Science.gov

Sample records for address specific problems

  1. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems.

  2. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  3. Autocheck: Addressing the Problem of Rural Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Guy A.

    This paper describes a project implemented by a social worker from the Glynn County School District in rural Georgia to address transportation problems experienced by students and their families. The project aims to assist families who are unable to keep appointments or attend other important events due to unreliable transportation. A county needs…

  4. Problem Solvers: Solutions--The Inaugural Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dause, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Fourth graders in Miss Dause's and Mrs. Hicks's mathematics classes at South Mountain Elementary School in Dillsburg, Pennsylvania, worked with the data from the Inauagural Address problem that was previously published published in the February 2013 issue of "Teaching Children Mathematics". This activity allowed students to…

  5. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin’s dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber’s structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure.

  6. MexAB-OprM specific efflux pump inhibitors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Part 4: Addressing the problem of poor stability due to photoisomerization of an acrylic acid moiety.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Kiyoshi; Kuru, Noriko; Ohtsuka, Masami; Yokomizo, Yoshihiro; Sakamoto, Atsunobu; Kawato, Haruko; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Ohta, Toshiharu; Hoshino, Kazuki; Akimoto, Katsuya; Itoh, Junko; Ishida, Hiroko; Cho, Aesop; Palme, Monica H; Zhang, Jason Z; Lee, Ving J; Watkins, William J

    2004-05-17

    Exchange of the ethylene tether in a series of pyridopyrimidine-based MexAB-OprM specific efflux pump inhibitors to an amide bond stabilized the olefin of the acrylic acid moiety, preventing facile photoisomerization to the Z-isomer. Furthermore, the activity was drastically improved in the amide tether variants, providing extremely potent acrylic acid and vinyl tetrazole analogues.

  7. Addressing the Curriculum Problem in Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Bill

    2012-01-01

    How best to understand the curriculum problem in doctoral research education: that is the question that this paper engages. It begins by noting that curriculum as such is little referenced and inadequately theorised in higher education and certainly in doctoral education, and indeed has been described as a "missing term". The paper then reviews a…

  8. Addressing the call-back problem

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, R.

    1985-08-01

    Service recalls or call-backs are one of the costliest and most persistent of service management problems. Although all service industries have call-back problems each time the oilburner breaks down, the customer has what could be a costly inconvenience. Every customer complaint reduces loyalty and makes the industry more and more vulnerable to competition, not just from each other but, from the utilities and the discounters. A customer who gets prompt, capable service will usually stay with his present company and, just as importantly, he stays with fuel oil. If the industry were to place the blame for call-backs on a particular person or area it would probably be in the individual serviceman. The lack of training, lack of motivation, lack of compassion for the customer or lack of company spirit, is discussed.

  9. Specific Pronunciation Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Peter; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reviews common pronunciation problems experienced by learners of English as a second language who are native speakers of Vietnamese, Cantonese, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Polish, Greek, and Punjabi. (CB)

  10. Addressing dual agency: getting specific about the expectations of professionalism.

    PubMed

    Tilburt, Jon C

    2014-01-01

    Professionalism requires that physicians uphold the best interests of patients while simultaneously insuring just use of health care resources. Current articulations of these obligations like the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation's Physician Charter do not reconcile how these obligations fit together when they conflict. This is the problem of dual agency. The most common ways of dealing with dual agency: "bunkering"--physicians act as though societal cost issues are not their problem; "bailing"--physicians assume that they are merely agents of society and deliver care typically based on a strongly consequentialist public health ethic; or "balancing"--a vaguely specified attempt to uphold both patient welfare and societal need for judicious resource use simultaneously--all fail. Here I propose how the problem of dual agency might begin to be addressed with rigor and consistency. Without dealing with the dual agency problem and getting more specific about how to reconcile its norms when they conflict, the expectations of professionalism risk being written off as cute, nonbinding aphorisms from the medical profession. PMID:25127273

  11. Addressing dual agency: getting specific about the expectations of professionalism.

    PubMed

    Tilburt, Jon C

    2014-01-01

    Professionalism requires that physicians uphold the best interests of patients while simultaneously insuring just use of health care resources. Current articulations of these obligations like the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation's Physician Charter do not reconcile how these obligations fit together when they conflict. This is the problem of dual agency. The most common ways of dealing with dual agency: "bunkering"--physicians act as though societal cost issues are not their problem; "bailing"--physicians assume that they are merely agents of society and deliver care typically based on a strongly consequentialist public health ethic; or "balancing"--a vaguely specified attempt to uphold both patient welfare and societal need for judicious resource use simultaneously--all fail. Here I propose how the problem of dual agency might begin to be addressed with rigor and consistency. Without dealing with the dual agency problem and getting more specific about how to reconcile its norms when they conflict, the expectations of professionalism risk being written off as cute, nonbinding aphorisms from the medical profession.

  12. The Significance of Problems Addressed in Recent Vocational Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucel, David J.

    1983-01-01

    This article examines the significance of problems addressed in recent vocational education research published in volumes 4 and 5 of the "Journal of Vocational Education Research" and volumes 16 and 17 of the "Journal of Industrial Teacher Education." (SSH)

  13. Addressing the Mathematics-Specific Needs of Beginning Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Beginning mathematics teachers at the secondary level (middle and high school grades) have mathematics-specific needs that induction programs should address more substantially. However, a number of issues in how programs can accomplish this are more complex than often framed in discussions occurring in the induction programs and the field of…

  14. Can small institutes address some problems facing biomedical researchers?

    PubMed Central

    Sheetz, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    At a time of historically low National Institutes of Health funding rates and many problems with the conduct of research (unfunded mandates, disgruntled reviewers, and rampant paranoia), there is a concern that biomedical research as a profession is waning in the United States (see ”Rescuing US biomedical research from its systemic flaws” by Alberts and colleagues in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences). However, it is wonderful to discover something new and to tackle tough puzzles. If we could focus more of our effort on discussing scientific problems and doing research, then we could be more productive and perhaps happier. One potential solution is to focus efforts on small thematic institutes in the university structure that can provide a stimulating and supportive environment for innovation and exploration. With an open-lab concept, there are economies of scale that can diminish paperwork and costs, while providing greater access to state-of-the-art equipment. Merging multiple disciplines around a common theme can catalyze innovation, and this enables individuals to develop new concepts without giving up the credit they deserve, because it is usually clear who did the work. Small institutes do not solve larger systemic problems but rather enable collective efforts to address the noisome aspects of the system and foster an innovative community effort to address scientific problems. PMID:25360047

  15. Can small institutes address some problems facing biomedical researchers?

    PubMed

    Sheetz, Michael P

    2014-11-01

    At a time of historically low National Institutes of Health funding rates and many problems with the conduct of research (unfunded mandates, disgruntled reviewers, and rampant paranoia), there is a concern that biomedical research as a profession is waning in the United States (see "Rescuing US biomedical research from its systemic flaws" by Alberts and colleagues in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences). However, it is wonderful to discover something new and to tackle tough puzzles. If we could focus more of our effort on discussing scientific problems and doing research, then we could be more productive and perhaps happier. One potential solution is to focus efforts on small thematic institutes in the university structure that can provide a stimulating and supportive environment for innovation and exploration. With an open-lab concept, there are economies of scale that can diminish paperwork and costs, while providing greater access to state-of-the-art equipment. Merging multiple disciplines around a common theme can catalyze innovation, and this enables individuals to develop new concepts without giving up the credit they deserve, because it is usually clear who did the work. Small institutes do not solve larger systemic problems but rather enable collective efforts to address the noisome aspects of the system and foster an innovative community effort to address scientific problems. PMID:25360047

  16. Can small institutes address some problems facing biomedical researchers?

    PubMed

    Sheetz, Michael P

    2014-11-01

    At a time of historically low National Institutes of Health funding rates and many problems with the conduct of research (unfunded mandates, disgruntled reviewers, and rampant paranoia), there is a concern that biomedical research as a profession is waning in the United States (see "Rescuing US biomedical research from its systemic flaws" by Alberts and colleagues in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences). However, it is wonderful to discover something new and to tackle tough puzzles. If we could focus more of our effort on discussing scientific problems and doing research, then we could be more productive and perhaps happier. One potential solution is to focus efforts on small thematic institutes in the university structure that can provide a stimulating and supportive environment for innovation and exploration. With an open-lab concept, there are economies of scale that can diminish paperwork and costs, while providing greater access to state-of-the-art equipment. Merging multiple disciplines around a common theme can catalyze innovation, and this enables individuals to develop new concepts without giving up the credit they deserve, because it is usually clear who did the work. Small institutes do not solve larger systemic problems but rather enable collective efforts to address the noisome aspects of the system and foster an innovative community effort to address scientific problems.

  17. Time to address the problems at the neural interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Dominique M.; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Krames, Elliot

    2014-04-01

    interface with the CNS. In 2013, two symposia were held independently to discuss this problem: one was held at the International Neuromodulation Society's 11th World Congress in Berlin and supported by the International Neuromodulation Society1 and the other at the 6th International Neural Engineering conference in San Diego2 and was supported by the NSF. Clearly, the neuromodulation and the neural engineering communities are keen to solve this problem. Experts from the field were assembled to discuss the problems and potential solutions. Although many important points were raised, few emerged as key issues. (1) The ability to access remotely and reliably internal neural signals . Although some of the technological problems have already been solved, this ability to access neural signals is still a significant problem since reliable and robust transcutaneous telemetry systems with large numbers of signals, each with wide bandwidth, are not readily available to researchers. (2) A translation strategy taking basic research to the clinic . The lack of understanding of the biological response to implanted constructs and the inability to monitor the sites and match the mechanical properties of the probe to the neural tissue properties continue to be an unsolved problem. In addition, the low levels of collaboration among neuroscientists, clinicians, patients and other stakeholders throughout different phases of research and development were considered to be significant impediments to progress. (3) Fundamental tools development procedures for neural interfacing . There are many laboratories testing various devices with different sets of criteria, but there is no consensus on the failure modes. The reliability, robustness of metrics and testing standards for such devices have not been established, either in academia or in industry. To start addressing this problem, the FDA has established a laboratory to test the reliability of some neural devices. Although the discussion was mostly

  18. Time to address the problems at the neural interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Dominique M.; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Krames, Elliot

    2014-04-01

    interface with the CNS. In 2013, two symposia were held independently to discuss this problem: one was held at the International Neuromodulation Society's 11th World Congress in Berlin and supported by the International Neuromodulation Society1 and the other at the 6th International Neural Engineering conference in San Diego2 and was supported by the NSF. Clearly, the neuromodulation and the neural engineering communities are keen to solve this problem. Experts from the field were assembled to discuss the problems and potential solutions. Although many important points were raised, few emerged as key issues. (1) The ability to access remotely and reliably internal neural signals . Although some of the technological problems have already been solved, this ability to access neural signals is still a significant problem since reliable and robust transcutaneous telemetry systems with large numbers of signals, each with wide bandwidth, are not readily available to researchers. (2) A translation strategy taking basic research to the clinic . The lack of understanding of the biological response to implanted constructs and the inability to monitor the sites and match the mechanical properties of the probe to the neural tissue properties continue to be an unsolved problem. In addition, the low levels of collaboration among neuroscientists, clinicians, patients and other stakeholders throughout different phases of research and development were considered to be significant impediments to progress. (3) Fundamental tools development procedures for neural interfacing . There are many laboratories testing various devices with different sets of criteria, but there is no consensus on the failure modes. The reliability, robustness of metrics and testing standards for such devices have not been established, either in academia or in industry. To start addressing this problem, the FDA has established a laboratory to test the reliability of some neural devices. Although the discussion was mostly

  19. On Using Meta-Modeling and Multi-Modeling to Address Complex Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu Jbara, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Models, created using different modeling techniques, usually serve different purposes and provide unique insights. While each modeling technique might be capable of answering specific questions, complex problems require multiple models interoperating to complement/supplement each other; we call this Multi-Modeling. To address the syntactic and…

  20. Evidence-Based Practices for Addressing Classroom Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hye-Suk Lee; Lynch, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers of young children can plan proactively so that they avoid some of the serious problem behaviors in the classroom. The strategies presented in this article are part of a problem solving approach to challenging behavior based on the principles of positive behavioral support. Although these methods presented here have research-based…

  1. Exploring the role of Natural Helpers in efforts to address disparities for children with conduct problems

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Polakovich, I. David; Niec, Larissa N.; Barnett, Miya L.; Bell, Katrina M.; Aguilar, Gerardo; Vilca, Jeanette; Abbenante-Honold, Emily S.; Christian, Allison S.; Peer, Samuel O.

    2014-01-01

    The incorporation of natural helpers into services has been suggested as an innovative strategy to address disparities for historically underserved children with conduct problems. In order to inform incorporation efforts, this study examined the perceptions of natural helpers serving one U.S. Latina/o community regarding need for services for children with conduct problems, their reactions to a specific parent training intervention, and the training and support needed to deliver this intervention successfully. Participants identified a need for culturally-responsive services for children with conduct problems, and felt that parent training would be appropriate for the families they serve. Participants further identified specific training and support that they would require in order to deliver parent training with fidelity and effectiveness. Findings support the suggestion that natural helpers have the potential to address service disparities among Latina/o children with conduct problems. Recommendations from natural helpers should guide the development of culturally-adapted preventive interventions that help address existing service disparities. PMID:24910488

  2. An Address on the Population Problem: Address to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Robert S.

    In this speech, Robert McNamara examines the background of the world population problem, analyzes its current trends, evaluates the measures available to deal with it, and suggests actions governments and others can take to help solve it. It now appears that significant fertility decline may have begun in developing countries. Data seem to…

  3. Addressing Problems Encountered in Case-Based Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turgeon, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    TURF 436 (Case Studies in Turfgrass Management) is the capstone course for turfgrass science majors at the Pennsylvania State University. Students are introduced to problems and complex problematic situations encountered in the management of golf and sports turf and in professional lawn-care operations. Following completion of the orientation case…

  4. An effective way to address global environmental and energy problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrienko, O.; Garelina, S.; Gysev, A.; Zakharyan, R.; Kazaryan, M.; Sachkov, V.

    2015-12-01

    This work scales the present globalism of ecological and energetic problems. The ecological problem is connected with environment pollution by polymeric waste. The energetic problem - with traditional approaches of modern energetic, in particular, use of fossil fuel for energy production and concentration of capacities for ensuring overall performance of global power supply systems that doesn't guarantee a sustainable development of power for long prospect, doesn't provide power safety of the country. The second part of work is devoted to a choice of the most effective solutions of the present global problems. The authors have proposed the plasma-chemical method of the polymer waste processing and developed a schematic diagram of the reactor. The paper contains the results of the theoretical calculation of the polymer waste processing products. The reagents, allowing to obtain hydrogen and other liquid products from polymer waste are selected. It is proposed to use rare elements for increasing the efficiency of hydrogen production from polymer waste. The results of the calculation of the efficiency of hydrogen production from polymer waste using molybdenum are revealed in the paper.

  5. Selective Prevention: Addressing Vulnerability to Problem Drug Use in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Gregor; Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Bo, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Following the 2003 publication of the European Union (EU) Council Recommendations and the 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 EU Drugs Action Plans, increasing attention has been given in EU member states' drug policies to populations that are vulnerable to problem drug use (PDU). Monitoring data reported to the EMCDDA by designated agencies from 30 countries…

  6. How Do Medical Teachers Address the Problem of Transfer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laksov, Klara Bolander; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Clinical teachers often complain that medical students have forgotten or somehow "lost" knowledge that has been taught at pre-clinical levels at the time of entering the clinical part of education. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore, whether transfer of knowledge was identified as a problem by the teaching staff of anatomy and…

  7. Stressed Stream Analysis--Addressing Environmental Problems in Local Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Uses environmental impact analysis as a unifying theme to provide students with real problem-solving experiences without neglecting the principles and theories of the basic scientific disciplines undergirding environmental science. Provides information about stressed stream analysis, which connects environmental impact analysis and Great Lakes…

  8. Air toxics risk standards: are we addressing the real problems?

    SciTech Connect

    Laurie Miller; Richard Becker; Ted Cromwell

    2005-06-01

    Cost-effective risk reductions from major stationary emission sources have seen significant progress. EPA and state data demonstrate that their programs have dramatically reduced emissions and risk from these sources. Analyses indicate that the next generation of risk reductions for stationary sources will be provide little risk reduction, but will be much more costly and more challenging from a policy perspective. Facing these tough choices, EPA and state regulators should, with stakeholder input, be developing scientifically driven and cost-effective approaches to provide the public with honest answers and results. Air toxics risk policies and programs must prioritize and address significant remaining air toxics risks, educate and communicate to the public about the decision alternatives, build support for a holistic approach and openly communicate results. 6 refs.

  9. Addressing the Pilot security problem with gLExec

    SciTech Connect

    Sfiligoi, I.; Koeroo, O.; Venekamp, G.; Yocum, D.; Groep, D.; Petravick, D.; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    The Grid security mechanisms were designed under the assumption that users would submit their jobs directly to the Grid gatekeepers. Many groups are however starting to use pilot-based infrastructures, where users submit jobs to a centralized queue and are successively transferred to the Grid resources by the pilot infrastructure. While this approach greatly improves the user experience, it does introduce several security and policy issues, the more serious being the lack of system level protection between the users and the inability for Grid sites to apply fine grained authorization policies. One possible solution to the problem is provided by gLExec, a X.509 aware suexec derivative. By using gLExec, the pilot workflow becomes as secure as any traditional one.

  10. Event-Specific Prevention: Addressing College Student Drinking During Known Windows of Risk

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Walters, Scott T.; Lee, Christine M.; Vader, Amanda M.; Vehige, Tamara; Szigethy, Thomas; DeJong, William

    2007-01-01

    The unique drinking patterns of college students call for Event-Specific Prevention (ESP) strategies that address college student drinking associated with peak times and events. Despite limited research evaluating ESP, many college campuses are currently implementing programming for specific events. The present paper provides a review of existing literature related to ESP and offers practical guidance for research and practice. The prevention typology proposed by DeJong and Langford (2002) provides a framework for strategic planning, suggesting that programs and policies should address problems at the individual, group, institution, community, state, and society level, and that these interventions should focus on knowledge change, environmental change, health protection, and intervention and treatment services. From this typology, specific examples are provided for comprehensive program planning related to orientation/beginning of school year, homecoming, 21st birthday celebrations, spring break, and graduation. In addition, the University of Connecticut’s efforts to address problems resulting from its annual Spring Weekend are described as an illustration of how advance planning by campus and community partners can produce a successful ESP effort. PMID:17616260

  11. Addressing critical astrophysical problems with NASA's small explorer (SMEX) missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Ribas, Ignasi

    The Small Explorer (SMEX) program of NASA was initiated during the late 1980s to provide frequent, cost-effective opportunities to carry out sharply focused and relatively space science missions. The SMEX program together with the Mid-size Explorer (MIDEX) program were timely reactions to the increasingly long development times and cost over-runs for a number of large space missions during the previous decades. SMEX spacecrafts are typically 180 to 250 kg with orbit-averaged power consumptions of 50-200 watts. Frequently innovative or novel technologies and instrumentation are employed to achieve important results. The current cost cap (which includes cost of launch vehicle, development and operations) is 75M (Fiscal Year 2000 US). For comparison, the cost cap of the MIDEX mission is $135M. Both SMEX and MIDEX are solicited Principal Investigator (PI) missions that are peer-reviewed before selection. The SMEX program is supported by the NASA's Office of Space Research (OSS) and a wide spectrum of science is addressed. The themes include Origin and Evolution of Stars and Planets, the Structure and Evolution of the Universe, and the Sun-Earth Connection. Within these major themes, the missions may also focus on fundamental laws of physics as they relate to astrophysics and cosmology. So far, seven SMEX missions have been flown or are approved for flight within one or two years. In this paper, the past, current, and possible future SMEX missions are discussed and evaluated. Some highlights and important scientific returns from the current and approved missions are also included.

  12. New ways to develop biosensors towards addressing practical problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starodub, N. F.

    2013-11-01

    The main modern approaches which were realized at the development of new generation of biosensors intended for application in field of diagnostics, food quality control and environmental monitoring are presented. The main attention was paid to creation of the multi-parametrical and multi-functional enzymatic and immune biosensors which were realized for the complex diagnostics of diabetes, autoimmune state and for the control of process of sugar production. The label-free bioaffine devices based on the nano-porouse silicon (NPS) with the registration of specific formed signal by chemiluminescence (ChL) and photoresistivity and intended for the determination mycotoxins and diagnostics of retroviral bovine leukemia (RBL) are analyzed too. Improving of ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) through changing silicon nitride on the cerium oxide is discussed as perspective approach in case of micotoxins and Salmonella control. In the conclusion the possibility to replace biological sensitive elements by artificial ones is considered.

  13. Overcoming barriers to addressing education problems with research design: a panel discussion.

    PubMed

    Yarris, Lalena M; Gruppen, Larry D; Hamstra, Stanley J; Anders Ericsson, K; Cook, David A

    2012-12-01

    A plenary panel session at the 2012 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Education Research in Emergency Medicine: Opportunities, Challenges, and Strategies for Success" discussed barriers educators face in imagining, designing, and implementing studies to address educational challenges. This proceedings article presents a general approach to getting started in education research. Four examples of studies from the medical education literature that illustrate a distinct way to approach specific research questions are discussed. The study designs used are applicable to a variety of education research problems in emergency medicine (EM). Potential applications of studies are discussed, as well as effects and lessons learned.

  14. Identifying and addressing specific student difficulties in advanced thermal physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Trevor I.

    As part of an ongoing multi-university research study on student understanding of concepts in thermal physics at the upper division, I identified several student difficulties with topics related to heat engines (especially the Carnot cycle), as well as difficulties related to the Boltzmann factor. In an effort to address these difficulties, I developed two guided-inquiry worksheet activities (a.k.a. tutorials) for use in advanced undergraduate thermal physics courses. Both tutorials seek to improve student understanding of the utility and physical background of a particular mathematical expression. One tutorial focuses on a derivation of Carnot's theorem regarding the limit on thermodynamic efficiency, starting from the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The other tutorial helps students gain an appreciation for the origin of the Boltzmann factor and when it is applicable; focusing on the physical justification of its mathematical derivation, with emphasis on the connections between probability, multiplicity, entropy, and energy. Student understanding of the use and physical implications of Carnot's theorem and the Boltzmann factor was assessed using written surveys both before and after tutorial instruction within the advanced thermal physics courses at the University of Maine and at other institutions. Classroom tutorial sessions at the University of Maine were videotaped to allow in-depth scrutiny of student successes and failures following tutorial prompts. I also interviewed students on various topics related to the Boltzmann factor to gain a more complete picture of their understanding and inform tutorial revisions. Results from several implementations of my tutorials at the University of Maine indicate that students did not have a robust understanding of these physical principles after lectures alone, and that they gain a better understanding of relevant topics after tutorial instruction; Fisher's exact tests yield statistically significant improvement at the

  15. Potential effects of the introduction of the discrete address beacon system data link on air/ground information transfer problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    This study of Aviation Safety Reporting System reports suggests that benefits should accure from implementation of discrete address beacon system data link. The phase enhanced terminal information system service is expected to provide better terminal information than present systems by improving currency and accuracy. In the exchange of air traffic control messages, discrete address insures that only the intended recipient receives and acts on a specific message. Visual displays and printer copy of messages should mitigate many of the reported problems associated with voice communications. The problems that remain unaffected include error in addressing the intended recipient and messages whose content is wrong but are otherwise correct as to format and reasonableness.

  16. School Nurses' Perceived Prevalence and Competence to Address Student Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…

  17. An Approach for Addressing the Multiple Testing Problem in Social Policy Impact Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.

    2009-01-01

    In social policy evaluations, the multiple testing problem occurs due to the many hypothesis tests that are typically conducted across multiple outcomes and subgroups, which can lead to spurious impact findings. This article discusses a framework for addressing this problem that balances Types I and II errors. The framework involves specifying…

  18. Beating the Odds: Preparing Graduates to Address Gambling-Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Rafael J.; Bechtold, Jody; Kim, Yoonmi; Mulvaney, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    As gambling opportunities proliferate, social workers are likely to see clients with gambling-related problems, but they often lack the expertise to address these concerns. This descriptive study assessed the inclusion of content on gambling-related problems in graduate social work curricula. Responses to an online survey from 86 (43.7%) of the…

  19. A Problem-Solving Approach to Addressing Current Global Challenges in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Judith D.; Aspin, David N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper begins with an analysis of global problems shaping education, particularly as they impact upon learning and life chances. In addressing these problems a range of philosophical positions and controversies are considered, including: traditional romantic and institutional views of schooling; and more recent maximalist, neo-liberal,…

  20. 46 CFR 107.317 - Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications, and calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications, and calculations. 107.317 Section 107.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Plan Approval § 107.317 Addresses...

  1. 46 CFR 107.317 - Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications, and calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications, and calculations. 107.317 Section 107.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Plan Approval § 107.317 Addresses...

  2. 46 CFR 107.317 - Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications, and calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications, and calculations. 107.317 Section 107.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Plan Approval § 107.317 Addresses...

  3. 46 CFR 107.317 - Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications, and calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications, and calculations. 107.317 Section 107.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Plan Approval § 107.317 Addresses...

  4. 46 CFR 107.317 - Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications, and calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications, and calculations. 107.317 Section 107.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Plan Approval § 107.317 Addresses...

  5. Addressing the Missing Instructional Data Problem: Using a Teacher Log to Document Tier 1 Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Alexander; Elliott, Stephen N.; Roach, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Response-to-intervention (RTI) systems posit that Tier 1 consists of high-quality general classroom instruction using evidence-based methods to address the needs of most students. However, data on the extent to which general education teachers provide such instruction are rarely collected. This missing instructional data problem may result in RTI…

  6. Families and Positive Behavior Support: Addressing Problem Behavior in Family Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucyshyn, Joseph M., Ed.; Dunlap, Glen, Ed.; Albin, Richard W., Ed.

    The 19 chapters of this volume address theory, research, and practice concerning positive behavior support with families of children and youth with developmental disabilities and problem behavior. The chapters are: (1) "Positive Behavior Support with Families" (Joseph Lucyshyn and others); (2) "Finding Positive Behavior Support One Piece at a…

  7. Routing and Addressing Problems in Large Metropolitan-Scale Internetworks. ISI Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Gregory G.

    This report discusses some of the problems and limitations in existing internetwork design for the connection of packet-switching networks of different technologies and presents an algorithm that has been shown to be suitable for internetworks of unbounded size. Using a new form of address and a flat routing mechanism called Cartesian routing,…

  8. Addressing Possible Problems of Validity and Reliability in Qualitative Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    The ways in which potential problems in terms of validity were addressed by a beginning researcher conducting research into teacher attitudes are described. The researcher, a doctoral candidate, studied the beliefs, attitudes, and values of four experienced high school biology teachers. Principles and practices of research were set into place…

  9. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…

  10. Specific strategies: interventions for identified problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Reed, S A

    1990-12-01

    Negativism, complaining, underachievement, game playing, passive-aggressive behavior, and workaholism constitute a repertoire of problem employee behaviors that impact on the productivity and morale of the work environment. Responding appropriately to the employee who presents with any of these behaviors is a formidable challenge to the nurse manager. Understanding the etiology of unmet needs, psychosocial dynamics (as discussed in Chapter 1) and variety of interventions can empower the nurse manager to achieve success in these difficult interactions.

  11. African-American women in an alcohol intervention group: addressing personal and political problems.

    PubMed

    Saulnier, C F

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes a qualitative study in which African-American women met in a small group to discuss alcohol and drug problems. The goal was to expand the range of services available by creating an alternative intervention which provided a simultaneous focus on both the personal and the sociopolitical needs of Black women. Results suggest that the dual focus on individual and social issues, and the opportunity to simultaneously address racism, sexism, and classism in an African-American women-only alcohol recovery group was helpful.

  12. Specific interoperability problems of security infrastructure services.

    PubMed

    Pharow, Peter; Blobel, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    Communication and co-operation in healthcare and welfare require a well-defined set of security services based on a standards-based interoperable security infrastructure and provided by a Trusted Third Party. Generally, the services describe status and relation of communicating principals, corresponding keys and attributes, and the access rights to both applications and data. Legal, social, behavioral and ethical requirements demand securely stored patient information and well-established access tools and tokens. Electronic signatures as means for securing integrity of messages and files, certified time stamps and time signatures are important for accessing and storing data in Electronic Health Record Systems. The key for all these services is a secure and reliable procedure for authentication (identification and verification). While mentioning technical problems (e.g. lifetime of the storage devices, migration of retrieval and presentation software), this paper aims at identifying harmonization and interoperability requirements of securing data items, files, messages, sets of archived items or documents, and life-long Electronic Health Records based on a secure certificate-based identification. It's commonly known that just relying on existing and emerging security standards does not necessarily guarantee interoperability of different security infrastructure approaches. So certificate separation can be a key to modern interoperable security infrastructure services.

  13. Uncommon strategies for a common problem: addressing racism in family therapy.

    PubMed

    Laszloffy, T A; Hardy, K V

    2000-01-01

    Race and racism have a profound effect on our daily lives and the practice of family therapy. Whether individual or institutional level, overt or covert, intentional or unintentional, there are a variety of ways in which racism can infiltrate the therapeutic process. Before therapists can take steps to address racism effectively within the context of family therapy, it is important to attend to the development of their racial awareness and racial sensitivity. These provide the critical foundation upon which specific skills and strategies associated with effectively identifying and responding to racism in therapy are based. This article defines racial awareness and sensitivity and provides suggestions for enhancing both. In the section that follows, three major ways in which racism can infiltrate the therapeutic process are described. Skills and strategies for addressing each of these in family therapy are presented.

  14. Vocal imitation in parrots allows addressing of specific individuals in a dynamic communication network.

    PubMed

    Balsby, Thorsten J S; Momberg, Jane Vestergaard; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Parrots in captivity are known for their ability to vocally imitate humans and recently it has been shown that wild-living orange-fronted conures are able to immediately imitate other individuals' contact calls. The function of this exceptional ability to imitate remains unclear. However, orange-fronted conures live in fission-fusion flocks where they encounter many different individuals every day, and it is possible that their vocal imitation ability is a flexible means to address a specific individual within a flock. We tested this via playback to short-term captive wild conures. Test birds were placed together in pairs in outdoor aviaries to form simple flocks. To simulate imitation of a specific individual these pairs received playback of contact calls that primarily imitate one of the two birds. Overall, individuals that received simulated vocal imitations of its calls responded more frequently and faster than the other individual. This suggests that orange-fronted conures can use imitations of contact calls to address specific individuals of a flock. In the discussion we argue that the fission-fusion flock dynamics of many parrot species has been an important factor in evolving conures' and other parrots' exceptional ability to imitate.

  15. Functional design specification for the problem data system. [space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boatman, T. W.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the Functional Design Specification is to outline the design for the Problem Data System. The Problem Data System is a computer-based data management system designed to track the status of problems and corrective actions pertinent to space shuttle hardware.

  16. Interpreting Perceived Effectiveness: Understanding and Addressing the Problem of Mean Validity.

    PubMed

    Dillard, James Price; Ha, Yerheen

    2016-09-01

    Research has shown that perceived message effectiveness (PE) correlates reasonably well with indices of actual effectiveness, but little attention has been given to how to interpret mean PE. This article describes the problem of mean validity and presents a research design that can be used to address it. Participants (N = 195) viewed messages that advocated being screened for colorectal cancer. The results showed downward bias in PE among members of the non-target audience (persons younger than 50) and upward bias as the referent for the judgment became more abstract/distant (self vs. persons older than 50 vs. general). The need for more research on mean validity is discussed. For applied researchers, recommendations for preferred indices of PE are offered.

  17. Interpreting Perceived Effectiveness: Understanding and Addressing the Problem of Mean Validity.

    PubMed

    Dillard, James Price; Ha, Yerheen

    2016-09-01

    Research has shown that perceived message effectiveness (PE) correlates reasonably well with indices of actual effectiveness, but little attention has been given to how to interpret mean PE. This article describes the problem of mean validity and presents a research design that can be used to address it. Participants (N = 195) viewed messages that advocated being screened for colorectal cancer. The results showed downward bias in PE among members of the non-target audience (persons younger than 50) and upward bias as the referent for the judgment became more abstract/distant (self vs. persons older than 50 vs. general). The need for more research on mean validity is discussed. For applied researchers, recommendations for preferred indices of PE are offered. PMID:27565189

  18. In Situ Airborne Instrumentation: Addressing and Solving Measurement Problems in Ice Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Kok, Greg; Avallone, L.; Bansemer, A.; Borrmann, S.; Brown, P.; Bundke, U.; Chuang, P. Y.; Cziczo, D.; Field, P.; Gallagher, M.; Gayet, J. -F.; Korolev, A.; Kraemer, M.; McFarquhar, G.; Mertes, S.; Moehler, O.; Lance, S.; Lawson, P.; Petters, M. D.; Pratt, K.; Roberts, G.; Rogers, D.; Stetzer, O.; Stith, J.; Strapp, W.; Twohy, C.; Wendisch, M.

    2012-02-01

    A meeting of 31 international experts on in situ measurements from aircraft was held to identify unresolved questions concerning ice formation and evolution in ice clouds, assess the current state of instrumentation that can address these problems, introduce emerging technology that may overcome current measurement issues and recommend future courses of action that can improve our understanding of ice cloud microphysical processes and their impact on the environment. The meeting proceedings and outcome has been described in detail in a manuscript submitted to the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) on March 24, 2011. This paper is currently under review. The remainder of this summary, in the following pages, is the text of the BAMS article. A technical note that will be published by the National Center for Atmospheric Research is currently underway and is expected to be published before the end of the year.

  19. In Situ Airborne Instrumentation: Addressing and Solving Measurement Problems in Ice Clouds

    DOE PAGES

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Kok, Greg; Avallone, L.; Bansemer, A.; Borrmann, S.; Brown, P.; Bundke, U.; Chuang, P. Y.; Cziczo, D.; Field, P.; et al

    2012-02-01

    A meeting of 31 international experts on in situ measurements from aircraft was held to identify unresolved questions concerning ice formation and evolution in ice clouds, assess the current state of instrumentation that can address these problems, introduce emerging technology that may overcome current measurement issues and recommend future courses of action that can improve our understanding of ice cloud microphysical processes and their impact on the environment. The meeting proceedings and outcome has been described in detail in a manuscript submitted to the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) on March 24, 2011. This paper is currently undermore » review. The remainder of this summary, in the following pages, is the text of the BAMS article. A technical note that will be published by the National Center for Atmospheric Research is currently underway and is expected to be published before the end of the year.« less

  20. Supporting Successful Transition to Kindergarten: General Challenges and Specific Implications for Students with Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stormont, Melissa; Beckner, Rebecca; Mitchell, Barbara; Richter, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present factors that impede and promote successful transition to kindergarten, with a focus on the specific needs of students with problem behavior. The review addresses competencies that teachers report are critical for success in kindergarten, traditional transition practices, and challenges in implementing…

  1. Specific Cognitive Predictors of Early Math Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.

    2015-01-01

    Development of early math skill depends on a prerequisite level of cognitive development. Identification of specific cognitive skills that are important for math development may not only inform instructional approaches but also inform assessment approaches to identifying children with specific learning problems in math. This study investigated the…

  2. Activity Theory as a Tool to Address the Problem of Chemistry's Lack of Relevance in Secondary School Chemical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Aalsvoort, Joke

    2004-01-01

    In a previous article, the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary chemical education was analysed using logical positivism as a tool. This article starts with the hypothesis that the problem can be addressed by means of activity theory, one of the important theories within the sociocultural school. The reason for this expectation is…

  3. Specific Reading Comprehension Disability: Major Problem, Myth, or Misnomer?

    PubMed

    Spencer, Mercedes; Quinn, Jamie M; Wagner, Richard K

    2014-02-01

    The goal of the present study was to test three competing hypotheses about the nature of comprehension problems of students who are poor in reading comprehension. Participants in the study were first, second, and third graders, totaling 9 cohorts and over 425,000 participants in all. The pattern of results was consistent across all cohorts: Less than one percent of first- through third-grade students who scored as poor in reading comprehension were adequate in both decoding and vocabulary. Although poor reading comprehension certainly qualifies as a major problem rather than a myth, the term specific reading comprehension disability is a misnomer: Individuals with problems in reading comprehension that are not attributable to poor word recognition have comprehension problems that are general to language comprehension rather than specific to reading. Implications for assessment and intervention are discussed.

  4. Addressing the issue of cataloging and making chiropractic literature accessible: Part I: Defining the problem.

    PubMed

    Curl, D D; Antovich, T J

    1990-06-01

    Health science journals are a principle source of new knowledge for chiropractors, chiropractic faculty and students. Regrettably, clinically or educationally relevant articles (appearing in the nearly 20,000 journals annually) are often overlooked due to access difficulties. Innovations are needed to assist the reader to select articles relevant to chiropractic and reduce the time spent sorting through the volumes of literature. A review of the literature shows there is a trend toward database management for cataloging and accessibility of other, nonchiropractic, literature. Most notable of these is an endeavor by National Technical Information Service, commonly referred to as MEDLARS (Medline). It is interesting to note that a computer-assisted library database program does not exist on any chiropractic campus. This is in contrast with the trend on campuses of other health care fields. Manual search strategies within the chiropractic literature are time consuming, subject to a high failure rate, and even if the search produces citations, there is no assurance the journal can be accessed unless a chiropractic campus is nearby. Furthermore, difficulties exist when a chiropractic literature search is attempted in any computerized database, e.g., MEDLARS (Medline). Journals/articles that are unique to chiropractic (national, international or on the state level) are not specifically included in these computerized databases. Aside from these difficulties, there exists the problem of finding those articles that contain valid and relevant information from among those that are less valid or informative. PMID:2198323

  5. Addressing the Spectrum of Adolescent Weight-Related Problems: Engaging Parents and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    Weight-related problems, including eating disorders, disordered eating, and obesity, are prevalent among adolescents. School and community-based educators and health care providers have an important role to play in the prevention of weight-related problems in youth. This article includes: 1) a brief overview of weight-related problems in…

  6. Problems, solutions and actions: addressing barriers in acute hospital care for indigenous Australians and New Zealanders.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Patricia M; MacIsaac, Andrew; Cameron, James; Jeremy, Richmond; Mahar, Leo; Anderson, Ian

    2012-10-01

    The burden of cardiovascular disease for Indigenous people in Australia and New Zealand is high and reflects the failings of our health care system to meet their needs. Improving the hospital care for Indigenous people is critical in improving health outcomes. This paper provides the results from a facilitated discussion on the disparities in acute hospital care and workforce issues. The workshop was held in Alice Springs, Australia at the second Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ) Indigenous Cardiovascular Health Conference. Critical issues to be addressed include: addressing systemic racism; reconfiguring models of care to address the needs of Indigenous people; cultural competence training for all health professionals; increasing participation of Indigenous people in the health workforce; improving information systems and facilitating communication across the health care sector and with Indigenous communities.

  7. A Case Study of Team-Initiated Problem Solving Addressing Student Behavior in One Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Anne W.; Horner, Robert H.; Berry, Dorothy; Sanders, Carol; Bugni, Michelle; Currier, Allison; Potts, Nicky; Newton, J. Stephen; Algozzine, Bob; Algozzine, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) is an approach for organizing school team meetings to improve identification of targeted problems, use of data in the development of solutions, and development of implemented action plans. TIPS has been demonstrated in single-case and randomized controlled trial studies to improve the effectiveness of teams to…

  8. Addressing the Intercultural via Task-Based Language Teaching: Possibility or Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A frequent weakness of communicative approaches to foreign language teaching is a neglect of the intercultural dimension. Cultural knowledge is often treated as an addendum which focuses on learning facts about the target country. This article explores whether task-based language teaching (TBLT) can successfully address the intercultural…

  9. Efforts to Empower Teachers in Ethiopia to Address Local Environmental Problems: Achievements and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalelo, Aklilu

    2009-01-01

    It is believed that the possibilities of integrating environmental issues into the formal and nonformal education programs depend on the capacity of teachers who put such programs into effect. A pilot project, aimed at building the capacity of schools in Ethiopia to address key environmental issues, was initiated in 2004. Among the major…

  10. Portrayal as a Way of Addressing Problems in Communicating Evaluation Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Melvin E.

    Program portrayal is one way of addressing the need for increased descriptive capability in evaluation research. Portrayal supplements traditional reporting by utilizing subjective, anecdotal, or impressionistic information, in an appropriately communicable form, to enrich the description of program transactions, settings, and outcomes. It is…

  11. "Who Are You Calling a Problem?": Addressing Transphobia and Homophobia through School Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loutzenheiser, Lisa W.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a detailed analysis of two school board-level policies in British Columbia, Canada that address the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer and transgender, Two Spirit (LGBQ and TT) youth to demonstrate how the language of the policy holds meaning and re/produces particular knowledges. Rather than offer an analysis that…

  12. A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun D.; Martinez, Joanne; Schatz, Bruce R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an algorithmic approach to addressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biology domain as an example. A cognitive study and a follow-up document retrieval study were conducted using first a conjoined fly-worm thesaurus and then an actual worm database and the conjoined…

  13. To What Extent Is Criminal Justice Content Specifically Addressed in MSW Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epperson, Matthew W.; Roberts, Leslie E.; Ivanoff, Andre; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Gilmer, Christy N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which criminal justice content is addressed in all CSWE-accredited MSW programs in the United States ("N"?=?192). Criminal justice content was measured in three areas: (1) dual or joint degree programs, (2) concentrations or specializations, and (3) coursework. Excluding social work and law classes, 22%…

  14. Behavior problems in children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Verónica; Grañana, Nora E; Richaudeau, Alba; Torres, Silvio; Giannotti, Adrián; Suburo, Angela M

    2014-02-01

    We studied behavior in a group of children with specific language impairment in its 2 subtypes (expressive and mixed receptive/expressive). After exclusion of other psychiatric conditions, we evaluated 114 children of ages 2 to 7 years using language developmental tests and behavioral screening scales. Behavior problems appeared in 54% of the children. Withdrawn was the most frequently found syndrome in preschool children, whereas anxious/depressed and social problems were the most frequent in older children. The high frequency of behavioral syndromes in children with specific language impairment is remarkable and requires the awareness of primary attendants and specialists. Anxiety, depression, social isolation, and aggressive and rule-breaking behavior can obscure identification of the language impairment. Taking into account this relationship would improve the chances of a timely and appropriate intervention. PMID:24272522

  15. Behavior problems in children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Verónica; Grañana, Nora E; Richaudeau, Alba; Torres, Silvio; Giannotti, Adrián; Suburo, Angela M

    2014-02-01

    We studied behavior in a group of children with specific language impairment in its 2 subtypes (expressive and mixed receptive/expressive). After exclusion of other psychiatric conditions, we evaluated 114 children of ages 2 to 7 years using language developmental tests and behavioral screening scales. Behavior problems appeared in 54% of the children. Withdrawn was the most frequently found syndrome in preschool children, whereas anxious/depressed and social problems were the most frequent in older children. The high frequency of behavioral syndromes in children with specific language impairment is remarkable and requires the awareness of primary attendants and specialists. Anxiety, depression, social isolation, and aggressive and rule-breaking behavior can obscure identification of the language impairment. Taking into account this relationship would improve the chances of a timely and appropriate intervention.

  16. Incorporating Natural Helpers to Address Service Disparities for Young Children with Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Polakovich, I. David; Niec, Larissa N.; Barnet, Miya L.; Bell, Katrina M.

    2013-01-01

    In response to the high levels of unmet need among historically underserved young children with conduct problems, this paper outlines some of the key issues involved in incorporating natural helpers into the delivery of parenting interventions for the treatment of conduct problems among historically underserved children. Strategies for the selection and training of natural helpers are discussed along with challenges that might be encountered in these processes. Directions for future research are also highlighted. With appropriate selection and training procedures in place, natural helpers may increase the accessibility of services for children and families and foster the reduction of service disparities. PMID:24729649

  17. Addressing Students' Difficulties with Faraday's Law: A Guided Problem Solving Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuza, Kristina; Almudí, José-Manuel; Leniz, Ane; Guisasola, Jenaro

    2014-01-01

    In traditional teaching, the fundamental concepts of electromagnetic induction are usually quickly analyzed, spending most of the time solving problems in a more or less rote manner. However, physics education research has shown that the fundamental concepts of the electromagnetic induction theory are barely understood by students. This article…

  18. Analysis of Arguments Constructed by First-Year Engineering Students Addressing Electromagnetic Induction Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almudi, Jose Manuel; Ceberio, Mikel

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the quality of arguments used by first-year engineering university students enrolled in a traditional physics course dealing with electromagnetic induction and related problem solving where they had to assess whether the electromagnetic induction phenomenon would occur. Their conclusions were analyzed for the relevance of the…

  19. Education Technologies in Addressing the Problem of Forming the Socially Active Individual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popova, Irina N.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of technological support of the educational process in solving the problem of forming the socially active individual. The authors studied the value of the category "social activity" and analyzed educational technologies that have an impact on its formation. The obtained results gave the possibility…

  20. Addressing the Wicked Problem of Quality in Higher Education: Theoretical Approaches and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Kerri-Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the wicked problem of quality in higher education, arguing for a more robust theorising of the subject at national, institutional and local department level. The focus of the discussion rests on principles for theorising in more rigorous ways about the multidimensional issue of quality. Quality in higher education is proposed…

  1. Addressing Cultural Diversity: Effects of a Problem-Based Intercultural Learning Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Vera; Krause, Ulrike-Marie

    2015-01-01

    This article explores to what extent a problem-based learning unit in combination with cooperative learning and affectively oriented teaching methods facilitates intercultural learning. As part of the study, students reflected on critical incidents, which display misunderstandings or conflicts that arise as a result of cultural differences. In…

  2. Ecosystem services and cooperative fisheries research to address a complex fishery problem

    EPA Science Inventory

    The St. Louis River represents a complex fishery management problem. Current fishery management goals have to be developed taking into account bi-state commercial, subsistence and recreational fisheries which are valued for different characteristics by a wide range of anglers, as...

  3. Promoting Health by Addressing Basic Needs: Effect of Problem Resolution on Contacting Health Referrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Boyum, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Members of vulnerable populations have heightened needs for health services. One advantage of integrating health risk assessment and referrals into social service assistance systems such as 2-1-1 is that such systems help callers resolve problems in other areas (e.g., housing). Callers to 2-1-1 in Missouri (N = 1,090) with at least one behavioral…

  4. Road-traffic injuries: confronting disparities to address a global-health problem.

    PubMed

    Ameratunga, Shanthi; Hijar, Martha; Norton, Robyn

    2006-05-01

    Evidence suggests that the present and projected global burden of road-traffic injuries is disproportionately borne by countries that can least afford to meet the health service, economic, and societal challenges posed. Although the evidence base on which these estimates are made remains somewhat precarious in view of the limited data systems in most low-income and middle-income countries (as per the classification on the World Bank website), these projections highlight the essential need to address road-traffic injuries as a public-health priority. Most well-evaluated effective interventions do not directly focus on efforts to protect vulnerable road users, such as motorcyclists and pedestrians. Yet, these groups comprise the majority of road-traffic victims in low-income and middle-income countries, and consequently, the majority of the road-traffic victims globally. Appropriately responding to these disparities in available evidence and prevention efforts is necessary if we are to comprehensively address this global-health dilemma. PMID:16679167

  5. Scientific problems addressed by the Spektr-UV space project (world space Observatory—Ultraviolet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyarchuk, A. A.; Shustov, B. M.; Savanov, I. S.; Sachkov, M. E.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Mashonkina, L. I.; Wiebe, D. Z.; Shematovich, V. I.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.; Ryabchikova, T. A.; Chugai, N. N.; Ivanov, P. B.; Voshchinnikov, N. V.; Gomez de Castro, A. I.; Lamzin, S. A.; Piskunov, N.; Ayres, T.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Jeffrey, S.; Zwintz, S. K.; Shulyak, D.; Gérard, J.-C.; Hubert, B.; Fossati, L.; Lammer, H.; Werner, K.; Zhilkin, A. G.; Kaigorodov, P. V.; Sichevskii, S. G.; Ustamuich, S.; Kanev, E. N.; Kil'pio, E. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a review of scientific problems and methods of ultraviolet astronomy, focusing on perspective scientific problems (directions) whose solution requires UV space observatories. These include reionization and the history of star formation in the Universe, searches for dark baryonic matter, physical and chemical processes in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disks, the physics of accretion and outflows in astrophysical objects, from Active Galactic Nuclei to close binary stars, stellar activity (for both low-mass and high-mass stars), and processes occurring in the atmospheres of both planets in the solar system and exoplanets. Technological progress in UV astronomy achieved in recent years is also considered. The well advanced, international, Russian-led Spektr-UV (World Space Observatory—Ultraviolet) project is described in more detail. This project is directed at creating a major space observatory operational in the ultraviolet (115-310 nm). This observatory will provide an effective, and possibly the only, powerful means of observing in this spectral range over the next ten years, and will be an powerful tool for resolving many topical scientific problems.

  6. Dual-Use Partnership Addresses Performance Problems with "Y" Pattern Control Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, John W.

    2004-01-01

    A Dual-Use Cooperative Agreement between the Propulsion Test Directorate (PTD) at Stennis Space Center (SSC) and Oceaneering Reflange, Inc. of Houston, TX has produced an improved 'Y' pattern split-body control valve for use in the propulsion test facilities at Stennis Space Center. The split-body, or clamped bonnet technology, provides for a 'cleaner' valve design featuring enhanced performance and increased flow capacity with extended life expectancy. Other points addressed by the partnership include size, weight and costs. Overall size and weight of each valve will be reduced by 50% compared to valves currently in use at SSC. An initial procurement of two 10 inch valves will result in an overall cost reduction of 15% or approximately $50,000 per valve.

  7. School Vandalism and Break-Ins. Problem-Oriented Guides for Police. Problem-Specific Guides Series, No. 35

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kelly Dedel

    2005-01-01

    This guide addresses school vandalism and break-ins, describing the problem and reviewing the risk factors. It also discusses the associated problems of school burglaries and arson. The guide then identifies a series of questions to help analyze each local problem. Finally, it reviews responses to the problem, and what is known about them from…

  8. Can Go address the multicore issues of today and the manycore problems of tomorrow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binet, Sébastien

    2012-06-01

    Current High Energy and Nuclear Physics (HENP) libraries and frameworks were written before multicore systems became widely deployed and used. From this environment, a 'single-thread' processing model naturally emerged but the implicit assumptions it encouraged are greatly impairing our abilities to scale in a multicore/manycore world. While parallel programming - still in an intensive phase of R&D despite the 30+ years of literature on the subject - is an obvious topic to consider, other issues (build scalability, code clarity, code deployment and ease of coding) are worth investigating when preparing for the manycore era. Moreover, if one wants to use another language than C++, a language better prepared and tailored for expressing concurrency, one also needs to ensure a good and easy reuse of already field-proven libraries. We present the work resulting from such investigations applied to the Go programming language. We first introduce the concurrent programming facilities Go is providing and how its module system addresses the build scalability and dependency hell issues. We then describe the process of leveraging the many (wo)man-years put into scientific Fortran/C/C++ libraries and making them available to the Go ecosystem. The ROOT data analysis framework, the C-BLAS library and the Herwig-6 MonteCarlo generator will be taken as examples. Finally, performances of the tools involved in a small analysis written in Go and using ROOT I/O library will be presented.

  9. Brown Superfund Basic research Program: a multistakeholder partnership addresses real-world problems in contaminated communities.

    PubMed

    Senier, Laura; Hudson, Benjamin; Fort, Sarah; Hoover, Elizabeth; Tillson, Rebecca; Brown, Phil

    2008-07-01

    The NIEHS funds several basic and applied research programs, many of which also require research translation or outreach. This paper reports on a project by the Brown University Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP), in which outreach and research translation teams collaborated with state regulatory agency personnel and community activists on a legislative initiative to mitigate the financial impacts of living in a contaminated community. The Environmentally Compromised Home Ownership (ECHO) program makes home equity loans of up to $25,000 available to qualified applicants. This collaboration provides a case study in community engagement and demonstrates how research translation and outreach activities that are clearly differentiated yet well-integrated can improve a suite of basic and applied research. Although engaging diverse constituencies can be difficult community-engaged translation and outreach have the potential to make research findings more useful to communities, address some of the social impacts of contamination, and empower stakeholders to pursue their individual and collectively held goals for remediation. The NIEHS has recently renewed its commitment to community-engaged research and advocacy, making this an optimal time to reflect on how basic research programs that engage stakeholders through research translation and outreach can add value to the overall research enterprise. PMID:18677987

  10. Addressing students' difficulties with Faraday's law: A guided problem solving approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuza, Kristina; Almudí, José-Manuel; Leniz, Ane; Guisasola, Jenaro

    2014-06-01

    In traditional teaching, the fundamental concepts of electromagnetic induction are usually quickly analyzed, spending most of the time solving problems in a more or less rote manner. However, physics education research has shown that the fundamental concepts of the electromagnetic induction theory are barely understood by students. This article proposes an interactive teaching sequence introducing the topic of electromagnetic induction. The sequence has been designed based on contributions from physics education research. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between experimental findings (macroscopic level) and theoretical interpretation (microscopic level). An example of the activities that have been designed will also be presented, describing the implementation context and the corresponding findings. Since implementing the sequence, a considerable number of students have a more satisfactory grasp of the electromagnetic induction explicative model. However, difficulties are manifested in aspects that require a multilevel explanation, referring to deep structures where the system description is better defined.

  11. Addressing the problem of glass thickness variation in the indirect slumping technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proserpio, Laura; Wellnhofer, Christoph; Breunig, Elias; Friedrich, Peter; Winter, Anita

    2015-09-01

    The indirect hot slumping technology is being developed at Max-Planck-Institute for extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) for the manufacturing of lightweight astronomical X-ray telescopes. It consists of a thermal shaping process to replicate the figure of a suitable mould into segments of X-ray mirror shells made by glass. Several segments are aligned and mounted into elemental modules, a number of which is then assembled together to form the telescope. To obtain mirror segments of high optical quality, the realization of the slumping thermal cycle itself is of fundamental importance, but also the starting materials, primarily the mould and the glass foils, play a major role. This paper will review the MPE approach in the slumping technology development and will then concentrate on the glass, with particular regards to the problem of thickness variation.

  12. How multiagency partnerships can successfully address large-scale pollution problems: a Hawaii case study.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Mary J

    2003-06-01

    Oceanic circulation patterns deposit significant amounts of marine pollution, including derelict fishing gear from North Pacific Ocean fisheries, in the Hawaiian Archipelago [Mar. Pollut. Bull. 42(12) (2001) 1301]. Management responsibility for these islands and their associated natural resources is shared by several government authorities. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and private industry also have interests in the archipelago. Since the marine debris problem in this region is too large for any single agency to manage, a multiagency marine debris working group (group) was established in 1998 to improve marine debris mitigation in Hawaii. To date, 16 federal, state, and local agencies, working with industry and NGOs, have removed 195 tons of derelict fishing gear from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. This review details the evolution of the partnership, notes its challenges and rewards, and advocates its continued use as an effective resource management tool.

  13. Iron deficiency anemia among children: Addressing a global public health problem within a Canadian context.

    PubMed

    Christofides, Anna; Schauer, Claudia; Zlotkin, Stanley H

    2005-12-01

    Despite current Canadian pre- and perinatal nutrition programs, the prevalence of both iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is very high among young Aboriginal children from Canada's remote north. The major risk factors for IDA include prolonged consumption of evaporated cow's milk, chronic infection and prolonged exclusive breastfeeding. In the present article, the authors discuss IDA as a significant public health problem in Canadian Aboriginal communities. Whereas the prevalence of IDA in Canadian children is between 3.5% and 10.5% in the general population, in two Northern Ontario First Nations communities and one Inuit community, the anemia rate was 36%, with 56% having depleted iron stores. Traditional methods of preventing IDA, including targeted fortification, dietary diversification and supplementation, have not solved the problem. The authors' research group at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario, conceived of the strategy of 'home fortification' with 'Sprinkles' - single-dose sachets containing micronutrients in a powder form, which are easily sprinkled onto any foods prepared in the household. In Sprinkles, the iron (ferrous fumarate) is encapsulated within a thin lipid layer to prevent the iron from interacting with food. Sprinkles have been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of anemia in many developing countries. Their use in Aboriginal communities to treat and prevent anemia is described in the present paper. The authors believe that children in Aboriginal communities across Canada would potentially benefit if Sprinkles were incorporated into Health Canada's current distribution system, in combination with a social marketing strategy to encourage their use.

  14. Acute injuries and specific problems in adult athletes.

    PubMed

    Barry, N N; McGuire, J L

    1996-08-01

    Special considerations need to be given to specific groups of adult athletes. The most common problems and needs of female and older athletes are discussed in the first section of this article. The second section reviews the diagnosis and management of certain acute injuries most frequently encountered in adult athletes. The last section discusses the differentiation between tarsal tunnel syndrome and plantar fasciitis, chronic compartmental pressure syndrome and medial tibial stress syndrome ("shin splints"), and pelvic stress fractures and osteitis pubis, some commonly encountered difficult diagnoses.

  15. Education and Training to Address Specific Needs During the Career Progression of Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Ajit K; Blair, Patrice Gabler; Lupi, Linda K

    2016-02-01

    Surgeons have specific education and training needs as they enter practice, progress through the core period of active practice, and then as they wind down their clinical work before retirement. These transitions and the career progression process, combined with the dynamic health care environment, present specific opportunities for innovative education and training based on practice-based learning and improvement, and continuous professional development methods. Cutting-edge technologies, blended models, simulation, mentoring, preceptoring, and integrated approaches can play critical roles in supporting surgeons as they provide the best surgical care throughout various phases of their careers.

  16. Issue-Specific Barriers to Addressing Environmental Issues in the Classroom: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chankook; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    2006-01-01

    To explore issue-specific barriers to teaching environmental issues, the authors investigated secondary science teachers' perceived current and preferred teaching levels for 23 environmental issues and perceived barriers to teaching the selected issues. Subjects in this graduate project were 41 secondary science teachers self-selected to answer a…

  17. [Proposal to address the mental health problems detected after the February 27, 2010 earthquake].

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Rodrigo A; Cortés, Paula F

    2016-02-01

    One of the most important topics mentioned by people from places affected by the February 27th, 2010 earthquake to the Presidential Delegation for the Reconstruction, was the urgent need of mental health care. Given the enormous individual and social burden of mental health sequelae after disasters, its treatment becomes a critical issue. In this article, we propose several actions to be implemented in Chile in the context of the process of recovery and reconstruction, including optimization of social communication and media response to disasters; designing and deployment of a national strategy for volunteer service; training of primary care staff in screening and initial management of post-traumatic stress reactions; and training, continuous education and clinical supervision of a critical number of therapists in evidence-based therapies for conditions specifically related to stress.

  18. [Proposal to address the mental health problems detected after the February 27, 2010 earthquake].

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Rodrigo A; Cortés, Paula F

    2016-02-01

    One of the most important topics mentioned by people from places affected by the February 27th, 2010 earthquake to the Presidential Delegation for the Reconstruction, was the urgent need of mental health care. Given the enormous individual and social burden of mental health sequelae after disasters, its treatment becomes a critical issue. In this article, we propose several actions to be implemented in Chile in the context of the process of recovery and reconstruction, including optimization of social communication and media response to disasters; designing and deployment of a national strategy for volunteer service; training of primary care staff in screening and initial management of post-traumatic stress reactions; and training, continuous education and clinical supervision of a critical number of therapists in evidence-based therapies for conditions specifically related to stress. PMID:27092680

  19. Tobacco smoking: how far do the legislative control measures address the problem?

    PubMed

    Jiloha, Ram C

    2012-01-01

    India ratified the WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in February 2004 and enacted legislation called, "Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act 2003" which specifically called for an end to direct and indirect form of tobacco advertisements. Under its Section 7, the Act also stipulates depiction of pictorial health warnings on all tobacco products. Since the enactment of the legislation, the tobacco companies are prohibited from any kind of advertisement. However, studies show that the instances of showing smoking in movies have increased significantly to 89% after the implementation of the Act. The brand placement has been also increased nearly three folds. Association of tobacco with glamour and style has also been established. Seventy-five percent of movies have showed the lead character smoking tobacco. The instances of females consuming tobacco in movies have also increased, pointing toward a specific market expansion strategy by tobacco companies using movies as a vehicle. General public does not feel that banning tobacco scenes in the movie will affect their decision to watch movies or the quality of movies. It was found that favorable images through mass media created a considerable influence on youngsters and increased their receptivity to tobacco smoking. Pictorial warning on tobacco products is yet to start. Tobacco industry's opposition to tobacco health warnings is understandable as it will adversely affect their business. However, policymakers should not evade their responsibility to mandate strong health warnings on all tobacco product packs. Legal action against offenders, investigation of the relationship and financial irregularities between film-makers and tobacco industry, and recall of the movies showing tobacco brand are the important measures recommended. PMID:22556442

  20. Tobacco smoking: How far do the legislative control measures address the problem?

    PubMed Central

    Jiloha, Ram C.

    2012-01-01

    India ratified the WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in February 2004 and enacted legislation called, “Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act 2003” which specifically called for an end to direct and indirect form of tobacco advertisements. Under its Section 7, the Act also stipulates depiction of pictorial health warnings on all tobacco products. Since the enactment of the legislation, the tobacco companies are prohibited from any kind of advertisement. However, studies show that the instances of showing smoking in movies have increased significantly to 89% after the implementation of the Act. The brand placement has been also increased nearly three folds. Association of tobacco with glamour and style has also been established. Seventy-five percent of movies have showed the lead character smoking tobacco. The instances of females consuming tobacco in movies have also increased, pointing toward a specific market expansion strategy by tobacco companies using movies as a vehicle. General public does not feel that banning tobacco scenes in the movie will affect their decision to watch movies or the quality of movies. It was found that favorable images through mass media created a considerable influence on youngsters and increased their receptivity to tobacco smoking. Pictorial warning on tobacco products is yet to start. Tobacco industry's opposition to tobacco health warnings is understandable as it will adversely affect their business. However, policymakers should not evade their responsibility to mandate strong health warnings on all tobacco product packs. Legal action against offenders, investigation of the relationship and financial irregularities between film-makers and tobacco industry, and recall of the movies showing tobacco brand are the important measures recommended. PMID:22556442

  1. Activity theory as a tool to address the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary school chemical education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Aalsvoort, Joke

    In a previous article, the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary chemical education was analysed using logical positivism as a tool. This article starts with the hypothesis that the problem can be addressed by means of activity theory, one of the important theories within the sociocultural school. The reason for this expectation is that, while logical positivism creates a divide between science and society, activity theory offers a model of society in which science and society are related. With the use of this model, a new course for grade nine has been constructed. This results in a confirmation of the hypothesis, at least at a theoretical level. A comparison with the Salters' approach is made in order to demonstrate the relative merits of a mediated way of dealing with the problem of the lack of relevance of chemistry in chemical education.

  2. Cospatial [O III] emission with Herschel and Hubble to address the nebular abundance discrepancy problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Robert

    2012-10-01

    There exist planetary nebulae {PNe} whose heavy element C, N, O, and Ne abundances as derived from optical recombination lines {ORLs} are a factor more than 5 higher than those derived from the traditional method based on collisionally excited lines {CELs}. This ratio is called the abundance discrepancy factor {adf}. A promising proposition to explain this long-standing nebular abundance problem posits that these nebulae contain {at least} two distinct regions - one of "normal" electron temperature, Te { 10000 K} and chemical composition { solar} and another of very low Te {< 1000} that is H-deficient, thus having high metal abundances relative to H. The latter component emits strong heavy element ORLs and IR fine-structure {FS} CELs, but essentially no optical/UV CELs. Efforts to directly detect these inclusions in PNe have been unsuccessful to date. However, there is mounting circumstantial evidence for their existence, such as presented in our recent paper that modeled the high-adf PN NGC 6153 using a 3-D photoionization code. The models that included the low Te, H-deficient knots fit most observations far better than did those models without the clumps. It has been shown that the adf varies with position in a PN and is highest close to the central star. The very low Te inclusions must be cooled predominantly by FS mid-IR lines. We propose to use HST archival images to derive [O III] 5007 A flux maps to compare with the [O III] 88 micron fluxes from our Herschel observations of four PNe - NGC 2392, NGC 2440, NGC 6720 and NGC 7009 - all on the largest adf list, to find if the IR line flux relative to the cospatial optical forbidden line flux peaks where the adf peaks.

  3. Data Movement Dominates: Advanced Memory Technology to Address the Real Exascale Power Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, Keren

    2014-08-28

    Energy is the fundamental barrier to Exascale supercomputing and is dominated by the cost of moving data from one point to another, not computation. Similarly, performance is dominated by data movement, not computation. The solution to this problem requires three critical technologies: 3D integration, optical chip-to-chip communication, and a new communication model. The central goal of the Sandia led "Data Movement Dominates" project aimed to develop memory systems and new architectures based on these technologies that have the potential to lower the cost of local memory accesses by orders of magnitude and provide substantially more bandwidth. Only through these transformational advances can future systems reach the goals of Exascale computing with a manageable power budgets. The Sandia led team included co-PIs from Columbia University, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, and the University of Maryland. The Columbia effort of Data Movement Dominates focused on developing a physically accurate simulation environment and experimental verification for optically-connected memory (OCM) systems that can enable continued performance scaling through high-bandwidth capacity, energy-efficient bit-rate transparency, and time-of-flight latency. With OCM, memory device parallelism and total capacity can scale to match future high-performance computing requirements without sacrificing data-movement efficiency. When we consider systems with integrated photonics, links to memory can be seamlessly integrated with the interconnection network-in a sense, memory becomes a primary aspect of the interconnection network. At the core of the Columbia effort, toward expanding our understanding of OCM enabled computing we have created an integrated modeling and simulation environment that uniquely integrates the physical behavior of the optical layer. The PhoenxSim suite of design and software tools developed under this effort has enabled the co-design of and performance evaluation photonics-enabled OCM

  4. A roadmap for climate change adaptation in Sweden's forests: addressing wicked problems using adaptive management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rist, L.; Felton, A.; Samuelsson, L.; Marald, E.; Karlsson, B.; Johansson, U.; Rosvall, O.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have significant direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems. Forests will have to adapt not only to changes in mean climate variables but also to increased climatic variability and altered disturbance regimes. Rates of change will likely exceed many forests capabilities to naturally adapt and many of today's trees will be exposed to the climates of 2090. In Sweden the effects are already being seen and more severe impacts are expected in the future. Exacerbating the challenge posed by climate change, a large proportion of Sweden's forests are, as a consequence of dominant production goals, greatly simplified and thus potentially more vulnerable to the uncertainties and risks associated with climate change. This simplification also confers reduced adaptive capacity to respond to potential impacts. Furthermore, many adaptation measures themselves carry uncertainties and risks. Future changes and effects are thus uncertain, yet forest managers, policymakers, scientists and other stakeholders must act. Strategies that build social and ecological resilience in the face of multiple interacting unknowns and surprises are needed. Adaptive management aims to collect and integrate knowledge about how a managed system is likely to respond to alternative management schemes and changing environmental conditions within a continuous decision process. There have been suggestions that adaptive management is not well suited to the large complex uncertainties associated with climate change and associated adaptation measures. However, more recently it has been suggested that adaptive management can handle such wicked problems, given adequate resources and a suitable breakdown of the targeted uncertainties. Here we test this hypothesis by evaluating how an adaptive management process could be used to manage the uncertainties and risks associated with securing resilient, biodiverse and productive forests in Sweden in the face of climate change. We

  5. Lattice Boltzmann Methods to Address Fundamental Boiling and Two-Phase Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Uddin, Rizwan

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the progress made during the fourth (no cost extension) year of this three-year grant aimed at the development of a consistent Lattice Boltzmann formulation for boiling and two-phase flows. During the first year, a consistent LBM formulation for the simulation of a two-phase water-steam system was developed. Results of initial model validation in a range of thermo-dynamic conditions typical for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) were shown. Progress was made on several fronts during the second year. Most important of these included the simulation of the coalescence of two bubbles including the surface tension effects. Work during the third year focused on the development of a new lattice Boltzmann model, called the artificial interface lattice Boltzmann model (AILB model) for the 3 simulation of two-phase dynamics. The model is based on the principle of free energy minimization and invokes the Gibbs-Duhem equation in the formulation of non-ideal forcing function. This was reported in detail in the last progress report. Part of the efforts during the last (no-cost extension) year were focused on developing a parallel capability for the 2D as well as for the 3D codes developed in this project. This will be reported in the final report. Here we report the work carried out on testing the AILB model for conditions including the thermal effects. A simplified thermal LB model, based on the thermal energy distribution approach, was developed. The simplifications are made after neglecting the viscous heat dissipation and the work done by pressure in the original thermal energy distribution model. Details of the model are presented here, followed by a discussion of the boundary conditions, and then results for some two-phase thermal problems.

  6. Targeting treatment technologies to address specific stormwater pollutants and numeric discharge limits.

    PubMed

    Clark, Shirley E; Pitt, Robert

    2012-12-15

    Stormwater treatment is entering a new phase with stormwater management systems being required to meet specific numeric objectives, as opposed to the historic approach of meeting guidance-document-provided percent removal rates. Meeting numeric discharge requirements will require designers to better understand and apply the physical, chemical, and biological processes underpinning these treatment technologies. This critical review paper focuses on the potential unit treatment operations available for stormwater treatment and outlines how to identify the most applicable treatment options based on the needed pollutant removal goals.

  7. Rethinking gender-based violence during war: is violence against civilian men a problem worth addressing?

    PubMed

    Linos, Natalia

    2009-04-01

    Gender-based violence during conflict and post-conflict situations has received increased attention in research and in the work of development agencies. Viewed primarily as a form of violence against women, this commentary questions whether male civilians have also been victims of gender-based violence during conflict, invisible due to stereotypes surrounding masculinity and a culturally permissive approach towards violence perpetrated against men, especially at times of war. The experience of civilian males of violence, including sexual violence, during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina and other contemporary wars, suggests that the discourse on gender-based violence and public health research should begin exploring the specific needs of men. Drawing on Nancy Krieger's (Krieger, N. (2003). Genders, sexes, and health: what are the connections-and why does it matter? International Journal of Epidemiology, 32, 652-657) analysis on the differential role of 'sex' and 'gender' on a given exposure-outcome association, this commentary suggests that the impact of gender-based violence on health during conflict may be different for men and women and may require distinct therapeutic approaches. Given that perpetrators are often male, an extra level of stigma is added when heterosexual men are sexually violated, which may lead to underreporting and reduced health-service seeking behavior. Further public health research is needed to guide the work of humanitarian agencies working with survivors of gender-based violence in conflict and post-conflict settings to ensure equal access to appropriate health services for men and women.

  8. Rethinking gender-based violence during war: is violence against civilian men a problem worth addressing?

    PubMed

    Linos, Natalia

    2009-04-01

    Gender-based violence during conflict and post-conflict situations has received increased attention in research and in the work of development agencies. Viewed primarily as a form of violence against women, this commentary questions whether male civilians have also been victims of gender-based violence during conflict, invisible due to stereotypes surrounding masculinity and a culturally permissive approach towards violence perpetrated against men, especially at times of war. The experience of civilian males of violence, including sexual violence, during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina and other contemporary wars, suggests that the discourse on gender-based violence and public health research should begin exploring the specific needs of men. Drawing on Nancy Krieger's (Krieger, N. (2003). Genders, sexes, and health: what are the connections-and why does it matter? International Journal of Epidemiology, 32, 652-657) analysis on the differential role of 'sex' and 'gender' on a given exposure-outcome association, this commentary suggests that the impact of gender-based violence on health during conflict may be different for men and women and may require distinct therapeutic approaches. Given that perpetrators are often male, an extra level of stigma is added when heterosexual men are sexually violated, which may lead to underreporting and reduced health-service seeking behavior. Further public health research is needed to guide the work of humanitarian agencies working with survivors of gender-based violence in conflict and post-conflict settings to ensure equal access to appropriate health services for men and women. PMID:19269726

  9. The SSC cycle: a PDCA approach to address site-specific characteristics in a continuous shallow water quality monitoring project.

    PubMed

    Miles, Eduardo J

    2008-05-01

    In any water quality-monitoring project there are several critical success factors that must be adequately addressed in order to ensure the implementation and realization of the monitoring objectives. Site selection is one of these critical success factors. The monitoring sites must be selected to comply with the monitoring and data quality objectives. In the real world, ideal monitoring setting conditions are difficult to achieve, and compromises must be made in order to locate the monitoring stations that best represent the environment to be monitored. Site-specific characteristics are all the environmental, logistical and management factors particular to the monitoring site, that could influence the fulfilment of the monitoring and data quality objectives. Therefore, during the site selection process, it is essential to properly consider and evaluate these site-specific characteristics. The SSC cycle was developed with this goal in mind, to assist the monitoring team to systematically address site-specific characteristics. The cycle is a methodology to organize the site-specific characteristics in different categories, and to ensure a comprehensive overview of these characteristics throughout the project life cycle.

  10. Interacting domain-specific languages with biological problem solving environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cickovski, Trevor M.

    Iteratively developing a biological model and verifying results with lab observations has become standard practice in computational biology. This process is currently facilitated by biological Problem Solving Environments (PSEs), multi-tiered and modular software frameworks which traditionally consist of two layers: a computational layer written in a high level language using design patterns, and a user interface layer which hides its details. Although PSEs have proven effective, they still enforce some communication overhead between biologists refining their models through repeated comparison with experimental observations in vitro or in vivo, and programmers actually implementing model extensions and modifications within the computational layer. I illustrate the use of biological Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) as a middle-level PSE tier to ameliorate this problem by providing experimentalists with the ability to iteratively test and develop their models using a higher degree of expressive power compared to a graphical interface, while saving the requirement of general purpose programming knowledge. I develop two radically different biological DSLs: XML-based BIOLOGO will model biological morphogenesis using a cell-centered stochastic cellular automaton and translate into C++ modules for an object-oriented PSE C OMPUCELL3D, and MDLab will provide a set of high-level Python libraries for running molecular dynamics simulations, using wrapped functionality from the C++ PSE PROTOMOL. I describe each language in detail, including its its roles within the larger PSE and its expressibility in terms of representable phenomena, and a discussion of observations from users of the languages. Moreover I will use these studies to draw general conclusions about biological DSL development, including dependencies upon the goals of the corresponding PSE, strategies, and tradeoffs.

  11. Workers' Education in Industrialised Countries and Its Specific Problems in Relation to Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Examines several problems that need to be addressed concerning world crisis: war, poverty, unemployment, overpopulation, environmental issues, and housing; developed versus developing countries; and social justice. The task for workers' education in relation to these problems is discussed. (CT)

  12. Increasing the Teacher Rate of Behaviour Specific Praise and its Effect on a Child with Aggressive Behaviour Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffat, Thecla Kudakwashe

    2011-01-01

    A single subject design was used to investigate the effectiveness of an increase in teacher behaviour-specific praise statements to address anti-social behaviours demonstrated by a student who displays aggressive behaviours. Researchers agree that praise is effective in improving problem behaviours. They also agree that training teachers to use…

  13. Relationship between Conditions Addressed by Hemodialysis Guidelines and Non-ESRD-Specific Conditions Affecting Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Leinau, Lisa; Murphy, Terrence E.; Bradley, Elizabeth; Fried, Terri

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Persons with ESRD identify non-disease-specific conditions as negatively affecting their quality of life. It is unknown how these non-ESRD-specific conditions correlate with each other and with ESRD-specific conditions such as anemia, renal osteodystrophy, dialysis access, and dialysis adequacy. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and inter-relatedness of selected conditions among persons receiving hemodialysis and to analyze the relationship between non-ESRD-specific and ESRD-specific conditions. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This was an observational cohort study of persons with ESRD that included standardized assessments for pain, fatigue, depression, cognitive impairment, and impaired physical performance. The study was conducted at three dialysis clinics in one urban geographic area. Of the 134 persons who met exclusion criteria, 25 declined participation, yielding a sample size of 109. Results: Pain was present in >81% of participants, fatigue and impaired physical performance in >60% participants, and cognitive impairment and depression in >25% of participants. Pain, fatigue, and depression were highly correlated, but had no correlation with use of a catheter for access, hemoglobin (Hgb), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), phosphorous, or Kt/V values outside of the range of guidelines. There was a modest correlation between cognitive function and both Hgb and iPTH. Conclusions: Non-ESRD-specific conditions such as fatigue, pain, and depression are as prevalent as ESRD-specific conditions, and the magnitude of the correlations between the non-ESRD-specific conditions is greater than the correlations between non-ESRD-specific and ESRD-specific conditions. Current guidelines may be failing to address a substantial component of the disease burden for persons with ESRD. PMID:19261828

  14. Using ecotechnology to address water quality and wetland habitat loss problems in the Mississippi basin: a hierarchical approach.

    PubMed

    Day, John W; Yañéz Arancibia, Alejandro; Mitsch, William J; Lara-Dominguez, Ana Laura; Day, Jason N; Ko, Jae-Young; Lane, Robert; Lindsey, Joel; Lomeli, David Zarate

    2003-12-01

    Human activities are affecting the environment at continental and global scales. An example of this is the Mississippi basin where there has been a large scale loss of wetlands and water quality deterioration over the past century. Wetland and riparian ecosystems have been isolated from rivers and streams. Wetland loss is due both to drainage and reclamation, mainly for agriculture, and to isolation from the river by levees, as in the Mississippi delta. There has been a decline in water quality due to increasing use of fertilizers, enhanced drainage and the loss of wetlands for cleaning water. Water quality has deteriorated throughout the basin and high nitrogen in the Mississippi river is causing a large area of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Mississippi delta. Since the causes of these problems are distributed over the basin, the solution also needs to be distributed over the basin. Ecotechnology and ecological engineering offer the only ecologically sound and cost-effective method of solving these problems. Wetlands to promote nitrogen removal, mainly through denitrification but also through burial and plant uptake, offer a sound ecotechnological solution. At the level of the Mississippi basin, changes in farming practices and use of wetlands for nitrogen assimilation can reduce nitrogen levels in the River. There are additional benefits of restoration of wetland and riverine ecosystems, flood control, reduction in public health threats, and enhanced wildlife and fisheries. At the local drainage basin level, the use of river diversions in the Mississippi delta can address both problems of coastal land loss and water quality deterioration. Nitrate levels in diverted river water are rapidly reduced as water flows through coastal watersheds. At the local level, wetlands are being used to treat municipal wastewater. This is a cost-effective method, which results in improved water quality, enhanced wetland productivity and increased accretion. The

  15. Using ecotechnology to address water quality and wetland habitat loss problems in the Mississippi basin: a hierarchical approach.

    PubMed

    Day, John W; Yañéz Arancibia, Alejandro; Mitsch, William J; Lara-Dominguez, Ana Laura; Day, Jason N; Ko, Jae-Young; Lane, Robert; Lindsey, Joel; Lomeli, David Zarate

    2003-12-01

    Human activities are affecting the environment at continental and global scales. An example of this is the Mississippi basin where there has been a large scale loss of wetlands and water quality deterioration over the past century. Wetland and riparian ecosystems have been isolated from rivers and streams. Wetland loss is due both to drainage and reclamation, mainly for agriculture, and to isolation from the river by levees, as in the Mississippi delta. There has been a decline in water quality due to increasing use of fertilizers, enhanced drainage and the loss of wetlands for cleaning water. Water quality has deteriorated throughout the basin and high nitrogen in the Mississippi river is causing a large area of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Mississippi delta. Since the causes of these problems are distributed over the basin, the solution also needs to be distributed over the basin. Ecotechnology and ecological engineering offer the only ecologically sound and cost-effective method of solving these problems. Wetlands to promote nitrogen removal, mainly through denitrification but also through burial and plant uptake, offer a sound ecotechnological solution. At the level of the Mississippi basin, changes in farming practices and use of wetlands for nitrogen assimilation can reduce nitrogen levels in the River. There are additional benefits of restoration of wetland and riverine ecosystems, flood control, reduction in public health threats, and enhanced wildlife and fisheries. At the local drainage basin level, the use of river diversions in the Mississippi delta can address both problems of coastal land loss and water quality deterioration. Nitrate levels in diverted river water are rapidly reduced as water flows through coastal watersheds. At the local level, wetlands are being used to treat municipal wastewater. This is a cost-effective method, which results in improved water quality, enhanced wetland productivity and increased accretion. The

  16. Information and meaning revisiting Shannon's theory of communication and extending it to address todays technical problems.

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Travis LaDell

    2009-12-01

    This paper has three goals. The first is to review Shannon's theory of information and the subsequent advances leading to today's statistics-based text analysis algorithms, showing that the semantics of the text is neglected. The second goal is to propose an extension of Shannon's original model that can take into account semantics, where the 'semantics' of a message is understood in terms of the intended or actual changes on the recipient of a message. The third goal is to propose several lines of research that naturally fall out of the proposed model. Each computational approach to solving some problem rests on an underlying model or set of models that describe how key phenomena in the real world are represented and how they are manipulated. These models are both liberating and constraining. They are liberating in that they suggest a path of development for new tools and algorithms. They are constraining in that they intentionally ignore other potential paths of development. Modern statistical-based text analysis algorithms have a specific intellectual history and set of underlying models rooted in Shannon's theory of communication. For Shannon, language is treated as a stochastic generator of symbol sequences. Shannon himself, subsequently Weaver, and at least one of his predecessors are all explicit in their decision to exclude semantics from their models. This rejection of semantics as 'irrelevant to the engineering problem' is elegant and combined with developments particularly by Salton and subsequently by Latent Semantic Analysis, has led to a whole collection of powerful algorithms and an industry for data mining technologies. However, the kinds of problems currently facing us go beyond what can be accounted for by this stochastic model. Today's problems increasingly focus on the semantics of specific pieces of information. And although progress is being made with the old models, it seems natural to develop or extend information theory to account for

  17. Specific Reading Comprehension Disability: Major Problem, Myth, or Misnomer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Mercedes; Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to test three competing hypotheses about the nature of comprehension problems of students who are poor in reading comprehension. Participants in the study were first, second, and third graders, totaling nine cohorts and over 425,000 participants in all. The pattern of results was consistent across all cohorts:…

  18. Bomb Threats in Schools. Problem-Oriented Guides for Police. Problem-Specific Guides Series. Guide Number 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Graeme R.

    2005-01-01

    This guide addresses the problem of bomb threats in schools, public or private, kindergarten through 12th grade. Colleges and universities are excluded because they generally differ from schools. The guide reviews the factors that increase the risk of bomb threats in schools and then identifies a series of questions that might assist departments…

  19. Stream specificity and asymmetries in feature binding and content-addressable access in visual encoding and memory.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Duong L; Tripathy, Srimant P; Bedell, Harold E; Ögmen, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Human memory is content addressable-i.e., contents of the memory can be accessed using partial information about the bound features of a stored item. In this study, we used a cross-feature cuing technique to examine how the human visual system encodes, binds, and retains information about multiple stimulus features within a set of moving objects. We sought to characterize the roles of three different features (position, color, and direction of motion, the latter two of which are processed preferentially within the ventral and dorsal visual streams, respectively) in the construction and maintenance of object representations. We investigated the extent to which these features are bound together across the following processing stages: during stimulus encoding, sensory (iconic) memory, and visual short-term memory. Whereas all features examined here can serve as cues for addressing content, their effectiveness shows asymmetries and varies according to cue-report pairings and the stage of information processing and storage. Position-based indexing theories predict that position should be more effective as a cue compared to other features. While we found a privileged role for position as a cue at the stimulus-encoding stage, position was not the privileged cue at the sensory and visual short-term memory stages. Instead, the pattern that emerged from our findings is one that mirrors the parallel processing streams in the visual system. This stream-specific binding and cuing effectiveness manifests itself in all three stages of information processing examined here. Finally, we find that the Leaky Flask model proposed in our previous study is applicable to all three features.

  20. Stream specificity and asymmetries in feature binding and content-addressable access in visual encoding and memory.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Duong L; Tripathy, Srimant P; Bedell, Harold E; Ögmen, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Human memory is content addressable-i.e., contents of the memory can be accessed using partial information about the bound features of a stored item. In this study, we used a cross-feature cuing technique to examine how the human visual system encodes, binds, and retains information about multiple stimulus features within a set of moving objects. We sought to characterize the roles of three different features (position, color, and direction of motion, the latter two of which are processed preferentially within the ventral and dorsal visual streams, respectively) in the construction and maintenance of object representations. We investigated the extent to which these features are bound together across the following processing stages: during stimulus encoding, sensory (iconic) memory, and visual short-term memory. Whereas all features examined here can serve as cues for addressing content, their effectiveness shows asymmetries and varies according to cue-report pairings and the stage of information processing and storage. Position-based indexing theories predict that position should be more effective as a cue compared to other features. While we found a privileged role for position as a cue at the stimulus-encoding stage, position was not the privileged cue at the sensory and visual short-term memory stages. Instead, the pattern that emerged from our findings is one that mirrors the parallel processing streams in the visual system. This stream-specific binding and cuing effectiveness manifests itself in all three stages of information processing examined here. Finally, we find that the Leaky Flask model proposed in our previous study is applicable to all three features. PMID:26382005

  1. The roles of mothers' neighborhood perceptions and specific monitoring strategies in youths' problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2011-03-01

    The neighborhood context can interfere with parents' abilities to effectively monitor their children, but may be related to specific monitoring strategies in different ways. The present study examines the importance of mothers' perceptions of neighborhood disorganization for the specific monitoring strategies they use and how each of these strategies are related to youths' alcohol use and delinquency. The sample consists of 415 mother-child dyads recruited from urban and suburban communities in Western New York state. Youths were between 10 and 16 years of age (56% female), and were mostly Non-Hispanic White and African American (45.3 and 36.5%, respectively). Structural equation modeling shows that mothers who perceive greater neighborhood problems use more rule-setting strategies, but report lower levels of knowledge of their children's whereabouts. Knowledge of whereabouts is related to less youth alcohol use and delinquency through its association with lowered peer substance use, whereas rule-setting is unrelated to these outcomes. Thus, mothers who perceive greater problems in their neighborhoods use less effective monitoring strategies. Prevention programs could address parental monitoring needs based upon neighborhood differences, tailoring programs for different neighborhoods. Further, parents could be apprised of the limitations of rule-setting, particularly in the absence of monitoring their child's whereabouts.

  2. Practical guidelines addressing ethical issues pertaining to the curation of human locus-specific variation databases (LSDBs).

    PubMed

    Povey, Sue; Al Aqeel, Aida I; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Dalgleish, Raymond; den Dunnen, Johan T; Firth, Helen V; Greenblatt, Marc S; Barash, Carol Isaacson; Parker, Michael; Patrinos, George P; Savige, Judith; Sobrido, Maria-Jesus; Winship, Ingrid; Cotton, Richard G H

    2010-11-01

    More than 1,000 Web-based locus-specific variation databases (LSDBs) are listed on the Website of the Human Genetic Variation Society (HGVS). These individual efforts, which often relate phenotype to genotype, are a valuable source of information for clinicians, patients, and their families, as well as for basic research. The initiators of the Human Variome Project recently recognized that having access to some of the immense resources of unpublished information already present in diagnostic laboratories would provide critical data to help manage genetic disorders. However, there are significant ethical issues involved in sharing these data worldwide. An international working group presents second-generation guidelines addressing ethical issues relating to the curation of human LSDBs that provide information via a Web-based interface. It is intended that these should help current and future curators and may also inform the future decisions of ethics committees and legislators. These guidelines have been reviewed by the Ethics Committee of the Human Genome Organization (HUGO).

  3. Why Has It Taken So Long to Address the Problems Created by Uranium Mining in the Navajo Nation?

    PubMed

    Brugge, Doug

    2016-02-01

    Following the start of uranium mining after World War II, progress toward addressing the hazards it created for workers and nearby communities was slow, taking many decades. This essay asks why it took so long and suggests several factors that might have contributed. PMID:26463258

  4. Why Has It Taken So Long to Address the Problems Created by Uranium Mining in the Navajo Nation?

    PubMed

    Brugge, Doug

    2016-02-01

    Following the start of uranium mining after World War II, progress toward addressing the hazards it created for workers and nearby communities was slow, taking many decades. This essay asks why it took so long and suggests several factors that might have contributed.

  5. Indoor Air Quality: Federal and State Actions To Address the Indoor Air Quality Problems of Selected Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Peter F.

    U.S. House of Representative members requested that the General Accounting Office determine what federal and state actions have been taken in addressing indoor air quality (IAQ) concerns raised in certain school, state, and federal buildings within Vermont, Maryland, and the District of Columbia. This report responds to this request and describes…

  6. Identifying and addressing mental health risks and problems in primary care pediatric settings: a model to promote developmental and cultural competence.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Leandra; Carter, Alice S

    2013-01-01

    Young children, particularly uninsured children of color, suffer from mental health disturbances at rates similar to older children and adults, yet they have higher rates of unmet needs. To address unmet needs, efforts to identify mental health problems in primary care pediatric settings have grown in recent years, thanks in large part to expanded screening efforts. Yet, health disparities in early detection remain. Enhancing understanding of how early childhood mental health problems can be identified and addressed within pediatric settings is an important and growing area of research. The authors draw on theoretical models from public health policy, health psychology, and child development, including health beliefs, help seeking, transtheoretical, motivation to change, and dynamic systems, to better understand and address challenges to and disparities in identifying and addressing mental health problems in pediatric settings. These theories have not previously been applied to early mental health screening and identification efforts. Developmental and sociocultural considerations are highlighted in an effort to address and reduce higher rates of unmet needs among young, uninsured children of color.

  7. Using the World Health Organization's 4S-Framework to Strengthen National Strategies, Policies and Services to Address Mental Health Problems in Adolescents in Resource-Constrained Settings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most adolescents live in resource-constrained countries and their mental health has been less well recognised than other aspects of their health. The World Health Organization's 4-S Framework provides a structure for national initiatives to improve adolescent health through: gathering and using strategic information; developing evidence-informed policies; scaling up provision and use of health services; and strengthening linkages with other government sectors. The aim of this paper is to discuss how the findings of a recent systematic review of mental health problems in adolescents in resource-constrained settings might be applied using the 4-S Framework. Method Analysis of the implications of the findings of a systematic search of the English-language literature for national strategies, policies, services and cross-sectoral linkages to improve the mental health of adolescents in resource-constrained settings. Results Data are available for only 33/112 [29%] resource-constrained countries, but in all where data are available, non-psychotic mental health problems in adolescents are identifiable, prevalent and associated with reduced quality of life, impaired participation and compromised development. In the absence of evidence about effective interventions in these settings expert opinion is that a broad public policy response which addresses direct strategies for prevention, early intervention and treatment; health service and health workforce requirements; social inclusion of marginalised groups of adolescents; and specific education is required. Specific endorsed strategies include public education, parent education, training for teachers and primary healthcare workers, psycho-educational curricula, identification through periodic screening of the most vulnerable and referral for care, and the availability of counsellors or other identified trained staff members in schools from whom adolescents can seek assistance for personal, peer and family

  8. The virtual network supporting the front lines: addressing emerging behavioral health problems following the tsunami of 2004.

    PubMed

    Reissman, Dori B; Schreiber, Merritt; Klomp, Richard W; Hoover, Michele; Kowalski-Trakofler, Kathleen; Perez, Jon

    2006-10-01

    The devastation wreaked by the 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean required extensive multinational and nongovernmental relief efforts to address the massive loss of infrastructure, people, and society. This article addresses approaches to behavioral incident management from a process perspective, through the lens of one official stateside channel of emergency operations. The process highlights the formation and connectivity of multidisciplinary teams that virtually supported the efforts of a seven-person, on-scene, behavioral health team aboard the USNS Mercy as part of Operation Unified Assistance in the Indian Ocean. Frontline health diplomacy and behavioral health relief efforts were greatly augmented by the virtual network of support from leading experts around the globe. Future disaster response and recovery efforts ought to build on the success of such virtual support networks, by planning for appropriate technology, expertise, and mutual aid partnerships.

  9. Little children with big worries: addressing the needs of young, anxious children and the problem of parent engagement.

    PubMed

    Mian, Nicholas D

    2014-03-01

    Anxiety disorders in preschool-age children represent an important clinical problem due to high prevalence, substantial impairment, persistence, and associated risk for later emotional problems. Early intervention may mitigate these problems by capitalizing on a strategic developmental period. Elevated neuroplasticity, availability of screening tools, and the potential to modify parenting practices position anxiety as a good candidate for early intervention and preventive efforts. While some novel interventions show promise, the broad success of such programs will largely depend on parent engagement. Since parents are less likely to identify and seek help for anxiety problems compared to other childhood behavior problems, especially in a preventive manner, methods for understanding parents' decisions to participate and enhancing levels of engagement are central to the success of early childhood anxiety prevention and intervention. Understanding these processes is particularly important for families characterized by sociodemographic adversity, which have been underrepresented in anxiety treatment research. This review summarizes the developmental phenomenology of early emerging anxiety symptoms, the rationale for early intervention, and the current state of research on interventions for young, anxious children. The roles of parent engagement and help-seeking processes are emphasized, especially among economically disadvantaged and ethnic minority communities who are acutely at risk. Evidence-based strategies to enhance parent engagement to facilitate the development and dissemination of efficacious programs are offered.

  10. Addressing the physical health of people with serious mental illness: A potential solution for an enduring problem.

    PubMed

    Happell, Brenda; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Stanton, Robert

    2016-03-01

    People with serious mental illness face significant inequalities in physical health care. As a result, the risk of cardiometabolic disorders and premature mortality is far greater than that observed in the general population. Contributiung to this disparity, is the lack of routine physical health screening by mental health clinicians. One possible solution is the implimentation of a physical health nurse consultant, whose role is to monitor and coordinate the physical health care of people with serious mental illness. Current evidence supports the implimentation of such a role, and a failure to address the widening gaps in physical health care will only serve to increase the disparities faced by people with serious mental illness.

  11. The 2011 Leona Tyler Award Address: The Relationship--And Its Relationship to the Common and Specific Factors of Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wampold, Bruce E.; Budge, Stephanie L.

    2012-01-01

    A debate exists about whether the common factors or specific ingredients are critical to producing the benefits of psychotherapy. A model of the relationship, based on evolved human characteristics related to healing, is presented that integrates common factors and specific ingredients. After the initial bond is formed, the relationship involves…

  12. Megacities in the coastal zone: Using a driver-pressure-state-impact-response framework to address complex environmental problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekovski, Ivan; Newton, Alice; Dennison, William C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elaborate on the role of coastal megacities in environmental degradation and their contribution to global climate change. Although only less than 4 percent of the total world's population resides in coastal megacities, their impact on environment is significant due to their rapid development, high population densities and high consumption rate of their residents. This study was carried out by implementing a Drivers-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses (DPSIR) framework. This analytical framework was chosen because of its potential to link the existing data, gathered from various previous studies, in causal relationship. In this text, coastal megacities have been defined as cities exceeding 10 million inhabitants, situated in "near-coastal zone". Their high rates of the consumption of food, water, space and energy were observed and linked to the high performance rates of related economic activities (industry, transportation, power generation, agriculture and water extraction). In many of the studied coastal megacities, deteriorated quality of air and water was perceived, which can, in combination with global warming, lead to health problems and economic and social disturbance among residents. The extent of problems varied between developing and developed countries, showing higher rates of population growth and certain harmful emissions in megacities of developing countries, as well as more problems regarding food and water shortages, sanitation, and health care support. Although certain projections predict slowdown of growth in most coastal megacities, their future impact on environment is still unclear due to the uncertainties regarding future climate change and trajectories of consumption patterns.

  13. Looking beyond first-world problems: an emerging global workplace is encouraging more biomedical engineers to address the health issues of the developing world.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Each year, the developed world is flooded with complex new medical technologies, from robotic prosthetics to remote-controlled aspirin implants. Meanwhile, only about 10% of health research funds are spent addressing the pressing problems of developing nations, although these countries make up 93% of the worldwide burden of disease. In short, while a small fraction of the world pops brand-name pharmaceuticals, the majority suffers from poor sanitation, contaminated drinking water, preventable disease, and child mortality.

  14. The Brown Superfund Basic Research Program: A Multistakeholder Partnership Addresses Real-World Problems in Contaminated Communities

    PubMed Central

    Senier, Laura; Hudson, Benjamin; Fort, Sarah; Hoover, Elizabeth; Tillson, Rebecca; Brown, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The NIEHS funds several basic and applied research programs, many of which also require research translation or outreach. This paper reports on a project by the Brown University Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP), in which outreach and research translation teams collaborated with state regulatory agency personnel and community activists on a legislative initiative to mitigate the financial impacts of living in a contaminated community. The Environmentally Compromised Home Ownership (ECHO) program makes home equity loans of up to $25,000 available to qualified applicants. This collaboration provides a case study in community engagement and demonstrates how research translation and outreach activities that are clearly differentiated yet well integrated can improve a suite of basic and applied research. Although engaging diverse constituencies can be difficult, community-engaged translation and outreach have the potential to make research findings more useful to communities, address some of the social impacts of contamination, and empower stakeholders to pursue their individual and collectively-held goals for remediation. The NIEHS has recently renewed its commitment to community-engaged research and advocacy, making this an optimal time to reflect on how basic research programs that engage stakeholders through research translation and outreach can add value to the overall research enterprise. PMID:18677987

  15. Are there specific relationships between symptom patterns and interpersonal problems among psychiatric outpatients?

    PubMed

    Bjerke, Espen; Solbakken, Ole A; Monsen, Jon T

    2014-01-01

    Associations between symptoms and interpersonal problems, assessed with the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90-R) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-64-item version (IIP-64), are examined in a large psychiatric outpatient sample. On the basis of the IIP-64 scores, the sample was divided into 8 subgroups, made up of different types of predominant interpersonal problems. These octant groups were used as independent variables in analyses testing hypothesized associations with symptom subscales of the SCL-90-R. In general, strong associations between symptoms and interpersonal problems were found. In addition, hostile and paranoid ideation symptoms displayed significant differences among octant groups, and were associated with interpersonal problems of the vindictive/self-centered kind. Phobic anxiety was associated with interpersonal problems of the socially inhibited kind. Assessing specific combinations of symptoms and interpersonal problems might be useful in treatment planning and evaluation. PMID:24063412

  16. U.S. view of human problems to be addressed for long duration space flights. [physiological and psychological effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    The Russian and American space programs have consisted of several thousands of hours of exposure of man to the space environment. In spite of numerous biological phenomena of adaptation observed, the space travellers have displayed, after their return, no enduring pathological effect. Although the usable data remain too limited to reflect fully the effects of space flight, it is possible to sketch the biological responses in the absence of gravity and to define the work bases for the future. Beyond its basic physiological effects, weightlessness has operational consequences in the daily life of the astronauts. These consequences will be still more evident during missions of long duration. The conclusions drawn in flight as well as on the ground are reviewed, and future requirements concerning prolonged flights are outlined. The gaps in actual knowledge are discussed and solutions are suggested. The problems of habitability are considered, particularly those which remain at present without satisfactory solutions: psychological responses to a confined life, cleaning, hygiene, and used material.

  17. An episodic specificity induction enhances means-end problem solving in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Madore, Kevin P; Schacter, Daniel L

    2014-12-01

    Episodic memory plays an important role not only in remembering past experiences, but also in constructing simulations of future experiences and solving means-end social problems. We recently found that an episodic specificity induction-brief training in recollecting details of past experiences-enhances performance of young and older adults on memory and imagination tasks. Here we tested the hypothesis that this specificity induction would also positively impact a means-end problem-solving task on which age-related changes have been linked to impaired episodic memory. Young and older adults received the specificity induction or a control induction before completing a means-end problem-solving task, as well as memory and imagination tasks. Consistent with previous findings, older adults provided fewer relevant steps on problem solving than did young adults, and their responses also contained fewer internal (i.e., episodic) details across the 3 tasks. There was no difference in the number of other (e.g., irrelevant) steps on problem solving or external (i.e., semantic) details generated on the 3 tasks as a function of age. Critically, the specificity induction increased the number of relevant steps and internal details (but not other steps or external details) that both young and older adults generated in problem solving compared with the control induction, as well as the number of internal details (but not external details) generated for memory and imagination. Our findings support the idea that episodic retrieval processes are involved in means-end problem solving, extend the range of tasks on which a specificity induction targets these processes, and show that the problem-solving performance of older adults can benefit from a specificity induction as much as that of young adults.

  18. An episodic specificity induction enhances means-end problem solving in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Madore, Kevin P.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Episodic memory plays an important role not only in remembering past experiences, but also in constructing simulations of future experiences and solving means-end social problems. We recently found that an episodic specificity induction- brief training in recollecting details of past experiences- enhances performance of young and older adults on memory and imagination tasks. Here we tested the hypothesis that this specificity induction would also positively impact a means-end problem solving task on which age-related changes have been linked to impaired episodic memory. Young and older adults received the specificity induction or a control induction before completing a means-end problem solving task as well as memory and imagination tasks. Consistent with previous findings, older adults provided fewer relevant steps on problem solving than did young adults, and their responses also contained fewer internal (i.e., episodic) details across the three tasks. There was no difference in the number of other (e.g., irrelevant) steps on problem solving or external (i.e., semantic) details generated on the three tasks as a function of age. Critically, the specificity induction increased the number of relevant steps and internal details (but not other steps or external details) that both young and older adults generated in problem solving compared with the control induction, as well as the number of internal details (but not external details) generated for memory and imagination. Our findings support the idea that episodic retrieval processes are involved in means-end problem solving, extend the range of tasks on which a specificity induction targets these processes, and show that the problem solving performance of older adults can benefit from a specificity induction as much as that of young adults. PMID:25365688

  19. Creating a lesson that addresses gender differences in physics testing a specific instructional technique in college level physics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, James J.

    Research-based instructional methods are applied in an effort to close the persistent gender gap in physics. Creating a short text on a limited topic using some of these methods could benefit female students specifically. A literature review showed research on the gender gap in physics and updated instructional methods for females. Two female physics students were interviewed and observations were conducted at a high performing all-girls school. A physics lab dialogue between two female physics students was recorded and analyzed, which informed the style and voice of the interactive dialogue lesson. An original written lesson intended to engage female physics students was created and tested on three classes of college-level physics students. The survey data, based on multiple choice and essay responses, measured the students' opinions of the lesson and their current textbook. Results showed the interactive lesson was preferred over the current text, and some students requested similar lessons.

  20. Problem Specification for FY12 Modeling of UNF During Extended Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Clarno, Kevin T; Howard, Rob L

    2012-03-01

    The Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program of the Advanced Modeling and Simulation Office (AMSO) of the US Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE/NE) has invested in the initial extension and application of advanced nuclear simulation tools to address relevant needs in evaluating the performance of used nuclear fuel (UNF) during extended periods of dry storage. There are many significant challenges associated with the prediction of the behavior of used fuel during extended periods of dry storage and subsequent transportation. The initial activities are focused on integrating with the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign of the DOE/NE and a demonstration that the Advanced Multi-Physics (AMP) Nuclear Fuel Performance code (AMPFuel) for modeling the mechanical state of the cladding after decades of storage. This initial focus will model the long-term storage of the UNF and account for the effect, and generation, of radially and circumferentially oriented hydride precipitates within the cladding and predict the end of storage (EOS) mechanical state (stress, strain) of the cladding. Predicting the EOS state of the cladding is significant because it (1) provides an estimate of the margin to failure of the cladding during nominal storage operation and it (2) establishes the initial state of the fuel for post-storage transportation. Because there are significant uncertainties associated with the storage conditions, hydride precipitate formation, and the beginning of storage (BOS) condition of the UNF, this will also allow for the development of a rigorous capability to evaluate the relative sensitivities of the uncertainties and can help to guide the experimental and analysis efforts of the UFD Campaign. This document is focused on specifying the problem that will be solved with AMPFuel. An associated report, documents the specifics of the constitutive model that will be developed and implemented in AMPFuel to account for the presence

  1. Design of phylum-specific hybrid primers for DNA barcoding: addressing the need for efficient COI amplification in the Echinodermata.

    PubMed

    Hoareau, T B; Boissin, E

    2010-11-01

    Recent research has shown the usefulness of the Folmer region of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) as a genetic barcode to assist in species delimitation of echinoderms. However, amplification of COI is often challenging in echinoderms (low success or pseudogenes). We present a method that allows the design of phylum-specific hybrid primers, and use this to develop COI primers for the Echinodermata. We aligned COI sequences from 310 echinoderm species and designed all possible primers along the consensus sequence with two methods (standard degenerate and hybrid). We found much lower degeneracy for hybrid primers (4-fold degeneracy) than for standard degenerate primers (≥48-fold degeneracy). We then designed the most conserved hybrid primers to amplify a >500-bp region within COI. These primers successfully amplified this gene region in all tested taxa (123 species across all echinoderm classes). Sequencing of 30 species among these confirmed both the quality of the sequences (>500 bp, no pseudogenes) and their utility as a DNA barcode. This method should be useful for developing primers for other mitochondrial genes and other phyla. The method will also be of interest for the development of future projects involving both community-based genetic assessments on macroorganisms and biodiversity assessment of environmental samples using high-throughput sequencing.

  2. Phi-LOG: a domain specific language for solving phylogenetic inference problems.

    PubMed

    Pontelli, E; Ranjan, D; Milligan, B; Gupta, G

    2002-01-01

    Domain experts think and reason at a high level of abstraction when they solve problems in their domain of expertise. We present the design and motivation behind a domain specific language called Phi-LOG to enable biologists (domain experts) to program solutions to phylogenetic inference problems at a very high level of abstraction. The implementation infrastructure (interpreter, compiler, debugger) for the DSL is automatically obtained through a software engineering framework based on Denotational Semantics and Logic Programming.

  3. Preschool Sleep Problems and Differential Associations With Specific Aspects of Executive Control in Early Elementary School.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Timothy D; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Kidwell, Katherine M; James, Tiffany D; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the differential associations between parent-reported child sleep problems in preschool and specific aspects of executive control in early elementary school in a large sample of typically developing children (N = 215). Consistent with expectations, sleep problems were negatively associated with performance on tasks assessing working memory and interference suppression inhibition, even after controlling for general cognitive abilities, but not with flexible shifting or response inhibition. The findings add to the literature on cognitive impairments associated with pediatric sleep loss and highlight the need for early intervention for children with sleep problems to promote healthy cognitive development. PMID:26151614

  4. Authoring Effective Embedded Tutors: An Overview of the Extensible Problem Specific Tutor (xPST) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Stephen B.; Blessing, Stephen B.; Guo, Enruo

    2015-01-01

    The Extensible Problem Specific Tutor (xPST) allows authors who are not cognitive scientists and not programmers to quickly create an intelligent tutoring system that provides instruction akin to a model-tracing tutor. Furthermore, this instruction is overlaid on existing software, so that the learner's interface does not have to be made from…

  5. The problem with total error models in establishing performance specifications and a simple remedy.

    PubMed

    Krouwer, Jan S

    2016-08-01

    A recent issue in this journal revisited performance specifications since the Stockholm conference. Of the three recommended methods, two use total error models to establish performance specifications. It is shown that the most commonly used total error model - the Westgard model - is deficient, yet even more complete models fail to capture all errors that comprise total error. Moreover, total error models are often set at 95% of results, which leave 5% of results as unspecified. Glucose meter performance standards are used to illustrate these problems. The Westgard model is useful to asses assay performance but not to set performance specifications. Total error can be used to set performance specifications if the specifications include 100% of the results.

  6. Problems in estimating age-specific survival rates from recovery data of birds ringed as young

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.R.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; White, Gary C.

    1985-01-01

    (1) The life table model is frequently employed in the analysis of ringer samples of young in bird populations. The basic model is biologically unrealistic and of little use in making inferences concerning age-specific survival probabilities. (2) This model rests on a number of restrictive assumptions, the failure of which causes serious biases. Several important assumptions are not met with real data and the estimators of age-specific survival are not robust enough to these failures. (3) Five major problems in the use of the life table method are reviewed. Examples are provided to illustrate several of the problems involved in using this method in making inferences about survival rates and its age-specific nature. (4) We conclude that this is an invalid procedure and it should not be used. Furthermore, ringing studies involving only young birds are pointless as regards survival estimation because no valid method exists for estimating age-specific or time-specific survival rates from such data. (5) In our view, inferences about age-specific survival rates are possible only if both young and adult (or young, subadult and adult) age classes are ringed each year for k years (k ≥ 2).

  7. The influence of eating psychopathology on autobiographical memory specificity and social problem-solving.

    PubMed

    Ridout, Nathan; Matharu, Munveen; Sanders, Elizabeth; Wallis, Deborah J

    2015-08-30

    The primary aim was to examine the influence of subclinical disordered eating on autobiographical memory specificity (AMS) and social problem solving (SPS). A further aim was to establish if AMS mediated the relationship between eating psychopathology and SPS. A non-clinical sample of 52 females completed the autobiographical memory test (AMT), where they were asked to retrieve specific memories of events from their past in response to cue words, and the means-end problem-solving task (MEPS), where they were asked to generate means of solving a series of social problems. Participants also completed the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. After controlling for mood, high scores on the EDI subscales, particularly Drive-for-Thinness, were associated with the retrieval of fewer specific and a greater proportion of categorical memories on the AMT and with the generation of fewer and less effective means on the MEPS. Memory specificity fully mediated the relationship between eating psychopathology and SPS. These findings have implications for individuals exhibiting high levels of disordered eating, as poor AMS and SPS are likely to impact negatively on their psychological wellbeing and everyday social functioning and could represent a risk factor for the development of clinically significant eating disorders.

  8. Worrying about the future: An episodic specificity induction impacts problem solving, reappraisal, and well-being.

    PubMed

    Jing, Helen G; Madore, Kevin P; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that an episodic specificity induction--brief training in recollecting details of a recent experience--enhances performance on various subsequent tasks thought to draw upon episodic memory processes. Existing work has also shown that mental simulation can be beneficial for emotion regulation and coping with stressors. Here we focus on understanding how episodic detail can affect problem solving, reappraisal, and psychological well-being regarding worrisome future events. In Experiment 1, an episodic specificity induction significantly improved participants' performance on a subsequent means-end problem solving task (i.e., more relevant steps) and an episodic reappraisal task (i.e., more episodic details) involving personally worrisome future events compared with a control induction not focused on episodic specificity. Imagining constructive behaviors with increased episodic detail via the specificity induction was also related to significantly larger decreases in anxiety, perceived likelihood of a bad outcome, and perceived difficulty to cope with a bad outcome, as well as larger increases in perceived likelihood of a good outcome and indicated use of active coping behaviors compared with the control. In Experiment 2, we extended these findings using a more stringent control induction, and found preliminary evidence that the specificity induction was related to an increase in positive affect and decrease in negative affect compared with the control. Our findings support the idea that episodic memory processes are involved in means-end problem solving and episodic reappraisal, and that increasing the episodic specificity of imagining constructive behaviors regarding worrisome events may be related to improved psychological well-being. PMID:26820166

  9. Mental Health Problems during Puberty: Tanner Stage-Related Differences in Specific Symptoms. The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between specific mental health problems and pubertal stage in (pre)adolescents participating in the Dutch prospective cohort study TRAILS (first assessment: N = 2230, age 11.09 [plus or minus] 0.56, 50.8% girls; second assessment: N = 2149, age 13.56 [plus or minus] 0.53, 51.0% girls). Mental…

  10. A Bayesian Maximum Entropy approach to address the change of support problem in the spatial analysis of childhood asthma prevalence across North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    LEE, SEUNG-JAE; YEATTS, KARIN; SERRE, MARC L.

    2009-01-01

    The spatial analysis of data observed at different spatial observation scales leads to the change of support problem (COSP). A solution to the COSP widely used in linear spatial statistics consists in explicitly modeling the spatial autocorrelation of the variable observed at different spatial scales. We present a novel approach that takes advantage of the non-linear Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) extension of linear spatial statistics to address the COSP directly without relying on the classical linear approach. Our procedure consists in modeling data observed over large areas as soft data for the process at the local scale. We demonstrate the application of our approach to obtain spatially detailed maps of childhood asthma prevalence across North Carolina (NC). Because of the high prevalence of childhood asthma in NC, the small number problem is not an issue, so we can focus our attention solely to the COSP of integrating prevalence data observed at the county-level together with data observed at a targeted local scale equivalent to the scale of school-districts. Our spatially detailed maps can be used for different applications ranging from exploratory and hypothesis generating analyses to targeting intervention and exposure mitigation efforts. PMID:20300553

  11. The specification-based validation of reliable multicast protocol: Problem Report. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Yunqing

    1995-01-01

    Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP) is a communication protocol that provides an atomic, totally ordered, reliable multicast service on top of unreliable IP multicasting. In this report, we develop formal models for RMP using existing automated verification systems, and perform validation on the formal RMP specifications. The validation analysis help identifies some minor specification and design problems. We also use the formal models of RMP to generate a test suite for conformance testing of the implementation. Throughout the process of RMP development, we follow an iterative, interactive approach that emphasizes concurrent and parallel progress of implementation and verification processes. Through this approach, we incorporate formal techniques into our development process, promote a common understanding for the protocol, increase the reliability of our software, and maintain high fidelity between the specifications of RMP and its implementation.

  12. The National Historic Preservation Act is Not Your Problem, But How You are Addressing it for Your CERCLA Project May Be - 12344

    SciTech Connect

    Cusick, Lesley T.

    2012-07-01

    The 1995 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joint 'Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under CERCLA was developed so that decommissioning could occur in a manner that ensures protection of worker and public health and the environment, that is consistent with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), that provides for stakeholder involvement, and that achieves risk reduction without unnecessary delay'. The source of the 'unnecessary delays' the joint policy intended to avert could be attributed to numerous factors such as obtaining permits, conducting administrative activities, or implementing regulatory processes that could yield, among other things, differing preferred alternatives. Why, you might ask, more than fifteen years later, does DOE continue to struggle through CERCLA projects with unnecessary delays? From problem identification, to determination of nature and extent, to alternative analysis and ultimately remedy selection and implementation, reaching a compliant and effective clean-up end-point can be a process that seems to mimic geologic timescales. The source of these delays is often the failure to use all of the tools the CERCLA process offers. As one example, renewed commitment to follow the CERCLA process to address the regulatory reviews pursuant to the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) is called for. Project managers implementing CERCLA actions in any agency, not only DOE, do not need to be apprehensive about using the CERCLA process for NHPA review but should welcome it. It is critical that methods are used that address substantive NHPA requirements clearly and consistently, and that they are shared and communicated as frequently as needed to interested and questioning stakeholders. (author)

  13. Emergence of Coding and its Specificity as a Physico-Informatic Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, Peter R.; Nieselt, Kay; McCaskill, John S.

    2015-06-01

    We explore the origin-of-life consequences of the view that biological systems are demarcated from inanimate matter by their possession of referential information, which is processed computationally to control choices of specific physico-chemical events. Cells are cybernetic: they use genetic information in processes of communication and control, subjecting physical events to a system of integrated governance. The genetic code is the most obvious example of how cells use information computationally, but the historical origin of the usefulness of molecular information is not well understood. Genetic coding made information useful because it imposed a modular metric on the evolutionary search and thereby offered a general solution to the problem of finding catalysts of any specificity. We use the term "quasispecies symmetry breaking" to describe the iterated process of self-organisation whereby the alphabets of distinguishable codons and amino acids increased, step by step.

  14. Addressing Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Greg; Helmig, Mary; Kaplan, Bill; Kosch, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Four camp directors discuss how the September 11 tragedy and current world events will affect their camps. They describe how they are addressing safety concerns, working with parents, cooperating with outside agencies, hiring and screening international staff, and revising emergency plans. Camps must continue to offer community and support to…

  15. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  16. A nurse-coordinated educational initiative addressing primary care professionals' attitudes to and problem-solving in depression in older people--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Livingston, G; Yard, P; Beard, A; Katona, C

    2000-05-01

    This study assessed the feasibility and efficacy of an intervention focusing on primary care professionals' attitudes to, problem-solving in and practice relating to depression in old age before and after a nurse-implemented educational intervention. One hundred and twenty-one practices were approached, in which 297 doctors worked. Most practices did not want to be involved in this study. Evidence from previous studies and this one suggests that GPs are more amenable to interventions which are implemented by doctors rather than other health personnel. In addition, the lack of interest in this intervention may be a reflection of the therapeutic nihilism of primary care physicians regarding depression in older people. Sixteen surgeries expressed an interest in the study, of whom 14 participated in the study comprising 40 GPs. Thirty-one GPs and 24 nurses completed the baseline questionnaires. Only six GPs and no nurses returned completed questionnaires post-intervention. The only statistically significant before versus after change in the attitude questionnaire was found in 'I need more training to be able to deal effectively with depression in the elderly'. Mean scores were 0.73 and 0.47 respectively (p<0.05; 95%CI 3.2-47.1). Significant improvements post-intervention were, however, found in the answers to three questions (all p<0.05) addressing whether patients with depression complicated by or presenting with physical illness were referred appropriately and/or followed up. The results of our study do not indicate that the evaluation of nurse-led educational interventions in primary care is feasible in the field of depression in old age. The belief that all that is needed is the provision of accessible education of professionals by experts in the field to change attitudes and practice has not been reinforced. The high refusal rate suggests that such interventions are unlikely in any case to be generally acceptable.

  17. Parental Knowledge of Behavioral Principles Following Training to Address Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Kylan

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems are a common occurrence among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In addition to the challenges that sleep problems present for children's neurodevelopment, learning, and daytime behaviors, sleep problems in children present significant challenges for the entire family. Research studies on behavioral interventions to…

  18. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  19. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  20. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Ghatowar, P S

    1993-07-01

    The Union Deputy Minister of Health and Family Welfare in India addressed the 35th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay in 1993. Officials in developing countries have been concerned about population growth for more than 30 years and have instituted policies to reduce population growth. In the 1960s, population growth in developing countries was around 2.5%, but today it is about 2%. Despite this decline, the world will have 1 billion more individuals by the year 2001. 95% of these new people will be born in developing countries. India's population size is so great that India does not have the time to wait for development to reduce population growth. Population needs to be viewed as an integrated part of overall development, since it is linked to poverty, illiteracy, environmental damage, gender issues, and reproductive health. Despite a large population size, India has made some important advancements in health and family planning. For example, India has reduced population growth (to 2.14% annually between 1981-1991), infant mortality, and its birth rate. It has increased the contraceptive use rate and life expectancy. Its southern states have been more successful at achieving demographic goals than have the northern states. India needs to implement efforts to improve living conditions, to change attitudes and perceptions about small families and contraception, and to promote family planning acceptance earlier among young couples. Improvement of living conditions is especially important in India, since almost 33% of the people live in poverty. India needs to invest in nutrition, health, and education. The mass media and nongovernmental organizations need to create population awareness and demand for family planning services. Improvement in women's status accelerates fertility decline, as has happened in Kerala State. The government needs to facilitate generation of jobs. Community participation is needed for India to achieve

  1. Two heads are better than one: Australian tobacco control experts' and mental health change champions' consensus on addressing the problem of high smoking rates among people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Della; Lawn, Sharon; Coveney, John

    2016-04-01

    Objective The aims of the present study were to explore the beliefs of Australian experts in tobacco control and change champions working in mental health and tobacco cessation, and to identify measures for addressing the problem of high smoking rates for people with mental illness. Methods Qualitative interviews were undertaken to explore participants' views, and the Delphi technique was used to achieve consensus on ways in which the problem would be best addressed. Results This consensus centred on the need for leadership within the mental health system. The problem was reconceptualised from being solely the responsibility of the mental health sector into an issue that requires the combined resources of a partnership and shared leadership between government and non-government services, public health leaders, policy makers and people with mental illness and their families. Conclusions Collaboration would raise the priority of the issue, reduce the debilitating effect of stigma and discrimination within the mental health sector and would place smoking reduction firmly on the political and public agenda. A recovery-orientated focus would increase the skill base and be inclusive of workers, families and carers of people with mental illness who face smoking issues on a daily basis. Reconceptualising this as an issue that would benefit from cooperation and partnerships would disrupt the notion that the problem is solely the responsibility of the mental health sector. What is known about the topic? Rates of smoking have remained high for people with mental illness despite population-wide public health strategies successfully reducing smoking rates in the general population. For people with mental illness, the benefits of quitting smoking for both their mental and physical health are overshadowed by concerns about the complexity of their needs. There is a lack of knowledge about how smoking cessation support can be improved to increase success rates in smokers with

  2. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  3. Social problem-solving in high-functioning schizophrenia: specific deficits in sending skills.

    PubMed

    Vaskinn, Anja; Sundet, Kjetil; Hultman, Christina M; Friis, Svein; Andreassen, Ole A

    2009-02-28

    This study examined social problem-solving performance in high-functioning schizophrenia (n=26) and its relation to neurocognition. Ten healthy controls were used as a comparison group. Social problem-solving was assessed with the Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (AIPSS) method. The schizophrenia group was outperformed by healthy controls on all AIPSS measures, reaching statistical significance for sending skills. Exploration of the internal relationship between different aspects of social problem-solving showed that identification of an interpersonal problem (a receiving skill) was not correlated with formulating solutions to the problem (processing skills) or successfully role-playing solutions (interpersonal sending skills). Non-verbal performance in the role-play (an interpersonal sending skill) was not significantly correlated with identification of an interpersonal problem or the generation of solutions. This suggests a dissociation of social problem-solving processes. Social problem-solving was significantly associated with psychomotor speed, verbal learning, semantic fluency and cognitive flexibility. Clinical implications are that remediation of social problem-solving skills should focus on role-playing (nonverbal) interpersonal behaviors, rather than on verbally analyzing an interpersonal problem and clarifying alternative solutions.

  4. School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Can It Help Address the Problem of Disproportionate Minority Representation in the Emotional Disturbance Disability Category?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Jodi Abraham

    2012-01-01

    This research project investigated the possibility of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) as a way to address racial/ethnic disproportionality in the Emotional Disturbance (ED) category. The sample consisted of 114 elementary schools from a suburban school district in the Mid-Atlantic region. There were 57 SWPBS schools and 57 non-SWPBS…

  5. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  6. Everyday problem solving across the adult life span: influence of domain specificity and cognitive appraisal.

    PubMed

    Blanchard-Fields, F; Chen, Y; Norris, L

    1997-12-01

    Differences in problem-solving strategies for situations varying in three domains, consumer, home management, and conflict with friends, were examined among younger, middle-aged, and older adults. In addition, this study examined the influence of perceived ability to resolve the problem, controllability, and causal attributions on strategy selection. In the 2 instrumental domains, older adults were more problem focused in their approach than adolescents and younger adults, whereas adolescents and younger adults selected more passive-dependent strategies. In the more interpersonal domain, conflict with friends, older adults tended to select avoidant-denial strategies more so than younger adults. Finally, across domains, the greater the perceived ability to resolve a problem the less the avoidant-denial strategy was selected. The importance of distinguishing between social and instrumental problem solving and of examining the cognitive appraisal of a problem situation are discussed.

  7. English for Specific Purposes (ESP) for Jordanian Tourist Police in Their Workplace: Needs and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldohon, Hatem Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of the global tourism industry, designing ESP-based curricula is now more vitally needed than ever. To work towards this goal, analyzing learners' problems and needs has become merely unavoidable. Therefore, this study aimed at examining the needs, functions and problems of 46 tourist police serving in different…

  8. Performance in chemistry problem solving: A study of expert/novice strategies and specific cognitive factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engemann, Joseph Francis

    The purpose of this study was (a) to determine whether any relationships exist between chemistry problem-solving performance and field dependent-independent cognitive style, logical reasoning ability, mental capacity, age, gender, and/or academic level, and (b) to compare the problem-solving strategies employed by novices, advanced novices, and experts in chemistry. The Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT), the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), and the Figural Intersection Test (FIT) were administered to 29 freshman and junior university chemistry students and 19 Regents and Advanced Placement high school chemistry students. In addition, six mole concept problems were given to these participants, as well as to another 25 participants classified as advanced novices or experts in chemistry. All six solutions for each participant were evaluated in order to obtain a problem-solving performance score. Participants were audiotaped as they "talked aloud" during the problem-solving session. Tapes were transcribed into protocols, 37 of which were selected and analyzed for choice of problem-solving strategy and time to solution. Analyses of variance were conducted to look for significant effects of gender or academic level on field dependent-independent cognitive style, logical reasoning ability, mental capacity, and problem-solving performance. These analyses provided evidence of a significant relationship between the conservation subtest of the GALT and gender (p < .05), between the proportional reasoning subtest of the GALT and gender (p < .05), and between mental capacity and academic level (p < .01). A multiple regression analysis reported that problem-solving performance is related to an interaction between logical reasoning ability and mental capacity. A relationship between academic level and chemistry problem-solving performance was also reported. From an analysis of verbal protocols of successful problem solvers at all three levels of experience, the

  9. [Fundamental problems and improved methods in the measurement of specific gravity of cerebral tissues. (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Shigeno, T; Shigeno, S; Cervós-Navarro, J; Brock, M

    1981-12-01

    Gravimetric determination of brain tissue water content through the measurement of specific gravity (SG) still poses some basic problems. We have studied some of them with the aid of a new gradient column. Using a specially designed conical cylinder to distribute the solution in a graded manner, and a floating apparatus, a gradient column was automatically prepared with a high linearity (r greater than 0.99990). Analysis of equilibration time-course curves of cat brain tissue fragments with various sizes showed that it was more accurate to use volumes as large as 50 mg, and to measure as early as one minute after tissue insertion. In normal brain, SG of grey matter was usually higher than that of white matter. In contrast, in a brain with oligemia or with low hemoglobin contents of blood, this relationship was reversed. Thus, SG can be influenced not only by water content, but also by other factors. As SG of blood is higher than that of brain tissue, cerebral blood volume (CBV) is of particular interest. Assuming the total brain volume as equal to 1, CBV and volume of brain proper excluding intravascular blood can be expressed as x and 1-x respectively. In a given brain tissue, SG of blood or perfusate a, and SG of whole brain tissue A can be measured. If SG of brain proper is expressed as y, the following equation can be introduced: ax + y(1-x)=A. If a and A are obtained from two different brains under the condition of constant CBV, x, 1-x and y can be calculated. For this purpose, values from normal brain and those from perfused brain with isotonic saline were applied. The calculated CBV was 7% in the grey and 3% in the white. SG of brain proper was as low as 0.002 in the grey and 0.001 in the white as compared to that of whole brain tissue. When these values are applied to the equation of percent change in tissue volume as water = (SG of control tissue-1)-(SG of experimental tissue-1)/(SG of experimental tissue-1) x 100%, the false positive increase of water in

  10. A Demonstration of the Universal Problem-Solving Approach to Address Children's Inappropriate Behavior in Head Start Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Martha E.; Voorhees, Mary D.; Walker, Virginia L.; Berlin, Rebecca A.; Jamison, Kristen Roorbach; Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this demonstration was to evaluate a universal intervention during teacher-identified routines that were characterized by significant classwide problem behavior. Six Head Start classrooms (seven groups of children, with one classroom divided into two groups) received two workshops and two coaching sessions on universal Positive…

  11. Listen-Identify-Brainstorm-Reality-Test-Encourage (LIBRE) Problem-Solving Model: Addressing Special Education Teacher Attrition through a Cognitive-Behavioral Approach to Teacher Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Norma S.; Hernandez, Art; Hector, Alison M.; Crosby, Shane

    2015-01-01

    Special education teacher attrition rates continue to challenge the profession. A cognitive-behavioral problem-solving approach was used to examine three alternative certification program special education teachers' professional development through a series of 41 interviews conducted over a 2-year period. Beginning when they were novice special…

  12. Social problems, primary care and pathways to help and support: addressing health inequalities at the individual level. Part II: lay perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Popay, Jennie; Kowarzik, Ute; Mallinson, Sara; Mackian, Sara; Barker, Jacqui

    2007-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to describe social problems presented to general practitioners (GPs) in UK inner cities and GPs' responses; describe patients help‐seeking pathways; and consider how these pathways can be improved. Methods The study involved a pilot survey and follow‐up qualitative interviews with patients in two inner city areas in London and Salford in 2001–2. The pilot survey involved five practices in each locality. GPs completed questionnaires on 57 people presenting with social problems. A diversity sample of 12 patients was followed up for interview. Results Study results are presented in two parts. Here (Part II) qualitative research results are reported highlighting four themes: the complex and enduring nature of social problems; the persistence people display seeking help; the fragmented and problematic pathways available; and the roles GPs play as: primary medical adviser; formal gateway to another service; advocates or facilitators to another service; and sources of support and advice during a process of recovery. Commonly, GPs occupied more than one role. Conclusions GPs do help people deal with social problems, but their responses are limited. More integrated pathways to help and advice for social problems are needed. Existing pathways could be more visible and accessible, and new pathways developed through commissioning and extending social prescribing. More partnerships across sectors may create more co‐ordinated provision, but these are notoriously difficult, and other trends such as the focus on lifestyle issues and long‐standing conditions may make it more difficult for people with social needs to access support. PMID:17933955

  13. On Thinking and Feeling Bad: Do Client Problems Derive from a Common Irrationality or Specific Irrational Beliefs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Chris D.; And Others

    Two studies have reported that low self-esteem is related to the holding of four specific irrational beliefs; further studies have suggested that these and other irrational beliefs are associated with different client problems. This study attempted to replicate the self-esteem findings with a younger population and improved controls and to explore…

  14. Toward Greater Specificity in Identifying Associations among Interparental Aggression, Child Emotional Reactivity to Conflict, and Child Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante; Martin, Meredith J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined specific forms of emotional reactivity to conflict and temperamental emotionality as explanatory mechanisms in pathways among interparental aggression and child psychological problems. Participants of the multimethod, longitudinal study included 201 two-year-old children and their mothers who had experienced elevated violence…

  15. Brain Hyper-Connectivity and Operation-Specific Deficits during Arithmetic Problem Solving in Children with Developmental Dyscalculia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Chen, Tianwen; Young, Christina B.; Geary, David C.; Menon, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is marked by specific deficits in processing numerical and mathematical information despite normal intelligence (IQ) and reading ability. We examined how brain circuits used by young children with DD to solve simple addition and subtraction problems differ from those used by typically developing (TD) children who…

  16. Relations between Young Students' Strategic Behaviours, Domain-Specific Self-Concept, and Performance in a Problem-Solving Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dermitzaki, Irini; Leondari, Angeliki; Goudas, Marios

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the relations between students' strategic behaviour during problem solving, task performance and domain-specific self-concept. A total of 167 first- and second-graders were individually examined in tasks involving cubes assembly and in academic self-concept in mathematics. Students' cognitive, metacognitive, and…

  17. Spatio-Visual Memory of Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence for Generalized Processing Problems. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavin, Edith L.; Wilson, Peter H.; Maruff, Paul; Sleeman, Felicity

    2005-01-01

    Children with Specific language Impairment (SLI) have problems with verbal memory, particularly with tasks that have more processing demands. They also have slower speeds of responding for some tasks. To identify the extent to which young children with SLI would differ in performance from age-matched non-impaired children on a set of spatio-visual…

  18. [Development, problems and results of specialty-specific genetic counseling at the Neurology Clinic of the Karl Marx University].

    PubMed

    Bachmann, H

    1987-11-01

    Genetic counselling for inherited neurological diseases has been established at the Clinic for Neurology of Karl Marx University. Comprehensive experiences have been got with the specific and sometimes markedly different problems and aims of counselling in Wilsons disease, X-linked recessive muscular dystrophies, myotonic dystrophy and other neuromuscular disorders, Huntingtons chorea and hereditary ataxias.

  19. The Effect of General Versus Specific Heuristics in Mathematical Problem-Solving Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James Philip

    This study investigated differences in problem-solving performance following instruction varying in the type of heuristic advice given. The subjects, 176 college students with two years of high school mathematics experience, were provided programed instruction over a three-week period in three topic areas: finite geometry, Boolean algebra, and…

  20. General and Specific Predictors of Behavioral and Emotional Problems Among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, M.; Mason, W. A.

    2004-01-01

    Based on a sample of 1,218 students in the 10th and 11th grades, 14 variables measuring behavioral and emotional problems were modeled as four factors via confirmatory factor analysis. The factors were labeled Polydrug Use, Delinquency, Negative Affect, and Academic Orientation. A similar four-factor structure was supported 1 year later, and a…

  1. Vocabulary Notebook: A Digital Solution to General and Specific Vocabulary Learning Problems in a CLIL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazo, Plácido; Rodríguez, Romén; Fumero, Dácil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we will introduce an innovative software platform that can be especially useful in a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) context. This tool is called Vocabulary Notebook, and has been developed to solve all the problems that traditional (paper) vocabulary notebooks have. This tool keeps focus on the personalisation of…

  2. Development and initial evaluation of a telephone-delivered, behavioral activation, and problem-solving treatment program to address functional goals of breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kathleen D; Hull, Jay G; Kaufman, Peter A; Li, Zhongze; Seville, Janette L; Ahles, Tim A; Kornblith, Alice B; Hegel, Mark T

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and pilot test an intervention to optimize functional recovery for breast cancer survivors. Over two studies, 31 women enrolled in a goal-setting program via telephone. All eligible women enrolled (37% of those screened) and 66% completed all study activities. Completers were highly satisfied with the intervention, using it to address, on average, four different challenging activities. The longitudinal analysis showed a main effect of time for overall quality of life (F(5, 43.1) = 5.1, p = 0.001) and improvements in active coping (F (3, 31.7) = 4.9, p = 0.007), planning (F (3, 36.0) = 4.1, p = 0.01), reframing (F (3, 29.3) = 8.5, p < 0.001), and decreases in self-blame (F (3,31.6) = 4.3, p = 0.01). The intervention is feasible and warrants further study to determine its efficacy in fostering recovery and maximizing activity engagement after cancer treatment.

  3. Development and Initial Evaluation of a Telephone-Delivered, Behavioral Activation and Problem-solving Treatment Program to Address Functional Goals of Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Kathleen D.; Hull, Jay G.; Kaufman, Peter A.; Li, Zhongze; Seville, Janette L.; Ahles, Tim A.; Kornblith, Alice B.; Hegel, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and pilot test an intervention to optimize functional recovery for breast cancer survivors. Over two studies, 31 women enrolled in a goal-setting program via telephone. All eligible women enrolled (37% of those screened) and 66% completed all study activities. Completers were highly satisfied with the intervention, using it to address, on average, four different challenging activities. The longitudinal analysis showed a main effect of time for overall quality of life (F(5, 43.1) = 5.1, p = 0.001) and improvements in active coping (F (3, 31.7) = 4.9, p = 0.007), planning (F (3, 36.0) = 4.1, p = 0.01), reframing (F (3, 29.3) = 8.5, p < 0.001), and decreases in self-blame (F (3,31.6) = 4.3, p = 0.01). The intervention is feasible and warrants further study to determine its efficacy in fostering recovery and maximizing activity engagement after cancer treatment. PMID:25668509

  4. A Genre-Specific Investigation of Video Game Engagement and Problem Play in the Early Life Course.

    PubMed

    Ream, Geoffrey L; Elliott, Luther C; Dunlap, Eloise

    2013-05-21

    This study explored predictors of engagement with specific video game genres, and degree of problem play experienced by players of specific genres, during the early life course. Video game players ages 18-29 (n = 692) were recruited in and around video game retail outlets, arcades, conventions, and other video game related contexts in New York City. Participants completed a Computer-Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) of contemporaneous demographic and personality measures and a Life-History Calendar (LHC) measuring video gaming, school/work engagement, and caffeine and sugar consumption for each year of life ages 6 - present. Findings were that likelihood of engagement with most genres rose during childhood, peaked at some point during the second decade of life, and declined through emerging adulthood. Cohorts effects on engagement also emerged which were probably attributable to changes in the availability and popularity of various genres over the 12-year age range of our participants. The relationship between age and problem play of most genres was either negative or non-significant. Sensation-seeking was the only consistent positive predictor of problem play. Relationships between other variables and engagement with and problem play of specific genres are discussed in detail. PMID:24688802

  5. A Genre-Specific Investigation of Video Game Engagement and Problem Play in the Early Life Course.

    PubMed

    Ream, Geoffrey L; Elliott, Luther C; Dunlap, Eloise

    2013-05-21

    This study explored predictors of engagement with specific video game genres, and degree of problem play experienced by players of specific genres, during the early life course. Video game players ages 18-29 (n = 692) were recruited in and around video game retail outlets, arcades, conventions, and other video game related contexts in New York City. Participants completed a Computer-Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) of contemporaneous demographic and personality measures and a Life-History Calendar (LHC) measuring video gaming, school/work engagement, and caffeine and sugar consumption for each year of life ages 6 - present. Findings were that likelihood of engagement with most genres rose during childhood, peaked at some point during the second decade of life, and declined through emerging adulthood. Cohorts effects on engagement also emerged which were probably attributable to changes in the availability and popularity of various genres over the 12-year age range of our participants. The relationship between age and problem play of most genres was either negative or non-significant. Sensation-seeking was the only consistent positive predictor of problem play. Relationships between other variables and engagement with and problem play of specific genres are discussed in detail.

  6. A Genre-Specific Investigation of Video Game Engagement and Problem Play in the Early Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Ream, Geoffrey L.; Elliott, Luther C.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2013-01-01

    This study explored predictors of engagement with specific video game genres, and degree of problem play experienced by players of specific genres, during the early life course. Video game players ages 18–29 (n = 692) were recruited in and around video game retail outlets, arcades, conventions, and other video game related contexts in New York City. Participants completed a Computer-Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) of contemporaneous demographic and personality measures and a Life-History Calendar (LHC) measuring video gaming, school/work engagement, and caffeine and sugar consumption for each year of life ages 6 - present. Findings were that likelihood of engagement with most genres rose during childhood, peaked at some point during the second decade of life, and declined through emerging adulthood. Cohorts effects on engagement also emerged which were probably attributable to changes in the availability and popularity of various genres over the 12-year age range of our participants. The relationship between age and problem play of most genres was either negative or non-significant. Sensation-seeking was the only consistent positive predictor of problem play. Relationships between other variables and engagement with and problem play of specific genres are discussed in detail. PMID:24688802

  7. Untying the gordian knot: what we do and don't know about gender-specific medicine-keynote address for the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Legato, Marianne

    2014-12-01

    Over the past two decades, a burgeoning interest in women's health, the direct consequence of the feminist movement, has inspired a worldwide interest in the differences between the normal function of men and women and their unique experiences of the same illnesses. The scope and significance of what we have discovered and continue to find has fundamentally changed the way we prevent, diagnose, and treat diseases. Important questions remain, however, and deserve specific investigation and analysis.

  8. Solving the Problems of Designing and Teaching a Packed English for Specific Purposes Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Belinda

    2011-01-01

    Background: In an English for Specific Purposes (ESP) course offered to a department in a university in Hong Kong preparing the students for their internship, students were expected to learn to write and engage in spoken activities related to a number of documents over a period of 13 weeks. Having to achieve so many learning outcomes within so…

  9. Specification of the Advanced Burner Test Reactor Multi-Physics Coupling Demonstration Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Shemon, E. R.; Grudzinski, J. J.; Lee, C. H.; Thomas, J. W.; Yu, Y. Q.

    2015-12-21

    This document specifies the multi-physics nuclear reactor demonstration problem using the SHARP software package developed by NEAMS. The SHARP toolset simulates the key coupled physics phenomena inside a nuclear reactor. The PROTEUS neutronics code models the neutron transport within the system, the Nek5000 computational fluid dynamics code models the fluid flow and heat transfer, and the DIABLO structural mechanics code models structural and mechanical deformation. The three codes are coupled to the MOAB mesh framework which allows feedback from neutronics, fluid mechanics, and mechanical deformation in a compatible format.

  10. Promoting healthy eating, active play and sustainability consciousness in early childhood curricula, addressing the Ben10™ problem: a randomised control trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper details the research protocol for a study funded by the Australian Research Council. An integrated approach towards helping young children respond to the significant pressures of ‘360 degree marketing’ on their food choices, levels of active play, and sustainability consciousness via the early childhood curriculum is lacking. The overall goal of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of curriculum interventions that educators design when using a pedagogical communication strategy on children’s knowledge about healthy eating, active play and the sustainability consequences of their toy food and toy selections. Methods/Design This cluster-randomised trial will be conducted with 300, 4 to 5 year-old children attending pre-school. Early childhood educators will develop a curriculum intervention using a pedagogical communication strategy that integrates content knowledge about healthy eating, active play and sustainability consciousness and deliver this to their pre-school class. Children will be interviewed about their knowledge of healthy eating, active play and the sustainability consequences of their food and toy selections. Parents will complete an Eating and Physical Activity Questionnaire rating their children’s food preferences, digital media viewing and physical activity habits. All measures will be administered at baseline, the end of the intervention and 6 months post intervention. Informed consent will be obtained from all parents and the pre-school classes will be allocated randomly to the intervention or wait-list control group. Discussion This study is the first to utilise an integrated pedagogical communication strategy developed specifically for early childhood educators focusing on children’s healthy eating, active play, and sustainability consciousness. The significance of the early childhood period, for young children’s learning about healthy eating, active play and sustainability, is now unquestioned. The specific

  11. Problems in planning bimanually incongruent grasp postures relate to simultaneous response specification processes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Charmayne M L; Seegelke, Christian; Reissig, Paola

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the current experiments was to examine whether the problems associated with grasp posture planning during bimanually incongruent movements are due to crosstalk at the motor programming level. Participants performed a grasping and placing task in which they grasped two objects from a table and placed them onto a board to targets that required identical (congruent) or non-identical degrees of rotation (incongruent). The interval between the presentation of the first stimulus and the second stimulus (stimulus onset asynchrony: SOA) was manipulated. Results demonstrate that the problems associated with bimanually incongruent grasp posture planning are reduced at SOA durations longer than 1000ms, indicating that the costs associated with bimanual incongruent movements arise from crosstalk at the motor programming level. In addition, reach-to-grasp times were shorter, and interlimb limb coupling was higher, for congruent, compared to incongruent, object end-orientation conditions in both Experiment 1 and 2. The bimanual interference observed during reach-to-grasp execution is postulated to arise from limitations in the visual motor system or from conceptual language representations. The present results emphasize that bimanual interference arises from constraints active at multiple levels of the neurobiological-cognitive system.

  12. Problems in planning bimanually incongruent grasp postures relate to simultaneous response specification processes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Charmayne M L; Seegelke, Christian; Reissig, Paola

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the current experiments was to examine whether the problems associated with grasp posture planning during bimanually incongruent movements are due to crosstalk at the motor programming level. Participants performed a grasping and placing task in which they grasped two objects from a table and placed them onto a board to targets that required identical (congruent) or non-identical degrees of rotation (incongruent). The interval between the presentation of the first stimulus and the second stimulus (stimulus onset asynchrony: SOA) was manipulated. Results demonstrate that the problems associated with bimanually incongruent grasp posture planning are reduced at SOA durations longer than 1000ms, indicating that the costs associated with bimanual incongruent movements arise from crosstalk at the motor programming level. In addition, reach-to-grasp times were shorter, and interlimb limb coupling was higher, for congruent, compared to incongruent, object end-orientation conditions in both Experiment 1 and 2. The bimanual interference observed during reach-to-grasp execution is postulated to arise from limitations in the visual motor system or from conceptual language representations. The present results emphasize that bimanual interference arises from constraints active at multiple levels of the neurobiological-cognitive system. PMID:24650762

  13. Problems Facing Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, C. E.; And Others

    Problems facing rural Scottish schools range from short term consideration of daily operation to long term consideration of organizational alternatives. Addressed specifically, such problems include consideration of: (1) liaison between a secondary school and its feeder primary schools; (2) preservice teacher training for work in small, isolated…

  14. Hepatitis C virus infection: Are there still specific problems with genotype 3?

    PubMed Central

    Gondeau, Claire; Pageaux, Georges Philippe; Larrey, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease and the main indication for liver transplantation worldwide. As promising specific treatments have been introduced for genotype 1, clinicians and researchers are now focusing on patients infected by non-genotype 1 HCV, particularly genotype 3. Indeed, in the golden era of direct-acting antiviral drugs, genotype 3 infections are no longer considered as easy to treat and are associated with higher risk of developing severe liver injuries, such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, HCV genotype 3 accounts for 40% of all HCV infections in Asia and is the most frequent genotype among HCV-positive injecting drug users in several countries. Here, we review recent data on HCV genotype 3 infection/treatment, including clinical aspects and the underlying genotype-specific molecular mechanisms. PMID:26576095

  15. Addressing the question of disorder-specific risk factors of internet addiction: a comparison of personality traits in patients with addictive behaviors and comorbid internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Müller, K W; Koch, A; Dickenhorst, U; Beutel, M E; Duven, E; Wölfling, K

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled use of the internet has been reported to affect the lives of some users in a negative way. According to epidemiological studies, about 1% of the general population is showing signs of internet addiction. Since internet addiction is becoming a growing health concern, research on potential risk factors is becoming more important in order to develop strategies for prevention and to adopt therapeutic treatment. Although there are some studies investigating personality traits in internet addiction, most of these studies are based on samples of healthy subjects. In this research project, we compared personality profiles of a sample of patients in different rehabilitation centers. 70 patients with an addiction disorder that additionally met the criteria for internet addiction were compared to 48 patients suffering from alcohol dependence. Besides Big Five personality traits, we also assessed depressive symptoms. It was shown that patients with comorbid internet addiction can be discriminated from other patients by higher neuroticism and lower extraversion as well as lower conscientiousness. After controlling for depressive symptoms, lower conscientiousness especially turned out to be a disorder-specific risk factor. As internet addiction is related to unique patterns of personality traits and can be discriminated from alcohol dependence, treatment approaches are needed that meet the specific requirements of patients with internet addiction.

  16. Non-specific monitoring to resolve intermittent pollutant problems associated with wastewater treatment and potable supply.

    PubMed

    Stuetz, R M

    2004-01-01

    An online monitoring system based on an array of non-specific sensors was used for the detection of chemical pollutants in wastewater and water. By superimposing sensor profiles for defined sampling window, the identification of data points outside these normal sensor response patterns was used to represent potential pollution episodes or other abnormalities within the process stream. Principle component analysis supported the detection of outliers or rapid changes in the sensor responses as an indicator of chemical pollutants. A model based on the comparison of sensor relative responses to a moving average for a defined sample window was tested for detecting and identifying sudden changes in the online data over a 6-month period. These results show the technical advantages of using a non-specific based monitoring system that can respond to a range of chemical species, due to broad selectivity of the sensor compositions. The findings demonstrate how this non-invasive technique could be further developed to provide early warning systems for application at the inlet of wastewater treatment plants.

  17. High-throughput carbohydrate microarray profiling of 27 antibodies demonstrates widespread specificity problems.

    PubMed

    Manimala, Joseph C; Roach, Timothy A; Li, Zhitao; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C

    2007-08-01

    Progress toward understanding the biological roles of carbohydrates has been remarkably slow, and efforts to exploit this class of biopolymers as diagnostic and therapeutic targets have proven extremely challenging. Both basic and clinical research rely heavily on identifying and monitoring expression levels of carbohydrates. Over the last 30 years, the majority of expression information has been derived from antibody- and lectin-binding studies. Using a carbohydrate microarray containing 80 different glycans and glycoproteins, the specificities of 27 antiglycan antibodies were evaluated, including antibodies to histo-blood group A, B, and H antigens (81FR2.2, CLCP-19B, B389, 92FR-A2, B480, B460, B376, and B393), Lewis antigens (7LE, 15C02, 28, ZC-18C, 121SLE, CA199.02, PR.5C5, 2-25LE, BR55, T174, T218, F3, A70-C/C8, FR4A5, and K21), and other tumor-associated antigens (B389, 1A4, B1.1, and 5B5). In total, evaluation of over 2000 individual carbohydrate-protein interactions was carried out. More than half of the antibodies considered to be specific for their designated antigen were found to cross-react with other glycans. The cross-reactive glycans could be mistaken for the designated antigen in biopsy samples or other biological samples, leading to inaccurate conclusions. PMID:17483136

  18. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  19. Series: The research agenda for general practice/family medicine and primary health care in Europe. Part 4. Results: specific problem solving skills.

    PubMed

    Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Beyer, Martin; Chevallier, Patrick; Eilat-Tsanani, Sophia; Lionis, Christos; Peremans, Lieve; Petek, Davorina; Rurik, Imre; Soler, Jean Karl; Stoffers, Henri Ejh; Topsever, Pinar; Ungan, Mehmet; van Royen, Paul

    2010-09-01

    The 'Research Agenda for General Practice/Family Medicine and Primary Health Care in Europe' summarizes the evidence relating to the core competencies and characteristics of the Wonca Europe definition of GP/FM, and its implications for general practitioners/family doctors, researchers and policy makers. The European Journal of General Practice publishes a series of articles based on this document. The previous articles presented background, objectives, and methodology, as well results on 'primary care management' and 'community orientation' and the person-related core competencies of GP/FM. This article reflects on the general practitioner's 'specific problem solving skills'. These include decision making on diagnosis and therapy of specific diseases, accounting for the properties of primary care, but also research questions related to quality management and resource use, shared decision making, or professional education and development. Clinical research covers most specific diseases, but often lacks pragmatism and primary care relevance. Quality management is a stronghold of GP/FM research. Educational interventions can be effective when well designed for a specific setting and situation. However, their message that 'usual care' by general practitioners is insufficient may be problematic. GP and their patients need more research into diagnostic reasoning with a step-wise approach to increase predictive values in a setting characterized by uncertainty and low prevalence of specific diseases. Pragmatic comparative effectiveness studies of new and established drugs or non-pharmaceutical therapy are needed. Multi-morbidity and complexity should be addressed. Studies on therapy, communication strategies and educational interventions should consider impact on health and sustainability of effects.

  20. Brain hyper-connectivity and operation-specific deficits during arithmetic problem solving in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Chen, Tianwen; Young, Christina B; Geary, David C; Menon, Vinod

    2015-05-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is marked by specific deficits in processing numerical and mathematical information despite normal intelligence (IQ) and reading ability. We examined how brain circuits used by young children with DD to solve simple addition and subtraction problems differ from those used by typically developing (TD) children who were matched on age, IQ, reading ability, and working memory. Children with DD were slower and less accurate during problem solving than TD children, and were especially impaired on their ability to solve subtraction problems. Children with DD showed significantly greater activity in multiple parietal, occipito-temporal and prefrontal cortex regions while solving addition and subtraction problems. Despite poorer performance during subtraction, children with DD showed greater activity in multiple intra-parietal sulcus (IPS) and superior parietal lobule subdivisions in the dorsal posterior parietal cortex as well as fusiform gyrus in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Critically, effective connectivity analyses revealed hyper-connectivity, rather than reduced connectivity, between the IPS and multiple brain systems including the lateral fronto-parietal and default mode networks in children with DD during both addition and subtraction. These findings suggest the IPS and its functional circuits are a major locus of dysfunction during both addition and subtraction problem solving in DD, and that inappropriate task modulation and hyper-connectivity, rather than under-engagement and under-connectivity, are the neural mechanisms underlying problem solving difficulties in children with DD. We discuss our findings in the broader context of multiple levels of analysis and performance issues inherent in neuroimaging studies of typical and atypical development. PMID:25098903

  1. Brain hyper-connectivity and operation-specific deficits during arithmetic problem solving in children with developmental dyscalculia

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Chen, Tianwen; Young, Christina B.; Geary, David C.; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is marked by specific deficits in processing numerical and mathematical information despite normal intelligence (IQ) and reading ability. We examined how brain circuits used by young children with DD to solve simple addition and subtraction problems differ from those used by typically developing (TD) children who were matched on age, IQ, reading ability, and working memory. Children with DD were slower and less accurate during problem solving than TD children, and were especially impaired on their ability to solve subtraction problems. Children with DD showed significantly greater activity in multiple parietal, occipito-temporal and prefrontal cortex regions while solving addition and subtraction problems. Despite poorer performance during subtraction, children with DD showed greater activity in multiple intra-parietal sulcus (IPS) and superior parietal lobule subdivisions in the dorsal posterior parietal cortex as well as fusiform gyrus in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Critically, effective connectivity analyses revealed hyper-connectivity, rather than reduced connectivity, between the IPS and multiple brain systems including the lateral fronto-parietal and default mode networks in children with DD during both addition and subtraction. These findings suggest the IPS and its functional circuits are a major locus of dysfunction during both addition and subtraction problem solving in DD, and that inappropriate task modulation and hyper-connectivity, rather than under-engagement and under-connectivity, are the neural mechanisms underlying problem solving difficulties in children with DD. We discuss our findings in the broader context of multiple levels of analysis and performance issues inherent in neuroimaging studies of typical and atypical development. PMID:25098903

  2. Brain hyper-connectivity and operation-specific deficits during arithmetic problem solving in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Chen, Tianwen; Young, Christina B; Geary, David C; Menon, Vinod

    2015-05-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is marked by specific deficits in processing numerical and mathematical information despite normal intelligence (IQ) and reading ability. We examined how brain circuits used by young children with DD to solve simple addition and subtraction problems differ from those used by typically developing (TD) children who were matched on age, IQ, reading ability, and working memory. Children with DD were slower and less accurate during problem solving than TD children, and were especially impaired on their ability to solve subtraction problems. Children with DD showed significantly greater activity in multiple parietal, occipito-temporal and prefrontal cortex regions while solving addition and subtraction problems. Despite poorer performance during subtraction, children with DD showed greater activity in multiple intra-parietal sulcus (IPS) and superior parietal lobule subdivisions in the dorsal posterior parietal cortex as well as fusiform gyrus in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Critically, effective connectivity analyses revealed hyper-connectivity, rather than reduced connectivity, between the IPS and multiple brain systems including the lateral fronto-parietal and default mode networks in children with DD during both addition and subtraction. These findings suggest the IPS and its functional circuits are a major locus of dysfunction during both addition and subtraction problem solving in DD, and that inappropriate task modulation and hyper-connectivity, rather than under-engagement and under-connectivity, are the neural mechanisms underlying problem solving difficulties in children with DD. We discuss our findings in the broader context of multiple levels of analysis and performance issues inherent in neuroimaging studies of typical and atypical development.

  3. Addressing the Problems of Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph F.; Tobin, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Homeless adolescents, known as "unaccompanied youth," constitute a small but important portion of the overall homeless population, one that needs particular attention at school. In this article, we review existing literature to provide a background for educational leaders, researchers, and policymakers hoping to understand the phenomenon of…

  4. [Burnout, work disruptions, interpersonal and psychosomatic problems--degree-specific comparison of students at a German university].

    PubMed

    Gumz, A; Brähler, E; Heilmann, V K; Erices, R

    2014-03-01

    In the context of the public debate on psychological strain among students, the prevalence of burnout, procrastination, test anxiety, other work disruptions, interpersonal problems and psychic symptoms were analyzed depending on academic degree. The data of 358 college students (of Leipzig University) were examined. The academic degree had only a marginal effect on burnout- and work disruptions-related variables. In terms of interpersonal problems and psychic symptoms, differences between students were identified, depending on the academic degree. Diploma students reported many complaints, whereas undergraduates aspiring for a State Examination, were comparatively less affected. Knowledge of the population-specific psychological load is useful in order to develop preventive and therapeutic measures. PMID:23780858

  5. Preschool-Age Male Psychiatric Patients with Specific Developmental Disorders and Those Without: Do They Differ in Behavior Problems and Treatment Outcome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achtergarde, Sandra; Becke, Johanna; Beyer, Thomas; Postert, Christian; Romer, Georg; Müller, Jörg Michael

    2014-01-01

    Specific developmental disorders of speech, language, and motor function in children are associated with a wide range of mental health problems. We examined whether preschool-age psychiatric patients with specific developmental disorders and those without differed in the severity of emotional and behavior problems. In addition, we examined whether…

  6. Is Poor Frequency Modulation Detection Linked to Literacy Problems? A Comparison of Specific Reading Disability and Mild to Moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, L. F.; Bishop, D. V. M.

    2006-01-01

    Specific reading disability (SRD) is now widely recognised as often being caused by phonological processing problems, affecting analysis of spoken as well as written language. According to one theoretical account, these phonological problems are due to low-level problems in auditory perception of dynamic acoustic cues. Evidence for this has come…

  7. Addressing Cultural and Native Language Interference in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allard, Daniele; Bourdeau, Jacqueline; Mizoguchi, Riichiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of cultural and native language interference in second/foreign language acquisition. More specifically, it examines issues of interference that can be traced to a student's native language and that also have a cultural component. To this effect, an understanding of what actually comprises both interference and…

  8. Using Short Stories to Address Eating Disturbances in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Lone, Jeffrey S.; Kalodner, Cynthia R.; Coughlin, Janelle W.

    2002-01-01

    Short stories can be an effective group-level intervention for addressing disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. This technique may be used in eating-disorder themed groups or in any group in which members present with eating problems. The authors provide specific guidelines for the use of short stories in group work. An example is provided to…

  9. Using auditory pre-information to solve the cocktail-party problem: electrophysiological evidence for age-specific differences

    PubMed Central

    Getzmann, Stephan; Lewald, Jörg; Falkenstein, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Speech understanding in complex and dynamic listening environments requires (a) auditory scene analysis, namely auditory object formation and segregation, and (b) allocation of the attentional focus to the talker of interest. There is evidence that pre-information is actively used to facilitate these two aspects of the so-called “cocktail-party” problem. Here, a simulated multi-talker scenario was combined with electroencephalography to study scene analysis and allocation of attention in young and middle-aged adults. Sequences of short words (combinations of brief company names and stock-price values) from four talkers at different locations were simultaneously presented, and the detection of target names and the discrimination between critical target values were assessed. Immediately prior to speech sequences, auditory pre-information was provided via cues that either prepared auditory scene analysis or attentional focusing, or non-specific pre-information was given. While performance was generally better in younger than older participants, both age groups benefited from auditory pre-information. The analysis of the cue-related event-related potentials revealed age-specific differences in the use of pre-cues: Younger adults showed a pronounced N2 component, suggesting early inhibition of concurrent speech stimuli; older adults exhibited a stronger late P3 component, suggesting increased resource allocation to process the pre-information. In sum, the results argue for an age-specific utilization of auditory pre-information to improve listening in complex dynamic auditory environments. PMID:25540608

  10. Cognitive-behavioral treatment for specific phobias with a child demonstrating severe problem behavior and developmental delays.

    PubMed

    Davis, Thompson E; Kurtz, Patricia F; Gardner, Andrew W; Carman, Nicole B

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBTs) are widely used for anxiety disorders in typically developing children; however, there has been no previous attempt to administer CBT for specific phobia (in this case study, one-session treatment) to developmentally or intellectually disabled children. This case study integrates both cognitive-behavioral and behavior analytic assessment techniques in the CBT of water and height phobia in a 7-year-old male with developmental delays and severe behavior problems. One-session treatment [Ost, L. G. (1989). One-session treatment for specific phobias. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 27, 1-7; Ost, L. G. (1997). Rapid treatment of specific phobias. In G. C. L. Davey (Ed.), Phobias: A handbook of theory, research, and treatment (pp. 227-247). New York: Wiley] was provided for water phobia and then 2 months later for height phobia. The massed exposure therapy sessions combined graduated in vivo exposure, participant modeling, cognitive challenges, reinforcement, and other techniques. Both indirect and direct observation measures were utilized to evaluate treatment efficacy. Results suggested CBT reduced or eliminated behavioral avoidance, specific phobia symptoms, and subjective fear. Negative vocalizations were reduced during height exposure following treatment. Vocalizations following treatment for water phobia were less clear and may have been indicative of typical 7-year-old protests during bath time. Findings indicate CBT can be effective for treating clinical fears in an individual with developmental disabilities and severe behavior. Future research in this population should examine CBT as an alternative to other techniques (e.g., forced exposure) for treating fears.

  11. Towards Greater Specificity in Identifying Associations Among Interparental Aggression, Child Emotional Reactivity to Conflict, and Child Problems

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante; Martin, Meredith J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined specific forms of emotional reactivity to conflict and temperamental emotionality as explanatory mechanisms in pathways among interparental aggression and child psychological problems. Participants of the multi-method, longitudinal study included 201 two-year-old children and their mothers who had experienced elevated violence in the home. Consistent with emotional security theory, autoregressive structural equation model analyses indicated that children’s fearful reactivity to conflict was the only consistent mediator in the associations among interparental aggression and their internalizing and externalizing symptoms one year later. Pathways remained significant across maternal and observer ratings of children’s symptoms and with the inclusion of other predictors and mediators, including children’s sad and angry forms of reactivity to conflict, temperamental emotionality, gender, and socioeconomic status. PMID:22716918

  12. The Effectiveness of Self-regulatory Speech Training for Planning and Problem Solving in Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    PubMed

    Abdul Aziz, Safiyyah; Fletcher, Janet; Bayliss, Donna M

    2016-08-01

    Self-regulatory speech has been shown to be important for the planning and problem solving of children. Our intervention study, including comparisons to both wait-list and typically developing controls, examined the effectiveness of a training programme designed to improve self-regulatory speech, and consequently, the planning and problem solving performance of 87 (60 males, 27 females) children aged 4-7 years with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) who were delayed in their self-regulatory speech development. The self-regulatory speech and Tower of London (TOL) performance of children with SLI who received the intervention initially or after a waiting period was compared with that of 80 (48 male, 32 female) typically developing children who did not receive any intervention. Children were tested at three time points: Time 1- prior to intervention; Time 2 - after the first SLI group had received training and the second SLI group provided a wait-list control; and Time 3 - when the second SLI group had received training. At Time 1 children with SLI produced less self-regulatory speech and were impaired on the TOL relative to the typically developing children. At Time 2, the TOL performance of children with SLI in the first training group improved significantly, whereas there was no improvement for the second training group (the wait-list group). At Time 3, the second training group improved their TOL performance and the first group maintained their performance. No significant differences in TOL performance were evident between typically developing children and those with SLI at Time 3. Moreover, decreases in social speech and increases in inaudible muttering following self-regulatory speech training were associated with improvements in TOL performance. Together, the results show that self-regulatory speech training was effective in increasing self-regulatory speech and in improving planning and problem solving performance in children with SLI.

  13. The Effectiveness of Self-regulatory Speech Training for Planning and Problem Solving in Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    PubMed

    Abdul Aziz, Safiyyah; Fletcher, Janet; Bayliss, Donna M

    2016-08-01

    Self-regulatory speech has been shown to be important for the planning and problem solving of children. Our intervention study, including comparisons to both wait-list and typically developing controls, examined the effectiveness of a training programme designed to improve self-regulatory speech, and consequently, the planning and problem solving performance of 87 (60 males, 27 females) children aged 4-7 years with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) who were delayed in their self-regulatory speech development. The self-regulatory speech and Tower of London (TOL) performance of children with SLI who received the intervention initially or after a waiting period was compared with that of 80 (48 male, 32 female) typically developing children who did not receive any intervention. Children were tested at three time points: Time 1- prior to intervention; Time 2 - after the first SLI group had received training and the second SLI group provided a wait-list control; and Time 3 - when the second SLI group had received training. At Time 1 children with SLI produced less self-regulatory speech and were impaired on the TOL relative to the typically developing children. At Time 2, the TOL performance of children with SLI in the first training group improved significantly, whereas there was no improvement for the second training group (the wait-list group). At Time 3, the second training group improved their TOL performance and the first group maintained their performance. No significant differences in TOL performance were evident between typically developing children and those with SLI at Time 3. Moreover, decreases in social speech and increases in inaudible muttering following self-regulatory speech training were associated with improvements in TOL performance. Together, the results show that self-regulatory speech training was effective in increasing self-regulatory speech and in improving planning and problem solving performance in children with SLI. PMID:26678398

  14. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  15. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications. PMID:21193369

  16. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications.

  17. Teaching Methods for Modelling Problems and Students' Task-Specific Enjoyment, Value, Interest and Self-Efficacy Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schukajlow, Stanislaw; Leiss, Dominik; Pekrun, Reinhard; Blum, Werner; Muller, Marcel; Messner, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    In this study which was part of the DISUM-project, 224 ninth graders from 14 German classes from middle track schools (Realschule) were asked about their enjoyment, interest, value and self-efficacy expectations concerning three types of mathematical problems: intra-mathematical problems, word problems and modelling problems. Enjoyment, interest,…

  18. Low-back problems in recreational self-contained underwater breathing apparatus divers: prevalence and specific risk factors.

    PubMed

    Knaepen, K; Cumps, E; Zinzen, E; Meeusen, R

    2009-04-01

    Low-back problems (LBP) are one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders in the general population, with reported lifetime prevalences of 50% to 80%. Also, certain sports participants (e.g. gymnasts, alpine skiers, runners) are at risk of LBP and its repercussions. This epidemiological study was undertaken to examine the lifetime and 1-year prevalence of LBP among recreational Flemish self-contained breathing apparatus (scuba) divers and to identify general and sport-specific risk factors associated with the occurrence of LBP. A retrospective self-assessment questionnaire was developed and assessed for validity and reliability, to gather data concerning demographics, LBP prevalence and associated risk factors and injuries among active scuba divers. A total of 181 recreational scuba divers (men: n = 138, mean age 40.3 +/- 12.8 years; women: n = 43, mean age 35.0 +/- 10.9 years) from 10 randomly selected internationally recognised scuba diving clubs participated in the study. Lifetime and 1-year prevalence of LBP among recreational Flemish scuba divers were 55.8% and 50.3%, respectively. General risk factors for LBP were found to include prior history of LBP, structural abnormalities, heavy workload, pregnancy and parturition, general fatigue and bending forwards and backwards. Scuba divers suffering from LBP generally had a significantly higher dive certificate than those without LBP (p = 0.007). Symptomatic scuba divers also used significantly more weights on their weight belts during indoor training (p = 0.003) and during outdoor dives with a dry suit (p = 0.044) as compared to asymptomatic scuba divers. In scuba diving, reliable sport-specific risk factors for LBP were found to be scarce. Further biomechanical research is required to point out whether or not scuba diving characteristics actually contribute to LBP.

  19. Physicians who experience sickness certification as a work environmental problem: where do they work and what specific problems do they have? A nationwide survey in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Arrelöv, Britt; Lindholm, Christina; Wilteus, Anna Löfgren; Nilsson, Gunnar H; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Objectives In a recent study, 11% of the Swedish physicians below 65 years dealing with sickness certification tasks (SCT) experienced SCT to a great extent as a work environment problem (WEP). This study aimed at exploring which SCT problems those physicians experienced and if these problems varied between general practitioners (GPs), psychiatrists, orthopaedists and physicians working at other types of clinics. Design A cross-sectional nationwide questionnaire study. Setting All physicians working in Sweden in 2008. Participants The 1554 physicians <65 years old, working in a clinical setting, having SCT and stating SCT to a great extent being a WEP. Outcome measures Frequency of possibly problematic situations or lack of time, reasons for sickness certifying unnecessarily long, experience of difficulties in contacts with sickness insurance offices, and severity of experienced problems. Results In all, 79% of this group of physicians experienced SCT as problematic at least once weekly, significantly higher proportion among GPs (p<0.001) and psychiatrists (p=0.005). A majority (at most 68.3%) experienced lack of time daily, when handling SCT, the proportion being significantly higher among orthopaedists (p=0.003, 0.007 and 0.011 on three respective items about lack of time). Among psychiatrists, a significantly higher proportion (p<0.001) stated wanting a patient coordinator. Also, GPs agreed to a higher extent (p<0.001) to finding 14 different SCT tasks as ‘very problematic’. Conclusions The main problem among physicians who experience SCT to a great extent as a WEP was lack of time related to SCT. The proportion of physicians experiencing problems varied in many aspects significantly between the different work clinics; however, GPs were among the highest in most types of problems. The results indicate that measures for improving physicians' sickness certification practices should be focused on organisational as well as professional level and that the

  20. Nonword repetition--a clinical marker for specific language impairment in Swedish associated with parents' language-related problems.

    PubMed

    Kalnak, Nelli; Peyrard-Janvid, Myriam; Forssberg, Hans; Sahlén, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    First, we explore the performance of nonword repetition (NWR) in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing children (TD) in order to investigate the accuracy of NWR as a clinical marker for SLI in Swedish-speaking school-age children. Second, we examine the relationship between NWR, family aggregation, and parental level of education in children with SLI. A sample of 61 children with SLI, and 86 children with TD, aged 8-12 years, were administered an NWR test. Family aggregation, measured as the prevalence of language and/or literacy problems (LLP) in parents of the children with SLI, was based on family history interviews. The sensitivity and specificity of nonword repetition was analyzed in a binary logistic regression, cut-off values were established with ROC curves, and positive and negative likelihood ratios reported. Results from the present study show that NWR distinguishes well between Swedish-speaking school-children with and without SLI. We found 90.2% sensitivity and 97.7% specificity at a cut-off level of -2 standard deviations for binary scoring of nonwords. Differences between the SLI and TD groups showed large effect sizes for the two scoring measures binary (d = 2.11) and percent correct consonants (PCC) (d = 1.79). The children with SLI were split into two subgroups: those with no parents affected with LLP (n = 12), and those with one or both parents affected (n = 49). The subgroup consisting of affected parents had a significantly lower score on NWR binary (p = .037), and there was a great difference between the subgroups (d = 0.7). When compared to the TD group, the difference from the subgroup with affected parents was almost one standard deviation larger (d = 2.47) than the difference from the TD to the subgroup consisting of non-affected parents (d = 1.57). Our study calls for further exploration of the complex interaction between family aggregation, language input, and phenotypes

  1. Role of Task-Specific Adapted Feedback on a Computer-Based Collaborative Problem-Solving Task. CSE Report 684

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, San-hui; O'Neil, Harold F.

    2006-01-01

    Collaborative problem solving and collaborative skills are considered necessary skills for success in today's world. Collaborative problem solving is defined as problem solving activities that involve interactions among a group of individuals. Large-scale and small-scale assessment programs increasingly use collaborative group tasks in which…

  2. Insecure attachment styles, relationship-drinking contexts, and marital alcohol problems: Testing the mediating role of relationship-specific drinking-to-cope motives.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Ash; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2015-09-01

    Research and theory suggest that romantic couple members are motivated to drink to cope with interpersonal distress. Additionally, this behavior and its consequences appear to be differentially associated with insecure attachment styles. However, no research has directly examined drinking to cope that is specific to relationship problems, or with relationship-specific drinking outcomes. Based on alcohol motivation and attachment theories, the current study examines relationship-specific drinking-to-cope processes over the early years of marriage. Specifically, it was hypothesized that drinking to cope with a relationship problem would mediate the associations between insecure attachment styles (i.e., anxious and avoidant) and frequencies of drinking with and apart from one's partner and marital alcohol problems in married couples. Multilevel models were tested via the actor-partner interdependence model using reports of both members of 470 couples over the first nine years of marriage. As expected, relationship-specific drinking-to-cope motives mediated the effects of actor anxious attachment on drinking apart from one's partner and on marital alcohol problems, but, unexpectedly, not on drinking with the partner. No mediated effects were found for attachment avoidance. Results suggest that anxious (but not avoidant) individuals are motivated to use alcohol to cope specifically with relationship problems in certain contexts, which may exacerbate relationship difficulties associated with attachment anxiety. Implications for theory and future research on relationship-motivated drinking are discussed. PMID:25799439

  3. Emotion-recognition abilities and behavior problem dimensions in preschoolers: evidence for a specific role for childhood hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Chronaki, Georgia; Garner, Matthew; Hadwin, Julie A; Thompson, Margaret J J; Chin, Cheryl Y; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2015-01-01

    Facial emotion-recognition difficulties have been reported in school-aged children with behavior problems; little is known, however, about either this association in preschool children or with regard to vocal emotion recognition. The current study explored the association between facial and vocal emotion recognition and behavior problems in a sample of 3 to 6-year-old children. A sample of 57 children enriched for risk of behavior problems (41 were recruited from the general population while 16 had been referred for behavior problems to local clinics) were each presented with a series of vocal and facial stimuli expressing different emotions (i.e., angry, happy, and sad) of low and high intensity. Parents rated children's externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. Vocal and facial emotion recognition accuracy was negatively correlated with externalizing but not internalizing behavior problems independent of emotion type. The effects with the externalizing domain were independently associated with hyperactivity rather than conduct problems. The results highlight the importance of using vocal as well as facial stimuli when studying the relationship between emotion-recognition and behavior problems. Future studies should test the hypothesis that difficulties in responding to adult instructions and commands seen in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be due to deficits in the processing of vocal emotions.

  4. Helping Learners Gain Diagnostic Problem Solving Skills: Specific Aspects of the Diagnostic Pathfinder Software Tied to Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Jared; Bender, Holly; Mills, Erik; Vermeer, Pamela; Preast, Vanessa

    2004-01-01

    Problem solving is of critical importance in many disciplines. In medicine, the clinician's ability to arrive at the correct diagnosis often means the difference between life and death. Despite its importance and a significant amount of research regarding how to improve problem solving, few unambiguous answers have emerged for promoting problem…

  5. The Effect of General and Drug-Specific Family Environments on Comorbid and Drug-Specific Problem Behavior: A Longitudinal Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Marina; Hill, Karl G.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hawkins, J. David

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the development of alcohol and tobacco dependence is linked and that both are influenced by environmental and intrapersonal factors, many of which likely interact over the life course. The present study examines the effects of general and alcohol- and tobacco-specific environmental influences in the family of…

  6. Variable addressability imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubala, Kenneth Scott

    The use of variable addressability for creating an optimum human-machine interface is investigated. Current wide field optical systems present more information to the human visual system than it has the capacity to perceive. The axial resolution, and/or the field of view can be increased by minimizing the difference between what the eye can perceive and what the system presents. The variable addressability function was developed through the use of a human factors experiment that characterized the position of the eye during the simulated use of a binocular system. Applying the variable addressability function to a conventional optical design required the development of a new metric for evaluating the expected performance of the variable addressability system. The new metric couples psycho-visual data and traditional optical data in order to specify the required performance of the variable addressability system. A non-linear mapping of the pixels is required in order to have the system work most efficiently with the human visual system, while also compensating for eye motion. The non-linear mapping function, which is the backbone of the variable addressability technique, can be created using optical distortion. The lens and system design is demonstrated in two different spectral bands. One of the designs was fabricated, tested, and assembled into a prototype. Through a second human factors study aimed at measuring performance, the variable addressability prototype was directly compared to a uniform addressability prototype, quantifying the difference in performance for the two prototypes. The human factors results showed that the variable addressability prototype provided better resolution 13% of the time throughout the experiment, but was 15% slower in use than the uniform addressability prototype.

  7. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  8. Outcomes of specific interpersonal problems for binge eating disorder: comparing group psychodynamic interpersonal psychotherapy and group cognitive behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Balfour, Louise; Presniak, Michelle D; Bissada, Hany

    2012-04-01

    We assessed whether an attachment-based treatment, Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy (GPIP) had a greater impact compared to Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (GCBT) on Cold/Distant and Intrusive/Needy interpersonal problems. Ninety-five individuals with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) were randomized to GPIP or GCBT and assessed at pre-, post-, and six months post-treatment. Both therapies resulted in a significant decrease in all eight interpersonal problem subscales except the Nonassertive subscale. GPIP resulted in a greater reduction in the Cold/Distant subscale compared to GCBT, but no differences were found for changes in the Intrusive/Needy subscale. GPIP may be most relevant for those with BED who have Cold/Distant interpersonal problems and attachment avoidance.

  9. Exploring the Domain Specificity of Creativity in Children: The Relationship between a Non-Verbal Creative Production Test and Creative Problem-Solving Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Ahmed; Maker, C. June; Lubart, Todd

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explored whether creativity was domain specific or domain general. The relationships between students' scores on three creative problem-solving activities (math, spatial artistic, and oral linguistic) in the DISCOVER assessment (Discovering Intellectual Strengths and Capabilities While Observing Varied Ethnic Responses) and the…

  10. Over- and Undercontrolled Clinic Referral Problems of Jamaican and American Children and Adolescents: The Culture General and the Culture Specific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Michael C.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied clinical referrals of two different societies (Jamaica, where Afro-British culture discourages child aggression, and United States, where uncontrolled child behavior appears more accepted) to determine influence of cultural factors in clinical referral patterns. Found significant difference in clinic-referred problems of American and…

  11. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  12. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Specific Phobias with a Child Demonstrating Severe Problem Behavior and Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Thompson E., III; Kurtz, Patricia F.; Gardner, Andrew W.; Carman, Nicole B.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBTs) are widely used for anxiety disorders in typically developing children; however, there has been no previous attempt to administer CBT for specific phobia (in this case study, one-session treatment) to developmentally or intellectually disabled children. This case study integrates both cognitive-behavioral and…

  13. Changing concepts: the presidential address.

    PubMed

    Weed, J C

    1974-09-01

    A discussion of conceptual change in areas related to fertility and medicine is presented in an address by the president of the American Fertility Society. Advances in technological research and medicine, particularly in steroids and reporductive physiology, have been the most readily acceptable changes. Cesarean section and surgical sterilization have also become increasingly accepted. Newer developments such as sperm banks, artificial insemination, and ovum transfer have created profound ethical, moral, and medical issued in human engineering research and evolutionary theory. The legalization of abortion has brought moral, ethical, and legal problems for many members of the medical profession. It is urged that the Society promote education of the people in reproductive function, sexual activity, and parental obligation while being acutely aware of the problems in influencing or altering human reproduction.

  14. Address on the Occasion of the Meeting of the Second Committee of Governmental Experts on Problems in the Field of Copyright and of the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations Raised by Transmission via Space Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maheu, Rene

    These opening remarks by the Director General of Unesco briefly discuss that organization's activities in the area of copyright within the field of satellite communication. They were addressed to members of a committee whose purpose is to determine whether the protection of signals transmitted by communications satellites does or does not require…

  15. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  16. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  17. Addressing Standards and Assessments on the IEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sandra J.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Esler, Amy; Whetstone, Patti J.

    2001-01-01

    A study that examined state Individualized Education Program (IEP) forms found that out of the 41 with IEP forms, only 5 specifically addressed educational standards on their forms. Thirty-one states addressed the general curriculum on their IEP forms and 30 states listed three or more options for assessment participation. (Contains nine…

  18. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  19. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  20. The importance of systems thinking to address obesity.

    PubMed

    Finegood, Diane T

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is clearly a complex problem for both the individual and for society. Complex or 'wicked' problems have common characteristics such as heterogeneity, nonlinearity, interdependence, and self-organization. As such they require solutions appropriate for complex problems, rather than a reductionist search for the causes. 'Systems thinking' provides new ways to consider how to collectively address complex societal problems like obesity, where biology interacts with social, cultural and built environmental factors in infinite permutations and combinations. The systems that give rise to the obesity epidemic function at multiple levels, and there are important interactions between these levels. At any given level, individual actors and organizations matter and system function is optimized when individual and organizational capacity to respond is well matched to the complexity of individual tasks. Providing system supports to help networks of individuals become 'communities of practice' and 'systems of influence' may also help to accelerate the pace of effective action against obesity. Research efforts need to move away from the relentless search for the specific isolated causes of obesity and focus on solutions that have been shown to work in addressing other 'wicked' problems.

  1. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  2. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  3. Bax: Addressed to kill.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Manon, Stéphen

    2011-09-01

    The pro-apoptototic protein Bax (Bcl-2 Associated protein X) plays a central role in the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. In healthy mammalian cells, Bax is essentially cytosolic and inactive. Following a death signal, the protein is translocated to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it promotes a permeabilization that favors the release of different apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c. The regulation of Bax translocation is associated to conformational changes that are under the control of different factors. The evidences showing the involvement of different Bax domains in its mitochondrial localization are presented. The interactions between Bax and its different partners are described in relation to their ability to promote (or prevent) Bax conformational changes leading to mitochondrial addressing and to the acquisition of the capacity to permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:21641962

  4. Addressing Passive Smoking in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Sasha G.; Kuijlaars, Jennifer S.; Mesters, Ilse; Muris, Jean W. M.; van Schayck, Constant P.; Dompeling, Edward; Feron, Frans J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background A significant number of parents are unaware or unconvinced of the health consequences of passive smoking (PS) in children. Physicians could increase parental awareness by giving personal advice. Aim To evaluate the current practices of three Dutch health professions (paediatricians, youth health care physicians, and family physicians) regarding parental counselling for passive smoking (PS) in children. Methods All physicians (n = 720) representing the three health professions in Limburg, the Netherlands, received an invitation to complete a self-administered electronic questionnaire including questions on their: sex, work experience, personal smoking habits, counselling practices and education regarding PS in children. Results The response rate was 34%. One tenth (11%) of the responding physicians always addressed PS in children, 32% often, 54% occasionally and 4% reported to never attend to it. The three health professions appeared comparable regarding their frequency of parental counselling for PS in children. Addressing PS was more likely when children had respiratory problems. Lack of time was the most frequently mentioned barrier, being very and somewhat applicable for respectively 14% and 43% of the physicians. One fourth of the responders had received postgraduate education about PS. Additionally, 49% of the responders who did not have any education about PS were interested in receiving it. Conclusions Physicians working in the paediatric field in Limburg, the Netherlands, could more frequently address PS in children with parents. Lack of time appeared to be the most mentioned barrier and physicians were more likely to counsel parents for PS in children with respiratory complaints/diseases. Finally, a need for more education on parental counselling for PS was expressed. PMID:24809443

  5. Introduction: the need to address older women's mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Malatesta, Victor J

    2007-01-01

    Women are the primary consumers of mental health services. Ironically, research addressing their unique needs lags behind that of men's issues. The aging process introduces an important variable that accentuates the relative lack of information and specific treatment guidelines for older women who are confronted by mental health problems. This volume offers a comprehensive overview for the health professional who is seeking a greater depth of understanding with respect to the study of mental health problems in general, and how these issues pertain specifically to women and the aging process. A second goal of this project is to provide the practicing therapist and counselor with a research update and a broad clinical perspective offered by seasoned clinicians. Using current psychiatric diagnosis as a framework, the contributions address the range of mental health problems, including dementia and cognitive impairment, schizophrenia, alcohol abuse, mood and anxiety disorders, traumatic and dissociative conditions, sexual and eating disorders, and personality disorders. It is hoped that this book will inform, inspire and encourage students and health professionals in their work with middle aged and older women who are facing mental health challenges. PMID:17588876

  6. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  7. Addressing polarisation in science.

    PubMed

    Earp, Brian D

    2015-09-01

    Ploug and Holm argue that polarisation in scientific communities can generate conflicts of interest for individual researchers. Their proposed solution to this problem is that authors should self-report whether they are polarised on conflict of interest disclosure forms. I argue that this is unlikely to work. This is because any author with the self-awareness and integrity to identify herself as polarised would be unlikely to conduct polarised research to begin with. Instead, I suggest that it is the role of (associate-level) editors of journals to detect and report on polarisation. One consequence of this view is that they need to be sufficiently familiar with the field of research they are evaluating to know whether polarisation is at stake.

  8. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  9. Addressing the municipal market

    SciTech Connect

    Mullin, R.

    1993-05-12

    Most municipalities employ simple, fairly inexpensive water treatment regimes, which is why some large industrial treatment firms stay away from the municipal market, despite rapid growth in the sector. Of the $625 million/year spent for US wastewater treatment, 46% is for municipalities, up 14.5% from 1987. Waste treatment in general grew by 12% in that period, according to Kline Co. (Fairfield, NJ). Some of the challenges facing municipalities in the Clean Water Act reauthorization bills are metals-contaminated sediments and storm water containment and treatment. Bill Tullos, business manager for chlor-alkali at Elf Atochem North America, does not foresee a phaseout of chlorine-based products used as disinfectant in drinking water treatment by municipalities, or as a wastewater treatment in municipal and industrial use. [open quotes]Alternatives are not as effective and are more expensive,[close quotes] says Tullos. [open quotes]There was some promise with ozone, but unfortunately it tends to tear apart your corrosion and scale inhibitors. Chlorine also provides residual protection from contamination all along the water line system.[close quotes] Tullos adds that the formation of tetrahydromethane-one of the problems of using chlorine-based products-can be avoided by screening out the hydrocarbons first and then adding chlorine.

  10. Addressing psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Woody, G E; McLellan, A T; O'Brien, C P; Luborsky, L

    1991-01-01

    Research studies indicate that addressing psychiatric comorbidity can improve treatment for selected groups of substance-abusing patients. However, the chances for implementing the necessary techniques on a large scale are compromised by the absence of professional input and guidance within programs. This is especially true in public programs, which treat some of the most disadvantaged, disturbed, and socially destructive individuals in the entire mental health system. One starting point for upgrading the level of knowledge and training of staff members who work in this large treatment system could be to develop a better and more authoritative information dissemination network. Such a system exists in medicine; physicians are expected to read appropriate journals and to guide their treatment decisions using the data contained in the journals. Standards of practice and methods for modifying current practice are within the tradition of reading new facts, studying old ones, and comparing treatment outcome under different conditions with what is actually being done. No such general system of information-gathering or -sharing exists, particularly in public treatment programs. One of the most flagrant examples of this "educational shortfall" can be found among those methadone programs that adamantly insist on prescribing no more than 30 to 35 mg/day for all patients, in spite of the overwhelming evidence that these dose levels generally are inadequate. In some cases, program directors are unaware of studies that have shown the relationship between dose and outcome. In other cases, they are aware of the studies but do not modify their practices accordingly. This example of inadequate dosing is offered as an example of one situation that could be improved by adherence to a system of authoritative and systematic information dissemination. Many issues in substance abuse treatment do not lend themselves to information dissemination as readily as that of methadone dosing

  11. Latitude and Longitude. AIR Presidential Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    This speech addresses the problem of higher education's response to the forces of change and argues for a reinventing of higher education rather than repeatedly amending core teaching and research activities to fit new social and economic situations. Three higher education organizational dynamics (recruitment, budgeting, and handling outside…

  12. Tackling a Problematic Behavior Management Issue: Teachers' Intervention in Childhood Bullying Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crothers, Laura M.; Kolbert, Jered B.

    2008-01-01

    In coping with and addressing a common child behavioral problem, classroom teachers may benefit from viewing bullying as a behavior management issue in the educational setting. The authors offer eight suggestions that specifically address childhood bullying problems in the classroom. Teachers can add these to their toolkit of behavior management…

  13. Addressing Global Data Sharing Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Alter, George C.

    2015-01-01

    This issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics highlights the ethical issues that arise when researchers conducting projects in low- and middle-income countries seek to share the data they produce. Although sharing data is considered a best practice, the barriers to doing so are considerable and there is a need for guidance and examples. To that end, the authors of this article reviewed the articles in this special issue to identify challenges common to the five countries and to offer some practical advice to assist researchers in navigating this “uncharted territory,” as some termed it. Concerns around informed consent, data management, data dissemination, and validation of research contributions were cited frequently as particularly challenging areas, so the authors focused on these four topics with the goal of providing specific resources to consult as well as examples of successful projects attempting to solve many of the problems raised. PMID:26297753

  14. Addressing Global Data Sharing Challenges.

    PubMed

    Alter, George C; Vardigan, Mary

    2015-07-01

    This issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics highlights the ethical issues that arise when researchers conducting projects in low- and middle-income countries seek to share the data they produce. Although sharing data is considered a best practice, the barriers to doing so are considerable and there is a need for guidance and examples. To that end, the authors of this article reviewed the articles in this special issue to identify challenges common to the five countries and to offer some practical advice to assist researchers in navigating this "uncharted territory," as some termed it. Concerns around informed consent, data management, data dissemination, and validation of research contributions were cited frequently as particularly challenging areas, so the authors focused on these four topics with the goal of providing specific resources to consult as well as examples of successful projects attempting to solve many of the problems raised. PMID:26297753

  15. Addressing Global Data Sharing Challenges.

    PubMed

    Alter, George C; Vardigan, Mary

    2015-07-01

    This issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics highlights the ethical issues that arise when researchers conducting projects in low- and middle-income countries seek to share the data they produce. Although sharing data is considered a best practice, the barriers to doing so are considerable and there is a need for guidance and examples. To that end, the authors of this article reviewed the articles in this special issue to identify challenges common to the five countries and to offer some practical advice to assist researchers in navigating this "uncharted territory," as some termed it. Concerns around informed consent, data management, data dissemination, and validation of research contributions were cited frequently as particularly challenging areas, so the authors focused on these four topics with the goal of providing specific resources to consult as well as examples of successful projects attempting to solve many of the problems raised.

  16. A highly specific q-RT-PCR assay to address the relevance of the JAK2WT and JAK2V617F expression levels and control genes in Ph-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Francesca; Di Capua, Emma Nora; Cenfra, Natalia; Pessina, Gloria; Mecarocci, Sergio; Rago, Angela; Cotroneo, Ettore; Busanello, Anna; Equitani, Francesco; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Nervi, Clara; Cimino, Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    In Ph- myeloproliferative neoplasms, the quantification of the JAK2V617F transcripts may provide some advantages over the DNA allele burden determination. We developed a q-RT-PCR to assess the JAK2WT and JAK2V617F mRNA expression in 105 cases (23 donors, 13 secondary polycythemia, 22 polycythemia vera (PV), 38 essential thrombocythemia (ET), and 9 primary myelofibrosis (PMF)). Compared with the standard allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO)-PCR technique, our assay showed a 100 % concordance rate detecting the JAK2V617F mutation in 22/22 PV (100 %), 29/38 (76.3 %) ET, and 5/9 (55.5 %) PMF cases, respectively. The sensitivity of the assay was 0.01 %. Comparing DNA and RNA samples, we found that the JAK2V617F mutational ratios were significantly higher at the RNA level both in PV (p = 0.005) and ET (p = 0.001) samples. In PV patients, JAK2WT expression levels positively correlated with the platelets (PLTs) (p = 0.003) whereas a trend to negative correlation was observed with the Hb levels (p = 0.051). JAK2V617F-positive cases showed the lowest JAK2WT and ABL1 mRNA expression levels. In all the samples, the expression pattern of beta-glucoronidase (GUSB) was more homogeneous than that of ABL1 or β2 microglobulin (B2M). Using GUSB as normalizator gene, a significant increase of the JAK2V617F mRNA levels was seen in two ET patients at time of progression to PV. In conclusion, the proposed q-RT-PCR is a sensitive and accurate method to quantify the JAK2 mutational status that can also show clinical correlations suggesting the impact of the residual amount of the JAK2WT allele on the Ph- MPN disease phenotype. Our observations also preclude the use of ABL1 as a housekeeping gene for these neoplasms.

  17. Addressing concerns and achieving expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.

    1995-12-01

    Approximately 2-1/2 years ago many of us were gathered here in Prague at a similar conference with a similar name, {open_quotes}Energy and Environment: Transitions in Eastern Europe.{close_quotes} Over 300 professionals from 26 nations attended. The objective of the conference was to: Facilitate the Solution of Long and Short Term Energy and Environmental Problems in Eastern Europe by Bringing Together People, ideas and technologies which could be applied to specific problems in a logical step-by-step manner. It was conceded at the time that the long term solution would consist of thoughtfully integrated steps and that the conference was the first step. We are here in the Czech Republic again this week to continue what was started. As before, this conference continues to: (1) Provide a forum to identify and discuss cost-effective environmentally acceptable energy and environmental technology options and their associated socioeconomic issues. (2) Stimulate the Formation of business partnerships (3) Identify key barrier issues hindering technology applications and identify implementation pathways that eliminate or avoid obstacles to progress.

  18. Trends in public health policies addressing violence against women

    PubMed Central

    Loría, Kattia Rojas; Rosado, Teresa Gutiérrez; Espinosa, Leonor María Cantera; Marrochi, Leda María Marenco; Sánchez, Anna Fernández

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the content of policies and action plans within the public healthcare system that addresses the issue of violence against women. METHODS A descriptive and comparative study was conducted on the health policies and plans in Catalonia and Costa Rica from 2005 to 2011. It uses a qualitative methodology with documentary analysis. It is classified by topics that describe and interpret the contents. We considered dimensions, such as principles, strategies, concepts concerning violence against women, health trends, and evaluations. RESULTS Thirteen public policy documents were analyzed. In both countries’ contexts, we have provided an overview of violence against women as a problem whose roots are in gender inequality. The strategies of gender policies that address violence against women are cultural exchange and institutional action within the public healthcare system. The actions of the healthcare sector are expanded into specific plans. The priorities and specificity of actions in healthcare plans were the distinguishing features between the two countries. CONCLUSIONS The common features of the healthcare plans in both the counties include violence against women, use of protocols, detection tasks, care and recovery for women, and professional self-care. Catalonia does not consider healthcare actions with aggressors. Costa Rica has a lower specificity in conceptualization and protocol patterns, as well as a lack of updates concerning health standards in Catalonia. PMID:25210820

  19. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  20. Teachers' Engagement with Published Research: Addressing the Knowledge Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increased interest in research impact, there is very little empirical evidence that educational research can inform practice directly, and furthermore, a body of literature which suggests that this is, in principle, impossible. This paper reports on a study in which secondary school teachers were given research findings about teaching…

  1. Special Problems of People with Diabetes and Visual Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    This article addresses the types of visual impairment caused by diabetes and the unique problems that people with diabetes and visual impairment face. Diabetic retinopathy, cataracts, glaucoma, and diabetic optic neuropathy are discussed as causes of visual impairment, and specific problems in basic living are identified, including diet,…

  2. 2015 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  3. Addressing psychosocial aspects of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kelsay, Kimberly; Klinnert, Mary; Bender, Bruce

    2010-08-01

    Moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD) negatively affects patients and their families. Pruritus, scratching, and sleep problems are common complaints linked to disturbed quality of life. Treatment is complex, and nonadherence rates are high. This article reviews the effect of AD on patients and their families and intervention strategies that have some success in improving quality of life. A treatment model for addressing the psychosocial effect of moderate to severe AD within a multidisciplinary setting is suggested herein. PMID:20670820

  4. 21 CFR 20.119 - Lists of names and addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lists of names and addresses. 20.119 Section 20... PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.119 Lists of names and addresses. Names and addresses of individuals in Food and Drug Administration records shall not be sold or...

  5. Addressing the Moral Agency of Culturally Specific Care Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Chrystal S.

    2011-01-01

    Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), as a culturally sensitive framework, realises the totality of caring in context. Few, if any, investigations into caring have articulated CHAT as a feasible mode of inquiry for inserting the cultural perspectives of both the researcher and the researched. This article elucidates CHAT as an intelligible…

  6. The cocktail party problem.

    PubMed

    Haykin, Simon; Chen, Zhe

    2005-09-01

    This review presents an overview of a challenging problem in auditory perception, the cocktail party phenomenon, the delineation of which goes back to a classic paper by Cherry in 1953. In this review, we address the following issues: (1) human auditory scene analysis, which is a general process carried out by the auditory system of a human listener; (2) insight into auditory perception, which is derived from Marr's vision theory; (3) computational auditory scene analysis, which focuses on specific approaches aimed at solving the machine cocktail party problem; (4) active audition, the proposal for which is motivated by analogy with active vision, and (5) discussion of brain theory and independent component analysis, on the one hand, and correlative neural firing, on the other.

  7. Refugees and Migrants: Problems and Program Responses. A Look at the Causes and Consequences of Today's Major International Population Flows, and at the Ford Foundation's New Programs to Address the Problems of Refugees and Migrants in the United States and Elsewhere in the World. A Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The paper reflects the Ford Foundation's emphasis since 1980 on long-term problems of refugees and migrants across national borders, and the desire of the Foundation staff to strengthen the long-term capacity of key institutions and communities to cope with population flows. Focus is first on the consequences of migrant flows for sending and…

  8. Dose and volume specification for reporting interstitial therapy

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-30

    The ICRU has previously published reports dealing with Dose Specification for Reporting External Beam Therapy with Photons and Electrons (ICRU Report 29, ICRU, 1978), Dose Specification for Reporting External Beam Therapy (ICRU Report 50, ICRU, 1993) and Dose and Volume Specification for Reporting Intracavitary Therapy in Gynecology (ICRU Report 38, ICRU, 1985). The present report addresses the problem of absorbed dose specification for report interstitial therapy. Although specific to interstitial therapy, many of the concepts developed in this report are also applicable to certain other kinds of brachytherapy applications. In particular, special cases of intraluminal brachytherapy and plesio-brachytherapy via surface molds employing x or gamma emitters are addressed in this report.

  9. What Do You Do When...? A Handbook for Classroom Discipline Problems with Practical and Positive Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervais, Robert L.; Dittburner, Delos A.

    This book addresses specific classroom management problems. Similar problems are grouped into chapters and are approached from the classroom teacher's point of view. Each problem is defined and discussed as to why it is a concern to a classroom teacher. This is followed by an analysis of the various approaches which a teacher can use to solve the…

  10. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation. PMID:25145716

  11. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation.

  12. Is Current Hydrogeologic Research Addressing Long-TermPredictions?

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2004-09-10

    Hydrogeology is a field closely related to the needs of society. Many problems of current national and local interest require predictions of hydrogeological system behavior, and, in a number of important cases, the period of prediction is tens to hundreds of thousands of years. It is argued that the demand for such long-term hydrogeological predictions casts a new light on the future needs of hydrogeological research. Key scientific issues are no longer concerned only with simple processes or narrowly focused modeling or testing methods, but also with assessment of prediction uncertainties and confidence, couplings among multiple physico-chemical processes occurring simultaneously at a site, and the interplay between site characterization and predictive modeling. These considerations also have significant implications for hydrogeological education. With this view, it is asserted that hydrogeological directions and education need to be reexamined and possibly refocused to address specific needs for long-term predictions.

  13. Addressing spiritual leadership: an organizational model.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, Lisa; Solari-Twadell, P Ann; Haas, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Commission requires health systems to address spiritual care. Research indicates that spirituality is associated with better physical, psychological, and social health and that culturally diverse populations and individuals at end-of-life often request spiritual care. The authors report the results of a consensus conference of 21 executives representing 10 large faith-based health systems who discussed the input, process, and outcomes of a corporate model for spiritual leadership. Specific initiatives are highlighted.

  14. Learning Problems and the TS Child [and] Specific Classroom Strategies and Techniques for Students with Tourette Syndrome [and] Techniques To Aid Students with TS in Completing Written Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidovicz, Herman; And Others

    Three fact sheets provide parents and educators with basic information on Tourette Syndrome (TS). The first sheet is titled "Learning Problems and the TS Child" and is by Herman Davidovicz, a neuropsychologist. It notes the high frequency of attention deficit disorders and learning problems in children with TS and provides information for parents…

  15. The nature, use and problems of historical archives for the temporal occurrence of landslides, with specific reference to the south coast of Britain, Ventnor, Isle of Wight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibsen, Maïa-Laura; Brunsden, Denys

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and evaluate the nature of the European historical archives which are suitable for the assessment of the temporal occurrence and forecasting within landslides studies, using the British south coast as an example. The paper is based upon the British contribution to the Environment programme EPOCH, 1991-1993. A primary requirement of a research programme on process occurrence is to determine the event frequencies on as many time and space scales as possible. Thus, the analysis of archives is, potentially, an essential preliminary to the study of the temporal occurrence of landslide events. The range of such data sources extends from isolated, fortuitously dated sites from the Quaternary assemblage, through inferred event impacts using dendrochronology or lichenometric time series to historical records of causal factors such as rainfall data and more recently, deliberately recorded packages of cumulative or continuous data. Most countries have extensive historical sources which may be of considerable value in establishing the characteristics of geomorphological processes. These include narrative in literature, prints and other artwork, terrestrial and aerial photographs, remote sensing series, newspapers, incidental statements and scientific journals and reports. These are numerous difficulties in accessing, extracting, organising, databasing and analysing such data because they are not usually collated for scientific use. Problems involve such incalculable errors as: the experience, training and conscientiousness of the observer; the editing and recording process; judging the validity of the data used and the haphazard nature of recorded events in time and space. Despite these difficulties, such data do yield a record which adds to the representative temporal sample as a level above some threshold reporting position. It therefore has potential for specific statistical analysis. An example of a reasonable temporal landslide

  16. A Task Force to Address Bullying.

    PubMed

    Keller, Ronald; Budin, Wendy C; Allie, Tammy

    2016-02-01

    Bullying in the workplace can create a dysfunctional environment that is associated with serious physical and psychological harm to the person being bullied. Nurses' experience with bullying has gained considerable attention in recent years, and warrants further discussion. Nurse leaders need to develop and implement effective bullying prevention initiatives that will foster the functioning of a professional and productive staff in a healthy work environment. The aim of this article is to review workplace bullying as experienced by nurses, and describe how nurses at a Magnet-designated academic medical center developed and implemented a bullying task force to address the problem.

  17. A Task Force to Address Bullying.

    PubMed

    Keller, Ronald; Budin, Wendy C; Allie, Tammy

    2016-02-01

    Bullying in the workplace can create a dysfunctional environment that is associated with serious physical and psychological harm to the person being bullied. Nurses' experience with bullying has gained considerable attention in recent years, and warrants further discussion. Nurse leaders need to develop and implement effective bullying prevention initiatives that will foster the functioning of a professional and productive staff in a healthy work environment. The aim of this article is to review workplace bullying as experienced by nurses, and describe how nurses at a Magnet-designated academic medical center developed and implemented a bullying task force to address the problem. PMID:26817556

  18. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  19. Every Other Day. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiller, Tom

    Schools need to be reoriented and restructured so that what is taught and learned, and the way in which it is taught and learned, are better integrated with young people's real-world experiences. Many indicators suggest that the meaningful aspects of school have been lost in the encounter with modern times. The title of this address--"Every Other…

  20. State of the Lab Address

    SciTech Connect

    King, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  1. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2016-07-12

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  2. Matching Alternative Addresses: a Semantic Web Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariannamazi, S.; Karimipour, F.; Hakimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI) provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature's literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  3. Aspekte und Probleme der linguistischen Analyse schichtenspezifischen Sprachgebrauchs. Studien und Berichte 31 (Aspects and Problems of the Linguistic Analysis of Language Usage Within Specific Social Levels. Studies and Reports No. 31).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klann, Gisela

    This is a study of linguistic variability among social levels in West Germany and of the problems associated with doing such an analysis. The data, ordered according to sex and social levels, were collected from young children retelling narratives heard on tapes. The report represents a comprehensive study of the children's syntactic performance…

  4. Epilepsy: addressing the transition from pediatric to adult care

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Seetha; Iyer, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of rapid change, both physical and psychosocial for any young person. It can be challenging when they have ongoing health problems and when their care needs to be transitioned to the adult health care system. Transition should be a planned process of addressing the medical and associated comorbid conditions from pediatric to adult care in a coordinated manner. In most cases, the young person and their family are well known to the pediatrics services and have built a relationship based on trust and often friendship over many years. Understandably, there is significant apprehension about moving from this familiar setting to the unknown adult services. Apart from having a sound knowledge of specific childhood epileptic conditions and associated comorbid disorders, it is important that both the pediatric and adult epilepsy teams are motivated to provide a successful and safe transition for these patients. It is essential that transition is seen as a continual process and not as a single event, and good preparation is the key to its success. It is also important that general practitioners are closely engaged to ensure successful transition. An overview of how to effectively address transition in epilepsy, different models of transition, transition of relevant epilepsies, and their management is discussed. PMID:27390536

  5. Epilepsy: addressing the transition from pediatric to adult care.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Seetha; Iyer, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of rapid change, both physical and psychosocial for any young person. It can be challenging when they have ongoing health problems and when their care needs to be transitioned to the adult health care system. Transition should be a planned process of addressing the medical and associated comorbid conditions from pediatric to adult care in a coordinated manner. In most cases, the young person and their family are well known to the pediatrics services and have built a relationship based on trust and often friendship over many years. Understandably, there is significant apprehension about moving from this familiar setting to the unknown adult services. Apart from having a sound knowledge of specific childhood epileptic conditions and associated comorbid disorders, it is important that both the pediatric and adult epilepsy teams are motivated to provide a successful and safe transition for these patients. It is essential that transition is seen as a continual process and not as a single event, and good preparation is the key to its success. It is also important that general practitioners are closely engaged to ensure successful transition. An overview of how to effectively address transition in epilepsy, different models of transition, transition of relevant epilepsies, and their management is discussed. PMID:27390536

  6. Technology Education Addressing New Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedras, Melvin J.; Braukmann, James R.

    1990-01-01

    The integration of problem solving into the technology education laboratory means there will be changes in the ways in which teachers structure activities for learners and the manner in which teachers behave. (JOW)

  7. Promoting Interdisciplinary Collaboration: Trainees Addressing Siloed Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitts, Robert Li; Christodoulou, Joanna; Goldman, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Professional siloing within medical institutions has been identified as a problem in medical education, including resident training. The authors discuss how trainees from different disciplines can collaborate to address this problem. Method: A group of trainees from psychiatry, developmental medicine, neurology, and education came…

  8. Regulatory approaches for addressing dissolved oxygen concerns at hydropower facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Mark J.; Cada, Glenn F.; Sale, Michael J.; Eddlemon, Gerald K.

    2003-03-01

    Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are a common water quality problem downstream of hydropower facilities. At some facilities, structural improvements (e.g. installation of weir dams or aerating turbines) or operational changes (e.g., spilling water over the dam) can be made to improve DO levels. In other cases, structural and operational approaches are too costly for the project to implement or are likely to be of limited effectiveness. Despite improvements in overall water quality below dams in recent years, many hydropower projects are unable to meet state water quality standards for DO. Regulatory agencies in the U.S. are considering or implementing dramatic changes in their approach to protecting the quality of the Nation’s waters. New policies and initiatives have emphasized flexibility, increased collaboration and shared responsibility among all parties, and market-based, economic incentives. The use of new regulatory approaches may now be a viable option for addressing the DO problem at some hydropower facilities. This report summarizes some of the regulatory-related options available to hydropower projects, including negotiation of site-specific water quality criteria, use of biological monitoring, watershed-based strategies for the management of water quality, and watershed-based trading. Key decision points center on the health of the local biological communities and whether there are contributing impacts (i.e., other sources of low DO effluents) in the watershed. If the biological communities downstream of the hydropower project are healthy, negotiation for site-specific water quality standards or biocriteria (discharge performance criteria based on characteristics of the aquatic biota) might be pursued. If there are other effluent dischargers in the watershed that contribute to low DO problems, watershed-scale strategies and effluent trading may be effective. This report examines the value of regulatory approaches by reviewing their use in

  9. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution.

  10. The molecular matching problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kincaid, Rex K.

    1993-01-01

    Molecular chemistry contains many difficult optimization problems that have begun to attract the attention of optimizers in the Operations Research community. Problems including protein folding, molecular conformation, molecular similarity, and molecular matching have been addressed. Minimum energy conformations for simple molecular structures such as water clusters, Lennard-Jones microclusters, and short polypeptides have dominated the literature to date. However, a variety of interesting problems exist and we focus here on a molecular structure matching (MSM) problem.

  11. The (Im)possibility of the Project: Radford Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Bill

    2010-01-01

    In this address, the author engages both with the possibility "and" the impossibility of the educational project--and suggests something of what it means to say this. His presentation is specifically addressed to the theme of the (im)possibility of the educational project. He draws from philosophy, literature, psychoanalysis and history, as well…

  12. The role of context in preschool learning: a multilevel examination of the contribution of context-specific problem behaviors and classroom process quality to low-income children's approaches to learning.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Ximena; Vitiello, Virginia E; Fuccillo, Janna M; Greenfield, Daryl B; Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J

    2011-04-01

    Research suggests that promoting adaptive approaches to learning early in childhood may help close the gap between advantaged and disadvantaged children. Recent research has identified specific child-level and classroom-level variables that are significantly associated with preschoolers' approaches to learning. However, further research is needed to understand the interactive effects of these variables and determine whether classroom-level variables buffer the detrimental effects of child-level risk variables. Using a largely urban and minority sample (N=275) of preschool children, the present study examined the additive and interactive effects of children's context-specific problem behaviors and classroom process quality dimensions on children's approaches to learning. Teachers rated children's problem behavior and approaches to learning and independent assessors conducted classroom observations to assess process quality. Problem behaviors in structured learning situations and in peer and teacher interactions were found to negatively predict variance in approaches to learning. Classroom process quality domains did not independently predict variance in approaches to learning. Nonetheless, classroom process quality played an important role in these associations; high emotional support buffered the detrimental effects of problem behavior, whereas high instructional support exacerbated them. The findings of this study have important implications for classroom practices aimed at helping children who exhibit problem behaviors.

  13. Addressing Bullying: Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Bradford C.

    2010-01-01

    Bullying can be a serious and damaging experience for students today. The children who bully are more likely to be truant; drop out of school; or engage in alcohol, tobacco, or other drug abuse, and children who are bullied are more likely to experience depression, low self-esteem, health problems, poor grades, and suicidal thoughts. In addition,…

  14. State of the Workforce Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dole, Elizabeth

    The U.S. work force is unready for the new jobs, unready for the new realities, unready for the new challenges of the 1990s. Across the board, jobs are demanding better reading, writing, and reasoning skills and more math and science. Statistics define the scope of the problem: 25 percent of young people drop out of high school; 70 percent of all…

  15. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating. PMID:26420812

  16. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  17. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  18. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  19. Global-Address Space Networking (GASNet) Library

    2011-04-06

    GASNet (Global-Address Space Networking) is a language-independent, low-level networking layer that provides network-independent, high-performance communication primitives tailored for implementing parallel global address space SPMD languages such as UPC and Titanium. The interface is primarily intended as a compilation target and for use by runtime library writers (as opposed to end users), and the primary goals are high performance, interface portability, and expressiveness. GASNet is designed specifically to support high-performance, portable implementations of global address spacemore » languages on modern high-end communication networks. The interface provides the flexibility and extensibility required to express a wide variety of communication patterns without sacrificing performance by imposing large computational overheads in the interface. The design of the GASNet interface is partitioned into two layers to maximize porting ease without sacrificing performance: the lower level is a narrow but very general interface called the GASNet core API - the design is basedheavily on Active Messages, and is implemented directly on top of each individual network architecture. The upper level is a wider and more expressive interface called GASNet extended API, which provides high-level operations such as remote memory access and various collective operations. This release implements GASNet over MPI, the Quadrics "elan" API, the Myrinet "GM" API and the "LAPI" interface to the IBM SP switch. A template is provided for adding support for additional network interfaces.« less

  20. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  1. Mediational and Deviance Theories of Late High School Failure: Process Roles of Structural Strains, Academic Competence, and General versus Specific Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Abbott, Robert D.; Catalano, Richard F.; Hawkins, J. David; Battin-Pearson, Sara; Hill, Karl

    2002-01-01

    Understanding and preventing high school failure is a national priority. Structural strain and general deviance theories attempt to explain late high school failure. The authors tested the hypotheses that general (vs. specific) deviance and academic competence mediate the relationships between structural strain factors (gender, ethnicity, and…

  2. "Mastery Learning" Como Metodo Psicoeducativo para Ninos con Problemas Especificos de Aprendizaje. ("Mastery Learning" as a Psychoeducational Method for Children with Specific Learning Problems.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coya, Liliam de Barbosa; Perez-Coffie, Jorge

    1982-01-01

    "Mastery Learning" was compared with the "conventional" method of teaching reading skills to Puerto Rican children with specific learning disabilities. The "Mastery Learning" group showed significant gains in the cognitive and affective domains. Results suggested Mastery Learning is a more effective method of teaching reading skills to children…

  3. Sex-specific relationships among attachment security, social values, and sensation seeking in early adolescence: implications for adolescents' externalizing problem behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sarracino, Diego; Presaghi, Fabio; Degni, Silvia; Innamorati, Marco

    2011-06-01

    In early adolescence, attachment security reflects not only the quality of ongoing relationships with parents, but also how adolescents process social relationships with "others" - that is, their "social value orientation" - with possible implications for adolescents' risk-taking. In this study, a sample of Italian early adolescents were administered self-report measures in order to examine the relationships (a) between early adolescents' perceived attachment security to mothers and fathers, social values (related to family and the socio-cultural context), and sensation seeking (as a temperamental predisposition to risk-taking), and (b) between these variables and adolescents' externalizing problem behaviour. Adolescents were more securely attached to the same-sexed parent. Further, attachment security with the opposite-sexed parent predicted more conservative social value orientations, and lower levels of problem behaviour. In contrast, sensation seeking predicted self-enhancement and openness-to-change values to a greater extent, and, in girls, lower levels of attachment security to mothers and fathers.

  4. Practices Changes in the Child Protection System to Address the Needs of Parents With Cognitive Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Sandra T.; Maggi, Mirella C.; Proctor, Stephon Nathanial

    2016-01-01

    Parents with cognitive disabilities (PCD) are over-represented in the child protection system. However, the current state of the child protection system is not well prepared for working with them. Biases that exist against their parenting, the need for accommodations in assessment and intervention practices, and specific training in staff and cross systems barriers need to be addressed. This paper argues for changes that will ensure such parents are more effectively served and that child protection staff and contract providers are better equipped to work with them. Specific changes are discussed in assessment and intervention practices. These changes will require human capacity building and organizational restructuring. Although empirically based behavioral approaches with PCD will be emphasized, recent empirical work suggests that social information processing and neurocognitive problems occur in PCD. Approaches to working with such problems are emerging and must also be considered and integrated into a blueprint for change. PMID:27610050

  5. Practices Changes in the Child Protection System to Address the Needs of Parents With Cognitive Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Sandra T.; Maggi, Mirella C.; Proctor, Stephon Nathanial

    2016-01-01

    Parents with cognitive disabilities (PCD) are over-represented in the child protection system. However, the current state of the child protection system is not well prepared for working with them. Biases that exist against their parenting, the need for accommodations in assessment and intervention practices, and specific training in staff and cross systems barriers need to be addressed. This paper argues for changes that will ensure such parents are more effectively served and that child protection staff and contract providers are better equipped to work with them. Specific changes are discussed in assessment and intervention practices. These changes will require human capacity building and organizational restructuring. Although empirically based behavioral approaches with PCD will be emphasized, recent empirical work suggests that social information processing and neurocognitive problems occur in PCD. Approaches to working with such problems are emerging and must also be considered and integrated into a blueprint for change.

  6. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  7. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  8. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Psychological Approaches to Problems of Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Jeff, Ed.

    This document, intended as a resource for school psychologists, contains articles addressing a variety of psychological and behavioral problems of children and adolescents. Each chapter includes the following content: background information concerning the specific topic, approaches for assessing the behavior of concern, intervention possibilities,…

  10. How is environmental conflict addressed by SIA?

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, C.J.

    2010-09-15

    The fields of Environmental Conflict Management (ECM), Environmental Conflict Resolution (ECR), and Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) have become well established; however, as yet there has not been much use of Social Impact Assessment (SIA) to manage environmental conflicts. ECM, ECR and PCIA are mainly undertaken when problems are advanced or, more likely, have run their course (post-conflict). This paper examines how conflict is addressed by SIA and whether there is potential to develop it for more proactive assessment of conflicts (pre-conflict or while things develop). SIA has the potential to identify and clarify the cause(s) of environmental and natural resources conflicts, and could possibly enable some avoidance or early mitigation. A promising approach may be for 'conflict-aware' SIA to watch for critical conflict stages or thresholds and to monitor stakeholders. Effective conflict-aware SIA might also significantly contribute to efforts to achieve sustainable development.

  11. Much Can Be Learned about Addressing Antibiotic Resistance from Multilateral Environmental Agreements.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Steinar; Hoffman, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is a common-pool resource challenge. This means that efforts to address ABR can learn from similar collective action problems faced within the environmental sector. Multilateral environmental agreements are the backbone of global environmental governance. Their ability to effectively solve environmental problems depends on the problem structure and the regime's problem-solving capacity. The success or failure of environmental agreements is mainly determined by the problem structure, including the degree of political consensus and scientific certainty. But agreements' institutional design also matter because they can change the problem structure and problem-solving capacity. Based on experiences with environmental agreements, an international ABR agreement should contain robust reporting/verification procedures, sanctions for non-compliance, assistance for implementation, majority vote decision-making rules, a strong secretariat, an independent scientific panel, and specific commitments. More research on global strategies for achieving collective action is needed to help inform future institutional designs that are both effective and politically feasible. PMID:26243243

  12. The Problems of Dissection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Pat

    1997-01-01

    Describes some problems of classroom dissection including the cruelty that animals destined for the laboratory suffer. Discusses the multilevel approach that the National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) has developed to address the problems of animal dissection such as offering a dissection hotline, exhibiting at science teacher conferences, and…

  13. Problems in baryon spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Capstick, S.

    1994-04-01

    Current issues and problems in the physics of ground- and excited-state baryons are considered, and are classified into those which should be resolved by CEBAF in its present form, and those which may require CEBAF to undergo an energy upgrade to 8 GeV or more. Recent theoretical developments designed to address these problems are outlined.

  14. Addressing Science Use Cases with HELIO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, R. D.; Aboudarham, J.; Csillaghy, A.; Jacquey, C.; Hapgood, M. A.; Messerotti, M.; Gallagher, P.; Bocchialini, K.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Roberts, D.; Sanchez Duarte, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Heliophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) is a new VO project funded under the EC's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). It includes thirteen partners scattered over six countries and is led by University College London. HELIO is designed to support the heliophysics community and is based on a Service Oriented Architecture. The services developed by and integrated into HELIO can be used to address a wide range of science problems; they can be used individually or as part of a work-flow driven search engine that can use a propagation (or other) model to help locate obervations that describe interesting phenomena. We will describe and discuss how the components of HELIO could be used to address science use cases, particularly how a user can adapt the work flow to their own science interests. Networking is one of the three Activities of the HELIO Integrated Infrastructure Initiatives (I3) project. Within this activity we plan to involve the community in all aspects of the design and testing of the HELIO system, including determining which data and metadata should be included, how the quality and content of metadata can be included, etc. We are investigating ways of making HELIO "domain-aware" so that researchers who are specialists in one of the communities that constitute heliophysics can easily identify, access and use data they need from the other communities. We will discuss how the community can help us develop this capability.

  15. Addressing the water budget with SMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Y. H.; AlBitar, A.; Tomer, S. K.; Merlin, O.; Pellarin, T.

    2012-12-01

    SMOS, a L Band radiometer using aperture synthesis to achieve a good spatial resolution, was successfully launched on November 2, 2009. It was developed and made under the leadership of the European Space Agency (ESA) as an Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. It is a joint program with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France and the Centro para el Desarrollo Teccnologico Industrial (CDTI) in Spain. SMOS carries a single payload, an L band 2D interferometric,radiometer in the 1400-1427 MHz h protected band. This wavelength penetrates well through the vegetation and the atmosphere is almost transparent enabling to infer both soil moisture and vegetation water content. SMOS achieves an unprecedented spatial resolution of 50 km at L-band maximum (43 km on average) with multi angular-dual polarized (or fully polarized) brightness temperatures over the globe and with a revisit time smaller than 3 days. SMOS as been now acquiring data for almost 2 years. The data quality exceeds what was expected, showing very good sensitivity and stability. The data is however very much impaired by man made emission in the protected band, leading to degraded measurements in several areas including parts of Europe and of China. However, many different international teams are now addressing cal val activities in various parts of the world, with notably large field campaigns either on the long time scale or over specific targets to address the specific issues. In parallel different teams are now starting addressing data use in various fields including hydrology. It requires coupling with other models and or disaggregation to address soil moisture distribution over watersheds. Significant new results were obtained for floods and drought events, together with new potential applications in terms of precipitation monitoring This paper thus gives an overview of the science goals of the SMOS mission, a description of its main elements, and a taste of the first results including

  16. Residualization is not the answer: Rethinking how to address multicollinearity.

    PubMed

    York, Richard

    2012-11-01

    Here I show that a commonly used procedure to address problems stemming from collinearity and multicollinearity among independent variables in regression analysis, "residualization", leads to biased coefficient and standard error estimates and does not address the fundamental problem of collinearity, which is a lack of information. I demonstrate this using visual representations of collinearity, hypothetical experimental designs, and analyses of both artificial and real world data. I conclude by noting the importance of examining methodological practices to ensure that their validity can be established based on rational criteria.

  17. A General Approach to Specific Research in Comparative Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Jean

    1981-01-01

    Addresses the problem of terminological inconsistencies or oddities often quoted in translation literature, lamenting the scarcity of articles devoted to the terminology research process itself. In answer to this need, attempts to clarify the different steps involved in the research process as applied to specific or isolated terms. (MES)

  18. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development. PMID:12032502

  19. Gender: addressing a critical focus.

    PubMed

    Thornton, L; Wegner, M N

    1995-01-01

    The definition of gender was addressed at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China). After extensive debate, the definition developed by the UN Population Fund in 1995 was adopted: "a set of qualities and behaviors expected from a female or male by society." The sustainability of family planning (FP) programs depends on acknowledgment of the role gender plays in contraceptive decision-making and use. For example, programs must consider the fact that women in many cultures do not make FP decisions without the consent of their spouse. AVSC is examining providers' gender-based ideas about clients and the effects of these views on the quality of reproductive health services. Questions such as how service providers can encourage joint responsibility for contraception without requiring spousal consent or how they can make men feel comfortable about using a male method in a society where FP is considered a woman's issue are being discussed. Also relevant is how service providers can discuss sexual matters openly with female clients in cultures that do not allow women to enjoy their sexuality. Another concern is the potential for physical violence to a client as a result of the provision of FP services. PMID:12294397

  20. Addressing Educational Needs of Children with HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, Hendrina; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews medical and neuropsychological effects of HIV/AIDS in children and relates these findings specifically to educational difficulties. It then proposes an instructional delivery framework for these children that stresses the importance of addressing their educational needs and includes specific suggestions for reading instruction,…

  1. Addressing the Needs of Students with Rett Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ellenburg, Jennifer S.; Acton, Olivia M.; Torrey, Gregory

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses symptoms of students with Rett Syndrome, a disability in females characterized by the development of multiple specific deficits following a period of normal functioning after birth. Specific interventions for students with Rett syndrome are provided and address communication, stereotypic movements, self-injurious behaviors,…

  2. ROV overcomes deepwater problems

    SciTech Connect

    Frisbie, F.R.; Hughes, E.W.

    1984-09-01

    The use of remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) in supportive drill ships operating in more than 200 meters of water poses severe technical and operational problems. Defining these problems beforehand and addressing them during design, manufacture, testing and installation ensures a functional and effective support capability. Such problems as the availability of desk space, and the subsequent installation, maintenance, and the launch/recovery of the system are described.

  3. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Basu, Niladri; Renne, Elisha P; Long, Rachel N

    2015-09-17

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Though Integrated Assessments have been used in the fields of environmental science and sustainable development, their use in addressing specific matter in public health, and in particular, environmental and occupational health is quite limited despite their many benefits. The aim of the current paper was to describe specific activities undertaken and how they were organized, and the outputs and outcomes of our activity. In brief, three disciplinary workgroups (Natural Sciences, Human Health, Social Sciences and Economics) were formed, with 26 researchers from a range of Ghanaian institutions plus international experts. The workgroups conducted activities in order to address the following question: What are the causes, consequences and correctives of small-scale gold mining in Ghana? More specifically: What alternatives are available in resource-limited settings in Ghana that allow for gold-mining to occur in a manner that maintains ecological health and human health without hindering near- and long-term economic prosperity? Several response options were identified and evaluated, and are currently being disseminated to various stakeholders within Ghana and internationally.

  4. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Niladri; Renne, Elisha P.; Long, Rachel N.

    2015-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Though Integrated Assessments have been used in the fields of environmental science and sustainable development, their use in addressing specific matter in public health, and in particular, environmental and occupational health is quite limited despite their many benefits. The aim of the current paper was to describe specific activities undertaken and how they were organized, and the outputs and outcomes of our activity. In brief, three disciplinary workgroups (Natural Sciences, Human Health, Social Sciences and Economics) were formed, with 26 researchers from a range of Ghanaian institutions plus international experts. The workgroups conducted activities in order to address the following question: What are the causes, consequences and correctives of small-scale gold mining in Ghana? More specifically: What alternatives are available in resource-limited settings in Ghana that allow for gold-mining to occur in a manner that maintains ecological health and human health without hindering near- and long-term economic prosperity? Several response options were identified and evaluated, and are currently being disseminated to various stakeholders within Ghana and internationally. PMID:26393627

  5. Problems of minority fuel-oil dealers

    SciTech Connect

    Kalt, Joseph P.; Lee, Henry

    1980-01-01

    Claims that minority fuel oil dealers are hampered by severe impediments in the competition for contracts for oil, loan funds from banks, and assistance from the Federal government are explored. Possible remedial actions are recommended. The study focused on the metropolitan areas of Boston, Providence, and New York City. Following the introductory section, the evolving role of minority oil retailers in the Northeast market is reviewed in the second section. The third section examines the specific problems confronting minority dealers, including obtaining start-up capital and finding sources of supply. The fourth section addresses the problems associated with serving the inner-city markets. The fifth section introduces specific recommendations to meet the problems outlined.

  6. A new modular approach to nanoassembly: stable and addressable DNA nanoconstructs via orthogonal click chemistries.

    PubMed

    Gerrard, Simon R; Hardiman, Claire; Shelbourne, Montserrat; Nandhakumar, Iris; Nordén, Bengt; Brown, Tom

    2012-10-23

    Thermodynamic instability is a problem when assembling and purifying complex DNA nanostructures formed by hybridization alone. To address this issue, we have used photochemical fixation and orthogonal copper-free, ring-strain-promoted, click chemistry for the synthesis of dimeric, trimeric, and oligomeric modular DNA scaffolds from cyclic, double-stranded, 80-mer DNA nanoconstructs. This particular combination of orthogonal click reactions was more effective for nanoassembly than others explored. The complex nanostructures are stable to heat and denaturation agents and can therefore be purified and characterized. They are addressable in a sequence-specific manner by triplex formation, and they can be reversibly and selectively deconstructed. Nanostructures utilizing this orthogonal, chemical fixation methodology can be used as building blocks for nanomachines and functional DNA nanoarchitectures. PMID:22989197

  7. Addressable-Matrix Integrated-Circuit Test Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayah, Hoshyar R.; Buehler, Martin G.

    1991-01-01

    Method of quality control based on use of row- and column-addressable test structure speeds collection of data on widths of resistor lines and coverage of steps in integrated circuits. By use of straightforward mathematical model, line widths and step coverages deduced from measurements of electrical resistances in each of various combinations of lines, steps, and bridges addressable in test structure. Intended for use in evaluating processes and equipment used in manufacture of application-specific integrated circuits.

  8. Are Teacher and Principal Candidates Prepared to Address Student Cyberbullying?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styron, Ronald A., Jr.; Bonner, Jessica L.; Styron, Jennifer L.; Bridgeforth, James; Martin, Cecelia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the preparation of teacher and principal candidates to address problems created in K-12 settings as a result of cyberbullying. Participants included teacher and principal preparation students. Findings indicated that respondents were familiar with the most common forms of cyberbullying and its impact on…

  9. Challenges in an Aging Society: Presidential Address to APPAM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The United States is at a critical crossroads in its history right now. The public policy problems that the people are facing are complex and interrelated, and the demographic changes that are about to significantly change their country are not well understood by large numbers of people. In this presidential address to the Association for Public…

  10. Can Innovation Save Gifted Education? 2010 NAGC Presidential Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Connecting innovation with gifted education is a necessity not only in the current political climate but also because it is a field with deeply held beliefs about the importance of problem solving, creativity, imagination, and invention--all critical components of innovation. In this address, the author focuses on three key ideas. First, she…

  11. Addressing the vaccine confidence gap.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J; Cooper, Louis Z; Eskola, Juhani; Katz, Samuel L; Ratzan, Scott

    2011-08-01

    Vaccines--often lauded as one of the greatest public health interventions--are losing public confidence. Some vaccine experts have referred to this decline in confidence as a crisis. We discuss some of the characteristics of the changing global environment that are contributing to increased public questioning of vaccines, and outline some of the specific determinants of public trust. Public decision making related to vaccine acceptance is neither driven by scientific nor economic evidence alone, but is also driven by a mix of psychological, sociocultural, and political factors, all of which need to be understood and taken into account by policy and other decision makers. Public trust in vaccines is highly variable and building trust depends on understanding perceptions of vaccines and vaccine risks, historical experiences, religious or political affiliations, and socioeconomic status. Although provision of accurate, scientifically based evidence on the risk-benefit ratios of vaccines is crucial, it is not enough to redress the gap between current levels of public confidence in vaccines and levels of trust needed to ensure adequate and sustained vaccine coverage. We call for more research not just on individual determinants of public trust, but on what mix of factors are most likely to sustain public trust. The vaccine community demands rigorous evidence on vaccine efficacy and safety and technical and operational feasibility when introducing a new vaccine, but has been negligent in demanding equally rigorous research to understand the psychological, social, and political factors that affect public trust in vaccines. PMID:21664679

  12. Addressing the vaccine confidence gap.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J; Cooper, Louis Z; Eskola, Juhani; Katz, Samuel L; Ratzan, Scott

    2011-08-01

    Vaccines--often lauded as one of the greatest public health interventions--are losing public confidence. Some vaccine experts have referred to this decline in confidence as a crisis. We discuss some of the characteristics of the changing global environment that are contributing to increased public questioning of vaccines, and outline some of the specific determinants of public trust. Public decision making related to vaccine acceptance is neither driven by scientific nor economic evidence alone, but is also driven by a mix of psychological, sociocultural, and political factors, all of which need to be understood and taken into account by policy and other decision makers. Public trust in vaccines is highly variable and building trust depends on understanding perceptions of vaccines and vaccine risks, historical experiences, religious or political affiliations, and socioeconomic status. Although provision of accurate, scientifically based evidence on the risk-benefit ratios of vaccines is crucial, it is not enough to redress the gap between current levels of public confidence in vaccines and levels of trust needed to ensure adequate and sustained vaccine coverage. We call for more research not just on individual determinants of public trust, but on what mix of factors are most likely to sustain public trust. The vaccine community demands rigorous evidence on vaccine efficacy and safety and technical and operational feasibility when introducing a new vaccine, but has been negligent in demanding equally rigorous research to understand the psychological, social, and political factors that affect public trust in vaccines.

  13. The Study of Address Tree Coding Based on the Maximum Matching Algorithm in Courier Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shumin; Tang, Bin; Li, Wen

    As an important component of EMS monitoring system, address is different from user name with great uncertainty because there are many ways to represent it. Therefore, address standardization is a difficult task. Address tree coding has been trying to resolve that issue for many years. Zip code, as its most widely used algorithm, can only subdivide the address down to a designated post office, not the recipients' address. This problem needs artificial identification method to be accurately delivered. This paper puts forward a new encoding algorithm of the address tree - the maximum matching algorithm to solve the problem. This algorithm combines the characteristics of the address tree and the best matching theory, and brings in the associated layers of tree nodes to improve the matching efficiency. Taking the variability of address into account, the thesaurus of address tree should be updated timely by increasing new nodes automatically through intelligent tools.

  14. 24 CFR 1000.530 - What corrective and remedial actions will HUD request or recommend to address performance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... actions will HUD request or recommend to address performance problems prior to taking action under § 1000... to address performance problems prior to taking action under § 1000.532 or § 1000.538? (a) The following actions are designed, first, to prevent the continuance of the performance problem(s); second,...

  15. Experimental analysis and treatment of multiply controlled problem behavior: a systematic replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Borrero, Carrie S W; Vollmer, Timothy R

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated interventions designed to reduce multiply controlled problem behavior exhibited by a young boy with developmental disabilities, using a multiple baseline design. Each intervention was designed to address a specific social function of problem behavior. Results showed that the separate interventions were useful in reducing problem behavior, and terminal schedules were reached by way of schedule thinning (attention condition) and delays to reinforcement (tangible and escape conditions). PMID:17020218

  16. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as ... fall-related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  17. Bioethicists Can and Should Contribute to Addressing Racism.

    PubMed

    Danis, Marion; Wilson, Yolonda; White, Amina

    2016-01-01

    The problems of racism and racially motivated violence in predominantly African American communities in the United States are complex, multifactorial, and historically rooted. While these problems are also deeply morally troubling, bioethicists have not contributed substantially to addressing them. Concern for justice has been one of the core commitments of bioethics. For this and other reasons, bioethicists should contribute to addressing these problems. We consider how bioethicists can offer meaningful contributions to the public discourse, research, teaching, training, policy development, and academic scholarship in response to the alarming and persistent patterns of racism and implicit biases associated with it. To make any useful contribution, bioethicists will require preparation and should expect to play a significant role through collaborative action with others.

  18. Specifying Specification.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    This paper tackles the accusation that applied ethics is no serious academic enterprise because it lacks theoretical bracing. It does so in two steps. In the first step I introduce and discuss a highly acclaimed method to guarantee stability in ethical theories: Henry Richardson's specification. The discussion shows how seriously ethicists take the stability of the connection between the foundational parts of their theories and their further development as well as their "application" to particular problems or cases. A detailed scrutiny of specification leads to the second step, where I use insights from legal theory to inform the debate around stability from that point of view. This view reveals some of specification's limitations. I suggest that, once specification is sufficiently specified, it appears astonishingly similar to deduction as used in legal theory. Legal theory also provides valuable insight into the functional range of deduction and its relation to other forms of reasoning. This leads to a richer understanding of stability in normative theories and to a smart division of labor between deduction and other forms of reasoning. The comparison to legal theory thereby provides a framework for how different methods such as specification, deduction, balancing, and analogy relate to one another. PMID:27157109

  19. Specifying Specification.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    This paper tackles the accusation that applied ethics is no serious academic enterprise because it lacks theoretical bracing. It does so in two steps. In the first step I introduce and discuss a highly acclaimed method to guarantee stability in ethical theories: Henry Richardson's specification. The discussion shows how seriously ethicists take the stability of the connection between the foundational parts of their theories and their further development as well as their "application" to particular problems or cases. A detailed scrutiny of specification leads to the second step, where I use insights from legal theory to inform the debate around stability from that point of view. This view reveals some of specification's limitations. I suggest that, once specification is sufficiently specified, it appears astonishingly similar to deduction as used in legal theory. Legal theory also provides valuable insight into the functional range of deduction and its relation to other forms of reasoning. This leads to a richer understanding of stability in normative theories and to a smart division of labor between deduction and other forms of reasoning. The comparison to legal theory thereby provides a framework for how different methods such as specification, deduction, balancing, and analogy relate to one another.

  20. Addressing food security through public policy action in a community-based participatory research partnership.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Victoria Breckwich; Lanza, Dana; Hennessey-Lavery, Susana; Facente, Shelley; Halpin, Helen Ann; Minkler, Meredith

    2007-10-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an increasingly utilized research approach that involves the affected community identifying a health-related problem, developing a research agenda, and planning an appropriate intervention to address the problem. This report on a CBPR partnership in San Francisco's Bayview Hunters Point neighborhood documents the rise of a community food security policy in response to youth-involved research that found poor access to quality food in an economically disadvantaged area of the city. To analyze the impact of the research on public policy, a framework of specific steps in the policy-making process is used to organize and better understand the partnership's objectives, activities, strategies, and successes. This community-health department partnership has been able to achieve an innovative and sustainable public policy solution, the Good Neighbor Program, by working closely with policy makers and local businesses to expand community accessibility to healthy food. PMID:17728199

  1. A hybrid approach for addressing ring flexibility in 3D database searching.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, J

    1997-01-01

    A hybrid approach for flexible 3D database searching is presented that addresses the problem of ring flexibility. It combines the explicit storage of up to 25 multiple conformations of rings, with up to eight atoms, generated by the 3D structure generator CORINA with the power of a torsional fitting technique implemented in the 3D database system UNITY. A comparison with the original UNITY approach, using a database with about 130,000 entries and five different pharmacophore queries, was performed. The hybrid approach scored, on an average, 10-20% more hits than the reference run. Moreover, specific problems with unrealistic hit geometries produced by the original approach can be excluded. In addition, the influence of the maximum number of ring conformations per molecule was investigated. An optimal number of 10 conformations per molecule is recommended.

  2. Texts, Structure, and Collaboration: Reflections of a Professional Development Addressing Homophobia in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Homophobia is an incredible problem within educational settings. Therefore, we must begin examining how we can address the challenge in an effective manner. Researchers postulate professional development (PD) discussing homophobia is an appropriate method to address the problem. To date, there is little published literature that discusses how a PD…

  3. Problem Solvers: Problem--How Long Can You Stand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Children Mathematics, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Healthy lifestyles are increasingly emphasized these days. This month the authors begin a series of mathematical problems that also address physical activity. They hope that these problems offer opportunities to investigate mathematics and also reinforce the desire to lead a healthy life. In their first problem of the academic year, students…

  4. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    eruptions, earthquakes and the associated tsunamis can lead to destruction of seafloor structures potentially capable of releasing hydrocarbon pollutants into Mediterranean waters, and damage to a dense telecommunication cables net that would cause severe economic loss. However, the most devastating effect would be that of earthquake or landslide-induced tsunamis. When compared to other basins, the Mediterranean has larger vulnerability due to its small dimensions, resulting in close proximity to tsunami sources and impact areas. Recent examples include the 1979 Nice airport submarine landslide and tsunami and the 2002 Stromboli volcano landslide and tsunami. Future international scientific drilling must include submarine geohazards among priority scientific objectives. The science advisory structure must be prepared to receive and evaluate proposal specifically addressing submarine geohazards. The implementing organizations need to be prepared for the technological needs of drilling proposals addressing geohazards. Among the most relevant: geotechnical sampling, down-hole logging at shallow depths below the seafloor, in situ geotechnical and physical measurements, capability of deployment of long-term in situ observatories. Pre-site surveys will often aim at the highest possible resolution, three dimensional imaging of the seafloor ant its sub-surface. Drilling for submarine geohazards is seen as an opportunity of multiplatform drilling, and for Mission Specific drilling in particular. Rather than turning the scientific investigation in a purely engineering exercise, proposals addressing submarine geohazards should offer an opportunity to scientists and engineers to work together to unravel the details of basic geological processes that may turn into catastrophic events.

  5. CCCC Chair's Address: Representing Ourselves, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the text of the author's address at the fifty-ninth annual convention of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) in March 2008. In her address, the author picks up strands of previous Chairs' addresses and weaves them through the fabric of her remarks. What she hopes will give sheen to the fabric is her…

  6. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  7. 47 CFR 13.10 - Licensee address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee address. 13.10 Section 13.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.10 Licensee address. In accordance with § 1.923 of this chapter all applications must specify an address where...

  8. 75 FR 49813 - Change of Address

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... COMMISSION 11 CFR Parts 9405, 9407, 9409, 9410, 9420, and 9428 Change of Address AGENCY: United States... Assistance Commission (EAC) is amending its regulations to reflect a change of address for its headquarters. This technical amendment is a nomenclature change that updates and corrects the address for...

  9. 77 FR 48429 - Commission Address Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION 29 CFR Parts 2700, 2701, 2702, 2704, 2705, 2706 Commission Address Change AGENCY... to inform the public of the address change. DATES: This final rule will take effect on August 27... because the amendments are of a minor and administrative nature dealing with only a change in address....

  10. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  11. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  12. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  13. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  14. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  15. Multi Sensor Approach to Address Sustainable Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2007-01-01

    The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates, can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. However, the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. This requires continuous, and detailed observations from many sources in situ, airborne and space. By and large, the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. This requires a multiple sensors, look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality, multi hazard disasters, public health, hydrology and more. Therefore, there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation, data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population, some sound observations, scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants, endangered species and the ecology. Needless to say, there is no single sensor, which can answer all such questions effectively. Due to multi sensor approach, it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information, knowledge, budget, technology readiness and computational power. And, more importantly, the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. So far, each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing

  16. Media Ethics: Some Specific Problems. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    This digest identifies some of the ethical issues which appeared in the mass media in the 1980s and discusses the implications which these issues have for the law and for those who already work in or study the mass media, as well as for those college students contemplating a career in journalism or broadcasting. (NKA)

  17. Therapy for Specific Problems: Youth Tobacco Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Susan J.; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Sporer, Amy K.

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the United States. The majority of children smoke their first cigarette in early adolescence, and many older teens have well-established dependence on nicotine. Efforts to promote and support smoking cessation among these youth smokers are critical. The available experimental studies of youth cessation interventions find that behavioral interventions increase the chances of youth smokers achieving successful cessation. Currently there is insufficient evidence for the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments with youth smokers. Many innovative studies have been compromised by challenges in recruiting sufficient numbers of youth, obtaining approval for waivers of parental consent, and high attrition in longitudinal studies. Key areas for future work include bridging the fields of adolescent development and treatment design, matching treatments to developmental trajectories of smoking behavior, better understanding treatment processes and treatment moderators, and building demand for evidence-based cessation treatments. PMID:19035825

  18. An addressable cell array for a platform of biosensor chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Seungkyoung; Choi, Soo-hee; Jung, Moon Youn; Song, Kibong; Park, Jeong Won

    2013-05-01

    In order to detect interested matters in fields, various lab-on-a-chips where chemical, physical, or biological sensors are loaded have been developed. eNOSE can be a representative example among them. Because animals can sense 300~1000 different chemicals by olfactory system - smell -, the olfactory system has been spotlighted as new materials in the field of sensing. Those investigations, however, are usually focused on how to detect signals from the olfactory neurons or receptors loaded on chips and enhance sensing efficacy of chips. Therefore, almost of those chips are designed for only one material sensing. Multi-sensing using multi-channels will be needed when the olfactory systems are adopted well on chips. For multiple sensing, we developed an addressable cell array. The chip has 38 cell-chambers arranged in a circle shape and different cell types of thirty eight can be allocated with specific addresses on the chip without any complex valve system. In order to confirm the cell addressing, we loaded EGFP-transfected and empty vector-transfected HEK293a cells into inlets of the cell array in a planned address and those cells were positioned into each chamber by brief aspiration. The arrayed cells were confirmed as a specific pattern through EGFP and nuclei staining. This cell array which can generate address of sensor materials like cells with their own specification is expected to be applied to a platform for a biosensor chip at various sensing fields.

  19. IPv6 Addressing Proxy: Mapping Native Addressing from Legacy Technologies and Devices to the Internet of Things (IPv6)

    PubMed Central

    Jara, Antonio J.; Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro; Skarmeta, Antonio F.; Varakliotis, Socrates; Kirstein, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sensors utilize a large number of heterogeneous technologies for a varied set of application environments. The sheer number of devices involved requires that this Internet be the Future Internet, with a core network based on IPv6 and a higher scalability in order to be able to address all the devices, sensors and things located around us. This capability to connect through IPv6 devices, sensors and things is what is defining the so-called Internet of Things (IoT). IPv6 provides addressing space to reach this ubiquitous set of sensors, but legacy technologies, such as X10, European Installation Bus (EIB), Controller Area Network (CAN) and radio frequency ID (RFID) from the industrial, home automation and logistic application areas, do not support the IPv6 protocol. For that reason, a technique must be devised to map the sensor and identification technologies to IPv6, thus allowing homogeneous access via IPv6 features in the context of the IoT. This paper proposes a mapping between the native addressing of each technology and an IPv6 address following a set of rules that are discussed and proposed in this work. Specifically, the paper presents a technology-dependent IPv6 addressing proxy, which maps each device to the different subnetworks built under the IPv6 prefix addresses provided by the internet service provider for each home, building or user. The IPv6 addressing proxy offers a common addressing environment based on IPv6 for all the devices, regardless of the device technology. Thereby, this offers a scalable and homogeneous solution to interact with devices that do not support IPv6 addressing. The IPv6 addressing proxy has been implemented in a multi-protocol card and evaluated successfully its performance, scalability and interoperability through a protocol built over IPv6. PMID:23686145

  20. IPv6 addressing proxy: mapping native addressing from legacy technologies and devices to the Internet of Things (IPv6).

    PubMed

    Jara, Antonio J; Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro; Skarmeta, Antonio F; Varakliotis, Socrates; Kirstein, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sensors utilize a large number of heterogeneous technologies for a varied set of application environments. The sheer number of devices involved requires that this Internet be the Future Internet, with a core network based on IPv6 and a higher scalability in order to be able to address all the devices, sensors and things located around us. This capability to connect through IPv6 devices, sensors and things is what is defining the so-called Internet of Things (IoT). IPv6 provides addressing space to reach this ubiquitous set of sensors, but legacy technologies, such as X10, European Installation Bus (EIB), Controller Area Network (CAN) and radio frequency ID (RFID) from the industrial, home automation and logistic application areas, do not support the IPv6 protocol. For that reason, a technique must be devised to map the sensor and identification technologies to IPv6, thus allowing homogeneous access via IPv6 features in the context of the IoT. This paper proposes a mapping between the native addressing of each technology and an IPv6 address following a set of rules that are discussed and proposed in this work. Specifically, the paper presents a technology-dependent IPv6 addressing proxy, which maps each device to the different subnetworks built under the IPv6 prefix addresses provided by the internet service provider for each home, building or user. The IPv6 addressing proxy offers a common addressing environment based on IPv6 for all the devices, regardless of the device technology. Thereby, this offers a scalable and homogeneous solution to interact with devices that do not support IPv6 addressing. The IPv6 addressing proxy has been implemented in a multi-protocol Sensors 2013, 13 6688 card and evaluated successfully its performance, scalability and interoperability through a protocol built over IPv6. PMID:23686145

  1. IPv6 addressing proxy: mapping native addressing from legacy technologies and devices to the Internet of Things (IPv6).

    PubMed

    Jara, Antonio J; Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro; Skarmeta, Antonio F; Varakliotis, Socrates; Kirstein, Peter

    2013-05-17

    Sensors utilize a large number of heterogeneous technologies for a varied set of application environments. The sheer number of devices involved requires that this Internet be the Future Internet, with a core network based on IPv6 and a higher scalability in order to be able to address all the devices, sensors and things located around us. This capability to connect through IPv6 devices, sensors and things is what is defining the so-called Internet of Things (IoT). IPv6 provides addressing space to reach this ubiquitous set of sensors, but legacy technologies, such as X10, European Installation Bus (EIB), Controller Area Network (CAN) and radio frequency ID (RFID) from the industrial, home automation and logistic application areas, do not support the IPv6 protocol. For that reason, a technique must be devised to map the sensor and identification technologies to IPv6, thus allowing homogeneous access via IPv6 features in the context of the IoT. This paper proposes a mapping between the native addressing of each technology and an IPv6 address following a set of rules that are discussed and proposed in this work. Specifically, the paper presents a technology-dependent IPv6 addressing proxy, which maps each device to the different subnetworks built under the IPv6 prefix addresses provided by the internet service provider for each home, building or user. The IPv6 addressing proxy offers a common addressing environment based on IPv6 for all the devices, regardless of the device technology. Thereby, this offers a scalable and homogeneous solution to interact with devices that do not support IPv6 addressing. The IPv6 addressing proxy has been implemented in a multi-protocol Sensors 2013, 13 6688 card and evaluated successfully its performance, scalability and interoperability through a protocol built over IPv6.

  2. Assessing what to address in science communication.

    PubMed

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-08-20

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people's decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people's understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people's decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people's mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients' understanding and ability to make informed decisions.

  3. Assessing what to address in science communication

    PubMed Central

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-01-01

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people’s decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people’s understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people’s decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people’s mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients’ understanding and ability to make informed decisions. PMID:23942122

  4. Assessing what to address in science communication.

    PubMed

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-08-20

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people's decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people's understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people's decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people's mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients' understanding and ability to make informed decisions. PMID:23942122

  5. Racism and the Conspiracy of Silence: Presidential Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sue, Derald Wing

    2005-01-01

    This presidential address focuses on a specific and daunting assumption about racism that many find disturbing--a belief that no one born and raised in the United States is free from inheriting the racial biases of their forebears. It states explicitly that it is impossible for anyone to not to have racist, sexist, and homophobic attitudes,…

  6. State Laws and Policies to Address Bullying in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limber, Susan P.; Small, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    This article focuses on the recent flurry of legislation in states to address bullying among school children. The primary purpose is to describe, compare, and contrast current state laws about bullying. Specifically, a description is provided of legislators' definitions of bullying and legislative findings about the nature and seriousness of…

  7. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Balance Problems About Balance Problems Have you ever felt dizzy, lightheaded, or ... dizziness problem during the past year. Why Good Balance is Important Having good balance means being able ...

  8. Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review.

    PubMed

    Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence gambling by Aboriginal groups, which are individually different, making it difficult to implement a cohesive strategy to address gambling-related harms. Because of this complexity, a thorough literature review is necessary to identify gaps in policy and research. This paper uses a public health framework to consider multi-dimensional influences (personal, environmental, economic, cultural and social) that affect gambling uptake. Such analysis is also important for identifying risk factors which facilitate the development and maintenance of problem gambling and potentially for underpinning protection, prevention and treatment programs. It is advised that strategies be developed in consultation with Aboriginal peoples to guide public health policy and research to minimise any gambling-related harms. PMID:24707239

  9. Universal Design Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    Universal design is made up of four elements: accessibility, adaptability, aesthetics, and affordability. This article addresses the concept of universal design problem solving through experiential learning for an interior design studio course in postsecondary education. Students' experiences with clients over age 55 promoted an understanding of…

  10. Final Report on Internet Addressable Lightswitch

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Pettler, Peter

    2001-08-27

    This report describes the work performed to develop and test a new switching system and communications network that is useful for economically switching lighting circuits in existing commercial buildings. The first section of the report provides the general background of the IBECS (Integrated Building Environmental Communications System) research and development work as well as the context for the development of the new switching system. The research and development effort that went into producing the first proof-of-concept (the IBECS Addressable Power Switch or APS) and the physical prototype of that concept is detailed in the second section. In the third section of the report, we detail the refined Powerline Carrier Based IBECS Title 24 Wall Switch system that evolved from the APS prototype. The refined system provided a path for installing IBECS switching technology in existing buildings that may not be already wired for light level switching control. The final section of the report describes the performance of the IBECS Title 24 Switch system as applied to a small demonstration in two offices at LBNL's Building 90. We learned that the new Powerline Carrier control systems (A-10 technology) that have evolved from the early X-10 systems have solved most of the noise problems that dogged the successful application of X-10 technologies in commercial buildings. We found that the new A-10 powerline carrier control technology can be reliable and effective for switching lighting circuits even in electrically noisy office environments like LBNL. Thus we successfully completed the task objectives by designing, building and demonstrating a new switching system that can provide multiple levels of light which can be triggered either from specially designed wall switches or from a digital communications network. By applying commercially available powerline carrier based technologies that communicate over the in-place lighting wiring system, this type of control can be

  11. Public health approach to address maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Rai, Sanjay K; Anand, K; Misra, Puneet; Kant, Shashi; Upadhyay, Ravi Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Reducing maternal mortality is one of the major challenges to health systems worldwide, more so in developing countries that account for nearly 99% of these maternal deaths. Lack of a standard method for reporting of maternal death poses a major hurdle in making global comparisons. Currently much of the focus is on documenting the "number" of maternal deaths and delineating the "medical causes" behind these deaths. There is a need to acknowledge the social correlates of maternal deaths as well. Investigating and in-depth understanding of each maternal death can provide indications on practical ways of addressing the problem. Death of a mother has serious implications for the child as well as other family members and to prevent the same, a comprehensive approach is required. This could include providing essential maternal care, early management of complications and good quality intrapartum care through the involvement of skilled birth attendants. Ensuring the availability, affordability, and accessibility of quality maternal health services, including emergency obstetric care (EmOC) would prove pivotal in reducing the maternal deaths. To increase perceived seriousness of the community regarding maternal health, a well-structured awareness campaign is needed with importance be given to avoid adolescent pregnancy as well. Initiatives like Janani Surakhsha Yojna (JSY) that have the potential to improve maternal health needs to be strengthened. Quality assessments should form an essential part of all services that are directed toward improving maternal health. Further, emphasis needs to be given on research by involving multiple allied partners, with the aim to develop a prioritized, coordinated, and innovative research agenda for women's health. PMID:23229211

  12. The prevention of electronical breakdown and electrostatic voltage problems in the space shuttle and its payloads. Part 2: Design guides and operations considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    The specific electrical discharge problems that can directly affect the shuttle vehicle and its payloads are addressed. General design guidelines are provided to assist flight hardware managers in minimizing these kinds of problems. Specific data are included on workmanship practices and system testing while in low pressure environments. Certain electrical discharge problems that may be unique to the design of the shuttle vehicle itself and to its various mission operational models are discussed.

  13. Barriers to addressing substance abuse in domestic violence court.

    PubMed

    Riger, Stephanie; Bennett, Larry W; Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig

    2014-03-01

    Substance abuse commonly co-occurs with intimate partner violence among both perpetrators and survivors. Specialized courts that focus on intimate partner violence provide a unique opportunity to address both problems simultaneously, but research has yet to identify whether this happens. In this qualitative study of a domestic violence court in a large midwestern metropolitan area, key informants were interviewed to understand how the Court treats substance abuse. Results indicate that substance abuse typically is not identified among perpetrators or survivors going through the Court unless it is mentioned in a police report. Barriers to such identification are the organization of the Court, bounded definition of actors' roles in the Court, limited resources, and negative attitudes towards survivors. These results suggest that specialized courts that attend to only one problem may overlook the possibility of addressing issues that commonly co-occur.

  14. Principles for Teaching Problem Solving. Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foshay, Rob; Kirkley, Jamie

    This Technical Paper focuses on principles for teaching problem solving. Part 1 addresses the need to teach problem solving. Part 2 defines problem solving skills, and describes: general problem solving models of the 1960s and 1970s, current problem solving models, declarative knowledge, mental models, expert versus novice knowledge, procedural…

  15. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function

    PubMed Central

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the “Hash_64” field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  16. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    PubMed

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution.

  17. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    PubMed

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  18. Special Medical Problems of Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couch, Joan M.

    1987-01-01

    This article addresses the situations in which athletes with special needs and considerations participate in sports. The health problems discussed are diabetes mellitus, exercise-induced asthma, exercise-induced anaphylaxis, and epilepsy. (MT)

  19. African American and European American Therapists' Experiences of Addressing Race in Cross-Racial Psychotherapy Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Sarah; Burkard, Alan W.; Johnson, Adanna J.; Suzuki, Lisa A.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.

    2003-01-01

    Using Consensual Qualitative Research, 12 licensed psychologists' overall experiences addressing race in psychotherapy were investigated, as were their experiences addressing race in a specific cross-racial therapy dyad. Results indicated that only African American psychologists reported routinely addressing race with clients of color or when race…

  20. Evaluating programs that address ideological issues: ethical and practical considerations for practitioners and evaluators.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Lisa D; Fagen, Michael C; Neiger, Brad L

    2014-03-01

    There are important practical and ethical considerations for organizations in conducting their own, or commissioning external, evaluations and for both practitioners and evaluators, when assessing programs built on strongly held ideological or philosophical approaches. Assessing whether programs "work" has strong political, financial, and/or moral implications, particularly when expending public dollars, and may challenge objectivity about a particular program or approach. Using a case study of the evaluation of a school-based abstinence-until-marriage program, this article discusses the challenges, lessons learned, and ethical responsibilities regarding decisions about evaluation, specifically associated with ideologically driven programs. Organizations should consider various stakeholders and views associated with their program to help identify potential pitfalls in evaluation. Once identified, the program or agency needs to carefully consider its answers to two key questions: Do they want the answer and are they willing to modify the program? Having decided to evaluate, the choice of evaluator is critical to assuring that ethical principles are maintained and potential skepticism or criticism of findings can be addressed appropriately. The relationship between program and evaluator, including agreements about ownership and eventual publication and/or promotion of data, should be addressed at the outset. Programs and organizations should consider, at the outset, their ethical responsibility when findings are not expected or desired. Ultimately, agencies, organizations, and programs have an ethical responsibility to use their data to provide health promotion programs, whether ideologically founded or not, that appropriately and effectively address the problems they seek to solve. PMID:24532788

  1. How Does an Environmental Educator Address Student Engagement in a Meaningful Watershed Educational Experience (MWEE)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Char, Chelia

    Children represent the future and thus by providing them with effective environmental educational experiences, educators may be taking a critical step in preventing "the probable serious environmental problems in the future" (Gokhan, 2010, p. 56). The Meaningful Watershed Educational Experience (MWEE) is an excellent example of one such education program. MWEEs aim to educate and enhance the students' relationship with the Chesapeake Bay Watershed through an integration of classroom activities and fieldwork. As environmental educators and role models, field interpreters are a major component and significant influence on the local MWEE programs, however their perspective as to how they have impacted the programs has yet to be examined. Through a qualitative analysis and specific focus on the behavioral, emotional, and cognitive dimensions of student engagement, the researcher intended to address this void. The focus of the study was to examine how the local MWEE field interpreters understood and addressed student engagement in a field setting. This was measured via data collected from observations of and semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with each field interpreter involved with the local MWEE programs. Data analysis uncovered that field interpreters demonstrated a strong awareness of student engagement. Furthermore, they defined, recognized, and addressed student engagement within the constructs of the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive dimensions. Ultimately, the individual experiences of each MWEE field interpreter provides insight into the phenomenon, however further research is required to strengthen the awareness of how, if at all, their perspectives of student engagement directly impact student outcomes.

  2. Addressing anniversary reactions of trauma through group process: the Hurricane Katrina anniversary wellness workshops.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Darlyne G; Kuriansky, Judy; Reeder, Kenneth P; Lewis, Amity; Marceaux, Kristin; Whittington, Taighlor; Olivier, Traci W; May, Natasha E; Safier, Jessica A

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters such as Hurricane Katrina, which devastated the Gulf Coast of the United States in the summer of 2005, have highlighted the need to develop effective post-trauma psychotherapeutic intervention strategies, not only to deal with the immediate psychological aftermath of trauma, but also the long-term effects of anniversary reactions. Governmental responses to Hurricane Katrina relief were greatly criticized for disorganization and delay. Both immediately afterwards and in ensuing months, people's life needs often were not addressed. People-to-people individual and group grassroots efforts, including those provided by mental health professionals, however, did reach local communities to service immediate needs and long-term emotional reactions. The present paper describes one such effort designed to help survivors cope on the occasion of the first anniversary of Hurricane Katrina. Specifically, anniversary reaction group workshops were held to address unresolved emotional issues and to promote healing by encouraging belonging, comfort, security, and resilience. The ultimate goal of these wellness workshops was to assist participants in understanding and resolving their anniversary reactions. Preliminary quantitative and qualitative findings suggested that this workshop format helped participants face their anniversary reactions, address their related psychological sequelae, and deal with their physical displacement. Participants were then able to find the emotional strength to reattach, form new communities, and begin problem solving. These methods, with appropriate cultural modifications, were subsequently used in China, to assist Chinese mental health professionals prepare for the first anniversary of the Sichuan earthquake.

  3. Addressing anniversary reactions of trauma through group process: the Hurricane Katrina anniversary wellness workshops.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Darlyne G; Kuriansky, Judy; Reeder, Kenneth P; Lewis, Amity; Marceaux, Kristin; Whittington, Taighlor; Olivier, Traci W; May, Natasha E; Safier, Jessica A

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters such as Hurricane Katrina, which devastated the Gulf Coast of the United States in the summer of 2005, have highlighted the need to develop effective post-trauma psychotherapeutic intervention strategies, not only to deal with the immediate psychological aftermath of trauma, but also the long-term effects of anniversary reactions. Governmental responses to Hurricane Katrina relief were greatly criticized for disorganization and delay. Both immediately afterwards and in ensuing months, people's life needs often were not addressed. People-to-people individual and group grassroots efforts, including those provided by mental health professionals, however, did reach local communities to service immediate needs and long-term emotional reactions. The present paper describes one such effort designed to help survivors cope on the occasion of the first anniversary of Hurricane Katrina. Specifically, anniversary reaction group workshops were held to address unresolved emotional issues and to promote healing by encouraging belonging, comfort, security, and resilience. The ultimate goal of these wellness workshops was to assist participants in understanding and resolving their anniversary reactions. Preliminary quantitative and qualitative findings suggested that this workshop format helped participants face their anniversary reactions, address their related psychological sequelae, and deal with their physical displacement. Participants were then able to find the emotional strength to reattach, form new communities, and begin problem solving. These methods, with appropriate cultural modifications, were subsequently used in China, to assist Chinese mental health professionals prepare for the first anniversary of the Sichuan earthquake. PMID:22229372

  4. History Forum Addresses Creation/Evolution Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinsberg, John

    1997-01-01

    A series of programs entitled Creationism and Evolution: The History of a Controversy was presented at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The controversy was addressed from an historical and sociological, rather than a scientific perspective. Speakers addressed the evolution of scientific creationism, ancient texts versus sedimentary rocks…

  5. 16 CFR 1000.4 - Commission address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission address. 1000.4 Section 1000.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.4 Commission address. The principal Offices of the Commission are at 4330 East West...

  6. 10 CFR 218.34 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Addresses. 218.34 Section 218.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Procedures § 218.34 Addresses. All..., Economic Regulatory Administration, Department of Energy, 2000 M Street, NW., Washington, DC 20461, and...

  7. 40 CFR 374.6 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addresses. 374.6 Section 374.6... COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS § 374.6 Addresses. Administrator, U.S.... Environmental Protection Agency, 77 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, IL 60604. Regional Administrator, Region...

  8. 10 CFR 218.34 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Addresses. 218.34 Section 218.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Procedures § 218.34 Addresses. All correspondence, petitions, and any information required by this part shall be submitted to: Administrator, Economic Regulatory Administration, Department...

  9. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  10. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  11. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  12. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  13. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  14. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  15. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  16. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  17. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the Commission should be addressed to the Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington,...

  18. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If mail... institutional offices; (2) Reviews of telephone directories or inquiries of information operators in the...

  19. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding verb conjugations (Lipski…

  20. 37 CFR 251.1 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE... Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels (CARPs) must be addressed as follows: (a) If hand delivered by a... through the U.S. Postal Service, use the following address: Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel, P.O....

  1. Image compression using address-vector quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu

    1990-12-01

    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  2. Content addressable systolic array for sparse matrix computation

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, O.

    1983-01-01

    A systolic array is proposed which is specifically designed to solve a system of sparse linear equations. The array consists of a number of processing elements connected in a ring. Each processing element has its own content addressable memory where the nonzero elements of the sparse matrix are stored. Matrix elements to which elementary operations are applied are extracted from the memory by content addressing. The system of equations is solved in a systolic fashion and the solution is obtained in nz+5n-2 steps where nz is the number of nonzero elements along and below the diagonal and n is the number of equations. 13 references.

  3. Imaging obese patients: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Carucci, Laura R

    2013-08-01

    Obesity is an epidemic in the United States and Western World with an associated increasing impact on radiology departments. The increased prevalence of obesity in conjunction with the growing use and success of bariatric surgery results in an influx of obese patients into the health system in need of hospital services and care. Imaging services in particular are in demand in this patient population. Obese patients place special needs upon facilities and imaging equipment and also create technical challenges. This manuscript will address problems and potential solutions for imaging obese patients, specifically with regards to the modalities of radiography, fluoroscopy, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  4. New generation of content addressable memories for associative processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, H. G., Jr.; Giambalov, Paul

    2000-05-01

    Content addressable memories (CAMS) store both key and association data. A key is presented to the CAN when it is searched and all of the addresses are scanned in parallel to find the address referenced by the key. When a match occurs, the corresponding association is returned. With the explosion of telecommunications packet switching protocols, large data base servers, routers and search engines a new generation of dense sub-micron high throughput CAMS has been developed. The introduction of this paper presents a brief history and tutorial on CAMS, their many uses and advantages, and describes the architecture and functionality of several of MUSIC Semiconductors CAM devices. In subsequent sections of the paper we address using Associative Processing to accommodate the continued increase in sensor resolution, number of spectral bands, required coverage, the desire to implement real-time target cueing, and the data flow and image processing required for optimum performance of reconnaissance and surveillance Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). To be competitive the system designer must provide the most computational power, per watt, per dollar, per cubic inch, within the boundaries of cost effective UAV environmental control systems. To address these problems we demonstrate leveraging DARPA and DoD funded Commercial Off-the-Shelf technology to integrate CAM based Associative Processing into a real-time heterogenous multiprocessing system for UAVs and other platforms with limited weight, volume and power budgets.

  5. Assessing and Addressing Students' Scientific Literacy Needs in Physical Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell-Stone, E. A.; Myers, J. D.

    2005-12-01

    Exacting excellence equally from university students around the globe can be accomplished by providing all students with necessary background tools to achieve mastery of their courses, even if those tools are not part of normal content. As instructors we hope to see our students grasp the substance of our courses, make mental connections between course material and practical applications, and use this knowledge to make informed decisions as citizens. Yet many educators have found that students enter university-level introductory courses in mathematics, science and engineering without adequate academic preparation. As part of a FIPSE-funded project at the University of Wyoming, the instructors of the Physical Geology course have taken a new approach to tackling the problem of lack of scientific/mathematic skills in incoming students. Instead of assuming that students should already know or will learn these skills on their own, they assess students' needs and provide them the opportunity to master scientific literacies as they learn geologic content. In the introductory geology course, instructors identified two categories of literacies, or basic skills that are necessary for academic success and citizen participation. Fundamental literacies include performing simple quantitative calculations, making qualitative assessments, and reading and analyzing tables and graphs. Technical literacies are those specific to understanding geology, and comprise the ability to read maps, visualize changes through time, and conceptualize in three dimensions. Because these skills are most easily taught in lab, the in-house lab manual was rewritten to be both literacy- and content-based. Early labs include simple exercises addressing literacies in the context of geological science, and each subsequent lab repeats exposure to literacies, but at increasing levels of difficulty. Resources available to assist students with literacy mastery include individual instruction, a detailed

  6. Avoid, Control, Succumb, or Balance: Engineering Students' Approaches to a Wicked Sustainability Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lönngren, Johanna; Ingerman, Åke; Svanström, Magdalena

    2016-07-01

    Wicked sustainability problems (WSPs) are an important and particularly challenging type of problem. Science and engineering education can play an important role in preparing students to deal with such problems, but current educational practice may not adequately prepare students to do so. We address this gap by providing insights related to students' abilities to address WSPs. Specifically, we aim to (I) describe key constituents of engineering students' approaches to a WSP, (II) evaluate these approaches in relation to the normative context of education for sustainable development (ESD), and (III) identify relevant aspects of learning related to WSPs. Aim I is addressed through a phenomenographic study, while aims II and III are addressed by relating the results to research literature about human problem solving, sustainable development, and ESD. We describe four qualitatively different ways of approaching a specific WSP, as the outcome of the phenomenographic study: A. Simplify and avoid, B. Divide and control, C. Isolate and succumb, and D. Integrate and balance. We identify approach D as the most appropriate approach in the context of ESD, while A and C are not. On this basis, we identify three learning objectives related to students' abilities to address WSPs: learn to use a fully integrative approach, distinguish WSPs from tame and well-structured problems, and understand and consider the normative context of SD. Finally, we provide recommendations for how these learning objectives can be used to guide the design of science and engineering educational activities.

  7. ILLITERACY, A WORLD PROBLEM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JEFFRIES, CHARLES

    THIS STUDY OF WORLD ILLITERACY BEGINS WITH A BRIEF OUTLINE OF THE NATURE OF THE PROBLEM OF ILLITERACY AND DISCUSSION OF THE SPECIAL TECHNIQUES WHICH HAVE BEEN EVOLVED TO OVERCOME IT. A WORLD MAP OF ILLITERACY PLOTS ILLITERACY IN SPECIFIC AREAS AND COUNTRIES. PAST AND PRESENT EFFORTS TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM (THE PIONEER WORK OF WORK OF MISSIONARIES,…

  8. Addressing contrasting cognitive models in scientific collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diviacco, P.

    2012-04-01

    If the social aspects of scientific communities and their internal dynamics is starting to be recognized and acknowledged in the everyday lives of scientists, it is rather difficult for them to find tools that could support their activities consistently with this perspective. Issues span from gathering researchers to mutual awareness, from information sharing to building meaning, with the last one being particularly critical in research fields as the geo-sciences, that deal with the reconstruction of unique, often non-reproducible, and contingent processes. Reasoning here is, in fact, mainly abductive, allowing multiple and concurrent explanations for the same phenomenon to coexist. Scientists bias one hypothesis over another not only on strictly logical but also on sociological motivations. Following a vision, scientists tend to evolve and isolate themselves from other scientists creating communities characterized by different cognitive models, so that after some time these become incompatible and scientists stop understanding each other. We address these problems as a communication issue so that the classic distinction into three levels (syntactic, semantic and pragmatic) can be used. At the syntactic level, we highlight non-technical obstacles that condition interoperability and data availability and transparency. At the semantic level, possible incompatibilities of cognitive models are particularly evident, so that using ontologies, cross-domain reconciliation should be applied. This is a very difficult task to perform since the projection of knowledge by scientists, in the designated community, is political and thus can create a lot of tension. The strategy we propose to overcome these issues pertains to pragmatics, in the sense that it is intended to acknowledge the cultural and personal factors each partner brings into the collaboration and is based on the idea that meaning should remain a flexible and contingent representation of possibly divergent views

  9. Strategies intended to address vaccine hesitancy: Review of published reviews.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Eve; Gagnon, Dominique; MacDonald, Noni E

    2015-08-14

    When faced with vaccine hesitancy, public health authorities are looking for effective strategies to address this issue. In this paper, the findings of 15 published literature reviews or meta-analysis that have examined the effectiveness of different interventions to reduce vaccine hesitancy and/or to enhance vaccine acceptance are presented and discussed. From the literature, there is no strong evidence to recommend any specific intervention to address vaccine hesitancy/refusal. The reviewed studies included interventions with diverse content and approaches that were implemented in different settings and targeted various populations. Few interventions were directly targeted to vaccine hesitant individuals. Given the paucity of information on effective strategies to address vaccine hesitancy, when interventions are implemented, planning a rigorous evaluation of their impact on vaccine hesitancy/vaccine acceptance will be essential.

  10. The problem resident behavior guide: strategies for remediation.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Kelly; Quattromani, Erin; Aldeen, Amer

    2016-04-01

    In 2012, the ACGME supplemented the core competencies with outcomes-based milestones for resident performance within the six competency domains. These milestones address the knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes, and experiences that a resident is expected to progress through during the course of training. Even prior to the initiation of the milestones, there was a paucity of EM literature addressing the remediation of problem resident behaviors and there remain few readily accessible tools to aid in the implementation of a remediation plan. The goal of the "Problem Resident Behavior Guide" is to provide specific strategies for resident remediation based on deficiencies identified within the framework of the EM milestones. The "Problem Resident Behavior Guide" is a written instructional manual that provides concrete examples of remediation strategies to address specific milestone deficiencies. The more than 200 strategies stem from the experiences of the authors who have professional experience at three different academic hospitals and emergency medicine residency programs, supplemented by recommendations from educational leaders as well as utilization of valuable education adjuncts, such as focused simulation exercises, lecture preparation, and themed ED shifts. Most recommendations require active participation by the resident with guidance by faculty to achieve the remediation expectations. The ACGME outcomes-based milestones aid in the identification of deficiencies with regards to resident performance without providing recommendations on remediation. The Problem Resident Behavior Guide can therefore have a significant impact by filling in this gap. PMID:26667256

  11. The problem resident behavior guide: strategies for remediation.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Kelly; Quattromani, Erin; Aldeen, Amer

    2016-04-01

    In 2012, the ACGME supplemented the core competencies with outcomes-based milestones for resident performance within the six competency domains. These milestones address the knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes, and experiences that a resident is expected to progress through during the course of training. Even prior to the initiation of the milestones, there was a paucity of EM literature addressing the remediation of problem resident behaviors and there remain few readily accessible tools to aid in the implementation of a remediation plan. The goal of the "Problem Resident Behavior Guide" is to provide specific strategies for resident remediation based on deficiencies identified within the framework of the EM milestones. The "Problem Resident Behavior Guide" is a written instructional manual that provides concrete examples of remediation strategies to address specific milestone deficiencies. The more than 200 strategies stem from the experiences of the authors who have professional experience at three different academic hospitals and emergency medicine residency programs, supplemented by recommendations from educational leaders as well as utilization of valuable education adjuncts, such as focused simulation exercises, lecture preparation, and themed ED shifts. Most recommendations require active participation by the resident with guidance by faculty to achieve the remediation expectations. The ACGME outcomes-based milestones aid in the identification of deficiencies with regards to resident performance without providing recommendations on remediation. The Problem Resident Behavior Guide can therefore have a significant impact by filling in this gap.

  12. Can compactifications solve the cosmological constant problem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzberg, Mark P.; Masoumi, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Recently, there have been claims in the literature that the cosmological constant problem can be dynamically solved by specific compactifications of gravity from higher-dimensional toy models. These models have the novel feature that in the four-dimensional theory, the cosmological constant Λ is much smaller than the Planck density and in fact accumulates at Λ = 0. Here we show that while these are very interesting models, they do not properly address the real cosmological constant problem. As we explain, the real problem is not simply to obtain Λ that is small in Planck units in a toy model, but to explain why Λ is much smaller than other mass scales (and combinations of scales) in the theory. Instead, in these toy models, all other particle mass scales have been either removed or sent to zero, thus ignoring the real problem. To this end, we provide a general argument that the included moduli masses are generically of order Hubble, so sending them to zero trivially sends the cosmological constant to zero. We also show that the fundamental Planck mass is being sent to zero, and so the central problem is trivially avoided by removing high energy physics altogether. On the other hand, by including various large mass scales from particle physics with a high fundamental Planck mass, one is faced with a real problem, whose only known solution involves accidental cancellations in a landscape.

  13. Walking Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... daily activities, get around, and exercise. Having a problem with walking can make daily life more difficult. ... walk is called your gait. A variety of problems can cause an abnormal gait and lead to ...

  14. Breathing Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... re not getting enough air. Sometimes mild breathing problems are from a stuffy nose or hard exercise. ... emphysema or pneumonia cause breathing difficulties. So can problems with your trachea or bronchi, which are part ...

  15. Joint Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... ankles and toes. Other types of arthritis include gout or pseudogout. Sometimes, there is a mechanical problem ... for more information on osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and gout. How Common are Joint Problems? Osteoarthritis, which affects ...

  16. On the Problems of Asking for a Definition of Quality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittek, Line; Kvernbekk, Tone

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the problems of asking for a definition of quality in education from a philosophy of language perspective. We take the concept of quality as it appears in higher education discourse as our example. More specifically we discuss the possibility of obtaining a precise, unified definition of quality by addressing the problem…

  17. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  18. 40 CFR 98.9 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... submitted to the following address: (a) For U.S. mail. Director, Climate Change Division, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Mail Code: 6207J, Washington, DC 20460. (b) For package deliveries. Director,...

  19. 40 CFR 98.9 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... submitted to the following address: (a) For U.S. mail. Director, Climate Change Division, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Mail Code: 6207J, Washington, DC 20460. (b) For package deliveries. Director,...

  20. Addressing Your Child's Weight at the Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  1. Addressing Transition Issues in Languages Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steigler-Peters, Susi; Moran, Wendy; Piccioli, Maria Teresa; Chesterton, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on what has been learned from the implementation and evaluation of the Australian Language and Continuity Initiative (LCI) in relation to addressing transition issues in language education. (Author/VWL)

  2. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  3. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  4. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  5. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  6. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  7. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  8. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  9. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  10. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to the Curator, ARS Patent Culture Collection, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1815...

  11. Solving Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Norman; Lindelow, John

    Chapter 12 in a volume on school leadership, this chapter cites the work of several authorities concerning problem-solving or decision-making techniques based on the belief that group problem-solving effort is preferable to individual effort. The first technique, force-field analysis, is described as a means of dissecting complex problems into…

  12. Optical Addressing And Clocking Of RAM's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R.; Nixon, Robert H.; Bergman, Larry A.; Esener, Sadik

    1989-01-01

    Proposed random-access-memory (RAM) addressing system, in which memory linked optically to read/write logic circuits, greatly increases computer operating speed. System - comprises addressing circuits including numerous lasers as signal sources, numerous optical gates including optical detectors associated with memory cells, and holographic element to direct light signals to desired memory-cell locations - applied to high-capacity digital systems, supercomputers, and complex microcircuits.

  13. An address geocoding method for improving rural spatial information infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuchun; Chen, Baisong; Lu, Zhou; Li, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhou, YanBing

    2010-11-01

    The transition of rural and agricultural management from divisional to integrated mode has highlighted the importance of data integration and sharing. Current data are mostly collected by specific department to satisfy their own needs and lake of considering on wider potential uses. This led to great difference in data format, semantic, and precision even in same area, which is a significant barrier for constructing an integrated rural spatial information system to support integrated management and decision-making. Considering the rural cadastral management system and postal zones, the paper designs a rural address geocoding method based on rural cadastral parcel. It puts forward a geocoding standard which consists of absolute position code, relative position code and extended code. It designs a rural geocoding database model, and addresses collection and update model. Then, based on the rural address geocoding model, it proposed a data model for rural agricultural resources management. The results show that the address coding based on postal code is stable and easy to memorize, two-dimensional coding based on the direction and distance is easy to be located and memorized, while extended code can enhance the extensibility and flexibility of address geocoding.

  14. An address geocoding method for improving rural spatial information infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuchun; Chen, Baisong; Lu, Zhou; Li, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhou, Yanbing

    2009-09-01

    The transition of rural and agricultural management from divisional to integrated mode has highlighted the importance of data integration and sharing. Current data are mostly collected by specific department to satisfy their own needs and lake of considering on wider potential uses. This led to great difference in data format, semantic, and precision even in same area, which is a significant barrier for constructing an integrated rural spatial information system to support integrated management and decision-making. Considering the rural cadastral management system and postal zones, the paper designs a rural address geocoding method based on rural cadastral parcel. It puts forward a geocoding standard which consists of absolute position code, relative position code and extended code. It designs a rural geocoding database model, and addresses collection and update model. Then, based on the rural address geocoding model, it proposed a data model for rural agricultural resources management. The results show that the address coding based on postal code is stable and easy to memorize, two-dimensional coding based on the direction and distance is easy to be located and memorized, while extended code can enhance the extensibility and flexibility of address geocoding.

  15. Creative Thinking and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacy, Grace

    The booklet considers the nature of creativity in children and examines classroom implications. Among the topics addressed are the following: theories about creativity; research; developments in brain research; the creative process; creative problem solving; the Structure of Intellect Problem Solving (SIPS) model; a rationale for creativity in the…

  16. Industrial fouling: problem characterization, economic assessment, and review of prevention, mitigation, and accommodation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett-Price, B.A.; Smith, S.A.; Watts, R.L.

    1984-02-01

    A comprehensive overview of heat exchanger fouling in the manufacturing industries is provided. Specifically, this overview addresses: the characteristics of industrial fouling problems; the mitigation and accommodation techniques currently used by industry; and the types and magnitude of costs associated with industrial fouling. A detailed review of the fouling problems, costs and mitigation techniques is provided for the food, textile, pulp and paper, chemical, petroleum, cement, glass and primary metals industries.

  17. The Role of Substance Use and Mental Health Problems in Medication Adherence Among HIV-Infected MSM.

    PubMed

    White, Jaclyn M; Gordon, Janna R; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2014-12-01

    Mental health and substance abuse problems are highly prevalent among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) and frequently interfere with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. Novel interventions that address underlying psychosocial health problems are necessary for improving ART adherence to enhance HIV-related health outcomes and suppress HIV viral load in an effort to prevent transmission to uninfected partners. This brief review describes the mental health problems and specific substances that pose the greatest threat to medication adherence among MSM and summarizes findings from recent intervention trials that simultaneously address ART adherence and comorbid psychosocial factors among HIV-infected MSM. PMID:26789859

  18. The problems inherent in teaching technical writing and report writing to native Americans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zukowski/faust, J.

    1981-01-01

    Teaching technical writing to Native Americans contending with a second language and culture is addressed. Learning difficulties arising from differences between native and acquired language and cultural systems are examined. Compartmentalized teaching, which presents the ideals of technical writing in minimal units, and skills development are considered. Rhetorical problems treated include logic of arrangement, selection of support and scope of detail, and time and space. Specific problems selected include the concept of promptness, the contextualization of purpose, interpersonal relationships, wordiness, mixture of registers, and the problem of abstracting. Four inductive procedures for students having writing and perception problems are included. Four sample exercises and a bibliography of 13 references are also included.

  19. VNA of Boston addresses cultural barriers in home-based care.

    PubMed

    Cuthbert-Allman, C; Conti, P A

    1995-12-01

    Home care professionals know that communication is the key to successful treatment. But what if the patient speaks a different language? One home care agency addresses this problem with a culturally diverse staff and access to interpretation services. PMID:10153855

  20. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  1. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  2. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  3. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  4. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  5. Couples' agreement on presenting problems predicts engagement and outcomes in problem-focused couple therapy.

    PubMed

    Biesen, Judith N; Doss, Brian D

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the impact of couples' agreement regarding relationship problems at therapy intake on subsequent treatment engagement and success. One hundred and 47 couples seeking marital therapy at one of two Veteran Administration Medical Centers completed questionnaires assessing relationship satisfaction and were asked to indicate their three biggest relationship concerns. Agreement on relationship concern was defined as one person's list containing the partner's top relationship problem. Pretreatment agreement on relationship problems was unrelated to treatment course or outcomes when the therapy was longer and more integrative in nature. However, when couples received a brief, problem-focused treatment, agreement predicted greater engagement in therapy process and more positive treatment outcomes. Specifically, couples who were in agreement were more likely to attend the minimum number of required sessions and were more likely to be assessed as having received a full course of therapy by their treatment provider. Additionally, partners who agreed with each other were more likely to experience clinically significant changes during treatment. Taken together, results suggest that therapists and researchers should consider assessing agreement on relationship problems at the beginning of treatment and potentially suggest that couples who perceive their relationship differently should receive more integrative treatment. Future research is needed to examine the most effective sequencing for addressing differing, presenting problems as well as the mechanisms through which disagreement on presenting problems impacts treatment course and outcomes.

  6. Prostate-specific antigen as a biomarker of condom failure: comparison of three laboratory assays and self-reported condom use problems in a randomized trial of female condom performance☆, ☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Terri; Warner, Lee; Macaluso, Maurizio; Frezieres, Ron; Snead, Margaret; Wraxall, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Background Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker for semen exposure, may provide a more objective measure of condom failure than subject self-reports. Methods for measuring PSA vary and their comparability with respect to assessing condom performance has not been adequately evaluated. This study compared results from three different PSA assays of vaginal samples collected by subjects in a randomized clinical trial which compared the performance of female condoms. Study Design We selected 30 pairs of pre- and post-coital vaginal samples from subjects who reported condom functionality problems or whose original PSA assay was positive. Samples were retested using three different PSA assays [quantitative enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA), rocket immune-electrophoresis (RIE) and chromatographic immunoassay (CIA)]. We compared the proportion of condom uses where the post-coital PSA result indicated semen exposure for each of the three assays. Results Despite varying levels of sensitivity, the results from all three assays were remarkably consistent. Self-reported condom failures did not correlate well with positive PSA results, suggesting that exclusive reliance on either PSA or user self-report may be inadequate for assessing condom functionality. Conclusion In combination with user self-report of condom failure, PSA testing provides a reliable, objective marker of condom functionality. Studies based on PSA testing may improve on conventional contraceptive clinical trials by offering a more direct assessment of a condom product's ability to prevent semen exposure. PMID:22386229

  7. Addressing the Academic and Social Needs of Young Male Students through School-Based Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Curtis E.

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed the problem within the U.S. public school system to sustainably meet the academic and social needs of its African American male students. The administrative team of the elementary school in this study desired an evaluation of a school-based male mentoring program that was designed to address these needs. The program, Gentlemen…

  8. Aleph Field Solver Challenge Problem Results Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Russell; Moore, Stan Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Aleph models continuum electrostatic and steady and transient thermal fields using a finite-element method. Much work has gone into expanding the core solver capability to support enriched mod- eling consisting of multiple interacting fields, special boundary conditions and two-way interfacial coupling with particles modeled using Aleph's complementary particle-in-cell capability. This report provides quantitative evidence for correct implementation of Aleph's field solver via order- of-convergence assessments on a collection of problems of increasing complexity. It is intended to provide Aleph with a pedigree and to establish a basis for confidence in results for more challeng- ing problems important to Sandia's mission that Aleph was specifically designed to address.

  9. Use of multicriteria decision analysis to address conservation conflicts.

    PubMed

    Davies, A L; Bryce, R; Redpath, S M

    2013-10-01

    Conservation conflicts are increasing on a global scale and instruments for reconciling competing interests are urgently needed. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a structured, decision-support process that can facilitate dialogue between groups with differing interests and incorporate human and environmental dimensions of conflict. MCDA is a structured and transparent method of breaking down complex problems and incorporating multiple objectives. The value of this process for addressing major challenges in conservation conflict management is that MCDA helps in setting realistic goals; entails a transparent decision-making process; and addresses mistrust, differing world views, cross-scale issues, patchy or contested information, and inflexible legislative tools. Overall we believe MCDA provides a valuable decision-support tool, particularly for increasing awareness of the effects of particular values and choices for working toward negotiated compromise, although an awareness of the effect of methodological choices and the limitations of the method is vital before applying it in conflict situations.

  10. Asperger Syndrome and the English Curriculum: Addressing the Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbinson, Hilary; Alexander, Joy

    2009-01-01

    A major criterion for the diagnosis of Asperger syndrome is an impairment of the imagination. This article focuses on the specific difficulties that students with Asperger syndrome have with the imaginative content of the English curriculum. It examines the problems with reading and writing imaginatively of a group of students with AS in a…

  11. Problem-Framing: A perspective on environmental problem-solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardwell, Lisa V.

    1991-09-01

    The specter of environmental calamity calls for the best efforts of an involved public. Ironically, the way people understand the issues all too often serves to discourage and frustrate rather than motivate them to action. This article draws from problem-solving perspectives offered by cognitive psychology and conflict management to examine a framework for thinking about environmental problems that promises to help rather than hinder efforts to address them. Problem-framing emphasizes focusing on the problem definition. Since how one defines a problem determines one's understanding of and approach to that problem, being able to redefine or reframe a problem and to explore the “problem space” can help broaden the range of alternatives and solutions examined. Problem-framing incorporates a cognitive perspective on how people respond to information. It explains why an emphasis on problem definition is not part of people's typical approach to problems. It recognizes the importance of structure and of having ways to organize that information on one's problem-solving effort. Finally, problem-framing draws on both cognitive psychology and conflict management for strategies to manage information and to create a problem-solving environment that not only encourages participation but can yield better approaches to our environmental problems.

  12. Intent Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    1995-01-01

    We have been investigating the implications of using abstractions based on intent rather than the aggregation and information-hiding abstractions commonly used in software en- gineering: Cognitive psychologists have shown that intent abstraction is consistent with human problem-solving processes. We believe that new types of specifications and designs based on this concept can assist in understanding and specifying requirements, capturing the most important design rationale information in an efficient and economical way, and supporting the process of identifying and analyzing required changes to minimize the introduction of errors. The goal of hierarchical abstraction is to allow both top-down and bottom-up reasoning about a complex system. In computer science, we have made much use of (1) part-whole abstractions where each level of a hierarchy represents an aggregation of the components at a lower level and of (2) information-hiding abstractions where each level contains the same conceptual information but hides some details about the concepts, that is, each level is a refinement of the information at a higher level.

  13. Cheaper Adjoints by Reversing Address Computations

    DOE PAGES

    Hascoët, L.; Utke, J.; Naumann, U.

    2008-01-01

    The reverse mode of automatic differentiation is widely used in science and engineering. A severe bottleneck for the performance of the reverse mode, however, is the necessity to recover certain intermediate values of the program in reverse order. Among these values are computed addresses, which traditionally are recovered through forward recomputation and storage in memory. We propose an alternative approach for recovery that uses inverse computation based on dependency information. Address storage constitutes a significant portion of the overall storage requirements. An example illustrates substantial gains that the proposed approach yields, and we show use cases in practical applications.

  14. Shared address collectives using counter mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Blocksome, Michael; Dozsa, Gabor; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R; Miller, Douglas

    2014-02-18

    A shared address space on a compute node stores data received from a network and data to transmit to the network. The shared address space includes an application buffer that can be directly operated upon by a plurality of processes, for instance, running on different cores on the compute node. A shared counter is used for one or more of signaling arrival of the data across the plurality of processes running on the compute node, signaling completion of an operation performed by one or more of the plurality of processes, obtaining reservation slots by one or more of the plurality of processes, or combinations thereof.

  15. Facilities Specifications Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athletic Business, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Provides line drawings of indoor and outdoor sporting fields reflecting the specifications and dimensional standards of each, including where additional information can be found. Sporting events from badminton, baseball, and basketball to lacrosse, swimming/diving, and volleyball are addressed. (GR)

  16. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Balance Problems Basic Facts & Information What are Balance Problems? Having good balance means being able to ... Only then can you “keep your balance.” Why Balance is Important Your feelings of dizziness may last ...

  17. Parking Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2012-01-01

    This is the story of a real problem, not a problem that is contrived, or invented for the convenience of the appropriate planning tool. This activity by a group of students, defined simply as "8FN", might be likened to an "end of term concert". If you just happened to be a delegate at the ATM Conference 2003 you might remember the analogy. Social…

  18. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  19. Transition through Teamwork: Professionals Address Student Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bube, Sue Ann; Carrothers, Carol; Johnson, Cinda

    2016-01-01

    Prior to 2013, there was no collaboration around the transition services for deaf and hard of hearing students in Washington State. Washington had numerous agencies providing excellent support, but those agencies were not working together. It was not until January 29, 2013, when pepnet 2 hosted the Building State Capacity to Address Critical…

  20. Address Systems in "The Plum Plum Pickers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geuder, Patricia A.

    1975-01-01

    The address systems in Raymond Barrio's "The Plum Plum Pickers" imply sociolinguistic differences between the Chicano and the Anglo characters. The kinds of sociolinguistic situations, the number of dyadic patterns, and the quantity of the dyadic patterns strongly suggest the differences. (Author)

  1. Preservice Educators' Confidence in Addressing Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy Jordan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 328 preservice educators' level of confidence in addressing four sexuality education domains and 21 sexuality education topics. Significant differences in confidence levels across the four domains were found for gender, academic major, sexuality education philosophy, and sexuality education knowledge. Preservice educators…

  2. 50 CFR 228.8 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 228.8 Section 228.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... the Presiding Officer, c/o Assistant Administrator, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315...

  3. 50 CFR 228.8 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 228.8 Section 228.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... the Presiding Officer, c/o Assistant Administrator, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315...

  4. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addresses. 80.174 Section 80.174 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF... Services Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions...

  5. Addressing Student Debt in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, David; Johnston, Tim; Lytle, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Student debt is a national concern. The authors address debt in the classroom to enhance students' understanding of the consequences of debt and the need for caution when financing their education. However, student feedback indicates this understanding has a delayed effect on borrowing behavior and underscores the importance of making difficult…

  6. Opening Address of Chairman Michael Pertschuk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pertschuk, Michael

    Presented to a symposium sponsored by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to consider some of the issues involved in the continuing growth of a few large companies in the field of communication, this address cites statements of concern, made by the Supreme Court and by some periodicals, that excessive concentrations of power threaten First…

  7. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonso, William R.

    2004-01-01

    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  8. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  9. Federal Offices That Address Women's Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Patricia A.; And Others

    This directory contains a listing of federal offices that address women's issues. Among the departments and agencies included are: the executive branch and the executive agencies departments of agriculture, commerce, defense (Air Force, Army, Coast Guard, Marine Corps, National Guard and Navy), education, health and human services, housing and…

  10. State of the District Address, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltai, Leslie

    This address by the Chancellor of the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) discusses recent and long-term changes in the district's programs, educational quality, and financial standing, and suggests means for future improvements. First, the paper highlights the district's achievements in improving transfer education and developing new…

  11. 40 CFR 65.14 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Addresses. 65.14 Section 65.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED... Department of Health and Environment, Bureau of Air Quality and Radiation Control, Forbes Field,...

  12. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores how…

  13. 76 FR 80903 - Mandatory Declassification Review Addresses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... of the Secretary Mandatory Declassification Review Addresses AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION... Declassification Review requests may be sent. This notice benefits the public in advising them where to send such requests for declassification review. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Robert Storer, (571)...

  14. Native Women at Risk: Addressing Cancer Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiemann, Kay M. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses outcomes of a conference that brought together representatives from Indian tribes, state health departments, the Indian Health Service, the Mayo Clinic, and the American Cancer Society, to address the high rate of cervical cancer among American Indian women. Describes barriers to health care and plans to promote cancer screening among…

  15. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Mailing addresses. 600.2 Section 600.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... Health, 21 Wilson Dr., rm. 107, Bethesda, MD 20892-6780. (d) Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting...

  16. Violence Goes to School. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Jack

    1998-01-01

    Increased juvenile violence in schools has led to suggested solutions that are politically expedient but fail to address what makes violence so appealing. Instead of school uniforms, conflict resolution programs, or media rating systems, a grass roots approach of alternative programs, parental involvement, and youth support systems could repair…

  17. Problem-Solving Methods in Agent-Oriented Software Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogg, Paul; Beydoun, Ghassan; Low, Graham

    Problem-solving methods (PSM) are abstract structures that describe specific reasoning processes employed to solve a set of similar problems. We envisage that off-the-shelf PSMs can assist in the development of agent-oriented solutions, not only as reusable and extensible components that software engineers employ for designing agent architecture solutions, but just as importantly as a set of runtime capabilities that agents themselves dynamically employ in order to solve problems. This chapter describes PSMs for agent-oriented software engineering (AOSE) that address interaction-dependent problem-solving such as negotiation or cooperation. An extension to an AOSE methodology MOBMAS is proposed whereby PSMs are integrated in the software development phases of MAS Organization Design, Internal Design, and Interaction Design. In this way, knowledge engineering drives the development of agent-oriented systems.

  18. Mapping virtual addresses to different physical addresses for value disambiguation for thread memory access requests

    DOEpatents

    Gala, Alan; Ohmacht, Martin

    2014-09-02

    A multiprocessor system includes nodes. Each node includes a data path that includes a core, a TLB, and a first level cache implementing disambiguation. The system also includes at least one second level cache and a main memory. For thread memory access requests, the core uses an address associated with an instruction format of the core. The first level cache uses an address format related to the size of the main memory plus an offset corresponding to hardware thread meta data. The second level cache uses a physical main memory address plus software thread meta data to store the memory access request. The second level cache accesses the main memory using the physical address with neither the offset nor the thread meta data after resolving speculation. In short, this system includes mapping of a virtual address to a different physical addresses for value disambiguation for different threads.

  19. Addressing Disruptive Behaviors in an after School Program Classroom: The Effects of the Daily Behavior Report Card

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorvey, Zamecia J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to address behavior discipline problems in special and general education setting classrooms. Disruptive behaviors are a major concern as they create excessive stress and demands for classroom teachers and school administrators to address them. Effective interventions are needed to properly address them. Moreover, classroom…

  20. Managing soil remediation problems.

    PubMed

    Okx, J P; Hordijk, L; Stein, A

    1996-12-01

    Soil remediation has only a short history but the problem addressed is a significant one. Cost estimates for the clean-up of contaminated sites in the European Union and the United States are in the order of magnitude of 1,400 billion ECU. Such an enormous operation deserves the best management it can get. Reliable cost estimations per contaminated site are an important prerequisite. This paper addresses the problems related to site-wise estimations.When solving soil remediation problems, we have to deal with a large number of scientific disciplines. Too often solutions are presented from the viewpoint of only one discipline. In order to benefit from the combined disciplinary knowledge and experience, we think that it is necessary to describe the interrelations between these disciplines. This can be realized by developing an adequate model of the desired process which enables to consider and evaluate the essential factors as interdependent components of the total system.The resulting model provides a binding paradigm to the contributing disciplines which will result in improved efficiency and effectivity of the decision and the cost estimation process. In the near future, we will release the "Biosparging and Bioventing Expert Support System", an expert support system for problem owners, consultants and authorities dealing with the design and operation of a biosparging and/or a bioventing system.

  1. Partnerships to address obesity disparities in Hawai'i: the PILI 'Ohana Project.

    PubMed

    Nacapoy, Andrea H; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; West, Margaret R; Dillard, Adrienne Y; Leake, Anne; Kekauoha, B Puni; Palakiko, Donna-Marie; Siu, Andrea; Mosier, Sean W; Marjorie, K Mau

    2008-09-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an approach to scientific research that is gaining broader application to address persistent problems in health care disparities and other hypothesis-driven research. However, information on how to form CBPR community-academic partnerships and how to best involve community partners in scientific research is not well-defined. The purpose of this paper is to share the experience of the Partnership for Improving Lifestyle Interventions (PILl) 'Ohana Project in forming a co-equal CBPR community-academic partnership that involved 5 different community partners in a scientific research study to address obesity disparities in Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Peoples (i.e., Samoans, Chuukese, and Filipinos). Specifically, the paper discusses (1) the formation of our community-academic partnership including identification of the research topic; (2) the development of the CBPR infrastructure to foster a sustainable co-equal research environment; and (3) the collaboration in designing a community-based and community-led intervention. The paper concludes with a brief summary of the authors' thoughts about CBPR partnerships from both the academic and community perspectives.

  2. Network problem threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gejji, Raghvendra, R.

    1992-01-01

    Network transmission errors such as collisions, CRC errors, misalignment, etc. are statistical in nature. Although errors can vary randomly, a high level of errors does indicate specific network problems, e.g. equipment failure. In this project, we have studied the random nature of collisions theoretically as well as by gathering statistics, and established a numerical threshold above which a network problem is indicated with high probability.

  3. Teaching Water: Connecting across Disciplines and into Daily Life to Address Complex Societal Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Arri; Hall, Anne; Lee, Tong Soon; Zupko, Jack

    2009-01-01

    A central problem in higher education is how to best develop in students interdisciplinary thinking and application skills necessary to work and engage effectively in the twenty-first century. Traditional university structures make addressing this problem especially challenging. Using as a model courses with diverse perspectives on water taught by…

  4. An Integrated Approach to Addressing Addiction and Depression in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Arri; Kushner, Howard; McLeod, Mark; Queen, Edward; Gordon, Jonathan; Ford, John L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present an integrated, interdisciplinary approach to address the problem of increasing student mental health issues on college campuses. The model uses addiction and depression as lenses into the problem and links residence life and academic and community internship experiences. The project has a positive impact on student attitudes…

  5. Self-Assembly of Structures with Addressable Complexity.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, William M; Frenkel, Daan

    2016-03-01

    The self-assembly of structures with "addressable complexity", where every component is distinct and is programmed to occupy a specific location within a target structure, is a promising route to engineering materials with precisely defined morphologies. Because systems with many components are inherently complicated, one might assume that the chances of successful self-assembly are extraordinarily small. Yet recent advances suggest otherwise: addressable structures with hundreds of distinct building blocks have been designed and assembled with nanometer precision. Despite this remarkable success, it is often challenging to optimize a self-assembly reaction to ensure that the intended structure is kinetically accessible. In this Perspective, we focus on the prediction of kinetic pathways for self-assembly and implications for the design of robust experimental protocols. The development of general principles to predict these pathways will enable the engineering of complex materials using a much wider range of building blocks than is currently possible. PMID:26862684

  6. [Reflections on the limits of specific treatments in thoracic oncology].

    PubMed

    Dansin, E; Lauridant, G; Reich, M; Villet, S; Fournel, P

    2015-02-01

    The modest impact of specific treatments is a major problem in oncology and particularly for metastatic lung cancer patients. Therapeutic progress achieved by some targeted therapies is, in fact, only relevant for a small proportion of patients. The vast majority of people with this condition are rapidly confronted by the limits of specific therapies and management is or becomes entirely palliative. This article addresses therapeutic limitations in the management of metastatic lung cancer, as well as legislative aspects and guidelines for practitioners when discussing these issues with patients, together with a discussion of the psychological consequences for patients. PMID:25765121

  7. Problem Solving in the General Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troutman, Andria Price; Lichtenberg, Betty Plunkett

    1974-01-01

    Five steps common to different problem solving models are listed. Next, seven specific abilities related to solving problems are discussed and examples given. Sample activities, appropriate to help in developing these specific abilities, are suggested. (LS)

  8. Addressing community concerns about asthma and air toxics.

    PubMed Central

    White, Mary C; Berger-Frank, Sherri A; Middleton, Dannie C; Falk, Henry

    2002-01-01

    People with asthma who live near or downwind from a source of toxic emissions commonly express concerns about the possible impact of hazardous air pollution on their health, especially when these emissions are visible or odorous. Citizens frequently turn to their local and state health departments for answers, but health departments face many challenges in addressing these concerns. These challenges include a lack of asthma statistics at the local level, limited exposure information, and a paucity of scientific knowledge about the contributions of hazardous air pollutants to asthma induction or exacerbation. Health agencies are creatively developing methods to address these challenges while working toward improving asthma surveillance data at the state and local levels. Recent community health investigations suggest that hazardous air pollutants that are occupational asthmagens or associated with odors may deserve more attention. In seeking to address community concerns about hazardous air pollution and asthma, community health investigations may also help to fill gaps in our scientific knowledge and identify areas for further research or environmental intervention. The solutions to community problems associated with environmental contamination and asthma, however, require sustained, coordinated efforts by public and private groups and citizens. Public health agencies can make a unique contribution to this effort, but additional resources and support will be required to develop information systems and epidemiologic capacity at the state and local levels. PMID:12194887

  9. Hearing Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... This flow chart will help direct you if hearing loss is a problem for you or a family ... may damage the inner ear. This kind of hearing loss is called OCCUPATIONAL. Prevent occupational hearing loss by ...

  10. Thyroid Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... treated differently. Common thyroid disorders and problems include: Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism is a disorder in which your thyroid doesn’ ... normal after you get better. If you have hypothyroidism, however, the levels of T4 in your blood ...

  11. Kidney Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & Information The kidneys are two ... the production of red blood cells. What are Kidney Diseases? For about one-third of older people, ...

  12. Sleep Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... PDF 474KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  13. Speech Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... a person's ability to speak clearly. Some Common Speech Disorders Stuttering is a problem that interferes with fluent ... is a language disorder, while stuttering is a speech disorder. A person who stutters has trouble getting out ...

  14. Nipple problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Inverted nipple; Nipple problems Images Female breast Intraductal papilloma Mammary gland Abnormal discharge from the nipple Normal ... 8. Read More Breast cancer Endocrine glands Intraductal papilloma Update Date 11/16/2014 Updated by: Cynthia ...

  15. Improving student learning by addressing misconceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelmann, Carol A.; Huntoon, Jacqueline E.

    2011-12-01

    Students—and often those who teach them—come to class with preconceptions and misconceptions that hinder their learning. For instance, many K-12 students and teachers believe groundwater exists in the ground in actual rivers or lakes, but in fact, groundwater is found in permeable rock layers called aquifers. Such misconceptions need to be addressed before students can learn scientific concepts correctly. While other science disciplines have been addressing preconceptions and misconceptions for many years, the geoscience community has only recently begun to concentrate on the impact these have on students' learning. Valuable research is being done that illuminates how geologic thinking evolves from the "novice" to "expert" level. The expert is defined as an individual with deep understanding of Earth science concepts. As research progresses, geoscientists are realizing that correcting preconceptions and misconceptions can move teachers and students closer to the "expert" level [Libarkin, 2005].

  16. Addressing medical errors in hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Shepard P; Adkinson, Joshua M; Chung, Kevin C

    2014-09-01

    Influential think tanks such as the Institute of Medicine have raised awareness about the implications of medical errors. In response, organizations, medical societies, and hospitals have initiated programs to decrease the incidence and prevent adverse effects of these errors. Surgeons deal with the direct implications of adverse events involving patients. In addition to managing the physical consequences, they are confronted with ethical and social issues when caring for a harmed patient. Although there is considerable effort to implement system-wide changes, there is little guidance for hand surgeons on how to address medical errors. Admitting an error by a physician is difficult, but a transparent environment where patients are notified of errors and offered consolation and compensation is essential to maintain physician-patient trust. Furthermore, equipping hand surgeons with a guide for addressing medical errors will help identify system failures, provide learning points for safety improvement, decrease litigation against physicians, and demonstrate a commitment to ethical and compassionate medical care.

  17. Accelerating adaptation of natural resource management to address climate change.

    PubMed

    Cross, Molly S; McCarthy, Patrick D; Garfin, Gregg; Gori, David; Enquist, Carolyn A F

    2013-02-01

    Natural resource managers are seeking tools to help them address current and future effects of climate change. We present a model for collaborative planning aimed at identifying ways to adapt management actions to address the effects of climate change in landscapes that cross public and private jurisdictional boundaries. The Southwest Climate Change Initiative (SWCCI) piloted the Adaptation for Conservation Targets (ACT) planning approach at workshops in 4 southwestern U.S. landscapes. This planning approach successfully increased participants' self-reported capacity to address climate change by providing them with a better understanding of potential effects and guiding the identification of solutions. The workshops fostered cross-jurisdictional and multidisciplinary dialogue on climate change through active participation of scientists and managers in assessing climate change effects, discussing the implications of those effects for determining management goals and activities, and cultivating opportunities for regional coordination on adaptation of management plans. Facilitated application of the ACT framework advanced group discussions beyond assessing effects to devising options to mitigate the effects of climate change on specific species, ecological functions, and ecosystems. Participants addressed uncertainty about future conditions by considering more than one climate-change scenario. They outlined opportunities and identified next steps for implementing several actions, and local partnerships have begun implementing actions and conducting additional planning. Continued investment in adaptation of management plans and actions to address the effects of climate change in the southwestern United States and extension of the approaches used in this project to additional landscapes are needed if biological diversity and ecosystem services are to be maintained in a rapidly changing world.

  18. Euler's Three-Body Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Walter J.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the simplest three-body problem, known as Euler's problem. The article, intended for students in the undergraduate mathematics and physics curricula, shows how the complex equations for a specific three-body problem can be solved on a small calculator. (HM)

  19. Increasing hope by addressing clients' outcome expectations.

    PubMed

    Swift, Joshua K; Derthick, Annie O

    2013-09-01

    Addressing clients' outcome expectations is an important clinical process that can lead to a strong therapeutic alliance, more positive treatment outcomes, and decreased rates of premature termination from psychotherapy. Five interventions designed to foster appropriate outcome expectations are discussed, including presenting a convincing treatment rationale, increasing clients' faith in their therapists, expressing faith in clients, providing outcome education, and comparing progress with expectations. Clinical examples and research support are provided for each. PMID:24000836

  20. Intent Specifications: An Approach to Building Human-Centered Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines and proposes an approach to writing software specifications, based on research in systems theory, cognitive psychology, and human-machine interaction. The goal is to provide specifications that support human problem solving and the tasks that humans must perform in software development and evolution. A type of specification, called intent specifications, is constructed upon this underlying foundation.