management application was developed to log and track all data sources, maps and geographies, and data marts. With this informatics platform as a foundation, a variety of tools are used to visualize and analyze data. To illustrate, a web mapping application was developed to examine the health workforce geographically and attractive data visualizations and dynamic dashboards were created to facilitate health planning and research. Results: Samples of data visualizations that aim to inform health planners and policymakers are presented. Many agencies and organizations throughout the state benefit from this platform. Conclusion: The overarching goal is that by providing timely, reliable information to stakeholders, Mississippians in general will experience improved

  10. Hitting the Moving Target: Challenges of Creating a Dynamic Curriculum Addressing the Ethical Dimensions of Geospatial Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, John; Vallor, Shannon; Freundschuh, Scott; Gannon, William L.; Zandbergen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    While established ethical norms and core legal principles concerning the protection of privacy may be easily identified, applying these standards to rapidly evolving digital information technologies, markets for digital information and convulsive changes in social understandings of privacy is increasingly challenging. This challenge has been…

  11. Reaching Each Student: National Challenge and Organizational Commitment. Addresses to the College Board National Forum, October 31-November 2, 1990, Boston, Massachusetts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, New York, NY.

    Four speakers addressed the College Board National Forum on "Reaching Each Student" in the Fall of 1990 in Boston, Massachusetts. John F. Akers, Chairman of the Board at International Business Machines in his speech "Reaching Each Student: A Business Perspective" challenged the College Board to work with American business to…

  12. Year of Tropical Convection (YOTC): A Joint WWRP and WCRP Activity to Address the Challenges of Multi-Scale Organized Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caughey, J.; Waliser, D.; Moncrieff, M.

    2008-12-01

    The realistic representation of tropical convection in our global atmospheric models is a long-standing grand challenge for numerical weather prediction and climate projection. To address this challenge, WCRP and WWRP/THORPEX have proposed a Year of coordinated observing, modeling and forecasting of organized tropical convection and its influences on predictability. This effort is intended to exploit the vast amounts of existing and emerging observations, the expanding computational resources and the development of new, high-resolution modeling frameworks, with the objective of advancing the characterization, diagnosis, modeling, parameterization and prediction of multi-scale convective/dynamic interactions, including the two- way interaction between tropical and extra-tropical weather/climate. This activity and its ultimate success will be based on the coordination of a wide range of ongoing and planned international programmatic activities (e.g., GEWEX/CEOP/GCSS, THORPEX, EOS, AMY), strong collaboration among the operational prediction, research laboratory and academic communities, and the construction of a comprehensive data base consisting of satellite data, in-situ data sets and global/high-resolution forecast and simulation model outputs relevant to tropical convection. The target time frame for scientific focus is May 2008 to October 2009, and was chosen as a period that would leverage the most benefit from recent investments in Earth Science infrastructure and overlapping programmatic activities (e.g., AMY, T-PARC). Specific areas of emphasis identified in YOTC are: 1) MJO and convectively coupled waves, 2) diurnal cycle, 3) easterly waves and tropical cyclones, 4) tropical-extratropical interactions, and 5) monsoon. This presentation will describe the development of this activity, its current status and planned programmatic framework and research agenda.

  13. Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.

    2000-10-26

    The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries.

  14. How can we exploit above–belowground interactions to assist in addressing the challenges of food security?

    PubMed Central

    Orrell, Peter; Bennett, Alison E.

    2013-01-01

    Can above–belowground interactions help address issues of food security? We address this question in this manuscript, and review the intersection of above–belowground interactions and food security. We propose that above–belowground interactions could address two strategies identified by Godfray etal. (2010): reducing the Yield Gap, and Increasing Production Limits. In particular, to minimize the difference between potential and realized production (The Yield Gap) above–belowground interactions could be manipulated to reduce losses to pests and increase crop growth (and therefore yields). To Increase Production Limits we propose two mechanisms: utilizing intercropping (which uses multiple aspects of above–belowground interactions) and breeding for traits that promote beneficial above–belowground interactions, as well as breeding mutualistic organisms to improve their provided benefit. As a result, if they are managed correctly, there is great potential for above–belowground interactions to contribute to food security. PMID:24198821

  15. Healthy me: A gender-specific program to address body image concerns and risk factors among preadolescents.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Connaughton, Catherine; Tatangelo, Gemma; Mellor, David; Busija, Lucy

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated a gender-specific, school-based program to promote positive body image and address risk factors for body dissatisfaction. In total, 652 children aged 8-10 years participated (335 intervention, 317 wait-list control). Children participated in four 60min sessions and a recap session at three months post-intervention. The broad content areas were body image, peer relationships, media awareness, healthy diet, and exercise. The activities and examples for each session were gender specific. The recap session was an overview of the four sessions. Assessment measures were completed at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and after the recap. Boys and girls in the intervention demonstrated higher muscle esteem and vegetable intake at post-intervention, compared to children in the control condition. Boys and girls demonstrated higher body esteem, muscle esteem and fruit and vegetable intake at the recap. Boys in the intervention demonstrated less investment in masculine gender norms at post-intervention and at recap.

  16. Implementing a Public Health Approach to Addressing Mental Health Needs in a University Setting: Lessons and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parcover, Jason; Mays, Sally; McCarthy, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The mental health needs of college students are placing increasing demands on counseling center resources, and traditional outreach efforts may be outdated or incomplete. The public health model provides an approach for reaching more students, decreasing stigma, and addressing mental health concerns before they reach crisis levels. Implementing a…

  17. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning: Addressing Challenging Behavior in Infants and Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Amy; Hemmeter, Mary Louise

    2009-01-01

    The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (CSEFEL) is a federally funded national resource center designed to support early care and education providers address the social-emotional needs of children birth through age 5 years. Recent research has found that an extraordinarily high number of young children are being…

  18. A Demonstration of Individualized Positive Behavior Support Interventions by Head Start Staff to Address Children's Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Mary D.; Walker, Virginia L.; Snell, Martha E.; Smith, Carol G.

    2013-01-01

    Following the implementation of Tier 1 and Tier 2 Positive Behavior Support (PBS) strategies in six Head Start (HS) classrooms, three children in two classrooms were identified who had significant behavioral challenges and met the criteria for the use of individualized PBS. The purpose of this demonstration was to evaluate whether the effects of…

  19. It's Not Just "What" You Say: Verbal and Nonverbal Skills Help Leaders Address Challenges and Achieve Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoller, Kendall; Lahera, Antonia Issa; Normore, Anthony H.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a story about two school leaders in a large Southern California urban district who used skills developed in a university school leadership program to create rapport, empathy, and trust while leading through challenging situations and achieving actionable outcomes. In addition to developing relationships in support of…

  20. Addressing Challenging Behaviours in the General Education Setting: Conducting a Teacher-Based Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    When a student demonstrates a challenging or problematic behaviour in the classroom, the climate and the instructional experience can change dramatically for both the students and the classroom teacher. Before resorting to sanctions and punitive consequences, there is a series of steps a classroom teacher can conduct to reduce and replace the…

  1. Implementing a Culturally Attuned Functional Behavioural Assessment to Understand and Address Challenging Behaviours Demonstrated by Students from Diverse Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Gerardo; Wong-Lo, Mickie; Short, Maureen; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2014-01-01

    As the US student population continues to become increasingly diverse, educators have encountered difficulties in distinguishing between cultural differences and genuine disability indicators. This concern is clearly evident in assisting students from diverse backgrounds who demonstrate chronic challenging behaviours. Past practices (e.g.…

  2. Initial Evaluation of the Dermoskeleton Concept: Application of Biomechatronics and Artificial Intelligence to Address the Soldiers Overload Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    mule) [10] and the exoskeleton approach. 1.2 The Exoskeleton Approach One way to address the overload issue of dismounted soldiers is the use of...mechanisms named “ Exoskeletons ”, in which the main function relates to the transfer of a portion of the body load carried by the user (weight and...structure) and to assist the human body in heavy-duty tasks such as such as lifting heavy loads repetitively. An exoskeleton supplies power at their

  3. Practical guidelines addressing ethical issues pertaining to the curation of human locus-specific variation databases (LSDBs)

    PubMed Central

    Povey, Sue; Al Aqeel, Aida I; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Dalgleish, Raymond; den Dunnen, Johan T; Firth, Helen V; Greenblatt, Marc S; Barash, Carol Isaacson; Parker, Michael; Patrinos, George P; Savige, Judith; Sobrido, Maria-Jesus; Winship, Ingrid; Cotton, Richard GH

    2010-01-01

    More than 1,000 Web-based locus-specific variation databases (LSDBs) are listed on the Website of the Human Genetic Variation Society (HGVS). These individual efforts, which often relate phenotype to genotype, are a valuable source of information for clinicians, patients, and their families, as well as for basic research. The initiators of the Human Variome Project recently recognized that having access to some of the immense resources of unpublished information already present in diagnostic laboratories would provide critical data to help manage genetic disorders. However, there are significant ethical issues involved in sharing these data worldwide. An international working group presents second-generation guidelines addressing ethical issues relating to the curation of human LSDBs that provide information via a Web-based interface. It is intended that these should help current and future curators and may also inform the future decisions of ethics committees and legislators. These guidelines have been reviewed by the Ethics Committee of the Human Genome Organization (HUGO). Hum Mutat 31:–6, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20683926

  4. The Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Program: addressing the challenge of infections related to war injuries and skin and soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Martin, Gregory J; Tribble, David R

    2010-07-01

    The Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Program (IDCRP) at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) is a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)-funded network of military treatment and research facilities coordinated through USU and the Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine (HJF). IDCRP functions in collaboration with the NIAID, universities, and industry to address infectious diseases threats to the U.S. military and to the nation. Although IDCRP has projects in diseases from HIV to tuberculosis, a major focus has been on skin, soft-tissue, and war-related infections.

  5. Preventing maternal and newborn deaths globally: using innovation and science to address challenges in implementing life-saving interventions.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Herbert B; Haidar, Joumana; Merialdi, Mario; Say, Lale; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Fajans, Peter J; Mbizvo, Michael T; Ghaffar, Abdul; Tran, Nhan T; de Bernis, Luc; Laski, Laura; Freedman, Lynn P; Chopra, Mickey

    2012-09-01

    We have made important progress toward achieving Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, with an estimated 47% decrease in maternal deaths and 28% decrease in newborn deaths globally since 1990. However, rapidly accelerating this progress is vital because far too many maternal and newborn deaths still occur each day. Fortunately, there are major initiatives underway to enhance global efforts in preventing these deaths, including the United Nations Secretary General's Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health. We know why maternal and newborn deaths occur, where they occur, and how they occur, and we have highly effective interventions for preventing them. Nearly all (99%) maternal and newborn deaths occur in developing countries where the implementation of life-saving interventions has been a major challenge. Determining how best to meet this challenge will require more intensive interrelated efforts that include not only science-driven guidance on effective interventions, but also strategies and plans for implementing these interventions. Implementation science, defined as "the study of methods to promote the integration of research findings and evidence into healthcare policy and practice," will be key as will innovations in both technologies and implementation processes. We will need to develop conceptual and operational frameworks that link innovation and implementation science to implementation challenges for the Global Strategy. Likewise, we will need to expand and strengthen close cooperation between those with responsibilities for implementation and those with responsibilities for developing and supporting science-driven interventions. Realizing the potential for the Global Strategy will require commitment, coordination, collaboration, and communication-and the women and newborns we serve deserve no less.

  6. Specific Challenges in Conducting and Reporting Studies on the Diagnostic Accuracy of Ultrasonography in Bovine Medicine.

    PubMed

    Buczinski, Sébastien; O'Connor, Annette M

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasonography is used by bovine practitioners more for reproductive issues than as a diagnostic test for medical and surgical diseases. This article reviews the specific challenges and standards concerning reporting of studies on diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in cattle for nonreproductive issues. Specific biases and applicability concerns in studies reporting ultrasonography as a diagnostic test are also reviewed. Better understanding of these challenges will help the practitioner to interpret and apply (or not) diagnostic accuracy study results depending on the field context. Examples of application of sensitivity and specificity results in a clinical context are given using the Bayes theorem.

  7. The \\"Age\\" of Opportunity: European Efforts Seek to Address the Challenges of an Aging Population and Also Create Opportunities for Economic Growth and Innovation.

    PubMed

    Banks, Jim

    2017-01-01

    For the last ten years, Peter Wintlev-Jensen has been immersed in one of the greatest challenges the world will have to address in the decades ahead-the unprecedented aging of the population not only in Europe but also across the globe. This trend is reshaping consumer spending, challenging established economic models, driving the development of new industry and service sectors, and forcing a rethinking of key policy areas within health and social care. To quantify the challenge from a U.K. perspective, a recent report from the nonprofit organization Age UK showed that the country now has more people 60 or over than under 18 and more pensioners than children under 16. Just as striking, the number of people over 65 will rise almost 50% by 2030.

  8. Addressing the "Global Health Tax" and "Wild Cards": Practical Challenges to Building Academic Careers in Global Health.

    PubMed

    Palazuelos, Daniel; Dhillon, Ranu

    2016-01-01

    Among many possible benefits, global health efforts can expand the skills and experience of U.S. clinicians, improve health for communities in need, and generate innovations in care delivery with relevance everywhere. Yet, despite high rates of interest among students and medical trainees to include global health opportunities in their training, there is still no clear understanding of how this interest will translate into viable and sustained global health careers after graduation. Building on a growing conversation about how to support careers in academic global health, this Perspective describes the practical challenges faced by physicians pursuing these careers after they complete training. Writing from their perspective as junior faculty at one U.S. academic health center with a dedicated focus on global health training, the authors describe a number of practical issues they have found to be critical both for their own career development and for the advice they provide their mentees. With a particular emphasis on the financial, personal, professional, and logistical challenges that young "expat" global health physicians in academic institutions face, they underscore the importance of finding ways to support these career paths, and propose possible solutions. Such investments would not only respond to the rational and moral imperatives of global health work and advance the mission of improving human health but also help to fully leverage the potential of what is already an unprecedented movement within academic medicine.

  9. Addressing the challenges of improving primary care quality in Uzbekistan: a qualitative study of chronic heart failure management.

    PubMed

    Ahmedov, Mohir; Green, Judith; Azimov, Ravshan; Avezova, Guloyim; Inakov, Sherzod; Mamatkulov, Bahrom

    2013-08-01

    Uzbekistan has a well-developed primary care system, with universal access to care, but faces challenges in improving the quality of clinical care provided. This study aimed to identify barriers to quality improvement by focusing on one common condition, Chronic Heart Failure (CHF), for which there are evidence-based international guidelines for management. To identify the challenges to improving the quality of care for CHF in line with such guidelines we took a qualitative approach, interviewing 15 physicians and 30 patients in detail about their experiences of CHF management. Despite recent improvements to the training of primary care physicians, their access to up-to-date information was limited, and they were disproportionately reliant on information from pharmaceutical companies. The main barriers to implementing international standards of care were: reluctance of physicians (and patients) to abandon ineffective interventions; enduring, system-wide incentives for clinically unnecessary hospitalization; and the lack of structural support for evidence-based health services improvement. Patients were in general positive about adherence to medications, but faced some problems in affording drugs and hospital care. Future interventions to strengthen primary care should be implemented with evaluations of their impact on the processes and outcomes of care for chronic conditions.

  10. Supports for libraries'restoration from the Great East Japan Earthquake : Challenges we address at Miyagi Prefectural Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Shinichiro

    This article overviews the situations of damage and reconstruction of mainly public libraries in Miyagi Prefecture about 9 months after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Serious damage of library buildings was due not only to the tsunami or seismic sea wave but to violent shaking, the latter less reported by the media. We at the Miyagi Prefectural Library implemented reconstruction assistance for regional public libraries in both direct and indirect ways. Among them, we report in detail on the support we offered until the Minami-sanriku Town Library reopened its service. We highlight a prefectural library's role, acting between supporters and those supportees, to consider the necessity of middle organizations. We clarify what challenges we face and examine how best to provide assistance in case of large-scale disasters.

  11. Addressing the Challenge of Preparing Australian Pre-Service Primary Teachers in Environmental Education: An Evaluation of a Dedicated Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennelly, Julie; Taylor, Neil; Maxwell, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    Concerns have been raised for some time about the preparation of Australian teachers in the area of environmental education. Few tertiary institutions that undertake teacher education in Australia have specific units or modules dedicated to environmental education. This article reports on an evaluation of such a dedicated unit recently introduced…

  12. A model for integrating clinical care and basic science research, and pitfalls of performing complex research projects for addressing a clinical challenge.

    PubMed

    Steck, R; Epari, D R; Schuetz, M A

    2010-07-01

    The collaboration of clinicians with basic science researchers is crucial for addressing clinically relevant research questions. In order to initiate such mutually beneficial relationships, we propose a model where early career clinicians spend a designated time embedded in established basic science research groups, in order to pursue a postgraduate qualification. During this time, clinicians become integral members of the research team, fostering long term relationships and opening up opportunities for continuing collaboration. However, for these collaborations to be successful there are pitfalls to be avoided. Limited time and funding can lead to attempts to answer clinical challenges with highly complex research projects characterised by a large number of "clinical" factors being introduced in the hope that the research outcomes will be more clinically relevant. As a result, the complexity of such studies and variability of its outcomes may lead to difficulties in drawing scientifically justified and clinically useful conclusions. Consequently, we stress that it is the basic science researcher and the clinician's obligation to be mindful of the limitations and challenges of such multi-factorial research projects. A systematic step-by-step approach to address clinical research questions with limited, but highly targeted and well defined research projects provides the solid foundation which may lead to the development of a longer term research program for addressing more challenging clinical problems. Ultimately, we believe that it is such models, encouraging the vital collaboration between clinicians and researchers for the work on targeted, well defined research projects, which will result in answers to the important clinical challenges of today.

  13. Key outcomes and addressing remaining challenges--perspectives from a final evaluation of the China GAVI project.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weizhong; Liang, Xiaofeng; Cui, Fuqiang; Li, Li; Hadler, Stephen C; Hutin, Yvan J; Kane, Mark; Wang, Yu

    2013-12-27

    During the China GAVI project, implemented between 2002 and 2010, more than 25 million children received hepatitis B vaccine with the support of project, and the vaccine proved to be safe and effective. With careful consideration for project savings, China and GAVI continually adjusted the budget, additionally allowing the project to spend operational funds to support demonstration projects to improve timely birth dose (TBD), conduct training of EPI staff, and to monitor the project impact. Results from the final evaluation indicated the achievement of key outcomes. As a result of government co-investment, human resources at county level engaged in hepatitis B vaccination increased from 29 per county on average in 2002 to 66 in 2009. All project counties funded by the GAVI project use auto-disable syringes for hepatitis B vaccination and other vaccines. Surveyed hepatitis B vaccine coverage increased from 71% in 2002 to 93% in 2009 among infants. The HBsAg prevalence declined from 9.67% in 1992 to 0.96% in 2006 among children under 5 years of age. However, several important issues remain: (1) China still accounts for the largest annual number of perinatal HBV infections (estimated 84,121) in the WHO WPR region; (2) China still lacks a clear national policy for safe injection of vaccines; (3) vaccination of high risk adults and protection of health care workers are still not implemented; (4) hepatitis B surveillance needs to be refined to more accurately monitor acute hepatitis B; and (5) a program for treatment of persons with chronic HBV infection is needed. Recommendations for future hepatitis B control include: using the lessons learned from the China GAVI project for future introductions of new vaccines; addressing unmet needs with a second generation hepatitis B program to reach every infant, including screening mothers, and providing HBIG for infants born to HBsAg positive mothers; expanding vaccination to high risk adults; addressing remaining unsafe

  14. Drugging specific conformational states of GPCRs: challenges and opportunities for computational chemistry.

    PubMed

    Martí-Solano, Maria; Schmidt, Denis; Kolb, Peter; Selent, Jana

    2016-04-01

    Current advances in structural biology for membrane proteins support the existence of multiple Gprotein-coupled receptor (GPCR) conformations. These conformations can be associated to particular receptor states with definite coupling and signaling capacities. Drugging such receptor states represents an opportunity to discover a new generation of GPCR drugs with unprecedented specificity. However, exploiting recently available structural information to develop these drugs is still challenging. In this context, computational structure-based approaches can inform such drug development. In this review, we examine the potential of these approaches and the challenges they will need to overcome to guide the rational discovery of drugs targeting specific GPCR states.

  15. Electronic coarse graining enhances the predictive power of molecular simulation allowing challenges in water physics to be addressed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipcigan, Flaviu S.; Sokhan, Vlad P.; Crain, Jason; Martyna, Glenn J.

    2016-12-01

    One key factor that limits the predictive power of molecular dynamics simulations is the accuracy and transferability of the input force field. Force fields are challenged by heterogeneous environments, where electronic responses give rise to biologically important forces such as many-body polarisation and dispersion. The importance of polarisation in the condensed phase was recognised early on, as described by Cochran in 1959 [Philosophical Magazine 4 (1959) 1082-1086] [32]. Currently in molecular simulation, dispersion forces are treated at the two-body level and in the dipole limit, although the importance of three-body terms in the condensed phase was demonstrated by Barker in the 1980s [Phys. Rev. Lett. 57 (1986) 230-233] [72]. One approach for treating both polarisation and dispersion on an equal basis is to coarse grain the electrons surrounding a molecular moiety to a single quantum harmonic oscillator (cf. Hirschfelder, Curtiss and Bird 1954 [The Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids (1954)] [37]). The approach, when solved in strong coupling beyond the dipole limit, gives a description of long-range forces that includes two- and many-body terms to all orders. In the last decade, the tools necessary to implement the strong coupling limit have been developed, culminating in a transferable model of water with excellent predictive power across the phase diagram. Transferability arises since the environment automatically identifies the important long range interactions, rather than the modeller through a limited set of expressions. Here, we discuss the role of electronic coarse-graining in predictive multiscale materials modelling and describe the first implementation of the method in a general purpose molecular dynamics software: QDO_MD.

  16. Addressing capability computing challenges of high-resolution global climate modelling at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anantharaj, Valentine; Norman, Matthew; Evans, Katherine; Taylor, Mark; Worley, Patrick; Hack, James; Mayer, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    During 2013, high-resolution climate model simulations accounted for over 100 million "core hours" using Titan at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). The suite of climate modeling experiments, primarily using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) at nearly 0.25 degree horizontal resolution, generated over a petabyte of data and nearly 100,000 files, ranging in sizes from 20 MB to over 100 GB. Effective utilization of leadership class resources requires careful planning and preparation. The application software, such as CESM, need to be ported, optimized and benchmarked for the target platform in order to meet the computational readiness requirements. The model configuration needs to be "tuned and balanced" for the experiments. This can be a complicated and resource intensive process, especially for high-resolution configurations using complex physics. The volume of I/O also increases with resolution; and new strategies may be required to manage I/O especially for large checkpoint and restart files that may require more frequent output for resiliency. It is also essential to monitor the application performance during the course of the simulation exercises. Finally, the large volume of data needs to be analyzed to derive the scientific results; and appropriate data and information delivered to the stakeholders. Titan is currently the largest supercomputer available for open science. The computational resources, in terms of "titan core hours" are allocated primarily via the Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) and ASCR Leadership Computing Challenge (ALCC) programs, both sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science. Titan is a Cray XK7 system, capable of a theoretical peak performance of over 27 PFlop/s, consists of 18,688 compute nodes, with a NVIDIA Kepler K20 GPU and a 16-core AMD Opteron CPU in every node, for a total of 299,008 Opteron cores and 18,688 GPUs offering a cumulative 560

  17. The Rise of International Relations Programs in the Brazilian Federal Universities: Curriculum Specificities and Current Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Marcos Alan S. V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this reflection is to study the new international relations (IR) programs introduced by Brazilian federal universities, looking comparatively at their curriculum specificities and current challenges. In recent years, Brazil has seen an increase of IR programs launched in several regions. Since 2003, the Ministry of Education is in the…

  18. Strain-Specific Changes in Locomotor Behavior in Larval Zebrafish Elicited by Cholinergic Challenge

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some studies have compared the baseline behavior of different strains of larval zebrafish (Danio rerio), but there is sparse information on strain-specific responses to chemical challenges. The following study examines both the basal activity and response to a pharmacological cha...

  19. Community-Owned wind power development: The challenge of applying the European model in the United States, and how states are addressing that challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark

    2004-03-28

    transmission grid). For the purposes of this report, ''community wind'' is defined as locally owned utility-scale wind development, on either the customer or utility side of the meter. This definition accommodates projects of various sizes (e.g., ranging from single utility-scale turbine installations at Iowa schools all the way up to the 100 MW Trimont project in Minnesota), single or multiple local owners, and perhaps even municipal utilities. In this report, however, municipal utility projects will only be mentioned if specifically funded by a state clean energy fund. Within the confines of this definition, this report first describes state support for, and the status of, community wind in the upper Midwest, including Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Illinois. The focus then shifts to the Northeast, where Massachusetts and, to a lesser extent, New York have recently funded community wind initiatives. The report concludes in the western US by briefly describing community wind-related work just getting underway in Oregon and Washington, as well as a few isolated projects in California, Idaho, and on tribal lands.

  20. The 2011 Leona Tyler Award Address: The Relationship--And Its Relationship to the Common and Specific Factors of Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wampold, Bruce E.; Budge, Stephanie L.

    2012-01-01

    A debate exists about whether the common factors or specific ingredients are critical to producing the benefits of psychotherapy. A model of the relationship, based on evolved human characteristics related to healing, is presented that integrates common factors and specific ingredients. After the initial bond is formed, the relationship involves…

  1. Address the Major Societal Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubichler, Manfred

    In his famous historical account about the origins of molecular biology Gunther Stent introduced a three phase sequence that turns out to be characteristic for many newly emerging paradigms within science. New ideas, according to Stent, follow a sequence of romantic, dogmatic, and academic phases. One can easily see that complex systems science followed this path. The question now is whether we are in an extended academic phase of gradually expanding both theoretical and practical knowledge, or whether we are entering a new transformation of complex systems science that might well bring about a new romantic phase. I would argue that complexity science, indeed, is at the dawn of a new period - let's call it complexity 3.0. The last academic phase has seen the application of complex systems ideas and methods in a variety of different domains. It has been to a large extent business as usual...

  2. Functional and Antigen-Specific Serum Antibody Levels as Correlates of Protection against Shigellosis in a Controlled Human Challenge Study

    PubMed Central

    Shimanovich, Avital A.; Buskirk, Amanda D.; Heine, Shannon J.; Blackwelder, William C.; Wahid, Rezwanul; Kotloff, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Shigella is an important cause of diarrheal disease in young children living in developing countries. No approved vaccines are available, and the development of vaccine candidates has been hindered by the lack of firm immunological correlates of protection, among other reasons. To address this gap in knowledge, we established quantitative assays to measure Shigella-specific serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) and opsonophagocytic killing antibody (OPKA) activities and investigated their potential association with protection against disease in humans. SBA, OPKA, and Ipa-, VirG (IscA)-, and Shigella flexneri 2a lipopolysaccharide-specific serum IgG titers were determined in adult volunteers who received Shigella vaccine candidate EcSf2a-2 and in unvaccinated controls, all of whom were challenged with virulent Shigella flexneri 2a. Prechallenge antibody titers were compared with disease severity after challenge. SBA and OPKA, as well as IpaB- and VirG-specific IgG, significantly correlated with reduced illness. SBA and OPKA assays were also used to evaluate the immunogenicity of leading live attenuated vaccine candidates Shigella CVD 1204 and CVD 1208S in humans. A single oral immunization with CVD 1204 or CVD 1208S resulted in SBA seroconversion rates of 71% and 47% and OPKA seroconversion rates of 57% and 35%, respectively. Higher functional antibody responses were induced by CVD 1204, which is consistent with its lower attenuation. This is the first demonstration of SBA, OPKA, and IpaB- and VirG-specific IgG levels as potential serological correlates of protection against shigellosis in humans. These results warrant further studies to establish their capacity to predict protective immunity and vaccine efficacy. PMID:27927680

  3. Institution-Specific Victimization Surveys: Addressing Legal and Practical Disincentives to Gender-Based Violence Reporting on College Campuses.

    PubMed

    Cantalupo, Nancy Chi

    2014-07-01

    This review brings together both the legal literature and original empirical research regarding the advisability of amending the Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act or creating new Department of Education regulations to mandate that all higher education institutions survey their students approximately every 5 years about students' experiences with sexual violence. Legal research conducted regarding the three relevant federal legal regimes show inconsistent incentives for schools to encourage victim reporting and proactively address sexual violence on campus. Moreover, the original research carried out for this article shows that the experience of institutions that have voluntarily conducted such surveys suggests many benefits not only for students, prospective students, parents, and the general public but also for schools themselves. These experiences confirm the practical viability of a mandated survey by the Department of Education.

  4. A Challenging Case of Limb Salvage Requiring a Combination of Composite Fixation and Masquelet Technique to Address Significant Segmental Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Blair, C.; Simela, A. T.; Cross, B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Cases of limb salvage following skeletal trauma involving significant bone loss pose a particular challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. Certain techniques for addressing this complex issue have been advanced in recent years and have met with considerable success. The Masquelet technique involves a staged procedure in which a temporary skeletal stabilization is paired with implantation of an antibiotic spacer and left in place for 6–8 weeks, during which time a “pseudomembrane” forms around the cement spacer. During the second stage of the procedure, the pseudomembrane is incised, the antibiotic spacer removed, and bone graft is placed. We present a case of significant segmental femur loss in a 19-year-old male opting for limb salvage in which a 17-centimeter segmental loss of bone was essentially regrown using a combination of the Masquelet technique with supplemental endosteal fixation. PMID:25789190

  5. Gender-specific metabolic responses in hepatopancreas of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis challenged by Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan; Ma, Mengwen; Zhang, Yuemei

    2014-10-01

    Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is a marine aquaculture shellfish and frequently studied in shellfish immunology. In this work, the gender-specific metabolic responses induced by Vibrio harveyi in hepatopancreas from M. galloprovincialis were characterized using NMR-based metabolomics. In details, V. harveyi challenge increased the levels of amino acids including (valine, leucine, isoleucine, threonine, alanine, arginine and tyrosine) and ATP, and decreased the level of glucose in male mussel hepatopancreas. In V. harveyi-challenged female mussel hepatopancreas, both threonine and AMP were significantly elevated, and choline, phoshphocholine, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, taurine, betaine and ATP were depleted. Obviously, only threonine was similarly altered to that in V. harveyi-challenged male mussel hepatopancreas. These findings confirmed the gender-specific metabolic responses in mussels challenged by V. harveyi. Overall, V. harveyi induced an enhanced energy demand through activated glycolysis and immune response indicated by increased BCAAs in male mussel hepatopancreas. In female mussel hepatopancreas, V. harveyi basically caused disturbances in both osmotic regulation and energy metabolism through the metabolic pathways of conversions of phosphocholine and ADP to choline and ATP, and sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and H2O into choline and sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. The altered mRNA expression levels of related genes (Cu/Zn-SOD, HSP90, lysozyme and defensin) suggested that V. harveyi induced obvious oxidative and immune stresses in both male and female mussel hepatopancreas. This work demonstrated that V. harveyi could induce gender-specific metabolic responses in mussel M. galloprovincialis hepatopancreas using NMR-based metabolomics.

  6. Validation of specific inhalation challenge for the diagnosis of occupational asthma due to persulphate salts

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, X; Cruz, M; Orriols, R; Torres, F; Espuga, M; Morell, F

    2004-01-01

    Background: The significant value of tests used to certify the diagnosis of occupational asthma due to persulphate salts remains uncertain. Aims: To validate the specific inhalation challenge (SIC) test for the diagnosis of occupational asthma. Methods: Eight patients with occupational asthma due to persulphate salts, eight patients with bronchial asthma who were never exposed to persulphate salts, and ten healthy subjects were studied. Clinical history taking, spirometry, bronchial challenge with methacholine, skin prick testing to common inhalant allergens and persulphate salts, total IgE levels, and SIC to potassium persulphate were carried out in all subjects. The SIC used increasing concentrations of potassium persulphate (5, 10, 15, and 30 g) mixed with 150 g of lactose. Patients tipped the mixture from one tray to another at a distance of 30 cm from the face for 10 minutes in a challenge booth. Results: The SIC was positive in all subjects with persulphate induced asthma and in one patient with bronchial asthma who had never been exposed to persulphate salts. Sensitivity was 100% (95% CI 67.6 to 100) and specificity was 87.5% (95% CI 52.9–97.8) when patients with occupational asthma due to persulphate salts were compared with those with bronchial asthma never exposed to persulphate salts. Conclusions: SIC to persulphate salts performed according to the protocol described appears to be useful for the diagnosis of occupational asthma secondary to inhalation of this substance. PMID:15377773

  7. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Kakodkar, A

    1999-07-01

    This convocation addressed by Dr. Anil Kakodkar focuses on the challenges faced by graduating students. In his speech, he emphasized the high level of excellence achieved by the industrial sector; however, he noted that there has been a loss of initiative in maximizing value addition, which was worsened by an increasing population pressure. In facing a stiff competition in the external and domestic markets, it is imperative to maximize value addition within the country in a competitive manner and capture the highest possible market share. To achieve this, high-quality human resources are central. Likewise, family planning programs should become more effective and direct available resources toward national advantage. To boost the domestic market, he suggests the need to search for strengths to achieve leadership position in those areas. First, an insight into the relationship between the lifestyles and the needs of our people and the natural resource endowment must be gained. Second, remodeling of the education system must be undertaken to prepare the people for adding the necessary innovative content in our value addition activities. Lastly, Dr. Kakodkar emphasizes the significance of developing a strong bond between parents and children to provide a sound foundation and allow the education system to grow upon it.

  8. Back to the basics: Identifying and addressing underlying challenges in achieving high quality and relevant health statistics for indigenous populations in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Smylie, Janet; Firestone, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Canada is known internationally for excellence in both the quality and public policy relevance of its health and social statistics. There is a double standard however with respect to the relevance and quality of statistics for Indigenous populations in Canada. Indigenous specific health and social statistics gathering is informed by unique ethical, rights-based, policy and practice imperatives regarding the need for Indigenous participation and leadership in Indigenous data processes throughout the spectrum of indicator development, data collection, management, analysis and use. We demonstrate how current Indigenous data quality challenges including misclassification errors and non-response bias systematically contribute to a significant underestimate of inequities in health determinants, health status, and health care access between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Canada. The major quality challenge underlying these errors and biases is the lack of Indigenous specific identifiers that are consistent and relevant in major health and social data sources. The recent removal of an Indigenous identity question from the Canadian census has resulted in further deterioration of an already suboptimal system. A revision of core health data sources to include relevant, consistent, and inclusive Indigenous self-identification is urgently required. These changes need to be carried out in partnership with Indigenous peoples and their representative and governing organizations. PMID:26793283

  9. Back to the basics: Identifying and addressing underlying challenges in achieving high quality and relevant health statistics for indigenous populations in Canada.

    PubMed

    Smylie, Janet; Firestone, Michelle

    Canada is known internationally for excellence in both the quality and public policy relevance of its health and social statistics. There is a double standard however with respect to the relevance and quality of statistics for Indigenous populations in Canada. Indigenous specific health and social statistics gathering is informed by unique ethical, rights-based, policy and practice imperatives regarding the need for Indigenous participation and leadership in Indigenous data processes throughout the spectrum of indicator development, data collection, management, analysis and use. We demonstrate how current Indigenous data quality challenges including misclassification errors and non-response bias systematically contribute to a significant underestimate of inequities in health determinants, health status, and health care access between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Canada. The major quality challenge underlying these errors and biases is the lack of Indigenous specific identifiers that are consistent and relevant in major health and social data sources. The recent removal of an Indigenous identity question from the Canadian census has resulted in further deterioration of an already suboptimal system. A revision of core health data sources to include relevant, consistent, and inclusive Indigenous self-identification is urgently required. These changes need to be carried out in partnership with Indigenous peoples and their representative and governing organizations.

  10. Addressing Adherence Using Genotype-Specific PBPK Modeling—Impact of Drug Holidays on Tamoxifen and Endoxifen Plasma Levels

    PubMed Central

    Dickschen, Kristin J. R.; Willmann, Stefan; Hempel, Georg; Block, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Tamoxifen is one of the most common treatment opportunities for hormonal positive breast cancer. Despite its good tolerability, patients demonstrate decreasing adherence over years impacting on therapeutic success. PBPK modeling was applied to demonstrate the impact of drug holidays on plasma levels of tamoxifen and its active metabolite endoxifen for different CYP2D6 genotypes. Materials and Methods: A virtual study with 24,000 patients was conducted in order to investigate the development of tamoxifen steady-state kinetics in patient groups of different CYP2D6 genotypes. The impact of drug holidays on steady-state kinetics was investigated assuming changing drug holiday scenarios. Results: Drug holidays in CYP2D6 extensive and intermediate metabolizers (EMs, IMs) exceeding 1 month lead to a decrease of endoxifen steady-state trough levels below the 5th percentile of the control group. Assuming drug holidays of 1, 2, or 3 months and administering a fixed-dose combination of 20 mg tamoxifen and 3 mg endoxifen EMs demonstrated re-established endoxifen steady-state trough levels after 5, 8, and 9 days. IMs receiving the same fixed-dose combination demonstrated re-established endoxifen steady-state trough levels after 7, 10, and 11 days. Discussion: The PBPK model impressively demonstrates the impact of drug holidays in different CYP2D6 genotypes on PK. Population simulation results indicate that drug holidays of more than 2 weeks cause a tremendous decrease of plasma levels despite the long half-life of tamoxifen. To improve therapeutic success, PBPK modeling allows identifying genotype-specific differences in PK following drug holidays and adequate treatment with loading doses. PMID:28382001

  11. Addressing challenges of training a new generation of clinician-innovators through an interdisciplinary medical technology design program: Bench-to-Bedside.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Patrick D; Elder, Craig T; D'Ambrosio, Troy; Langell, John T

    2015-01-01

    Graduate medical education has traditionally focused on training future physicians to be outstanding clinicians with basic and clinical science research skills. This focus has resulted in substantial knowledge gains, but a modest return on investment based on direct improvements in clinical care. In today's shifting healthcare landscape, a number of important challenges must be overcome to not only improve the delivery of healthcare, but to prepare future physicians to think outside the box, focus on and create healthcare innovations, and navigate the complex legal, business and regulatory hurdles of bringing innovation to the bedside. We created an interdisciplinary and experiential medical technology design competition to address these challenges and train medical students interested in moving new and innovative clinical solutions to the forefront of medicine. Medical students were partnered with business, law, design and engineering students to form interdisciplinary teams focused on developing solutions to unmet clinical needs. Over the course of six months teams were provided access to clinical and industry mentors, $500 prototyping funds, development facilities, and non-mandatory didactic lectures in ideation, design, intellectual property, FDA regulatory requirements, prototyping, market analysis, business plan development and capital acquisition. After four years of implementation, the program has supported 396 participants, seen the development of 91 novel medical devices, and launched the formation of 24 new companies. From our perspective, medical education programs that develop innovation training programs and shift incentives from purely traditional basic and clinical science research to also include high-risk innovation will see increased student engagement in improving healthcare delivery and an increase in the quality and quantity of innovative solutions to medical problems being brought to market.

  12. Increase in non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness as an early marker of bronchial response to occupational agents during specific inhalation challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, O.; Delwiche, J. P.; Jamart, J.; Van de Weyer, R.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Specific bronchial reactivity to occupational agents may decline after exposure in the workplace ceases leading to falsely negative specific inhalation challenges. A study was carried out to assess prospectively whether increases in nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness could be useful in detecting the bronchial response to occupational agents during specific inhalation challenges. METHODS: Specific inhalation challenges were performed in 66 subjects with possible occupational asthma due to various agents. After a control day the subjects were challenged with the suspected agent for up to two hours on the first test day. Those subjects who did not show an asthmatic reaction were rechallenged on the next day for 2-3 hours. The provocative concentration of histamine causing a 20% fall (PC20) in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was assessed at the end of the control day as well as six hours after each challenge that did not cause a > or = 20% fall in FEV1. The subjects who had a significant (> or = 3.1-fold) reduction in PC20 value at the end of the second challenge day were requested to perform additional specific inhalation challenges. RESULTS: The first test day elicited an asthmatic reaction in 25 subjects. Of the other 41 subjects five (12%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4% to 26%) exhibited a > or = 3.1-fold fall in the PC20 value after the inhalation challenge and developed an asthmatic reaction during the second (n = 3) or third (n = 2) challenge exposure. The offending agents included persulphate (n = 1), wood dust (n = 2), isocyanate (n = 1), or amoxycillin (n = 1). These five subjects had left their workplace for a longer period (mean (SD) 21 (14) months) than those who reacted after the first specific inhalation challenge (8 (11) months). CONCLUSIONS: The increase in non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness after a specific inhalation challenge can be an early and sensitive marker of bronchial response to occupational

  13. Trafficking receptor signatures define blood plasmablasts responding to tissue-specific immune challenge

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Yekyung; Lazarus, Nicole H.; Sutherland, Lusijah; Habtezion, Aida; Abramson, Tzvia; He, Xiao-Song; Greenberg, Harry B.

    2017-01-01

    Antibody-secreting cells are generated in regional lymphoid tissues and traffic as plasmablasts (PBs) via lymph and blood to target sites for local immunity. We used multiparameter flow cytometry to define PB trafficking programs (TPs, combinations of adhesion molecules and chemoattractant receptors) and their imprinting in patients in response to localized infection or immune insults. TPs enriched after infection or autoimmune inflammation of mucosae correlate with sites of immune response or symptoms, with different TPs imprinted during small intestinal, colon, throat, and upper respiratory immune challenge. PBs induced after intramuscular or intradermal influenza vaccination, including flu-specific antibody–secreting cells, display TPs characterized by the lack of mucosal homing receptors. PBs of healthy donors display diverse mucosa-associated TPs, consistent with homeostatic immune activity. Identification of TP signatures of PBs may facilitate noninvasive monitoring of organ-specific immune responses. PMID:28352656

  14. Gender-specific Regulatory Challenges to Product Approval: a panel discussion.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Alyson J; Barr, Helen; Greenberg, Marna R; Safdar, Basmah; Wildgoose, Peter; Wright, David W; Hollander, Judd E

    2014-12-01

    On May 13, 2014, a 1-hour panel discussion session titled "Gender-specific Regulatory Challenges to Product Approval" was held during the Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, "Gender-specific Research in Emergency Medicine: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes." The session sought to bring together leaders in emergency medicine (EM) research, authors, and reviewers in EM research publications, as well as faculty, fellows, residents, and students engaged in research and clinical practice. A panel was convened involving a representative from the Office of Women's Health of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, two pharmaceutical executives, and a clinical EM researcher. The moderated discussion also involved audience members who contributed significantly to the dialogue. Historical background leading up to the session along with the main themes of the discussion are reproduced in this article. These revolve around sex- and gender-specific research, statistical analysis of sex and gender, clinical practice, financial costs associated with pharmaceutical development, adaptive design, and specific recommendations on the regulatory process as it affects the specialty of EM.

  15. Exploring new forage options to address emerging dietary and environmental challenges in dairy forage systems: reducing excessive weight gain in dairy replacement heifers fed a corn-silage based diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy and forage producers are always facing new challenges. One of these challenges is to find forages that meet the specific nutritional needs of livestock at different stages of growth or production. In an effort to provide new and improved forage options to meet these emerging challenges, the U....

  16. Can thermostable vaccines help address cold-chain challenges? Results from stakeholder interviews in six low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Debra D.; Lorenson, Tina; Bartholomew, Kate; Villadiego, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study captures the perspectives of stakeholders at multiple levels of the vaccine supply chain regarding their assessment of challenges with storing vaccines within recommended temperature ranges and their perceptions on the benefits of having vaccines with improved stability, including the potential short-term storage and transport of vaccines in a controlled-temperature chain. Methods Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 158 immunization stakeholders in six countries. Interviewees included national decision-makers and advisors involved in vaccine purchasing decisions, national Expanded Programme on Immunization managers, and health and logistics personnel at national, subnational, and health facility levels. Results Challenges with both heat and freeze-exposure of vaccines were recognized in all countries, with heat-exposure being a greater concern. Conditions leading to freeze-exposure including ice build-up due to poor refrigerator performance and improper icepack conditioning were reported by 53% and 28% of participants, respectively. Respondents were interested in vaccine products with improved heat/freeze-stability characteristics. The majority of those involved in vaccine purchasing indicated they would be willing to pay a US$0.05 premium per dose for a freeze-stable pentavalent vaccine (68%) or a heat-stable rotavirus vaccine (59%), although most (53%) preferred not to pay the premium for a heat-stable pentavalent vaccine if the increased stability required changing from a liquid to a lyophilized product. Most respondents (73%) were also interested in vaccines labeled for short-term use in a controlled-temperature chain. The majority (115/158) recognized the flexibility this would provide during outreach or should cold-chain breaks occur. Respondents were also aware that possible confusion might arise and additional training would be required if handling conditions were changed for some, but not all vaccines. Conclusion

  17. Challenges and limitations of patient-specific vascular phantom fabrication using 3D Polyjet printing

    PubMed Central

    Ionita, Ciprian N; Mokin, Maxim; Varble, Nicole; Bednarek, Daniel R; Xiang, Jianping; Snyder, Kenneth V; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Levy, Elad I; Meng, Hui; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology offers a great opportunity towards development of patient-specific vascular anatomic models, for medical device testing and physiological condition evaluation. However, the development process is not yet well established and there are various limitations depending on the printing materials, the technology and the printer resolution. Patient-specific neuro-vascular anatomy was acquired from computed tomography angiography and rotational digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The volumes were imported into a Vitrea 3D workstation (Vital Images Inc.) and the vascular lumen of various vessels and pathologies were segmented using a “marching cubes” algorithm. The results were exported as Stereo Lithographic (STL) files and were further processed by smoothing, trimming, and wall extrusion (to add a custom wall to the model). The models were printed using a Polyjet printer, Eden 260V (Objet-Stratasys). To verify the phantom geometry accuracy, the phantom was reimaged using rotational DSA, and the new data was compared with the initial patient data. The most challenging part of the phantom manufacturing was removal of support material. This aspect could be a serious hurdle in building very tortuous phantoms or small vessels. The accuracy of the printed models was very good: distance analysis showed average differences of 120 μm between the patient and the phantom reconstructed volume dimensions. Most errors were due to residual support material left in the lumen of the phantom. Despite the post-printing challenges experienced during the support cleaning, this technology could be a tremendous benefit to medical research such as in device development and testing. PMID:25300886

  18. Challenges and limitations of patient-specific vascular phantom fabrication using 3D Polyjet printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionita, Ciprian N.; Mokin, Maxim; Varble, Nicole; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Xiang, Jianping; Snyder, Kenneth V.; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Levy, Elad I.; Meng, Hui; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology offers a great opportunity towards development of patient-specific vascular anatomic models, for medical device testing and physiological condition evaluation. However, the development process is not yet well established and there are various limitations depending on the printing materials, the technology and the printer resolution. Patient-specific neuro-vascular anatomy was acquired from computed tomography angiography and rotational digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The volumes were imported into a Vitrea 3D workstation (Vital Images Inc.) and the vascular lumen of various vessels and pathologies were segmented using a "marching cubes" algorithm. The results were exported as Stereo Lithographic (STL) files and were further processed by smoothing, trimming, and wall extrusion (to add a custom wall to the model). The models were printed using a Polyjet printer, Eden 260V (Objet-Stratasys). To verify the phantom geometry accuracy, the phantom was reimaged using rotational DSA, and the new data was compared with the initial patient data. The most challenging part of the phantom manufacturing was removal of support material. This aspect could be a serious hurdle in building very tortuous phantoms or small vessels. The accuracy of the printed models was very good: distance analysis showed average differences of 120 μm between the patient and the phantom reconstructed volume dimensions. Most errors were due to residual support material left in the lumen of the phantom. Despite the post-printing challenges experienced during the support cleaning, this technology could be a tremendous benefit to medical research such as in device development and testing.

  19. Challenges and limitations of patient-specific vascular phantom fabrication using 3D Polyjet printing.

    PubMed

    Ionita, Ciprian N; Mokin, Maxim; Varble, Nicole; Bednarek, Daniel R; Xiang, Jianping; Snyder, Kenneth V; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Levy, Elad I; Meng, Hui; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-03-13

    Additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology offers a great opportunity towards development of patient-specific vascular anatomic models, for medical device testing and physiological condition evaluation. However, the development process is not yet well established and there are various limitations depending on the printing materials, the technology and the printer resolution. Patient-specific neuro-vascular anatomy was acquired from computed tomography angiography and rotational digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The volumes were imported into a Vitrea 3D workstation (Vital Images Inc.) and the vascular lumen of various vessels and pathologies were segmented using a "marching cubes" algorithm. The results were exported as Stereo Lithographic (STL) files and were further processed by smoothing, trimming, and wall extrusion (to add a custom wall to the model). The models were printed using a Polyjet printer, Eden 260V (Objet-Stratasys). To verify the phantom geometry accuracy, the phantom was reimaged using rotational DSA, and the new data was compared with the initial patient data. The most challenging part of the phantom manufacturing was removal of support material. This aspect could be a serious hurdle in building very tortuous phantoms or small vessels. The accuracy of the printed models was very good: distance analysis showed average differences of 120 μm between the patient and the phantom reconstructed volume dimensions. Most errors were due to residual support material left in the lumen of the phantom. Despite the post-printing challenges experienced during the support cleaning, this technology could be a tremendous benefit to medical research such as in device development and testing.

  20. Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1975-01-01

    Domestic and international challenges facing the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness are discussed; and U.S. and Russian programs in testing and correcting children's vision, developing eye safety programs in agriculture and industry, and disseminating information concerning the detection and treatment of cataracts are compared. (SB)

  1. Challenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allday, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    The events that led to the spectacular destruction of the Space Shuttle "Challenger" in 1986 are detailed here. They show how NASA should have heeded engineers' worries over materials problems resulting from a launch in cold weather. Suggestions are made of how pupils could also learn from this tragedy. (Contains 4 figures and 2 footnotes.)

  2. Namibia specific climate smart agricultural land use practices: Challenges and opportunities for enhancing ecosystem services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Talamondjila Naanda, Martha; Bloemertz, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Agriculture is a backbone for many African economies, with an estimated 70% of Africans active in agricultural production. The sector often does not only directly contribute to, but sustains food security and poverty reduction efforts. Sustaining this productivity poses many challenges, particularly to small scale subsistence farmers (SSF) in dry land areas and semi-arid countries like Namibia. SSF in northern central Namibia mix crop and livestock production on degraded semi-arid lands and nutrient-poor sandy soils. They are fully dependent on agricultural production with limited alternative sources of income. Mostly, their agricultural harvests and outputs are low, not meeting their livelihood needs. At the same time, the land use is often not sustainable, leading to degradation. The Namibia case reveals that addressing underlying economic, social and environmental challenges requires a combination of farm level-soil management practices with a shift towards integrated landscape management. This forms the basis for SSF to adopt sustainable land management practices while building institutional foundations, like establishing SSF cooperatives. One way in which this has been tested is through the concept of incentive-based motivation, i.e. payment for ecosystem services (PES), in which some of the beneficiaries pay, for instance for farmers or land users, who provide the services. The farmers provide these services by substituting their unsustainable land and soil management and adopting new (climate smart agricultural) land use practices. Climate Smart Agricultural land use practices (CSA-LUP) are one way of providing ecosystem services, which could be fundamental to long-term sustainable soil and land management solutions in Africa. There are few PES cases which have been systematically studied from an institutional development structure perspective. This study presents lessons evolving from the notion that direct participation and involvement of local people

  3. Sample Acquisition and Analytical Chemistry Challenges to Verifying Compliance to Aviators Breathing Oxygen (ABO) Purity Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been developing and testing two different types of oxygen separation systems. One type of oxygen separation system uses pressure swing technology, the other type uses a solid electrolyte electrochemical oxygen separation cell. Both development systems have been subjected to long term testing, and performance testing under a variety of environmental and operational conditions. Testing these two systems revealed that measuring the product purity of oxygen, and determining if an oxygen separation device meets Aviator's Breathing Oxygen (ABO) specifications is a subtle and sometimes difficult analytical chemistry job. Verifying product purity of cryogenically produced oxygen presents a different set of analytical chemistry challenges. This presentation will describe some of the sample acquisition and analytical chemistry challenges presented by verifying oxygen produced by an oxygen separator - and verifying oxygen produced by cryogenic separation processes. The primary contaminant that causes gas samples to fail to meet ABO requirements is water. The maximum amount of water vapor allowed is 7 ppmv. The principal challenge of verifying oxygen produced by an oxygen separator is that it is produced relatively slowly, and at comparatively low temperatures. A short term failure that occurs for just a few minutes in the course of a 1 week run could cause an entire tank to be rejected. Continuous monitoring of oxygen purity and water vapor could identify problems as soon as they occur. Long term oxygen separator tests were instrumented with an oxygen analyzer and with an hygrometer: a GE Moisture Monitor Series 35. This hygrometer uses an aluminum oxide sensor. The user's manual does not report this, but long term exposure to pure oxygen causes the aluminum oxide sensor head to bias dry. Oxygen product that exceeded the 7 ppm specification was improperly accepted, because the sensor had biased. The bias is permanent - exposure to air does not cause the sensor to

  4. Addressing numerical challenges in introducing a reactive transport code into a land surface model: a biogeochemical modeling proof-of-concept with CLM-PFLOTRAN 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Guoping; Yuan, Fengming; Bisht, Gautam; Hammond, Glenn E.; Lichtner, Peter C.; Kumar, Jitendra; Mills, Richard T.; Xu, Xiaofeng; Andre, Ben; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Painter, Scott L.; Thornton, Peter E.

    2016-03-01

    We explore coupling to a configurable subsurface reactive transport code as a flexible and extensible approach to biogeochemistry in land surface models. A reaction network with the Community Land Model carbon-nitrogen (CLM-CN) decomposition, nitrification, denitrification, and plant uptake is used as an example. We implement the reactions in the open-source PFLOTRAN (massively parallel subsurface flow and reactive transport) code and couple it with the CLM. To make the rate formulae designed for use in explicit time stepping in CLMs compatible with the implicit time stepping used in PFLOTRAN, the Monod substrate rate-limiting function with a residual concentration is used to represent the limitation of nitrogen availability on plant uptake and immobilization. We demonstrate that CLM-PFLOTRAN predictions (without invoking PFLOTRAN transport) are consistent with CLM4.5 for Arctic, temperate, and tropical sites.Switching from explicit to implicit method increases rigor but introduces numerical challenges. Care needs to be taken to use scaling, clipping, or log transformation to avoid negative concentrations during the Newton iterations. With a tight relative update tolerance (STOL) to avoid false convergence, an accurate solution can be achieved with about 50 % more computing time than CLM in point mode site simulations using either the scaling or clipping methods. The log transformation method takes 60-100 % more computing time than CLM. The computing time increases slightly for clipping and scaling; it increases substantially for log transformation for half saturation decrease from 10-3 to 10-9 mol m-3, which normally results in decreasing nitrogen concentrations. The frequent occurrence of very low concentrations (e.g. below nanomolar) can increase the computing time for clipping or scaling by about 20 %, double for log transformation. Overall, the log transformation method is accurate and robust, and the clipping and scaling methods are efficient. When the

  5. Addressing numerical challenges in introducing a reactive transport code into a land surface model: a biogeochemical modeling proof-of-concept with CLM–PFLOTRAN 1.0

    DOE PAGES

    Tang, Guoping; Yuan, Fengming; Bisht, Gautam; ...

    2016-03-04

    We explore coupling to a configurable subsurface reactive transport code as a flexible and extensible approach to biogeochemistry in land surface models. A reaction network with the Community Land Model carbon–nitrogen (CLM-CN) decomposition, nitrification, denitrification, and plant uptake is used as an example. We implement the reactions in the open-source PFLOTRAN (massively parallel subsurface flow and reactive transport) code and couple it with the CLM. To make the rate formulae designed for use in explicit time stepping in CLMs compatible with the implicit time stepping used in PFLOTRAN, the Monod substrate rate-limiting function with a residual concentration is used to represent the limitation ofmore » nitrogen availability on plant uptake and immobilization. We demonstrate that CLM–PFLOTRAN predictions (without invoking PFLOTRAN transport) are consistent with CLM4.5 for Arctic, temperate, and tropical sites.Switching from explicit to implicit method increases rigor but introduces numerical challenges. Care needs to be taken to use scaling, clipping, or log transformation to avoid negative concentrations during the Newton iterations. With a tight relative update tolerance (STOL) to avoid false convergence, an accurate solution can be achieved with about 50 % more computing time than CLM in point mode site simulations using either the scaling or clipping methods. The log transformation method takes 60–100 % more computing time than CLM. The computing time increases slightly for clipping and scaling; it increases substantially for log transformation for half saturation decrease from 10−3 to 10−9 mol m−3, which normally results in decreasing nitrogen concentrations. The frequent occurrence of very low concentrations (e.g. below nanomolar) can increase the computing time for clipping or scaling by about 20 %, double for log transformation. Overall, the log transformation method is accurate and robust, and the clipping and scaling

  6. Addressing Psychosocial Factors with Library Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Bridget; Alabi, Jaena; Whaley, Pambanisha; Jenda, Claudine

    2017-01-01

    The majority of articles on mentoring in the library and information science field address career development by emphasizing the orientation process for new librarians and building the requisite skills for a specific job. Few articles deal with the psychological and social challenges that many early-career and minority librarians face, which can…

  7. Metabolic profiling of the tissue-specific responses in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis towards Vibrio harveyi challenge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wang, Qing; Li, Fei; Wu, Huifeng

    2014-08-01

    Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is a marine aquaculture shellfish distributing widely along the coast in north China. In this work, we studied the differential metabolic responses induced by Vibrio harveyi in digestive gland and gill tissues from M. galloprovincialis using NMR-based metabolomics. The differential metabolic responses in the two tissue types were detected, except the similarly altered taurine and betaine. These metabolic responses suggested that V. harveyi mainly induced osmotic disruption and reduced energy demand via the metabolic pathways of glucose synthesis and ATP/AMP conversion in mussel digestive gland. In mussel gill tissues, V. harveyi basically caused osmotic stress and possible reduced energy demand as shown by the elevated phosphocholine that is involved in one of the metabolic pathways of ATP synthesis from ADP and phosphocholine. The altered mRNA expression levels of related genes (superoxide dismutase with copper and zinc, heat shock protein 90, defensin and lysozyme) suggested that V. harveyi induced clear oxidative and immune stresses in both digestive gland and gill tissues. However, the mRNA expression levels of both lysozyme and defensin in digestive gland were more significantly up-regulated than those in gill from V. harveyi-challenged mussel M. galloprovincialis, meaning that the immune organ, digestive gland, was more sensitive than gill. Overall, our results indicated that V. harveyi could induce tissue-specific metabolic responses in mussel M. galloprovincialis.

  8. Coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch strain differences in disease resistance and non-specific immunity, following immersion challenges with Vibrio anguillarum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balfry, Shannon K.; Maule, Alec G.; Iwama, George K.

    2001-01-01

    Two strains of freshwater-reared coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were compared for differences in the activity of selected non-specific immune factors before and after lethal and non-lethal immersion challenges with the marine bacterial pathogen Vibrio anguillarum (Vang). Two disease challenge experiments were performed. The first experimental challenge resulted in no mortality; however, significant strain and challenge treatment effects were detected at Day 16 post-challenge. Strain differences in plasma lysozyme activity were found in pre-challenge samples. The second challenge experiment compared the same strains of coho salmon following immersion challenges in different doses of Vang. The fish were sampled at Days 0, 2, 7, and 18 post-challenge and mortality, plasma lysozyme, and anterior kidney phagocyte respiratory burst activity were compared. There were significant strain differences in mortality in the high dose group. The more disease-resistant strain was found to have higher levels of plasma lysozyme and anterior kidney phagocyte respiratory burst activity. These strain differences were detected at various times in the lethal (high dose) and non-lethal challenge groups. There was a clear relationship between the enhanced survival of the more disease-resistant strain and a more sustained, elevated non-specific immune response following the experimental disease challenges. The results of this study suggest that the basis for strain differences in innate disease resistance is related to the ability of the fish to respond quickly to the initial infection and to maintain the response until the infection is quelled.

  9. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system.

  10. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2015 Specific Environmental Benefit: Climate Change Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2015 award winner, Algenol, blue-green algae to produce ethanol and other fuels, uses CO2 from air or industrial emitters, reduces the carbon footprint, costs and water usage, no reliance on food crops

  11. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2016 Designing Greener Chemicals and Specific Environmental Benefit: Climate Change Awards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2016 award winner, Newlight Technologies, developed a net carbon negative plastic made from methane-based GHG. It is cheaper than petroleum-based plastic; used to make cell phone cases, furniture, and other products.

  12. Educational Challenges for Engineering. Keynote Address, Engineering in the Service of Society: New Educational Programs. IEEE Workshop Record (University of Kentucky, Lexington, August 26-27, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truxal, John G.

    Cited are the educational challenges of undergraduate, graduate, and professional engineering programs; the main emphasis is on the challente to provide engineering education for non-engineering students at both the undergraduate and adult levels. The need for such a program stems from a conviction that no citizen can be considered educated in…

  13. Cycles of Change and Challenges for Health Professions Involved in Multidisciplinary Approaches to Prevention. (1993 AAHE Scholar Address. AAHPERD Convention, Washington, D.C.).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Elaine J.

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of professions working in multidisciplinary health promotion and disease prevention efforts, focusing on medical specialties, public health, behavioral medicine, health psychology, health education, and health behavior. Major challenges general to all the fields include reimbursement, priorities, professional preparation,…

  14. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  15. Addressing the “Global Health Tax” and “Wild Cards”: Practical Challenges to Building Academic Careers in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Ranu

    2016-01-01

    Among many possible benefits, global health efforts can expand the skills and experience of U.S. clinicians, improve health for communities in need, and generate innovations in care delivery with relevance everywhere. Yet, despite high rates of interest among students and medical trainees to include global health opportunities in their training, there is still no clear understanding of how this interest will translate into viable and sustained global health careers after graduation. Building on a growing conversation about how to support careers in academic global health, this Perspective describes the practical challenges faced by physicians pursuing these careers after they complete training. Writing from their perspective as junior faculty at one U.S. academic health center with a dedicated focus on global health training, the authors describe a number of practical issues they have found to be critical both for their own career development and for the advice they provide their mentees. With a particular emphasis on the financial, personal, professional, and logistical challenges that young “expat” global health physicians in academic institutions face, they underscore the importance of finding ways to support these career paths, and propose possible solutions. Such investments would not only respond to the rational and moral imperatives of global health work and advance the mission of improving human health but also help to fully leverage the potential of what is already an unprecedented movement within academic medicine. PMID:26244256

  16. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  17. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  18. [Gender identity disorder: challenges and specificity in the treatment of requests for sexual reassignment].

    PubMed

    Pécoud, P; Pralong, F; Bauquis, O; Stiefel, F

    2011-02-16

    Gender identity disorder is defined as a permanent desire to relieve one's own sexual features to acquire the sexual features and line to life of the opposite sex. The diagnosis is based on the psychiatric evaluation and treatment on an interdisciplinary approach by endocrinologists, surgeons and psychiatrists, and can be conceptualized into distinct phases: diagnostic evaluation, real life experience, hormonal treatment and surgery. Multiples challenges have to be faced, especially by the psychiatrist who follows the patient during the whole process.

  19. Developing cognitive behaviour therapy training in India: Using the Kolb learning cycle to address challenges in applying transcultural models of mental health and mental health training.

    PubMed

    Beck, Andrew; Virudhagirinathan, B S; Santosham, Sangita; Begum, Faiz Jahan

    2014-10-01

    Although mental health workers in India across all major professional groups have identified an unmet need for training in cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), the uncritical export of models of mental health, therapy provision and training to low- and middle-income countries is a problematic process. This paper describes the context for the first stand-alone CBT training programme in India, based in Chennai. This paper includes an evaluation of the first phase of the training and information from trainees regarding the quality and applicability of the training to their working context. The paper provides an overview of some of the critiques that are pertinent to this process and considers the way that the Kolb learning cycle can be used as a framework within training to go some way to addressing these difficulties.

  20. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  1. Research and Evaluation of Advanced Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Methods for Addressing the Challenges of Inspecting Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel (CASS) Piping

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Diaz, Aaron A.

    2009-07-01

    This Conference paper is for submission to the 7th International Conference on NDE in Relation to Structural Integrity for Nuclear and Pressurized Components, in Yokohama, Japan Specifically, this paper is being presented at this Conference on May 12-14, 2009.

  2. Multisite artery disease: a common and challenging clinical condition calling for specific management.

    PubMed

    Di Noi, Paola; Brancati, Marta Francesca; Burzotta, Francesco; Trani, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    'Multisite' artery disease is defined as the simultaneous presence of clinically significant atherosclerotic lesions in at least two major vascular territories. The management of patients with multisite artery disease represents a common challenge in clinical practice, since they are at increased risk for both vascular and coronary surgery. Preliminary experiences suggest that percutaneous treatment may represent a promising strategy for patients with multisite artery disease. In this review, the prevalence and management of multisite artery disease are discussed with particular attention to coronary and peripheral revascularization related issues.

  3. Creating a cadre of junior investigators to address the challenges of cancer-related health disparities: lessons learned from the community networks program.

    PubMed

    Felder, Tisha M; Brandt, Heather M; Armstead, Cheryl A; Cavicchia, Philip P; Braun, Kathryn L; Adams, Swann A; Friedman, Daniela B; Tanjasiri, Sora; Steck, Susan E; Smith, Emily R; Daguisé, Virginie G; Hébert, James R

    2012-06-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) initiatives such as the National Cancer Institute's Community Networks Program (CNP) (2005-2010) often emphasize training of junior investigators from underrepresented backgrounds to address health disparities. From July to October 2010, a convenience sample of 80 participants from the 25 CNP national sites completed our 45-item, web-based survey on the training and mentoring of junior investigators. This study assessed the academic productivity and CBPR-related experiences of the CNP junior investigators (n=37). Those from underrepresented backgrounds reported giving more presentations in non-academic settings (nine vs. four in the last 5 years, p=0.01), having more co-authored publications (eight vs. three in the last 5 years, p=0.01), and spending more time on CBPR-related activities than their non-underrepresented counterparts. Regardless of background, junior investigators shared similar levels of satisfaction with their mentors and CBPR experiences. This study provides support for the success of the CNP's training program, especially effort directed at underrepresented investigators.

  4. Creating a Cadre of Junior Investigators to Address the Challenges of Cancer-Related Health Disparities: Lessons Learned from the Community Networks Program

    PubMed Central

    Felder, Tisha M.; Brandt, Heather M.; Armstead, Cheryl; Cavicchia, Philip P.; Braun, Kathryn L.; Adams, Swann A.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Tanjasiri, Sora; Steck, Susan E.; Smith, Emily R.; Daguisé, Virginie G.; Hébert, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) initiatives such as the National Cancer Institute’s Community Networks Program (CNP) (2005–2010) often emphasize training of junior investigators from underrepresented backgrounds to address health disparities. From July to October 2010, a convenience sample of 80 participants from the 25 CNP national sites completed our 45-item, web-based survey on the training and mentoring of junior investigators. This study assessed the academic productivity and CBPR-related experiences of the CNP junior investigators (n=37). Those from underrepresented backgrounds reported giving more presentations in non-academic settings (9 vs. 4 in last 5 years, p=0.01), having more co-authored publications (8 vs. 3 in last 5 years, p=0.01), and spending more time on CBPR-related activities than their non-underrepresented counterparts. Regardless of background, junior investigators shared similar levels of satisfaction with their mentors and CBPR experiences. This study provides support for the success of the CNP’s training program, especially effort directed at underrepresented investigators. PMID:22528636

  5. A new look at the science of weight control: how acceptance and commitment strategies can address the challenge of self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Forman, Evan M; Butryn, Meghan L

    2015-01-01

    The current manuscript proposes an acceptance-based, self-regulation framework for understanding the challenge of weight maintenance and describes how this framework can be integrated into the behavioral treatment of obesity. According to this framework, intrinsic drives to consume palatable, high-calorie food interact with a modern environment in which high calorie foods are easily accessible. This combination produces a chronic desire to eat unhealthy foods that exists in opposition to individuals' weight control goals. Similarly, low energy expenditure requirements reduce physical activity. We suggest that individuals vary in their responsivity to cues that motivate overeating and sedentary behavior, and that those higher in responsivity need specialized self-regulatory skills to maintain healthy eating and exercise behaviors. These skills include an ability to tolerate uncomfortable internal reactions to triggers and a reduction of pleasure, behavioral commitment to clearly-defined values, and metacognitive awareness of decision-making processes. So-called "acceptance-based" interventions based on these skills have so far proven efficacious for weight control, especially for those who are the most susceptible to eating in response to internal and external cues (as predicted by the model). Despite the current empirical support for the postulated model, much remains to be learned including whether acceptance-based interventions will prove efficacious in the longer-term.

  6. Attention modulates specificity effects in spoken word recognition: Challenges to the time-course hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Theodore, Rachel M.; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Luthra, Sahil

    2015-01-01

    Findings in the domain of spoken word recognition indicate that lexical representations contain both abstract and episodic information. It has been proposed that processing time determines when each source of information is recruited, with increased processing time required to access lower-frequency episodic instantiations. The time-course hypothesis of specificity effects thus identifies a strong role for retrieval mechanisms mediating the use of abstract versus episodic information. Here we conducted three recognition memory experiments to examine whether findings previously attributed to retrieval mechanisms might reflect attention during encoding. Results from Experiment 1 showed that talker-specificity effects emerged when subjects attended to individual speakers during encoding, but not when they attended to lexical characteristics during encoding, even though processing time at retrieval was equivalent. Results from Experiment 2 showed that talker-specificity effects emerged when listeners attended to talker gender but not when they attended to syntactic characteristics, even though processing time at retrieval was significantly longer in the latter condition. Results from Experiment 3 showed no talker-specificity effects when attending to lexical characteristics even when processing at retrieval was slowed by the addition of background noise. Collectively, these results suggest that when processing time during retrieval is decoupled from encoding factors, it fails to predict the emergence of talker-specificity effects. Rather, attention during encoding appears to be the putative variable. PMID:25824889

  7. Improving the Pipeline of Women in STEM Fields: Addressing Challenges in Instruction, Engagement, and Evaluation of an Aerospace Workshop Series for Girl Scouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sealfon, C. D.; Plummer, J. D.

    2012-08-01

    The Women in Aerospace and Technology Project (WATP) is a collaborative effort between the Girl Scouts of Eastern Pennsylvania, the American Helicopter Museum, Boeing Rotorcraft, Sikorsky Global Helicopters, Drexel University, West Chester University, and Arcadia University. The program aims to increase the representation of women in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) fields; the evaluation team identified a secondary goal to assess growth in participants' understanding of scientific inquiry. Girls, grades 4-12, were invited to join Girl Scout troops formed at the American Helicopter Museum to participate in a series of eight workshops on the physics and engineering of flight. Five college women majoring in physics and engineering were recruited as mentors for the girls. Lessons were written by local aerospace industry partners (including Boeing and Sikorsky); the mentors then taught the lessons and activities during the workshops. To evaluate the impact of this project, we collected data to answer two research questions: 1) In what ways does the program impact participants' attitudes towards science and interest in pursuing science as a career? 2) In what ways does the program impact participants' understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry? In this article we summarize results from two sources of data: before and after survey of attitudes about science and end-of-workshop informal questionnaires. Across the seven months of data collection, two challenges became apparent. First, our assessment goals, focusing on scientific interest and inquiry, seemed misaligned with the workshop curricula, which emphasized engineering and design. Secondly, there was little connection among activities within workshops and across the program.

  8. A New Look at the Science of Weight Control: How Acceptance and Commitment Strategies Can Address the Challenge of Self-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Evan M.; Butryn, Meghan L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of work, behavioral interventions for obesity are not yet able to facilitate long-term weight loss maintenance for most participants. The current manuscript proposes an acceptance-based, self-regulation framework for understanding the challenge of maintaining changes in weight-related behavior and describes how this framework can be integrated into the behavioral treatment of obesity. According to this framework, intrinsic drives to consume palatable, high-calorie food interact with a modern environment in which high calorie foods are easily accessible. This combination produces a chronic desire to eat unhealthy foods that exists in opposition to individuals’ weight control goals. Similarly, energy expenditure requirements in the modern environment are limited, and people’s innate preferences to conserve energy typically prevent the concerted effort that would be necessary to engage in lifestyle activity and structured activity. Both external (e.g., sight of food) and internal (e.g., an aversive emotion) cues motivate overeating and sedentary behavior. However, individuals vary in their responsivity to these cues. While standard behavior skills may enable those lower in responsivity to successfully achieve weight control, we suggest that those higher in responsivity need specialized self-regulatory skills to maintain healthy eating and exercise behaviors. These skills include an ability to tolerate uncomfortable internal reactions to triggers and a reduction of pleasure, behavioral commitment to clearly-defined values, and metacognitive awareness of decision-making processes. So-called “acceptance-based” interventions based on these skills have so far proven efficacious for weight control, especially for those who are the most susceptible to eating in response to internal and external cues (as predicted by the model). Despite the current empirical support for the postulated model and for the interventions which stem from it, much remains to

  9. An Update on Geriatric Medication Safety and Challenges Specific to the Care of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Koronkowski, Michael; Eisenhower, Christine; Marcum, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    The prescribing of drug therapies in older adults presents a number of safety challenges. The increased complexity of chronic care for older adults has led to polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate medication use, which can contribute to drug-induced diseases, adverse drug reactions, drug interactions, cognitive impairment, falls, hospitalization, and mortality. In this review, the authors discuss recent medication safety literature pertaining to the classes of medications commonly prescribed to older adults: anticholinergics, psychiatric medications, and antibiotics. Safety concerns associated with the use of these medications and the implications for long-term care practitioners are reviewed. The information provided can be used to inform and improve geriatric care delivered by practitioners across health care environments. PMID:27340375

  10. Delivering Software Process-Specific Project Courses in Tertiary Education Environment: Challenges and Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rong, Guoping; Shao, Dong

    2012-01-01

    The importance of delivering software process courses to software engineering students has been more and more recognized in China in recent years. However, students usually cannot fully appreciate the value of software process courses by only learning methodology and principle in the classroom. Therefore, a process-specific project course was…

  11. Specific serum antibody responses in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) provide limited protection against Streptococcus ictaluri challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Passive immunization has been shown to provide a spectrum of protection against certain piscine pathogens, and studies were conducted to determine the role of specific antibodies in immunity to Streptococcus ictaluri. Adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were injected i.p. with tryptic soy br...

  12. How to ensure that the results of climate risk analysis make a difference? - Experience from applied research addressing the challenges of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneiderbauer, Stefan; Zebisch, Marc; Becker, Daniel; Pedoth, Lydia; Renner, Kathrin; Kienberger, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Changing climate conditions may have beneficial or adverse effects on the social-ecological systems we are living in. In any case, the possible effects result from complex and interlinked physical and social processes embedded in these systems. Traditional research addresses these bio-physical and societal issues in a separate way. Therefore, in general, studies on risks related to climate change are still mono-disciplinary in nature with an increasing amount of work following a multi-disciplinary approach. The quality and usefulness of the results of such research for policy or decision making in practice may further be limited by study designs that do not acknowledge appropriately the significance of integrating or at least mixing qualitative and quantitative information and knowledge. Finally, the acceptance of study results - particularly when containing some kind of assessments - is often endangered by insufficient and / or late involvement of stakeholders and users. The above mentioned limitations have often been brought up in the recent past. However, despite that a certain consensus could be achieved in the last years recognising the need to tackle these issues, little progress has been made in terms of implementation within the context of (research) studies. This paper elaborates in detail on reasons that hamper the application of - interdisciplinary (i.e. natural and social science), - trans-disciplinary (i.e. co-production of knowledge) and - integrative (i.e. combining qualitative and quantitative approaches) work. It is based on the experience gained through a number of applied climate change vulnerability studies carried out within the context of various GIZ-financed development cooperation projects, a consultancy project for the German Environment Agency as well as the workshop series INQUIMUS, which tackles particularly the issues of mixing qualitative and quantitative research approaches. Potentials and constraints of possible attempts for

  13. MUC1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in cancer therapy: induction and challenge.

    PubMed

    Roulois, David; Grégoire, Marc; Fonteneau, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    MUC1 glycoprotein is often found overexpressed and hypoglycosylated in tumor cells from numerous cancer types. Since its discovery MUC1 has been an attractive target for antitumor immunotherapy. Indeed, in vitro and in vivo experiments have shown T-cell-specific responses against MUC1 in an HLA-restricted and HLA-unrestricted manner, although some animal models have highlighted the possible development of tolerogenic responses against this antigen. These observations permit the development of new T-cell vaccine strategies capable of inducing an MUC1-specific cytotoxic T cell response in cancer patients. Some of these strategies are now being tested in clinical trials against different types of cancer. To date, encouraging clinical responses have been observed with some MUC1 vaccines in phase II/III clinical trials. This paper compiles knowledge regarding MUC1 as a promising tumor antigen for antitumor therapeutic vaccines applicable to numerous cancers. We also summarize the results of MUC1-vaccine-based clinical trials.

  14. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  15. Challenges in assigning endocrine-specific modes of action: Recommendations for researchers and regulators.

    PubMed

    Mihaich, Ellen M; Schäfers, Christoph; Dreier, David A; Hecker, Markus; Ortego, Lisa; Kawashima, Yukio; Dang, Zhi-Chao; Solomon, Keith

    2017-03-01

    As regulatory programs evaluate substances for their endocrine-disrupting properties, careful study design and data interpretation are needed to distinguish between responses that are truly endocrine specific and those that are not. This is particularly important in regulatory environments where criteria are under development to identify endocrine-disrupting properties to enable hazard-based regulation. Irrespective of these processes, most jurisdictions use the World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety definition of an endocrine disruptor, requiring that a substance is demonstrated to cause a change in endocrine function that consequently leads to an adverse effect in an intact organism. Such a definition is broad, and at its most cautious might capture many general mechanisms that would not specifically denote an endocrine disruptor. In addition, endocrine responses may be adaptive in nature, designed to maintain homeostasis rather than induce an irreversible adverse effect. The likelihood of indirect effects is increased in (eco)toxicological studies that require the use of maximum tolerated concentrations or doses, which must produce some adverse effect. The misidentification of indirect effects as truly endocrine mediated has serious consequences for prompting animal- and resource-intensive testing and regulatory consequences. To minimize the risk for misidentification, an objective and transparent weight-of-evidence procedure based on biological plausibility, essentiality, and empirical evidence of key events in an adverse outcome pathway is recommended to describe the modes of action that may be involved in toxic responses in nontarget organisms. Confounding factors such as systemic toxicity, general stress, and infection can add complexity to such an evaluation and should be considered in the weight of evidence. A recommended set of questions is proffered to help guide researchers and regulators in discerning endocrine and

  16. Chemokine Receptor-Specific Antibodies in Cancer Immunotherapy: Achievements and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Vela, Maria; Aris, Mariana; Llorente, Mercedes; Garcia-Sanz, Jose A.; Kremer, Leonor

    2015-01-01

    The 1990s brought a burst of information regarding the structure, expression pattern, and role in leukocyte migration and adhesion of chemokines and their receptors. At that time, the FDA approved the first therapeutic antibodies for cancer treatment. A few years later, it was reported that the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7 were involved on directing metastases to liver, lung, bone marrow, or lymph nodes, and the over-expression of CCR4, CCR6, and CCR9 by certain tumors. The possibility of inhibiting the interaction of chemokine receptors present on the surface of tumor cells with their ligands emerged as a new therapeutic approach. Therefore, many research groups and companies began to develop small molecule antagonists and specific antibodies, aiming to neutralize signaling from these receptors. Despite great expectations, so far, only one anti-chemokine receptor antibody has been approved for its clinical use, mogamulizumab, an anti-CCR4 antibody, granted in Japan to treat refractory adult T-cell leukemia and lymphoma. Here, we review the main achievements obtained with anti-chemokine receptor antibodies for cancer immunotherapy, including discovery and clinical studies, proposed mechanisms of action, and therapeutic applications. PMID:25688243

  17. Do location specific forecasts pose a new challenge for communicating uncertainty?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Shyamali; Bartlett, Rachel; Standage, Matthew; Black, Alison; Charlton-Perez, Andrew; McCloy, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade, the growth of local, site-specific weather forecasts delivered by mobile phone or website represents arguably the fastest change in forecast consumption since the beginning of Television weather forecasts 60 years ago. In this study, a street-interception survey of 274 members of the public a clear first preference for narrow weather forecasts above traditional broad weather forecasts is shown for the first time, with a clear bias towards this preference for users under 40. The impact of this change on the understanding of forecast probability and intensity information is explored. While the correct interpretation of the statement 'There is a 30% chance of rain tomorrow' is still low in the cohort, in common with previous studies, a clear impact of age and educational attainment on understanding is shown, with those under 40 and educated to degree level or above more likely to correctly interpret it. The interpretation of rainfall intensity descriptors ('Light', 'Moderate', 'Heavy') by the cohort is shown to be significantly different to official and expert assessment of the same descriptors and to have large variance amongst the cohort. However, despite these key uncertainties, members of the cohort generally seem to make appropriate decisions about rainfall forecasts. There is some evidence that the decisions made are different depending on the communication format used, and the cohort expressed a clear preference for tabular over graphical weather forecast presentation.

  18. Addressing the Social, Academic, and Behavioral Needs of Students with Challenging Behavior in Inclusive and Alternative Settings. Highlights from the Forum on Comprehensive Programming for a Diverse Population of Children and Youth with Challenging Behavior: Addressing Social, Academic, and Behavioral Needs within Inclusive and Alternative Settings (Las Vegas, Nevada, February 9-10, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Lyndal M., Ed.; Gable, Robert A., Ed.

    This document presents the texts of 11 major presentations and conference highlights from a February 2001 conference on the social, academic, and behavioral needs of students with challenging behavior in inclusive and alternative settings as required under the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The presentations…

  19. Challenges and strategies for generating therapeutic patient-specific hemangioblasts and hematopoietic stem cells from human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    PETERS, ANN; BURRIDGE, PAUL W.; PRYZHKOVA, MARINA V.; LEVINE, MICHAL A.; PARK, TEA-SOON; ROXBURY, CHRISTOPHER; YUAN, XUAN; PÉAULT, BRUNO; ZAMBIDIS, ELIAS T.

    2012-01-01

    Recent characterization of hemangioblasts differentiated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) has further confirmed evidence from murine, zebrafish and avian experimental systems that hematopoietic and endothelial lineages arise from a common progenitor. Such progenitors may provide a valuable resource for delineating the initial developmental steps of human hemato-endotheliogenesis, which is a process normally difficult to study due to the very limited accessibility of early human embryonic/fetal tissues. Moreover, efficient hemangioblast and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) generation from patient-specific pluripotent stem cells has enormous potential for regenerative medicine, since it could lead to strategies for treating a multitude of hematologic and vascular disorders. However, significant scientific challenges remain in achieving these goals, and the generation of transplantable hemangioblasts and HSC derived from hESC currently remains elusive. Our previous work has suggested that the failure to derive engraftable HSC from hESC is due to the fact that current methodologies for differentiating hESC produce hematopoietic progenitors developmentally similar to those found in the human yolk sac, and are therefore too immature to provide adult-type hematopoietic reconstitution. Herein, we outline the nature of this challenge and propose targeted strategies for generating engraftable human pluripotent stem cell-derived HSC from primitive hemangioblasts using a developmental approach. We also focus on methods by which reprogrammed somatic cells could be used to derive autologous pluripotent stem cells, which in turn could provide unlimited sources of patient-specific hemangioblasts and HSC. PMID:20563986

  20. Addressing the Challenges of Campus Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

    Asserting that no campus, from those located in large urban settings to institutions nestled in small rural environments, is immune to being a potential target of domestic or international terrorism, this publication offers information and resources beneficial to presidents, chancellors, and their leadership teams as they review both prevention…

  1. Challenges Still to Be Appropriately Addressed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurette, Michel

    This section includes a heteroclite set of questions and comments of colleagues, which have still to be fully answered. Progress in science occurs not only with a few spectacular achievements that are generally cleverly advertised by funding agencies and the prestigious journals, but also by incessant questioning. They remain in the shadow for a while because you have to wait for an answer that might never come.

  2. Addressing Orthodox Challenges in the Pluralist Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindewald, Benjamin J.; Rosenblith, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    The American public landscape has shifted in concert with a newly emboldened political right, and the public school has again become an important battlefield in the latest culture wars. In addition to confrontations over educational policy issues is a largely untheorized area where the everyday classroom takes center stage: Teachers face a…

  3. Addressing Security Challenges in Pervasive Computing Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-10

    the Dengue Decision Support System that has been developed at Colorado State University. Further, to accommodate the dynamic nature of pervasive...Expressiveness of Events using Parameter Con- texts", Proceedings of the 12th East European Conferences on Advances in Databases and Information Systems...Anura Jayasumana and Indrajit Ray, " Key Pre-distribution Based Secure Backbone Design for Wireless Sensor Networks", Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE

  4. The specifically enhanced cellular immune responses in Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) against secondary challenge with Vibrio splendidus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Qiu, Limei; Sun, Zhibin; Wang, Lingling; Zhou, Zhi; Liu, Rui; Yue, Feng; Sun, Rui; Song, Linsheng

    2014-07-01

    The increasing experimental evidences suggest that there are some forms of specific acquired immunity in invertebrates, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. In the present study, Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) stimulated primarily by heat-killed Vibrio splendidus displayed stronger immune responses at cellular and molecular levels when they encountered the secondary challenge of live V. splendidus. The total hemocyte counts (THC) increased significantly after the primary stimulation of heat-killed V. splendidus, and it increased even higher (p < 0.01) and reached the peak earlier (at 6 h) after the secondary challenge with live V. splendidus compared with that of the primary stimulation. The number of new generated circulating hemocytes increased dramatically (p < 0.01) at 6 h after the pre-stimulated oysters received the secondary stimulation with live V. splendidus, and the phagocytic rate was also enhanced significantly (p < 0.01) at 12 h after the secondary stimulation. Meanwhile, the enhanced phagocytosis of hemocytes was highly specific for V. splendidus and they could distinguish Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio coralliilyticus, Yarrowia lipolytica, and Micrococcus luteus efficiently. In addition, the mRNA expression of 12 candidate genes related to phagocytosis and hematopoiesis were also monitored, and the expression levels of CgIntegrin, CgPI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase), CgRho J, CgMAPKK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase), CgRab32, CgNADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase, CgRunx1 and CgBMP7 (bone morphogenetic protein 7) in the hemocytes of pre-stimulated oysters after the secondary stimulation of V. splendidus were higher (p < 0.01) than that after the primary stimulation, but there was no statistically significant changes for the genes of CgPKC (protein kinase C), CgMyosin, CgActin, and CgGATA 3. These results collectively suggested that the primary stimulation of V. splendidus led to immune priming in

  5. Untying the gordian knot: what we do and don't know about gender-specific medicine-keynote address for the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Legato, Marianne

    2014-12-01

    Over the past two decades, a burgeoning interest in women's health, the direct consequence of the feminist movement, has inspired a worldwide interest in the differences between the normal function of men and women and their unique experiences of the same illnesses. The scope and significance of what we have discovered and continue to find has fundamentally changed the way we prevent, diagnose, and treat diseases. Important questions remain, however, and deserve specific investigation and analysis.

  6. The Dual Challenges of Generality and Specificity When Developing Environmental DNA Markers for Species and Subspecies of Oncorhynchus.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Taylor M; Carim, Kellie J; McKelvey, Kevin S; Young, Michael K; Schwartz, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling is a powerful tool for detecting invasive and native aquatic species. Often, species of conservation interest co-occur with other, closely related taxa. Here, we developed qPCR (quantitative PCR) markers which distinguish westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewsi), Yellowstone cutthroat trout (O. clarkii bouvieri), and rainbow trout (O. mykiss), which are of conservation interest both as native species and as invasive species across each other's native ranges. We found that local polymorphisms within westslope cutthroat trout and rainbow trout posed a challenge to designing assays that are generally applicable across the range of these widely-distributed species. Further, poorly-resolved taxonomies of Yellowstone cutthroat trout and Bonneville cutthroat trout (O. c. utah) prevented design of an assay that distinguishes these recognized taxa. The issues of intraspecific polymorphism and unresolved taxonomy for eDNA assay design addressed in this study are likely to be general problems for closely-related taxa. Prior to field application, we recommend that future studies sample populations and test assays more broadly than has been typical of published eDNA assays to date.

  7. The Dual Challenges of Generality and Specificity When Developing Environmental DNA Markers for Species and Subspecies of Oncorhynchus

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Taylor M.; Carim, Kellie J.; McKelvey, Kevin S.; Young, Michael K.; Schwartz, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling is a powerful tool for detecting invasive and native aquatic species. Often, species of conservation interest co-occur with other, closely related taxa. Here, we developed qPCR (quantitative PCR) markers which distinguish westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewsi), Yellowstone cutthroat trout (O. clarkii bouvieri), and rainbow trout (O. mykiss), which are of conservation interest both as native species and as invasive species across each other’s native ranges. We found that local polymorphisms within westslope cutthroat trout and rainbow trout posed a challenge to designing assays that are generally applicable across the range of these widely-distributed species. Further, poorly-resolved taxonomies of Yellowstone cutthroat trout and Bonneville cutthroat trout (O. c. utah) prevented design of an assay that distinguishes these recognized taxa. The issues of intraspecific polymorphism and unresolved taxonomy for eDNA assay design addressed in this study are likely to be general problems for closely-related taxa. Prior to field application, we recommend that future studies sample populations and test assays more broadly than has been typical of published eDNA assays to date. PMID:26536367

  8. Site-specific mesenchymal control of inflammatory pain to yeast challenge in vulvodynia-afflicted and pain-free women.

    PubMed

    Foster, David C; Falsetta, Megan L; Woeller, Collynn F; Pollock, Stephen J; Song, Kunchang; Bonham, Adrienne; Haidaris, Constantine G; Stodgell, Chris J; Messing, Susan P; Iadarola, Michael; Phipps, Richard P

    2015-03-01

    Fibroblast strains were derived from 2 regions of the lower genital tract of localized provoked vulvodynia (LPV) cases and pain-free controls. Sixteen strains were derived from 4 cases and 4 controls, age and race matched, after presampling mechanical pain threshold assessments. Strains were challenged with 6 separate stimuli: live yeast species (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae), yeast extract (zymosan), or inactive vehicle. Production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were proinflammatory response measures. Highest IL-6 and PGE2 occurred with vestibular strains after C albicans, C glabrata, and zymosan challenges, resulting in the ability to significantly predict IL-6 and PGE2 production by genital tract location. After C albicans and C glabrata challenge of all 16 fibroblast strains, adjusting for dual sampling of subjects, PGE2 and IL-6 production significantly predicted the presampling pain threshold from the genital tract site of sampling. At the same location of pain assessment and fibroblast sampling, in situ immunohistochemical (IHC)(+) fibroblasts for IL-6 and Cox-2 were quantified microscopically. The correlation between IL-6 production and IL-6 IHC(+) was statistically significant; however, biological significance is unknown because of the small number of IHC(+) IL-6 fibroblasts identified. A low fibroblast IL-6 IHC(+) count may result from most IL-6 produced by fibroblasts existing in a secreted extracellular state. Enhanced, site-specific, innate immune responsiveness to yeast pathogens by fibroblasts may be an early step in LPV pathogenesis. Fibroblast strain testing may offer an attractive and objective marker of LPV pathology in women with vulvodynia of inflammatory origin.

  9. Managing Challenging Situations in Practice: a new program developed to meet the specific needs of nursing students.

    PubMed

    Lyng, Colette; Cocoman, Angela; Ward, Emer; McGrath, Mary

    2012-11-01

    Health care workers, nurses, and nursing students face a high risk of workplace aggression and violence. Potential adverse consequences oblige health care providers and educators to protect the safety of everyone in the health care setting. It is broadly agreed that health care personnel should receive education and training in the management of work-related aggression and violence. However, there are no training programs designed to meet the specific needs of nursing students. In the absence of Irish or international policies or guidelines, an evidence-based training program for first-year undergraduate nursing students was developed. Its focus was to enable nursing students to recognize potential problems and develop the skills necessary to appropriately handle situations that may arise during their clinical nursing practice. This article outlines the development and delivery of a training program for first-year nursing students, entitled Managing Challenging Situations in Practice.

  10. Addressing the question of disorder-specific risk factors of internet addiction: a comparison of personality traits in patients with addictive behaviors and comorbid internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Müller, K W; Koch, A; Dickenhorst, U; Beutel, M E; Duven, E; Wölfling, K

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled use of the internet has been reported to affect the lives of some users in a negative way. According to epidemiological studies, about 1% of the general population is showing signs of internet addiction. Since internet addiction is becoming a growing health concern, research on potential risk factors is becoming more important in order to develop strategies for prevention and to adopt therapeutic treatment. Although there are some studies investigating personality traits in internet addiction, most of these studies are based on samples of healthy subjects. In this research project, we compared personality profiles of a sample of patients in different rehabilitation centers. 70 patients with an addiction disorder that additionally met the criteria for internet addiction were compared to 48 patients suffering from alcohol dependence. Besides Big Five personality traits, we also assessed depressive symptoms. It was shown that patients with comorbid internet addiction can be discriminated from other patients by higher neuroticism and lower extraversion as well as lower conscientiousness. After controlling for depressive symptoms, lower conscientiousness especially turned out to be a disorder-specific risk factor. As internet addiction is related to unique patterns of personality traits and can be discriminated from alcohol dependence, treatment approaches are needed that meet the specific requirements of patients with internet addiction.

  11. A Staphylococcus aureus capsular polysaccharide (CP) vaccine and CP-specific antibodies protect mice against bacterial challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Fattom, A I; Sarwar, J; Ortiz, A; Naso, R

    1996-01-01

    The efficacy of capsular polysaccharide (CP)-specific antibodies elicited by active immunization with vaccines composed of Staphylococcus aureus types 5 and 8 CP linked to Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoprotein A or with immune immunoglobulin G (I-IgG) obtained from vaccinated plasma donors was tested in lethal and sublethal bacterial mouse challenge models. A dose of 2 x 10(5) CFU of S. aureus type 5 CP per mouse administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 5% hog mucin was found to cause 80 to 100% mortality in BALB/c mice within 2 to 5 days. Mice passively immunized i.p. 24 h earlier or subcutaneously 48 h earlier with 0.5 ml of I-IgG showed significantly higher average survival rates than animals receiving standard IgG or saline (P < 0.01) following the bacterial challenge. Animals actively immunized with the monovalent type 5 CP-P. aeruginosa exoprotein A conjugate showed a survival rate of 73% compared with 13% in phosphate-buffered saline-immunized animals. The prechallenge geometric mean titer of type 5 CP antibodies in animals that died was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that of animals which survived the challenge (95.7 versus 223.6 micrograms/ml, respectively). The IgG was further evaluated in mice challenged i.p. with a sublethal dose of 5 x 10(4) CFU per mouse. Serial blood counts were performed on surviving animals at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. Surviving animals were sacrificed at 72 h, and bacterial counts were performed on their kidneys, livers, and peritoneal lavage fluids. Animals receiving I-IgG had lower bacterial counts in blood samples and lower bacterial densities in kidneys, livers, and peritoneal lavage samples than mice immunized with standard IgG (P < 0.05). These data suggest that S. aureus type 5 CP antibodies induced by active immunization or administered by passive immunization confer protection against S. aureus infections. PMID:8613375

  12. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  13. Interaction with specific HSP90 residues as a scoring function: validation in the D3R Grand Challenge 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Martins, Diogo

    2016-09-01

    Here is reported the development of a novel scoring function that performs remarkably well at identifying the native binding pose of a subset of HSP90 inhibitors containing aminopyrimidine or resorcinol based scaffolds. This scoring function is called PocketScore, and consists of the interaction energy between a ligand and three residues in the binding pocket: Asp93, Thr184 and a water molecule. We integrated PocketScore into a molecular docking workflow, and used it to participate in the Drug Design Data Resource (D3R) Grand Challenge 2015 (GC2015). PocketScore was able to rank 180 molecules of the GC2015 according to their binding affinity with satisfactory performance. These results indicate that the specific residues considered by PocketScore are determinant to properly model the interaction between HSP90 and its subset of inhibitors containing aminopyrimidine or resorcinol based scaffolds. Moreover, the development of PocketScore aimed at improving docking power while neglecting the prediction of binding affinities, suggesting that accurate identification of native binding poses is a determinant factor for the performance of virtual screens.

  14. Analysis of Transportation and Logistics Challenges Affecting the Deployment of Larger Wind Turbines: Summary of Results

    SciTech Connect

    J. Cotrell, T. Stehly, J. Johnson, J. O. Roberts, Z. Parker, G. Scott, and D. Heimiller

    2014-01-28

    The objectives of this study were to identify the transportation and logistics challenges, assess the associated impacts, and provide recommendations for strategies and specific actions to address the challenges.

  15. Research strategies for addressing uncertainties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busch, David E.; Brekke, Levi D.; Averyt, Kristen; Jardine, Angela; Welling, Leigh; Garfin, Gregg; Jardine, Angela; Merideth, Robert; Black, Mary; LeRoy, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Research Strategies for Addressing Uncertainties builds on descriptions of research needs presented elsewhere in the book; describes current research efforts and the challenges and opportunities to reduce the uncertainties of climate change; explores ways to improve the understanding of changes in climate and hydrology; and emphasizes the use of research to inform decision making.

  16. Integrated Cognitive-neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Phase 2 Challenge Problem Design and Test Specification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Phase 2 Challenge Problem Design and Test...SUBTITLE Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): A Computational Basis for ICArUS: Phase 2 Challenge...IARPA program ICArUS (Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking) requires a research problem that poses cognitive

  17. Tissue-specific induction of Hsp90 mRNA and plasma cortisol response in chinook salmon following heat shock, seawater challenge, and handling challenge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmisano, Aldo N.; Winton, J.R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    2000-01-01

    In studying the whole-body response of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to various stressors, we found that 5-hour exposure to elevated temperature (mean 21.6??C; + 10.6??C over ambient) induced a marked increase in Hsp90 messenger RNA accumulation in heart, brain, gill, muscle, liver, kidney, and tail fin tissues. The most vital tissues (heart, brain, gill, and muscle) showed the greatest Hsp90-mRNA response, with heart tissue increasing approximately 35-fold, Heat shock induced no increase in plasma cortisol. In contrast, a standard handling challenge induced high plasma cortisol levels, but no elevation in Hsp90 mRNA in any tissue, clearly separating the physiological and cellular stress responses. We saw no increase either in tissue Hsp90 mRNA levels or in plasma cortisol concentrations after exposing the fish to seawater overnight.

  18. Lack of specific association between panicogenic properties of caffeine and HPA-axis activation. A placebo-controlled study of caffeine challenge in patients with panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Masdrakis, Vasilios G; Markianos, Manolis; Oulis, Panagiotis

    2015-09-30

    A subgroup of patients with Panic Disorder (PD) exhibits increased sensitivity to caffeine administration. However, the association between caffeine-induced panic attacks and post-caffeine hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activation in PD patients remains unclear. In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over experiment, 19 PD patients underwent a 400-mg caffeine-challenge and a placebo-challenge, both administered in the form of instant coffee. Plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) were assessed at both baseline and post-challenge. No patient panicked after placebo-challenge, while nine patients (47.3%) panicked after caffeine-challenge. Placebo administration did not result in any significant change in hormones' plasma levels. Overall, sample's patients demonstrated significant increases in ACTH, cortisol, and DHEAS plasma levels after caffeine administration. However, post-caffeine panickers and non-panickers did not differ with respect to the magnitude of the increases. Our results indicate that in PD patients, caffeine-induced panic attacks are not specifically associated with HPA-axis activation, as this is reflected in post-caffeine increases in ACTH, cortisol and DHEAS plasma levels, suggesting that caffeine-induced panic attacks in PD patients are not specifically mediated by the biological processes underlying fear or stress. More generally, our results add to the evidence that HPA-axis activation is not a specific characteristic of panic.

  19. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  20. Address tracing for parallel machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stunkel, Craig B.; Janssens, Bob; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1991-01-01

    Recently implemented parallel system address-tracing methods based on several metrics are surveyed. The issues specific to collection of traces for both shared and distributed memory parallel computers are highlighted. Five general categories of address-trace collection methods are examined: hardware-captured, interrupt-based, simulation-based, altered microcode-based, and instrumented program-based traces. The problems unique to shared memory and distributed memory multiprocessors are examined separately.

  1. Activation of Salmonella Typhi-specific regulatory T cells in typhoid disease in a wild-type S. Typhi challenge model.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Monica A; Fresnay, Stephanie; Magder, Laurence S; Darton, Thomas C; Jones, Claire; Waddington, Claire S; Blohmke, Christoph J; Dougan, Gordon; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M; Pollard, Andrew J; Sztein, Marcelo B

    2015-05-01

    Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi), the causative agent of typhoid fever, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently available vaccines are moderately efficacious, and identification of immunological responses associated with protection or disease will facilitate the development of improved vaccines. We investigated S. Typhi-specific modulation of activation and homing potential of circulating regulatory T cells (Treg) by flow and mass cytometry using specimens obtained from a human challenge study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from volunteers pre- and at multiple time-points post-challenge with wild-type S. Typhi. We identified differing patterns of S. Typhi-specific modulation of the homing potential of circulating Treg between volunteers diagnosed with typhoid (TD) and those who were not (No TD). TD volunteers demonstrated up-regulation of the gut homing molecule integrin α4ß7 pre-challenge, followed by a significant down-regulation post-challenge consistent with Treg homing to the gut. Additionally, S. Typhi-specific Treg from TD volunteers exhibited up-regulation of activation molecules post-challenge (e.g., HLA-DR, LFA-1). We further demonstrate that depletion of Treg results in increased S. Typhi-specific cytokine production by CD8+ TEM in vitro. These results suggest that the tissue distribution of activated Treg, their characteristics and activation status may play a pivotal role in typhoid fever, possibly through suppression of S. Typhi-specific effector T cell responses. These studies provide important novel insights into the regulation of immune responses that are likely to be critical in protection against typhoid and other enteric infectious diseases.

  2. Activation of Salmonella Typhi-Specific Regulatory T Cells in Typhoid Disease in a Wild-Type S. Typhi Challenge Model

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Monica A.; Fresnay, Stephanie; Magder, Laurence S.; Darton, Thomas C.; Jones, Claire; Waddington, Claire S.; Blohmke, Christoph J.; Dougan, Gordon; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M.; Pollard, Andrew J.; Sztein, Marcelo B.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi), the causative agent of typhoid fever, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently available vaccines are moderately efficacious, and identification of immunological responses associated with protection or disease will facilitate the development of improved vaccines. We investigated S. Typhi-specific modulation of activation and homing potential of circulating regulatory T cells (Treg) by flow and mass cytometry using specimens obtained from a human challenge study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from volunteers pre- and at multiple time-points post-challenge with wild-type S. Typhi. We identified differing patterns of S. Typhi-specific modulation of the homing potential of circulating Treg between volunteers diagnosed with typhoid (TD) and those who were not (No TD). TD volunteers demonstrated up-regulation of the gut homing molecule integrin α4ß7 pre-challenge, followed by a significant down-regulation post-challenge consistent with Treg homing to the gut. Additionally, S. Typhi-specific Treg from TD volunteers exhibited up-regulation of activation molecules post-challenge (e.g., HLA-DR, LFA-1). We further demonstrate that depletion of Treg results in increased S. Typhi-specific cytokine production by CD8+ TEM in vitro. These results suggest that the tissue distribution of activated Treg, their characteristics and activation status may play a pivotal role in typhoid fever, possibly through suppression of S. Typhi-specific effector T cell responses. These studies provide important novel insights into the regulation of immune responses that are likely to be critical in protection against typhoid and other enteric infectious diseases. PMID:26001081

  3. Challenges Experienced by District-Based Support Teams in the Execution of Their Functions in a Specific South African Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makhalemele, Thabo; Nel, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of an embedded mixed-method South African study that investigated the challenges experienced by District-Based Support Team (DBST) members in the sub-directorate of Inclusive Education of a South African province in the execution of their functions. A Likert-scale questionnaire and individual semi-structured…

  4. Industrial Arts and the Challenge of an Urban Society. Representative Addresses and Proceedings of the American Industrial Arts Association Annual Conference (35th, Atlantic City, N.J. 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Industrial Arts Association, Washington, DC.

    General session addresses focus on urban society and its impact on environment, government, and education with special emphasis on the industrial arts. Seventeen speeches within the AIA divisions of ACESIA, ACIAS, ACIATE, and AIACSA are included. Representative addresses from the major group and special interest sessions deal with the following…

  5. A vaccine-elicited, single viral epitope-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response does not protect against intravenous, cell-free simian immunodeficiency virus challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Yasutomi, Y; Koenig, S; Woods, R M; Madsen, J; Wassef, N M; Alving, C R; Klein, H J; Nolan, T E; Boots, L J; Kessler, J A

    1995-01-01

    Protection against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenge was assessed in rhesus monkeys with a vaccine-elicited, single SIV epitope-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response in the absence of SIV-specific antibody. Strategies were first explored for eliciting an optimal SIV Gag epitope-specific CTL response. These studies were performed in rhesus monkeys expressing the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I gene Mamu-A*01, a haplotype associated with a predominant SIV CTL epitope mapped to residues 182 to 190 of the Gag protein (p11C). We demonstrated that a combined modality immunization strategy using a recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG-SIV Gag construct for priming, and peptide formulated in liposome for boosting, elicited a greater p11C-specific CTL response than did a single immunization with peptide-liposome alone. Vaccinated and control monkeys were then challenged with cell-free SIVmne by an intravenous route of inoculation. Despite a vigorous p11C-specific CTL response at the time of virus inoculation, all monkeys became infected with SIV. gag gene sequencing of the virus isolated from these monkeys demonstrated that the established viruses had no mutations in the p11C-coding region. Thus, the preexisting CTL response did not select for a viral variant that might escape T-cell immune recognition. These studies demonstrate that a potent SIV-specific CTL response can be elicited by combining live vector and peptide vaccine modalities. However, a single SIV Gag epitope-specific CTL response in the absence of SIV-specific antibody did not provide protection against a cell-free, intravenous SIV challenge. PMID:7884874

  6. Specific expression of antimicrobial peptide and HSP70 genes in response to heat-shock and several bacterial challenges in mussels.

    PubMed

    Cellura, Cinzia; Toubiana, Mylène; Parrinello, Nicolò; Roch, Philippe

    2007-04-01

    Defensin, mytilin and myticin are antimicrobial peptides (AMP) involved in mussel innate immunity. Their in vitro antibacterial activity is different according to the targeted bacterial species. To determine if this specificity is correlated to different regulations of gene expressions, adult mussels were challenged in vivo with either Vibrio splendidus LGP32, Vibrio anguillarum, Micrococcus lysodeikticus or by heat shock. RNAs were isolated from circulating hemocytes and AMP mRNAs were quantified by Q-PCR using 28S rRNA as housekeeping gene. In addition, HSP70 gene expression was also quantified as representing non-specific response to stress. In naïve mussels, the three AMP mRNAs were present in dramatically different quantities. Compared to defensin, myticin was expressed 300-fold more and mytilin 30-fold more. HSP70 was found expressed 80-fold more than defensin. AMP genes were differentially regulated according to the challenging bacteria, M. lysodeikticus being the only one inducing down-regulation. Such variations in mRNA quantities were observed immediately after challenging, lasting less than 24h. Only V. anguillarum effect was observed later, between 12h and 3 days post-challenge. Compared to their background expression in naïve mussels, the major effect of V. splendidus was the decrease of mytilin and myticin mRNAs, V. anguillarum mainly increased both mytilin and HSP70 mRNAs, whereas M. lysodeikticus almost suppressed defensin mRNA. As expected, heat shock increased HSP70 mRNA, but also myticin mRNA. Consequently, AMP genes responded specifically to the challenges, confirming that at least some of the innate immune mechanisms are specifically orientated.

  7. Educational Challenges for Children with Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chute, Patricia M.; Nevins, Mary Ellen

    2003-01-01

    This article addresses educational challenges for children with severe to profound hearing loss who receive cochlear implants. Despite the implants, these children face acoustic challenges, academic challenges, attention challenges, associative challenges, and adjustment challenges. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

  8. The 2016 AANS Presidential Address: Leading the way.

    PubMed

    Batjer, H Hunt; Ban, Vin Shen

    2016-12-01

    This AANS presidential address focuses on enduring values of the neurosurgical profession that transcend the current political climate. The address was delivered by Dr. Batjer during a US presidential election year, but the authors have intentionally avoided discussing the current chaos of the American health care system in the knowledge that many pressing issues will change depending on the outcome of the 2016 elections. Instead, they have chosen to focus on clarifying what neurosurgeons, and the American Association of Neurological Surgeons, in particular, stand for; identifying important challenges to these fundamental principles and values; and proposing specific actions to address these challenges. The authors cite "de-professionalism" and commoditization of medicine as foremost among the threats that confront medicine and surgery today and suggest concrete action that can be taken to reverse these trends as well as steps that can be taken to address other significant challenges. They emphasize the importance of embracing exceptionalism and never compromising the standards that have characterized the profession of neurosurgery since its inception.

  9. Passive transfer of serum from tilapia vaccinated with a Vibrio vulnificus vaccine provides protection from specific pathogen challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrio vulnificus is a Gram-negative bacterium that has been associated with disease losses in some aquaculture reared fish species. Vaccination has proven effective for reducing the impact of this disease and research has suggested that specific antibodies are important for protective immunity. The...

  10. Modeling specific phobias and posttraumatic stress disorder in rodents: the challenge to convey both cognitive and emotional features.

    PubMed

    Berardi, Andrea; Trezza, Viviana; Campolongo, Campolongo

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant emotional memory processing is a core, disabling feature of both specific phobias and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), two psychiatric diseases of significant prevalence and morbidity whose cognitive symptoms cannot be adequately treated by current psychopharmacological tools. Elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms involved in the etiology of these diseases is of great interest for the identification of new therapeutics that improve not only the symptomatology but also the full recovery from the pathology. To this aim, several animal models have been proposed based on substantial resemblance between the behavioral alterations seen in animals and the human pathology. The purpose of this review is to describe and comment on the most commonly used rodent models of specific phobias and PTSD. A particular focus will be reserved to the cued version of fear conditioning, as the highly specific stimulus-bound conditioned fear response seems to fit well with clinical descriptions of phobic fear.Moreover, animal models of PTSD will be evaluated by referring to three elements that are considered essential ina valid model of this disease: stressor exposure, memory for the stressor, and anxiety-related behaviors. Finally, current therapeutic directions, with a focus on cannabinoid and glucocorticoid compounds, will be briefly outlined.

  11. Deletion of Plasmodium berghei-Specific CD4+ T Cells Adoptively Transferred into Recipient Mice after Challenge with Homologous Parasite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirunpetcharat, Chakrit; Good, Michael F.

    1998-02-01

    The immune response to malaria parasites includes T cell responses that reduce parasites by effector T cell responses and by providing help for antibody responses. Some parasites are more sensitive to antibody and others are more sensitive to cell-mediated immunity. We demonstrate that cultured CD4+ T cells that produce interferon CD4+ and interleukin 2, but not interleukin 4, in response to stimulation with the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei can reduce but not eliminate parasites in vivo after adoptive transfer. Although cells can persist in vivo for up to 9 months in uninfected mice, infection results in elimination of up to 99% of specific T cells in different tissues, as judged by tracking T cells labeled with the fluorescent dye 5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester. T cells specific for ovalbumin are unaffected. In vivo activation and division of transferred T cells per se are not responsible for deletion because T cells positive for 5-(and -6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester divide up to six times within 7 days in uninfected mice and are not deleted. Understanding the factors responsible for parasite-mediated specific deletion of T cells would enhance our knowledge of parasite immunity.

  12. Agroterrorism Risk Communication: Challenges and Implications for Communicators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    food carries with it specific challenges ; the public’s level of trust in government will affect how it perceives and accepts risk messages; and Americans...vulnerabilities with regard to safety and security of the U.S. food supply and agriculture. "* Develop a protocol for resource sharing that addresses the issues...surveillance. "* Develop a unified approach with specific security standards to animal and food security , specifically addressing issues regarding

  13. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  14. Elimination kinetics of diisocyanates after specific inhalative challenges in humans: mass spectrometry analysis, as a basis for biomonitoring strategies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Isocyanates are some of the leading occupational causes of respiratory disorders, predominantly asthma. Adequate exposure monitoring may recognize risk factors and help to prevent the onset or aggravation of these aliments. Though, the biomonitoring appears to be most suitable for exposure assessment, the sampling time is critical, however. In order to settle the optimal time point for the sample collection in a practical biomonitoring approach, we aimed to measure the elimination of isocyanate urine metabolites. Methods A simple biomonitoring method enabling detection of all major diamine metabolites, from mono-, poly- and diisocyanates in one analytical step, has been established. Urine samples from 121 patients undergoing inhalative challenge tests with diisocyanates for diagnostic reasons were separated by gas chromatography and analyzed with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) at various time points (0-24 h) after the onset of exposure. Results After controlled exposures to different concentrations of diisocyanates (496 ± 102 ppb-min or 1560 ± 420 ppb-min) the elimination kinetics (of respective isocyanate diamine metabolites) revealed differences between aliphatic and aromatic isocyanates (the latter exhibiting a slower elimination) and a dose-response relationship. No significant differences were observed, however, when the elimination time patterns for individual isocyanates were compared, in respect of either low or high exposure or in relation to the presence or absence of prior immunological sensitization. Conclusions The detection of isocyanate metabolites in hydrolyzed urine with the help of gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometric detection system appears to be the most suitable, reliable and sensitive method to monitor possible isocyanate uptake by an individual. Additionally, the information on elimination kinetic patterns must be factored into estimates of isocyanate uptake before it is possible for biomonitoring to provide realistic

  15. Memory T cells specific for murine cytomegalovirus re-emerge after multiple challenges and recapitulate immunity in various adoptive transfer scenarios.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Michael; Turula, Holly; Tandon, Mayank; Deslouches, Berthony; Moghbeli, Toktam; Snyder, Christopher M

    2015-02-15

    Reconstitution of CMV-specific immunity after transplant remains a primary clinical objective to prevent CMV disease, and adoptive immunotherapy of CMV-specific T cells can be an effective therapeutic approach. Because of viral persistence, most CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells become terminally differentiated effector phenotype CD8(+) T cells (TEFF). A minor subset retains a memory-like phenotype (memory phenotype CD8(+) T cells [TM]), but it is unknown whether these cells retain memory function or persist over time. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells with different phenotypes have different abilities to reconstitute sustained immunity after transfer. The immunology of human CMV infections is reflected in the murine CMV (MCMV) model. We found that human CMV- and MCMV-specific T cells displayed shared genetic programs, validating the MCMV model for studies of CMV-specific T cells in vivo. The MCMV-specific TM population was stable over time and retained a proliferative capacity that was vastly superior to TEFF. Strikingly, after transfer, TM established sustained and diverse T cell populations even after multiple challenges. Although both TEFF and TM could protect Rag(-/-) mice, only TM persisted after transfer into immune replete, latently infected recipients and responded if recipient immunity was lost. Interestingly, transferred TM did not expand until recipient immunity was lost, supporting that competition limits the Ag stimulation of TM. Ultimately, these data show that CMV-specific TM retain memory function during MCMV infection and can re-establish CMV immunity when necessary. Thus, TM may be a critical component for consistent, long-term adoptive immunotherapy success.

  16. Challenges of Using Compound-Specific Stable Isotope Techniques in a Temperate Agricultural Watershed in Manitoba, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petticrew, E. L.; Reiffarth, D.; Owens, P. N.; Lobb, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Soil and sediment tracing using biomarkers-specifically fatty acids (FAs)-and their corresponding isotopic ratios, necessitates a unique isotopic signature for at least one of the FAs analyzed from the set of FAs from each source. The lack of a unique signature therefore results in an inability to distinguish the contribution of a particular source to a sediment mixture if all the FAs from each source exhibit identical or very similar isotopic values. Several factors may contribute to the variability (or lack thereof) in the isotopic values of individual FAs examine from differing sources. Samples from several sources in the South Tobacco Creek Watershed (STCW) in Manitoba, Canada, were collected during three sampling periods in each of 2012 and 2013 for a total of six sampling periods. The sampling design incorporated factors which were expected to affect the CSSI signal of the FAs within the same sampling period (e.g. spatial variability), throughout the growing season (temporal variability) and between seasons and crop rotations. Previous CSSI tracing attempts have used total organic carbon (TOC) and a sample's corresponding soil bulk carbon isotope value (13Cbulk) as part of the calculation for soil apportioning i.e. determining the contribution from unique sources to a particular sediment mixture sample. Samples from the STCW were analyzed for TOC and 13Cbulk values for the sampling periods mentioned above to determine spatial and temporal variability. Some of the CSSI data for FAs used as potential tracers is also presented. The suitability of using TOC and 13Cbulk values in contrast to CSSI values and complementary quantitative data for soil apportioning and tracing is discussed.

  17. Facing Violence - A Global Challenge.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Thomas; Kienzler, Hanna; Wollmann, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Violence has been shown to be a global challenge resulting in long-lasting social, medical, and mental health sequelae. In this article, we focus on massive social violence, such as war and civil war. Social suffering and mental health problems related to violence as a global public health problem can be tackled only with a holistic approach that addresses the specific region, culture and group and the limited resources available in most countries. Research that can give a reliable assessment of complex long-term outcomes is still largely missing, and can be seen as a major and complex challenge for future study.

  18. The generation of CD8+ T-cell population specific for vaccinia virus epitope involved in the antiviral protection against ectromelia virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Gierynska, Malgorzata; Szulc-Dabrowska, Lidia; Dzieciatkowski, Tomasz; Golke, Anna; Schollenberger, Ada

    2015-12-01

    Eradication of smallpox has led to cessation of vaccination programs. This has rendered the human population increasingly susceptible not only to variola virus infection but also to infections with other representatives of Poxviridae family that cause zoonotic variola-like diseases. Thus, new approaches for designing improved vaccine against smallpox are required. Discovering that orthopoxviruses, e.g. variola virus, vaccinia virus, ectromelia virus, share common immunodominant antigen, may result in the development of such a vaccine. In our study, the generation of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells in mice during the acute and memory phase of the immune response was induced using the vaccinia virus immunodominant TSYKFESV epitope and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides as adjuvants. The role of the generated TSYKFESV-specific CD8(+) T cells was evaluated in mice during ectromelia virus infection using systemic and mucosal model. Moreover, the involvement of dendritic cells subsets in the adaptive immune response stimulation was assessed. Our results indicate that the TSYKFESV epitope/TLR9 agonist approach, delivered systemically or mucosally, generated strong CD8(+) T-cell response when measured 10 days after immunization. Furthermore, the TSYKFESV-specific cell population remained functionally active 2 months post-immunization, and gave cross-protection in virally challenged mice, even though the numbers of detectable antigen-specific T cells decreased.

  19. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  20. Invitational Addresses, 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Arthur I.; And Others

    The full texts of invitational addresses given at the 1965 International Reading Association (IRA) Convention in Detroit, Michigan, by six recipients of IRA citation awards are presented. Gates suggests steps IRA should take to revive and redirect reading research. McCallister discusses the implications of the changing and expanding vocabulary of…

  1. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  2. Content Addressable Memory Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    The Content Addressable M1-emory Project consists of the development of several experimental software systems on an AMT Distributed Array Processor...searching (database) compiler algorithms memory management other systems software) Linear C is an unlovely hybrid language which imports the CAM...memory from AMT’s operating system for the DAP; how- ever, other than this limitation, the memory management routines work exactly as their C counterparts

  3. Gliadin-Specific T-Cells Mobilized in the Peripheral Blood of Coeliac Patients by Short Oral Gluten Challenge: Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Picascia, Stefania; Mandile, Roberta; Auricchio, Renata; Troncone, Riccardo; Gianfrani, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a common lifelong food intolerance triggered by dietary gluten affecting 1% of the general population. Gliadin-specific T-cell lines and T-cell clones obtained from intestinal biopsies have provided great support in the investigation of immuno-pathogenesis of CD. In the early 2000 a new in vivo, less invasive, approach was established aimed to evaluate the adaptive gliadin-specific T-cell response in peripheral blood of celiac patients on a gluten free diet. In fact, it has been demonstrated that three days of ingestion of wheat-containing food induces the mobilization of memory T lymphocytes reactive against gliadin from gut-associated lymphoid tissue into peripheral blood of CD patients. Such antigen-specific T-cells releasing interferon-γ can be transiently detected by using the enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays or by flow cytometry tetramer technology. This paper discusses the suitability of this in vivo tool to investigate the repertoire of gluten pathogenic peptides, to support CD diagnosis, and to assess the efficacy of novel therapeutic strategies. A systematic review of all potential applications of short oral gluten challenge is provided. PMID:26633487

  4. Gliadin-Specific T-Cells Mobilized in the Peripheral Blood of Coeliac Patients by Short Oral Gluten Challenge: Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Picascia, Stefania; Mandile, Roberta; Auricchio, Renata; Troncone, Riccardo; Gianfrani, Carmen

    2015-12-02

    Celiac disease (CD) is a common lifelong food intolerance triggered by dietary gluten affecting 1% of the general population. Gliadin-specific T-cell lines and T-cell clones obtained from intestinal biopsies have provided great support in the investigation of immuno-pathogenesis of CD. In the early 2000 a new in vivo, less invasive, approach was established aimed to evaluate the adaptive gliadin-specific T-cell response in peripheral blood of celiac patients on a gluten free diet. In fact, it has been demonstrated that three days of ingestion of wheat-containing food induces the mobilization of memory T lymphocytes reactive against gliadin from gut-associated lymphoid tissue into peripheral blood of CD patients. Such antigen-specific T-cells releasing interferon-γ can be transiently detected by using the enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays or by flow cytometry tetramer technology. This paper discusses the suitability of this in vivo tool to investigate the repertoire of gluten pathogenic peptides, to support CD diagnosis, and to assess the efficacy of novel therapeutic strategies. A systematic review of all potential applications of short oral gluten challenge is provided.

  5. Brucella abortus Omp19 recombinant protein subcutaneously co-delivered with an antigen enhances antigen-specific T helper 1 memory responses and induces protection against parasite challenge.

    PubMed

    Coria, Lorena M; Ibañez, Andrés E; Pasquevich, Karina A; Cobiello, Paula L González; Frank, Fernanda M; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H; Cassataro, Juliana

    2016-01-20

    The discovery of effective adjuvants for many vaccines especially those with limited commercial appeal, such as vaccines to poverty-related diseases, is required. In this work, we demonstrated that subcutaneous co-administration of mice with the outer membrane protein U-Omp19 from Brucella spp. plus OVA as antigen (Ag) increases Ag-specific T cell proliferation and T helper (Th) 1 immune responses in vitro and in vivo. U-Omp19 treated dendritic cells promote IFN-γ production by specific CD4(+) T cells and increases T cell proliferation. U-Omp19 co-administration induces the production of Ag specific effector memory T cell populations (CD4(+) CD44(high) CD62L(low) T cells). Finally, subcutaneous co-administration of U-Omp19 with Trypanosoma cruzi Ags confers protection against virulent parasite challenge, reducing parasitemia and weight loss while increasing mice survival. These results indicate that the bacterial protein U-Omp19 when delivered subcutaneously could be a suitable component of vaccine formulations against infectious diseases requiring Th1 immune responses.

  6. The neuron-specific interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein is required for homeostatic sleep and sleep responses to influenza viral challenge in mice.

    PubMed

    Davis, Christopher J; Dunbrasky, Danielle; Oonk, Marcella; Taishi, Ping; Opp, Mark R; Krueger, James M

    2015-07-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL1) is involved in sleep regulation and sleep responses induced by influenza virus. The IL1 receptor accessory protein (AcP) and an alternatively spliced isoform of AcP found primarily in neurons, AcPb, form part of the IL1 signaling complex. IL1-induced sleep responses depend on injection time. In rat cortex, both IL1 mRNA and AcPb mRNA peak at Zeitgeber Time (ZT) 0 then decline over the daylight hours. Sleep deprivation enhances cortical IL1 mRNA and AcPb mRNA levels, but not AcP mRNA. We used wild type (WT) and AcPb knockout (KO) mice and performed sleep deprivation between ZT10 and 20 or between ZT22 and 8 based on the time of day expression profiles of AcPb and IL1. We hypothesized that the magnitude of the responses to sleep loss would be strain- and time of day-dependent. In WT mice, NREMS and REMS rebounds occurred regardless of when they were deprived of sleep. In contrast, when AcPbKO mice were sleep deprived from ZT10 to 20 NREMS and REMS rebounds were absent. The AcPbKO mice expressed sleep rebound if sleep loss occurred from ZT22 to 8 although the NREMS responses were not as robust as those that occurred in WT mice. We also challenged mice with intranasal H1N1 influenza virus. WT mice exhibited the expected enhanced sleep responses. In contrast, the AcPbKO mice had less sleep after influenza challenge compared to their own baseline values and compared to WT mice. Body temperature and locomotor activity responses after viral challenge were lower and mortality was higher in AcPbKO than in WT mice. We conclude that neuron-specific AcPb plays a critical role in host defenses and sleep homeostasis.

  7. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2... 20580, unless otherwise specifically directed. The Commission's Web site address is www.ftc.gov....

  8. Addressing hidden financial risk.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Jan; Kruger, Jan

    2014-02-01

    Managing low-dollar, high-volume claim denials associated with outpatient procedures is a challenge for many hospitals because of the expense involved in manually reviewing such denials. These denials often are the source of "hidden loss" for hospitals. For some hospitals, the most practical, cost-effective approach for managing low-dollar, high-volume claim denials will include the use of automated systems to monitor and highlight denials and expose trends.

  9. Self-Assembly of Structures with Addressable Complexity.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, William M; Frenkel, Daan

    2016-03-02

    The self-assembly of structures with "addressable complexity", where every component is distinct and is programmed to occupy a specific location within a target structure, is a promising route to engineering materials with precisely defined morphologies. Because systems with many components are inherently complicated, one might assume that the chances of successful self-assembly are extraordinarily small. Yet recent advances suggest otherwise: addressable structures with hundreds of distinct building blocks have been designed and assembled with nanometer precision. Despite this remarkable success, it is often challenging to optimize a self-assembly reaction to ensure that the intended structure is kinetically accessible. In this Perspective, we focus on the prediction of kinetic pathways for self-assembly and implications for the design of robust experimental protocols. The development of general principles to predict these pathways will enable the engineering of complex materials using a much wider range of building blocks than is currently possible.

  10. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  11. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  12. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  13. Repeated vaginal SHIV challenges in macaques receiving oral or topical Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis induce virus-specific T cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Tsegaye, Theodros Solomon; Butler, Katherine; Luo, Wei; Radzio, Jessica; Srinivasan, Priya; Sharma, Sunita; Aubert, Rachael D.; Hanson, Debra L.; Dobard, Charles; Garcia-Lerma, J. Gerardo; Heneine, Walid; McNicholl, Janet M.; Kersh, Ellen N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention is a novel biomedical prevention method. We have previously modeled PrEP during rectal SHIV exposures in macaques and identified that SHIV-specific T cell responses were induced in the presence of antiretroviral drugs, an observation previously termed T cell chemo-vaccination. This report expands those initial findings by examining a larger group of macaques that were given oral or topical PrEP during repeated vaginal virus exposure. Methods Thirty-six female pigtail macaques received up to 20 repeat low-dose vaginal inoculations with wild type (WT) SHIVSF162P3 (n=24) or a clonal derivative with the tenofovir K65R drug resistant mutation (n=12). PrEP consisted of oral Truvada (n=6, WT), tenofovir vaginal gel (n=6, K65R), or tenofovir intra-vaginal ring (n=6, WT). The remaining animals were PrEP-inexperienced controls (n=12, WT; n=6, K65R). SHIV-specific T cells were identified and characterized using IFNγ ELISPOT and multi-parameter flow cytometry. Results Of nine animals that were on PrEP and remained uninfected during WT SHIV vaginal challenges, eight (88.9%) developed virus-specific T cell responses. T cells were in CD4 and CD8 compartments, reached up to 4,900 IFNγ producing cells per million PBMCs, and primarily pol directed. In contrast, the replication impaired K65R virus did not induce detectable T cell responses, likely reflecting the need for adequate replication. Conclusion Virus-specific T cell responses occur frequently in oral or topical PrEP-protected pigtail macaques after vaginal exposure to WT SHIV virus. The contribution of such immune responses to protection from infection during and following PrEP warrants further investigation. PMID:25886925

  14. Addressing numerical challenges in introducing a reactive transport code into a land surface model: A biogeochemical modeling proof-of-concept with CLM-PFLOTRAN 1.0: Modeling Archive

    SciTech Connect

    R. T. Mills; G. Bisht; G. E. Hammond; J. Kumar; P. C. Lichtner; F. M. Hoffman; X. Xu; F. Yuan; S. L. Painter; G. Tang; and P.E. Thornton; B. Andre

    2016-04-19

    This Modeling Archive is in support of an NGEE Arctic discussion paper under review and available at doi:10.5194/gmd-9-927-2016. The purpose is to document the simulations to allow verification, reproducibility, and follow-up studies. This dataset contains shell scripts to create the CLM-PFLOTRAN cases, specific input files for PFLOTRAN and CLM, outputs, and python scripts to make the figures using the outputs in the publication. Through these results, we demonstrate that CLM-PFLOTRAN can approximately reproduce CLM results in selected cases for the Arctic, temperate and tropic sites. In addition, the new framework facilitates mechanistic representations of soil biogeochemistry processes in the land surface model.

  15. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores…

  16. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  17. Predicting workload profiles of brain-robot interface and electromygraphic neurofeedback with cortical resting-state networks: personal trait or task-specific challenge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fels, Meike; Bauer, Robert; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Novel rehabilitation strategies apply robot-assisted exercises and neurofeedback tasks to facilitate intensive motor training. We aimed to disentangle task-specific and subject-related contributions to the perceived workload of these interventions and the related cortical activation patterns. Approach. We assessed the perceived workload with the NASA Task Load Index in twenty-one subjects who were exposed to two different feedback tasks in a cross-over design: (i) brain-robot interface (BRI) with haptic/proprioceptive feedback of sensorimotor oscillations related to motor imagery, and (ii) control of neuromuscular activity with feedback of the electromyography (EMG) of the same hand. We also used electroencephalography to examine the cortical activation patterns beforehand in resting state and during the training session of each task. Main results. The workload profile of BRI feedback differed from EMG feedback and was particularly characterized by the experience of frustration. The frustration level was highly correlated across tasks, suggesting subject-related relevance of this workload component. Those subjects who were specifically challenged by the respective tasks could be detected by an interhemispheric alpha-band network in resting state before the training and by their sensorimotor theta-band activation pattern during the exercise. Significance. Neurophysiological profiles in resting state and during the exercise may provide task-independent workload markers for monitoring and matching participants’ ability and task difficulty of neurofeedback interventions.

  18. Non-specific immune parameters and physiological response of Nile tilapia fed β-glucan and vitamin C for different periods and submitted to stress and bacterial challenge.

    PubMed

    Barros, Margarida Maria; Falcon, Dario Rocha; Orsi, Ricardo de Oliveira; Pezzato, Luiz Edivaldo; Fernandes, Ademir Calvo; Guimarães, Igo Gomes; Fernandes, Ary; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Sartori, Maria Márcia Pereira

    2014-08-01

    This study attempts to describe the effects of different administration periods of dietary β-glucan and Vit C on the non-specific immune response, physiological parameters and disease resistance of Nile tilapia against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Therefore, a feeding trial (288 fish) was conducted to determine the best administration period (7, 15, 30 and 45 days) for a Nile tilapia diet supplemented with 0.1% β-glucan and 600 mg Vit C/kg diet. After the administration period, three different groups of 96 fish were exposed to one of the following three stresses: cold-induced stress, transport-induced stress, and A. hydrophila challenge. Hematological, biochemical and immunological responses were analyzed before and/or after stress. Cold-induced stress increased cortisol levels and reduced the leukocyte count in fish fed the test diet for seven days compared with the other periods. After transport-induced stress, fish fed the test diet for seven days required more hours to return to the baseline levels of cortisol and neutrophils. Moreover, independently of the administration period, fish needed 24 h for leukocyte and glucose levels to return to the initial values. The lowest survival after bacterial infection was observed in fish test diet for seven days. Based on fish hematological and biochemical responses, diet supplemented with 0.1% of β-glucan and 600 mg of Vit C/kg fed for at least 15 days is recommended for Nile tilapia especially when fish are likely to encounter transport-induced stress, and this stress was more severe than cold-induced stress or bacterial challenge.

  19. [Management of patients under 18years of age by adult intensive care unit professionals: Level of training, workload, and specific challenges].

    PubMed

    Brossier, D; Villedieu, F; Letouzé, N; Pinto Da Costa, N; Jokic, M

    2017-03-01

    In routine practice, intensive care physicians rarely have to manage children under 18years of age, particularly those under 15. This study's objectives were to assess the quality of training in pediatrics of adult intensive care teams, to document the workload generated by care of pediatric patients, and to identify the difficulties encountered in managing minors as patients. A survey was administered in Lower Normandy from 4 April 2012 to 1 September 2012. Physicians, residents, nurses, and nurses' aides practicing in one of the nine intensive care units of Lower Normandy were asked to complete an electronic or paper format questionnaire. This questionnaire assessed their level of pediatric training, the workload management of pediatric patients entailed, and the challenges posed by these patients. One hundred and nine questionnaires were returned (by 26 attending physicians, 18 residents, 38 nurses, and 27 nurses' aides). Eighty-three of the respondents (76%) had no experience in a pediatric unit of any kind. Forty-two percent thought that the pediatric age range lies between 3months and 15years of age. However, more than 50% of respondents would like the upper limit to be 16years or even older. Ninety-three respondents (85%) estimated having some exposure to pediatric patients in their routine practice, but this activity remained quite low. Seventy-three (67%) reported difficulties with the management of these young patients. This survey provides current information regarding the level of training of adult intensive care unit professionals and their concerns about managing patients under 18years of age, both in terms of workload and specific challenges.

  20. A rabies vaccine adjuvanted with saponins from leaves of the soap tree (Quillaja brasiliensis) induces specific immune responses and protects against lethal challenge.

    PubMed

    Yendo, Anna Carolina A; de Costa, Fernanda; Cibulski, Samuel P; Teixeira, Thais F; Colling, Luana C; Mastrogiovanni, Mauricio; Soulé, Silvia; Roehe, Paulo M; Gosmann, Grace; Ferreira, Fernando A; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2016-04-29

    Quillaja brasiliensis (Quillajaceae) is a saponin producing species native from southern Brazil and Uruguay. Its saponins are remarkably similar to those of Q. saponaria, which provides most of the saponins used as immunoadjuvants in vaccines. The immunostimulating capacities of aqueous extract (AE) and purified saponin fraction (QB-90) obtained from leaves of Q. brasiliensis were favorably comparable to those of a commercial saponin-based adjuvant preparation (Quil-A) in experimental vaccines against bovine herpesvirus type 1 and 5, poliovirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus in mice model. Herein, the immunogenicity and protection efficacy of rabies vaccines adjuvanted with Q. brasiliensis AE and its saponin fractions were compared with vaccines adjuvanted with either commercial Quil-A or Alum. Mice were vaccinated with one or two doses (on days 0 and 14) of one of the different vaccines and serum levels of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a were quantified over time. A challenge experiment with a lethal dose of rabies virus was carried out with the formulations. Viral RNA detection in the brain of mice was performed by qPCR, and RNA copy-numbers were quantified using a standard curve of in vitro transcribed RNA. All Q. brasiliensis saponin-adjuvanted vaccines significantly enhanced levels of specific IgG isotypes when compared with the no adjuvant group (P ≤ 0.05). Overall, one or two doses of saponin-based vaccine were efficient to protect against the lethal rabies exposure. Both AE and saponin fractions from Q. brasiliensis leaves proved potent immunological adjuvants in vaccines against a lethal challenge with a major livestock pathogen, hence confirming their value as competitive or complementary sustainable alternatives to saponins of Q. saponaria.

  1. Myeloid-Specific Gene Deletion of Protein Phosphatase 2A Magnifies MyD88- and TRIF-Dependent Inflammation following Endotoxin Challenge.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Pham, Tiffany T; Cornell, Timothy T; McDonough, Kelli L; McHugh, Walker M; Blatt, Neal B; Dahmer, Mary K; Shanley, Thomas P

    2017-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a member of the intracellular serine/threonine phosphatases. Innate immune cell activation triggered by pathogen-associated molecular patterns is mediated by various protein kinases, and PP2A plays a counter-regulatory role by deactivating these kinases. In this study, we generated a conditional knockout of the α isoform of the catalytic subunit of PP2A (PP2ACα). After crossing with myeloid-specific cre-expressing mice, effective gene knockout was achieved in various myeloid cells. The myeloid-specific knockout mice (lyM-PP2A(fl/fl)) showed higher mortality in response to endotoxin challenge and bacterial infection. Upon LPS challenge, serum levels of TNF-α, KC, IL-6, and IL-10 were significantly increased in lyM-PP2A(fl/fl) mice, and increased phosphorylation was observed in MAPK pathways (p38, ERK, JNK) and the NF-κB pathway (IKKα/β, NF-κB p65) in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from knockout mice. Heightened NF-κB activation was not associated with degradation of IκBα; instead, enhanced phosphorylation of the NF-κB p65 subunit and p38 phosphorylation-mediated TNF-α mRNA stabilization appear to contribute to the increased TNF-α expression. In addition, increased IL-10 expression appears to be due to PP2ACα-knockout-induced IKKα/β hyperactivation. Microarray experiments indicated that the Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β/ TNFR-associated factor 3 pathway was highly upregulated in LPS-treated PP2ACα-knockout BMDMs, and knockout BMDMs had elevated IFN-α/β production compared with control BMDMs. Serum IFN-β levels from PP2ACα-knockout mice treated with LPS were also greater than those in controls. Thus, we demonstrate that PP2A plays an important role in regulating inflammation and survival in the setting of septic insult by targeting MyD88- and Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β-dependent pathways.

  2. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  3. A Multi-Agent Alphavirus DNA Vaccine Delivered by Intramuscular Electroporation Elicits Robust and Durable Virus Specific Immune Responses in Mice and Rabbits and Completely Protects Mice against Lethal Venezuelan, Western, and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Aerosol Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-26

    A Multi-Agent Alphavirus DNA Vaccine Delivered by Intramuscular Electroporation Elicits 1 Robust and Durable Virus-Specific Immune Responses in Mice...Agent Alphavirus DNA Vaccine Protects Mice 12 13 #Address correspondence to Lesley C. Dupuy, lesley.c.dupuy.ctr@mail.mil. 14 *Present address...virus (VEEV) DNA vaccine 21 that was optimized for increased antigen expression and delivered by intramuscular (IM) 22 electroporation (EP) elicits

  4. Highly context-specific activation of the HPG axis in the dark-eyed junco and implications for the challenge hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Rosvall, Kimberly A; Peterson, Mark P; Reichard, Dustin G; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2014-05-15

    One of the best studied hormone-behavior interactions is the transient rise in testosterone (T) associated with male-male aggression. However, recent research on songbirds has demonstrated numerous exceptions to this pattern.One species previously thought to elevate T in response to a simulated territorial intrusion is the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis). Here, we show that under most circumstances male juncos do not elevate circulating T or CORT levels in response to social stimuli, despite being physiologically capable of elevating T as indicated by their response to GnRH. The lack of hormonal response was found regardless of the sex of the social stimulus (singing male vs. soliciting female), its sensory modality (song only, song + live lure, song + taxidermic mount), or the timecourse of sampling. Notably, males did elevate T levels when exposed to a simulated territorial intrusion in the days following simulated predation of their chicks. Whether the high T seen in these narrow circumstances represents stage-dependent social modulation of T or re-activation of male reproductive physiology in preparation for re-nesting (i.e. socially independent T modulation) remains to be determined. It is clear, however, that activation of the HPG axis is highly context-specific for male juncos. These results highlight important and unresolved issues regarding the socially mediated component of the challenge hypothesis and how it relates to the evolution of hormone-mediated traits.

  5. Highly context-specific activation of the HPG axis in the dark-eyed junco and implications for the Challenge Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Rosvall, Kimberly A.; Peterson, Mark P.; Reichard, Dustin G.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

    2014-01-01

    One of the best studied hormone-behavior interactions is the transient rise in testosterone (T) associated with male-male aggression. However, recent research on songbirds has demonstrated numerous exceptions to this pattern. One species previously thought to elevate T in response to a simulated territorial intrusion is the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis). Here, we show that under most circumstances male juncos do not elevate circulating T or CORT levels in response to social stimuli, despite being physiologically capable of elevating T as indicated by their response to GnRH. The lack of hormonal response was found regardless of the sex of the social stimulus (singing male vs. soliciting female), its sensory modality (song only, song + live lure, song + taxidermic mount), or the timecourse of sampling. Notably, males did elevate T levels when exposed to a simulated territorial intrusion in the days following simulated predation of their chicks. Whether the high T seen in these narrow circumstances represents stage-dependent social modulation of T or re-activation of male reproductive physiology in preparation for re-nesting (i.e. socially independent T modulation) remains to be determined. It is clear, however, that activation of the HPG axis is highly context-specific for male juncos. These results highlight important and unresolved issues regarding the socially mediated component of the challenge hypothesis and how it relates to the evolution of hormone-mediated traits. PMID:24698788

  6. Developing a Watershed Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a watershed challenge that gives students an opportunity to investigate the challenge of using a watershed area as a site for development, examining the many aspects of this multifaceted problem. This design challenge could work well in a team-based format, with students taking on specific aspects of the challenges and…

  7. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  8. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.

  9. Addressing Modeling Challenges in Cyber-Physical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-04

    A. Lee and Eleftherios Matsikoudis. The semantics of dataflow with firing. In Grard Huet, Gordon Plotkin, Jean - Jacques Lévy, and Yves Bertot...Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 20(3), 2001. [12] Luca P. Carloni, Roberto Passerone, Alessandro Pinto , and Alberto Sangiovanni...gst/fullpage.html?res= 9504EFDA1738F933A2575AC0A9679C8B63. 20 [15] Abhijit Davare, Douglas Densmore, Trevor Meyerowitz, Alessandro Pinto , Alberto

  10. Addressing Future Technology Challenges Through Innovation and Investment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    defense dollars dwarf the nearest competitor, they are spread across many theatres and objectives, while an adversary can concentrate on a single...change). For example, a jet engine program that started as a power plant for a hypersonic aircraft was recently re-scoped to a hybrid combustor...developed a corn -kernel-sized inertial navigation sensor, enabling GPS precision in nearly any application imaginable. Inertial navigation has always been

  11. Communicating with Families: A Challenge We Can and Must Address!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Peter

    2011-01-01

    It is important to underscore some basic "truths" about communicating with families--ideas that have been well described in the literature for the past several decades. The most important issue is that "truth disclosure" is a process, not an event. In the paper by Klein and colleagues (2011), it is apparent that most of the parents in the study…

  12. Chemical Education in India: Addressing Current Challenges and Optimizing Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnan, Mangala Sunder; Brakaspathy, R.; Arunan, E.

    2016-01-01

    This article gives a brief introduction to the structure of higher education programs in chemical and general sciences in India. The lack of high-quality chemical education in India in the past is traced back to the economic and social developments of the past. Remedial measures undertaken recently to improve the overall quality of chemical…

  13. Addressing Common Technical challenges in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, Donald A.

    2016-09-22

    The implosion phase for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) occurs from initiation of the drive until just before stagnation. Evolution of the shell and fusion fuel during the implosion phase is affected by the initial conditions of the target, the drive history. Poor performing implosions are a result of the behavior that occurs during the implosion phase such as low mode asymmetries, mixing of the ablator into the fuel, and the hydrodynamic evolution of initial target features and defects such as the shell mounting hardware. The ultimate results of these effects can only be measured at stagnation. However, studying the implosion phase can be effective for understanding and mitigating these effects and for of ultimately improving the performance of ICF implosions. As the ICF program moves towards the 2020 milestone to “determine the efficacy of ignition”, it will be important to understand the physics that occurs during the implosion phase. This will require both focused and integrated experiments. Focused experiments will provide the understanding and the evidence needed to support any determination concerning the efficacy of ignition.

  14. Addressing Global Environmental Challenges through Interdisciplinary Biogeochemical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paytan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Our planet is dynamic; energy and matter constantly move between the hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere on time scales from seconds to millenia. These tight interactions - including those between organisms and their physical environment - are what make Earth habitable. However, as Rachel Carson wrote, 'Only within the moment of time represented by the present century has one species - man - acquired significant power to alter the nature of this world'. Globalization and explosive population growth have generated far-reaching environmental problems on a scale that humanity has never faced before. Fortunately, our species has also developed an unprecedented ability to provide science-based solutions. Since processes impacting the environment involve complex biological, physical, chemical and geological interactions and feedbacks, they require the integration of expertise from all these scientific disciplines as well as input from policy makers, social scientists, and economists. This talk presents four examples of current interdisciplinary research projects conducted in my lab, each one related to a theme from one of Carson's books (Under the Sea-wind, The Sea Around Us, The Edge of the Sea, and Silent Spring). These projects, and others like them, provide hope that we can move toward a sustainable relationship with the natural world by encouraging the best scientists to conduct interdisciplinary research with direct applications for environmental management and stewardship.

  15. Membrane materials for addressing energy and environmental challenges.

    PubMed

    Drioli, Enrico; Fontananova, Enrica

    2012-01-01

    Our modern society must solve various severe problems to maintain and increase our quality of life: from water stress to global warming, to fossil fuel depletion, to environmental pollution. The process intensification (PI) strategy is expected to contribute to overcoming many of these issues by facilitating the transition from a resource-intensive to a knowledge-intensive industrial system that will guarantee sustainable growth. Membrane operations, which respond efficiently to the requirements of the PI strategy, have the potential to replace conventional energy-intensive separation techniques, which will boost the efficiency and reduce the environmental impact of separations as well as conversion processes. This work critically reviews the current status and emerging applications of (integrated) membrane operations with a special focus on energy and environmental applications.

  16. Addressing future challenges for cancer services: part II.

    PubMed

    Maher, Jane; Radford, Gina

    2016-02-01

    Jane Maher & Gina Radford speak to Gemma Westcott, Commissioning Editor Jane Maher has been Macmillan's Chief Medical Officer since 1999 and now shares the role as Joint Chief Medical Officer with general practitioner Rosie Loftus, reflecting the growing need for specialists and generalists to work more effectively together. She has been an National Health Service (NHS) improvement clinical leader for over 10 years and is a Consultant Clinical Oncologist at Mount Vernon Cancer Centre and Hillingdon Hospital where she has worked for more than 20 years, during which she helped develop nonsurgical oncology services in five district general hospitals. She is a senior Clinical Lecturer at University College London and Visiting Professor in Cancer and Supportive Care at the Centre for Complexity Management at the University of Hertfordshire. Jane chaired the Maher Committee for the Department of Health in 1995, led the UK National Audit of Late Effects Pelvic Radiotherapy for the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) in 2000 and, most recently, chaired the National Cancer Survivorship Initiative Consequences of Treatment work stream. She co-founded one of the first Cancer Support and Information services in the UK, winning the Nye Bevan award in 1992 and there are now more than 60 units based on this model. She is a member of the Older People and Cancer Clinical Advisory Group. She has written more than 100 published articles and is a UK representative for cancer survivorship in Europe and advises on cancer survivorship programs in Denmark and Canada. Gina Radford is Deputy Chief Medical Officer for England, a post she took up in January 2015. Prior to that, she has held a number of roles in public health, at local and regional level. Most recently she was Centre Director for Anglia and Essex for Public Health England, and as a part of that role helped lead nationally on the public health response to Ebola. She was until very recently Chair of one of the NICE public health advisory committees. She has previously worked on a number of national projects, including leading the Department of Health's response to the Shipman Enquiry, undertaking a review of specialist public health for CMO Scotland, chairing a national short life working group looking at the issue of making difficult decisions in NHS Scotland, and undertaking the evaluation of the first pilot (regional bowel cancer detection pilot) for the Be Clear on Cancer National Awareness and Early Diagnosis campaign, on behalf of the Department of Health and Cancer Research UK. Outside work, Gina is a Licensed Lay Minister in the Church of England, and is training to be ordained. She enjoys riding, walking the somewhat aging dog, reading and is the village duck warden!

  17. Poverty and Disability: Addressing the Challenge of Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty increases the likelihood that students with disabilities will experience poor postschool outcomes, including unemployment, underemployment, and limited postsecondary education. The effects of the intersection of poverty and disability persist into adulthood where the employment rate for adults with disabilities is only one fourth…

  18. Challenging Corporations to Address the Needs of Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooyman, Nancy R.; Toms, Melissa

    This paper describes the development campaign of the School of Social Work at the University of Washington, which has focused on funding proposals related to the older worker. The underlying approach of a development campaign, steps in researching the private sector, and basic points in writing proposals for foundations and corporations are…

  19. The Professional Staff: Two Accounts of Addressing the Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Mary Jo; Wulf, Gary W.

    1981-01-01

    Colleges and universities have begun creating a structured employment environment for their professional staff. Questions of the adequacy of grievance procedures, job security, staff reduction, appropriate notice periods, length of probationary status, etc. are being studied. Two approaches are described: the University of Iowa and the University…

  20. Quality Assurance in Distance Education: The Challenges to Be Addressed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stella, Antony; Gnanam, A.

    2004-01-01

    Integration of technology in all forms of education has narrowed down the gap between the on- and off-campus students and has resulted in the use of the more broad-based term "distributed learning". Consequently, distance learning is seen as a subset of distributed learning, focusing on students who may be separated in time and space from their…

  1. Policy challenges in addressing racial disparities and improving population health.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, David

    2005-01-01

    Socioeconomic status fundamentally affects most health and disease outcomes, but black Americans are doubly disadvantaged by low status, discrimination, and residential segregation. Improving health and removing disparities are essential goals, but some efforts that improve the health of blacks in important ways also increase black-white disparity ratios. People with more information, influence, resources, and social networks may be better able to take advantage of new technologies and scientific developments, initially increasing disparities. Better health and reduced mortality should be the key policy criteria, but these criteria should be linked with consideration of careful targeting to level the playing field and close disparities.

  2. Addressing the Challenges of Families with Multiple Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Marci J.; Carta, Judith J.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews the changing structures and characteristics of the American family and discusses the increased influence of several societal concerns, including poverty, substance abuse, and exposure to violence. These issues are considered in light of their potentially deleterious effects on child and family development and functioning,…

  3. Amorphous solid dispersions: a robust platform to address bioavailability challenges.

    PubMed

    Newman, Ann; Nagapudi, Karthik; Wenslow, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) are being used with increasing frequency for poorly soluble pharmaceutical compounds in development. These systems consist of an amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredient stabilized by a polymer to produce a system with improved physical and solution stability. ASDs are commonly considered as a means of improving the apparent solubility of an active pharmaceutical ingredient. This review will discuss methods of preparation and characterization of ASDs with an emphasis on understanding and predicting stability. Theoretical understanding of supersaturation and predicting in vivo performance will be stressed. Additionally, a summary of preclinical and clinical development efforts will be presented to give the reader an understanding of risks and key pitfalls when developing an ASD.

  4. Poverty and inequality: challenges for the IAB: IAB presidential address.

    PubMed

    Luna, Florencia

    2005-10-01

    This paper focuses on poverty and inequality in the world today. First, it points out how this topic is a main concern for the IAB. Second, it proposes 'new' theoretical tools in order to analyze global justice and our obligations towards the needy. I present John Rawls's denial that the egalitarian principle can be applied to the global sphere, his proposed weak duty of assistance, and his consideration of endemic poverty as essentially homegrown. In opposition, I focus on Thomas Pogge as representative of a cosmopolitan view who also holds a critical position towards the international systems which allow and cause poverty. I endorse the general normative proposal that defends every human being as an ultimate unit of moral concern, as well as the strategy of moving away from the charity model of bilateral aid to the realm of rights and duties. These ideas should redesign and broaden the normative and practical roles of institutions, and should also help provide a new approach on bioethical issues such as drug patenting or the imbalance in global research and neglected diseases.

  5. AGING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE RESEARCH PROGRAM: ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGE THROUGH INNOVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A driving force behind the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative and the Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is the Clean Water and Drinking Water Infrastructure Gap Analysis. In this report, EPA estimated that if operation, maintenance, and capital inves...

  6. Chylomicrons in disease-future challenges Invited keynote address.

    PubMed

    Redgrave, Trevor G

    2008-09-01

    It has taken many years to unravel the pathological implications of postprandial dyslipidaemia. Life-style and pharmacological interventions to reduce risk of atherosclerosis have developed empirically, without clear understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Acceptance of the premise that chylomicrons play a key role in atherogenesis brings new understanding to the mechanisms underlying empirical risk-reduction strategies. Raised LDL cholesterol while definitely associated with increased risk, is not present in many patients with established atherosclerosis. A large body of research points to a clear association of atherosclerosis with postprandial dyslipidaemia, not only for coronary disease but also for carotid lesions. Bayesian considerations imply that the majority of the community atherosclerosis burden is attributable to disordered chylomicron metabolism. Risk reduction by life-style interventions such as consumption of low fat meals, Mediterranean diets, low cholesterol intake, weight reduction and exercise can all be explained rationally in terms of the impact of these interventions on chylomicron metabolism. Diabetes is strongly associated with postprandial dyslipidaemia. Needed are long-term controlled trials of life-style interventions and management of dyslipidaemia, with endpoints of progression or regression of atherosclerosis. The paradigm that postprandial dyslipidaemia underlies much of the atherosclerosis burden should become a focus of drug development. Agents that reduce absorption of triglycerides and cholesterol will generally be beneficial. Probucol markedly affects chylomicron metabolism. The mechanism for optimization by Probucol is unclear but appears to be unrelated to effects on oxidation. Adrenergic agonists and thyromimetics are also likely to be beneficial. Statins and fish oils appear beneficial but data are limited. Long-term intervention studies are needed with appropriate attention to improvement in postprandial dyslipidaemia.

  7. Challenges in Addressing Variability Of Lead in Domestic Plumbing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current data indicate that lead exposure is of concern even at low concentrations. Corrosion is an important problem in drinking water because it can affect public health due to leaching of lead or other metals into the drinking water. For this reason, a corrosion control program...

  8. Addressing Challenges to the Shared Use of School Recreational Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spengler, John O.; Connaughton, Daniel P.; Carroll, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    The shared use of school recreational facilities holds the potential to offer activity opportunities for many people, especially those in low-income, minority, and under-resourced communities. School facilities are usually easily accessible and offer safe, free or low cost, and convenient recreation and sport opportunities. However, a number of…

  9. Turning the Page: Addressing the Challenge of Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Methvin, Patrick; Markham, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    A startling number of students arrive at the doors of colleges and universities lacking the essential skills and knowledge required to succeed there. If given the proper tools and supports, the great majority of these students would be able to achieve their goals in and outside of the classroom. But most of them are shuttled off to developmental…

  10. Bioanalytical challenges of biosimilars.

    PubMed

    Islam, Rafiq

    2014-02-01

    Biologics such as monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins represent a significant portion of the pharmaceutical market. With many of the first generation biologics' patents expiring, an increasing number of biosimilars will be submitted for approval in the near future. The successful development of a biosimilar requires the demonstration of biosimilarity in terms of efficacy, safety and purity to an innovator-approved product. While regulatory frameworks have been established for the approval of biosimilars in several countries, there is not an established guidance for bioanalytical testing of biosimilars. Although there are regulatory guidances and White Papers on testing requirements for biologics in general, there is a need to address the bioanalytical challenges and solutions that apply specifically to the analysis of biosimilars in biological samples. This paper will focus on components of the PK and immunogenicity assays that are critical to biosimilar drug development.

  11. Overcoming barriers to addressing education problems with research design: a panel discussion.

    PubMed

    Yarris, Lalena M; Gruppen, Larry D; Hamstra, Stanley J; Anders Ericsson, K; Cook, David A

    2012-12-01

    A plenary panel session at the 2012 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Education Research in Emergency Medicine: Opportunities, Challenges, and Strategies for Success" discussed barriers educators face in imagining, designing, and implementing studies to address educational challenges. This proceedings article presents a general approach to getting started in education research. Four examples of studies from the medical education literature that illustrate a distinct way to approach specific research questions are discussed. The study designs used are applicable to a variety of education research problems in emergency medicine (EM). Potential applications of studies are discussed, as well as effects and lessons learned.

  12. The Reach Address Database (RAD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores reach address information for each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams, lakes, etc) in the National Hydrology Database (NHD) Plus dataset.

  13. Automated measurement of printer effective addressability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Brian E.; Eid, Ahmed H.; Rippetoe, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    When evaluating printer resolution, addressability is a key consideration. Addressability defines the maximum number of spots or samples within a given distance, independent of the size of the spots when printed. Effective addressability is the addressability demonstrated by the final, printed output. It is the minimum displacement possible between the centers of printed objects. In this paper, we present a measurement procedure for effective addressability that offers an automated way to experimentally determine the addressability of the printed output. It requires printing, scanning, and measuring a test target. The effective addressability test target contains two types of elements, repeated to fill the page: fiducial lines and line segments. The fiducial lines serve as a relative reference for the incremental displacements of the individual line segments, providing a way to tolerate larger-scale physical distortions in the printer. An ordinary reflection scanner captures the printed test target. By rotating the page on the scanner, it is possible to measure effective addressability well beyond the scanner's sampling resolution. The measurement algorithm computes the distribution of incremental displacements, forming either a unimodal or bimodal histogram. In the latter case, the mean of the second (non-zero) peak indicates the effective addressability. In the former case, the printer successfully rendered the target's resolution, requiring another iteration of the procedure after increasing the resolution of the test target. The algorithm automatically estimates whether the histogram is unimodal or bimodal and computes parameters describing the quality of the measured histogram. Several experiments have refined the test target and measurement procedure, including two round-robin evaluations by the ISO WG4 committee. Results include an analysis of approximately 150 printed samples. The effective addressability attribute and measurement procedure are included in

  14. Tryptophan supplements promote pregnancy success in mice challenged with pseudorabies virus (PRV) by regulating the expression of systemic cytokines, immunoglobulins, PRV-specific protein profiles, and toll-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Shixiu; Fang, Zhengfeng; Wu, De; Lin, Yan; Che, Lianqiang

    2011-01-01

    Tryptophan (Trp) plays an important role in regulating the maternal immune response, a key determinant of the success or failure of pregnancy, but whether Trp supplements can prevent a pseudorabies virus (PRV)-induced failure of pregnancy remains unknown. This study examined the effect of three dietary Trp levels (0.25%, 0.35%, and 0.5%) on the immunity and reproduction of PRV-challenged pregnant mice. PRV challenge resulted in decreased live embryo numbers, live litter sizes, and serum progesterone and interleukin (IL)-10 concentrations, but increased the levels of serum immunoglobulins (Igs) (PRV-specific antibody [IgG, IgA, and IgM]) and IL-1β. Live embryo numbers, live litter sizes, serum progesterone concentration, and IgG and PRV-specific antibody levels on day 9 of pregnancy were all increased dose-dependently by Trp inclusion in the diet of PRV-challenged mice. Increased Trp levels in PRV-challenged mice promoted the up-regulation of uterine and embryonic indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression, but attenuated the up-regulation of uterine and embryonic Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 and TLR9 expression and increased serum interferon-γ concentration. Collectively, Trp supplements might improve reproductive performance of PRV-challenged pregnant mice by down-regulating TLR expression and pro-inflammatory cytokine synthesis, by up-regulating PRV-specific antibody and immunoglobulin synthesis, and by elevating the concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines and progesterone.

  15. Using a Participatory Culture-Specific Model to Increase the Effectiveness of Social Justice Courses in School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graybill, Emily C.; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel; Greenberg, Daphne; Roach, Andrew T.

    2013-01-01

    The Participatory Culture-Specific Model of Course Development (PCSMCD), adapted from the Participatory Culture-Specific Intervention Model, is a proposed framework to address challenges to social justice education by addressing the following four course variables: instructor characteristics, instructor experiences, student characteristics, and…

  16. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  17. Metagenomic Assembly: Overview, Challenges and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ghurye, Jay S.; Cepeda-Espinoza, Victoria; Pop, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    Advances in sequencing technologies have led to the increased use of high throughput sequencing in characterizing the microbial communities associated with our bodies and our environment. Critical to the analysis of the resulting data are sequence assembly algorithms able to reconstruct genes and organisms from complex mixtures. Metagenomic assembly involves new computational challenges due to the specific characteristics of the metagenomic data. In this survey, we focus on major algorithmic approaches for genome and metagenome assembly, and discuss the new challenges and opportunities afforded by this new field. We also review several applications of metagenome assembly in addressing interesting biological problems. PMID:27698619

  18. Preventing Challenging Behaviors in Preschool: Effective Strategies for Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Janelle C.; Crosby, Megan G.; Irwin, Heather K.; Dennis, Lindsay R.; Simpson, Cynthia G.; Rose, Chad A.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides practical strategies and techniques that early childhood educators can implement in their classrooms to effectively manage challenging behaviors. The specific strategies addressed fall under the following categories: (a) classroom management, (b) reinforcement, and (c) communication. Suggestions are made for how parents can…

  19. Naturally derived biomaterials for addressing inflammation in tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Brendan AC

    2016-01-01

    Tissue regeneration strategies have traditionally relied on designing biomaterials that closely mimic features of the native extracellular matrix (ECM) as a means to potentially promote site-specific cellular behaviors. However, inflammation, while a necessary component of wound healing, can alter processes associated with successful tissue regeneration following an initial injury. These processes can be further magnified by the implantation of a biomaterial within the wound site. In addition to designing biomaterials to satisfy biocompatibility concerns as well as to replicate elements of the composition, structure, and mechanics of native tissue, we propose that ECM analogs should also include features that modulate the inflammatory response. Indeed, strategies that enhance, reduce, or even change the temporal phenotype of inflammatory processes have unique potential as future pro-regenerative analogs. Here, we review derivatives of three natural materials with intrinsic anti-inflammatory properties and discuss their potential to address the challenges of inflammation in tissue engineering and chronic wounds. PMID:27190254

  20. CONTENT-ADDRESSABLE MEMORY SYSTEMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The utility of content -addressable memories (CAM’s) within a general purpose computing system is investigated. Word cells within CAM may be...addressed by the character of all or a part of cell contents . Multimembered sets of word cells may be addressed simultaneously. The distributed logical...package is developed which allows simulation of CAM commands within job programs run on the IBM 7090 and derives tallies of execution times corresponding to a particular realization of a CAM system . (Author)

  1. Challenge studies of human volunteers: ethical issues

    PubMed Central

    Hope, T; McMillan, J

    2004-01-01

    There is a long history of medical research that involves intentionally infecting healthy people in order to study diseases and their treatments. Such research—what might be called "human challenge studies"—are an important strand of much current research—for example, in the development of vaccinations. The many international and national guidelines about the proper conduct of medical research do not specifically address human challenge studies. In this paper we review the guidelines on the risk of harm that healthy volunteers may be exposed to in the course of medical research. We examine the ethical arguments that are implicit or explicit in these guidelines. We then ask whether there is reason for limiting such studies on grounds independent of risk of harm. We conclude that the major ethical concern with challenge studies is that of risk of harm and that the fact that a study is a challenge study is not a wrong in itself. PMID:14872087

  2. Therapeutic challenges of urosepsis.

    PubMed

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Pilatz, A; Naber, K G; Weidner, W

    2008-10-01

    Urosepsis accounts for approximately 25% of all sepsis cases and may develop from a community or nosocomial acquired urinary tract infection (UTI). The underlying UTI is almost exclusively a complicated one with involvement of parenchymatous urogenital organs (e.g. kidneys, prostate). In urosepsis, as in other types of sepsis, the severity of sepsis depends mostly upon the host response. The treatment of urosepsis comprises four major aspects: Early goal directed therapy, early optimal pharmacodynamic exposure to antimicrobials, early control of the complicating factor in the urinary tract and specific sepsis therapy. Following these prerequisites there appear two major challenges that need to be addressed: Firstly, time from admission to therapy is critical; the shorter the time to effective treatment, the higher the success rate. This aspect has to become incorporated into the organisational process. Secondly, adequate initial antibiotic therapy has to be insured. This goal implies however, a wide array of measures to ensure rational antibiotic policy. Both challenges are best targeted if an interdisciplinary approach at any level of the process is established, encompassing urologists, intensive care specialists, radiologists, microbiologists and clinical pharmacologists working tightly together at any time.

  3. Zymosan-induced immune challenge modifies the stress response of hypoxic air-breathing fish (Anabas testudineus Bloch): Evidence for reversed patterns of cortisol and thyroid hormone interaction, differential ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response.

    PubMed

    Simi, S; Peter, Valsa S; Peter, M C Subhash

    2016-11-18

    Fishes have evolved physiological mechanisms to exhibit stress response, where hormonal signals interact with an array of ion transporters and regulate homeostasis. As major ion transport regulators in fish, cortisol and thyroid hormones have been shown to interact and fine-tune the stress response. Likewise, in fishes many interactions have been identified between stress and immune components, but the physiological basis of such interaction has not yet delineated particularly in air-breathing fish. We, therefore, investigated the responses of thyroid hormones and cortisol, ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response of an obligate air-breathing fish Anabas testudineus Bloch to zymosan treatment or hypoxia stress or both, to understand how immune challenge modifies the pattern of stress response in this fish. Induction of experimental peritonitis in these fish by zymosan treatment (200ngg(-1)) for 24h produced rise in respiratory burst and lysozomal activities in head kidney phagocytes. In contrast, hypoxia stress for 30min in immune-challenged fish reversed these non-specific responses of head kidney phagocytes. The decline in plasma cortisol in zymosan-treated fish and its further suppression by hypoxia stress indicate that immune challenge suppresses the cortisol-driven stress response of this fish. Likewise, the decline in plasma T3 and T4 after zymosan-treatment and the rise in plasma T4 after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish indicate a critical role for thyroid hormone in immune-stress response due to its differential sensitivity to both immune and stress challenges. Further, analysis of the activity pattern of ion-dependent ATPases viz. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, H(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Na(+)/NH4(+)-ATPase indicates a functional interaction of ion transport system with the immune response as evident in its differential and spatial modifications after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish. The immune-challenge that produced differential pattern

  4. Taxonomy of Challenges for Digital Forensics.

    PubMed

    Karie, Nickson M; Venter, Hein S

    2015-07-01

    Since its inception, over a decade ago, the field of digital forensics has faced numerous challenges. Despite different researchers and digital forensic practitioners having studied and analysed various known digital forensic challenges, as of 2013, there still exists a need for a formal classification of these challenges. This article therefore reviews existing research literature and highlights the various challenges that digital forensics has faced for the last 10 years. In conducting this research study, however, it was difficult for the authors to review all the existing research literature in the digital forensic domain; hence, sampling and randomization techniques were employed to facilitate the review of the gathered literature. Taxonomy of the various challenges is subsequently proposed in this paper based on our review of the literature. The taxonomy classifies the large number of digital forensic challenges into four well-defined and easily understood categories. The proposed taxonomy can be useful, for example, in future developments of automated digital forensic tools by explicitly describing processes and procedures that focus on addressing specific challenges identified in this paper. However, it should also be noted that the purpose of this paper was not to propose any solutions to the individual challenges that digital forensics face, but to serve as a survey of the state of the art of the research area.

  5. What Specific Areas Must a Hazardous Waste Permit Address?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hazardous waste permits provide treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDFs) with the legal authority to treat, store, or dispose of hazardous waste and detail how the facility must comply with the regulations

  6. Addressing the Moral Agency of Culturally Specific Care Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Chrystal S.

    2011-01-01

    Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), as a culturally sensitive framework, realises the totality of caring in context. Few, if any, investigations into caring have articulated CHAT as a feasible mode of inquiry for inserting the cultural perspectives of both the researcher and the researched. This article elucidates CHAT as an intelligible…

  7. Addressing the underperformance of faculty and staff.

    PubMed

    Kenner, Carole; Pressler, Jana L

    2006-01-01

    Many new nursing leaders assuming work as deans, assistant deans, or interim deans have limited education, experience, or background to prepare them for the job. To assist new deans and those aspiring to be deans, the authors of this department, both deans, offer survival tips based on their personal experiences and insights. They address common issues, challenges, and opportunities that face academic executive teams, such as negotiating an executive contract, obtaining faculty lines, building effective work teams, managing difficult employees, and creating nimble organizational structure to respond to changing consumer, healthcare delivery, and community needs. The authors welcome counterpoint discussions with readers.

  8. 2008 GEM Modeling Challenge: Metrics Study of the Dst Index in Physics-Based Magnetosphere and Ring Current Models and in Statistical and Analytic Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastaetter, L.; Kuznetsova, M.; Hesse, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Glocer, A.; Yu, Y.; Meng, X.; Raeder, J.; Wiltberger, M.; Welling, D.; Jordanova, V.; Zaharia, S.; Sazykin, S.; Weigel, R.; Boynton, R.; Eccles, V.; Gannon, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the metrics-based results of the Dst part of the 2008-2009 GEM Metrics Challenge are reported. The Metrics Challenge asked modelers to submit results for 4 geomagnetic storm events and 5 different types of observations that can be modeled by statistical or climatological or physics-based (e.g. MHD) models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. We present the results of over 25 model settings that were run at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) and at the institutions of various modelers for these events. To measure the performance of each of the models against the observations we use comparisons of one-hour averaged model data with the Dst index issued by the World Data Center for Geomagnetism, Kyoto, Japan, and direct comparison of one-minute model data with the one-minute Dst index calculated by the United States Geologic Survey (USGS).

  9. Unraveling the Tissue-Specific Gene Signatures of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.) after Hyper- and Hypo-Osmotic Challenges.

    PubMed

    Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Mancera, Juan Miguel; Calduch-Giner, Josep Alvar; Yúfera, Manuel; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    A custom microarray was used for the transcriptomic profiling of liver, gills and hypothalamus in response to hypo- (38‰ → 5‰) or hyper- (38‰ → 55‰) osmotic challenges (7 days after salinity transfer) in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles. The total number of differentially expressed genes was 777. Among them, 341 and 310 were differentially expressed in liver after hypo- and hyper-osmotic challenges, respectively. The magnitude of changes was lower in gills and hypothalamus with around 131 and 160 responsive genes in at least one osmotic stress condition, respectively. Regardless of tissue, a number of genes were equally regulated in either hypo- and hyper-osmotic challenges: 127 out of 524 in liver, 11 out of 131 in gills and 19 out of 160 in hypothalamus. In liver and gills, functional analysis of differentially expressed genes recognized two major clusters of overlapping canonical pathways that were mostly related to "Energy Metabolism" and "Oxidative Stress". The later cluster was represented in all the analyzed tissues, including the hypothalamus, where differentially expressed genes related to "Cell and tissue architecture" were also over-represented. Overall the response for "Energy Metabolism" was the up-regulation, whereas for oxidative stress-related genes the type of response was highly dependent of tissue. These results support common and different osmoregulatory responses in the three analyzed tissues, helping to load new allostatic conditions or even to return to basal levels after hypo- or hyper-osmotic challenges according to the different physiological role of each tissue.

  10. Unraveling the Tissue-Specific Gene Signatures of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.) after Hyper- and Hypo-Osmotic Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Mancera, Juan Miguel; Calduch-Giner, Josep Alvar; Yúfera, Manuel; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    A custom microarray was used for the transcriptomic profiling of liver, gills and hypothalamus in response to hypo- (38‰ → 5‰) or hyper- (38‰ → 55‰) osmotic challenges (7 days after salinity transfer) in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles. The total number of differentially expressed genes was 777. Among them, 341 and 310 were differentially expressed in liver after hypo- and hyper-osmotic challenges, respectively. The magnitude of changes was lower in gills and hypothalamus with around 131 and 160 responsive genes in at least one osmotic stress condition, respectively. Regardless of tissue, a number of genes were equally regulated in either hypo- and hyper-osmotic challenges: 127 out of 524 in liver, 11 out of 131 in gills and 19 out of 160 in hypothalamus. In liver and gills, functional analysis of differentially expressed genes recognized two major clusters of overlapping canonical pathways that were mostly related to “Energy Metabolism” and “Oxidative Stress”. The later cluster was represented in all the analyzed tissues, including the hypothalamus, where differentially expressed genes related to “Cell and tissue architecture” were also over-represented. Overall the response for “Energy Metabolism” was the up-regulation, whereas for oxidative stress-related genes the type of response was highly dependent of tissue. These results support common and different osmoregulatory responses in the three analyzed tissues, helping to load new allostatic conditions or even to return to basal levels after hypo- or hyper-osmotic challenges according to the different physiological role of each tissue. PMID:26828928

  11. Effects of dietary β-glucan and glycyrrhizin on non-specific immunity and disease resistance of the sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) challenged with Vibrio splendidus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jie; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen; Ma, Hongming; Xu, Wei

    2010-12-01

    Sea cucumbers, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka, were fed diets containing non-immunostimulant (basal diet), 0.2% β-glucan and 0.02% glycyrrhizin in a recirculatory water system for 45 days, and subsequently challenged with Vibrio splendidus by injection at 1.0×108 cfu / sea cucumber for 15 days. Phagocytic capacity (PC), intracellular superoxide anion production (ISAP), lysozyme (LSZ) activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the coelomic fluid were analyzed on the 0th, 5th, 10th and 15th days after injection. Results showed that after the 45-day feeding period, PC, ISAP, LSZ activity and SOD activity in sea cucumbers fed with dietary β-glucan or glycyrrhizin were significantly higher than in those fed with the basal diet. On the 5th day after infection, all the immune parameters examined in the sea cucumbers injected with V. splendidus decreased in value significantly. On the 15th day, PC, ISAP and LSZ activity returned to levels similar to those on the 0th day. For the sea cucumbers injected with saline, there were no significant differences in all the immune parameters examined and in the cumulative morbidity during the 15-day challenging trial. After injecting with V. splendidus, the cumulative morbidity of sea cucumbers fed with the basal diet was significantly higher than those fed with dietary β-glucan or glycyrrhizin when challenged with V. splendidus challenged sea cucumber fed with the basal diet was significantly higher than those fed with dietary β-glucan or glycyrrhizin. There was no significant difference in cumulative morbidity between the dietary β-glucan and glycyrrhizin treatments over time.

  12. NASA Space Rocket Logistics Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bramon, Chris; Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Watson, Michael D.; Inman, Sharon K.; Tuttle, Loraine

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle in development and is scheduled for its first mission in 2017. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. However, SLS also faces unique challenges. This presentation will address the SLS challenges, along with the analysis and decisions to mitigate the threats posed by each.

  13. Epilepsy: addressing the transition from pediatric to adult care

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Seetha; Iyer, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of rapid change, both physical and psychosocial for any young person. It can be challenging when they have ongoing health problems and when their care needs to be transitioned to the adult health care system. Transition should be a planned process of addressing the medical and associated comorbid conditions from pediatric to adult care in a coordinated manner. In most cases, the young person and their family are well known to the pediatrics services and have built a relationship based on trust and often friendship over many years. Understandably, there is significant apprehension about moving from this familiar setting to the unknown adult services. Apart from having a sound knowledge of specific childhood epileptic conditions and associated comorbid disorders, it is important that both the pediatric and adult epilepsy teams are motivated to provide a successful and safe transition for these patients. It is essential that transition is seen as a continual process and not as a single event, and good preparation is the key to its success. It is also important that general practitioners are closely engaged to ensure successful transition. An overview of how to effectively address transition in epilepsy, different models of transition, transition of relevant epilepsies, and their management is discussed. PMID:27390536

  14. The SAFER Latinos project: Addressing a community ecology underlying Latino youth violence.

    PubMed

    Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean D; Collins, Elizabeth; Klevens, Joanne; Leiva, Rodrigo; Bazurto, Martha; Rivera, Ivonne; del Cid, Alex Taylor; Montero, Luisa; Calderon, Melba

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes the intervention model, early implementation experience, and challenges for the Seguridad, Apoyo, Familia, Educacion, y Recursos (SAFER) Latinos project. The SAFER Latinos project is an attempt to build the evidence for a multilevel participatory youth violence prevention model tailored to the specific circumstances of Central American immigrants. Specific circumstances targeted in this intervention are decreased family cohesion as a result of sequential immigration (i.e., parents arriving first and bringing their children years later or youth arriving without parents); multiple school barriers; community disorganization and low community efficacy; limited access to services; and a social context (including gang presence) that is linked to youth norms supporting violence. In its implementation, the initial intervention model was adapted to address barriers and challenges. These are described, along with lessons learned and the ongoing evaluation.

  15. Drilling Specifications: Well Installations in the 300 Area to Support PNNL’s Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFC) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Vermeul, Vince R.

    2008-01-21

    Part of the 300 Area Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFC) will be installation of a network of high density borings and wells to monitor migration of fluids and contaminants (uranium), both in groundwater and vadose zone, away from an surface infiltration plot (Figure A-1). The infiltration plot will be located over an area of suspected contamination at the former 300 Area South Process Pond (SPP). The SPP is located in the southeastern portion of the Hanford Site, within the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with the support of FH shall stake the well locations prior to the start of drilling. Final locations will be based on accessibility and will avoid any surface or underground structures or hazards as well as surface contamination.

  16. A New Adjuvant Combined with Inactivated Influenza Enhances Specific CD8 T Cell Response in Mice and Decreases Symptoms in Swine Upon Challenge.

    PubMed

    Bouguyon, Edwige; Goncalves, Elodie; Shevtsov, Alexander; Maisonnasse, Pauline; Remyga, Stepan; Goryushev, Oleg; Deville, Sebastien; Bertho, Nicolas; Ben Arous, Juliette

    2015-11-01

    Vaccination is the most effective way to control swine influenza virus (SIV) in the field. Classical vaccines are based on inactivated antigens formulated with an oil emulsion or a polymeric adjuvant. Standard adjuvants enhance the humoral response and orient the immune response toward a Th2 response. An important issue is that current vaccines do not protect against new strains. One approach to improve cross-protection is to enhance Th1 and cytotoxic responses. The development of adjuvants orienting the immune response of inactivated vaccines toward Th1/Cytotoxic responses would be highly beneficial. This study shows that the water in oil in water emulsion adjuvant Montanide™ ISA 201 VG allows the induction of anti-influenza CD8 T cell in mice and induces homologous protection against an H1N1 challenge in swine. Such adjuvants that induce both humoral and cell-mediated immunity could improve the protection conferred by SIV vaccines in the field.

  17. Immunotoxicological Analysis of the Immune Adjuvant Effects of Source Specific Diesel and Environmental Ambient Particulate Matter in a Murine Sensitization And Challenge Model.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Acute exposure to ambient particulate matter (APM) provokes oxidative and inflammatory lung activation in vivo. Here, we test the hypothesis that environmental diesel exhaust particles (eDEP), emission source-specific DEP (cDEP) and APM differentially provoke an allerg...

  18. Adoptive transfer of Aspergillus-specific T cells as a novel anti-fungal therapy for hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: Progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Anastasia; Kaloyannidis, Panayotis; Yannaki, Evangelia; Cruz, Conrad Russell

    2016-02-01

    Although newer antifungal drugs have substantially altered the natural history of invasive aspergillosis, the disease still accounts for significant morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Both the evidence supporting a protective role of T cells against this fungal pathogen and the documented efficacy of adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T cells for prophylaxis and treatment of viral infections post-transplant have stimulated much interest towards development of Aspergillus-specific T cells (Asp-STs) for adoptive immunotherapy in the allogeneic transplant setting. In contrast to the remarkable progress with virus-specific T cells, clinical development of fungus-specific T cells is still in its infancy. Several groups have characterized Asp-STs in healthy individuals and patients with malignant hematological diseases, while others sought to develop GMP-compliant methods of expanding or bioengineering Asp-STs ex vivo as immunotherapy. This review highlights the recent advances in this field, and discusses critical issues involved in development and protocol design of Asp-ST immunotherapy.

  19. Pharmacovigilance as a tool for safety and monitoring: a review of general issues and the specific challenges with end-stage renal failure patients

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Dalia; Marrón, Belén; Ehrlich, Jay; Rutherford, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance is instrumental in helping to ensure patient safety for both newly released drugs and those that are well established in the market. However, while pharmacovigilance procedures are strictly regulated in the clinical trial setting, post-marketing adverse event reporting is not well implemented or enforced. As such, the underreporting of adverse events, in relation to drugs that are on the market, is estimated to be in the region of 90%. The identification of drug safety issues in patients with complex diseases and extensive comorbidities is therefore particularly challenging. Dialysis patients – those with end-stage renal disease and often other comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease – are a population with significant treatment challenges. Patients receive dialysis using complex medical devices (eg, a peritoneal dialysis home cycler) and also receive a range of pharmaceutical agents as part of dialysis itself (eg, peritoneal dialysis solutions). Many of the pharmaceutical agents used to treat these patients have been developed in populations without these complications and, therefore, an extensive knowledge of potential problems and contraindications in the dialysis population is lacking. It is important that the nephrology community understands the concept of pharmacovigilance – the pharmacologic science relating to the detection, assessment, understanding, and prevention of adverse effects, particularly long-term and short-term side effects, of medicines. Health care professionals (HCPs) and providers, pharmaceutical companies, global regulatory agencies, and the patients themselves all play unique and critical roles in this process. This review defines the science of pharmacovigilance and the process of adverse event reporting, highlights the new directions that pharmacovigilance has taken, and provides insight for HCPs managing dialysis patients into the important role that they play in helping to shape

  20. Distinct Mechanisms Underlie Boosted Polysaccharide-Specific IgG Responses Following Secondary Challenge with Intact Gram-Negative versus Gram-Positive Extracellular Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kar, Swagata; Arjunaraja, Swadhinya; Akkoyunlu, Mustafa; Pier, Gerald B; Snapper, Clifford M

    2016-06-01

    Priming of mice with intact, heat-killed cells of Gram-negative Neisseria meningitidis, capsular serogroup C (MenC) or Gram-positive group B Streptococcus, capsular type III (GBS-III) bacteria resulted in augmented serum polysaccharide (PS)-specific IgG titers following booster immunization. Induction of memory required CD4(+) T cells during primary immunization. We determined whether PS-specific memory for IgG production was contained within the B cell and/or T cell populations, and whether augmented IgG responses following booster immunization were also dependent on CD4(+) T cells. Adoptive transfer of purified B cells from MenC- or GBS-III-primed, but not naive mice resulted in augmented PS-specific IgG responses following booster immunization. Similar responses were observed when cotransferred CD4(+) T cells were from primed or naive mice. Similarly, primary immunization with unencapsulated MenC or GBS-III, to potentially prime CD4(+) T cells, failed to enhance PS-specific IgG responses following booster immunization with their encapsulated isogenic partners. Furthermore, in contrast to GBS-III, depletion of CD4(+) T cells during secondary immunization with MenC or another Gram-negative bacteria, Acinetobacter baumannii, did not inhibit augmented PS-specific IgG booster responses of mice primed with heat-killed cells. Also, in contrast with GBS-III, booster immunization of MenC-primed mice with isolated MenC-PS, a TI Ag, or a conjugate of MenC-PS and tetanus toxoid elicited an augmented PS-specific IgG response similar to booster immunization with intact MenC. These data demonstrate that memory for augmented PS-specific IgG booster responses to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria is contained solely within the B cell compartment, with a differential requirement for CD4(+) T cells for augmented IgG responses following booster immunization.

  1. ADDRESSING HUMAN EXPOSURES TO AIR POLLUTANTS AROUND BUILDINGS IN URBAN AREAS WITH COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the status and application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models to address challenges for modeling human exposures to air pollutants around urban building microenvironments. There are challenges for more detailed understanding of air pollutant sour...

  2. Evaluation of the clinical and allergen specific serum immunoglobulin E responses to oral challenge with cornstarch, corn, soy and a soy hydrolysate diet in dogs with spontaneous food allergy.

    PubMed

    Jackson, H A; Jackson, M W; Coblentz, L; Hammerberg, B

    2003-08-01

    Fourteen dogs with known clinical hypersensitivity to soy and corn were maintained on a limited antigen duck and rice diet until cutaneous manifestations of pruritus were minimal (78 days). Sequential oral challenges with cornstarch, corn and soy were then performed. Subsequently, the dogs were fed a diet containing hydrolysed soy protein and cornstarch. Throughout the study period the dogs were examined for cutaneous manifestations of pruritus and, additionally, serum was collected for measurement of allergen-specific and total immunoglobulin (Ig)E concentrations. Intradermal testing with food antigens was performed prior to entry into the study and after 83 days. A statistically significant clinical improvement was measured between days 0 and 83. Significant pruritus was induced after oral challenge with cornstarch, corn and soy (P = 0.04, 0.002, 0.01, respectively) but not with the hydrolysed diet (P = 0.5). The positive predictive value of the skin test for soy and corn allergy was reduced after feeding a soy and corn free diet. Although increases in soy and corn-specific serum IgE concentrations were measured in individual dogs post challenge they were not statistically significant and could not be used to predict clinical hypersensitivity.

  3. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every…

  4. Agenda to address climate change

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This document looks at addressing climate change in the 21st century. Topics covered are: Responding to climate change; exploring new avenues in energy efficiency; energy efficiency and alternative energy; residential sector; commercial sector; industrial sector; transportation sector; communities; renewable energy; understanding forests to mitigate and adapt to climate change; the Forest Carbon budget; mitigation and adaptation.

  5. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  6. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  7. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2016-07-12

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  8. Emergency Medicine Gender-specific Education.

    PubMed

    Ashurst, John V; McGregor, Alyson J; Safdar, Basmah; Weaver, Kevin R; Quinn, Shawn M; Rosenau, Alex M; Goyke, Terrence E; Roth, Kevin R; Greenberg, Marna R

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference has taken the first step in identifying gender-specific care as an area of importance to both emergency medicine (EM) and research. To improve patient care, we need to address educational gaps in this area concurrent with research gaps. In this article, the authors highlight the need for sex- and gender-specific education in EM and propose guidelines for medical student, resident, and faculty education. Specific examples of incorporating this content into grand rounds, simulation, bedside teaching, and journal club sessions are reviewed. Future challenges and strategies to fill the gaps in the current education model are also described.

  9. Matching Alternative Addresses: a Semantic Web Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariannamazi, S.; Karimipour, F.; Hakimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI) provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature's literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  10. Introduction-Grand Challenges and small steps.

    PubMed

    De Grandis, Giovanni; Efstathiou, Sophia

    2016-04-01

    This collection addresses two different audiences: 1) historians and philosophers of the life sciences reflecting on collaborations across disciplines, especially as regards defining and addressing Grand Challenges; 2) researchers and other stakeholders involved in cross-disciplinary collaborations aimed at tackling Grand Challenges in the life and medical sciences. The essays collected here offer ideas and resources both for the study and for the practice of goal-driven cross-disciplinary research in the life and medical sciences. We organise this introduction in three sections. The first section provides some background and context. The second motivates our take on this topic and then outlines the central ideas of each paper. The third section highlights the specificity and significance of this approach by considering: a) how this collection departs from existing literature on inter- and trans-disciplinarity, b) what is characteristic about this approach, and c) what role this suggests for the history and philosophy of the life sciences in addressing Grand Challenges.

  11. A Blueprint to Address Research Gaps in the Development of Biomarkers for Pediatric Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Mark Patrick; Gnanashanmugam, Devasena; Browning, Renee; Click, Eleanor S.; Cuevas, Luis E.; Detjen, Anne; Graham, Steve M.; Levin, Michael; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Nahid, Payam; Perez-Velez, Carlos M.; Reither, Klaus; Song, Rinn; Spiegel, Hans M. L.; Worrell, Carol; Zar, Heather J.; Walzl, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Childhood tuberculosis contributes significantly to the global tuberculosis disease burden but remains challenging to diagnose due to inadequate methods of pathogen detection in paucibacillary pediatric samples and lack of a child-specific host biomarker to identify disease. Accurately diagnosing tuberculosis in children is required to improve case detection, surveillance, healthcare delivery, and effective advocacy. In May 2014, the National Institutes of Health convened a workshop including researchers in the field to delineate priorities to address this research gap. This blueprint describes the consensus from the workshop, identifies critical research steps to advance this field, and aims to catalyze efforts toward harmonization and collaboration in this area. PMID:26409279

  12. A Blueprint to Address Research Gaps in the Development of Biomarkers for Pediatric Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Mark Patrick; Gnanashanmugam, Devasena; Browning, Renee; Click, Eleanor S; Cuevas, Luis E; Detjen, Anne; Graham, Steve M; Levin, Michael; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Nahid, Payam; Perez-Velez, Carlos M; Reither, Klaus; Song, Rinn; Spiegel, Hans M L; Worrell, Carol; Zar, Heather J; Walzl, Gerhard

    2015-10-15

    Childhood tuberculosis contributes significantly to the global tuberculosis disease burden but remains challenging to diagnose due to inadequate methods of pathogen detection in paucibacillary pediatric samples and lack of a child-specific host biomarker to identify disease. Accurately diagnosing tuberculosis in children is required to improve case detection, surveillance, healthcare delivery, and effective advocacy. In May 2014, the National Institutes of Health convened a workshop including researchers in the field to delineate priorities to address this research gap. This blueprint describes the consensus from the workshop, identifies critical research steps to advance this field, and aims to catalyze efforts toward harmonization and collaboration in this area.

  13. Addressing the hidden dimension in nursing education: promoting cultural competence.

    PubMed

    Carter, Kimberly F; Xu, Yu

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe a cultural competence quality enhancement process to address the retention challenge of students who speak English as second language and international students as part of a school of nursing's continuous program quality improvement to achieve excellence. The process, strategies, outcomes, and evaluation of the training program are detailed within the given geographical, institutional, and curriculum context. Lessons and continuing challenges are also specified.

  14. Atomic clusters with addressable complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, David J.

    2017-02-01

    A general formulation for constructing addressable atomic clusters is introduced, based on one or more reference structures. By modifying the well depths in a given interatomic potential in favour of nearest-neighbour interactions that are defined in the reference(s), the potential energy landscape can be biased to make a particular permutational isomer the global minimum. The magnitude of the bias changes the resulting potential energy landscape systematically, providing a framework to produce clusters that should self-organise efficiently into the target structure. These features are illustrated for small systems, where all the relevant local minima and transition states can be identified, and for the low-energy regions of the landscape for larger clusters. For a 55-particle cluster, it is possible to design a target structure from a transition state of the original potential and to retain this structure in a doubly addressable landscape. Disconnectivity graphs based on local minima that have no direct connections to a lower minimum provide a helpful way to visualise the larger databases. These minima correspond to the termini of monotonic sequences, which always proceed downhill in terms of potential energy, and we identify them as a class of biminimum. Multiple copies of the target cluster are treated by adding a repulsive term between particles with the same address to maintain distinguishable targets upon aggregation. By tuning the magnitude of this term, it is possible to create assemblies of the target cluster corresponding to a variety of structures, including rings and chains.

  15. Challenges in organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Beyar, Rafael

    2011-04-01

    Organ transplantation has progressed tremendously with improvements in surgical methods, organ preservation, and pharmaco-immunologic therapies and has become a critical pathway in the management of severe organ failure worldwide. The major sources of organs are deceased donors after brain death; however, a substantial number of organs come from live donations, and a significant number can also be obtained from non-heart-beating donors. Yet, despite progress in medical, pharmacologic, and surgical techniques, the shortage of organs is a worldwide problem that needs to be addressed internationally at the highest possible levels. This particular field involves medical ethics, religion, and society behavior and beliefs. Some of the critical ethical issues that require aggressive interference are organ trafficking, payments for organs, and the delicate balance in live donations between the benefit to the recipient and the possible harm to the donor and others. A major issue in organ transplantation is the definition of death and particularly brain death. Another major critical factor is the internal tendency of a specific society to donate organs. In the review below, we will discuss the various challenges that face organ donation worldwide, and particularly in Israel, and some proposed mechanisms to overcome this difficulty.

  16. The (Im)possibility of the Project: Radford Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Bill

    2010-01-01

    In this address, the author engages both with the possibility "and" the impossibility of the educational project--and suggests something of what it means to say this. His presentation is specifically addressed to the theme of the (im)possibility of the educational project. He draws from philosophy, literature, psychoanalysis and history,…

  17. Lessons Learned and Challenges in Building a Filipino Health Coalition

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, David E.; Abesamis-Mendoza, Noilyn; Ursua, Rhodora; Divino, Lily Ann M.; Cadag, Kara; Gavin, Nicholas P.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, community-based coalitions have become an effective channel to addressing various health problems within specific ethnic communities. The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to describe the process involved in building the Kalusugan Coalition (KC), a Filipino American health coalition based in New York City, and (b) to highlight the lessons learned and the challenges from this collaborative venture. The challenges described also offer insights on how the coalition development process can be greatly affected by the partnership with an academic institution on a community-based research project. Because each cultural group has unique issues and concerns, the theoretical framework used by KC offers creative alternatives to address some of the challenges regarding coalition infrastructures, leadership development, unexpected change of coalition dynamics, and cultural nuances. PMID:19098260

  18. Experimental Toxoplasma gondii infections in pigs: Humoral immune response, estimation of specific IgG avidity and the challenges of reproducing vertical transmission in sows.

    PubMed

    Basso, Walter; Grimm, Felix; Ruetten, Maja; Djokic, Vitomir; Blaga, Radu; Sidler, Xaver; Deplazes, Peter

    2017-03-15

    Ten pregnant sows were experimentally inoculated per os with T. gondii in order to investigate vertical and galactogenic transmission of the parasite and the evolution and maturation of the specific IgG humoral response in the sows and piglets. Five seronegative sows received 10(4)T. gondii (CZ isolate clone H3) sporulated oocysts during late-pregnancy (Exp. 1), three sows received 10(4) oocysts during mid-pregnancy (Exp. 2) and three sows from Exp. 1 (and two seronegative sows) were re-inoculated with 10(5) oocysts during a further pregnancy (late-pregnancy) (Exp. 3). Besides, six 4.5 week-old piglets inoculated per os with 5×10(3) oocysts were also included in the serological investigations. All animals seroconverted (PrioCHECK Toxoplasma Ab porcine ELISA, Prionics, Switzerland) by 2-3 weeks post inoculation (wpi) and remained seropositive for at least 38 weeks or until euthanasia. Four chronically infected sows from Exp. 1 and 2 were serologically monitored during a further pregnancy and no reactivation, but a decrease of the antibody levels was observed at farrowing (Exp. 4). In all experiments, the specific IgG-avidity was initially low, increased during the course of infection and after re-inoculations. An avidity index (AI) ≥40% could be used to rule out recent infections (<8 weeks) in most (15 of 16) animals. In some piglets (18.6% of 70) delivered by inoculated sows (Exp. 1 and 2), maternal antibodies were still detectable at 2 months (but not by 3 months) of age, with constant high avidity values, comparable to those of the dams at farrowing. In all experiments, the sows remained asymptomatic and delivered non-infected offspring at term. A total of 208 normal and 5 stillborn piglets delivered by the inoculated sows (Exp. 1-4) tested serologically negative before colostrum uptake. Placentas (n=88) from all sows and tissues (brain, liver, lung, heart, and masseter muscle) from 56 delivered piglets were analysed histopathologically and by real-time PCR

  19. Recombinant Adenovirus Delivery of Calreticulin–ESAT-6 Produces an Antigen-Specific Immune Response but no Protection Against a Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Esparza-González, S. C.; Troy, A.; Troudt, J.; Loera-Arias, M. J.; Villatoro-Hernández, J.; Torres-López, E.; Ancer-Rodríguez, J.; Gutiérrez-Puente, Y.; Muñoz-Maldonado, G.; Saucedo-Cárdenas, O.; Montes-de-Oca-Luna, R.; Izzo, A.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG) has failed to efficaciously control the worldwide spread of the disease. New vaccine development targets virulence antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are deleted in Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Immunization with ESAT-6 and CFP10 provides protection against M. tuberculosis in a murine infection model. Further, previous studies have shown that calreticulin increases the cell-mediated immune responses to antigens. Therefore, to test whether calreticulin enhances the immune response against M. tuberculosis antigens, we fused ESAT-6 to calreticulin and constructed a recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus to express the resulting fusion protein (AdCRT–ESAT-6). The adjuvant effect of calreticulin was assayed by measuring cytokine responses specific to ESAT-6. Recombinant adenovirus expressing the fusion protein produced higher levels of interferon-γ and tumour necrosis factor-α in response to ESAT-6. This immune response was not improved by the addition of CFP-10 to the CRT-ESAT-6 fusion protein (AdCRT–ESAT-6–CFP10). Mice immunized with these recombinant adenoviruses did not decrease the mycobacterial burden after low-dose aerosol infection with M. tuberculosis. We conclude that calreticulin can be used as an adjuvant to enhance the immune response against mycobacterial antigens, but it is not enough to protect against tuberculosis. PMID:22010821

  20. Addressing Risks to Advance Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Iltis, Ana S.; Misra, Sahana; Dunn, Laura B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Campbell, Amy; Earll, Sarah A.; Glowinski, Anne; Hadley, Whitney B.; Pies, Ronald; DuBois, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk communication and management are essential to the ethical conduct of research, yet addressing risks may be time consuming for investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) may reject study designs that appear too risky. This can discourage needed research, particularly in higher risk protocols or those enrolling potentially vulnerable individuals, such as those with some level of suicidality. Improved mechanisms for addressing research risks may facilitate much needed psychiatric research. This article provides mental health researchers with practical approaches to: 1) identify and define various intrinsic research risks; 2) communicate these risks to others (e.g., potential participants, regulatory bodies, society); 3) manage these risks during the course of a study; and 4) justify the risks. Methods As part of a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded scientific meeting series, a public conference and a closed-session expert panel meeting were held on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. The expert panel reviewed the literature with a focus on empirical studies and developed recommendations for best practices and further research on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. IRB review was not required because there were no human subjects. The NIMH played no role in developing or reviewing the manuscript. Results Challenges, current data, practical strategies, and topics for future research are addressed for each of four key areas pertaining to management and disclosure of risks in clinical trials: identifying and defining risks, communicating risks, managing risks during studies, and justifying research risks. Conclusions Empirical data on risk communication, managing risks, and the benefits of research can support the ethical conduct of mental health research and may help investigators better conceptualize and confront risks and to gain IRB approval. PMID:24173618

  1. Treating and Precepting with RESPECT: A Relational Model Addressing Race, Ethnicity, and Culture in Medical Training

    PubMed Central

    Crosson, Julie; Gordon, Sandra; Chapman, Sheila; Gonzalez, Peter; Hardt, Eric; Delgado, Leyda; James, Thea; David, Michele

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 2000 a diverse group of clinicians/educators at an inner-city safety-net hospital identified relational skills to reduce disparities at the point of care. DESCRIPTION The resulting interviewing and precepting model helps build trust with patients as well as with learners. RESPECT adds attention to the relational dimension, addressing documented disparities in respect, empathy, power-sharing, and trust while incorporating prior cross-cultural models. Specific behavioral descriptions for each component make RESPECT a concrete, practical, integrated model for teaching patient care. CONCLUSIONS Precepting with RESPECT fosters a safe climate for residents to partner with faculty, address challenges with patients at risk, and improve outcomes. PMID:20352510

  2. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  3. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance.

  4. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  5. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating.

  6. Challenges of animal models in SCI research: Effects of pre-injury task-specific training in adult rats before lesion.

    PubMed

    May, Zacnicte; Fouad, Karim; Shum-Siu, Alice; Magnuson, David S K

    2015-09-15

    A rarely explored subject in animal research is the effect of pre-injury variables on behavioral outcome post-SCI. Low reporting of such variables may underlie some discrepancies in findings between laboratories. Particularly, intensive task-specific training before a SCI might be important, considering that sports injuries are one of the leading causes of SCI. Thus, individuals with SCI often underwent rigorous training before their injuries. In the present study, we asked whether training before SCI on a grasping task or a swimming task would influence motor recovery in rats. Swim pre-training impaired recovery of swimming 2 and 4 weeks post-injury. This result fits with the idea of motor learning interference, which posits that learning something new may disrupt learning of a new task; in this case, learning strategies to compensate for functional loss after SCI. In contrast to swimming, grasp pre-training did not influence grasping ability after SCI at any time point. However, grasp pre-trained rats attempted to grasp more times than untrained rats in the first 4 weeks post-injury. Also, lesion volume of grasp pre-trained rats was greater than that of untrained rats, a finding which may be related to stress or activity. The increased participation in rehabilitative training of the pre-trained rats in the early weeks post-injury may have potentiated spontaneous plasticity in the spinal cord and counteracted the deleterious effect of interference and bigger lesions. Thus, our findings suggest that pre-training plays a significant role in recovery after CNS damage and needs to be carefully controlled for.

  7. Deuteron irradiation of W and WO3 for production of high specific activity 186Re: Challenges associated with thick target preparation

    DOE PAGES

    Balkin, Ethan R.; Gagnon, Katherine; Strong, Kevin T.; ...

    2016-06-28

    This investigation evaluated target fabrication and beam parameters for scale-up production of high specific activity 186Re using deuteron irradiation of enriched 186W via the 186W(d,2n)186Re reaction. Thick W and WO3 targets were prepared, characterized and evaluated in deuteron irradiations. Full-thickness targets, as determined using SRIM, were prepared by uniaxi-ally pressing powdered natural abundance W and WO3, or 96.86% enriched 186W, into Al target supports. Alternatively, thick targets were prepared by pressing 186W between two layers of graphite powder or by placing pre-sintered (1105°C, 12 hours) natural abundance WO3 pellets into an Al target support. Assessments of structural integrity were mademore » on each target pre-pared. Prior to irradiation, material composition analyses were conducted using SEM, XRD, and Raman spectroscopy. With-in a minimum of 24 hours post irradiation, gamma-ray spectroscopy was performed on all targets to assess production yields and radionuclidic byproducts. Problems were encountered with the structural integrity of some pressed W and WO3 pellets before and during irradiation, and target material characterization results could be correlated with the structural integrity of the pressed target pellets. Under the conditions studied, the findings suggest that all WO3 targets prepared and studied were unacceptable. By contrast, 186W metal was found to be a viable target material for 186Re production. Lastly, thick targets prepared with powdered 186W pressed between layers of graphite provided a particularly robust target configuration.« less

  8. Deuteron irradiation of W and WO3 for production of high specific activity 186Re: Challenges associated with thick target preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Balkin, Ethan R.; Gagnon, Katherine; Strong, Kevin T.; Smith, Bennett E.; Dorman, Eric F.; Emery, Robert C.; Pauzauskie, Peter J.; Fassbender, Michael E.; Cutler, Cathy S.; Ketring, Alan R.; Jurisson, Silvia S.; Wilbur, D. Scott

    2016-06-28

    This investigation evaluated target fabrication and beam parameters for scale-up production of high specific activity 186Re using deuteron irradiation of enriched 186W via the 186W(d,2n)186Re reaction. Thick W and WO3 targets were prepared, characterized and evaluated in deuteron irradiations. Full-thickness targets, as determined using SRIM, were prepared by uniaxi-ally pressing powdered natural abundance W and WO3, or 96.86% enriched 186W, into Al target supports. Alternatively, thick targets were prepared by pressing 186W between two layers of graphite powder or by placing pre-sintered (1105°C, 12 hours) natural abundance WO3 pellets into an Al target support. Assessments of structural integrity were made on each target pre-pared. Prior to irradiation, material composition analyses were conducted using SEM, XRD, and Raman spectroscopy. With-in a minimum of 24 hours post irradiation, gamma-ray spectroscopy was performed on all targets to assess production yields and radionuclidic byproducts. Problems were encountered with the structural integrity of some pressed W and WO3 pellets before and during irradiation, and target material characterization results could be correlated with the structural integrity of the pressed target pellets. Under the conditions studied, the findings suggest that all WO3 targets prepared and studied were unacceptable. By contrast, 186W metal was found to be a viable target material for 186Re production. Lastly, thick targets prepared with powdered 186W pressed between layers of graphite provided a particularly robust target configuration.

  9. RhD Specific Antibodies Are Not Detectable in HLA-DRB1*1501 Mice Challenged with Human RhD Positive Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo, Lidice; Denomme, Gregory A.; Shah, Kunjlata; Lazarus, Alan H.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to study the immune response to the RhD antigen in the prevention of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn has been hampered by the lack of a mouse model of RhD immunization. However, the ability of transgenic mice expressing human HLA DRB1*1501 to respond to immunization with purified RhD has allowed this question to be revisited. In this work we aimed at inducing anti-RhD antibodies by administering human RhD+ RBCs to mice transgenic for the human HLA DRB1*1501 as well as to several standard inbred and outbred laboratory strains including C57BL/6, DBA1/J, CFW(SW), CD1(ICR), and NSA(CF-1). DRB1*1501 mice were additionally immunized with putative extracellular immunogenic RhD peptides. DRB1*1501 mice immunized with RhD+ erythrocytes developed an erythrocyte-reactive antibody response. Antibodies specific for RhD could not however be detected by flow cytometry. Despite this, DRB1*1501 mice were capable of recognizing immunogenic sequences of Rh as injection with Rh peptides induced antibodies reactive with RhD sequences, consistent with the presence of B cell repertoires capable of recognizing RhD. We conclude that while HLA DRB1*1501 transgenic mice may have the capability of responding to immunogenic sequences within RhD, an immune response to human RBC expressing RhD is not directly observed. PMID:25628657

  10. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  11. Global-Address Space Networking (GASNet) Library

    SciTech Connect

    Welcome, Michael L.; Bell, Christian S.

    2011-04-06

    GASNet (Global-Address Space Networking) is a language-independent, low-level networking layer that provides network-independent, high-performance communication primitives tailored for implementing parallel global address space SPMD languages such as UPC and Titanium. The interface is primarily intended as a compilation target and for use by runtime library writers (as opposed to end users), and the primary goals are high performance, interface portability, and expressiveness. GASNet is designed specifically to support high-performance, portable implementations of global address space languages on modern high-end communication networks. The interface provides the flexibility and extensibility required to express a wide variety of communication patterns without sacrificing performance by imposing large computational overheads in the interface. The design of the GASNet interface is partitioned into two layers to maximize porting ease without sacrificing performance: the lower level is a narrow but very general interface called the GASNet core API - the design is basedheavily on Active Messages, and is implemented directly on top of each individual network architecture. The upper level is a wider and more expressive interface called GASNet extended API, which provides high-level operations such as remote memory access and various collective operations. This release implements GASNet over MPI, the Quadrics "elan" API, the Myrinet "GM" API and the "LAPI" interface to the IBM SP switch. A template is provided for adding support for additional network interfaces.

  12. Evaluating programs that address ideological issues: ethical and practical considerations for practitioners and evaluators.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Lisa D; Fagen, Michael C; Neiger, Brad L

    2014-03-01

    There are important practical and ethical considerations for organizations in conducting their own, or commissioning external, evaluations and for both practitioners and evaluators, when assessing programs built on strongly held ideological or philosophical approaches. Assessing whether programs "work" has strong political, financial, and/or moral implications, particularly when expending public dollars, and may challenge objectivity about a particular program or approach. Using a case study of the evaluation of a school-based abstinence-until-marriage program, this article discusses the challenges, lessons learned, and ethical responsibilities regarding decisions about evaluation, specifically associated with ideologically driven programs. Organizations should consider various stakeholders and views associated with their program to help identify potential pitfalls in evaluation. Once identified, the program or agency needs to carefully consider its answers to two key questions: Do they want the answer and are they willing to modify the program? Having decided to evaluate, the choice of evaluator is critical to assuring that ethical principles are maintained and potential skepticism or criticism of findings can be addressed appropriately. The relationship between program and evaluator, including agreements about ownership and eventual publication and/or promotion of data, should be addressed at the outset. Programs and organizations should consider, at the outset, their ethical responsibility when findings are not expected or desired. Ultimately, agencies, organizations, and programs have an ethical responsibility to use their data to provide health promotion programs, whether ideologically founded or not, that appropriately and effectively address the problems they seek to solve.

  13. The impact of a specific blend of essential oil components and sodium butyrate in feed on growth performance and Salmonella counts in experimentally challenged broilers.

    PubMed

    Cerisuelo, A; Marín, C; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, F; Gómez, E A; de la Fuente, J M; Durán, R; Fernández, C

    2014-03-01

    Essential oils (EO) and short-chain fatty acids have potential antimicrobial activity in broilers. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a specific blend of EO and a combination of this blend of EO with sodium-butyrate on growth performance and Salmonella colonization in broilers. A total of 480 one-day-old male broilers were distributed into 5 treatments (8 pens per treatment and 12 birds per pen) and reared during 42 d in experimental conditions. Dietary treatments consisted of the addition of different doses of EO (0 mg/kg, control; 50 mg/kg, EO50 and 100 mg/kg, EO100) or a combination of EO with 1 g/kg of sodium-butyrate (B; EO50 + B, EOB50 and EO100 + B, EOB100) to a basal diet. All birds were orally infected with 10(8) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis on d 7 of study. Individual BW and feed intake per pen were measured at arrival and on a weekly basis. The prevalence and enumeration of Salmonella in feces was determined per treatment at 72 h postinfection and on d 23 and 37 of study. At slaughter, cecal content and liver samples from 16 birds per treatment were cultured for Salmonella and cecal pH was measured. No differences were observed on growth performance among treatments. All fecal samples analyzed were positive for Salmonella from d 10 to the end of the rearing period. At slaughter, Salmonella contamination (positive samples) in cecum was lower in birds fed EOB50 compared with the other treatments (P < 0.05), whereas birds fed the control diet showed the highest colonization rates. The pH of the cecal content was not different among treatments. Thus, EO or its combination with sodium-butyrate did not affect growth performance. However, a clear effectiveness of these products was observed in Salmonella control, especially when low doses of EO were combined with sodium-butyrate (EOB50).

  14. Teaching Writing in a Digital Age: Addressing Issues of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrill, Brittany B.

    2010-01-01

    The way people write and communicate has changed both inside and outside the university, and because of this writing instructors are professionally responsible for addressing these changes in the classroom. Technologies have affected writing for thousands of years. From the invention of the printing press to the Internet, challenges to writing…

  15. Family Connections: Addressing Behavior Issues--Practical Tips for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCaze, Donna; Kirylo, James D.

    2012-01-01

    When parents get together, the subject of appropriately addressing the behavior of their children often comes to the forefront of conversations. Parents share various challenges they face with their children, including issues associated with listening, eating vegetables, doing chores, and a host of other discipline-related situations. The plethora…

  16. Influenza Vaccines: Challenges and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Houser, Katherine; Subbarao, Kanta

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is the best method for the prevention and control of influenza. Vaccination can reduce illness and lessen severity of infection. This review focuses on how currently licensed influenza vaccines are generated in the U.S., why the biology of influenza poses vaccine challenges, and vaccine approaches on the horizon that address these challenges. PMID:25766291

  17. The Challenge of the Deanship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montez, Joni; Wolverton, Mimi

    This paper addresses the evolution of the kinds of challenges that deans have met over time and examines perceptions of today's deans concerning their ability to deal effectively with current challenges. A sample of deans (n=695) in the colleges of education, business, liberal arts, and nursing at 360 public and private institutions was surveyed…

  18. Interior Design: Challenges and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning and Management, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents solutions to architectural challenges in school interior design; these solutions made the indoor environments more conducive and attractive for learning. Addresses four challenges: making a long corridor look less like a tunnel; maintaining tradition and minimizing cost in a new athletic facility; designing a kindergarten that is secure…

  19. International challenges and opportunities in health.

    PubMed

    Evans, John R

    1993-01-01

    It is not easy to fit an introductory address to the topics of AIDS, transplantation, women's health, reproductive health, national health insurance and epidemiology and public health. I have been asked to speak on international challenges and opportunities in health care in the hope that the global context might frame your specific discussions in the broadest possible perspective. I will speak primarily about the widening gap in health status between rich and poor people and rich and poor nations -- a gap which poses great risks for the poor but increasing risks for all of us as well.

  20. IDENTIFYING PERFORMANCE ASSURANCE CHALLENGES FOR SMART MANUFACTURING

    PubMed Central

    Helu, Moneer; Morris, Katherine; Jung, Kiwook; Lyons, Kevin; Leong, Swee

    2015-01-01

    Smart manufacturing has the potential to address many of the challenges faced by industry. However, the manufacturing community often needs assistance to leverage available technologies to improve their systems. To assure the performance of these technologies, this paper proposes a shared knowledge base that collects problem areas, solutions, and best practices for manufacturing technology. An Implementation Risk Assessment Framework (IRAF) is also described to identify the primary weaknesses of technologies in specific manufacturing contexts. Such approaches have the potential to stimulate new ideas and drive standardization activities critical to scale up and deploy smart manufacturing technologies successfully and quickly. PMID:26783512