Science.gov

Sample records for address specific problems

  1. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems. PMID:21537142

  2. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  3. Initiative Addresses Subsurface Energy and Environment Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Majer, Ernest L.; Wang, Joseph S. Y.; Colwell, Frederick; Redden, George

    2006-01-01

    Members of the geoscience community are cooperating in conceptualizing fundamental, crosscutting research to address major obstacles to solving energy and environmental problems related to the subsurface, through the SECUREarth initiative, which began in 2004. Addressing problems, such as reliable nuclear waste storage and safe carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration, are critical to maintaining an economical and safe energy supply and clean environment. A recent workshop in Golden, Colo., helped to further the development of the SECUREarth (Scientific Energy/Environmental Crosscutting Underground Research for Urgent Solutions to Secure the Earth's Future) initiative by identifying the key scientific challenges in the geosciences, as well as to target possible approaches for overcoming roadblocks.

  4. Autocheck: Addressing the Problem of Rural Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Guy A.

    This paper describes a project implemented by a social worker from the Glynn County School District in rural Georgia to address transportation problems experienced by students and their families. The project aims to assist families who are unable to keep appointments or attend other important events due to unreliable transportation. A county needs…

  5. Problem Solvers: Solutions--The Inaugural Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dause, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Fourth graders in Miss Dause's and Mrs. Hicks's mathematics classes at South Mountain Elementary School in Dillsburg, Pennsylvania, worked with the data from the Inauagural Address problem that was previously published published in the February 2013 issue of "Teaching Children Mathematics". This activity allowed students to…

  6. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems.

    PubMed

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin's dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber's structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure. PMID:27345617

  7. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin’s dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber’s structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure.

  8. Specific Pronunciation Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Peter; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reviews common pronunciation problems experienced by learners of English as a second language who are native speakers of Vietnamese, Cantonese, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Polish, Greek, and Punjabi. (CB)

  9. Addressing the call-back problem

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, R.

    1985-08-01

    Service recalls or call-backs are one of the costliest and most persistent of service management problems. Although all service industries have call-back problems each time the oilburner breaks down, the customer has what could be a costly inconvenience. Every customer complaint reduces loyalty and makes the industry more and more vulnerable to competition, not just from each other but, from the utilities and the discounters. A customer who gets prompt, capable service will usually stay with his present company and, just as importantly, he stays with fuel oil. If the industry were to place the blame for call-backs on a particular person or area it would probably be in the individual serviceman. The lack of training, lack of motivation, lack of compassion for the customer or lack of company spirit, is discussed.

  10. Addressing dual agency: getting specific about the expectations of professionalism.

    PubMed

    Tilburt, Jon C

    2014-01-01

    Professionalism requires that physicians uphold the best interests of patients while simultaneously insuring just use of health care resources. Current articulations of these obligations like the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation's Physician Charter do not reconcile how these obligations fit together when they conflict. This is the problem of dual agency. The most common ways of dealing with dual agency: "bunkering"--physicians act as though societal cost issues are not their problem; "bailing"--physicians assume that they are merely agents of society and deliver care typically based on a strongly consequentialist public health ethic; or "balancing"--a vaguely specified attempt to uphold both patient welfare and societal need for judicious resource use simultaneously--all fail. Here I propose how the problem of dual agency might begin to be addressed with rigor and consistency. Without dealing with the dual agency problem and getting more specific about how to reconcile its norms when they conflict, the expectations of professionalism risk being written off as cute, nonbinding aphorisms from the medical profession. PMID:25127273

  11. The Significance of Problems Addressed in Recent Vocational Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucel, David J.

    1983-01-01

    This article examines the significance of problems addressed in recent vocational education research published in volumes 4 and 5 of the "Journal of Vocational Education Research" and volumes 16 and 17 of the "Journal of Industrial Teacher Education." (SSH)

  12. Addressing Sexual Problems in HIV Primary Care: Experiences from Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Collier, Kate L.; Grossberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that sexual problems are common among people living with HIV and may be related to sexual risk taking and treatment adherence. This study explored the extent to which sexual problems experienced by people with HIV are addressed in primary care as well as how primary care responses to sexual problems are experienced by patients. Structured interviews were conducted with 60 patients at an urban HIV clinic. The average age of the participants (37 male, 23 female) was 45.8 years (SD = 7.9). Sexual problems were common. The most common sexual problem experienced in the past year was a lack of interest in sex (53.3 % reported) and the least common problem was painful intercourse (reported by 20 %). There were no gender differences in reports of sexual problems, except that painful intercourse was more frequently reported by women than men. Relatively few individuals who experienced sexual problems had discussed them with their provider, but these individuals were generally pleased with the counseling they had received and could identify several factors that facilitated a positive patient-provider interaction. Those who offer primary care services to people with HIV should be aware of sexual problems their patients may be experiencing and should feel confident in their ability to successfully address these problems. Providers may need additional training in order to adequately address sexual problems among people with HIV in primary care settings. PMID:22965768

  13. Addressing the Mathematics-Specific Needs of Beginning Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Beginning mathematics teachers at the secondary level (middle and high school grades) have mathematics-specific needs that induction programs should address more substantially. However, a number of issues in how programs can accomplish this are more complex than often framed in discussions occurring in the induction programs and the field of…

  14. Time to address the problems at the neural interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Dominique M.; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Krames, Elliot

    2014-04-01

    interface with the CNS. In 2013, two symposia were held independently to discuss this problem: one was held at the International Neuromodulation Society's 11th World Congress in Berlin and supported by the International Neuromodulation Society1 and the other at the 6th International Neural Engineering conference in San Diego2 and was supported by the NSF. Clearly, the neuromodulation and the neural engineering communities are keen to solve this problem. Experts from the field were assembled to discuss the problems and potential solutions. Although many important points were raised, few emerged as key issues. (1) The ability to access remotely and reliably internal neural signals . Although some of the technological problems have already been solved, this ability to access neural signals is still a significant problem since reliable and robust transcutaneous telemetry systems with large numbers of signals, each with wide bandwidth, are not readily available to researchers. (2) A translation strategy taking basic research to the clinic . The lack of understanding of the biological response to implanted constructs and the inability to monitor the sites and match the mechanical properties of the probe to the neural tissue properties continue to be an unsolved problem. In addition, the low levels of collaboration among neuroscientists, clinicians, patients and other stakeholders throughout different phases of research and development were considered to be significant impediments to progress. (3) Fundamental tools development procedures for neural interfacing . There are many laboratories testing various devices with different sets of criteria, but there is no consensus on the failure modes. The reliability, robustness of metrics and testing standards for such devices have not been established, either in academia or in industry. To start addressing this problem, the FDA has established a laboratory to test the reliability of some neural devices. Although the discussion was mostly

  15. On Using Meta-Modeling and Multi-Modeling to Address Complex Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu Jbara, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Models, created using different modeling techniques, usually serve different purposes and provide unique insights. While each modeling technique might be capable of answering specific questions, complex problems require multiple models interoperating to complement/supplement each other; we call this Multi-Modeling. To address the syntactic and…

  16. Time to address the problems at the neural interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Dominique M.; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Krames, Elliot

    2014-04-01

    interface with the CNS. In 2013, two symposia were held independently to discuss this problem: one was held at the International Neuromodulation Society's 11th World Congress in Berlin and supported by the International Neuromodulation Society1 and the other at the 6th International Neural Engineering conference in San Diego2 and was supported by the NSF. Clearly, the neuromodulation and the neural engineering communities are keen to solve this problem. Experts from the field were assembled to discuss the problems and potential solutions. Although many important points were raised, few emerged as key issues. (1) The ability to access remotely and reliably internal neural signals . Although some of the technological problems have already been solved, this ability to access neural signals is still a significant problem since reliable and robust transcutaneous telemetry systems with large numbers of signals, each with wide bandwidth, are not readily available to researchers. (2) A translation strategy taking basic research to the clinic . The lack of understanding of the biological response to implanted constructs and the inability to monitor the sites and match the mechanical properties of the probe to the neural tissue properties continue to be an unsolved problem. In addition, the low levels of collaboration among neuroscientists, clinicians, patients and other stakeholders throughout different phases of research and development were considered to be significant impediments to progress. (3) Fundamental tools development procedures for neural interfacing . There are many laboratories testing various devices with different sets of criteria, but there is no consensus on the failure modes. The reliability, robustness of metrics and testing standards for such devices have not been established, either in academia or in industry. To start addressing this problem, the FDA has established a laboratory to test the reliability of some neural devices. Although the discussion was mostly

  17. Evidence-Based Practices for Addressing Classroom Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hye-Suk Lee; Lynch, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers of young children can plan proactively so that they avoid some of the serious problem behaviors in the classroom. The strategies presented in this article are part of a problem solving approach to challenging behavior based on the principles of positive behavioral support. Although these methods presented here have research-based…

  18. Exploring the role of Natural Helpers in efforts to address disparities for children with conduct problems

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Polakovich, I. David; Niec, Larissa N.; Barnett, Miya L.; Bell, Katrina M.; Aguilar, Gerardo; Vilca, Jeanette; Abbenante-Honold, Emily S.; Christian, Allison S.; Peer, Samuel O.

    2014-01-01

    The incorporation of natural helpers into services has been suggested as an innovative strategy to address disparities for historically underserved children with conduct problems. In order to inform incorporation efforts, this study examined the perceptions of natural helpers serving one U.S. Latina/o community regarding need for services for children with conduct problems, their reactions to a specific parent training intervention, and the training and support needed to deliver this intervention successfully. Participants identified a need for culturally-responsive services for children with conduct problems, and felt that parent training would be appropriate for the families they serve. Participants further identified specific training and support that they would require in order to deliver parent training with fidelity and effectiveness. Findings support the suggestion that natural helpers have the potential to address service disparities among Latina/o children with conduct problems. Recommendations from natural helpers should guide the development of culturally-adapted preventive interventions that help address existing service disparities. PMID:24910488

  19. Selective Prevention: Addressing Vulnerability to Problem Drug Use in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Gregor; Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Bo, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Following the 2003 publication of the European Union (EU) Council Recommendations and the 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 EU Drugs Action Plans, increasing attention has been given in EU member states' drug policies to populations that are vulnerable to problem drug use (PDU). Monitoring data reported to the EMCDDA by designated agencies from 30 countries…

  20. Stressed Stream Analysis--Addressing Environmental Problems in Local Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Uses environmental impact analysis as a unifying theme to provide students with real problem-solving experiences without neglecting the principles and theories of the basic scientific disciplines undergirding environmental science. Provides information about stressed stream analysis, which connects environmental impact analysis and Great Lakes…

  1. An effective way to address global environmental and energy problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrienko, O.; Garelina, S.; Gysev, A.; Zakharyan, R.; Kazaryan, M.; Sachkov, V.

    2015-12-01

    This work scales the present globalism of ecological and energetic problems. The ecological problem is connected with environment pollution by polymeric waste. The energetic problem - with traditional approaches of modern energetic, in particular, use of fossil fuel for energy production and concentration of capacities for ensuring overall performance of global power supply systems that doesn't guarantee a sustainable development of power for long prospect, doesn't provide power safety of the country. The second part of work is devoted to a choice of the most effective solutions of the present global problems. The authors have proposed the plasma-chemical method of the polymer waste processing and developed a schematic diagram of the reactor. The paper contains the results of the theoretical calculation of the polymer waste processing products. The reagents, allowing to obtain hydrogen and other liquid products from polymer waste are selected. It is proposed to use rare elements for increasing the efficiency of hydrogen production from polymer waste. The results of the calculation of the efficiency of hydrogen production from polymer waste using molybdenum are revealed in the paper.

  2. How Do Medical Teachers Address the Problem of Transfer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laksov, Klara Bolander; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Clinical teachers often complain that medical students have forgotten or somehow "lost" knowledge that has been taught at pre-clinical levels at the time of entering the clinical part of education. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore, whether transfer of knowledge was identified as a problem by the teaching staff of anatomy and…

  3. Addressing Problems Encountered in Case-Based Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turgeon, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    TURF 436 (Case Studies in Turfgrass Management) is the capstone course for turfgrass science majors at the Pennsylvania State University. Students are introduced to problems and complex problematic situations encountered in the management of golf and sports turf and in professional lawn-care operations. Following completion of the orientation case…

  4. Air toxics risk standards: are we addressing the real problems?

    SciTech Connect

    Laurie Miller; Richard Becker; Ted Cromwell

    2005-06-01

    Cost-effective risk reductions from major stationary emission sources have seen significant progress. EPA and state data demonstrate that their programs have dramatically reduced emissions and risk from these sources. Analyses indicate that the next generation of risk reductions for stationary sources will be provide little risk reduction, but will be much more costly and more challenging from a policy perspective. Facing these tough choices, EPA and state regulators should, with stakeholder input, be developing scientifically driven and cost-effective approaches to provide the public with honest answers and results. Air toxics risk policies and programs must prioritize and address significant remaining air toxics risks, educate and communicate to the public about the decision alternatives, build support for a holistic approach and openly communicate results. 6 refs.

  5. Event-Specific Prevention: addressing college student drinking during known windows of risk.

    PubMed

    Neighbors, Clayton; Walters, Scott T; Lee, Christine M; Vader, Amanda M; Vehige, Tamara; Szigethy, Thomas; DeJong, William

    2007-11-01

    The unique drinking patterns of college students call for Event-Specific Prevention (ESP) strategies that address college student drinking associated with peak times and events. Despite limited research evaluating ESP, many college campuses are currently implementing programming for specific events. The present paper provides a review of existing literature related to ESP and offers practical guidance for research and practice. The prevention typology proposed by DeJong and Langford [DeJong, W. & Langford, L. M. (2002). A typology for campus-based alcohol prevention: Moving toward environmental management strategies. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 140-147.] provides a framework for strategic planning, suggesting that programs and policies should address problems at the individual, group, institution, community, state, and society level, and that these interventions should focus on knowledge change, environmental change, health protection, and intervention and treatment services. From this typology, specific examples are provided for comprehensive program planning related to orientation/beginning of school year, homecoming, 21st birthday celebrations, spring break, and graduation. In addition, the University of Connecticut's efforts to address problems resulting from its annual Spring Weekend are described as an illustration of how advance planning by campus and community partners can produce a successful ESP effort. PMID:17616260

  6. Event-Specific Prevention: Addressing College Student Drinking During Known Windows of Risk

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Walters, Scott T.; Lee, Christine M.; Vader, Amanda M.; Vehige, Tamara; Szigethy, Thomas; DeJong, William

    2007-01-01

    The unique drinking patterns of college students call for Event-Specific Prevention (ESP) strategies that address college student drinking associated with peak times and events. Despite limited research evaluating ESP, many college campuses are currently implementing programming for specific events. The present paper provides a review of existing literature related to ESP and offers practical guidance for research and practice. The prevention typology proposed by DeJong and Langford (2002) provides a framework for strategic planning, suggesting that programs and policies should address problems at the individual, group, institution, community, state, and society level, and that these interventions should focus on knowledge change, environmental change, health protection, and intervention and treatment services. From this typology, specific examples are provided for comprehensive program planning related to orientation/beginning of school year, homecoming, 21st birthday celebrations, spring break, and graduation. In addition, the University of Connecticut’s efforts to address problems resulting from its annual Spring Weekend are described as an illustration of how advance planning by campus and community partners can produce a successful ESP effort. PMID:17616260

  7. Addressing the Pilot security problem with gLExec

    SciTech Connect

    Sfiligoi, I.; Koeroo, O.; Venekamp, G.; Yocum, D.; Groep, D.; Petravick, D.; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    The Grid security mechanisms were designed under the assumption that users would submit their jobs directly to the Grid gatekeepers. Many groups are however starting to use pilot-based infrastructures, where users submit jobs to a centralized queue and are successively transferred to the Grid resources by the pilot infrastructure. While this approach greatly improves the user experience, it does introduce several security and policy issues, the more serious being the lack of system level protection between the users and the inability for Grid sites to apply fine grained authorization policies. One possible solution to the problem is provided by gLExec, a X.509 aware suexec derivative. By using gLExec, the pilot workflow becomes as secure as any traditional one.

  8. Applied social and behavioral science to address complex health problems.

    PubMed

    Livingood, William C; Allegrante, John P; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Clark, Noreen M; Windsor, Richard C; Zimmerman, Marc A; Green, Lawrence W

    2011-11-01

    Complex and dynamic societal factors continue to challenge the capacity of the social and behavioral sciences in preventive medicine and public health to overcome the most seemingly intractable health problems. This paper proposes a fundamental shift from a research approach that presumes to identify (from highly controlled trials) universally applicable interventions expected to be implemented "with fidelity" by practitioners, to an applied social and behavioral science approach similar to that of engineering. Such a shift would build on and complement the recent recommendations of the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research and require reformulation of the research-practice dichotomy. It would also require disciplines now engaged in preventive medicine and public health practice to develop a better understanding of systems thinking and the science of application that is sensitive to the complexity, interactivity, and unique elements of community and practice settings. Also needed is a modification of health-related education to ensure that those entering the disciplines develop instincts and capacities as applied scientists. PMID:22011425

  9. Customization of cutting blocks: Can this address the problem?

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Adolph V; Frye, Benjamin M

    2012-12-01

    Recent literature has challenged the notion that neutral coronal alignment is a requirement for long-term survivorship of TKAs. However a preponderance of classic and contemporary evidence supports increased failure rates with malalignment, especially varus. Patient-specific custom cutting guides are an attractive alternative to traditional instrumentation and computer navigation in achieving accurate alignment of total knee arthroplasties. The logistical benefits include possible decreased operating room time, decreased turnover time, less time spent sterilizing and preparing trays, less inventory, less strain on surgical technicians and nurses, and no capital cost associated with computer navigation. Patient benefits include potentially less tourniquet time, less surgical exposure, no requirement of intramedullary canal preparation, and improved mechanical alignment, which may translate to increased implant longevity. Surgeon benefits include potentially more accurate landmark registration than computer navigation, more efficient surgery, decreased intraoperative stress due to less required decision making, and the ability to perform more surgeries due to time saved. PMID:23054623

  10. New ways to develop biosensors towards addressing practical problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starodub, N. F.

    2013-11-01

    The main modern approaches which were realized at the development of new generation of biosensors intended for application in field of diagnostics, food quality control and environmental monitoring are presented. The main attention was paid to creation of the multi-parametrical and multi-functional enzymatic and immune biosensors which were realized for the complex diagnostics of diabetes, autoimmune state and for the control of process of sugar production. The label-free bioaffine devices based on the nano-porouse silicon (NPS) with the registration of specific formed signal by chemiluminescence (ChL) and photoresistivity and intended for the determination mycotoxins and diagnostics of retroviral bovine leukemia (RBL) are analyzed too. Improving of ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) through changing silicon nitride on the cerium oxide is discussed as perspective approach in case of micotoxins and Salmonella control. In the conclusion the possibility to replace biological sensitive elements by artificial ones is considered.

  11. [Collections of pathogenic viruses for addressing general biologic problems].

    PubMed

    Markin, V A

    2007-01-01

    Development of the theory and practice of building and maintenance of collections of reference cultures of pathogens strains is actual in conservation of a biodiversity, and as for maintenance with standardized superfine starting materials fundamental and applied researches in fields of microbiology, an immunology, biotechnology, ecology, and biosafety. Various approaches to taxonomy of viruses, and also definition of concepts "strain" and "species" are discussed in the article. Formulations of the concepts most conforming to museum collections activity are given. The methodology of collecting pathogens, including fifteen-year experience of maintenance of the National collection of hemorrhagic fever viruses belonging to group I of pathogenicity, is summarized. The systemic approach is suggested as a basis of methodology of collecting. Selection of pathogen species and their specific strains according to purpose and on the basis of complex study of their biological and other characteristics, as well as standardization and unification of methods of pathogens maintenance and preparing on their basis working materials, diagnostic kits and other preparations, create a real basis of optimization, unification and continuity of the subsequent applied researches. The offer about formation at the state level of a new independent direction--pathogens collecting with establishment of federal centers based on pathogens' classes has been made. PMID:18277545

  12. Software programs that address site-specific inventory characteristics issues.

    SciTech Connect

    Dare, J. H.; Cournoyer, M. E.

    2001-01-01

    The proper characterization of Hazardous, Mixed Low-Level, and Mixed Transuranic waste enhances productivity and safety. Hazardous material criteria that need to be considered include physical and health hazards inherent to the waste stream. Other factors that may influence characterization include: particulate diameter, complexing or chelating agent properties, lead, and mercury content, pressurized containers, and P-listed wastes. To meet these requirements are only a simple matter of generating a database with the proper fields. Manufactures and institutional databases bank huge sources of information, such as, work control documents, substance identification, container types, components of mixtures, physical property data, and regulatory data. In this report, utilization of commercially available software programs to take advantage of these resources in addressing waste characterization issues are presented. The application of user-friendly programs eliminates part of the tediousness associated with the complex requirements of certifying to general waste acceptance criteria with minimal impact on programmatic work. In other words, tapping into manufacturer and institutional database provides a way to take advantage of the combined expertise of these resources in managing a cost effective waste certification program as well as adding a quality assurance element to the program.

  13. Potential effects of the introduction of the discrete address beacon system data link on air/ground information transfer problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    This study of Aviation Safety Reporting System reports suggests that benefits should accure from implementation of discrete address beacon system data link. The phase enhanced terminal information system service is expected to provide better terminal information than present systems by improving currency and accuracy. In the exchange of air traffic control messages, discrete address insures that only the intended recipient receives and acts on a specific message. Visual displays and printer copy of messages should mitigate many of the reported problems associated with voice communications. The problems that remain unaffected include error in addressing the intended recipient and messages whose content is wrong but are otherwise correct as to format and reasonableness.

  14. 46 CFR 107.317 - Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications, and calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications, and calculations. 107.317 Section 107.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Plan Approval § 107.317 Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications,...

  15. Achieving Success with More Students: Addressing the Problem of Students At Risk, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    This resource book was developed to provide information that state and local leaders can use to stimulate discussion of the problem of students at risk and support the planning of initiatives that address the problem. An overview defines students at risk, summarizes the content of the book, and lists recent reports and publications on the problem…

  16. A Problem-Solving Approach to Addressing Current Global Challenges in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Judith D.; Aspin, David N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper begins with an analysis of global problems shaping education, particularly as they impact upon learning and life chances. In addressing these problems a range of philosophical positions and controversies are considered, including: traditional romantic and institutional views of schooling; and more recent maximalist, neo-liberal,…

  17. School Nurses' Perceived Prevalence and Competence to Address Student Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…

  18. An Approach for Addressing the Multiple Testing Problem in Social Policy Impact Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.

    2009-01-01

    In social policy evaluations, the multiple testing problem occurs due to the many hypothesis tests that are typically conducted across multiple outcomes and subgroups, which can lead to spurious impact findings. This article discusses a framework for addressing this problem that balances Types I and II errors. The framework involves specifying…

  19. Beating the Odds: Preparing Graduates to Address Gambling-Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Rafael J.; Bechtold, Jody; Kim, Yoonmi; Mulvaney, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    As gambling opportunities proliferate, social workers are likely to see clients with gambling-related problems, but they often lack the expertise to address these concerns. This descriptive study assessed the inclusion of content on gambling-related problems in graduate social work curricula. Responses to an online survey from 86 (43.7%) of the…

  20. Routing and Addressing Problems in Large Metropolitan-Scale Internetworks. ISI Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Gregory G.

    This report discusses some of the problems and limitations in existing internetwork design for the connection of packet-switching networks of different technologies and presents an algorithm that has been shown to be suitable for internetworks of unbounded size. Using a new form of address and a flat routing mechanism called Cartesian routing,…

  1. Measuring Sixth-Grade Students' Problem Solving: Validating an Instrument Addressing the Mathematics Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostic, Jonathan David; Sondergeld, Toni A.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development of a problem-solving instrument intended for classroom use that addresses the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. In this study, 137 students completed the assessment, and their responses were analyzed. Evidence for validity was collected and examined using the current standards for educational and…

  2. Addressing the Missing Instructional Data Problem: Using a Teacher Log to Document Tier 1 Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Alexander; Elliott, Stephen N.; Roach, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Response-to-intervention (RTI) systems posit that Tier 1 consists of high-quality general classroom instruction using evidence-based methods to address the needs of most students. However, data on the extent to which general education teachers provide such instruction are rarely collected. This missing instructional data problem may result in RTI…

  3. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…

  4. Families and Positive Behavior Support: Addressing Problem Behavior in Family Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucyshyn, Joseph M., Ed.; Dunlap, Glen, Ed.; Albin, Richard W., Ed.

    The 19 chapters of this volume address theory, research, and practice concerning positive behavior support with families of children and youth with developmental disabilities and problem behavior. The chapters are: (1) "Positive Behavior Support with Families" (Joseph Lucyshyn and others); (2) "Finding Positive Behavior Support One Piece at a…

  5. Specific strategies: interventions for identified problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Reed, S A

    1990-12-01

    Negativism, complaining, underachievement, game playing, passive-aggressive behavior, and workaholism constitute a repertoire of problem employee behaviors that impact on the productivity and morale of the work environment. Responding appropriately to the employee who presents with any of these behaviors is a formidable challenge to the nurse manager. Understanding the etiology of unmet needs, psychosocial dynamics (as discussed in Chapter 1) and variety of interventions can empower the nurse manager to achieve success in these difficult interactions. PMID:2081113

  6. Specific interoperability problems of security infrastructure services.

    PubMed

    Pharow, Peter; Blobel, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    Communication and co-operation in healthcare and welfare require a well-defined set of security services based on a standards-based interoperable security infrastructure and provided by a Trusted Third Party. Generally, the services describe status and relation of communicating principals, corresponding keys and attributes, and the access rights to both applications and data. Legal, social, behavioral and ethical requirements demand securely stored patient information and well-established access tools and tokens. Electronic signatures as means for securing integrity of messages and files, certified time stamps and time signatures are important for accessing and storing data in Electronic Health Record Systems. The key for all these services is a secure and reliable procedure for authentication (identification and verification). While mentioning technical problems (e.g. lifetime of the storage devices, migration of retrieval and presentation software), this paper aims at identifying harmonization and interoperability requirements of securing data items, files, messages, sets of archived items or documents, and life-long Electronic Health Records based on a secure certificate-based identification. It's commonly known that just relying on existing and emerging security standards does not necessarily guarantee interoperability of different security infrastructure approaches. So certificate separation can be a key to modern interoperable security infrastructure services. PMID:17095833

  7. What is occupational therapy's role in addressing sleep problems among older adults?

    PubMed

    Leland, Natalie E; Marcione, Nicole; Schepens Niemiec, Stacey L; Kelkar, Kaivalya; Fogelberg, Don

    2014-01-01

    Sleep problems, prevalent among older adults, are associated with poor outcomes and high health care costs. In 2008, rest and sleep became its own area of occupation in the American Occupational Therapy Association's Occupational Therapy Practice Framework. The current scoping review examined a broad context of sleep research to highlight efficacious interventions for older adults that fall within the occupational therapy scope of practice and present an agenda for research and practice. Four sleep intervention areas clearly aligned with the practice framework, including cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, physical activity, multicomponent interventions, and other interventions. Occupational therapy is primed to address sleep problems by targeting the context and environment, performance patterns, and limited engagement in evening activities that may contribute to poor sleep. Occupational therapy researchers and clinicians need to work collaboratively to establish the evidence base for occupation-centered sleep interventions to improve the health and quality of life of older adults. PMID:24844879

  8. Identification and classification of technical specification problems: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bizzak, D.J.; Stella, M.E.; Stukus, J.R.

    1987-12-01

    This report describes a methodology for a systematic review of nuclear plant technical specifications problems. Operating personnel conducted a line-by-line examination of the LaSalle Station technical specifications creating a computerized database of problems, categorized as to their cause, effect, and recommendations for resolving the problems. Some 102 technical specifications problems were identified. Results indicated that the predominant type of problem was inappropriate limiting conditions for operation. The ECCS and containment systems had the largest number of problem technical specifications. The most significant effect was extension of outage lengths. It was estimated that risk-based evaluations would help to justify desirable changes in some 40% of the problems. Both the methodology and the LaSalle database are detailed in the report. 9 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Vocal Imitation in Parrots Allows Addressing of Specific Individuals in a Dynamic Communication Network

    PubMed Central

    Balsby, Thorsten J. S.; Momberg, Jane Vestergaard; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Parrots in captivity are known for their ability to vocally imitate humans and recently it has been shown that wild-living orange-fronted conures are able to immediately imitate other individuals’ contact calls. The function of this exceptional ability to imitate remains unclear. However, orange–fronted conures live in fission-fusion flocks where they encounter many different individuals every day, and it is possible that their vocal imitation ability is a flexible means to address a specific individual within a flock. We tested this via playback to short-term captive wild conures. Test birds were placed together in pairs in outdoor aviaries to form simple flocks. To simulate imitation of a specific individual these pairs received playback of contact calls that primarily imitate one of the two birds. Overall, individuals that received simulated vocal imitations of its calls responded more frequently and faster than the other individual. This suggests that orange-fronted conures can use imitations of contact calls to address specific individuals of a flock. In the discussion we argue that the fission-fusion flock dynamics of many parrot species has been an important factor in evolving conures’ and other parrots’ exceptional ability to imitate. PMID:23185424

  10. Vocal imitation in parrots allows addressing of specific individuals in a dynamic communication network.

    PubMed

    Balsby, Thorsten J S; Momberg, Jane Vestergaard; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Parrots in captivity are known for their ability to vocally imitate humans and recently it has been shown that wild-living orange-fronted conures are able to immediately imitate other individuals' contact calls. The function of this exceptional ability to imitate remains unclear. However, orange-fronted conures live in fission-fusion flocks where they encounter many different individuals every day, and it is possible that their vocal imitation ability is a flexible means to address a specific individual within a flock. We tested this via playback to short-term captive wild conures. Test birds were placed together in pairs in outdoor aviaries to form simple flocks. To simulate imitation of a specific individual these pairs received playback of contact calls that primarily imitate one of the two birds. Overall, individuals that received simulated vocal imitations of its calls responded more frequently and faster than the other individual. This suggests that orange-fronted conures can use imitations of contact calls to address specific individuals of a flock. In the discussion we argue that the fission-fusion flock dynamics of many parrot species has been an important factor in evolving conures' and other parrots' exceptional ability to imitate. PMID:23185424

  11. In Situ Airborne Instrumentation: Addressing and Solving Measurement Problems in Ice Clouds

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Kok, Greg; Avallone, L.; Bansemer, A.; Borrmann, S.; Brown, P.; Bundke, U.; Chuang, P. Y.; Cziczo, D.; Field, P.; et al

    2012-02-01

    A meeting of 31 international experts on in situ measurements from aircraft was held to identify unresolved questions concerning ice formation and evolution in ice clouds, assess the current state of instrumentation that can address these problems, introduce emerging technology that may overcome current measurement issues and recommend future courses of action that can improve our understanding of ice cloud microphysical processes and their impact on the environment. The meeting proceedings and outcome has been described in detail in a manuscript submitted to the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) on March 24, 2011. This paper is currently undermore » review. The remainder of this summary, in the following pages, is the text of the BAMS article. A technical note that will be published by the National Center for Atmospheric Research is currently underway and is expected to be published before the end of the year.« less

  12. In Situ Airborne Instrumentation: Addressing and Solving Measurement Problems in Ice Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Kok, Greg; Avallone, L.; Bansemer, A.; Borrmann, S.; Brown, P.; Bundke, U.; Chuang, P. Y.; Cziczo, D.; Field, P.; Gallagher, M.; Gayet, J. -F.; Korolev, A.; Kraemer, M.; McFarquhar, G.; Mertes, S.; Moehler, O.; Lance, S.; Lawson, P.; Petters, M. D.; Pratt, K.; Roberts, G.; Rogers, D.; Stetzer, O.; Stith, J.; Strapp, W.; Twohy, C.; Wendisch, M.

    2012-02-01

    A meeting of 31 international experts on in situ measurements from aircraft was held to identify unresolved questions concerning ice formation and evolution in ice clouds, assess the current state of instrumentation that can address these problems, introduce emerging technology that may overcome current measurement issues and recommend future courses of action that can improve our understanding of ice cloud microphysical processes and their impact on the environment. The meeting proceedings and outcome has been described in detail in a manuscript submitted to the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) on March 24, 2011. This paper is currently under review. The remainder of this summary, in the following pages, is the text of the BAMS article. A technical note that will be published by the National Center for Atmospheric Research is currently underway and is expected to be published before the end of the year.

  13. Interpreting Perceived Effectiveness: Understanding and Addressing the Problem of Mean Validity.

    PubMed

    Dillard, James Price; Ha, Yerheen

    2016-09-01

    Research has shown that perceived message effectiveness (PE) correlates reasonably well with indices of actual effectiveness, but little attention has been given to how to interpret mean PE. This article describes the problem of mean validity and presents a research design that can be used to address it. Participants (N = 195) viewed messages that advocated being screened for colorectal cancer. The results showed downward bias in PE among members of the non-target audience (persons younger than 50) and upward bias as the referent for the judgment became more abstract/distant (self vs. persons older than 50 vs. general). The need for more research on mean validity is discussed. For applied researchers, recommendations for preferred indices of PE are offered. PMID:27565189

  14. Specific Cognitive Predictors of Early Math Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.

    2015-01-01

    Development of early math skill depends on a prerequisite level of cognitive development. Identification of specific cognitive skills that are important for math development may not only inform instructional approaches but also inform assessment approaches to identifying children with specific learning problems in math. This study investigated the…

  15. Activity Theory as a Tool to Address the Problem of Chemistry's Lack of Relevance in Secondary School Chemical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Aalsvoort, Joke

    2004-01-01

    In a previous article, the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary chemical education was analysed using logical positivism as a tool. This article starts with the hypothesis that the problem can be addressed by means of activity theory, one of the important theories within the sociocultural school. The reason for this expectation is…

  16. Multidimensional Family Therapy: Addressing Co-Occurring Substance Abuse and Other Problems among Adolescents with Comprehensive Family-Based Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Adolescent substance abuse rarely occurs without other psychiatric and developmental problems, yet it is often treated and researched as if it can be isolated from comorbid conditions. Few comprehensive interventions are available that effectively address the range of co-occurring problems associated with adolescent substance abuse. This article reviews the clinical interventions and research evidence supporting the use of Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) for adolescents with substance abuse and co-occurring problems. MDFT is uniquely suited to address adolescent substance abuse and related disorders given its comprehensive interventions that systematically target the multiple interacting risk factors underlying many developmental disruptions of adolescence. PMID:20682221

  17. Addressing the sexual problems of Iranian women in a primary health care setting: A quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Rostamkhani, Fatemeh; Jafari, Fatemeh; Ozgoli, Giti; Shakeri, Masomeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization emphasizes on integration of sexual health into primary health care services, educating people and health care workers about sexuality, and promoting optimal sexual health. Despite the high prevalence of sexual problems, these problems are poorly managed in primary health care services. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of the first two steps of PLISSIT (Permission, Limited Information, Specific Suggestions, Intensive Treatment) model for handling of women sexual problems in a primary health care setting. Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study that was carried out in Zanjan, northwest of Iran. Eighty women who had got married in the past 5 years and had sexual problem were randomly assigned to control and intervention groups. The intervention group received consultation based on PLISSIT model by a trained midwife and the control group received routine services. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire was used for assessing and tracking any changes in sexual function. Data were collected at three points: Before consultation and 2 and 4 weeks after consultation. Paired t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) test were used for comparison of scores within groups. Results: Significant improvement was found in FSFI sub-domain scores, including sexual desire (P < 0.0001), arousal (P < 0.0001), lubrication (P < 0.0001), orgasm (P = 0.005), satisfaction (P = 0.005), pain (P < 0.0001), and FSFI total score (P < 0.0001) in the intervention group compared to the control group. Conclusions: This study showed that PLISSIT model can meet the sexual health needs of clients in a primary health care setting and it can be used easily by health workers in this setting for addressing sexual complaints and dysfunctions. PMID:25709703

  18. Addressing the issue of cataloging and making chiropractic literature accessible: Part I: Defining the problem.

    PubMed

    Curl, D D; Antovich, T J

    1990-06-01

    Health science journals are a principle source of new knowledge for chiropractors, chiropractic faculty and students. Regrettably, clinically or educationally relevant articles (appearing in the nearly 20,000 journals annually) are often overlooked due to access difficulties. Innovations are needed to assist the reader to select articles relevant to chiropractic and reduce the time spent sorting through the volumes of literature. A review of the literature shows there is a trend toward database management for cataloging and accessibility of other, nonchiropractic, literature. Most notable of these is an endeavor by National Technical Information Service, commonly referred to as MEDLARS (Medline). It is interesting to note that a computer-assisted library database program does not exist on any chiropractic campus. This is in contrast with the trend on campuses of other health care fields. Manual search strategies within the chiropractic literature are time consuming, subject to a high failure rate, and even if the search produces citations, there is no assurance the journal can be accessed unless a chiropractic campus is nearby. Furthermore, difficulties exist when a chiropractic literature search is attempted in any computerized database, e.g., MEDLARS (Medline). Journals/articles that are unique to chiropractic (national, international or on the state level) are not specifically included in these computerized databases. Aside from these difficulties, there exists the problem of finding those articles that contain valid and relevant information from among those that are less valid or informative. PMID:2198323

  19. Addressing the Spectrum of Adolescent Weight-Related Problems: Engaging Parents and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    Weight-related problems, including eating disorders, disordered eating, and obesity, are prevalent among adolescents. School and community-based educators and health care providers have an important role to play in the prevention of weight-related problems in youth. This article includes: 1) a brief overview of weight-related problems in…

  20. Preferred Psychological Internet Resources for Addressing Anxiety Disorders, Parenting Problems, Eating Disorders, and Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Laura; Doran, Matt; Simonin, Danielle; Smith, Allyson; Maloney, Colleen; Wright, Cara; Underwood, Michelle; Hoppel, Andrea; O'Donnell, Shannon; Chambliss, Catherine

    Although the Internet offers information about psychological problems and support resources for behavioral health problems, the quality of this information varies widely. So as to offer guidance in this area, preferred sites pertaining to anxiety disorders, parenting problems, eating disorders, and chemical dependency were analyzed. A total of 365…

  1. 46 CFR 107.317 - Addresses for submittal of plans, specifications, and calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Plan Approval § 107.317 Addresses for...) The Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, in the zone in which the unit is to be built or altered....

  2. A Case Study of Team-Initiated Problem Solving Addressing Student Behavior in One Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Anne W.; Horner, Robert H.; Berry, Dorothy; Sanders, Carol; Bugni, Michelle; Currier, Allison; Potts, Nicky; Newton, J. Stephen; Algozzine, Bob; Algozzine, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) is an approach for organizing school team meetings to improve identification of targeted problems, use of data in the development of solutions, and development of implemented action plans. TIPS has been demonstrated in single-case and randomized controlled trial studies to improve the effectiveness of teams to…

  3. Addressing the Intercultural via Task-Based Language Teaching: Possibility or Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A frequent weakness of communicative approaches to foreign language teaching is a neglect of the intercultural dimension. Cultural knowledge is often treated as an addendum which focuses on learning facts about the target country. This article explores whether task-based language teaching (TBLT) can successfully address the intercultural…

  4. "Who Are You Calling a Problem?": Addressing Transphobia and Homophobia through School Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loutzenheiser, Lisa W.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a detailed analysis of two school board-level policies in British Columbia, Canada that address the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer and transgender, Two Spirit (LGBQ and TT) youth to demonstrate how the language of the policy holds meaning and re/produces particular knowledges. Rather than offer an analysis that…

  5. Efforts to Empower Teachers in Ethiopia to Address Local Environmental Problems: Achievements and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalelo, Aklilu

    2009-01-01

    It is believed that the possibilities of integrating environmental issues into the formal and nonformal education programs depend on the capacity of teachers who put such programs into effect. A pilot project, aimed at building the capacity of schools in Ethiopia to address key environmental issues, was initiated in 2004. Among the major…

  6. The 2003 ASBMB-Avanti Award in Lipids Address: Applications of novel synthetic lipids to biological problems.

    PubMed

    Bittman, Robert

    2004-05-01

    This paper is an overview of the 2003 Avanti Award in Lipids address that was presented by Robert Bittman at the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) Annual Meeting held in San Diego, CA in conjunction with meetings of five other FASEB Societies, April 15, 2003. The theme of the lecture is: "How can the chemical synthesis of unnatural lipids provide insights into problems ranging from cell biology to biophysics?" The following examples are presented: (1) novel ceramide analogs as experimental anticancer agents, (2) photoactivatable sphingosine 1-phosphate analogs as probes of protein targets of this bioactive lipid, (3) a 13C-enriched cerebroside as a quantitative probe of glycosphingolipid (GSL) transbilayer distribution in bilayers with and without sphingomyelin, (4) cis and trans unsaturated sphingomyelin analogs as modulators of the existence of cholesterol-enriched microdomains (rafts) that may facilitate fusion of alphaviruses with target membranes, (5) ceramide as an indirect enhancer of the permeabilization of membranes induced by cholesterol-specific cytolysins, (6) fluorescent GSL analogs of widely disparate structure as probes of the molecular features responsible for the selective internalization of GSLs in caveolae of living mammalian cells, (7) enantiomeric lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) analogs as probes of receptor subtypes that mediate LPA signaling, and (8) phosphonocholine analogs of the antitumor ether lipid ET-18-OCH3 as tools for discerning the primary targets that are critical for cytotoxic activity in tumor cells. PMID:15081855

  7. A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun D.; Martinez, Joanne; Schatz, Bruce R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an algorithmic approach to addressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biology domain as an example. A cognitive study and a follow-up document retrieval study were conducted using first a conjoined fly-worm thesaurus and then an actual worm database and the conjoined…

  8. Behavior problems in children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Verónica; Grañana, Nora E; Richaudeau, Alba; Torres, Silvio; Giannotti, Adrián; Suburo, Angela M

    2014-02-01

    We studied behavior in a group of children with specific language impairment in its 2 subtypes (expressive and mixed receptive/expressive). After exclusion of other psychiatric conditions, we evaluated 114 children of ages 2 to 7 years using language developmental tests and behavioral screening scales. Behavior problems appeared in 54% of the children. Withdrawn was the most frequently found syndrome in preschool children, whereas anxious/depressed and social problems were the most frequent in older children. The high frequency of behavioral syndromes in children with specific language impairment is remarkable and requires the awareness of primary attendants and specialists. Anxiety, depression, social isolation, and aggressive and rule-breaking behavior can obscure identification of the language impairment. Taking into account this relationship would improve the chances of a timely and appropriate intervention. PMID:24272522

  9. To What Extent Is Criminal Justice Content Specifically Addressed in MSW Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epperson, Matthew W.; Roberts, Leslie E.; Ivanoff, Andre; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Gilmer, Christy N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which criminal justice content is addressed in all CSWE-accredited MSW programs in the United States ("N"?=?192). Criminal justice content was measured in three areas: (1) dual or joint degree programs, (2) concentrations or specializations, and (3) coursework. Excluding social work and law classes, 22%…

  10. Incorporating Natural Helpers to Address Service Disparities for Young Children with Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Polakovich, I. David; Niec, Larissa N.; Barnet, Miya L.; Bell, Katrina M.

    2013-01-01

    In response to the high levels of unmet need among historically underserved young children with conduct problems, this paper outlines some of the key issues involved in incorporating natural helpers into the delivery of parenting interventions for the treatment of conduct problems among historically underserved children. Strategies for the selection and training of natural helpers are discussed along with challenges that might be encountered in these processes. Directions for future research are also highlighted. With appropriate selection and training procedures in place, natural helpers may increase the accessibility of services for children and families and foster the reduction of service disparities. PMID:24729649

  11. Addressing Problems of Conceptualization and Construct Validity in Researching Teachers' Job Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Ambiguity in the meaning of job satisfaction has caused construct validity problems in research. A series of small-scale studies of teachers suggested a distinction between job fulfillment and job comfort as well as a need for understanding how job satisfaction is interpreted by researchers. (SK)

  12. Addressing Cultural Diversity: Effects of a Problem-Based Intercultural Learning Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Vera; Krause, Ulrike-Marie

    2015-01-01

    This article explores to what extent a problem-based learning unit in combination with cooperative learning and affectively oriented teaching methods facilitates intercultural learning. As part of the study, students reflected on critical incidents, which display misunderstandings or conflicts that arise as a result of cultural differences. In…

  13. Ecosystem services and cooperative fisheries research to address a complex fishery problem

    EPA Science Inventory

    The St. Louis River represents a complex fishery management problem. Current fishery management goals have to be developed taking into account bi-state commercial, subsistence and recreational fisheries which are valued for different characteristics by a wide range of anglers, as...

  14. Addressing Students' Difficulties with Faraday's Law: A Guided Problem Solving Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuza, Kristina; Almudí, José-Manuel; Leniz, Ane; Guisasola, Jenaro

    2014-01-01

    In traditional teaching, the fundamental concepts of electromagnetic induction are usually quickly analyzed, spending most of the time solving problems in a more or less rote manner. However, physics education research has shown that the fundamental concepts of the electromagnetic induction theory are barely understood by students. This article…

  15. Analysis of Arguments Constructed by First-Year Engineering Students Addressing Electromagnetic Induction Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almudi, Jose Manuel; Ceberio, Mikel

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the quality of arguments used by first-year engineering university students enrolled in a traditional physics course dealing with electromagnetic induction and related problem solving where they had to assess whether the electromagnetic induction phenomenon would occur. Their conclusions were analyzed for the relevance of the…

  16. Addressing Bullying Problems in Irish Schools and in Cyberspace: A Challenge for School Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Lucie; Mc Guckin, Conor

    2014-01-01

    Background: School management, in Ireland and also internationally, are currently faced with the problem of peer aggression among students both in a traditional school context and in a cyber context. Although Irish school principals are obliged to implement policy and procedures to counter bullying among students, there is a need for guidance that…

  17. Addressing the Wicked Problem of Quality in Higher Education: Theoretical Approaches and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Kerri-Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the wicked problem of quality in higher education, arguing for a more robust theorising of the subject at national, institutional and local department level. The focus of the discussion rests on principles for theorising in more rigorous ways about the multidimensional issue of quality. Quality in higher education is proposed…

  18. Promoting Health by Addressing Basic Needs: Effect of Problem Resolution on Contacting Health Referrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Boyum, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Members of vulnerable populations have heightened needs for health services. One advantage of integrating health risk assessment and referrals into social service assistance systems such as 2-1-1 is that such systems help callers resolve problems in other areas (e.g., housing). Callers to 2-1-1 in Missouri (N = 1,090) with at least one behavioral…

  19. Scientific problems addressed by the Spektr-UV space project (world space Observatory—Ultraviolet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyarchuk, A. A.; Shustov, B. M.; Savanov, I. S.; Sachkov, M. E.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Mashonkina, L. I.; Wiebe, D. Z.; Shematovich, V. I.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.; Ryabchikova, T. A.; Chugai, N. N.; Ivanov, P. B.; Voshchinnikov, N. V.; Gomez de Castro, A. I.; Lamzin, S. A.; Piskunov, N.; Ayres, T.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Jeffrey, S.; Zwintz, S. K.; Shulyak, D.; Gérard, J.-C.; Hubert, B.; Fossati, L.; Lammer, H.; Werner, K.; Zhilkin, A. G.; Kaigorodov, P. V.; Sichevskii, S. G.; Ustamuich, S.; Kanev, E. N.; Kil'pio, E. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a review of scientific problems and methods of ultraviolet astronomy, focusing on perspective scientific problems (directions) whose solution requires UV space observatories. These include reionization and the history of star formation in the Universe, searches for dark baryonic matter, physical and chemical processes in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disks, the physics of accretion and outflows in astrophysical objects, from Active Galactic Nuclei to close binary stars, stellar activity (for both low-mass and high-mass stars), and processes occurring in the atmospheres of both planets in the solar system and exoplanets. Technological progress in UV astronomy achieved in recent years is also considered. The well advanced, international, Russian-led Spektr-UV (World Space Observatory—Ultraviolet) project is described in more detail. This project is directed at creating a major space observatory operational in the ultraviolet (115-310 nm). This observatory will provide an effective, and possibly the only, powerful means of observing in this spectral range over the next ten years, and will be an powerful tool for resolving many topical scientific problems.

  20. Dual-Use Partnership Addresses Performance Problems with "Y" Pattern Control Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, John W.

    2004-01-01

    A Dual-Use Cooperative Agreement between the Propulsion Test Directorate (PTD) at Stennis Space Center (SSC) and Oceaneering Reflange, Inc. of Houston, TX has produced an improved 'Y' pattern split-body control valve for use in the propulsion test facilities at Stennis Space Center. The split-body, or clamped bonnet technology, provides for a 'cleaner' valve design featuring enhanced performance and increased flow capacity with extended life expectancy. Other points addressed by the partnership include size, weight and costs. Overall size and weight of each valve will be reduced by 50% compared to valves currently in use at SSC. An initial procurement of two 10 inch valves will result in an overall cost reduction of 15% or approximately $50,000 per valve.

  1. School Vandalism and Break-Ins. Problem-Oriented Guides for Police. Problem-Specific Guides Series, No. 35

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kelly Dedel

    2005-01-01

    This guide addresses school vandalism and break-ins, describing the problem and reviewing the risk factors. It also discusses the associated problems of school burglaries and arson. The guide then identifies a series of questions to help analyze each local problem. Finally, it reviews responses to the problem, and what is known about them from…

  2. Engaging science in a climate of values: tools for animal scientists tasked with addressing ethical problems.

    PubMed

    Croney, C C; Anthony, R

    2010-04-01

    In the United States, escalating concerns about current farm animal science and production methods have resulted not only in increased food animal protection policies, but also in animal welfare legislation. Animal scientists and industry leaders are apprehensive that such policies may be driven primarily by emotion and a lack of scientific understanding, and thus may have unforeseen consequences. However, decisions about animal care, and particularly animal welfare, cannot be made solely on the basis of science because the potential effects on producers, animals, and concerned citizens and the implications for the environment and on food prices must also be considered. Balancing the interests and values of all stakeholders in regard to animal welfare problems has presented a considerable challenge. Ethical accounting processes, such as the Ethical Matrix and the ethics assessment process by Campbell, offer models to combine socioethical concerns with relevant factual information, thereby facilitating decision making that is ethically responsible and that offers viable solutions. A case study is used to illustrate application of the ethics assessment process by Campbell that includes identification of the ethical problems, the embedded values, the relevant facts, and moral tests that can be applied. Awareness of these emerging ways of examining ethics that offer real solutions to conflicts of interests and not merely "one size fits all" answers should be an asset to animal and poultry scientists. PMID:19854996

  3. Brown Superfund Basic research Program: a multistakeholder partnership addresses real-world problems in contaminated communities.

    PubMed

    Senier, Laura; Hudson, Benjamin; Fort, Sarah; Hoover, Elizabeth; Tillson, Rebecca; Brown, Phil

    2008-07-01

    The NIEHS funds several basic and applied research programs, many of which also require research translation or outreach. This paper reports on a project by the Brown University Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP), in which outreach and research translation teams collaborated with state regulatory agency personnel and community activists on a legislative initiative to mitigate the financial impacts of living in a contaminated community. The Environmentally Compromised Home Ownership (ECHO) program makes home equity loans of up to $25,000 available to qualified applicants. This collaboration provides a case study in community engagement and demonstrates how research translation and outreach activities that are clearly differentiated yet well-integrated can improve a suite of basic and applied research. Although engaging diverse constituencies can be difficult community-engaged translation and outreach have the potential to make research findings more useful to communities, address some of the social impacts of contamination, and empower stakeholders to pursue their individual and collectively held goals for remediation. The NIEHS has recently renewed its commitment to community-engaged research and advocacy, making this an optimal time to reflect on how basic research programs that engage stakeholders through research translation and outreach can add value to the overall research enterprise. PMID:18677987

  4. Can Go address the multicore issues of today and the manycore problems of tomorrow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binet, Sébastien

    2012-06-01

    Current High Energy and Nuclear Physics (HENP) libraries and frameworks were written before multicore systems became widely deployed and used. From this environment, a 'single-thread' processing model naturally emerged but the implicit assumptions it encouraged are greatly impairing our abilities to scale in a multicore/manycore world. While parallel programming - still in an intensive phase of R&D despite the 30+ years of literature on the subject - is an obvious topic to consider, other issues (build scalability, code clarity, code deployment and ease of coding) are worth investigating when preparing for the manycore era. Moreover, if one wants to use another language than C++, a language better prepared and tailored for expressing concurrency, one also needs to ensure a good and easy reuse of already field-proven libraries. We present the work resulting from such investigations applied to the Go programming language. We first introduce the concurrent programming facilities Go is providing and how its module system addresses the build scalability and dependency hell issues. We then describe the process of leveraging the many (wo)man-years put into scientific Fortran/C/C++ libraries and making them available to the Go ecosystem. The ROOT data analysis framework, the C-BLAS library and the Herwig-6 MonteCarlo generator will be taken as examples. Finally, performances of the tools involved in a small analysis written in Go and using ROOT I/O library will be presented.

  5. Addressing behavior problems among school-aged children: traditional and controversial approaches.

    PubMed

    Wolraich, M L

    1997-08-01

    Managing children's behaviors is primarily the responsibility of parents, but pediatricians can help parents be more effective managers, especially when the child involved is presenting a particular challenge. Such help can range from providing reading material and brief counseling to referring the family to mental health clinicians. First, the pediatrician must be able to identify and judge the severity of the problems to refer appropriately. Behavioral interventions, commonly based on the principles of behavior modification with an emphasis on improving the positive and reinforcing aspects of parent-child relationships, can be effective. In addition, pediatricians need to be aware of unconventional therapies in the categories of dietary and exercise interventions. They need to know what motivates parents to seek such therapies, how to judge the efficacy of these approaches, and how to help parents become better-informed consumers. PMID:9255992

  6. Iron deficiency anemia among children: Addressing a global public health problem within a Canadian context.

    PubMed

    Christofides, Anna; Schauer, Claudia; Zlotkin, Stanley H

    2005-12-01

    Despite current Canadian pre- and perinatal nutrition programs, the prevalence of both iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is very high among young Aboriginal children from Canada's remote north. The major risk factors for IDA include prolonged consumption of evaporated cow's milk, chronic infection and prolonged exclusive breastfeeding. In the present article, the authors discuss IDA as a significant public health problem in Canadian Aboriginal communities. Whereas the prevalence of IDA in Canadian children is between 3.5% and 10.5% in the general population, in two Northern Ontario First Nations communities and one Inuit community, the anemia rate was 36%, with 56% having depleted iron stores. Traditional methods of preventing IDA, including targeted fortification, dietary diversification and supplementation, have not solved the problem. The authors' research group at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario, conceived of the strategy of 'home fortification' with 'Sprinkles' - single-dose sachets containing micronutrients in a powder form, which are easily sprinkled onto any foods prepared in the household. In Sprinkles, the iron (ferrous fumarate) is encapsulated within a thin lipid layer to prevent the iron from interacting with food. Sprinkles have been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of anemia in many developing countries. Their use in Aboriginal communities to treat and prevent anemia is described in the present paper. The authors believe that children in Aboriginal communities across Canada would potentially benefit if Sprinkles were incorporated into Health Canada's current distribution system, in combination with a social marketing strategy to encourage their use. PMID:19668671

  7. Education and Training to Address Specific Needs During the Career Progression of Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Ajit K; Blair, Patrice Gabler; Lupi, Linda K

    2016-02-01

    Surgeons have specific education and training needs as they enter practice, progress through the core period of active practice, and then as they wind down their clinical work before retirement. These transitions and the career progression process, combined with the dynamic health care environment, present specific opportunities for innovative education and training based on practice-based learning and improvement, and continuous professional development methods. Cutting-edge technologies, blended models, simulation, mentoring, preceptoring, and integrated approaches can play critical roles in supporting surgeons as they provide the best surgical care throughout various phases of their careers. PMID:26612024

  8. Issue-Specific Barriers to Addressing Environmental Issues in the Classroom: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chankook; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    2006-01-01

    To explore issue-specific barriers to teaching environmental issues, the authors investigated secondary science teachers' perceived current and preferred teaching levels for 23 environmental issues and perceived barriers to teaching the selected issues. Subjects in this graduate project were 41 secondary science teachers self-selected to answer a…

  9. What kind of curriculum can better address community needs? Problems arisen by hypothetical-deductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Haeri, A; Hemmati, P; Yaman, H

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify problems arisen by conventional curricula, the guidelines for development of an appropriate educational model for 21st century, and the advantages and disadvantages of the last two curricular models. The medical education literature published from 1995 through 2002 of four reputable journals in medical education were searched (Academic Medicine, Teaching and Learning in Medicine, Medical Education, and Medical Teacher). First the possibly best articles were identified. During the second screening process 76 of 180 articles were found to be highly relevant to our questions. A review of the chosen articles revealed a concept map which starts from currently applied hypothetical-deductive reasoning (HDR)-based curricula in many medical schools all around the world. Results revelaed that continuing cyclical process might be time consuming, enhance burden of faculty and might be stressful for students involved. Current issues in health care system are possibly attributable to current HDR-based curricular models including PBL. Advantages of reiterative PBL theory can not be denied, but it appears that its limited application should be mainly seen in some academic classes to develop some generic transferable skills simultaneously with other teaching methods. Therefore vast application of HDR in clinical settings is not recommended according to our study. However the relationships demonstrated between factors and outcomes mentioned in the concept map can be used to run some new studies to test some hypotheses. PMID:17622019

  10. [Proposal to address the mental health problems detected after the February 27, 2010 earthquake].

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Rodrigo A; Cortés, Paula F

    2016-02-01

    One of the most important topics mentioned by people from places affected by the February 27th, 2010 earthquake to the Presidential Delegation for the Reconstruction, was the urgent need of mental health care. Given the enormous individual and social burden of mental health sequelae after disasters, its treatment becomes a critical issue. In this article, we propose several actions to be implemented in Chile in the context of the process of recovery and reconstruction, including optimization of social communication and media response to disasters; designing and deployment of a national strategy for volunteer service; training of primary care staff in screening and initial management of post-traumatic stress reactions; and training, continuous education and clinical supervision of a critical number of therapists in evidence-based therapies for conditions specifically related to stress. PMID:27092680

  11. Tobacco smoking: How far do the legislative control measures address the problem?

    PubMed Central

    Jiloha, Ram C.

    2012-01-01

    India ratified the WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in February 2004 and enacted legislation called, “Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act 2003” which specifically called for an end to direct and indirect form of tobacco advertisements. Under its Section 7, the Act also stipulates depiction of pictorial health warnings on all tobacco products. Since the enactment of the legislation, the tobacco companies are prohibited from any kind of advertisement. However, studies show that the instances of showing smoking in movies have increased significantly to 89% after the implementation of the Act. The brand placement has been also increased nearly three folds. Association of tobacco with glamour and style has also been established. Seventy-five percent of movies have showed the lead character smoking tobacco. The instances of females consuming tobacco in movies have also increased, pointing toward a specific market expansion strategy by tobacco companies using movies as a vehicle. General public does not feel that banning tobacco scenes in the movie will affect their decision to watch movies or the quality of movies. It was found that favorable images through mass media created a considerable influence on youngsters and increased their receptivity to tobacco smoking. Pictorial warning on tobacco products is yet to start. Tobacco industry's opposition to tobacco health warnings is understandable as it will adversely affect their business. However, policymakers should not evade their responsibility to mandate strong health warnings on all tobacco product packs. Legal action against offenders, investigation of the relationship and financial irregularities between film-makers and tobacco industry, and recall of the movies showing tobacco brand are the important measures recommended. PMID:22556442

  12. Tobacco smoking: how far do the legislative control measures address the problem?

    PubMed

    Jiloha, Ram C

    2012-01-01

    India ratified the WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in February 2004 and enacted legislation called, "Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act 2003" which specifically called for an end to direct and indirect form of tobacco advertisements. Under its Section 7, the Act also stipulates depiction of pictorial health warnings on all tobacco products. Since the enactment of the legislation, the tobacco companies are prohibited from any kind of advertisement. However, studies show that the instances of showing smoking in movies have increased significantly to 89% after the implementation of the Act. The brand placement has been also increased nearly three folds. Association of tobacco with glamour and style has also been established. Seventy-five percent of movies have showed the lead character smoking tobacco. The instances of females consuming tobacco in movies have also increased, pointing toward a specific market expansion strategy by tobacco companies using movies as a vehicle. General public does not feel that banning tobacco scenes in the movie will affect their decision to watch movies or the quality of movies. It was found that favorable images through mass media created a considerable influence on youngsters and increased their receptivity to tobacco smoking. Pictorial warning on tobacco products is yet to start. Tobacco industry's opposition to tobacco health warnings is understandable as it will adversely affect their business. However, policymakers should not evade their responsibility to mandate strong health warnings on all tobacco product packs. Legal action against offenders, investigation of the relationship and financial irregularities between film-makers and tobacco industry, and recall of the movies showing tobacco brand are the important measures recommended. PMID:22556442

  13. Activity theory as a tool to address the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary school chemical education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Aalsvoort, Joke

    In a previous article, the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary chemical education was analysed using logical positivism as a tool. This article starts with the hypothesis that the problem can be addressed by means of activity theory, one of the important theories within the sociocultural school. The reason for this expectation is that, while logical positivism creates a divide between science and society, activity theory offers a model of society in which science and society are related. With the use of this model, a new course for grade nine has been constructed. This results in a confirmation of the hypothesis, at least at a theoretical level. A comparison with the Salters' approach is made in order to demonstrate the relative merits of a mediated way of dealing with the problem of the lack of relevance of chemistry in chemical education.

  14. Cospatial [O III] emission with Herschel and Hubble to address the nebular abundance discrepancy problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Robert

    2012-10-01

    There exist planetary nebulae {PNe} whose heavy element C, N, O, and Ne abundances as derived from optical recombination lines {ORLs} are a factor more than 5 higher than those derived from the traditional method based on collisionally excited lines {CELs}. This ratio is called the abundance discrepancy factor {adf}. A promising proposition to explain this long-standing nebular abundance problem posits that these nebulae contain {at least} two distinct regions - one of "normal" electron temperature, Te { 10000 K} and chemical composition { solar} and another of very low Te {< 1000} that is H-deficient, thus having high metal abundances relative to H. The latter component emits strong heavy element ORLs and IR fine-structure {FS} CELs, but essentially no optical/UV CELs. Efforts to directly detect these inclusions in PNe have been unsuccessful to date. However, there is mounting circumstantial evidence for their existence, such as presented in our recent paper that modeled the high-adf PN NGC 6153 using a 3-D photoionization code. The models that included the low Te, H-deficient knots fit most observations far better than did those models without the clumps. It has been shown that the adf varies with position in a PN and is highest close to the central star. The very low Te inclusions must be cooled predominantly by FS mid-IR lines. We propose to use HST archival images to derive [O III] 5007 A flux maps to compare with the [O III] 88 micron fluxes from our Herschel observations of four PNe - NGC 2392, NGC 2440, NGC 6720 and NGC 7009 - all on the largest adf list, to find if the IR line flux relative to the cospatial optical forbidden line flux peaks where the adf peaks.

  15. A roadmap for climate change adaptation in Sweden's forests: addressing wicked problems using adaptive management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rist, L.; Felton, A.; Samuelsson, L.; Marald, E.; Karlsson, B.; Johansson, U.; Rosvall, O.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have significant direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems. Forests will have to adapt not only to changes in mean climate variables but also to increased climatic variability and altered disturbance regimes. Rates of change will likely exceed many forests capabilities to naturally adapt and many of today's trees will be exposed to the climates of 2090. In Sweden the effects are already being seen and more severe impacts are expected in the future. Exacerbating the challenge posed by climate change, a large proportion of Sweden's forests are, as a consequence of dominant production goals, greatly simplified and thus potentially more vulnerable to the uncertainties and risks associated with climate change. This simplification also confers reduced adaptive capacity to respond to potential impacts. Furthermore, many adaptation measures themselves carry uncertainties and risks. Future changes and effects are thus uncertain, yet forest managers, policymakers, scientists and other stakeholders must act. Strategies that build social and ecological resilience in the face of multiple interacting unknowns and surprises are needed. Adaptive management aims to collect and integrate knowledge about how a managed system is likely to respond to alternative management schemes and changing environmental conditions within a continuous decision process. There have been suggestions that adaptive management is not well suited to the large complex uncertainties associated with climate change and associated adaptation measures. However, more recently it has been suggested that adaptive management can handle such wicked problems, given adequate resources and a suitable breakdown of the targeted uncertainties. Here we test this hypothesis by evaluating how an adaptive management process could be used to manage the uncertainties and risks associated with securing resilient, biodiverse and productive forests in Sweden in the face of climate change. We

  16. Lattice Boltzmann Methods to Address Fundamental Boiling and Two-Phase Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Uddin, Rizwan

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the progress made during the fourth (no cost extension) year of this three-year grant aimed at the development of a consistent Lattice Boltzmann formulation for boiling and two-phase flows. During the first year, a consistent LBM formulation for the simulation of a two-phase water-steam system was developed. Results of initial model validation in a range of thermo-dynamic conditions typical for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) were shown. Progress was made on several fronts during the second year. Most important of these included the simulation of the coalescence of two bubbles including the surface tension effects. Work during the third year focused on the development of a new lattice Boltzmann model, called the artificial interface lattice Boltzmann model (AILB model) for the 3 simulation of two-phase dynamics. The model is based on the principle of free energy minimization and invokes the Gibbs-Duhem equation in the formulation of non-ideal forcing function. This was reported in detail in the last progress report. Part of the efforts during the last (no-cost extension) year were focused on developing a parallel capability for the 2D as well as for the 3D codes developed in this project. This will be reported in the final report. Here we report the work carried out on testing the AILB model for conditions including the thermal effects. A simplified thermal LB model, based on the thermal energy distribution approach, was developed. The simplifications are made after neglecting the viscous heat dissipation and the work done by pressure in the original thermal energy distribution model. Details of the model are presented here, followed by a discussion of the boundary conditions, and then results for some two-phase thermal problems.

  17. Data Movement Dominates: Advanced Memory Technology to Address the Real Exascale Power Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, Keren

    2014-08-28

    Energy is the fundamental barrier to Exascale supercomputing and is dominated by the cost of moving data from one point to another, not computation. Similarly, performance is dominated by data movement, not computation. The solution to this problem requires three critical technologies: 3D integration, optical chip-to-chip communication, and a new communication model. The central goal of the Sandia led "Data Movement Dominates" project aimed to develop memory systems and new architectures based on these technologies that have the potential to lower the cost of local memory accesses by orders of magnitude and provide substantially more bandwidth. Only through these transformational advances can future systems reach the goals of Exascale computing with a manageable power budgets. The Sandia led team included co-PIs from Columbia University, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, and the University of Maryland. The Columbia effort of Data Movement Dominates focused on developing a physically accurate simulation environment and experimental verification for optically-connected memory (OCM) systems that can enable continued performance scaling through high-bandwidth capacity, energy-efficient bit-rate transparency, and time-of-flight latency. With OCM, memory device parallelism and total capacity can scale to match future high-performance computing requirements without sacrificing data-movement efficiency. When we consider systems with integrated photonics, links to memory can be seamlessly integrated with the interconnection network-in a sense, memory becomes a primary aspect of the interconnection network. At the core of the Columbia effort, toward expanding our understanding of OCM enabled computing we have created an integrated modeling and simulation environment that uniquely integrates the physical behavior of the optical layer. The PhoenxSim suite of design and software tools developed under this effort has enabled the co-design of and performance evaluation photonics-enabled OCM

  18. Rethinking gender-based violence during war: is violence against civilian men a problem worth addressing?

    PubMed

    Linos, Natalia

    2009-04-01

    Gender-based violence during conflict and post-conflict situations has received increased attention in research and in the work of development agencies. Viewed primarily as a form of violence against women, this commentary questions whether male civilians have also been victims of gender-based violence during conflict, invisible due to stereotypes surrounding masculinity and a culturally permissive approach towards violence perpetrated against men, especially at times of war. The experience of civilian males of violence, including sexual violence, during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina and other contemporary wars, suggests that the discourse on gender-based violence and public health research should begin exploring the specific needs of men. Drawing on Nancy Krieger's (Krieger, N. (2003). Genders, sexes, and health: what are the connections-and why does it matter? International Journal of Epidemiology, 32, 652-657) analysis on the differential role of 'sex' and 'gender' on a given exposure-outcome association, this commentary suggests that the impact of gender-based violence on health during conflict may be different for men and women and may require distinct therapeutic approaches. Given that perpetrators are often male, an extra level of stigma is added when heterosexual men are sexually violated, which may lead to underreporting and reduced health-service seeking behavior. Further public health research is needed to guide the work of humanitarian agencies working with survivors of gender-based violence in conflict and post-conflict settings to ensure equal access to appropriate health services for men and women. PMID:19269726

  19. Impaired Control over Alcohol Use: An Under-Addressed Risk Factor for Problem Drinking in Young Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Patock-Peckham, Julie A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    Impaired control over alcohol use may be defined as “a breakdown of an intention to limit consumption in a particular situation” (Heather, Tebbutt, Mattick, & Zamir, 1993, p. 701) and has long been considered an important feature of alcohol dependence. Evidence suggests impaired control is highly relevant to young adult problem drinking. In the natural history of problem drinking, impaired control tends to develop early and may predict alcohol-related problems prospectively in undergraduates. Impaired control over alcohol use may be a facet of generalized behavioral under-control specifically related to drinking. In particular, impaired control is theoretically and empirically related to impulsivity. The question of whether impaired control represents a facet of impulsivity or a related but separate construct requires further study. However, theoretical arguments and empirical evidence suggest that there are unique qualities to the constructs. Specifically, existing data suggest that self-report measures of impaired control and impulsivity over alcohol use relate distinctly to problem drinking indices in young adults. Several lines of future research concerning impaired control are suggested, using the impulsivity literature as a guide. We conclude that impaired control is a valuable construct to the study of young adult problem drinking and that measures of impaired control should be included in more young adult alcohol studies. The extent to which impaired control over the use of other substances and impaired control over engagement in other addictive behaviors are clinically relevant constructs requires additional study. PMID:22182417

  20. Interacting domain-specific languages with biological problem solving environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cickovski, Trevor M.

    Iteratively developing a biological model and verifying results with lab observations has become standard practice in computational biology. This process is currently facilitated by biological Problem Solving Environments (PSEs), multi-tiered and modular software frameworks which traditionally consist of two layers: a computational layer written in a high level language using design patterns, and a user interface layer which hides its details. Although PSEs have proven effective, they still enforce some communication overhead between biologists refining their models through repeated comparison with experimental observations in vitro or in vivo, and programmers actually implementing model extensions and modifications within the computational layer. I illustrate the use of biological Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) as a middle-level PSE tier to ameliorate this problem by providing experimentalists with the ability to iteratively test and develop their models using a higher degree of expressive power compared to a graphical interface, while saving the requirement of general purpose programming knowledge. I develop two radically different biological DSLs: XML-based BIOLOGO will model biological morphogenesis using a cell-centered stochastic cellular automaton and translate into C++ modules for an object-oriented PSE C OMPUCELL3D, and MDLab will provide a set of high-level Python libraries for running molecular dynamics simulations, using wrapped functionality from the C++ PSE PROTOMOL. I describe each language in detail, including its its roles within the larger PSE and its expressibility in terms of representable phenomena, and a discussion of observations from users of the languages. Moreover I will use these studies to draw general conclusions about biological DSL development, including dependencies upon the goals of the corresponding PSE, strategies, and tradeoffs.

  1. Increasing the Teacher Rate of Behaviour Specific Praise and its Effect on a Child with Aggressive Behaviour Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffat, Thecla Kudakwashe

    2011-01-01

    A single subject design was used to investigate the effectiveness of an increase in teacher behaviour-specific praise statements to address anti-social behaviours demonstrated by a student who displays aggressive behaviours. Researchers agree that praise is effective in improving problem behaviours. They also agree that training teachers to use…

  2. Workers' Education in Industrialised Countries and Its Specific Problems in Relation to Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Examines several problems that need to be addressed concerning world crisis: war, poverty, unemployment, overpopulation, environmental issues, and housing; developed versus developing countries; and social justice. The task for workers' education in relation to these problems is discussed. (CT)

  3. Specific Reading Comprehension Disability: Major Problem, Myth, or Misnomer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Mercedes; Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to test three competing hypotheses about the nature of comprehension problems of students who are poor in reading comprehension. Participants in the study were first, second, and third graders, totaling nine cohorts and over 425,000 participants in all. The pattern of results was consistent across all cohorts:…

  4. Information and meaning revisiting Shannon's theory of communication and extending it to address todays technical problems.

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Travis LaDell

    2009-12-01

    This paper has three goals. The first is to review Shannon's theory of information and the subsequent advances leading to today's statistics-based text analysis algorithms, showing that the semantics of the text is neglected. The second goal is to propose an extension of Shannon's original model that can take into account semantics, where the 'semantics' of a message is understood in terms of the intended or actual changes on the recipient of a message. The third goal is to propose several lines of research that naturally fall out of the proposed model. Each computational approach to solving some problem rests on an underlying model or set of models that describe how key phenomena in the real world are represented and how they are manipulated. These models are both liberating and constraining. They are liberating in that they suggest a path of development for new tools and algorithms. They are constraining in that they intentionally ignore other potential paths of development. Modern statistical-based text analysis algorithms have a specific intellectual history and set of underlying models rooted in Shannon's theory of communication. For Shannon, language is treated as a stochastic generator of symbol sequences. Shannon himself, subsequently Weaver, and at least one of his predecessors are all explicit in their decision to exclude semantics from their models. This rejection of semantics as 'irrelevant to the engineering problem' is elegant and combined with developments particularly by Salton and subsequently by Latent Semantic Analysis, has led to a whole collection of powerful algorithms and an industry for data mining technologies. However, the kinds of problems currently facing us go beyond what can be accounted for by this stochastic model. Today's problems increasingly focus on the semantics of specific pieces of information. And although progress is being made with the old models, it seems natural to develop or extend information theory to account for

  5. Bomb Threats in Schools. Problem-Oriented Guides for Police. Problem-Specific Guides Series. Guide Number 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Graeme R.

    2005-01-01

    This guide addresses the problem of bomb threats in schools, public or private, kindergarten through 12th grade. Colleges and universities are excluded because they generally differ from schools. The guide reviews the factors that increase the risk of bomb threats in schools and then identifies a series of questions that might assist departments…

  6. The roles of mothers' neighborhood perceptions and specific monitoring strategies in youths' problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2011-03-01

    The neighborhood context can interfere with parents' abilities to effectively monitor their children, but may be related to specific monitoring strategies in different ways. The present study examines the importance of mothers' perceptions of neighborhood disorganization for the specific monitoring strategies they use and how each of these strategies are related to youths' alcohol use and delinquency. The sample consists of 415 mother-child dyads recruited from urban and suburban communities in Western New York state. Youths were between 10 and 16 years of age (56% female), and were mostly Non-Hispanic White and African American (45.3 and 36.5%, respectively). Structural equation modeling shows that mothers who perceive greater neighborhood problems use more rule-setting strategies, but report lower levels of knowledge of their children's whereabouts. Knowledge of whereabouts is related to less youth alcohol use and delinquency through its association with lowered peer substance use, whereas rule-setting is unrelated to these outcomes. Thus, mothers who perceive greater problems in their neighborhoods use less effective monitoring strategies. Prevention programs could address parental monitoring needs based upon neighborhood differences, tailoring programs for different neighborhoods. Further, parents could be apprised of the limitations of rule-setting, particularly in the absence of monitoring their child's whereabouts. PMID:20414711

  7. Stream specificity and asymmetries in feature binding and content-addressable access in visual encoding and memory.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Duong L; Tripathy, Srimant P; Bedell, Harold E; Ögmen, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Human memory is content addressable-i.e., contents of the memory can be accessed using partial information about the bound features of a stored item. In this study, we used a cross-feature cuing technique to examine how the human visual system encodes, binds, and retains information about multiple stimulus features within a set of moving objects. We sought to characterize the roles of three different features (position, color, and direction of motion, the latter two of which are processed preferentially within the ventral and dorsal visual streams, respectively) in the construction and maintenance of object representations. We investigated the extent to which these features are bound together across the following processing stages: during stimulus encoding, sensory (iconic) memory, and visual short-term memory. Whereas all features examined here can serve as cues for addressing content, their effectiveness shows asymmetries and varies according to cue-report pairings and the stage of information processing and storage. Position-based indexing theories predict that position should be more effective as a cue compared to other features. While we found a privileged role for position as a cue at the stimulus-encoding stage, position was not the privileged cue at the sensory and visual short-term memory stages. Instead, the pattern that emerged from our findings is one that mirrors the parallel processing streams in the visual system. This stream-specific binding and cuing effectiveness manifests itself in all three stages of information processing examined here. Finally, we find that the Leaky Flask model proposed in our previous study is applicable to all three features. PMID:26382005

  8. Practical guidelines addressing ethical issues pertaining to the curation of human locus-specific variation databases (LSDBs)

    PubMed Central

    Povey, Sue; Al Aqeel, Aida I; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Dalgleish, Raymond; den Dunnen, Johan T; Firth, Helen V; Greenblatt, Marc S; Barash, Carol Isaacson; Parker, Michael; Patrinos, George P; Savige, Judith; Sobrido, Maria-Jesus; Winship, Ingrid; Cotton, Richard GH

    2010-01-01

    More than 1,000 Web-based locus-specific variation databases (LSDBs) are listed on the Website of the Human Genetic Variation Society (HGVS). These individual efforts, which often relate phenotype to genotype, are a valuable source of information for clinicians, patients, and their families, as well as for basic research. The initiators of the Human Variome Project recently recognized that having access to some of the immense resources of unpublished information already present in diagnostic laboratories would provide critical data to help manage genetic disorders. However, there are significant ethical issues involved in sharing these data worldwide. An international working group presents second-generation guidelines addressing ethical issues relating to the curation of human LSDBs that provide information via a Web-based interface. It is intended that these should help current and future curators and may also inform the future decisions of ethics committees and legislators. These guidelines have been reviewed by the Ethics Committee of the Human Genome Organization (HUGO). Hum Mutat 31:–6, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20683926

  9. Phonological working memory impairments in children with specific language impairment: where does the problem lie?

    PubMed Central

    Alt, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine which factors contribute to the lexical learning deficits of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Method Participants included 40 7-8-year old participants, half of whom were diagnosed with SLI and half of whom had normal language skills. We tested hypotheses about the contributions to word learning of the initial encoding of phonological information and the link to long-term memory. Children took part in a computer-based fast-mapping task which manipulated word length and phonotactic probability to address the hypotheses. The task had a recognition and a production component. Data were analyzed using mixed ANOVAs with post-hoc testing. Results Results indicate that the main problem for children with SLI is with initial encoding, with implications for limited capacity. There was not strong evidence for specific deficits in the link to long term memory. Conclusions We were able to ascertain which aspects of lexical learning are most problematic for children with SLI in terms of fast-mapping. These findings may allow clinicians to focus intervention on known areas of weakness. Future directions include extending these findings to slow mapping scenarios. PMID:20943232

  10. A Radio Model: A Community Strategy To Address the Problems and Needs of Mexican American Women Farmworkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Trevino, Maria Elena

    Interviews with 60 Mexican-American female farmworkers in the Coachella Valley (California) identified their major problems, needs, and suggestions of topics to be presented in a community-based educational radio program. Two major problems identified by these women were low wages and occupational exposure to pesticides. Contrary to cultural…

  11. The Domain Generality--Specificity of Epistemological Beliefs: A Theoretical Problem, a Methodological Problem or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limon, Margarita

    2006-01-01

    Research on epistemological beliefs has clearly increased in the last decade. Even though the construct is clearer and relevant data are being collected, there are important theoretical and methodological issues that need further clarification. One of them is the debate about the domain generality-specificity of epistemological beliefs. I argue…

  12. Indoor Air Quality: Federal and State Actions To Address the Indoor Air Quality Problems of Selected Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Peter F.

    U.S. House of Representative members requested that the General Accounting Office determine what federal and state actions have been taken in addressing indoor air quality (IAQ) concerns raised in certain school, state, and federal buildings within Vermont, Maryland, and the District of Columbia. This report responds to this request and describes…

  13. Why Has It Taken So Long to Address the Problems Created by Uranium Mining in the Navajo Nation?

    PubMed

    Brugge, Doug

    2016-02-01

    Following the start of uranium mining after World War II, progress toward addressing the hazards it created for workers and nearby communities was slow, taking many decades. This essay asks why it took so long and suggests several factors that might have contributed. PMID:26463258

  14. Using the World Health Organization's 4S-Framework to Strengthen National Strategies, Policies and Services to Address Mental Health Problems in Adolescents in Resource-Constrained Settings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most adolescents live in resource-constrained countries and their mental health has been less well recognised than other aspects of their health. The World Health Organization's 4-S Framework provides a structure for national initiatives to improve adolescent health through: gathering and using strategic information; developing evidence-informed policies; scaling up provision and use of health services; and strengthening linkages with other government sectors. The aim of this paper is to discuss how the findings of a recent systematic review of mental health problems in adolescents in resource-constrained settings might be applied using the 4-S Framework. Method Analysis of the implications of the findings of a systematic search of the English-language literature for national strategies, policies, services and cross-sectoral linkages to improve the mental health of adolescents in resource-constrained settings. Results Data are available for only 33/112 [29%] resource-constrained countries, but in all where data are available, non-psychotic mental health problems in adolescents are identifiable, prevalent and associated with reduced quality of life, impaired participation and compromised development. In the absence of evidence about effective interventions in these settings expert opinion is that a broad public policy response which addresses direct strategies for prevention, early intervention and treatment; health service and health workforce requirements; social inclusion of marginalised groups of adolescents; and specific education is required. Specific endorsed strategies include public education, parent education, training for teachers and primary healthcare workers, psycho-educational curricula, identification through periodic screening of the most vulnerable and referral for care, and the availability of counsellors or other identified trained staff members in schools from whom adolescents can seek assistance for personal, peer and family

  15. Adult Illiteracy in Canada: Identifying and Addressing the Problem = L'analphabetisme chez les adultes au Canada: definition et traitement de la question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Council of Ministers of Education, Toronto (Ontario).

    This statement of the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada, focuses on the approaches that provincial ministers have taken to address the problem of adult illiteracy. First, it sets out concisely the nature and extent of functional illiteracy in Canada. Second, it describes a sample of the initiatives already under way to create effective…

  16. The 2011 Leona Tyler Award Address: The Relationship--And Its Relationship to the Common and Specific Factors of Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wampold, Bruce E.; Budge, Stephanie L.

    2012-01-01

    A debate exists about whether the common factors or specific ingredients are critical to producing the benefits of psychotherapy. A model of the relationship, based on evolved human characteristics related to healing, is presented that integrates common factors and specific ingredients. After the initial bond is formed, the relationship involves…

  17. Megacities in the coastal zone: Using a driver-pressure-state-impact-response framework to address complex environmental problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekovski, Ivan; Newton, Alice; Dennison, William C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elaborate on the role of coastal megacities in environmental degradation and their contribution to global climate change. Although only less than 4 percent of the total world's population resides in coastal megacities, their impact on environment is significant due to their rapid development, high population densities and high consumption rate of their residents. This study was carried out by implementing a Drivers-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses (DPSIR) framework. This analytical framework was chosen because of its potential to link the existing data, gathered from various previous studies, in causal relationship. In this text, coastal megacities have been defined as cities exceeding 10 million inhabitants, situated in "near-coastal zone". Their high rates of the consumption of food, water, space and energy were observed and linked to the high performance rates of related economic activities (industry, transportation, power generation, agriculture and water extraction). In many of the studied coastal megacities, deteriorated quality of air and water was perceived, which can, in combination with global warming, lead to health problems and economic and social disturbance among residents. The extent of problems varied between developing and developed countries, showing higher rates of population growth and certain harmful emissions in megacities of developing countries, as well as more problems regarding food and water shortages, sanitation, and health care support. Although certain projections predict slowdown of growth in most coastal megacities, their future impact on environment is still unclear due to the uncertainties regarding future climate change and trajectories of consumption patterns.

  18. The Brown Superfund Basic Research Program: A Multistakeholder Partnership Addresses Real-World Problems in Contaminated Communities

    PubMed Central

    Senier, Laura; Hudson, Benjamin; Fort, Sarah; Hoover, Elizabeth; Tillson, Rebecca; Brown, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The NIEHS funds several basic and applied research programs, many of which also require research translation or outreach. This paper reports on a project by the Brown University Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP), in which outreach and research translation teams collaborated with state regulatory agency personnel and community activists on a legislative initiative to mitigate the financial impacts of living in a contaminated community. The Environmentally Compromised Home Ownership (ECHO) program makes home equity loans of up to $25,000 available to qualified applicants. This collaboration provides a case study in community engagement and demonstrates how research translation and outreach activities that are clearly differentiated yet well integrated can improve a suite of basic and applied research. Although engaging diverse constituencies can be difficult, community-engaged translation and outreach have the potential to make research findings more useful to communities, address some of the social impacts of contamination, and empower stakeholders to pursue their individual and collectively-held goals for remediation. The NIEHS has recently renewed its commitment to community-engaged research and advocacy, making this an optimal time to reflect on how basic research programs that engage stakeholders through research translation and outreach can add value to the overall research enterprise. PMID:18677987

  19. Institution-Specific Victimization Surveys: Addressing Legal and Practical Disincentives to Gender-Based Violence Reporting on College Campuses.

    PubMed

    Cantalupo, Nancy Chi

    2014-03-12

    This review brings together both the legal literature and original empirical research regarding the advisability of amending the Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act or creating new Department of Education regulations to mandate that all higher education institutions survey their students approximately every 5 years about students' experiences with sexual violence. Legal research conducted regarding the three relevant federal legal regimes show inconsistent incentives for schools to encourage victim reporting and proactively address sexual violence on campus. Moreover, the original research carried out for this article shows that the experience of institutions that have voluntarily conducted such surveys suggests many benefits not only for students, prospective students, parents, and the general public but also for schools themselves. These experiences confirm the practical viability of a mandated survey by the Department of Education. PMID:24626456

  20. Opening addresses.

    PubMed

    Chukudebelu, W O; Lucas, A O; Ransome-kuti, O; Akinla, O; Obayi, G U

    1988-01-01

    The theme of the 3rd International Conference of the Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Nigeria (SOGON) held October 26, 1986 in Enugu was maternal morbidity and mortality in Africa. The opening addresses emphasize the high maternal mortality rate in Africa and SOGON's dedication to promoting women's health and welfare. In order to reduce maternal mortality, the scope of this problem must be made evident by gathering accurate mortality rates through maternity care monitoring and auditing. Governments, health professionals, educators, behavioral scientists, and communication specialists have a responsibility to improve maternal health services in this country. By making the population aware of this problem through education, measures can be taken to reduce the presently high maternal mortality rates. Nigerian women are physically unprepared for childbirth; therefore, balanced diets and disease prevention should be promoted. Since about 40% of deliveries are unmanaged, training for traditional birth attendants should be provided. Furthermore, family planning programs should discourage teenage pregnancies, encourage birth spacing and small families, and promote the use of family planning techniques among men. The problem of child bearing and rearing accompanied by hard work should also be investigated. For practices to change so that maternal mortality rates can be reduced, attitudes must be changed such that the current rates are viewed as unacceptable. PMID:12179275

  1. An episodic specificity induction enhances means-end problem solving in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Madore, Kevin P.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Episodic memory plays an important role not only in remembering past experiences, but also in constructing simulations of future experiences and solving means-end social problems. We recently found that an episodic specificity induction- brief training in recollecting details of past experiences- enhances performance of young and older adults on memory and imagination tasks. Here we tested the hypothesis that this specificity induction would also positively impact a means-end problem solving task on which age-related changes have been linked to impaired episodic memory. Young and older adults received the specificity induction or a control induction before completing a means-end problem solving task as well as memory and imagination tasks. Consistent with previous findings, older adults provided fewer relevant steps on problem solving than did young adults, and their responses also contained fewer internal (i.e., episodic) details across the three tasks. There was no difference in the number of other (e.g., irrelevant) steps on problem solving or external (i.e., semantic) details generated on the three tasks as a function of age. Critically, the specificity induction increased the number of relevant steps and internal details (but not other steps or external details) that both young and older adults generated in problem solving compared with the control induction, as well as the number of internal details (but not external details) generated for memory and imagination. Our findings support the idea that episodic retrieval processes are involved in means-end problem solving, extend the range of tasks on which a specificity induction targets these processes, and show that the problem solving performance of older adults can benefit from a specificity induction as much as that of young adults. PMID:25365688

  2. U.S. view of human problems to be addressed for long duration space flights. [physiological and psychological effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    The Russian and American space programs have consisted of several thousands of hours of exposure of man to the space environment. In spite of numerous biological phenomena of adaptation observed, the space travellers have displayed, after their return, no enduring pathological effect. Although the usable data remain too limited to reflect fully the effects of space flight, it is possible to sketch the biological responses in the absence of gravity and to define the work bases for the future. Beyond its basic physiological effects, weightlessness has operational consequences in the daily life of the astronauts. These consequences will be still more evident during missions of long duration. The conclusions drawn in flight as well as on the ground are reviewed, and future requirements concerning prolonged flights are outlined. The gaps in actual knowledge are discussed and solutions are suggested. The problems of habitability are considered, particularly those which remain at present without satisfactory solutions: psychological responses to a confined life, cleaning, hygiene, and used material.

  3. On the use of problem-specific candidate generators for the hybrid optimization of multi-objective production engineering problems.

    PubMed

    Weinert, K; Zabel, A; Kersting, P; Michelitsch, T; Wagner, T

    2009-01-01

    In the field of production engineering, various complex multi-objective problems are known. In this paper we focus on the design of mold temperature control systems, the reconstruction of digitized surfaces, and the optimization of NC paths for the five-axis milling process. For all these applications, efficient problem-specific algorithms exist that only consider a subset of the desirable objectives. In contrast, modern multi-objective evolutionary algorithms are able to cope with many conflicting objectives, but they require a long runtime due to their general applicability. Therefore, we propose hybrid algorithms for the three applications mentioned. In each case, the problem-specific algorithms are used to determine promising initial solutions for the multi-objective evolutionary approach, whose variation concepts are used to generate diversity in the objective space. We show that the combination of these techniques provides great benefits. Since the final solution is chosen by a decision maker based on this Pareto front approximation, appropriate visualizations of the high-dimensional solutions are presented. PMID:19916775

  4. Genetic and environmental vulnerabilities underlying adolescent substance use and problem use: general or specific?

    PubMed

    Young, Susan E; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Stallings, Michael C; Corley, Robin P; Hewitt, John K

    2006-07-01

    Are genetic and environmental risks for adolescent substance use specific to individual substances or general across substance classes? We examined this question in 645 monozygotic twin pairs, 702 dizygotic twin pairs, 429 biological sibling pairs, and 96 adoptive (biologically unrelated) sibling pairs ascertained from community-based samples, and ranging in age from 12 to 18 years. Substance use patterns and symptoms were assessed using structured psychiatric interviews. Biometrical model fitting was carried out using age- and sex-specific thresholds for (a) repeated use and (b) problem use, defined as one or more DSM-IV symptoms of abuse or dependence. We hypothesized that problem use would be more heritable than use in adolescence, and that both genetic and environmental risks underlying tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use and problem use would be significantly correlated. Results of univariate analyses suggested significant heritable factors for use and problem use for all substances with the exception of alcohol use. Shared environmental factors were important in all cases and special twin environmental factors were significant for tobacco use, tobacco problem use, and alcohol use. Multivariate analyses yielded significant genetic correlations between each of the substances (for both levels studied), and significant shared environmental correlations among use variables only. Our results suggest that tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana problem use are mediated by common genetic influences, but shared environmental influences may be more substance-specific for problem use. PMID:16619135

  5. Creating a lesson that addresses gender differences in physics testing a specific instructional technique in college level physics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, James J.

    Research-based instructional methods are applied in an effort to close the persistent gender gap in physics. Creating a short text on a limited topic using some of these methods could benefit female students specifically. A literature review showed research on the gender gap in physics and updated instructional methods for females. Two female physics students were interviewed and observations were conducted at a high performing all-girls school. A physics lab dialogue between two female physics students was recorded and analyzed, which informed the style and voice of the interactive dialogue lesson. An original written lesson intended to engage female physics students was created and tested on three classes of college-level physics students. The survey data, based on multiple choice and essay responses, measured the students' opinions of the lesson and their current textbook. Results showed the interactive lesson was preferred over the current text, and some students requested similar lessons.

  6. Problem Specification for FY12 Modeling of UNF During Extended Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Clarno, Kevin T; Howard, Rob L

    2012-03-01

    The Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program of the Advanced Modeling and Simulation Office (AMSO) of the US Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE/NE) has invested in the initial extension and application of advanced nuclear simulation tools to address relevant needs in evaluating the performance of used nuclear fuel (UNF) during extended periods of dry storage. There are many significant challenges associated with the prediction of the behavior of used fuel during extended periods of dry storage and subsequent transportation. The initial activities are focused on integrating with the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign of the DOE/NE and a demonstration that the Advanced Multi-Physics (AMP) Nuclear Fuel Performance code (AMPFuel) for modeling the mechanical state of the cladding after decades of storage. This initial focus will model the long-term storage of the UNF and account for the effect, and generation, of radially and circumferentially oriented hydride precipitates within the cladding and predict the end of storage (EOS) mechanical state (stress, strain) of the cladding. Predicting the EOS state of the cladding is significant because it (1) provides an estimate of the margin to failure of the cladding during nominal storage operation and it (2) establishes the initial state of the fuel for post-storage transportation. Because there are significant uncertainties associated with the storage conditions, hydride precipitate formation, and the beginning of storage (BOS) condition of the UNF, this will also allow for the development of a rigorous capability to evaluate the relative sensitivities of the uncertainties and can help to guide the experimental and analysis efforts of the UFD Campaign. This document is focused on specifying the problem that will be solved with AMPFuel. An associated report, documents the specifics of the constitutive model that will be developed and implemented in AMPFuel to account for the presence

  7. Preschool Sleep Problems and Differential Associations With Specific Aspects of Executive Control in Early Elementary School.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Timothy D; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Kidwell, Katherine M; James, Tiffany D; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the differential associations between parent-reported child sleep problems in preschool and specific aspects of executive control in early elementary school in a large sample of typically developing children (N = 215). Consistent with expectations, sleep problems were negatively associated with performance on tasks assessing working memory and interference suppression inhibition, even after controlling for general cognitive abilities, but not with flexible shifting or response inhibition. The findings add to the literature on cognitive impairments associated with pediatric sleep loss and highlight the need for early intervention for children with sleep problems to promote healthy cognitive development. PMID:26151614

  8. Preschool Children with Intellectual Disability: Syndrome Specificity, Behaviour Problems, and Maternal Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Eisenhower, A. S.; Baker, Bruce L.; Blacher, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Children with intellectual disability (ID) are at heightened risk for behaviour problems and diagnosed mental disorder. Likewise, mothers of children with ID are more stressed than mothers of typically-developing children. Research on behavioural phenotypes suggests that different syndromes of ID may be associated with distinct child behavioural risks and maternal well-being risks. In the present study, maternal reports of child behaviour problems and maternal well-being were examined for syndrome-specific differences. Methods The present authors studied the early manifestation and continuity of syndrome-specific behaviour problems in 215 preschool children belonging to 5 groups (typically-developing, undifferentiated developmental delays, Down syndrome, autism, cerebral palsy), as well as the relation of syndrome group to maternal well-being. Results At age 3, children with autism and cerebral palsy showed the highest levels of behaviour problems, and children with Down syndrome and typically-developing children showed the lowest levels. Mothers of children with autism reported more parenting stress than all other groups. These syndrome-specific patterns of behaviour and maternal stress were stable across ages 3, 4 and 5 years, except for relative increases in behaviour problems and maternal stress in the Down syndrome and cerebral palsy groups. Child syndrome contributed to maternal stress even after accounting for differences in behaviour problems and cognitive level. Conclusions These results, although based on small syndrome groups, suggest that phenotypic expressions of behaviour problems are manifested as early as age 3. These behavioural differences were paralleled by differences in maternal stress, such that mothers of children with autism are at elevated risk for high stress. In addition, there appear to be other unexamined characteristics of these syndromes, beyond behaviour problems, which also contribute to maternal stress. PMID:16108983

  9. Nondisease-Specific Problems and All-Cause Mortality in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Bowling, C. Barrett; Booth, John N.; Safford, Monika; Whitson, Heather E.; Ritchie, Christine; Wadley, Virginia G.; Cushman, Mary; Howard, Virginia; Allman, Richard M.; Muntner, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives Problems that cross multiple domains of health are frequently assessed in older adults. We evaluated the association between six of these nondisease-specific problems and mortality among middle-aged and older adults. Design Prospective, observational cohort Setting U.S. population sample Participants Participants included 23,669 black and white US adults ≥ 45 years of age enrolled in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Measurements Nondisease-specific problems included cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms, falls, polypharmacy, impaired mobility and exhaustion. Age-stratified (<65, 65-74, and ≥ 75 years) hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were calculated for each problem individually and by number of problems. Results Among participants < 65, 65-74, ≥ 75 years old, one or more nondisease-specific problems occurred in 40%, 45% and 55% of participants, respectively. Compared to those with none of these problems the multivariable adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all-cause mortality associated with each additional nondisease-specific problem was 1.34 (1.23–1.46), 1.24 (1.15–1.35) and 1.30 (1.21–1.39), among participants < 65, 65 – 74 years, ≥ 75 years of age, respectively. Conclusion Nondisease-specific problems were associated with mortality across a wide age spectrum. Future studies should determine if treating these problems will improve survival and identify innovative healthcare models to address multiple nondisease-specific problems simultaneously. PMID:23617688

  10. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Problem-Solving Intervention Addressing Barriers to Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Behaviors in 3 Underserved Populations: Colorado, North Carolina, West Virginia, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Lucinda L.; Leary, Janie M.; Vu, Maihan B.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D.; McMilin, Colleen R.; Keyserling, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In low-income and underserved populations, financial hardship and multiple competing roles and responsibilities lead to difficulties in lifestyle change for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. To improve CVD prevention behaviors, we adapted, pilot-tested, and evaluated a problem-solving intervention designed to address barriers to lifestyle change. Methods The sample consisted of 81 participants from 3 underserved populations, including 28 Hispanic or non-Hispanic white women in a western community (site 1), 31 African-American women in a semirural southern community (site 2), and 22 adults in an Appalachian community (site 3). Incorporating focus group findings, we assessed a standardized intervention involving 6-to-8 week group sessions devoted to problem-solving in the fall of 2009. Results Most sessions were attended by 76.5% of participants, demonstrating participant adoption and engagement. The intervention resulted in significant improvement in problem-solving skills (P < .001) and perceived stress (P < .05). Diet, physical activity, and weight remained stable, although 72% of individuals reported maintenance or increase in daily fruit and vegetable intake, and 67% reported maintenance or increase in daily physical activity. Conclusion Study results suggest the intervention was acceptable to rural, underserved populations and effective in training them in problem-solving skills and stress management for CVD risk reduction. PMID:24602586

  11. Authoring Effective Embedded Tutors: An Overview of the Extensible Problem Specific Tutor (xPST) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Stephen B.; Blessing, Stephen B.; Guo, Enruo

    2015-01-01

    The Extensible Problem Specific Tutor (xPST) allows authors who are not cognitive scientists and not programmers to quickly create an intelligent tutoring system that provides instruction akin to a model-tracing tutor. Furthermore, this instruction is overlaid on existing software, so that the learner's interface does not have to be made from…

  12. The Role of Problem Specification Workshops in Extension: An IPM Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, John; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Of three extension models--top-down technology transfer, farmers-first approach, and participatory research--the latter extends elements of the other two into a more comprehensive analysis of a problem and specification of solution strategies. An Australian integrated pest management (IPM) example illustrates how structured workshops are a useful…

  13. The problem with total error models in establishing performance specifications and a simple remedy.

    PubMed

    Krouwer, Jan S

    2016-08-01

    A recent issue in this journal revisited performance specifications since the Stockholm conference. Of the three recommended methods, two use total error models to establish performance specifications. It is shown that the most commonly used total error model - the Westgard model - is deficient, yet even more complete models fail to capture all errors that comprise total error. Moreover, total error models are often set at 95% of results, which leave 5% of results as unspecified. Glucose meter performance standards are used to illustrate these problems. The Westgard model is useful to asses assay performance but not to set performance specifications. Total error can be used to set performance specifications if the specifications include 100% of the results. PMID:26974143

  14. Problems in estimating age-specific survival rates from recovery data of birds ringed as young

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.R.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; White, Gary C.

    1985-01-01

    (1) The life table model is frequently employed in the analysis of ringer samples of young in bird populations. The basic model is biologically unrealistic and of little use in making inferences concerning age-specific survival probabilities. (2) This model rests on a number of restrictive assumptions, the failure of which causes serious biases. Several important assumptions are not met with real data and the estimators of age-specific survival are not robust enough to these failures. (3) Five major problems in the use of the life table method are reviewed. Examples are provided to illustrate several of the problems involved in using this method in making inferences about survival rates and its age-specific nature. (4) We conclude that this is an invalid procedure and it should not be used. Furthermore, ringing studies involving only young birds are pointless as regards survival estimation because no valid method exists for estimating age-specific or time-specific survival rates from such data. (5) In our view, inferences about age-specific survival rates are possible only if both young and adult (or young, subadult and adult) age classes are ringed each year for k years (k ≥ 2).

  15. Worrying about the future: An episodic specificity induction impacts problem solving, reappraisal, and well-being.

    PubMed

    Jing, Helen G; Madore, Kevin P; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that an episodic specificity induction--brief training in recollecting details of a recent experience--enhances performance on various subsequent tasks thought to draw upon episodic memory processes. Existing work has also shown that mental simulation can be beneficial for emotion regulation and coping with stressors. Here we focus on understanding how episodic detail can affect problem solving, reappraisal, and psychological well-being regarding worrisome future events. In Experiment 1, an episodic specificity induction significantly improved participants' performance on a subsequent means-end problem solving task (i.e., more relevant steps) and an episodic reappraisal task (i.e., more episodic details) involving personally worrisome future events compared with a control induction not focused on episodic specificity. Imagining constructive behaviors with increased episodic detail via the specificity induction was also related to significantly larger decreases in anxiety, perceived likelihood of a bad outcome, and perceived difficulty to cope with a bad outcome, as well as larger increases in perceived likelihood of a good outcome and indicated use of active coping behaviors compared with the control. In Experiment 2, we extended these findings using a more stringent control induction, and found preliminary evidence that the specificity induction was related to an increase in positive affect and decrease in negative affect compared with the control. Our findings support the idea that episodic memory processes are involved in means-end problem solving and episodic reappraisal, and that increasing the episodic specificity of imagining constructive behaviors regarding worrisome events may be related to improved psychological well-being. PMID:26820166

  16. Presidential address.

    PubMed

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  17. Graphical R-matrix atomic collision environment (G RACE): the problem specification stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, N. S.; McMinn, A.; Burke, P. G.; Burke, V. M.; Noble, C. J.

    1993-12-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of a graphical R-matrix atomic collision environment (G RACE). G RACE couples the graphical capability of powerful workstations with the processing power of supercomputers to provide an environment for the study of atomic collision properties and processes. At the core of G RACE is a new generation R-matrix program package, which is used to compute properties characterising electron atom and electron ion collisions. One of the motivations behind the project is to render this package simple to use by novice and experienced users alike, thereby significantly improving its usefulness to the physics community. G RACE is composed of a problem specification stage, a computation stage, and an interpretation stage. The focus of this paper is a description of the X Window graphical user interface which constitutes the problem specification stage of G RACE.

  18. Mental Health Problems during Puberty: Tanner Stage-Related Differences in Specific Symptoms. The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between specific mental health problems and pubertal stage in (pre)adolescents participating in the Dutch prospective cohort study TRAILS (first assessment: N = 2230, age 11.09 [plus or minus] 0.56, 50.8% girls; second assessment: N = 2149, age 13.56 [plus or minus] 0.53, 51.0% girls). Mental…

  19. A Bayesian Maximum Entropy approach to address the change of support problem in the spatial analysis of childhood asthma prevalence across North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Yeatts, Karin B; Serre, Marc L

    2009-01-01

    The spatial analysis of data observed at different spatial observation scales leads to the change of support problem (COSP). A solution to the COSP widely used in linear spatial statistics consists in explicitly modeling the spatial autocorrelation of the variable observed at different spatial scales. We present a novel approach that takes advantage of the non-linear Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) extension of linear spatial statistics to address the COSP directly without relying on the classical linear approach. Our procedure consists in modeling data observed over large areas as soft data for the process at the local scale. We demonstrate the application of our approach to obtain spatially detailed maps of childhood asthma prevalence across North Carolina (NC). Because of the high prevalence of childhood asthma in NC, the small number problem is not an issue, so we can focus our attention solely to the COSP of integrating prevalence data observed at the county-level together with data observed at a targeted local scale equivalent to the scale of school-districts. Our spatially detailed maps can be used for different applications ranging from exploratory and hypothesis generating analyses to targeting intervention and exposure mitigation efforts. PMID:20300553

  20. A Bayesian Maximum Entropy approach to address the change of support problem in the spatial analysis of childhood asthma prevalence across North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    LEE, SEUNG-JAE; YEATTS, KARIN; SERRE, MARC L.

    2009-01-01

    The spatial analysis of data observed at different spatial observation scales leads to the change of support problem (COSP). A solution to the COSP widely used in linear spatial statistics consists in explicitly modeling the spatial autocorrelation of the variable observed at different spatial scales. We present a novel approach that takes advantage of the non-linear Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) extension of linear spatial statistics to address the COSP directly without relying on the classical linear approach. Our procedure consists in modeling data observed over large areas as soft data for the process at the local scale. We demonstrate the application of our approach to obtain spatially detailed maps of childhood asthma prevalence across North Carolina (NC). Because of the high prevalence of childhood asthma in NC, the small number problem is not an issue, so we can focus our attention solely to the COSP of integrating prevalence data observed at the county-level together with data observed at a targeted local scale equivalent to the scale of school-districts. Our spatially detailed maps can be used for different applications ranging from exploratory and hypothesis generating analyses to targeting intervention and exposure mitigation efforts. PMID:20300553

  1. The specification-based validation of reliable multicast protocol: Problem Report. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Yunqing

    1995-01-01

    Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP) is a communication protocol that provides an atomic, totally ordered, reliable multicast service on top of unreliable IP multicasting. In this report, we develop formal models for RMP using existing automated verification systems, and perform validation on the formal RMP specifications. The validation analysis help identifies some minor specification and design problems. We also use the formal models of RMP to generate a test suite for conformance testing of the implementation. Throughout the process of RMP development, we follow an iterative, interactive approach that emphasizes concurrent and parallel progress of implementation and verification processes. Through this approach, we incorporate formal techniques into our development process, promote a common understanding for the protocol, increase the reliability of our software, and maintain high fidelity between the specifications of RMP and its implementation.

  2. The National Historic Preservation Act is Not Your Problem, But How You are Addressing it for Your CERCLA Project May Be - 12344

    SciTech Connect

    Cusick, Lesley T.

    2012-07-01

    The 1995 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joint 'Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under CERCLA was developed so that decommissioning could occur in a manner that ensures protection of worker and public health and the environment, that is consistent with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), that provides for stakeholder involvement, and that achieves risk reduction without unnecessary delay'. The source of the 'unnecessary delays' the joint policy intended to avert could be attributed to numerous factors such as obtaining permits, conducting administrative activities, or implementing regulatory processes that could yield, among other things, differing preferred alternatives. Why, you might ask, more than fifteen years later, does DOE continue to struggle through CERCLA projects with unnecessary delays? From problem identification, to determination of nature and extent, to alternative analysis and ultimately remedy selection and implementation, reaching a compliant and effective clean-up end-point can be a process that seems to mimic geologic timescales. The source of these delays is often the failure to use all of the tools the CERCLA process offers. As one example, renewed commitment to follow the CERCLA process to address the regulatory reviews pursuant to the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) is called for. Project managers implementing CERCLA actions in any agency, not only DOE, do not need to be apprehensive about using the CERCLA process for NHPA review but should welcome it. It is critical that methods are used that address substantive NHPA requirements clearly and consistently, and that they are shared and communicated as frequently as needed to interested and questioning stakeholders. (author)

  3. Emergence of Coding and its Specificity as a Physico-Informatic Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, Peter R.; Nieselt, Kay; McCaskill, John S.

    2015-06-01

    We explore the origin-of-life consequences of the view that biological systems are demarcated from inanimate matter by their possession of referential information, which is processed computationally to control choices of specific physico-chemical events. Cells are cybernetic: they use genetic information in processes of communication and control, subjecting physical events to a system of integrated governance. The genetic code is the most obvious example of how cells use information computationally, but the historical origin of the usefulness of molecular information is not well understood. Genetic coding made information useful because it imposed a modular metric on the evolutionary search and thereby offered a general solution to the problem of finding catalysts of any specificity. We use the term "quasispecies symmetry breaking" to describe the iterated process of self-organisation whereby the alphabets of distinguishable codons and amino acids increased, step by step.

  4. Integration of the Two-Dimensional Power Spectral Density into Specifications for the X-ray Domain -- Problems and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, Wayne R.; Howells, M. R.; Yashchuk, V. V.

    2008-09-30

    An implementation of the two-dimensional statistical scattering theory of Church and Takacs for the prediction of scattering from x-ray mirrors is presented with a graphical user interface. The process of this development has clarified several problems which are of significant interest to the synchrotron community. These problems have been addressed to some extent, for example, for large astronomical telescopes, and at the National Ignition Facility for normal incidence optics, but not in the synchrotron community for grazing incidence optics. Since it is based on the Power Spectral Density (PSD) to provide a description of the deviations from ideal shape of the surface, accurate prediction of the scattering requires an accurate estimation of the PSD. Specifically, the spatial frequency range of measurement must be the correct one for the geometry of use of the optic--including grazing incidence and coherence effects, and the modifications to the PSD of the Optical Transfer Functions (OTF) of the measuring instruments must be removed. A solution for removal of OTF effects has been presented previously, the Binary Pseudo-Random Grating. Typically, the frequency range of a single instrument does not cover the range of interest, requiring the stitching together of PSD estimations. This combination generates its own set of difficulties in two dimensions. Fitting smooth functions to two dimensional PSDs, particularly in the case of spatial non-isotropy of the surface, which is often the case for optics in synchrotron beam lines, can be difficult. The convenient, and physically accurate fractal for one dimension does not readily transfer to two dimensions. Finally, a completely statistical description of scattering must be integrated with a deterministic low spatial frequency component in order to completely model the intensity near the image. An outline for approaching these problems, and our proposed experimental program is given.

  5. Addressing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2013-02-11

    Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system. PMID:23487896

  6. Problems with tense marking in children with specific language impairment: not how but when

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2014-01-01

    Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have persisting problems in the correct use of verb tense, but there has been disagreement as to the underlying reason. When we take into account studies using receptive as well as expressive language tasks, the data suggest that the difficulty for children with SLI is in knowing when to inflect verbs for tense, rather than how to do so. This is perhaps not surprising when we consider that tense does not have a transparent semantic interpretation, but depends on complex relationships between inflections and hierarchically organized clauses. An explanation in terms of syntactic limitations contrasts with a popular morpho-phonological account, the Words and Rules model. This model, which attributes problems to difficulties with applying a rule to generate regular inflected forms, has been widely applied to adult-acquired disorders. There are striking similarities in the pattern of errors in adults with anterior aphasia and children with SLI, suggesting that impairments in appreciation of when to mark tense may apply to acquired as well as developmental disorders. PMID:24324242

  7. Student Party Riots. Problem-Oriented Guides for Police. Problem-Specific Guides Series. Guide Number 39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madensen, Tamara D.; Eck, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol-related riots among university students pose a significant problem for police agencies that serve college communities. The intensity of the disturbances may vary. However, the possible outcomes include property destruction and physical violence and are a serious threat to community and officer safety. This report provides a framework for…

  8. Magnetic content addressable memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenye

    Content Addressable Memories are designed with comparison circuits built into every bit cell. This parallel structure can increase the speed of searching from O(n) (as with Random Access Memories) to O(1), where n is the number of entries being searched. The high cost in hardware limits the application of CAM within situations where higher searching speed is extremely desired. Spintronics technology can build non-volatile Magnetic RAM with only one device for one bit cell. There are various technologies involved, like Magnetic Tunnel Junctions, off-easy-axis programming method, Synthetic Anti-Ferromagnetic tri-layers, Domain Wall displacement, Spin Transfer Torque tri-layers and etc. With them, particularly the Tunnel Magneto-Resistance variation in MTJ due to difference in magnetization polarity of the two magnets, Magnetic CAM can be developed with reduced hardware cost. And this is demonstrated by the discussion in this dissertation. Six MCAM designs are discussed. In the first design, comparand (C), local information (S) and their complements are stored into 4 MTJs connected in XOR gate pattern. The other five designs have one or two stacks for both information storage and comparison, and full TMR ratio can be taken advantage of. Two challenges for the five are specifically programming C without changing S and selectively programming a cell out of an array. The solutions to specific programming are: by confining the programming field for C in a ring structure design; by using field programming and spin polarized current programming respectively for C and S in the SAF+DW and SAF+STT tri-layer design; by making use of the difference in thresholds between direct mode and toggle mode switching in the SAF+SAF design. The problem of selective programming is addressed by off-easy-axis method and by including SAF tri-layers. Cell with STT tri-layers for both C and S can completely avoid the problems of specific and selective programming, but subject to the limit of

  9. Parental Knowledge of Behavioral Principles Following Training to Address Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Kylan

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems are a common occurrence among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In addition to the challenges that sleep problems present for children's neurodevelopment, learning, and daytime behaviors, sleep problems in children present significant challenges for the entire family. Research studies on behavioral interventions to…

  10. The Contribution of Domain-Specific Knowledge in Predicting Students' Proportional Word Problem-Solving Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Lein, Amy E.; Star, Jon R.; Dupuis, Danielle N.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which domain-specific knowledge predicted proportional word problem-solving performance. We tested 411 seventh-grade students on conceptual and procedural fraction knowledge, conceptual and procedural proportion knowledge, and proportional word problem solving. Multiple regression analyses indicated that all four…

  11. Inaugural address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  12. [Specific features and problems in the pharmacotherapy of schizophrenic psychoses in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Fegert, J M

    2002-10-01

    The present article reviews the specific problems of the off-label use of atypical and typical neuroleptics in the treatment of adolescent patients with schizophrenia. There is a considerable gap in the empirical knowledge of treatment efficacy and long term safety in adult populations as compared to children and adolescents. This means that in most in-patients with early onset schizophrenia some sort of typical or atypical neuroleptic drug is currently used beyond license. From a legal point of view there is no protection for treated children or adolescents and their parents as the manufacturer of these pharmaceutical products does not assume liability for off-label use. Whether the doctor can be held liable in these cases, depends on the quality of the information he provides to his patients and the patients' consent. Legal changes such as the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act (FDAMA) and Pediatric Rule in the USA have brought forward more research to the benefit of children and adolescents. In 2002 a trend has been noticed in both the European and the German Parliament to improve the general conditions for using drugs that are well-established in adult medicine for the treatment of children. PMID:12474310

  13. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  14. Welcome Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  15. Principles of Positive Behaviour Supports: Using the FBA as a Problem-Solving Approach to Address Challenging Behaviours beyond Special Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Gerardo; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2011-01-01

    The Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA) is an investigative process that examines the context of challenging behaviours in the classroom. Information gleaned from the FBA process is used to develop a behaviour intervention plan to address the challenging behaviour and teach a socially acceptable replacement behaviour. However, the FBA has…

  16. School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Can It Help Address the Problem of Disproportionate Minority Representation in the Emotional Disturbance Disability Category?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Jodi Abraham

    2012-01-01

    This research project investigated the possibility of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) as a way to address racial/ethnic disproportionality in the Emotional Disturbance (ED) category. The sample consisted of 114 elementary schools from a suburban school district in the Mid-Atlantic region. There were 57 SWPBS schools and 57 non-SWPBS…

  17. Convocation address.

    PubMed

    Alexander, P C

    1994-07-01

    Total world population is growing at the annual rate of 2%. While this rate of growth represents a decline from the annual growth rate of 2.5% during the early 1960s, world population still continues to grow rapidly in absolute terms as a result of the already enormous population base. Experts predict world population to grow to 12-14 billion before it stabilizes. Most of this growth will be due to high fertility amid declining mortality in developing countries; 80% of world population by the year 2000 will be in developing countries. India, for example, had a population of 358 million people in 1950. That population, however, should grow to more than one billion by the year 2000. The author, governor of Maharashtra, congratulates all who have successfully completed courses at the International Institute for Population Sciences during the year and voices his expectation that graduates will use their newfound knowledge and expertise in research and teaching as well as in developing meaningful and effective population policies in their respective countries. He also describes some of India's current population-related problems and future prospects. India has thus far kept its rate of food production above the rate of population growth. Even so, the average caloric intake in India needs to be increased by at least 50% in order for the population to maintain adequate health standards. The current scarcity of additional arable land, the need to halt further deforestation, and the ongoing absolute growth in population, however, suggest that India will be unable to raise the level of caloric intake for its people. India may even become dependent upon other countries to provide food for its population. PMID:12346131

  18. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  19. President's Address

    PubMed Central

    Moore, John

    1928-01-01

    The paper recalls how matters veterinary were regarded forty-six years ago, what has been achieved since, and future progress is reflected. The paper is divided into parts relating respectively to: (a) medicine; (b) surgery (c) teaching and research; (d) administration. Formerly, glanders and farcy, and rabies, though acknowledged as contagious and specific, were also believed to be of spontaneous origin. Experiences with regard to these two diseases, and the mallein test for glanders, are related. The discovery of the Bacillus anthracis led to the development of veterinary research, but for some time confusion existed. Tuberculosis was believed to be endogenous and the result of the absorption of caseous products of a previous inflammation. Treatment of “milk fever” in cows by udder inflation and biochemistry in relation to that disease are considered. The advance in veterinary surgery stands out most prominently; in canine practice, operations are now attempted which were never thought possible in the early days. Allusion is made to the recent formidable operations for the cure of “windsucking” in horses, and for traumatic pericarditis in bovines. The powers of observance of the old practitioners in diagnosing lameness, and some of the old methods of treatment for lameness, are supported. The great progress in veterinary research is referred to, also its advantages from an imperial point of view. The causative agents of those diseases which are at present ultravisible, particularly foot-and-mouth disease, will probably be found, and better methods of prevention result. In training, thorough instruction in animal physiology, animal nutrition and biochemistry is advocated, also affiliation of veterinary colleges to universities, the individuality of such colleges, and the one-portal system of qualification being maintained. PMID:19986709

  20. English for Specific Purposes (ESP) for Jordanian Tourist Police in Their Workplace: Needs and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldohon, Hatem Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of the global tourism industry, designing ESP-based curricula is now more vitally needed than ever. To work towards this goal, analyzing learners' problems and needs has become merely unavoidable. Therefore, this study aimed at examining the needs, functions and problems of 46 tourist police serving in different…

  1. The Effect of General and Drug-Specific Family Environments on Comorbid and Drug-Specific Problem Behavior: A Longitudinal Examination

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Marina; Hill, Karl G.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hawkins, J. David

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the development of alcohol and tobacco dependence is linked, and that both are influenced by family environmental and intrapersonal factors, many of which likely interact over the life course. The current study identifies general and substance-specific predictors of comorbid problem behavior, tobacco dependence, and alcohol abuse and dependence. Specifically, we examine the effects of general and alcohol- and tobacco-specific environmental influences in the family of origin (ages 10 – 18) and family of cohabitation (ages 27 – 30) on problem behavior and alcohol- and tobacco-specific outcomes at age 33. General environmental factors include family monitoring, conflict, bonding, and involvement. Alcohol environment includes parental alcohol use, parents’ attitudes toward alcohol, and children’s involvement in family drinking. Tobacco-specific environment is assessed analogously. Additionally, analyses include the effect of childhood behavioral disinhibition and control for demographics and initial behavior problems. Analyses were based on 469 participants drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP) sample. Results indicated that (a) environmental factors within the family of origin and the family of cohabitation are both important predictors of problem behavior at age 33; (b) family of cohabitation influences partially mediate the effects of family of origin environments; (c) considerable continuity exists between adolescent and adult general and tobacco (but not alcohol) environments; age 18 alcohol and tobacco use partially mediates these relationships; and (d) childhood behavioral disinhibition, contributed to age 33 outcomes, over and above the effects of family of cohabitation mediators. Implications for preventive interventions are discussed. PMID:22799586

  2. Performance in chemistry problem solving: A study of expert/novice strategies and specific cognitive factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engemann, Joseph Francis

    The purpose of this study was (a) to determine whether any relationships exist between chemistry problem-solving performance and field dependent-independent cognitive style, logical reasoning ability, mental capacity, age, gender, and/or academic level, and (b) to compare the problem-solving strategies employed by novices, advanced novices, and experts in chemistry. The Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT), the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), and the Figural Intersection Test (FIT) were administered to 29 freshman and junior university chemistry students and 19 Regents and Advanced Placement high school chemistry students. In addition, six mole concept problems were given to these participants, as well as to another 25 participants classified as advanced novices or experts in chemistry. All six solutions for each participant were evaluated in order to obtain a problem-solving performance score. Participants were audiotaped as they "talked aloud" during the problem-solving session. Tapes were transcribed into protocols, 37 of which were selected and analyzed for choice of problem-solving strategy and time to solution. Analyses of variance were conducted to look for significant effects of gender or academic level on field dependent-independent cognitive style, logical reasoning ability, mental capacity, and problem-solving performance. These analyses provided evidence of a significant relationship between the conservation subtest of the GALT and gender (p < .05), between the proportional reasoning subtest of the GALT and gender (p < .05), and between mental capacity and academic level (p < .01). A multiple regression analysis reported that problem-solving performance is related to an interaction between logical reasoning ability and mental capacity. A relationship between academic level and chemistry problem-solving performance was also reported. From an analysis of verbal protocols of successful problem solvers at all three levels of experience, the

  3. Listen-Identify-Brainstorm-Reality-Test-Encourage (LIBRE) Problem-Solving Model: Addressing Special Education Teacher Attrition through a Cognitive-Behavioral Approach to Teacher Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Norma S.; Hernandez, Art; Hector, Alison M.; Crosby, Shane

    2015-01-01

    Special education teacher attrition rates continue to challenge the profession. A cognitive-behavioral problem-solving approach was used to examine three alternative certification program special education teachers' professional development through a series of 41 interviews conducted over a 2-year period. Beginning when they were novice special…

  4. Adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems predict their affect-specific HPA and HPG axes reactivity.

    PubMed

    Han, Georges; Miller, Jonas G; Cole, Pamela M; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Hastings, Paul D

    2015-09-01

    We examined psychopathology-neuroendocrine associations in relation to the transition into adolescence within a developmental framework that acknowledged the interdependence of the HPA and HPG hormone systems in the regulation of responses to everyday affective contexts. Saliva samples were collected during anxiety and anger inductions from 51 young adolescents (M 13.47, SD = .60 years) to evaluate cortisol, DHEA, and testosterone responses. Internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed at pre-adolescence (M = 9.27, SD = .58 years) while youths were in elementary school and concurrently with hormones in early adolescence. Externalizing problems from elementary school predicted adolescents' reduced DHEA reactivity during anxiety induction. Follow up analyses simultaneously examining the contributions of elementary school and adolescent problems showed a trend suggesting that youths with higher levels of internalizing problems during elementary school eventuated in a profile of heightened DHEA reactivity as adolescents undergoing anxiety induction. For both the anxiety and the anger inductions, it was normative for DHEA and testosterone to be positively coupled. Adolescents with high externalizing problems but low internalizing problems marshaled dual axes co-activation during anger induction in the form of positive cortisol-testosterone coupling. This is some of the first evidence suggesting affective context determines whether dual axes coupling is reflective of normative or problematic functioning in adolescence. PMID:25604092

  5. The effect of general and drug-specific family environments on comorbid and drug-specific problem behavior: a longitudinal examination.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Marina; Hill, Karl G; Bailey, Jennifer A; Hawkins, J David

    2013-06-01

    Previous research has shown that the development of alcohol and tobacco dependence is linked and that both are influenced by environmental and intrapersonal factors, many of which likely interact over the life course. The present study examines the effects of general and alcohol- and tobacco-specific environmental influences in the family of origin (ages 10-18) and family of cohabitation (ages 27-30) on problem behavior and alcohol- and tobacco-specific outcomes at age 33. General environmental factors include family management, conflict, bonding, and involvement. Alcohol environment includes parental alcohol use, parents' attitudes toward alcohol, and children's involvement in family drinking. Tobacco-specific environment is assessed analogously. Additionally, analyses include the effects of childhood behavioral disinhibition, initial behavior problems, and age 18 substance use. Analyses were based on 469 participants drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP) sample. Results indicated that (a) environmental factors within the family of origin and the family of cohabitation are both important predictors of problem behavior at age 33; (b) family of cohabitation influences partially mediate the effects of family of origin environments; (c) considerable continuity exists between adolescent and adult general and tobacco (but not alcohol) environments; age 18 alcohol and tobacco use partially mediates these relationships; and (d) childhood behavioral disinhibition contributed to age 33 outcomes, over and above the effects of family of cohabitation mediators. Implications for preventive interventions are discussed. PMID:22799586

  6. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  7. Neural and cognitive correlates of the common and specific variance across externalizing problems in young adolescence.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Struve, Maren; Whelan, Robert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Flor, Herta; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Juergen; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Lawrence, Claire; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W; Smolka, Michael N; Schumann, Gunter; Garavan, Hugh; Conrod, Patricia J

    2014-12-01

    Longitudinal and family-based research suggests that conduct disorder, substance misuse, and ADHD involve both unique forms of dysfunction as well as more specific dysfunctions unique to each condition. Using direct measures of brain function, this study also found evidence in both unique and disorder-specific perturbations. PMID:25073448

  8. Toward Greater Specificity in Identifying Associations among Interparental Aggression, Child Emotional Reactivity to Conflict, and Child Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante; Martin, Meredith J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined specific forms of emotional reactivity to conflict and temperamental emotionality as explanatory mechanisms in pathways among interparental aggression and child psychological problems. Participants of the multimethod, longitudinal study included 201 two-year-old children and their mothers who had experienced elevated violence…

  9. Brain Hyper-Connectivity and Operation-Specific Deficits during Arithmetic Problem Solving in Children with Developmental Dyscalculia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Chen, Tianwen; Young, Christina B.; Geary, David C.; Menon, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is marked by specific deficits in processing numerical and mathematical information despite normal intelligence (IQ) and reading ability. We examined how brain circuits used by young children with DD to solve simple addition and subtraction problems differ from those used by typically developing (TD) children who…

  10. Non-Word Repetition in Dutch-Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment with and without Reading Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rispens, Judith; Parigger, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Recently, English studies have shown a relationship between non-word repetition (NWR) and the presence of reading problems (RP). Children with specific language impairment (SLI) but without RP performed similarly to their typically developing (TD) peers, whereas children with SLI and RP performed significantly worse on an NWR task. The current…

  11. Relations between Young Students' Strategic Behaviours, Domain-Specific Self-Concept, and Performance in a Problem-Solving Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dermitzaki, Irini; Leondari, Angeliki; Goudas, Marios

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the relations between students' strategic behaviour during problem solving, task performance and domain-specific self-concept. A total of 167 first- and second-graders were individually examined in tasks involving cubes assembly and in academic self-concept in mathematics. Students' cognitive, metacognitive, and…

  12. On Thinking and Feeling Bad: Do Client Problems Derive from a Common Irrationality or Specific Irrational Beliefs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Chris D.; And Others

    Two studies have reported that low self-esteem is related to the holding of four specific irrational beliefs; further studies have suggested that these and other irrational beliefs are associated with different client problems. This study attempted to replicate the self-esteem findings with a younger population and improved controls and to explore…

  13. Children's Use of Domain-Specific Knowledge and Domain-General Strategies in Novel Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lyn D.

    Seventy-two Australian children aged from 4 years 6 months to 9 years 10 months were individually administered a set of six combinatorial problems involving the dressing of toy bears in all possible combinations of clothing items. Six age groups were represented: eight children were in each of the 4, 5, and 6 year categories; and 16 children were…

  14. Vocabulary Notebook: A Digital Solution to General and Specific Vocabulary Learning Problems in a CLIL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazo, Plácido; Rodríguez, Romén; Fumero, Dácil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we will introduce an innovative software platform that can be especially useful in a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) context. This tool is called Vocabulary Notebook, and has been developed to solve all the problems that traditional (paper) vocabulary notebooks have. This tool keeps focus on the personalisation of…

  15. General and Specific Predictors of Behavioral and Emotional Problems Among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, M.; Mason, W. A.

    2004-01-01

    Based on a sample of 1,218 students in the 10th and 11th grades, 14 variables measuring behavioral and emotional problems were modeled as four factors via confirmatory factor analysis. The factors were labeled Polydrug Use, Delinquency, Negative Affect, and Academic Orientation. A similar four-factor structure was supported 1 year later, and a…

  16. Preschool Children with Intellectual Disability: Syndrome Specificity, Behaviour Problems, and Maternal Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhower, A. S.; Baker, B. L.; Blacher, J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disability (ID) are at heightened risk for behaviour problems and diagnosed mental disorder. Likewise, mothers of children with ID are more stressed than mothers of typically developing children. Research on behavioural phenotypes suggests that different syndromes of ID may be associated with distinct child…

  17. The Effect of General Versus Specific Heuristics in Mathematical Problem-Solving Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James Philip

    This study investigated differences in problem-solving performance following instruction varying in the type of heuristic advice given. The subjects, 176 college students with two years of high school mathematics experience, were provided programed instruction over a three-week period in three topic areas: finite geometry, Boolean algebra, and…

  18. Development and Initial Evaluation of a Telephone-Delivered, Behavioral Activation and Problem-solving Treatment Program to Address Functional Goals of Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Kathleen D.; Hull, Jay G.; Kaufman, Peter A.; Li, Zhongze; Seville, Janette L.; Ahles, Tim A.; Kornblith, Alice B.; Hegel, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and pilot test an intervention to optimize functional recovery for breast cancer survivors. Over two studies, 31 women enrolled in a goal-setting program via telephone. All eligible women enrolled (37% of those screened) and 66% completed all study activities. Completers were highly satisfied with the intervention, using it to address, on average, four different challenging activities. The longitudinal analysis showed a main effect of time for overall quality of life (F(5, 43.1) = 5.1, p = 0.001) and improvements in active coping (F (3, 31.7) = 4.9, p = 0.007), planning (F (3, 36.0) = 4.1, p = 0.01), reframing (F (3, 29.3) = 8.5, p < 0.001), and decreases in self-blame (F (3,31.6) = 4.3, p = 0.01). The intervention is feasible and warrants further study to determine its efficacy in fostering recovery and maximizing activity engagement after cancer treatment. PMID:25668509

  19. A Genre-Specific Investigation of Video Game Engagement and Problem Play in the Early Life Course.

    PubMed

    Ream, Geoffrey L; Elliott, Luther C; Dunlap, Eloise

    2013-05-21

    This study explored predictors of engagement with specific video game genres, and degree of problem play experienced by players of specific genres, during the early life course. Video game players ages 18-29 (n = 692) were recruited in and around video game retail outlets, arcades, conventions, and other video game related contexts in New York City. Participants completed a Computer-Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) of contemporaneous demographic and personality measures and a Life-History Calendar (LHC) measuring video gaming, school/work engagement, and caffeine and sugar consumption for each year of life ages 6 - present. Findings were that likelihood of engagement with most genres rose during childhood, peaked at some point during the second decade of life, and declined through emerging adulthood. Cohorts effects on engagement also emerged which were probably attributable to changes in the availability and popularity of various genres over the 12-year age range of our participants. The relationship between age and problem play of most genres was either negative or non-significant. Sensation-seeking was the only consistent positive predictor of problem play. Relationships between other variables and engagement with and problem play of specific genres are discussed in detail. PMID:24688802

  20. A Genre-Specific Investigation of Video Game Engagement and Problem Play in the Early Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Ream, Geoffrey L.; Elliott, Luther C.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2013-01-01

    This study explored predictors of engagement with specific video game genres, and degree of problem play experienced by players of specific genres, during the early life course. Video game players ages 18–29 (n = 692) were recruited in and around video game retail outlets, arcades, conventions, and other video game related contexts in New York City. Participants completed a Computer-Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) of contemporaneous demographic and personality measures and a Life-History Calendar (LHC) measuring video gaming, school/work engagement, and caffeine and sugar consumption for each year of life ages 6 - present. Findings were that likelihood of engagement with most genres rose during childhood, peaked at some point during the second decade of life, and declined through emerging adulthood. Cohorts effects on engagement also emerged which were probably attributable to changes in the availability and popularity of various genres over the 12-year age range of our participants. The relationship between age and problem play of most genres was either negative or non-significant. Sensation-seeking was the only consistent positive predictor of problem play. Relationships between other variables and engagement with and problem play of specific genres are discussed in detail. PMID:24688802

  1. Specificity of Anti-Tau Antibodies when Analyzing Mice Models of Alzheimer's Disease: Problems and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Franck R.; Pelletier, Jérôme; Bretteville, Alexis; Morin, Françoise; Calon, Frédéric; Hébert, Sébastien S.; Whittington, Robert A.; Planel, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein are found in a group of diseases called tauopathies, which includes Alzheimer's disease. The causes and consequences of tau hyperphosphorylation are routinely investigated in laboratory animals. Mice are the models of choice as they are easily amenable to transgenic technology; consequently, their tau phosphorylation levels are frequently monitored by Western blotting using a panel of monoclonal/polyclonal anti-tau antibodies. Given that mouse secondary antibodies can recognize endogenous mouse immunoglobulins (Igs) and the possible lack of specificity with some polyclonal antibodies, non-specific signals are commonly observed. Here, we characterized the profiles of commonly used anti-tau antibodies in four different mouse models: non-transgenic mice, tau knock-out (TKO) mice, 3xTg-AD mice, and hypothermic mice, the latter a positive control for tau hyperphosphorylation. We identified 3 tau monoclonal antibody categories: type 1, characterized by high non-specificity (AT8, AT180, MC1, MC6, TG-3), type 2, demonstrating low non-specificity (AT270, CP13, CP27, Tau12, TG5), and type 3, with no non-specific signal (DA9, PHF-1, Tau1, Tau46). For polyclonal anti-tau antibodies, some displayed non-specificity (pS262, pS409) while others did not (pS199, pT205, pS396, pS404, pS422, A0024). With monoclonal antibodies, most of the interfering signal was due to endogenous Igs and could be eliminated by different techniques: i) using secondary antibodies designed to bind only non-denatured Igs, ii) preparation of a heat-stable fraction, iii) clearing Igs from the homogenates, and iv) using secondary antibodies that only bind the light chain of Igs. All of these techniques removed the non-specific signal; however, the first and the last methods were easier and more reliable. Overall, our study demonstrates a high risk of artefactual signal when performing Western blotting with routinely used anti-tau antibodies, and proposes several

  2. A Theory-Based Framework for Assessing Domain-Specific Problem-Solving Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugrue, Brenda

    1995-01-01

    A more fragmented approach to assessment of global ability concepts than is generally advocated is suggested, based on the assumption that decomposing a complex ability into cognitive components and tracking performance across multiple measures will yield valid and instructionally useful information. Specifications are suggested for designing…

  3. Phonological Working Memory Impairments in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Where Does the Problem Lie?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine which factors contribute to the lexical learning deficits of children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Participants included 40 7-8-year old participants, half of whom were diagnosed with SLI and half of whom had normal language skills. We tested hypotheses about the contributions…

  4. Specification of the Advanced Burner Test Reactor Multi-Physics Coupling Demonstration Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Shemon, E. R.; Grudzinski, J. J.; Lee, C. H.; Thomas, J. W.; Yu, Y. Q.

    2015-12-21

    This document specifies the multi-physics nuclear reactor demonstration problem using the SHARP software package developed by NEAMS. The SHARP toolset simulates the key coupled physics phenomena inside a nuclear reactor. The PROTEUS neutronics code models the neutron transport within the system, the Nek5000 computational fluid dynamics code models the fluid flow and heat transfer, and the DIABLO structural mechanics code models structural and mechanical deformation. The three codes are coupled to the MOAB mesh framework which allows feedback from neutronics, fluid mechanics, and mechanical deformation in a compatible format.

  5. Problems Facing Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, C. E.; And Others

    Problems facing rural Scottish schools range from short term consideration of daily operation to long term consideration of organizational alternatives. Addressed specifically, such problems include consideration of: (1) liaison between a secondary school and its feeder primary schools; (2) preservice teacher training for work in small, isolated…

  6. Problems in planning bimanually incongruent grasp postures relate to simultaneous response specification processes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Charmayne M L; Seegelke, Christian; Reissig, Paola

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the current experiments was to examine whether the problems associated with grasp posture planning during bimanually incongruent movements are due to crosstalk at the motor programming level. Participants performed a grasping and placing task in which they grasped two objects from a table and placed them onto a board to targets that required identical (congruent) or non-identical degrees of rotation (incongruent). The interval between the presentation of the first stimulus and the second stimulus (stimulus onset asynchrony: SOA) was manipulated. Results demonstrate that the problems associated with bimanually incongruent grasp posture planning are reduced at SOA durations longer than 1000ms, indicating that the costs associated with bimanual incongruent movements arise from crosstalk at the motor programming level. In addition, reach-to-grasp times were shorter, and interlimb limb coupling was higher, for congruent, compared to incongruent, object end-orientation conditions in both Experiment 1 and 2. The bimanual interference observed during reach-to-grasp execution is postulated to arise from limitations in the visual motor system or from conceptual language representations. The present results emphasize that bimanual interference arises from constraints active at multiple levels of the neurobiological-cognitive system. PMID:24650762

  7. Hepatitis C virus infection: Are there still specific problems with genotype 3?

    PubMed Central

    Gondeau, Claire; Pageaux, Georges Philippe; Larrey, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease and the main indication for liver transplantation worldwide. As promising specific treatments have been introduced for genotype 1, clinicians and researchers are now focusing on patients infected by non-genotype 1 HCV, particularly genotype 3. Indeed, in the golden era of direct-acting antiviral drugs, genotype 3 infections are no longer considered as easy to treat and are associated with higher risk of developing severe liver injuries, such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, HCV genotype 3 accounts for 40% of all HCV infections in Asia and is the most frequent genotype among HCV-positive injecting drug users in several countries. Here, we review recent data on HCV genotype 3 infection/treatment, including clinical aspects and the underlying genotype-specific molecular mechanisms. PMID:26576095

  8. Promoting healthy eating, active play and sustainability consciousness in early childhood curricula, addressing the Ben10™ problem: a randomised control trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper details the research protocol for a study funded by the Australian Research Council. An integrated approach towards helping young children respond to the significant pressures of ‘360 degree marketing’ on their food choices, levels of active play, and sustainability consciousness via the early childhood curriculum is lacking. The overall goal of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of curriculum interventions that educators design when using a pedagogical communication strategy on children’s knowledge about healthy eating, active play and the sustainability consequences of their toy food and toy selections. Methods/Design This cluster-randomised trial will be conducted with 300, 4 to 5 year-old children attending pre-school. Early childhood educators will develop a curriculum intervention using a pedagogical communication strategy that integrates content knowledge about healthy eating, active play and sustainability consciousness and deliver this to their pre-school class. Children will be interviewed about their knowledge of healthy eating, active play and the sustainability consequences of their food and toy selections. Parents will complete an Eating and Physical Activity Questionnaire rating their children’s food preferences, digital media viewing and physical activity habits. All measures will be administered at baseline, the end of the intervention and 6 months post intervention. Informed consent will be obtained from all parents and the pre-school classes will be allocated randomly to the intervention or wait-list control group. Discussion This study is the first to utilise an integrated pedagogical communication strategy developed specifically for early childhood educators focusing on children’s healthy eating, active play, and sustainability consciousness. The significance of the early childhood period, for young children’s learning about healthy eating, active play and sustainability, is now unquestioned. The specific

  9. Evaluation of the first year of the Oxpal Medlink: A web-based partnership designed to address specific challenges facing medical education in the occupied Palestinian territories

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad A; Ali, Adam M; Patel, Ishita; MacGregor, Thomas; Shankar, Sushma; Cahill, Thomas J; Finlayson, Alexander ET; Mahmud, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To (1) evaluate educational needs of clinical students at Al-Quds University Medical School in the West Bank; (2) address these needs where possible using synchronous distance learning, with clinicians in Oxford providing case-based tutorials to undergraduates in the West Bank via an online platform (WizIQ) and (3) assess the impact of this education. Design Review of online OxPal Medlink database for tutorials held between March 2012 and April 2013. Needs assessment and evaluation of student and tutor experiences through online questionnaires, focus groups and semi-structured interviews. Setting Oxford University Hospitals, Oxford, UK, and Al-Quds University Medical School, Abu Dies, Palestine. Participants Doctors at Oxford University Hospitals and fourth-, fifth- and sixth-year medical students and faculty members at Al-Quds Medical School. Main outcome measures Number of tutorials, student participation, student-rated satisfaction and qualitative feedback from tutors and students. Results Students demonstrated strong theoretical knowledge but struggled to apply this in presentation-based scenarios. Between March 2012 and April 2013, 90 tutorials were delivered to 60 students. Feedback: >95% respondents rated tutorials as ‘Excellent’ or ‘Good’ and ‘Very’ or ‘Fairly’ relevant to their future practice in Palestine. Students reported the programme had modified their approach to patients but requested better synchronization with concurrent attachments and clarification of learning outcomes. Conclusions OxPal Medlink is a novel, web-based distance-learning partnership designed to overcome some of the challenges to local medical education in the occupied Palestinian territories. Evaluation of the first year indicates teaching is relevant to local practice and of high quality. This approach may have the potential to strengthen local capacity for medical education. PMID:25057373

  10. Addressing the Question of Disorder-Specific Risk Factors of Internet Addiction: A Comparison of Personality Traits in Patients with Addictive Behaviors and Comorbid Internet Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Müller, K. W.; Koch, A.; Dickenhorst, U.; Beutel, M. E.; Duven, E.; Wölfling, K.

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled use of the internet has been reported to affect the lives of some users in a negative way. According to epidemiological studies, about 1% of the general population is showing signs of internet addiction. Since internet addiction is becoming a growing health concern, research on potential risk factors is becoming more important in order to develop strategies for prevention and to adopt therapeutic treatment. Although there are some studies investigating personality traits in internet addiction, most of these studies are based on samples of healthy subjects. In this research project, we compared personality profiles of a sample of patients in different rehabilitation centers. 70 patients with an addiction disorder that additionally met the criteria for internet addiction were compared to 48 patients suffering from alcohol dependence. Besides Big Five personality traits, we also assessed depressive symptoms. It was shown that patients with comorbid internet addiction can be discriminated from other patients by higher neuroticism and lower extraversion as well as lower conscientiousness. After controlling for depressive symptoms, lower conscientiousness especially turned out to be a disorder-specific risk factor. As internet addiction is related to unique patterns of personality traits and can be discriminated from alcohol dependence, treatment approaches are needed that meet the specific requirements of patients with internet addiction. PMID:23865056

  11. Problems in the experimental determination of substrate-specific H+/O ratios during respiration.

    PubMed

    Hendler, R W; Shrager, R I

    1987-10-01

    Krab et al. (1984) have recently tried to resolve the long-standing controversy as to whether the mechanistic H+/O coupling ratio for electrons passing through sites II and III of the mammalian electron transport chain to O2 is 6 or 8. Using a mathematical model they concluded that the higher number reported by Costa et al. (1984) was an overestimate because of the unaccounted for delayed response of the O2 electrode. Responding to criticisms of Lehninger et al. (1985), they have recently used (Krab and Wikström, 1986) an improved mathematical model which shows that the higher number found by Costa et al. was probably due to an inadequate accounting for the effects of the proton leak process which accompanies the translocation process. The impression is left that the situation is now resolved in favor of the lower number. We agree that the procedures of Costa et al. do not properly account for the leak process, and provide further evidence in this paper of the magnitude of the problem. However, we disagree that the number 6.0, favored by Wikström et al., rests on any more solid experimental support. We provide evidence here for this conclusion and raise the question as to whether or not any unique, fixed, integral number exists for the H+/O ratio accompanying the oxidation of a particular substrate. PMID:2826412

  12. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  13. Comprehension problems in children with specific language impairment: literal and inferential meaning.

    PubMed

    Bishop, D V; Adams, C

    1992-02-01

    A group of 61 schoolchildren with specific language impairment (SLI) was compared with a control group on a comprehension task, in which the child was questioned about a story that had been presented either orally or as a series of pictures. Half the questions were literal, requiring the child to provide a detail that had been mentioned or shown explicitly in the story. The remainder required the child to make an inference about what had not been directly shown or stated. SLI children were impaired on this task, even after taking into account "comprehension age," as assessed on a multiple-choice test. However, the effects of mode of presentation and question type were similar for control and SLI groups. Children who fitted the clinical picture of semantic-pragmatic disorder had lower scores than other SLI children on this task. In addition, they were more prone to give answers that suggested they had not understood the question. However, as with the other SLI children, there was no indication that they had disproportionate difficulty with inferential questions. It is concluded that SLI children are impaired in constructing an integrated representation from a sequence of propositions, even when such propositions are presented nonverbally. PMID:1735960

  14. Series: The research agenda for general practice/family medicine and primary health care in Europe. Part 4. Results: specific problem solving skills.

    PubMed

    Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Beyer, Martin; Chevallier, Patrick; Eilat-Tsanani, Sophia; Lionis, Christos; Peremans, Lieve; Petek, Davorina; Rurik, Imre; Soler, Jean Karl; Stoffers, Henri Ejh; Topsever, Pinar; Ungan, Mehmet; van Royen, Paul

    2010-09-01

    The 'Research Agenda for General Practice/Family Medicine and Primary Health Care in Europe' summarizes the evidence relating to the core competencies and characteristics of the Wonca Europe definition of GP/FM, and its implications for general practitioners/family doctors, researchers and policy makers. The European Journal of General Practice publishes a series of articles based on this document. The previous articles presented background, objectives, and methodology, as well results on 'primary care management' and 'community orientation' and the person-related core competencies of GP/FM. This article reflects on the general practitioner's 'specific problem solving skills'. These include decision making on diagnosis and therapy of specific diseases, accounting for the properties of primary care, but also research questions related to quality management and resource use, shared decision making, or professional education and development. Clinical research covers most specific diseases, but often lacks pragmatism and primary care relevance. Quality management is a stronghold of GP/FM research. Educational interventions can be effective when well designed for a specific setting and situation. However, their message that 'usual care' by general practitioners is insufficient may be problematic. GP and their patients need more research into diagnostic reasoning with a step-wise approach to increase predictive values in a setting characterized by uncertainty and low prevalence of specific diseases. Pragmatic comparative effectiveness studies of new and established drugs or non-pharmaceutical therapy are needed. Multi-morbidity and complexity should be addressed. Studies on therapy, communication strategies and educational interventions should consider impact on health and sustainability of effects. PMID:20825274

  15. Brain hyper-connectivity and operation-specific deficits during arithmetic problem solving in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Chen, Tianwen; Young, Christina B; Geary, David C; Menon, Vinod

    2015-05-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is marked by specific deficits in processing numerical and mathematical information despite normal intelligence (IQ) and reading ability. We examined how brain circuits used by young children with DD to solve simple addition and subtraction problems differ from those used by typically developing (TD) children who were matched on age, IQ, reading ability, and working memory. Children with DD were slower and less accurate during problem solving than TD children, and were especially impaired on their ability to solve subtraction problems. Children with DD showed significantly greater activity in multiple parietal, occipito-temporal and prefrontal cortex regions while solving addition and subtraction problems. Despite poorer performance during subtraction, children with DD showed greater activity in multiple intra-parietal sulcus (IPS) and superior parietal lobule subdivisions in the dorsal posterior parietal cortex as well as fusiform gyrus in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Critically, effective connectivity analyses revealed hyper-connectivity, rather than reduced connectivity, between the IPS and multiple brain systems including the lateral fronto-parietal and default mode networks in children with DD during both addition and subtraction. These findings suggest the IPS and its functional circuits are a major locus of dysfunction during both addition and subtraction problem solving in DD, and that inappropriate task modulation and hyper-connectivity, rather than under-engagement and under-connectivity, are the neural mechanisms underlying problem solving difficulties in children with DD. We discuss our findings in the broader context of multiple levels of analysis and performance issues inherent in neuroimaging studies of typical and atypical development. PMID:25098903

  16. Addressing the Problems of Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph F.; Tobin, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Homeless adolescents, known as "unaccompanied youth," constitute a small but important portion of the overall homeless population, one that needs particular attention at school. In this article, we review existing literature to provide a background for educational leaders, researchers, and policymakers hoping to understand the phenomenon of…

  17. [Burnout, work disruptions, interpersonal and psychosomatic problems--degree-specific comparison of students at a German university].

    PubMed

    Gumz, A; Brähler, E; Heilmann, V K; Erices, R

    2014-03-01

    In the context of the public debate on psychological strain among students, the prevalence of burnout, procrastination, test anxiety, other work disruptions, interpersonal problems and psychic symptoms were analyzed depending on academic degree. The data of 358 college students (of Leipzig University) were examined. The academic degree had only a marginal effect on burnout- and work disruptions-related variables. In terms of interpersonal problems and psychic symptoms, differences between students were identified, depending on the academic degree. Diploma students reported many complaints, whereas undergraduates aspiring for a State Examination, were comparatively less affected. Knowledge of the population-specific psychological load is useful in order to develop preventive and therapeutic measures. PMID:23780858

  18. Preschool-Age Male Psychiatric Patients with Specific Developmental Disorders and Those Without: Do They Differ in Behavior Problems and Treatment Outcome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achtergarde, Sandra; Becke, Johanna; Beyer, Thomas; Postert, Christian; Romer, Georg; Müller, Jörg Michael

    2014-01-01

    Specific developmental disorders of speech, language, and motor function in children are associated with a wide range of mental health problems. We examined whether preschool-age psychiatric patients with specific developmental disorders and those without differed in the severity of emotional and behavior problems. In addition, we examined whether…

  19. Is Poor Frequency Modulation Detection Linked to Literacy Problems? A Comparison of Specific Reading Disability and Mild to Moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, L. F.; Bishop, D. V. M.

    2006-01-01

    Specific reading disability (SRD) is now widely recognised as often being caused by phonological processing problems, affecting analysis of spoken as well as written language. According to one theoretical account, these phonological problems are due to low-level problems in auditory perception of dynamic acoustic cues. Evidence for this has come…

  20. Using Short Stories to Address Eating Disturbances in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Lone, Jeffrey S.; Kalodner, Cynthia R.; Coughlin, Janelle W.

    2002-01-01

    Short stories can be an effective group-level intervention for addressing disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. This technique may be used in eating-disorder themed groups or in any group in which members present with eating problems. The authors provide specific guidelines for the use of short stories in group work. An example is provided to…

  1. Addressing Cultural and Native Language Interference in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allard, Daniele; Bourdeau, Jacqueline; Mizoguchi, Riichiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of cultural and native language interference in second/foreign language acquisition. More specifically, it examines issues of interference that can be traced to a student's native language and that also have a cultural component. To this effect, an understanding of what actually comprises both interference and…

  2. Using auditory pre-information to solve the cocktail-party problem: electrophysiological evidence for age-specific differences

    PubMed Central

    Getzmann, Stephan; Lewald, Jörg; Falkenstein, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Speech understanding in complex and dynamic listening environments requires (a) auditory scene analysis, namely auditory object formation and segregation, and (b) allocation of the attentional focus to the talker of interest. There is evidence that pre-information is actively used to facilitate these two aspects of the so-called “cocktail-party” problem. Here, a simulated multi-talker scenario was combined with electroencephalography to study scene analysis and allocation of attention in young and middle-aged adults. Sequences of short words (combinations of brief company names and stock-price values) from four talkers at different locations were simultaneously presented, and the detection of target names and the discrimination between critical target values were assessed. Immediately prior to speech sequences, auditory pre-information was provided via cues that either prepared auditory scene analysis or attentional focusing, or non-specific pre-information was given. While performance was generally better in younger than older participants, both age groups benefited from auditory pre-information. The analysis of the cue-related event-related potentials revealed age-specific differences in the use of pre-cues: Younger adults showed a pronounced N2 component, suggesting early inhibition of concurrent speech stimuli; older adults exhibited a stronger late P3 component, suggesting increased resource allocation to process the pre-information. In sum, the results argue for an age-specific utilization of auditory pre-information to improve listening in complex dynamic auditory environments. PMID:25540608

  3. Towards Greater Specificity in Identifying Associations Among Interparental Aggression, Child Emotional Reactivity to Conflict, and Child Problems

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante; Martin, Meredith J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined specific forms of emotional reactivity to conflict and temperamental emotionality as explanatory mechanisms in pathways among interparental aggression and child psychological problems. Participants of the multi-method, longitudinal study included 201 two-year-old children and their mothers who had experienced elevated violence in the home. Consistent with emotional security theory, autoregressive structural equation model analyses indicated that children’s fearful reactivity to conflict was the only consistent mediator in the associations among interparental aggression and their internalizing and externalizing symptoms one year later. Pathways remained significant across maternal and observer ratings of children’s symptoms and with the inclusion of other predictors and mediators, including children’s sad and angry forms of reactivity to conflict, temperamental emotionality, gender, and socioeconomic status. PMID:22716918

  4. The Effectiveness of Self-regulatory Speech Training for Planning and Problem Solving in Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    PubMed

    Abdul Aziz, Safiyyah; Fletcher, Janet; Bayliss, Donna M

    2016-08-01

    Self-regulatory speech has been shown to be important for the planning and problem solving of children. Our intervention study, including comparisons to both wait-list and typically developing controls, examined the effectiveness of a training programme designed to improve self-regulatory speech, and consequently, the planning and problem solving performance of 87 (60 males, 27 females) children aged 4-7 years with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) who were delayed in their self-regulatory speech development. The self-regulatory speech and Tower of London (TOL) performance of children with SLI who received the intervention initially or after a waiting period was compared with that of 80 (48 male, 32 female) typically developing children who did not receive any intervention. Children were tested at three time points: Time 1- prior to intervention; Time 2 - after the first SLI group had received training and the second SLI group provided a wait-list control; and Time 3 - when the second SLI group had received training. At Time 1 children with SLI produced less self-regulatory speech and were impaired on the TOL relative to the typically developing children. At Time 2, the TOL performance of children with SLI in the first training group improved significantly, whereas there was no improvement for the second training group (the wait-list group). At Time 3, the second training group improved their TOL performance and the first group maintained their performance. No significant differences in TOL performance were evident between typically developing children and those with SLI at Time 3. Moreover, decreases in social speech and increases in inaudible muttering following self-regulatory speech training were associated with improvements in TOL performance. Together, the results show that self-regulatory speech training was effective in increasing self-regulatory speech and in improving planning and problem solving performance in children with SLI. PMID:26678398

  5. A problem-specific inverse method for two-dimensional doping profile determination from capacitance-voltage measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouwerling, G. J. L.

    1991-02-01

    The nondestructive and experimentally straightforward capacitance-voltage method for doping profile determination has always been impaired by certain weakness. The abrupt depletion approximation introduces error for steep profiles; the required differentiation of the measurement data causes a considerable noise sensitivity. More fundamentally, the method is restricted to one spatial dimension, perpendicular to the wafer surface. To overcome these limitations, in this paper the use of a numerical inverse method for the interpretation of the measurement data is presented. The method inspired by the use of similar methods for material profiling problems in biophysics and geophysics. It is specific for doping profiling problems and involves the iterative solution of a linear least squares system of equations. In this system, the known vector is formed by the measured capacitance values, and the unknown vector by the discretization of the doping profile on a grid in the measurement device. The matrix elements are found by the solution of Poisson's equation for each measurement bias case. To resolve possible ill-posedness, the system is solved by singular value decomposition of the least squares matrix. The validity of the method is verified and its error sensitivity studied by applying it to the reconstruction of both one- and two-dimensional doping profiles from synthetic measurement data. A test structure suitable for two-dimensional doping profiling, the Trimos device, is proposed and investigated by numerical experiments.

  6. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  7. Awards and Addresses Summary

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Each year at the annual ASHG meeting, addresses are given in honor of the society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the next pages, we have printed the Presidential Address and the addresses for the William Allan Award. The other addresses, accompanied by pictures of the speakers, can be found at www.ashg.org.

  8. Teaching Methods for Modelling Problems and Students' Task-Specific Enjoyment, Value, Interest and Self-Efficacy Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schukajlow, Stanislaw; Leiss, Dominik; Pekrun, Reinhard; Blum, Werner; Muller, Marcel; Messner, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    In this study which was part of the DISUM-project, 224 ninth graders from 14 German classes from middle track schools (Realschule) were asked about their enjoyment, interest, value and self-efficacy expectations concerning three types of mathematical problems: intra-mathematical problems, word problems and modelling problems. Enjoyment, interest,…

  9. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications. PMID:21193369

  10. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  11. Role of Task-Specific Adapted Feedback on a Computer-Based Collaborative Problem-Solving Task. CSE Report 684

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, San-hui; O'Neil, Harold F.

    2006-01-01

    Collaborative problem solving and collaborative skills are considered necessary skills for success in today's world. Collaborative problem solving is defined as problem solving activities that involve interactions among a group of individuals. Large-scale and small-scale assessment programs increasingly use collaborative group tasks in which…

  12. Insecure attachment styles, relationship-drinking contexts, and marital alcohol problems: Testing the mediating role of relationship-specific drinking-to-cope motives.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Ash; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2015-09-01

    Research and theory suggest that romantic couple members are motivated to drink to cope with interpersonal distress. Additionally, this behavior and its consequences appear to be differentially associated with insecure attachment styles. However, no research has directly examined drinking to cope that is specific to relationship problems, or with relationship-specific drinking outcomes. Based on alcohol motivation and attachment theories, the current study examines relationship-specific drinking-to-cope processes over the early years of marriage. Specifically, it was hypothesized that drinking to cope with a relationship problem would mediate the associations between insecure attachment styles (i.e., anxious and avoidant) and frequencies of drinking with and apart from one's partner and marital alcohol problems in married couples. Multilevel models were tested via the actor-partner interdependence model using reports of both members of 470 couples over the first nine years of marriage. As expected, relationship-specific drinking-to-cope motives mediated the effects of actor anxious attachment on drinking apart from one's partner and on marital alcohol problems, but, unexpectedly, not on drinking with the partner. No mediated effects were found for attachment avoidance. Results suggest that anxious (but not avoidant) individuals are motivated to use alcohol to cope specifically with relationship problems in certain contexts, which may exacerbate relationship difficulties associated with attachment anxiety. Implications for theory and future research on relationship-motivated drinking are discussed. PMID:25799439

  13. Emotion-recognition abilities and behavior problem dimensions in preschoolers: evidence for a specific role for childhood hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Chronaki, Georgia; Garner, Matthew; Hadwin, Julie A; Thompson, Margaret J J; Chin, Cheryl Y; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2015-01-01

    Facial emotion-recognition difficulties have been reported in school-aged children with behavior problems; little is known, however, about either this association in preschool children or with regard to vocal emotion recognition. The current study explored the association between facial and vocal emotion recognition and behavior problems in a sample of 3 to 6-year-old children. A sample of 57 children enriched for risk of behavior problems (41 were recruited from the general population while 16 had been referred for behavior problems to local clinics) were each presented with a series of vocal and facial stimuli expressing different emotions (i.e., angry, happy, and sad) of low and high intensity. Parents rated children's externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. Vocal and facial emotion recognition accuracy was negatively correlated with externalizing but not internalizing behavior problems independent of emotion type. The effects with the externalizing domain were independently associated with hyperactivity rather than conduct problems. The results highlight the importance of using vocal as well as facial stimuli when studying the relationship between emotion-recognition and behavior problems. Future studies should test the hypothesis that difficulties in responding to adult instructions and commands seen in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be due to deficits in the processing of vocal emotions. PMID:24344768

  14. Parenting Specificity An Examination of the Relation Between Three Parenting Behaviors and Child Problem Behaviors in the Context of a History of Caregiver Depression

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Rakow, Aaron; Reeslund, Kristen; Roland, Erin; Hardcastle, Emily; Compas, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to advance our understanding of the relations between three specific parenting behaviors (warmth, monitoring, and discipline) and two child outcomes (internalizing and externalizing problems) within the context of parental depression. Using an approach recommended by A. Caron, B. Weiss, V. Harris, and T. Carron (2006), unique and differential specificity were examined. Ninety-seven parents with a history of depression and 136 of their 9- to 15-year-old children served as participants. Children reported parenting behaviors and parents reported child problem behaviors. The findings indicated that warmth/involvement, but not monitoring or discipline, was uniquely related to externalizing problems and differentially related to internalizing and externalizing problems. The findings suggest that parental warmth has implications for interventions conducted with children living in families with a history of parental depression. PMID:18391048

  15. The Effect of General and Drug-Specific Family Environments on Comorbid and Drug-Specific Problem Behavior: A Longitudinal Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Marina; Hill, Karl G.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hawkins, J. David

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the development of alcohol and tobacco dependence is linked and that both are influenced by environmental and intrapersonal factors, many of which likely interact over the life course. The present study examines the effects of general and alcohol- and tobacco-specific environmental influences in the family of…

  16. Outcomes of Treatment for Alcohol Problems: Current Methods, Problems, and Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Peter E.; Skinstad, Anne-Helene

    1987-01-01

    Discusses current methods, problems, and results of psychological treatment for alcohol abuse, including alcoholism. Addresses external and internal validity problems specific to issues regarding who is treated for alcohol problems, and treatment and patient factors that predict response to alcoholism treatment. Reviews current data on…

  17. Specific treatment of problems of the spine (STOPS): design of a randomised controlled trial comparing specific physiotherapy versus advice for people with subacute low back disorders

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Low back disorders are a common and costly cause of pain and activity limitation in adults. Few treatment options have demonstrated clinically meaningful benefits apart from advice which is recommended in all international guidelines. Clinical heterogeneity of participants in clinical trials is hypothesised as reducing the likelihood of demonstrating treatment effects, and sampling of more homogenous subgroups is recommended. We propose five subgroups that allow the delivery of specific physiotherapy treatment targeting the pathoanatomical, neurophysiological and psychosocial components of low back disorders. The aim of this article is to describe the methodology of a randomised controlled trial comparing specific physiotherapy treatment to advice for people classified into five subacute low back disorder subgroups. Methods/Design A multi-centre parallel group randomised controlled trial is proposed. A minimum of 250 participants with subacute (6 weeks to 6 months) low back pain and/or referred leg pain will be classified into one of five subgroups and then randomly allocated to receive either physiotherapy advice (2 sessions over 10 weeks) or specific physiotherapy treatment (10 sessions over 10 weeks) tailored according to the subgroup of the participant. Outcomes will be assessed at 5 weeks, 10 weeks, 6 months and 12 months following randomisation. Primary outcomes will be activity limitation measured with a modified Oswestry Disability Index as well as leg and back pain intensity measured on separate 0-10 Numerical Rating Scales. Secondary outcomes will include a 7-point global rating of change scale, satisfaction with physiotherapy treatment, satisfaction with treatment results, the Sciatica Frequency and Bothersomeness Scale, quality of life (EuroQol-5D), interference with work, and psychosocial risk factors (Orebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire). Adverse events and co-interventions will also be measured. Data will be analysed according to

  18. Parenting Specificity: An Examination of the Relation between Three Parenting Behaviors and Child Problem Behaviors in the Context of a History of Caregiver Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Rakow, Aaron; Reeslund, Kristen; Roland, Erin; Hardcastle, Emily; Compas, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to advance our understanding of the relations between three specific parenting behaviors (warmth, monitoring, and discipline) and two child outcomes (internalizing and externalizing problems) within the context of parental depression. Using an approach recommended by A. Caron, B. Weiss, V. Harris, and T. Carron (2006),…

  19. Exploring the Domain Specificity of Creativity in Children: The Relationship between a Non-Verbal Creative Production Test and Creative Problem-Solving Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Ahmed; Maker, C. June; Lubart, Todd

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explored whether creativity was domain specific or domain general. The relationships between students' scores on three creative problem-solving activities (math, spatial artistic, and oral linguistic) in the DISCOVER assessment (Discovering Intellectual Strengths and Capabilities While Observing Varied Ethnic Responses) and the…

  20. Technical Problem Solving among 10-Year-Old Students as Related to Science Achievement, Out-of-School Experience, Domain-Specific Control Beliefs, and Attribution Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumert, Jurgen; Evans, Robert H.; Geiser, Helmut

    1998-01-01

    Ten-year-old students (n=531) from the U.S. and Germany were studied to determine the relationships between everyday experience, domain-specific control beliefs, acquisition of science knowledge, and solving of everyday technical problems. A causal model, developed and tested through structural equation modeling, showed that domain-specific…

  1. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  2. Transportation Problems in Special Education Programs in Rural Areas - A Specific Solution and Some Suggestions for Delivery System Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Z. H.

    The paper describes transportation problems encountered and solutions employed in delivering systems of comprehensive services to handicapped children in Anderson County, Tennessee, a predominantly rural area with considerable mountain area. Detailed are methods of transportation utilized in the four different program areas of the county special…

  3. Over- and Undercontrolled Clinic Referral Problems of Jamaican and American Children and Adolescents: The Culture General and the Culture Specific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Michael C.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied clinical referrals of two different societies (Jamaica, where Afro-British culture discourages child aggression, and United States, where uncontrolled child behavior appears more accepted) to determine influence of cultural factors in clinical referral patterns. Found significant difference in clinic-referred problems of American and…

  4. Collective efficacy as a task specific process: examining the relationship between social ties, neighborhood cohesion and the capacity to respond to violence, delinquency and civic problems.

    PubMed

    Wickes, Rebecca; Hipp, John R; Sargeant, Elise; Homel, Ross

    2013-09-01

    In the neighborhood effects literature, collective efficacy is viewed as the key explanatory process associated with the spatial distribution of a range of social problems. While many studies usefully focus on the consequences of collective efficacy, in this paper we examine the task specificity of collective efficacy and consider the individual and neighborhood factors that influence residents' perceptions of neighborhood collective efficacy for specific tasks. Utilizing survey and administrative data from 4,093 residents nested in 148 communities in Australia, we distinguish collective efficacy for particular threats to social order and assess the relative importance of social cohesion and neighborhood social ties to the development of collective efficacy for violence, delinquency and civic/political issues. Our results indicate that a model separating collective efficacy for specific problems from social ties and the more generalized notions of social cohesion is necessary when understanding the regulation potential of neighborhoods. PMID:23812906

  5. Large-scale learning of structure-activity relationships using a linear support vector machine and problem-specific metrics.

    PubMed

    Hinselmann, Georg; Rosenbaum, Lars; Jahn, Andreas; Fechner, Nikolas; Ostermann, Claude; Zell, Andreas

    2011-02-28

    The goal of this study was to adapt a recently proposed linear large-scale support vector machine to large-scale binary cheminformatics classification problems and to assess its performance on various benchmarks using virtual screening performance measures. We extended the large-scale linear support vector machine library LIBLINEAR with state-of-the-art virtual high-throughput screening metrics to train classifiers on whole large and unbalanced data sets. The formulation of this linear support machine has an excellent performance if applied to high-dimensional sparse feature vectors. An additional advantage is the average linear complexity in the number of non-zero features of a prediction. Nevertheless, the approach assumes that a problem is linearly separable. Therefore, we conducted an extensive benchmarking to evaluate the performance on large-scale problems up to a size of 175000 samples. To examine the virtual screening performance, we determined the chemotype clusters using Feature Trees and integrated this information to compute weighted AUC-based performance measures and a leave-cluster-out cross-validation. We also considered the BEDROC score, a metric that was suggested to tackle the early enrichment problem. The performance on each problem was evaluated by a nested cross-validation and a nested leave-cluster-out cross-validation. We compared LIBLINEAR against a Naïve Bayes classifier, a random decision forest classifier, and a maximum similarity ranking approach. These reference approaches were outperformed in a direct comparison by LIBLINEAR. A comparison to literature results showed that the LIBLINEAR performance is competitive but without achieving results as good as the top-ranked nonlinear machines on these benchmarks. However, considering the overall convincing performance and computation time of the large-scale support vector machine, the approach provides an excellent alternative to established large-scale classification approaches. PMID

  6. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Specific Phobias with a Child Demonstrating Severe Problem Behavior and Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Thompson E., III; Kurtz, Patricia F.; Gardner, Andrew W.; Carman, Nicole B.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBTs) are widely used for anxiety disorders in typically developing children; however, there has been no previous attempt to administer CBT for specific phobia (in this case study, one-session treatment) to developmentally or intellectually disabled children. This case study integrates both cognitive-behavioral and…

  7. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  8. Address of the President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Frederic W.

    1976-01-01

    The president of the Association of American Colleges addresses at the 62nd annual meeting the theme of the conference: "Looking to the Future--Liberal Education in a Radically Changing Society." Contributions to be made by AAC are examined. (LBH)

  9. Space sciences - Keynote address

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Joseph K.

    1990-01-01

    The present status and projected future developments of the NASA Space Science and Applications Program are addressed. Emphasis is given to biochemistry experiments that are planned for the Space Station. Projects for the late 1990s which will study the sun, the earth's magnetosphere, and the geosphere are briefly discussed.

  10. Problems of Assessing the New Curricula Being Introduced in African Countries. Keynote address for the Annual Meeting of the International Association for Educational Assessment (9th, Malawi, Blantyre, June 13-17, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boma, A. N.

    The state of the art of assessment is viewed in light of practical and realistic options. The classical terminologies of achievement, validity, reliability, internal and external assessment, prediction, and formative and summative evaluation, are often referred to in the address, with the realization that those presenting later papers would not be…

  11. Address on the Occasion of the Meeting of the Second Committee of Governmental Experts on Problems in the Field of Copyright and of the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations Raised by Transmission via Space Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maheu, Rene

    These opening remarks by the Director General of Unesco briefly discuss that organization's activities in the area of copyright within the field of satellite communication. They were addressed to members of a committee whose purpose is to determine whether the protection of signals transmitted by communications satellites does or does not require…

  12. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  13. Consulting with Teachers Regarding Academic Skills: Problem Solving for Basic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gansle, Kristin A.; Noell, George H.

    2008-01-01

    A number of issues must be addressed in order to intervene with academic problems within classrooms . These issues include screening, problem specification, problem function, solving the problem, and subsequent problem evaluation. Although the addition of a consultant will allow services to be delivered to greater numbers of children than could be…

  14. Excerpts from keynote address

    SciTech Connect

    Creel, G.C.

    1995-06-01

    Excerpts from the keynote principally address emissions issues in the fossil power industry as related to heat rate improvements. Stack emissions of both sulfur and nitrogen oxides are discussed, and a number of examples are given: (1) PEPCO`s Potomac River Station, and (2) Morgantown station`s NOX reduction efforts. Circulating water emissions are also briefly discussed, as are O & M costs of emission controls.

  15. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  16. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2... 20580, unless otherwise specifically directed. The Commission's Web site address is www.ftc.gov....

  17. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2... 20580, unless otherwise specifically directed. The Commission's Web site address is www.ftc.gov....

  18. Risk-based evaluation of technical specification problems at the La Salle County Nuclear Station: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bizzak, D.J.; Trainer, J.E.; McClymont, A.S.

    1987-06-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods are used to evaluate alternatives to existing requirements for three operationally burdensome technical specifications at La Salle Nuclear Station. The study employs a decision logic to minimize the detailed analysis necessary to show compliance with given acceptance criteria; in this case, no risk increase resulting from a proposed change. The analyses provide insights to choose from among alternative options. The SOCRATES computer code was used for the probabilistic analysis. Results support a change to less frequent diesel generator testing, eliminations of one reactor scram setpoint, and establishing an allowed out-of-service time for valves in a reactor scram system. In each case, the change would result in a safety improvement.

  19. The importance of systems thinking to address obesity.

    PubMed

    Finegood, Diane T

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is clearly a complex problem for both the individual and for society. Complex or 'wicked' problems have common characteristics such as heterogeneity, nonlinearity, interdependence, and self-organization. As such they require solutions appropriate for complex problems, rather than a reductionist search for the causes. 'Systems thinking' provides new ways to consider how to collectively address complex societal problems like obesity, where biology interacts with social, cultural and built environmental factors in infinite permutations and combinations. The systems that give rise to the obesity epidemic function at multiple levels, and there are important interactions between these levels. At any given level, individual actors and organizations matter and system function is optimized when individual and organizational capacity to respond is well matched to the complexity of individual tasks. Providing system supports to help networks of individuals become 'communities of practice' and 'systems of influence' may also help to accelerate the pace of effective action against obesity. Research efforts need to move away from the relentless search for the specific isolated causes of obesity and focus on solutions that have been shown to work in addressing other 'wicked' problems. PMID:23128771

  20. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  1. Delegate Assembly Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jerry A.

    1976-01-01

    The report on proposed reorganization of the American Occupational Therapy Association details historical developments, demands for change, and a general rationale for reorganization, as well as specific recommendations for action. (GW)

  2. The gender specific mediational pathways between parenting styles, neuroticism, pathological reasons for drinking, and alcohol-related problems in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2009-03-01

    Mediational links between parenting styles, neuroticism, pathological reasons for drinking, alcohol use and alcohol-related problems were tested. A two-group SEM path model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. In general, pathological reasons for drinking mediated the impact of neuroticism on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. A different pattern of relationships was found for each of the two genders. Perceptions of having an authoritarian father were positively linked to higher levels of neuroticism among males but this pattern was not found among females. For males, neuroticism mediated the impact of having an authoritarian father on pathological reasons for drinking with pathological reasons for drinking mediating the impact of neuroticism on alcohol-related problems. Perceptions of having a permissive father were linked to lower levels of neuroticism in females (but have been found as a consistent risk factor for other pathways to alcohol use elsewhere). Compared with other work in this area, these findings indicate parental influences regarding vulnerabilities for alcohol use may be specific to parent-child gender matches for some pathways and specific to one parent (irrespective of child gender) for other pathways. PMID:19000941

  3. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  4. Specific absorption rate variation in a brain phantom due to exposure by a 3G mobile phone: problems in dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Behari, J; Nirala, Jay Prakash

    2013-12-01

    A specific absorption rate (SAR) measurements system has been developed for compliance testing of personal mobile phone in a brain phantom material contained in a Perspex box. The volume of the box has been chosen corresponding to the volume of a small rat and illuminated by a 3G mobile phone frequency (1718.5 MHz), and the emitted radiation directed toward brain phantom .The induced fields in the phantom material are measured. Set up to lift the plane carrying the mobile phone is run by a pulley whose motion is controlled by a stepper motor. The platform is made to move at a pre-determined rate of 2 degrees per min limited up to 20 degrees. The measured data for induced fields in various locations are used to compute corresponding SAR values and inter comparison obtained. These data are also compared with those when the mobile phone is placed horizontally with respect to the position of the animal. The SAR data is also experimentally obtained by measuring a rise in temperature due to this mobile exposures and data compared with those obtained in the previous set. To seek a comparison with the safety criteria same set of measurements are performed in 10 g phantom material contained in a cubical box. These results are higher than those obtained with the knowledge of induced field measurements. It is concluded that SAR values are sensitive to the angular position of the moving platform and are well below the safety criteria prescribed for human exposure. The data are suggestive of having a fresh look to understand the mode of electromagnetic field -bio interaction. PMID:24579373

  5. Bax: Addressed to kill.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Manon, Stéphen

    2011-09-01

    The pro-apoptototic protein Bax (Bcl-2 Associated protein X) plays a central role in the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. In healthy mammalian cells, Bax is essentially cytosolic and inactive. Following a death signal, the protein is translocated to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it promotes a permeabilization that favors the release of different apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c. The regulation of Bax translocation is associated to conformational changes that are under the control of different factors. The evidences showing the involvement of different Bax domains in its mitochondrial localization are presented. The interactions between Bax and its different partners are described in relation to their ability to promote (or prevent) Bax conformational changes leading to mitochondrial addressing and to the acquisition of the capacity to permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:21641962

  6. Introduction: the need to address older women's mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Malatesta, Victor J

    2007-01-01

    Women are the primary consumers of mental health services. Ironically, research addressing their unique needs lags behind that of men's issues. The aging process introduces an important variable that accentuates the relative lack of information and specific treatment guidelines for older women who are confronted by mental health problems. This volume offers a comprehensive overview for the health professional who is seeking a greater depth of understanding with respect to the study of mental health problems in general, and how these issues pertain specifically to women and the aging process. A second goal of this project is to provide the practicing therapist and counselor with a research update and a broad clinical perspective offered by seasoned clinicians. Using current psychiatric diagnosis as a framework, the contributions address the range of mental health problems, including dementia and cognitive impairment, schizophrenia, alcohol abuse, mood and anxiety disorders, traumatic and dissociative conditions, sexual and eating disorders, and personality disorders. It is hoped that this book will inform, inspire and encourage students and health professionals in their work with middle aged and older women who are facing mental health challenges. PMID:17588876

  7. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  8. Addressing the municipal market

    SciTech Connect

    Mullin, R.

    1993-05-12

    Most municipalities employ simple, fairly inexpensive water treatment regimes, which is why some large industrial treatment firms stay away from the municipal market, despite rapid growth in the sector. Of the $625 million/year spent for US wastewater treatment, 46% is for municipalities, up 14.5% from 1987. Waste treatment in general grew by 12% in that period, according to Kline Co. (Fairfield, NJ). Some of the challenges facing municipalities in the Clean Water Act reauthorization bills are metals-contaminated sediments and storm water containment and treatment. Bill Tullos, business manager for chlor-alkali at Elf Atochem North America, does not foresee a phaseout of chlorine-based products used as disinfectant in drinking water treatment by municipalities, or as a wastewater treatment in municipal and industrial use. [open quotes]Alternatives are not as effective and are more expensive,[close quotes] says Tullos. [open quotes]There was some promise with ozone, but unfortunately it tends to tear apart your corrosion and scale inhibitors. Chlorine also provides residual protection from contamination all along the water line system.[close quotes] Tullos adds that the formation of tetrahydromethane-one of the problems of using chlorine-based products-can be avoided by screening out the hydrocarbons first and then adding chlorine.

  9. Latitude and Longitude. AIR Presidential Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    This speech addresses the problem of higher education's response to the forces of change and argues for a reinventing of higher education rather than repeatedly amending core teaching and research activities to fit new social and economic situations. Three higher education organizational dynamics (recruitment, budgeting, and handling outside…

  10. A highly specific q-RT-PCR assay to address the relevance of the JAK2WT and JAK2V617F expression levels and control genes in Ph-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Francesca; Di Capua, Emma Nora; Cenfra, Natalia; Pessina, Gloria; Mecarocci, Sergio; Rago, Angela; Cotroneo, Ettore; Busanello, Anna; Equitani, Francesco; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Nervi, Clara; Cimino, Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    In Ph- myeloproliferative neoplasms, the quantification of the JAK2V617F transcripts may provide some advantages over the DNA allele burden determination. We developed a q-RT-PCR to assess the JAK2WT and JAK2V617F mRNA expression in 105 cases (23 donors, 13 secondary polycythemia, 22 polycythemia vera (PV), 38 essential thrombocythemia (ET), and 9 primary myelofibrosis (PMF)). Compared with the standard allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO)-PCR technique, our assay showed a 100 % concordance rate detecting the JAK2V617F mutation in 22/22 PV (100 %), 29/38 (76.3 %) ET, and 5/9 (55.5 %) PMF cases, respectively. The sensitivity of the assay was 0.01 %. Comparing DNA and RNA samples, we found that the JAK2V617F mutational ratios were significantly higher at the RNA level both in PV (p = 0.005) and ET (p = 0.001) samples. In PV patients, JAK2WT expression levels positively correlated with the platelets (PLTs) (p = 0.003) whereas a trend to negative correlation was observed with the Hb levels (p = 0.051). JAK2V617F-positive cases showed the lowest JAK2WT and ABL1 mRNA expression levels. In all the samples, the expression pattern of beta-glucoronidase (GUSB) was more homogeneous than that of ABL1 or β2 microglobulin (B2M). Using GUSB as normalizator gene, a significant increase of the JAK2V617F mRNA levels was seen in two ET patients at time of progression to PV. In conclusion, the proposed q-RT-PCR is a sensitive and accurate method to quantify the JAK2 mutational status that can also show clinical correlations suggesting the impact of the residual amount of the JAK2WT allele on the Ph- MPN disease phenotype. Our observations also preclude the use of ABL1 as a housekeeping gene for these neoplasms. PMID:24173087

  11. Addressing Global Data Sharing Challenges.

    PubMed

    Alter, George C; Vardigan, Mary

    2015-07-01

    This issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics highlights the ethical issues that arise when researchers conducting projects in low- and middle-income countries seek to share the data they produce. Although sharing data is considered a best practice, the barriers to doing so are considerable and there is a need for guidance and examples. To that end, the authors of this article reviewed the articles in this special issue to identify challenges common to the five countries and to offer some practical advice to assist researchers in navigating this "uncharted territory," as some termed it. Concerns around informed consent, data management, data dissemination, and validation of research contributions were cited frequently as particularly challenging areas, so the authors focused on these four topics with the goal of providing specific resources to consult as well as examples of successful projects attempting to solve many of the problems raised. PMID:26297753

  12. Addressing Global Data Sharing Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Alter, George C.

    2015-01-01

    This issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics highlights the ethical issues that arise when researchers conducting projects in low- and middle-income countries seek to share the data they produce. Although sharing data is considered a best practice, the barriers to doing so are considerable and there is a need for guidance and examples. To that end, the authors of this article reviewed the articles in this special issue to identify challenges common to the five countries and to offer some practical advice to assist researchers in navigating this “uncharted territory,” as some termed it. Concerns around informed consent, data management, data dissemination, and validation of research contributions were cited frequently as particularly challenging areas, so the authors focused on these four topics with the goal of providing specific resources to consult as well as examples of successful projects attempting to solve many of the problems raised. PMID:26297753

  13. 2014 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  14. 2013 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the Presidential Address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  15. Addressing concerns and achieving expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.

    1995-12-01

    Approximately 2-1/2 years ago many of us were gathered here in Prague at a similar conference with a similar name, {open_quotes}Energy and Environment: Transitions in Eastern Europe.{close_quotes} Over 300 professionals from 26 nations attended. The objective of the conference was to: Facilitate the Solution of Long and Short Term Energy and Environmental Problems in Eastern Europe by Bringing Together People, ideas and technologies which could be applied to specific problems in a logical step-by-step manner. It was conceded at the time that the long term solution would consist of thoughtfully integrated steps and that the conference was the first step. We are here in the Czech Republic again this week to continue what was started. As before, this conference continues to: (1) Provide a forum to identify and discuss cost-effective environmentally acceptable energy and environmental technology options and their associated socioeconomic issues. (2) Stimulate the Formation of business partnerships (3) Identify key barrier issues hindering technology applications and identify implementation pathways that eliminate or avoid obstacles to progress.

  16. Trends in public health policies addressing violence against women

    PubMed Central

    Loría, Kattia Rojas; Rosado, Teresa Gutiérrez; Espinosa, Leonor María Cantera; Marrochi, Leda María Marenco; Sánchez, Anna Fernández

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the content of policies and action plans within the public healthcare system that addresses the issue of violence against women. METHODS A descriptive and comparative study was conducted on the health policies and plans in Catalonia and Costa Rica from 2005 to 2011. It uses a qualitative methodology with documentary analysis. It is classified by topics that describe and interpret the contents. We considered dimensions, such as principles, strategies, concepts concerning violence against women, health trends, and evaluations. RESULTS Thirteen public policy documents were analyzed. In both countries’ contexts, we have provided an overview of violence against women as a problem whose roots are in gender inequality. The strategies of gender policies that address violence against women are cultural exchange and institutional action within the public healthcare system. The actions of the healthcare sector are expanded into specific plans. The priorities and specificity of actions in healthcare plans were the distinguishing features between the two countries. CONCLUSIONS The common features of the healthcare plans in both the counties include violence against women, use of protocols, detection tasks, care and recovery for women, and professional self-care. Catalonia does not consider healthcare actions with aggressors. Costa Rica has a lower specificity in conceptualization and protocol patterns, as well as a lack of updates concerning health standards in Catalonia. PMID:25210820

  17. Sample taking problems in measuring actual histamine levels of human gastroduodenal mucosa: specific and general relevance in clinical trials on peptic ulcer pathogenesis and selective proximal vagotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Thon, K P; Lorenz, W; Ohmann, C; Weber, D; Rohde, H; Röher, H D

    1985-01-01

    Changes in histamine storage in the oxyntic mucosa of duodenal ulcer patients and their reversal by vagotomy and the histamine H2-antagonist cimetidine supported the hypothesis that histamine could be a causal factor in peptic ulcer pathogenesis. The specificity of these findings was impaired by problems in biopsy taking, however, and in the preparative steps before measuring the actual histamine contents in all parts of the gastric mucosa and in the duodenum. A prospective trial was carried out in 190 patients to identify these sources of bias and to overcome them by appropriate study designs. Usually a direct correlation was found between weight of biopsy and mucosal histamine content. This problem was solved by selecting a biopsy forceps producing smaller variations in sample size, by limiting the time of cold ischaemia to four to five minutes only and by taking three biopsy specimens for each single histamine value. The actual histamine content of mucosal biopsies remained constant for about four to five minutes only. The 'disappearance' rate was faster in control subjects than in duodenal ulcer patients. Hence by variation of the cold ischaemia time any artefacts of differences between mucosal histamine levels in controls and duodenal ulcer patients could be produced. Using the optimised sample taking procedure mucosal histamine contents of several gastric regions and the duodenal bulb were measured in 24 patients with duodenal ulcer, after selective proximal vagotomy without drainage and in control subjects without any stomach disease (randomised controlled trial). The histamine content was lower in all parts of the upper gastrointestinal tract in duodenal ulcer patients than in controls and was raised again in all regions after selective proximal vagotomy. As the most likely hypothesis it is suggested that vagal reflexes with afferent fibres coming from the oxyntic mucosa stimulate histamine release in duodenal ulcer patients by efferent peptidergic neurones

  18. Special Problems of People with Diabetes and Visual Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    This article addresses the types of visual impairment caused by diabetes and the unique problems that people with diabetes and visual impairment face. Diabetic retinopathy, cataracts, glaucoma, and diabetic optic neuropathy are discussed as causes of visual impairment, and specific problems in basic living are identified, including diet,…

  19. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  20. Teachers' Engagement with Published Research: Addressing the Knowledge Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increased interest in research impact, there is very little empirical evidence that educational research can inform practice directly, and furthermore, a body of literature which suggests that this is, in principle, impossible. This paper reports on a study in which secondary school teachers were given research findings about teaching…

  1. Addressing the Problem of Service Teaching Introductory Economics Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Enrolments in undergraduate economics programs have been falling constantly since the early 1990s. This trend coincides with the increasing popularity of business and management degrees. Consequently, the major activity of many, if not most economics departments and schools in Australia is service teaching of introductory economics to first year…

  2. 21 CFR 20.119 - Lists of names and addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lists of names and addresses. 20.119 Section 20... PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.119 Lists of names and addresses. Names and addresses of individuals in Food and Drug Administration records shall not be sold or...

  3. 21 CFR 20.119 - Lists of names and addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lists of names and addresses. 20.119 Section 20... PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.119 Lists of names and addresses. Names and addresses of individuals in Food and Drug Administration records shall not be sold or...

  4. 21 CFR 20.119 - Lists of names and addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lists of names and addresses. 20.119 Section 20... PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.119 Lists of names and addresses. Names and addresses of individuals in Food and Drug Administration records shall not be sold or...

  5. Addressing the Moral Agency of Culturally Specific Care Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Chrystal S.

    2011-01-01

    Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), as a culturally sensitive framework, realises the totality of caring in context. Few, if any, investigations into caring have articulated CHAT as a feasible mode of inquiry for inserting the cultural perspectives of both the researcher and the researched. This article elucidates CHAT as an intelligible…

  6. Homework Problems: A Comparison of Students Identified as Behaviorally Disordered with Nonhandicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Michael H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study compared homework problems among 42 students (ages 7-18) with behavior disorders (BD) and 42 students without disabilities. Students with BD scored significantly higher on a Homework Problems Checklist than did nondisabled peers. Suggested interventions to address specific habits and problems that impair students' homework completion…

  7. Photosensitive biosensor array system using optical addressing without an addressing circuit on array biochips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Chang-Geun; Ah, Chil Seong; Kim, Tae-Youb; Park, Chan Woo; Yang, Jong-Heon; Kim, Ansoon; Sung, Gun Yong

    2010-09-01

    This paper introduces a photosensitive biosensor array system with a simple photodiode array that detects photocurrent changes caused by reactions between probe and target molecules. Using optical addressing, the addressing circuit on the array chip is removed for low-cost application, and real cell addressing is achieved using an externally located computer-controllable light-emitting diode array module. The fabricated biosensor array chip shows a good dynamic range of 1-100 ng/mL under prostate-specific antigen detection, with an on-chip resolution of roughly 1 ng/mL.

  8. Is Current Hydrogeologic Research Addressing Long-TermPredictions?

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2004-09-10

    Hydrogeology is a field closely related to the needs of society. Many problems of current national and local interest require predictions of hydrogeological system behavior, and, in a number of important cases, the period of prediction is tens to hundreds of thousands of years. It is argued that the demand for such long-term hydrogeological predictions casts a new light on the future needs of hydrogeological research. Key scientific issues are no longer concerned only with simple processes or narrowly focused modeling or testing methods, but also with assessment of prediction uncertainties and confidence, couplings among multiple physico-chemical processes occurring simultaneously at a site, and the interplay between site characterization and predictive modeling. These considerations also have significant implications for hydrogeological education. With this view, it is asserted that hydrogeological directions and education need to be reexamined and possibly refocused to address specific needs for long-term predictions.

  9. The nature, use and problems of historical archives for the temporal occurrence of landslides, with specific reference to the south coast of Britain, Ventnor, Isle of Wight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibsen, Maïa-Laura; Brunsden, Denys

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and evaluate the nature of the European historical archives which are suitable for the assessment of the temporal occurrence and forecasting within landslides studies, using the British south coast as an example. The paper is based upon the British contribution to the Environment programme EPOCH, 1991-1993. A primary requirement of a research programme on process occurrence is to determine the event frequencies on as many time and space scales as possible. Thus, the analysis of archives is, potentially, an essential preliminary to the study of the temporal occurrence of landslide events. The range of such data sources extends from isolated, fortuitously dated sites from the Quaternary assemblage, through inferred event impacts using dendrochronology or lichenometric time series to historical records of causal factors such as rainfall data and more recently, deliberately recorded packages of cumulative or continuous data. Most countries have extensive historical sources which may be of considerable value in establishing the characteristics of geomorphological processes. These include narrative in literature, prints and other artwork, terrestrial and aerial photographs, remote sensing series, newspapers, incidental statements and scientific journals and reports. These are numerous difficulties in accessing, extracting, organising, databasing and analysing such data because they are not usually collated for scientific use. Problems involve such incalculable errors as: the experience, training and conscientiousness of the observer; the editing and recording process; judging the validity of the data used and the haphazard nature of recorded events in time and space. Despite these difficulties, such data do yield a record which adds to the representative temporal sample as a level above some threshold reporting position. It therefore has potential for specific statistical analysis. An example of a reasonable temporal landslide

  10. Problem-specific racial/ethnic disparities in pathways from maltreatment exposure to specialty mental health service use for youth in child welfare.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jonathan I; Gudiño, Omar G; Lau, Anna S

    2013-05-01

    The authors examined racial/ethnic differences in pathways from maltreatment exposure to specialty mental health service use for youth in contact with the Child Welfare system. Participants included 1,600 non-Hispanic White, African American, and Latino youth (age 4-14) who were the subjects of investigations for alleged maltreatment and participated in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Maltreatment exposure, internalizing, and externalizing problems were assessed at baseline and subsequent specialty mental health service use was assessed 1 year later. Maltreatment exposure predicted both internalizing and externalizing problems across all racial/ethnic groups, but non-Hispanic White youth were the only group for whom maltreatment exposure was linked with subsequent service use via both internalizing and externalizing problem severity. Only externalizing problems predicted subsequent service use for African American youth and this association was significantly stronger relative to non-Hispanic White youth. Neither problem type predicted service use for Latinos. Future research is needed to understand how individual-, family-, and system-level factors contribute to racial/ethnic differences in pathways linking maltreatment exposure to services via internalizing/externalizing problems. PMID:23630401

  11. A Task Force to Address Bullying.

    PubMed

    Keller, Ronald; Budin, Wendy C; Allie, Tammy

    2016-02-01

    Bullying in the workplace can create a dysfunctional environment that is associated with serious physical and psychological harm to the person being bullied. Nurses' experience with bullying has gained considerable attention in recent years, and warrants further discussion. Nurse leaders need to develop and implement effective bullying prevention initiatives that will foster the functioning of a professional and productive staff in a healthy work environment. The aim of this article is to review workplace bullying as experienced by nurses, and describe how nurses at a Magnet-designated academic medical center developed and implemented a bullying task force to address the problem. PMID:26817556

  12. Specification Reformulation During Specification Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, Kevin M.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the ARIES Simulation Component (ASC) is to uncover behavioral errors by 'running' a specification at the earliest possible points during the specification development process. The problems to be overcome are the obvious ones the specification may be large, incomplete, underconstrained, and/or uncompilable. This paper describes how specification reformulation is used to mitigate these problems. ASC begins by decomposing validation into specific validation questions. Next, the specification is reformulated to abstract out all those features unrelated to the identified validation question thus creating a new specialized specification. ASC relies on a precise statement of the validation question and a careful application of transformations so as to preserve the essential specification semantics in the resulting specialized specification. This technique is a win if the resulting specialized specification is small enough so the user my easily handle any remaining obstacles to execution. This paper will: (1) describe what a validation question is; (2) outline analysis techniques for identifying what concepts are and are not relevant to a validation question; and (3) identify and apply transformations which remove these less relevant concepts while preserving those which are relevant.

  13. Chemical Address Tags of Fluorescent Bioimaging Probes

    PubMed Central

    Shedden, Kerby; Rosania, Gus R.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical address tags can be defined as specific structural features shared by a set of bioimaging probes having a predictable influence on cell-associated visual signals obtained from these probes. Here, using a large image dataset acquired with a high content screening instrument, machine vision and cheminformatics analysis have been applied to reveal chemical address tags. With a combinatorial library of fluorescent molecules, fluorescence signal intensity, spectral, and spatial features characterizing each one of the probes' visual signals were extracted from images acquired with the three different excitation and emission channels of the imaging instrument. With multivariate regression, the additive contribution from each one of the different building blocks of the bioimaging probes towards each measured, cell-associated image-based feature was calculated. In this manner, variations in the chemical features of the molecules were associated with the resulting staining patterns, facilitating quantitative, objective analysis of chemical address tags. Hierarchical clustering and paired image-cheminformatics analysis revealed key structure-property relationships amongst many building blocks of the fluorescent molecules. The results point to different chemical modifications of the bioimaging probes that can exert similar (or different) effects on the probes' visual signals. Inspection of the clustered structures suggests intramolecular charge migration or partial charge distribution as potential mechanistic determinants of chemical address tag behavior. PMID:20104576

  14. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  15. Communities Address Barriers to Connectivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Rural areas lag behind urban areas in access to information technologies. Public institutions play a critical role in extending the benefits of information technologies to those who would not otherwise have access. The most successful rural telecommunications plans address barriers to use, such as unawareness of the benefits, technophobia, the…

  16. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  17. State of the Lab Address

    ScienceCinema

    King, Alex

    2013-03-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  18. State of the Lab Address

    SciTech Connect

    King, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

  19. Aspekte und Probleme der linguistischen Analyse schichtenspezifischen Sprachgebrauchs. Studien und Berichte 31 (Aspects and Problems of the Linguistic Analysis of Language Usage Within Specific Social Levels. Studies and Reports No. 31).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klann, Gisela

    This is a study of linguistic variability among social levels in West Germany and of the problems associated with doing such an analysis. The data, ordered according to sex and social levels, were collected from young children retelling narratives heard on tapes. The report represents a comprehensive study of the children's syntactic performance…

  20. Matching Alternative Addresses: a Semantic Web Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariannamazi, S.; Karimipour, F.; Hakimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI) provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature's literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  1. Epilepsy: addressing the transition from pediatric to adult care

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Seetha; Iyer, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of rapid change, both physical and psychosocial for any young person. It can be challenging when they have ongoing health problems and when their care needs to be transitioned to the adult health care system. Transition should be a planned process of addressing the medical and associated comorbid conditions from pediatric to adult care in a coordinated manner. In most cases, the young person and their family are well known to the pediatrics services and have built a relationship based on trust and often friendship over many years. Understandably, there is significant apprehension about moving from this familiar setting to the unknown adult services. Apart from having a sound knowledge of specific childhood epileptic conditions and associated comorbid disorders, it is important that both the pediatric and adult epilepsy teams are motivated to provide a successful and safe transition for these patients. It is essential that transition is seen as a continual process and not as a single event, and good preparation is the key to its success. It is also important that general practitioners are closely engaged to ensure successful transition. An overview of how to effectively address transition in epilepsy, different models of transition, transition of relevant epilepsies, and their management is discussed. PMID:27390536

  2. Regulatory approaches for addressing dissolved oxygen concerns at hydropower facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Mark J.; Cada, Glenn F.; Sale, Michael J.; Eddlemon, Gerald K.

    2003-03-01

    Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are a common water quality problem downstream of hydropower facilities. At some facilities, structural improvements (e.g. installation of weir dams or aerating turbines) or operational changes (e.g., spilling water over the dam) can be made to improve DO levels. In other cases, structural and operational approaches are too costly for the project to implement or are likely to be of limited effectiveness. Despite improvements in overall water quality below dams in recent years, many hydropower projects are unable to meet state water quality standards for DO. Regulatory agencies in the U.S. are considering or implementing dramatic changes in their approach to protecting the quality of the Nation’s waters. New policies and initiatives have emphasized flexibility, increased collaboration and shared responsibility among all parties, and market-based, economic incentives. The use of new regulatory approaches may now be a viable option for addressing the DO problem at some hydropower facilities. This report summarizes some of the regulatory-related options available to hydropower projects, including negotiation of site-specific water quality criteria, use of biological monitoring, watershed-based strategies for the management of water quality, and watershed-based trading. Key decision points center on the health of the local biological communities and whether there are contributing impacts (i.e., other sources of low DO effluents) in the watershed. If the biological communities downstream of the hydropower project are healthy, negotiation for site-specific water quality standards or biocriteria (discharge performance criteria based on characteristics of the aquatic biota) might be pursued. If there are other effluent dischargers in the watershed that contribute to low DO problems, watershed-scale strategies and effluent trading may be effective. This report examines the value of regulatory approaches by reviewing their use in

  3. Promoting Interdisciplinary Collaboration: Trainees Addressing Siloed Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitts, Robert Li; Christodoulou, Joanna; Goldman, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Professional siloing within medical institutions has been identified as a problem in medical education, including resident training. The authors discuss how trainees from different disciplines can collaborate to address this problem. Method: A group of trainees from psychiatry, developmental medicine, neurology, and education came…

  4. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution. PMID:24758452

  5. The molecular matching problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kincaid, Rex K.

    1993-01-01

    Molecular chemistry contains many difficult optimization problems that have begun to attract the attention of optimizers in the Operations Research community. Problems including protein folding, molecular conformation, molecular similarity, and molecular matching have been addressed. Minimum energy conformations for simple molecular structures such as water clusters, Lennard-Jones microclusters, and short polypeptides have dominated the literature to date. However, a variety of interesting problems exist and we focus here on a molecular structure matching (MSM) problem.

  6. Specific Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Sandhya

    The investigation reported in this volume attempts to clarify some issues relating to the existence, nature, and causes of specific dyslexia. Based on an extended study of 98 boys of at least average intelligence with severe reading and spelling problems, the report provides detailed data relating to their developmental and perinatal histories,…

  7. The (Im)possibility of the Project: Radford Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Bill

    2010-01-01

    In this address, the author engages both with the possibility "and" the impossibility of the educational project--and suggests something of what it means to say this. His presentation is specifically addressed to the theme of the (im)possibility of the educational project. He draws from philosophy, literature, psychoanalysis and history, as well…

  8. "Mastery Learning" Como Metodo Psicoeducativo para Ninos con Problemas Especificos de Aprendizaje. ("Mastery Learning" as a Psychoeducational Method for Children with Specific Learning Problems.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coya, Liliam de Barbosa; Perez-Coffie, Jorge

    1982-01-01

    "Mastery Learning" was compared with the "conventional" method of teaching reading skills to Puerto Rican children with specific learning disabilities. The "Mastery Learning" group showed significant gains in the cognitive and affective domains. Results suggested Mastery Learning is a more effective method of teaching reading skills to children…

  9. Mediational and Deviance Theories of Late High School Failure: Process Roles of Structural Strains, Academic Competence, and General versus Specific Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Abbott, Robert D.; Catalano, Richard F.; Hawkins, J. David; Battin-Pearson, Sara; Hill, Karl

    2002-01-01

    Understanding and preventing high school failure is a national priority. Structural strain and general deviance theories attempt to explain late high school failure. The authors tested the hypotheses that general (vs. specific) deviance and academic competence mediate the relationships between structural strain factors (gender, ethnicity, and…

  10. Addressing Bullying: Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Bradford C.

    2010-01-01

    Bullying can be a serious and damaging experience for students today. The children who bully are more likely to be truant; drop out of school; or engage in alcohol, tobacco, or other drug abuse, and children who are bullied are more likely to experience depression, low self-esteem, health problems, poor grades, and suicidal thoughts. In addition,…

  11. State of the Workforce Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dole, Elizabeth

    The U.S. work force is unready for the new jobs, unready for the new realities, unready for the new challenges of the 1990s. Across the board, jobs are demanding better reading, writing, and reasoning skills and more math and science. Statistics define the scope of the problem: 25 percent of young people drop out of high school; 70 percent of all…

  12. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  13. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  14. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  15. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  16. The Algorithm Selection Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, Steve; Allen, John; Deiss, Ron (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Work on NP-hard problems has shown that many instances of these theoretically computationally difficult problems are quite easy. The field has also shown that choosing the right algorithm for the problem can have a profound effect on the time needed to find a solution. However, to date there has been little work showing how to select the right algorithm for solving any particular problem. The paper refers to this as the algorithm selection problem. It describes some of the aspects that make this problem difficult, as well as proposes a technique for addressing it.

  17. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  18. Global-Address Space Networking (GASNet) Library

    SciTech Connect

    Welcome, Michael L.; Bell, Christian S.

    2011-04-06

    GASNet (Global-Address Space Networking) is a language-independent, low-level networking layer that provides network-independent, high-performance communication primitives tailored for implementing parallel global address space SPMD languages such as UPC and Titanium. The interface is primarily intended as a compilation target and for use by runtime library writers (as opposed to end users), and the primary goals are high performance, interface portability, and expressiveness. GASNet is designed specifically to support high-performance, portable implementations of global address space languages on modern high-end communication networks. The interface provides the flexibility and extensibility required to express a wide variety of communication patterns without sacrificing performance by imposing large computational overheads in the interface. The design of the GASNet interface is partitioned into two layers to maximize porting ease without sacrificing performance: the lower level is a narrow but very general interface called the GASNet core API - the design is basedheavily on Active Messages, and is implemented directly on top of each individual network architecture. The upper level is a wider and more expressive interface called GASNet extended API, which provides high-level operations such as remote memory access and various collective operations. This release implements GASNet over MPI, the Quadrics "elan" API, the Myrinet "GM" API and the "LAPI" interface to the IBM SP switch. A template is provided for adding support for additional network interfaces.

  19. Global-Address Space Networking (GASNet) Library

    2011-04-06

    GASNet (Global-Address Space Networking) is a language-independent, low-level networking layer that provides network-independent, high-performance communication primitives tailored for implementing parallel global address space SPMD languages such as UPC and Titanium. The interface is primarily intended as a compilation target and for use by runtime library writers (as opposed to end users), and the primary goals are high performance, interface portability, and expressiveness. GASNet is designed specifically to support high-performance, portable implementations of global address spacemore » languages on modern high-end communication networks. The interface provides the flexibility and extensibility required to express a wide variety of communication patterns without sacrificing performance by imposing large computational overheads in the interface. The design of the GASNet interface is partitioned into two layers to maximize porting ease without sacrificing performance: the lower level is a narrow but very general interface called the GASNet core API - the design is basedheavily on Active Messages, and is implemented directly on top of each individual network architecture. The upper level is a wider and more expressive interface called GASNet extended API, which provides high-level operations such as remote memory access and various collective operations. This release implements GASNet over MPI, the Quadrics "elan" API, the Myrinet "GM" API and the "LAPI" interface to the IBM SP switch. A template is provided for adding support for additional network interfaces.« less

  20. Practices Changes in the Child Protection System to Address the Needs of Parents With Cognitive Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Sandra T.; Maggi, Mirella C.; Proctor, Stephon Nathanial

    2016-01-01

    Parents with cognitive disabilities (PCD) are over-represented in the child protection system. However, the current state of the child protection system is not well prepared for working with them. Biases that exist against their parenting, the need for accommodations in assessment and intervention practices, and specific training in staff and cross systems barriers need to be addressed. This paper argues for changes that will ensure such parents are more effectively served and that child protection staff and contract providers are better equipped to work with them. Specific changes are discussed in assessment and intervention practices. These changes will require human capacity building and organizational restructuring. Although empirically based behavioral approaches with PCD will be emphasized, recent empirical work suggests that social information processing and neurocognitive problems occur in PCD. Approaches to working with such problems are emerging and must also be considered and integrated into a blueprint for change.

  1. Principles of development and specific features relating to practical application of software for solving problems connected with erosion-corrosion of metal in power engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2011-02-01

    Principles used in the development of modern computation codes for calculating erosion-corrosion of power equipment are considered. Specific features of their practical applications aimed at preventing, revealing, and eliminating erosion-corrosion thinning of the metal of elements used in the units of power stations are analyzed. Results obtained from using the domestically developed computation code RAMEK for operating power units are presented and prospects for implementing it in designing new power units of nuclear power stations are determined.

  2. Psychological Approaches to Problems of Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Jeff, Ed.

    This document, intended as a resource for school psychologists, contains articles addressing a variety of psychological and behavioral problems of children and adolescents. Each chapter includes the following content: background information concerning the specific topic, approaches for assessing the behavior of concern, intervention possibilities,…

  3. Narrative Therapy and Non-Suicidal-Self-Injurious Behavior: Externalizing the Problem and Internalizing Personal Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Rachel M.; Kress, Victoria E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an intervention, the externalization of client problems, which can be used to address non-suicidal-self-injurious behavior. Specific externalization techniques are discussed, including naming the problem, letter writing, and drawing. A case application and implications for practice are presented.

  4. Experimental Analysis and Treatment of Multiply Controlled Problem Behavior: A Systematic Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrero, Carrie S. W.; Vollmer, Timothy R.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated interventions designed to reduce multiply controlled problem behavior exhibited by a young boy with developmental disabilities, using a multiple baseline design. Each intervention was designed to address a specific social function of problem behavior. Results showed that the separate interventions were useful in reducing problem…

  5. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  6. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  8. Problems in baryon spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Capstick, S.

    1994-04-01

    Current issues and problems in the physics of ground- and excited-state baryons are considered, and are classified into those which should be resolved by CEBAF in its present form, and those which may require CEBAF to undergo an energy upgrade to 8 GeV or more. Recent theoretical developments designed to address these problems are outlined.

  9. Much Can Be Learned about Addressing Antibiotic Resistance from Multilateral Environmental Agreements.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Steinar; Hoffman, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is a common-pool resource challenge. This means that efforts to address ABR can learn from similar collective action problems faced within the environmental sector. Multilateral environmental agreements are the backbone of global environmental governance. Their ability to effectively solve environmental problems depends on the problem structure and the regime's problem-solving capacity. The success or failure of environmental agreements is mainly determined by the problem structure, including the degree of political consensus and scientific certainty. But agreements' institutional design also matter because they can change the problem structure and problem-solving capacity. Based on experiences with environmental agreements, an international ABR agreement should contain robust reporting/verification procedures, sanctions for non-compliance, assistance for implementation, majority vote decision-making rules, a strong secretariat, an independent scientific panel, and specific commitments. More research on global strategies for achieving collective action is needed to help inform future institutional designs that are both effective and politically feasible. PMID:26243243

  10. How is environmental conflict addressed by SIA?

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, C.J.

    2010-09-15

    The fields of Environmental Conflict Management (ECM), Environmental Conflict Resolution (ECR), and Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) have become well established; however, as yet there has not been much use of Social Impact Assessment (SIA) to manage environmental conflicts. ECM, ECR and PCIA are mainly undertaken when problems are advanced or, more likely, have run their course (post-conflict). This paper examines how conflict is addressed by SIA and whether there is potential to develop it for more proactive assessment of conflicts (pre-conflict or while things develop). SIA has the potential to identify and clarify the cause(s) of environmental and natural resources conflicts, and could possibly enable some avoidance or early mitigation. A promising approach may be for 'conflict-aware' SIA to watch for critical conflict stages or thresholds and to monitor stakeholders. Effective conflict-aware SIA might also significantly contribute to efforts to achieve sustainable development.

  11. Addressing Science Use Cases with HELIO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, R. D.; Aboudarham, J.; Csillaghy, A.; Jacquey, C.; Hapgood, M. A.; Messerotti, M.; Gallagher, P.; Bocchialini, K.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Roberts, D.; Sanchez Duarte, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Heliophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) is a new VO project funded under the EC's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). It includes thirteen partners scattered over six countries and is led by University College London. HELIO is designed to support the heliophysics community and is based on a Service Oriented Architecture. The services developed by and integrated into HELIO can be used to address a wide range of science problems; they can be used individually or as part of a work-flow driven search engine that can use a propagation (or other) model to help locate obervations that describe interesting phenomena. We will describe and discuss how the components of HELIO could be used to address science use cases, particularly how a user can adapt the work flow to their own science interests. Networking is one of the three Activities of the HELIO Integrated Infrastructure Initiatives (I3) project. Within this activity we plan to involve the community in all aspects of the design and testing of the HELIO system, including determining which data and metadata should be included, how the quality and content of metadata can be included, etc. We are investigating ways of making HELIO "domain-aware" so that researchers who are specialists in one of the communities that constitute heliophysics can easily identify, access and use data they need from the other communities. We will discuss how the community can help us develop this capability.

  12. Addressing the water budget with SMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Y. H.; AlBitar, A.; Tomer, S. K.; Merlin, O.; Pellarin, T.

    2012-12-01

    SMOS, a L Band radiometer using aperture synthesis to achieve a good spatial resolution, was successfully launched on November 2, 2009. It was developed and made under the leadership of the European Space Agency (ESA) as an Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. It is a joint program with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France and the Centro para el Desarrollo Teccnologico Industrial (CDTI) in Spain. SMOS carries a single payload, an L band 2D interferometric,radiometer in the 1400-1427 MHz h protected band. This wavelength penetrates well through the vegetation and the atmosphere is almost transparent enabling to infer both soil moisture and vegetation water content. SMOS achieves an unprecedented spatial resolution of 50 km at L-band maximum (43 km on average) with multi angular-dual polarized (or fully polarized) brightness temperatures over the globe and with a revisit time smaller than 3 days. SMOS as been now acquiring data for almost 2 years. The data quality exceeds what was expected, showing very good sensitivity and stability. The data is however very much impaired by man made emission in the protected band, leading to degraded measurements in several areas including parts of Europe and of China. However, many different international teams are now addressing cal val activities in various parts of the world, with notably large field campaigns either on the long time scale or over specific targets to address the specific issues. In parallel different teams are now starting addressing data use in various fields including hydrology. It requires coupling with other models and or disaggregation to address soil moisture distribution over watersheds. Significant new results were obtained for floods and drought events, together with new potential applications in terms of precipitation monitoring This paper thus gives an overview of the science goals of the SMOS mission, a description of its main elements, and a taste of the first results including

  13. ROV overcomes deepwater problems

    SciTech Connect

    Frisbie, F.R.; Hughes, E.W.

    1984-09-01

    The use of remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) in supportive drill ships operating in more than 200 meters of water poses severe technical and operational problems. Defining these problems beforehand and addressing them during design, manufacture, testing and installation ensures a functional and effective support capability. Such problems as the availability of desk space, and the subsequent installation, maintenance, and the launch/recovery of the system are described.

  14. Addressing Educational Needs of Children with HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, Hendrina; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews medical and neuropsychological effects of HIV/AIDS in children and relates these findings specifically to educational difficulties. It then proposes an instructional delivery framework for these children that stresses the importance of addressing their educational needs and includes specific suggestions for reading instruction,…

  15. Addressing the Needs of Students with Rett Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ellenburg, Jennifer S.; Acton, Olivia M.; Torrey, Gregory

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses symptoms of students with Rett Syndrome, a disability in females characterized by the development of multiple specific deficits following a period of normal functioning after birth. Specific interventions for students with Rett syndrome are provided and address communication, stereotypic movements, self-injurious behaviors,…

  16. Gender: addressing a critical focus.

    PubMed

    Thornton, L; Wegner, M N

    1995-01-01

    The definition of gender was addressed at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China). After extensive debate, the definition developed by the UN Population Fund in 1995 was adopted: "a set of qualities and behaviors expected from a female or male by society." The sustainability of family planning (FP) programs depends on acknowledgment of the role gender plays in contraceptive decision-making and use. For example, programs must consider the fact that women in many cultures do not make FP decisions without the consent of their spouse. AVSC is examining providers' gender-based ideas about clients and the effects of these views on the quality of reproductive health services. Questions such as how service providers can encourage joint responsibility for contraception without requiring spousal consent or how they can make men feel comfortable about using a male method in a society where FP is considered a woman's issue are being discussed. Also relevant is how service providers can discuss sexual matters openly with female clients in cultures that do not allow women to enjoy their sexuality. Another concern is the potential for physical violence to a client as a result of the provision of FP services. PMID:12294397

  17. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Niladri; Renne, Elisha P.; Long, Rachel N.

    2015-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Though Integrated Assessments have been used in the fields of environmental science and sustainable development, their use in addressing specific matter in public health, and in particular, environmental and occupational health is quite limited despite their many benefits. The aim of the current paper was to describe specific activities undertaken and how they were organized, and the outputs and outcomes of our activity. In brief, three disciplinary workgroups (Natural Sciences, Human Health, Social Sciences and Economics) were formed, with 26 researchers from a range of Ghanaian institutions plus international experts. The workgroups conducted activities in order to address the following question: What are the causes, consequences and correctives of small-scale gold mining in Ghana? More specifically: What alternatives are available in resource-limited settings in Ghana that allow for gold-mining to occur in a manner that maintains ecological health and human health without hindering near- and long-term economic prosperity? Several response options were identified and evaluated, and are currently being disseminated to various stakeholders within Ghana and internationally. PMID:26393627

  18. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Basu, Niladri; Renne, Elisha P; Long, Rachel N

    2015-09-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Though Integrated Assessments have been used in the fields of environmental science and sustainable development, their use in addressing specific matter in public health, and in particular, environmental and occupational health is quite limited despite their many benefits. The aim of the current paper was to describe specific activities undertaken and how they were organized, and the outputs and outcomes of our activity. In brief, three disciplinary workgroups (Natural Sciences, Human Health, Social Sciences and Economics) were formed, with 26 researchers from a range of Ghanaian institutions plus international experts. The workgroups conducted activities in order to address the following question: What are the causes, consequences and correctives of small-scale gold mining in Ghana? More specifically: What alternatives are available in resource-limited settings in Ghana that allow for gold-mining to occur in a manner that maintains ecological health and human health without hindering near- and long-term economic prosperity? Several response options were identified and evaluated, and are currently being disseminated to various stakeholders within Ghana and internationally. PMID:26393627

  19. Problems of minority fuel-oil dealers

    SciTech Connect

    Kalt, Joseph P.; Lee, Henry

    1980-01-01

    Claims that minority fuel oil dealers are hampered by severe impediments in the competition for contracts for oil, loan funds from banks, and assistance from the Federal government are explored. Possible remedial actions are recommended. The study focused on the metropolitan areas of Boston, Providence, and New York City. Following the introductory section, the evolving role of minority oil retailers in the Northeast market is reviewed in the second section. The third section examines the specific problems confronting minority dealers, including obtaining start-up capital and finding sources of supply. The fourth section addresses the problems associated with serving the inner-city markets. The fifth section introduces specific recommendations to meet the problems outlined.

  20. Reservoir technology research at LBL addressing geysers issues

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1990-04-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division of the Department of Energy is redirecting a significant part of its Reservoir Technology funding to study problems now being experienced at The Geysers. These include excessive pressure drawdown and associated decline in well flow rates, corrosion due to high chloride concentration in the produced steam and high concentration of noncondensible gases in some parts of the field. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is addressing some of these problems through field, laboratory and theoretical studies. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  1. A new modular approach to nanoassembly: stable and addressable DNA nanoconstructs via orthogonal click chemistries.

    PubMed

    Gerrard, Simon R; Hardiman, Claire; Shelbourne, Montserrat; Nandhakumar, Iris; Nordén, Bengt; Brown, Tom

    2012-10-23

    Thermodynamic instability is a problem when assembling and purifying complex DNA nanostructures formed by hybridization alone. To address this issue, we have used photochemical fixation and orthogonal copper-free, ring-strain-promoted, click chemistry for the synthesis of dimeric, trimeric, and oligomeric modular DNA scaffolds from cyclic, double-stranded, 80-mer DNA nanoconstructs. This particular combination of orthogonal click reactions was more effective for nanoassembly than others explored. The complex nanostructures are stable to heat and denaturation agents and can therefore be purified and characterized. They are addressable in a sequence-specific manner by triplex formation, and they can be reversibly and selectively deconstructed. Nanostructures utilizing this orthogonal, chemical fixation methodology can be used as building blocks for nanomachines and functional DNA nanoarchitectures. PMID:22989197

  2. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  3. Addressable-Matrix Integrated-Circuit Test Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayah, Hoshyar R.; Buehler, Martin G.

    1991-01-01

    Method of quality control based on use of row- and column-addressable test structure speeds collection of data on widths of resistor lines and coverage of steps in integrated circuits. By use of straightforward mathematical model, line widths and step coverages deduced from measurements of electrical resistances in each of various combinations of lines, steps, and bridges addressable in test structure. Intended for use in evaluating processes and equipment used in manufacture of application-specific integrated circuits.

  4. Addressing the Developmental Issues of Lesbian and Gay College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marso, Joan L.

    This paper addresses the developmental stages and issues faced by lesbian and gay college students between the ages of 18 and 25. Over and above the developmental stages faced by all students, lesbian and gay students frequently struggle with their sexual identity and development and the range of problems and emotions associated with coming to…

  5. Challenges in an Aging Society: Presidential Address to APPAM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The United States is at a critical crossroads in its history right now. The public policy problems that the people are facing are complex and interrelated, and the demographic changes that are about to significantly change their country are not well understood by large numbers of people. In this presidential address to the Association for Public…

  6. Can Innovation Save Gifted Education? 2010 NAGC Presidential Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Connecting innovation with gifted education is a necessity not only in the current political climate but also because it is a field with deeply held beliefs about the importance of problem solving, creativity, imagination, and invention--all critical components of innovation. In this address, the author focuses on three key ideas. First, she…

  7. Addressing Barriers to Learning. Volume 13, Number 2. Spring 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Concern about responding to behavior problems and promoting social and emotional learning are related and are embedded into the arenas we frame to encompass the content of student/learning supports. How these concerns are addressed is critical to the type of school and classroom climate that emerges and to student engagement and re-engagement in…

  8. Some Uses of Computers in Rhetoric and Public Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clevenger, Theodore, Jr.

    1969-01-01

    The author discusses the impact of the "computer revolution" on the field of rhetoric and public address in terms of the potential applications of computer methods to rhetorical problems. He first discusses the computer as a very fast calculator, giving the example of a study that probably would not have been undertaken if the calculations had had…

  9. The Study of Address Tree Coding Based on the Maximum Matching Algorithm in Courier Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shumin; Tang, Bin; Li, Wen

    As an important component of EMS monitoring system, address is different from user name with great uncertainty because there are many ways to represent it. Therefore, address standardization is a difficult task. Address tree coding has been trying to resolve that issue for many years. Zip code, as its most widely used algorithm, can only subdivide the address down to a designated post office, not the recipients' address. This problem needs artificial identification method to be accurately delivered. This paper puts forward a new encoding algorithm of the address tree - the maximum matching algorithm to solve the problem. This algorithm combines the characteristics of the address tree and the best matching theory, and brings in the associated layers of tree nodes to improve the matching efficiency. Taking the variability of address into account, the thesaurus of address tree should be updated timely by increasing new nodes automatically through intelligent tools.

  10. Addressing the vaccine confidence gap.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J; Cooper, Louis Z; Eskola, Juhani; Katz, Samuel L; Ratzan, Scott

    2011-08-01

    Vaccines--often lauded as one of the greatest public health interventions--are losing public confidence. Some vaccine experts have referred to this decline in confidence as a crisis. We discuss some of the characteristics of the changing global environment that are contributing to increased public questioning of vaccines, and outline some of the specific determinants of public trust. Public decision making related to vaccine acceptance is neither driven by scientific nor economic evidence alone, but is also driven by a mix of psychological, sociocultural, and political factors, all of which need to be understood and taken into account by policy and other decision makers. Public trust in vaccines is highly variable and building trust depends on understanding perceptions of vaccines and vaccine risks, historical experiences, religious or political affiliations, and socioeconomic status. Although provision of accurate, scientifically based evidence on the risk-benefit ratios of vaccines is crucial, it is not enough to redress the gap between current levels of public confidence in vaccines and levels of trust needed to ensure adequate and sustained vaccine coverage. We call for more research not just on individual determinants of public trust, but on what mix of factors are most likely to sustain public trust. The vaccine community demands rigorous evidence on vaccine efficacy and safety and technical and operational feasibility when introducing a new vaccine, but has been negligent in demanding equally rigorous research to understand the psychological, social, and political factors that affect public trust in vaccines. PMID:21664679

  11. TRAINING IN PROBLEM SOLVING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DEVANE, J.R.; RIMOLDI, H.J.A.

    CHANGES WERE STUDIED IN THE PROBLEM-SOLVING BEHAVIOR OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AS A FUNCTION OF A CAREFULLY DESIGNED TRAINING PROGRAM. TRAINING WAS DEFINED AS THE DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENT AWARENESS OF PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGIES USED. INSTRUMENTS WERE DEVELOPED AND REFINED TO MEASURE PROBLEM-SOLVING BEHAVIOR. SPECIFICALLY TESTED WAS THE FOLLOWING…

  12. Problem Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ Home Body Getting your period Problem periods Problem periods It’s common to have cramps or feel ... doctor Some common period problems Signs of period problems top One way to know if you may ...

  13. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as if ... related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ear. ...

  14. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as ... fall-related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  15. Vaccine hesitancy: understanding better to address better.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dewesh; Chandra, Rahul; Mathur, Medha; Samdariya, Saurabh; Kapoor, Neelesh

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine hesitancy is an emerging term in the socio-medical literature which describes an approach to vaccine decision making. It recognizes that there is a continuum between full acceptance and outright refusal of some or all vaccines and challenges the previous understanding of individuals or groups, as being either anti-vaccine or pro-vaccine. The behaviours responsible for vaccine hesitancy can be related to confidence, convenience and complacency. The causes of vaccine hesitancy can be described by the epidemiological triad i.e. the complex interaction of environmental- (i.e. external), agent- (i.e. vaccine) and host (or parent)- specific factors. Vaccine hesitancy is a complex and dynamic issue; future vaccination programs need to reflect and address these context-specific factors in both their design and evaluation. Many experts are of the view that it is best to counter vaccine hesitancy at the population level. They believe that it can be done by introducing more transparency into policy decision-making before immunization programs, providing up-to-date information to the public and health providers about the rigorous procedures undertaken before introduction of new vaccines, and through diversified post-marketing surveillance of vaccine-related events. PMID:26839681

  16. Specifying Specification.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    This paper tackles the accusation that applied ethics is no serious academic enterprise because it lacks theoretical bracing. It does so in two steps. In the first step I introduce and discuss a highly acclaimed method to guarantee stability in ethical theories: Henry Richardson's specification. The discussion shows how seriously ethicists take the stability of the connection between the foundational parts of their theories and their further development as well as their "application" to particular problems or cases. A detailed scrutiny of specification leads to the second step, where I use insights from legal theory to inform the debate around stability from that point of view. This view reveals some of specification's limitations. I suggest that, once specification is sufficiently specified, it appears astonishingly similar to deduction as used in legal theory. Legal theory also provides valuable insight into the functional range of deduction and its relation to other forms of reasoning. This leads to a richer understanding of stability in normative theories and to a smart division of labor between deduction and other forms of reasoning. The comparison to legal theory thereby provides a framework for how different methods such as specification, deduction, balancing, and analogy relate to one another. PMID:27157109

  17. MAMODE: A Routing Scheme Using Mixed Address Mode for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Jeongho; Byun, Tae-Young

    As deployment of sensor networks are recently spread, a variety of services based on sensor network have been introduced. Nevertheless, prolonging of battery life becomes primary challenges to overcome for deploying sensor networks in various fields. Problems such as network bandwidth reduction, collision occurrence and performance deterioration due to broadcasting of message in large scale networks have become primary challenges. In this paper, we presented a new routing algorithm based on data-centric routing and address-based routing schemes, which is that query messages are delivered to specific area by using address-based routing scheme in unicast scheme, and then, broadcast scheme is used in specific area by inserting additional information of neighbor nodes to broadcast into the message payload. This method prevents severe broadcast storm caused by broadcast message, and also provides data reliability at reasonable level by utilizing address information in message. By computer simulation, our proposed scheme significantly reduces energy consumption caused by broadcasting of messages as well as it improves appropriate data reliability in wireless sensor networks.

  18. Addressing food security through public policy action in a community-based participatory research partnership.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Victoria Breckwich; Lanza, Dana; Hennessey-Lavery, Susana; Facente, Shelley; Halpin, Helen Ann; Minkler, Meredith

    2007-10-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an increasingly utilized research approach that involves the affected community identifying a health-related problem, developing a research agenda, and planning an appropriate intervention to address the problem. This report on a CBPR partnership in San Francisco's Bayview Hunters Point neighborhood documents the rise of a community food security policy in response to youth-involved research that found poor access to quality food in an economically disadvantaged area of the city. To analyze the impact of the research on public policy, a framework of specific steps in the policy-making process is used to organize and better understand the partnership's objectives, activities, strategies, and successes. This community-health department partnership has been able to achieve an innovative and sustainable public policy solution, the Good Neighbor Program, by working closely with policy makers and local businesses to expand community accessibility to healthy food. PMID:17728199

  19. A hybrid approach for addressing ring flexibility in 3D database searching.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, J

    1997-01-01

    A hybrid approach for flexible 3D database searching is presented that addresses the problem of ring flexibility. It combines the explicit storage of up to 25 multiple conformations of rings, with up to eight atoms, generated by the 3D structure generator CORINA with the power of a torsional fitting technique implemented in the 3D database system UNITY. A comparison with the original UNITY approach, using a database with about 130,000 entries and five different pharmacophore queries, was performed. The hybrid approach scored, on an average, 10-20% more hits than the reference run. Moreover, specific problems with unrealistic hit geometries produced by the original approach can be excluded. In addition, the influence of the maximum number of ring conformations per molecule was investigated. An optimal number of 10 conformations per molecule is recommended. PMID:9139112

  20. Bioethicists Can and Should Contribute to Addressing Racism.

    PubMed

    Danis, Marion; Wilson, Yolonda; White, Amina

    2016-01-01

    The problems of racism and racially motivated violence in predominantly African American communities in the United States are complex, multifactorial, and historically rooted. While these problems are also deeply morally troubling, bioethicists have not contributed substantially to addressing them. Concern for justice has been one of the core commitments of bioethics. For this and other reasons, bioethicists should contribute to addressing these problems. We consider how bioethicists can offer meaningful contributions to the public discourse, research, teaching, training, policy development, and academic scholarship in response to the alarming and persistent patterns of racism and implicit biases associated with it. To make any useful contribution, bioethicists will require preparation and should expect to play a significant role through collaborative action with others. PMID:26982911

  1. Problem Solvers: Problem--How Long Can You Stand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Children Mathematics, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Healthy lifestyles are increasingly emphasized these days. This month the authors begin a series of mathematical problems that also address physical activity. They hope that these problems offer opportunities to investigate mathematics and also reinforce the desire to lead a healthy life. In their first problem of the academic year, students…

  2. Challenges created by data dissemination and access restrictions when attempting to address community concerns: individual privacy versus public wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    Colquhoun, Amy; Aplin, Laura; Geary, Janis; Goodman, Karen J.; Hatcher, Juanita

    2012-01-01

    Background Population health data are vital for the identification of public health problems and the development of public health strategies. Challenges arise when attempts are made to disseminate or access anonymised data that are deemed to be potentially identifiable. In these situations, there is debate about whether the protection of an individual's privacy outweighs potentially beneficial public health initiatives developed using potentially identifiable information. While these issues have an impact at planning and policy levels, they pose a particular dilemma when attempting to examine and address community concerns about a specific health problem. Methods Research currently underway in northern Canadian communities on the frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection and associated diseases, such as stomach cancer, is used in this article to illustrate the challenges that data controls create on the ability of researchers and health officials to address community concerns. Results Barriers are faced by public health professionals and researchers when endeavouring to address community concerns; specifically, provincial cancer surveillance departments and community-driven participatory research groups face challenges related to data release or access that inhibit their ability to effectively address community enquiries. The resulting consequences include a limited ability to address misinformation or to alleviate concerns when dealing with health problems in small communities. Conclusions The development of communication tools and building of trusting relationships are essential components of a successful investigation into community health concerns. It may also be important to consider that public wellbeing may outweigh the value of individual privacy in these situations. As such, a re-evaluation of data disclosure policies that are applicable in these circumstances should be considered. PMID:22584511

  3. Texts, Structure, and Collaboration: Reflections of a Professional Development Addressing Homophobia in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Homophobia is an incredible problem within educational settings. Therefore, we must begin examining how we can address the challenge in an effective manner. Researchers postulate professional development (PD) discussing homophobia is an appropriate method to address the problem. To date, there is little published literature that discusses how a PD…

  4. Rolling out and Scaling up: The Effects of a Problem-Based Approach to Developing Teachers' Assessment Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, Joanna; Andrews, Irena; Ecclestone, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    How can teachers be helped, at relatively little expense, to improve their professional practice? This problem was addressed in "Improving Formative Assessment in Vocational Education and Adult Literacy, Language and Numeracy Programmes"--the IFA project. Adopting a specific problem-based methodology as part of an action research approach, the IFA…

  5. Addressing health literacy in patient decision aids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    in which health literacy needs were addressed. Conclusion Lower health literacy affects key decision-making outcomes, but few existing PtDAs have addressed the needs of lower health literacy users. The specific effects of PtDAs designed to mitigate the influence of low health literacy are unknown. More attention to the needs of patients with lower health literacy is indicated, to ensure that PtDAs are appropriate for lower as well as higher health literacy patients. PMID:24624970

  6. Therapy for Specific Problems: Youth Tobacco Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Susan J.; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Sporer, Amy K.

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the United States. The majority of children smoke their first cigarette in early adolescence, and many older teens have well-established dependence on nicotine. Efforts to promote and support smoking cessation among these youth smokers are critical. The available experimental studies of youth cessation interventions find that behavioral interventions increase the chances of youth smokers achieving successful cessation. Currently there is insufficient evidence for the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments with youth smokers. Many innovative studies have been compromised by challenges in recruiting sufficient numbers of youth, obtaining approval for waivers of parental consent, and high attrition in longitudinal studies. Key areas for future work include bridging the fields of adolescent development and treatment design, matching treatments to developmental trajectories of smoking behavior, better understanding treatment processes and treatment moderators, and building demand for evidence-based cessation treatments. PMID:19035825

  7. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    eruptions, earthquakes and the associated tsunamis can lead to destruction of seafloor structures potentially capable of releasing hydrocarbon pollutants into Mediterranean waters, and damage to a dense telecommunication cables net that would cause severe economic loss. However, the most devastating effect would be that of earthquake or landslide-induced tsunamis. When compared to other basins, the Mediterranean has larger vulnerability due to its small dimensions, resulting in close proximity to tsunami sources and impact areas. Recent examples include the 1979 Nice airport submarine landslide and tsunami and the 2002 Stromboli volcano landslide and tsunami. Future international scientific drilling must include submarine geohazards among priority scientific objectives. The science advisory structure must be prepared to receive and evaluate proposal specifically addressing submarine geohazards. The implementing organizations need to be prepared for the technological needs of drilling proposals addressing geohazards. Among the most relevant: geotechnical sampling, down-hole logging at shallow depths below the seafloor, in situ geotechnical and physical measurements, capability of deployment of long-term in situ observatories. Pre-site surveys will often aim at the highest possible resolution, three dimensional imaging of the seafloor ant its sub-surface. Drilling for submarine geohazards is seen as an opportunity of multiplatform drilling, and for Mission Specific drilling in particular. Rather than turning the scientific investigation in a purely engineering exercise, proposals addressing submarine geohazards should offer an opportunity to scientists and engineers to work together to unravel the details of basic geological processes that may turn into catastrophic events.

  8. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  9. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  10. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  11. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  12. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  13. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  14. 47 CFR 13.10 - Licensee address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee address. 13.10 Section 13.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.10 Licensee address. In accordance with § 1.923 of this chapter all applications must specify an address where...

  15. CCCC Chair's Address: Representing Ourselves, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the text of the author's address at the fifty-ninth annual convention of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) in March 2008. In her address, the author picks up strands of previous Chairs' addresses and weaves them through the fabric of her remarks. What she hopes will give sheen to the fabric is her…

  16. 75 FR 49813 - Change of Address

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... COMMISSION 11 CFR Parts 9405, 9407, 9409, 9410, 9420, and 9428 Change of Address AGENCY: United States... Assistance Commission (EAC) is amending its regulations to reflect a change of address for its headquarters. This technical amendment is a nomenclature change that updates and corrects the address for...

  17. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  18. Multi Sensor Approach to Address Sustainable Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2007-01-01

    The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates, can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. However, the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. This requires continuous, and detailed observations from many sources in situ, airborne and space. By and large, the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. This requires a multiple sensors, look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality, multi hazard disasters, public health, hydrology and more. Therefore, there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation, data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population, some sound observations, scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants, endangered species and the ecology. Needless to say, there is no single sensor, which can answer all such questions effectively. Due to multi sensor approach, it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information, knowledge, budget, technology readiness and computational power. And, more importantly, the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. So far, each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing

  19. An addressable cell array for a platform of biosensor chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Seungkyoung; Choi, Soo-hee; Jung, Moon Youn; Song, Kibong; Park, Jeong Won

    2013-05-01

    In order to detect interested matters in fields, various lab-on-a-chips where chemical, physical, or biological sensors are loaded have been developed. eNOSE can be a representative example among them. Because animals can sense 300~1000 different chemicals by olfactory system - smell -, the olfactory system has been spotlighted as new materials in the field of sensing. Those investigations, however, are usually focused on how to detect signals from the olfactory neurons or receptors loaded on chips and enhance sensing efficacy of chips. Therefore, almost of those chips are designed for only one material sensing. Multi-sensing using multi-channels will be needed when the olfactory systems are adopted well on chips. For multiple sensing, we developed an addressable cell array. The chip has 38 cell-chambers arranged in a circle shape and different cell types of thirty eight can be allocated with specific addresses on the chip without any complex valve system. In order to confirm the cell addressing, we loaded EGFP-transfected and empty vector-transfected HEK293a cells into inlets of the cell array in a planned address and those cells were positioned into each chamber by brief aspiration. The arrayed cells were confirmed as a specific pattern through EGFP and nuclei staining. This cell array which can generate address of sensor materials like cells with their own specification is expected to be applied to a platform for a biosensor chip at various sensing fields.

  20. Addressing Heart Failure Challenges through Illness-Informed Social Work.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Faith Pratt; Camp, Jessica K; Perry, Tam E

    2015-08-01

    This article describes the role of social workers in addressing the needs of people with heart failure. Although previous studies have explored the role of social workers in health care settings, few studies have addressed the challenges of specific chronic diseases such as heart failure. To address this gap in the literature, this study used qualitative interviews with health care social workers (n = 8) to obtain in-depth information about activities and challenges related to heart failure care. Findings suggest that health care social workers perceive heart failure as characterized by an uncertain illness trajectory, frequent hospitalizations, and difficulties accessing formal and informal care. These findings suggest the importance of what we term illness-informed social work, a practice that combines heart failure knowledge with social work competencies to address the complex psychosocial issues in heart failure care. PMID:26285359

  1. IPv6 Addressing Proxy: Mapping Native Addressing from Legacy Technologies and Devices to the Internet of Things (IPv6)

    PubMed Central

    Jara, Antonio J.; Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro; Skarmeta, Antonio F.; Varakliotis, Socrates; Kirstein, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sensors utilize a large number of heterogeneous technologies for a varied set of application environments. The sheer number of devices involved requires that this Internet be the Future Internet, with a core network based on IPv6 and a higher scalability in order to be able to address all the devices, sensors and things located around us. This capability to connect through IPv6 devices, sensors and things is what is defining the so-called Internet of Things (IoT). IPv6 provides addressing space to reach this ubiquitous set of sensors, but legacy technologies, such as X10, European Installation Bus (EIB), Controller Area Network (CAN) and radio frequency ID (RFID) from the industrial, home automation and logistic application areas, do not support the IPv6 protocol. For that reason, a technique must be devised to map the sensor and identification technologies to IPv6, thus allowing homogeneous access via IPv6 features in the context of the IoT. This paper proposes a mapping between the native addressing of each technology and an IPv6 address following a set of rules that are discussed and proposed in this work. Specifically, the paper presents a technology-dependent IPv6 addressing proxy, which maps each device to the different subnetworks built under the IPv6 prefix addresses provided by the internet service provider for each home, building or user. The IPv6 addressing proxy offers a common addressing environment based on IPv6 for all the devices, regardless of the device technology. Thereby, this offers a scalable and homogeneous solution to interact with devices that do not support IPv6 addressing. The IPv6 addressing proxy has been implemented in a multi-protocol card and evaluated successfully its performance, scalability and interoperability through a protocol built over IPv6. PMID:23686145

  2. IPv6 addressing proxy: mapping native addressing from legacy technologies and devices to the Internet of Things (IPv6).

    PubMed

    Jara, Antonio J; Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro; Skarmeta, Antonio F; Varakliotis, Socrates; Kirstein, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sensors utilize a large number of heterogeneous technologies for a varied set of application environments. The sheer number of devices involved requires that this Internet be the Future Internet, with a core network based on IPv6 and a higher scalability in order to be able to address all the devices, sensors and things located around us. This capability to connect through IPv6 devices, sensors and things is what is defining the so-called Internet of Things (IoT). IPv6 provides addressing space to reach this ubiquitous set of sensors, but legacy technologies, such as X10, European Installation Bus (EIB), Controller Area Network (CAN) and radio frequency ID (RFID) from the industrial, home automation and logistic application areas, do not support the IPv6 protocol. For that reason, a technique must be devised to map the sensor and identification technologies to IPv6, thus allowing homogeneous access via IPv6 features in the context of the IoT. This paper proposes a mapping between the native addressing of each technology and an IPv6 address following a set of rules that are discussed and proposed in this work. Specifically, the paper presents a technology-dependent IPv6 addressing proxy, which maps each device to the different subnetworks built under the IPv6 prefix addresses provided by the internet service provider for each home, building or user. The IPv6 addressing proxy offers a common addressing environment based on IPv6 for all the devices, regardless of the device technology. Thereby, this offers a scalable and homogeneous solution to interact with devices that do not support IPv6 addressing. The IPv6 addressing proxy has been implemented in a multi-protocol Sensors 2013, 13 6688 card and evaluated successfully its performance, scalability and interoperability through a protocol built over IPv6. PMID:23686145

  3. Childbirth Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... labor starts before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy Problems with the umbilical cord Problems with the position of the baby, such as ... feet first Birth injuries For some of these problems, the baby may need to be delivered surgically ...

  4. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Balance Problems About Balance Problems Have you ever felt dizzy, lightheaded, or ... dizziness problem during the past year. Why Good Balance is Important Having good balance means being able ...

  5. Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review.

    PubMed

    Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence gambling by Aboriginal groups, which are individually different, making it difficult to implement a cohesive strategy to address gambling-related harms. Because of this complexity, a thorough literature review is necessary to identify gaps in policy and research. This paper uses a public health framework to consider multi-dimensional influences (personal, environmental, economic, cultural and social) that affect gambling uptake. Such analysis is also important for identifying risk factors which facilitate the development and maintenance of problem gambling and potentially for underpinning protection, prevention and treatment programs. It is advised that strategies be developed in consultation with Aboriginal peoples to guide public health policy and research to minimise any gambling-related harms. PMID:24707239

  6. Racism and the Conspiracy of Silence: Presidential Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sue, Derald Wing

    2005-01-01

    This presidential address focuses on a specific and daunting assumption about racism that many find disturbing--a belief that no one born and raised in the United States is free from inheriting the racial biases of their forebears. It states explicitly that it is impossible for anyone to not to have racist, sexist, and homophobic attitudes,…

  7. Assessing what to address in science communication.

    PubMed

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-08-20

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people's decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people's understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people's decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people's mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients' understanding and ability to make informed decisions. PMID:23942122

  8. Assessing what to address in science communication

    PubMed Central

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-01-01

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people’s decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people’s understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people’s decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people’s mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients’ understanding and ability to make informed decisions. PMID:23942122

  9. Universal Design Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    Universal design is made up of four elements: accessibility, adaptability, aesthetics, and affordability. This article addresses the concept of universal design problem solving through experiential learning for an interior design studio course in postsecondary education. Students' experiences with clients over age 55 promoted an understanding of…

  10. The prevention of electronical breakdown and electrostatic voltage problems in the space shuttle and its payloads. Part 2: Design guides and operations considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    The specific electrical discharge problems that can directly affect the shuttle vehicle and its payloads are addressed. General design guidelines are provided to assist flight hardware managers in minimizing these kinds of problems. Specific data are included on workmanship practices and system testing while in low pressure environments. Certain electrical discharge problems that may be unique to the design of the shuttle vehicle itself and to its various mission operational models are discussed.

  11. Addressing the needs of traumatic brain injury with clinical proteomics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurotrauma or injuries to the central nervous system (CNS) are a serious public health problem worldwide. Approximately 75% of all traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are concussions or other mild TBI (mTBI) forms. Evaluation of concussion injury today is limited to an assessment of behavioral symptoms, often with delay and subject to motivation. Hence, there is an urgent need for an accurate chemical measure in biofluids to serve as a diagnostic tool for invisible brain wounds, to monitor severe patient trajectories, and to predict survival chances. Although a number of neurotrauma marker candidates have been reported, the broad spectrum of TBI limits the significance of small cohort studies. Specificity and sensitivity issues compound the development of a conclusive diagnostic assay, especially for concussion patients. Thus, the neurotrauma field currently has no diagnostic biofluid test in clinical use. Content We discuss the challenges of discovering new and validating identified neurotrauma marker candidates using proteomics-based strategies, including targeting, selection strategies and the application of mass spectrometry (MS) technologies and their potential impact to the neurotrauma field. Summary Many studies use TBI marker candidates based on literature reports, yet progress in genomics and proteomics have started to provide neurotrauma protein profiles. Choosing meaningful marker candidates from such ‘long lists’ is still pending, as only few can be taken through the process of preclinical verification and large scale translational validation. Quantitative mass spectrometry targeting specific molecules rather than random sampling of the whole proteome, e.g., multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), offers an efficient and effective means to multiplex the measurement of several candidates in patient samples, thereby omitting the need for antibodies prior to clinical assay design. Sample preparation challenges specific to TBI are addressed. A

  12. Final Report on Internet Addressable Lightswitch

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Pettler, Peter

    2001-08-27

    This report describes the work performed to develop and test a new switching system and communications network that is useful for economically switching lighting circuits in existing commercial buildings. The first section of the report provides the general background of the IBECS (Integrated Building Environmental Communications System) research and development work as well as the context for the development of the new switching system. The research and development effort that went into producing the first proof-of-concept (the IBECS Addressable Power Switch or APS) and the physical prototype of that concept is detailed in the second section. In the third section of the report, we detail the refined Powerline Carrier Based IBECS Title 24 Wall Switch system that evolved from the APS prototype. The refined system provided a path for installing IBECS switching technology in existing buildings that may not be already wired for light level switching control. The final section of the report describes the performance of the IBECS Title 24 Switch system as applied to a small demonstration in two offices at LBNL's Building 90. We learned that the new Powerline Carrier control systems (A-10 technology) that have evolved from the early X-10 systems have solved most of the noise problems that dogged the successful application of X-10 technologies in commercial buildings. We found that the new A-10 powerline carrier control technology can be reliable and effective for switching lighting circuits even in electrically noisy office environments like LBNL. Thus we successfully completed the task objectives by designing, building and demonstrating a new switching system that can provide multiple levels of light which can be triggered either from specially designed wall switches or from a digital communications network. By applying commercially available powerline carrier based technologies that communicate over the in-place lighting wiring system, this type of control can be

  13. Content-addressable read/write memories for image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. E.; Savage, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    The commonly encountered image analysis problems of region labeling and clustering are found to be cases of search-and-rename problem which can be solved in parallel by a system architecture that is inherently suitable for VLSI implementation. This architecture is a novel form of content-addressable memory (CAM) which provides parallel search and update functions, allowing speed reductions down to constant time per operation. It has been proposed in related investigations by Hall (1981) that, with VLSI, CAM-based structures with enhanced instruction sets for general purpose processing will be feasible.

  14. Special Medical Problems of Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couch, Joan M.

    1987-01-01

    This article addresses the situations in which athletes with special needs and considerations participate in sports. The health problems discussed are diabetes mellitus, exercise-induced asthma, exercise-induced anaphylaxis, and epilepsy. (MT)

  15. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    PubMed

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  16. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function

    PubMed Central

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the “Hash_64” field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  17. 43 CFR 6304.20 - Other uses addressed in special provisions of the Wilderness Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of the Wilderness Act. 6304.20 Section 6304.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Uses Addressed in Special Provisions of the Wilderness Act Other Uses Specifically Addressed by the Wilderness Act § 6304.20 Other uses addressed in...

  18. 43 CFR 6304.20 - Other uses addressed in special provisions of the Wilderness Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of the Wilderness Act. 6304.20 Section 6304.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Uses Addressed in Special Provisions of the Wilderness Act Other Uses Specifically Addressed by the Wilderness Act § 6304.20 Other uses addressed in...

  19. 43 CFR 6304.20 - Other uses addressed in special provisions of the Wilderness Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of the Wilderness Act. 6304.20 Section 6304.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Uses Addressed in Special Provisions of the Wilderness Act Other Uses Specifically Addressed by the Wilderness Act § 6304.20 Other uses addressed in...

  20. 43 CFR 6304.20 - Other uses addressed in special provisions of the Wilderness Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of the Wilderness Act. 6304.20 Section 6304.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Uses Addressed in Special Provisions of the Wilderness Act Other Uses Specifically Addressed by the Wilderness Act § 6304.20 Other uses addressed in...

  1. African American and European American Therapists' Experiences of Addressing Race in Cross-Racial Psychotherapy Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Sarah; Burkard, Alan W.; Johnson, Adanna J.; Suzuki, Lisa A.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.

    2003-01-01

    Using Consensual Qualitative Research, 12 licensed psychologists' overall experiences addressing race in psychotherapy were investigated, as were their experiences addressing race in a specific cross-racial therapy dyad. Results indicated that only African American psychologists reported routinely addressing race with clients of color or when race…

  2. Sexual violence in India: addressing gaps between policy and implementation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prachi; Unnikrishnan, M K; Sharma, Abhishek

    2015-06-01

    The savage Delhi rape of 16 December 2012 was instrumental in generating the Verma Report that framed policies for amending the Criminal Laws related to sexual violence, professionalizing forensic/medical examination of victims, and sensitizing the police, electorate and the educational sectors. Unfortunately, even after a year, the Indian Home Ministry has abysmally failed to implement most recommendations, even underutilizing budgetary allocations. This article addresses gaps in governance systems and offers solutions to the problem of sexual violence in India. PMID:24615432

  3. Evaluating programs that address ideological issues: ethical and practical considerations for practitioners and evaluators.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Lisa D; Fagen, Michael C; Neiger, Brad L

    2014-03-01

    There are important practical and ethical considerations for organizations in conducting their own, or commissioning external, evaluations and for both practitioners and evaluators, when assessing programs built on strongly held ideological or philosophical approaches. Assessing whether programs "work" has strong political, financial, and/or moral implications, particularly when expending public dollars, and may challenge objectivity about a particular program or approach. Using a case study of the evaluation of a school-based abstinence-until-marriage program, this article discusses the challenges, lessons learned, and ethical responsibilities regarding decisions about evaluation, specifically associated with ideologically driven programs. Organizations should consider various stakeholders and views associated with their program to help identify potential pitfalls in evaluation. Once identified, the program or agency needs to carefully consider its answers to two key questions: Do they want the answer and are they willing to modify the program? Having decided to evaluate, the choice of evaluator is critical to assuring that ethical principles are maintained and potential skepticism or criticism of findings can be addressed appropriately. The relationship between program and evaluator, including agreements about ownership and eventual publication and/or promotion of data, should be addressed at the outset. Programs and organizations should consider, at the outset, their ethical responsibility when findings are not expected or desired. Ultimately, agencies, organizations, and programs have an ethical responsibility to use their data to provide health promotion programs, whether ideologically founded or not, that appropriately and effectively address the problems they seek to solve. PMID:24532788

  4. How Does an Environmental Educator Address Student Engagement in a Meaningful Watershed Educational Experience (MWEE)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Char, Chelia

    Children represent the future and thus by providing them with effective environmental educational experiences, educators may be taking a critical step in preventing "the probable serious environmental problems in the future" (Gokhan, 2010, p. 56). The Meaningful Watershed Educational Experience (MWEE) is an excellent example of one such education program. MWEEs aim to educate and enhance the students' relationship with the Chesapeake Bay Watershed through an integration of classroom activities and fieldwork. As environmental educators and role models, field interpreters are a major component and significant influence on the local MWEE programs, however their perspective as to how they have impacted the programs has yet to be examined. Through a qualitative analysis and specific focus on the behavioral, emotional, and cognitive dimensions of student engagement, the researcher intended to address this void. The focus of the study was to examine how the local MWEE field interpreters understood and addressed student engagement in a field setting. This was measured via data collected from observations of and semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with each field interpreter involved with the local MWEE programs. Data analysis uncovered that field interpreters demonstrated a strong awareness of student engagement. Furthermore, they defined, recognized, and addressed student engagement within the constructs of the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive dimensions. Ultimately, the individual experiences of each MWEE field interpreter provides insight into the phenomenon, however further research is required to strengthen the awareness of how, if at all, their perspectives of student engagement directly impact student outcomes.

  5. Addressing anniversary reactions of trauma through group process: the Hurricane Katrina anniversary wellness workshops.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Darlyne G; Kuriansky, Judy; Reeder, Kenneth P; Lewis, Amity; Marceaux, Kristin; Whittington, Taighlor; Olivier, Traci W; May, Natasha E; Safier, Jessica A

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters such as Hurricane Katrina, which devastated the Gulf Coast of the United States in the summer of 2005, have highlighted the need to develop effective post-trauma psychotherapeutic intervention strategies, not only to deal with the immediate psychological aftermath of trauma, but also the long-term effects of anniversary reactions. Governmental responses to Hurricane Katrina relief were greatly criticized for disorganization and delay. Both immediately afterwards and in ensuing months, people's life needs often were not addressed. People-to-people individual and group grassroots efforts, including those provided by mental health professionals, however, did reach local communities to service immediate needs and long-term emotional reactions. The present paper describes one such effort designed to help survivors cope on the occasion of the first anniversary of Hurricane Katrina. Specifically, anniversary reaction group workshops were held to address unresolved emotional issues and to promote healing by encouraging belonging, comfort, security, and resilience. The ultimate goal of these wellness workshops was to assist participants in understanding and resolving their anniversary reactions. Preliminary quantitative and qualitative findings suggested that this workshop format helped participants face their anniversary reactions, address their related psychological sequelae, and deal with their physical displacement. Participants were then able to find the emotional strength to reattach, form new communities, and begin problem solving. These methods, with appropriate cultural modifications, were subsequently used in China, to assist Chinese mental health professionals prepare for the first anniversary of the Sichuan earthquake. PMID:22229372

  6. Content addressable systolic array for sparse matrix computation

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, O.

    1983-01-01

    A systolic array is proposed which is specifically designed to solve a system of sparse linear equations. The array consists of a number of processing elements connected in a ring. Each processing element has its own content addressable memory where the nonzero elements of the sparse matrix are stored. Matrix elements to which elementary operations are applied are extracted from the memory by content addressing. The system of equations is solved in a systolic fashion and the solution is obtained in nz+5n-2 steps where nz is the number of nonzero elements along and below the diagonal and n is the number of equations. 13 references.

  7. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to...

  8. 40 CFR 374.6 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Addresses. 374.6 Section 374.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS § 374.6 Addresses. Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200...

  9. 10 CFR 218.34 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Addresses. 218.34 Section 218.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Procedures § 218.34 Addresses. All..., Economic Regulatory Administration, Department of Energy, 2000 M Street, NW., Washington, DC 20461, and...

  10. History Forum Addresses Creation/Evolution Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinsberg, John

    1997-01-01

    A series of programs entitled Creationism and Evolution: The History of a Controversy was presented at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The controversy was addressed from an historical and sociological, rather than a scientific perspective. Speakers addressed the evolution of scientific creationism, ancient texts versus sedimentary rocks…

  11. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addresses. 80.174 Section 80.174... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample required under § 80.161(b)(2) shall be sent to: Manager, Fuels and Technical Analysis Group,...

  12. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false RUS addresses. 1730.3 Section 1730.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain forms referred to in this part...

  13. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding verb conjugations (Lipski…

  14. 40 CFR 374.6 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Addresses. 374.6 Section 374.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS § 374.6 Addresses. Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200...

  15. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  16. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  17. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  18. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  19. 34 CFR 674.44 - Address searches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Address searches. 674.44 Section 674.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.44 Address searches. (a) If...

  20. Image compression using address-vector quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu

    1990-12-01

    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  1. Tradition and Change in Swedish Address Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Stephen A.

    In most European languages, choice of address form classifies the relation between speakers. The first theoretical framework for analyzing address form usage was established by Brown and Gilman (1960) in their investigation of the semantics of pronoun use in a wide variety of Indo-European languages, which concluded that Europeans use the informal…

  2. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  3. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  4. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  5. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  6. 7 CFR 504.5 - Address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Address. 504.5 Section 504.5 Agriculture Regulations... USER FEES § 504.5 Address. Deposits of and requests for microbial patent cultures should be directed to.... University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604; (309) 685-4011....

  7. 25 CFR 2.14 - Record address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record address. 2.14 Section 2.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPEALS FROM ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS § 2.14 Record address. (a) Every interested party who files a document in connection with an...

  8. 25 CFR 2.14 - Record address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record address. 2.14 Section 2.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPEALS FROM ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS § 2.14 Record address. (a) Every interested party who files a document in connection with an...

  9. Avoid, Control, Succumb, or Balance: Engineering Students' Approaches to a Wicked Sustainability Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lönngren, Johanna; Ingerman, Åke; Svanström, Magdalena

    2016-07-01

    Wicked sustainability problems (WSPs) are an important and particularly challenging type of problem. Science and engineering education can play an important role in preparing students to deal with such problems, but current educational practice may not adequately prepare students to do so. We address this gap by providing insights related to students' abilities to address WSPs. Specifically, we aim to (I) describe key constituents of engineering students' approaches to a WSP, (II) evaluate these approaches in relation to the normative context of education for sustainable development (ESD), and (III) identify relevant aspects of learning related to WSPs. Aim I is addressed through a phenomenographic study, while aims II and III are addressed by relating the results to research literature about human problem solving, sustainable development, and ESD. We describe four qualitatively different ways of approaching a specific WSP, as the outcome of the phenomenographic study: A. Simplify and avoid, B. Divide and control, C. Isolate and succumb, and D. Integrate and balance. We identify approach D as the most appropriate approach in the context of ESD, while A and C are not. On this basis, we identify three learning objectives related to students' abilities to address WSPs: learn to use a fully integrative approach, distinguish WSPs from tame and well-structured problems, and understand and consider the normative context of SD. Finally, we provide recommendations for how these learning objectives can be used to guide the design of science and engineering educational activities.

  10. Assessing and Addressing Students' Scientific Literacy Needs in Physical Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell-Stone, E. A.; Myers, J. D.

    2005-12-01

    Exacting excellence equally from university students around the globe can be accomplished by providing all students with necessary background tools to achieve mastery of their courses, even if those tools are not part of normal content. As instructors we hope to see our students grasp the substance of our courses, make mental connections between course material and practical applications, and use this knowledge to make informed decisions as citizens. Yet many educators have found that students enter university-level introductory courses in mathematics, science and engineering without adequate academic preparation. As part of a FIPSE-funded project at the University of Wyoming, the instructors of the Physical Geology course have taken a new approach to tackling the problem of lack of scientific/mathematic skills in incoming students. Instead of assuming that students should already know or will learn these skills on their own, they assess students' needs and provide them the opportunity to master scientific literacies as they learn geologic content. In the introductory geology course, instructors identified two categories of literacies, or basic skills that are necessary for academic success and citizen participation. Fundamental literacies include performing simple quantitative calculations, making qualitative assessments, and reading and analyzing tables and graphs. Technical literacies are those specific to understanding geology, and comprise the ability to read maps, visualize changes through time, and conceptualize in three dimensions. Because these skills are most easily taught in lab, the in-house lab manual was rewritten to be both literacy- and content-based. Early labs include simple exercises addressing literacies in the context of geological science, and each subsequent lab repeats exposure to literacies, but at increasing levels of difficulty. Resources available to assist students with literacy mastery include individual instruction, a detailed

  11. New generation of content addressable memories for associative processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, H. G., Jr.; Giambalov, Paul

    2000-05-01

    Content addressable memories (CAMS) store both key and association data. A key is presented to the CAN when it is searched and all of the addresses are scanned in parallel to find the address referenced by the key. When a match occurs, the corresponding association is returned. With the explosion of telecommunications packet switching protocols, large data base servers, routers and search engines a new generation of dense sub-micron high throughput CAMS has been developed. The introduction of this paper presents a brief history and tutorial on CAMS, their many uses and advantages, and describes the architecture and functionality of several of MUSIC Semiconductors CAM devices. In subsequent sections of the paper we address using Associative Processing to accommodate the continued increase in sensor resolution, number of spectral bands, required coverage, the desire to implement real-time target cueing, and the data flow and image processing required for optimum performance of reconnaissance and surveillance Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). To be competitive the system designer must provide the most computational power, per watt, per dollar, per cubic inch, within the boundaries of cost effective UAV environmental control systems. To address these problems we demonstrate leveraging DARPA and DoD funded Commercial Off-the-Shelf technology to integrate CAM based Associative Processing into a real-time heterogenous multiprocessing system for UAVs and other platforms with limited weight, volume and power budgets.

  12. Visual Channel Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Philip H.; Suiter, Patricia A.

    This teacher training module classifies visual channel problems into the following four main areas: visual perception, revisualization (memory), visual-motor (eye-hand coordination), and ocular-motor tasks. Specific deficits are listed under these main headings, behaviors are given to help identify the problem, and ways to improve the condition…

  13. The problem resident behavior guide: strategies for remediation.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Kelly; Quattromani, Erin; Aldeen, Amer

    2016-04-01

    In 2012, the ACGME supplemented the core competencies with outcomes-based milestones for resident performance within the six competency domains. These milestones address the knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes, and experiences that a resident is expected to progress through during the course of training. Even prior to the initiation of the milestones, there was a paucity of EM literature addressing the remediation of problem resident behaviors and there remain few readily accessible tools to aid in the implementation of a remediation plan. The goal of the "Problem Resident Behavior Guide" is to provide specific strategies for resident remediation based on deficiencies identified within the framework of the EM milestones. The "Problem Resident Behavior Guide" is a written instructional manual that provides concrete examples of remediation strategies to address specific milestone deficiencies. The more than 200 strategies stem from the experiences of the authors who have professional experience at three different academic hospitals and emergency medicine residency programs, supplemented by recommendations from educational leaders as well as utilization of valuable education adjuncts, such as focused simulation exercises, lecture preparation, and themed ED shifts. Most recommendations require active participation by the resident with guidance by faculty to achieve the remediation expectations. The ACGME outcomes-based milestones aid in the identification of deficiencies with regards to resident performance without providing recommendations on remediation. The Problem Resident Behavior Guide can therefore have a significant impact by filling in this gap. PMID:26667256

  14. Can compactifications solve the cosmological constant problem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzberg, Mark P.; Masoumi, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Recently, there have been claims in the literature that the cosmological constant problem can be dynamically solved by specific compactifications of gravity from higher-dimensional toy models. These models have the novel feature that in the four-dimensional theory, the cosmological constant Λ is much smaller than the Planck density and in fact accumulates at Λ = 0. Here we show that while these are very interesting models, they do not properly address the real cosmological constant problem. As we explain, the real problem is not simply to obtain Λ that is small in Planck units in a toy model, but to explain why Λ is much smaller than other mass scales (and combinations of scales) in the theory. Instead, in these toy models, all other particle mass scales have been either removed or sent to zero, thus ignoring the real problem. To this end, we provide a general argument that the included moduli masses are generically of order Hubble, so sending them to zero trivially sends the cosmological constant to zero. We also show that the fundamental Planck mass is being sent to zero, and so the central problem is trivially avoided by removing high energy physics altogether. On the other hand, by including various large mass scales from particle physics with a high fundamental Planck mass, one is faced with a real problem, whose only known solution involves accidental cancellations in a landscape.

  15. Strategies intended to address vaccine hesitancy: Review of published reviews.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Eve; Gagnon, Dominique; MacDonald, Noni E

    2015-08-14

    When faced with vaccine hesitancy, public health authorities are looking for effective strategies to address this issue. In this paper, the findings of 15 published literature reviews or meta-analysis that have examined the effectiveness of different interventions to reduce vaccine hesitancy and/or to enhance vaccine acceptance are presented and discussed. From the literature, there is no strong evidence to recommend any specific intervention to address vaccine hesitancy/refusal. The reviewed studies included interventions with diverse content and approaches that were implemented in different settings and targeted various populations. Few interventions were directly targeted to vaccine hesitant individuals. Given the paucity of information on effective strategies to address vaccine hesitancy, when interventions are implemented, planning a rigorous evaluation of their impact on vaccine hesitancy/vaccine acceptance will be essential. PMID:25896385

  16. Addressing contrasting cognitive models in scientific collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diviacco, P.

    2012-04-01

    If the social aspects of scientific communities and their internal dynamics is starting to be recognized and acknowledged in the everyday lives of scientists, it is rather difficult for them to find tools that could support their activities consistently with this perspective. Issues span from gathering researchers to mutual awareness, from information sharing to building meaning, with the last one being particularly critical in research fields as the geo-sciences, that deal with the reconstruction of unique, often non-reproducible, and contingent processes. Reasoning here is, in fact, mainly abductive, allowing multiple and concurrent explanations for the same phenomenon to coexist. Scientists bias one hypothesis over another not only on strictly logical but also on sociological motivations. Following a vision, scientists tend to evolve and isolate themselves from other scientists creating communities characterized by different cognitive models, so that after some time these become incompatible and scientists stop understanding each other. We address these problems as a communication issue so that the classic distinction into three levels (syntactic, semantic and pragmatic) can be used. At the syntactic level, we highlight non-technical obstacles that condition interoperability and data availability and transparency. At the semantic level, possible incompatibilities of cognitive models are particularly evident, so that using ontologies, cross-domain reconciliation should be applied. This is a very difficult task to perform since the projection of knowledge by scientists, in the designated community, is political and thus can create a lot of tension. The strategy we propose to overcome these issues pertains to pragmatics, in the sense that it is intended to acknowledge the cultural and personal factors each partner brings into the collaboration and is based on the idea that meaning should remain a flexible and contingent representation of possibly divergent views

  17. Walking Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... daily activities, get around, and exercise. Having a problem with walking can make daily life more difficult. ... walk is called your gait. A variety of problems can cause an abnormal gait and lead to ...

  18. Breathing Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... re not getting enough air. Sometimes mild breathing problems are from a stuffy nose or hard exercise. ... emphysema or pneumonia cause breathing difficulties. So can problems with your trachea or bronchi, which are part ...

  19. Erection problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... cord injury In some cases, your emotions or relationship problems can lead to ED, such as: Poor ... you stressed, depressed, or anxious? Are you having relationship problems? You may have a number of different ...

  20. Joint Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... ankles and toes. Other types of arthritis include gout or pseudogout. Sometimes, there is a mechanical problem ... for more information on osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and gout. How Common are Joint Problems? Osteoarthritis, which affects ...

  1. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  2. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL General Provisions § 600.2 Mailing addresses. (a) Licensed biological products... applications (BLAs) and their amendments and supplements, adverse experience reports, biological product deviation reports, fatality reports, and other correspondence. Biological products samples must not be...

  3. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL General Provisions § 600.2 Mailing addresses. (a) Licensed biological products... applications (BLAs) and their amendments and supplements, adverse experience reports, biological product deviation reports, fatality reports, and other correspondence. Biological products samples must not be...

  4. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL General Provisions § 600.2 Mailing addresses. (a) Licensed biological products... applications (BLAs) and their amendments and supplements, adverse experience reports, biological product deviation reports, fatality reports, and other correspondence. Biological products samples must not be...

  5. Addressing Your Child's Weight at the Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  6. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  7. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  8. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain... assigned RUS General Field Representative (GFR) or such other office as designated by RUS....

  9. Revised Behavior Problem Checklist (RBPC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Robert G.

    1990-01-01

    The Revised Behavior Problem Checklist is used to screen for behavior disorders in K-12 students, develop clinical diagnoses, classify juvenile offenders, and evaluate psychological and pharmacological interventions. The checklist addresses conduct disorder, socialized aggression, attention problems-immaturity, and anxiety-withdrawal. This paper…

  10. Classroom Management: Problems and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Debra G.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on classroom management in the music classroom. Discusses why a management system is important and how to meet student needs. Addresses types of behavior problems and solutions for four levels of problems related to student behavior. Explores the importance of proactive management on the part of the music teacher. (CMK)

  11. Creative Thinking and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacy, Grace

    The booklet considers the nature of creativity in children and examines classroom implications. Among the topics addressed are the following: theories about creativity; research; developments in brain research; the creative process; creative problem solving; the Structure of Intellect Problem Solving (SIPS) model; a rationale for creativity in the…

  12. Industrial fouling: problem characterization, economic assessment, and review of prevention, mitigation, and accommodation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett-Price, B.A.; Smith, S.A.; Watts, R.L.

    1984-02-01

    A comprehensive overview of heat exchanger fouling in the manufacturing industries is provided. Specifically, this overview addresses: the characteristics of industrial fouling problems; the mitigation and accommodation techniques currently used by industry; and the types and magnitude of costs associated with industrial fouling. A detailed review of the fouling problems, costs and mitigation techniques is provided for the food, textile, pulp and paper, chemical, petroleum, cement, glass and primary metals industries.

  13. The problems inherent in teaching technical writing and report writing to native Americans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zukowski/faust, J.

    1981-01-01

    Teaching technical writing to Native Americans contending with a second language and culture is addressed. Learning difficulties arising from differences between native and acquired language and cultural systems are examined. Compartmentalized teaching, which presents the ideals of technical writing in minimal units, and skills development are considered. Rhetorical problems treated include logic of arrangement, selection of support and scope of detail, and time and space. Specific problems selected include the concept of promptness, the contextualization of purpose, interpersonal relationships, wordiness, mixture of registers, and the problem of abstracting. Four inductive procedures for students having writing and perception problems are included. Four sample exercises and a bibliography of 13 references are also included.

  14. A proposed reductionist solution to address the methodological challenges of inconsistent reflexology maps and poor experimental controls in reflexology research: a discussion paper.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jenny; Thomson, Patricia; Lauder, William; Leslie, Stephen J

    2013-03-01

    Reflexology is a complex massage intervention, based on the concept that specific areas of the feet (reflex points) correspond to individual internal organs within the body. Reflexologists trained in the popular Ingham reflexology method claim that massage to these points, using massage techniques unique to reflexology, stimulates an increase in blood supply to the corresponding organ. Reflexology researchers face two key methodological challenges that need to be addressed if a specific treatment-related hemodynamic effect is to be scientifically demonstrated. The first is the problem of inconsistent reflexology foot maps; the second is the issue of poor experimental controls. This article proposes a potential experimental solution that we believe can address both methodological challenges and in doing so, allow any specific hemodynamic treatment effect unique to reflexology to experimentally reveal itself. PMID:23072264

  15. Couples' agreement on presenting problems predicts engagement and outcomes in problem-focused couple therapy.

    PubMed

    Biesen, Judith N; Doss, Brian D

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the impact of couples' agreement regarding relationship problems at therapy intake on subsequent treatment engagement and success. One hundred and 47 couples seeking marital therapy at one of two Veteran Administration Medical Centers completed questionnaires assessing relationship satisfaction and were asked to indicate their three biggest relationship concerns. Agreement on relationship concern was defined as one person's list containing the partner's top relationship problem. Pretreatment agreement on relationship problems was unrelated to treatment course or outcomes when the therapy was longer and more integrative in nature. However, when couples received a brief, problem-focused treatment, agreement predicted greater engagement in therapy process and more positive treatment outcomes. Specifically, couples who were in agreement were more likely to attend the minimum number of required sessions and were more likely to be assessed as having received a full course of therapy by their treatment provider. Additionally, partners who agreed with each other were more likely to experience clinically significant changes during treatment. Taken together, results suggest that therapists and researchers should consider assessing agreement on relationship problems at the beginning of treatment and potentially suggest that couples who perceive their relationship differently should receive more integrative treatment. Future research is needed to examine the most effective sequencing for addressing differing, presenting problems as well as the mechanisms through which disagreement on presenting problems impacts treatment course and outcomes. PMID:23772844

  16. A model for addressing navigation limitations and metacognitive constraints in hypermedia training systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Glenn B.

    1990-01-01

    A model for addressing navigation limitations and metacognitive constraints in hypermedia training systems is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: samples of software and people problems; system design; and hypermedia training system.

  17. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  18. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  19. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  20. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  1. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  2. Problems without Numbers--At First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2006-01-01

    Three sample physics problems are presented in this article. The solutions to the three problems addresses a major student difficulty in problem solving--knowing where to begin. The first suggested step is to begin by stating what is asked for. Step 2 is identifying the fundamental physics that underlies the problem situation. Step 3 is isolating…

  3. Aleph Field Solver Challenge Problem Results Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Russell; Moore, Stan Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Aleph models continuum electrostatic and steady and transient thermal fields using a finite-element method. Much work has gone into expanding the core solver capability to support enriched mod- eling consisting of multiple interacting fields, special boundary conditions and two-way interfacial coupling with particles modeled using Aleph's complementary particle-in-cell capability. This report provides quantitative evidence for correct implementation of Aleph's field solver via order- of-convergence assessments on a collection of problems of increasing complexity. It is intended to provide Aleph with a pedigree and to establish a basis for confidence in results for more challeng- ing problems important to Sandia's mission that Aleph was specifically designed to address.

  4. Addressing the Academic and Social Needs of Young Male Students through School-Based Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Curtis E.

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed the problem within the U.S. public school system to sustainably meet the academic and social needs of its African American male students. The administrative team of the elementary school in this study desired an evaluation of a school-based male mentoring program that was designed to address these needs. The program, Gentlemen…

  5. A Multi-Systemic School-Based Approach for Addressing Childhood Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runions, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    School-based approaches to addressing aggression in the early grades have focused on explicit curriculum addressing social and emotional processes. The current study reviews research on the distinct modes of aggression, the status of current research on social and emotional processing relevant to problems of aggression amongst young children, as…

  6. Emerging Infections Program Efforts to Address Health Equity

    PubMed Central

    Vugia, Duc J.; Bennett, Nancy M.; Moore, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    The Emerging Infections Program (EIP), a collaboration between (currently) 10 state health departments, their academic center partners, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was established in 1995. The EIP performs active, population-based surveillance for important infectious diseases, addresses new problems as they arise, emphasizes projects that lead to prevention, and develops and evaluates public health practices. The EIP has increasingly addressed the health equity challenges posed by Healthy People 2020. These challenges include objectives to increase the proportion of Healthy People–specified conditions for which national data are available by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status as a step toward first recognizing and subsequently eliminating health inequities. EIP has made substantial progress in moving from an initial focus on monitoring social determinants exclusively through collecting and analyzing data by race/ethnicity to identifying and piloting ways to conduct population-based surveillance by using area-based socioeconomic status measures. PMID:26291875

  7. Use of multicriteria decision analysis to address conservation conflicts.

    PubMed

    Davies, A L; Bryce, R; Redpath, S M

    2013-10-01

    Conservation conflicts are increasing on a global scale and instruments for reconciling competing interests are urgently needed. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a structured, decision-support process that can facilitate dialogue between groups with differing interests and incorporate human and environmental dimensions of conflict. MCDA is a structured and transparent method of breaking down complex problems and incorporating multiple objectives. The value of this process for addressing major challenges in conservation conflict management is that MCDA helps in setting realistic goals; entails a transparent decision-making process; and addresses mistrust, differing world views, cross-scale issues, patchy or contested information, and inflexible legislative tools. Overall we believe MCDA provides a valuable decision-support tool, particularly for increasing awareness of the effects of particular values and choices for working toward negotiated compromise, although an awareness of the effect of methodological choices and the limitations of the method is vital before applying it in conflict situations. PMID:23869557

  8. Asperger Syndrome and the English Curriculum: Addressing the Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbinson, Hilary; Alexander, Joy

    2009-01-01

    A major criterion for the diagnosis of Asperger syndrome is an impairment of the imagination. This article focuses on the specific difficulties that students with Asperger syndrome have with the imaginative content of the English curriculum. It examines the problems with reading and writing imaginatively of a group of students with AS in a…

  9. Problem-Framing: A perspective on environmental problem-solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardwell, Lisa V.

    1991-09-01

    The specter of environmental calamity calls for the best efforts of an involved public. Ironically, the way people understand the issues all too often serves to discourage and frustrate rather than motivate them to action. This article draws from problem-solving perspectives offered by cognitive psychology and conflict management to examine a framework for thinking about environmental problems that promises to help rather than hinder efforts to address them. Problem-framing emphasizes focusing on the problem definition. Since how one defines a problem determines one's understanding of and approach to that problem, being able to redefine or reframe a problem and to explore the “problem space” can help broaden the range of alternatives and solutions examined. Problem-framing incorporates a cognitive perspective on how people respond to information. It explains why an emphasis on problem definition is not part of people's typical approach to problems. It recognizes the importance of structure and of having ways to organize that information on one's problem-solving effort. Finally, problem-framing draws on both cognitive psychology and conflict management for strategies to manage information and to create a problem-solving environment that not only encourages participation but can yield better approaches to our environmental problems.

  10. Intent Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    1995-01-01

    We have been investigating the implications of using abstractions based on intent rather than the aggregation and information-hiding abstractions commonly used in software en- gineering: Cognitive psychologists have shown that intent abstraction is consistent with human problem-solving processes. We believe that new types of specifications and designs based on this concept can assist in understanding and specifying requirements, capturing the most important design rationale information in an efficient and economical way, and supporting the process of identifying and analyzing required changes to minimize the introduction of errors. The goal of hierarchical abstraction is to allow both top-down and bottom-up reasoning about a complex system. In computer science, we have made much use of (1) part-whole abstractions where each level of a hierarchy represents an aggregation of the components at a lower level and of (2) information-hiding abstractions where each level contains the same conceptual information but hides some details about the concepts, that is, each level is a refinement of the information at a higher level.

  11. Facilities Specifications Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athletic Business, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Provides line drawings of indoor and outdoor sporting fields reflecting the specifications and dimensional standards of each, including where additional information can be found. Sporting events from badminton, baseball, and basketball to lacrosse, swimming/diving, and volleyball are addressed. (GR)

  12. Optimal solutions of unobservable orbit determination problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicci, David A.; Tapley, Byron D.

    1988-12-01

    The method of data augmentation, in the form ofa priori covariance information on the reference solution, as a means to overcome the effects of ill-conditioning in orbit determination problems has been investigated. Specifically, for the case when ill-conditioning results from parameter non-observability and an appropriatea priori covariance is unknown, methods by which thea priori covariance is optimally chosen are presented. In problems where an inaccuratea priori covariance is provided, the optimal weighting of this data set is obtained. The feasibility of these ‘ridge-type’ solution methods is demonstrated by their application to a non-observable gravity field recovery simulation. In the simulation, both ‘ridge-type’ and conventional solutions are compared. Substantial improvement in the accuracy of the conventional solution is realized by the use of these ridge-type solution methods. The solution techniques presented in this study are applicable to observable, but ill-conditioned problems as well as the unobservable problems directly addressed. For the case of observable problems, the ridge-type solutions provide an improvement in the accuracy of the ordinary least squares solutions.

  13. Shared address collectives using counter mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Blocksome, Michael; Dozsa, Gabor; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R; Miller, Douglas

    2014-02-18

    A shared address space on a compute node stores data received from a network and data to transmit to the network. The shared address space includes an application buffer that can be directly operated upon by a plurality of processes, for instance, running on different cores on the compute node. A shared counter is used for one or more of signaling arrival of the data across the plurality of processes running on the compute node, signaling completion of an operation performed by one or more of the plurality of processes, obtaining reservation slots by one or more of the plurality of processes, or combinations thereof.

  14. Frequency addressable beams for land mobile communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. D.; Dubellay, G. G.

    1988-01-01

    Satellites used for mobile communications need to serve large numbers of small, low cost terminals. The most important parameters affecting the capacity of such systems are the satellite equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) and gain to noise temperature ratio (G/T) and available bandwidth. Satellites using frequency addressed beams provide high EIRP and G/T with high-gain antenna beams that also permit frequency reuse over the composite coverage area. Frequency addressing is easy to implement and compatible with low-cost terminals and offers higher capacity than alternative approaches.

  15. Cheaper Adjoints by Reversing Address Computations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hascoët, L.; Utke, J.; Naumann, U.

    2008-01-01

    The reverse mode of automatic differentiation is widely used in science and engineering. A severe bottleneck for the performance of the reverse mode, however, is the necessity to recover certain intermediate values of the program in reverse order. Among these values are computed addresses, which traditionally are recovered through forward recomputation and storage in memory. We propose an alternative approach for recovery that uses inverse computation based on dependency information. Address storage constitutes a significant portion of the overall storage requirements. An example illustrates substantial gains that the proposed approach yields, and we show use cases in practical applications.

  16. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Balance Problems Basic Facts & Information What are Balance Problems? Having good balance means being able to ... Only then can you “keep your balance.” Why Balance is Important Your feelings of dizziness may last ...

  17. Parking Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2012-01-01

    This is the story of a real problem, not a problem that is contrived, or invented for the convenience of the appropriate planning tool. This activity by a group of students, defined simply as "8FN", might be likened to an "end of term concert". If you just happened to be a delegate at the ATM Conference 2003 you might remember the analogy. Social…

  18. Problem-Solving Methods in Agent-Oriented Software Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogg, Paul; Beydoun, Ghassan; Low, Graham

    Problem-solving methods (PSM) are abstract structures that describe specific reasoning processes employed to solve a set of similar problems. We envisage that off-the-shelf PSMs can assist in the development of agent-oriented solutions, not only as reusable and extensible components that software engineers employ for designing agent architecture solutions, but just as importantly as a set of runtime capabilities that agents themselves dynamically employ in order to solve problems. This chapter describes PSMs for agent-oriented software engineering (AOSE) that address interaction-dependent problem-solving such as negotiation or cooperation. An extension to an AOSE methodology MOBMAS is proposed whereby PSMs are integrated in the software development phases of MAS Organization Design, Internal Design, and Interaction Design. In this way, knowledge engineering drives the development of agent-oriented systems.

  19. Federal Offices That Address Women's Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Patricia A.; And Others

    This directory contains a listing of federal offices that address women's issues. Among the departments and agencies included are: the executive branch and the executive agencies departments of agriculture, commerce, defense (Air Force, Army, Coast Guard, Marine Corps, National Guard and Navy), education, health and human services, housing and…

  20. Preservice Educators' Confidence in Addressing Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy Jordan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 328 preservice educators' level of confidence in addressing four sexuality education domains and 21 sexuality education topics. Significant differences in confidence levels across the four domains were found for gender, academic major, sexuality education philosophy, and sexuality education knowledge. Preservice educators…

  1. 50 CFR 228.8 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 228.8 Section 228.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... the Presiding Officer, c/o Assistant Administrator, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315...

  2. Violence Goes to School. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Jack

    1998-01-01

    Increased juvenile violence in schools has led to suggested solutions that are politically expedient but fail to address what makes violence so appealing. Instead of school uniforms, conflict resolution programs, or media rating systems, a grass roots approach of alternative programs, parental involvement, and youth support systems could repair…

  3. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  4. Addressing Gender Differences in Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Deborah A.; Manning, M. Lee

    The current interest in identifying gender differences in young adolescents suggests a need to focus on how gender differences affect teaching and learning situations and on how middle level school educators can address these differences. This book explains what gender differences are, how gender differences affect learning, how both girls and…

  5. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores how…

  6. 76 FR 80903 - Mandatory Declassification Review Addresses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... of the Secretary Mandatory Declassification Review Addresses AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION... Declassification Review requests may be sent. This notice benefits the public in advising them where to send such requests for declassification review. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Robert Storer, (571)...

  7. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  8. 50 CFR 228.8 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 228.8 Section 228.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... the Presiding Officer, c/o Assistant Administrator, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315...

  9. Naming and Address in Afghan Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miran, M. Alam

    Forms of address in Afghan society reflect the relationships between the speakers as well as the society's structure. In Afghan Persian, or Dari, first, second, and last names have different semantic dimensions. Boys' first names usually consist of two parts or morphemes, of which one may be part of the father's name. Girls' names usually consist…

  10. Addressing Student Debt in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, David; Johnston, Tim; Lytle, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Student debt is a national concern. The authors address debt in the classroom to enhance students' understanding of the consequences of debt and the need for caution when financing their education. However, student feedback indicates this understanding has a delayed effect on borrowing behavior and underscores the importance of making difficult…

  11. Native Women at Risk: Addressing Cancer Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiemann, Kay M. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses outcomes of a conference that brought together representatives from Indian tribes, state health departments, the Indian Health Service, the Mayo Clinic, and the American Cancer Society, to address the high rate of cervical cancer among American Indian women. Describes barriers to health care and plans to promote cancer screening among…

  12. EMAIL -- E-mail address searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bly, M. J.; Mellor, G. R.

    One of the most common activities on networked computers is the sending and receiving of personal electronic mail (email). Starlink nodes are connected to the worldwide Internet network. This document describes how to find email addresses to communicate with other astronomers and astronomy groups in the UK and the rest of the world.

  13. Address Systems in "The Plum Plum Pickers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geuder, Patricia A.

    1975-01-01

    The address systems in Raymond Barrio's "The Plum Plum Pickers" imply sociolinguistic differences between the Chicano and the Anglo characters. The kinds of sociolinguistic situations, the number of dyadic patterns, and the quantity of the dyadic patterns strongly suggest the differences. (Author)

  14. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonso, William R.

    2004-01-01

    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  15. 40 CFR 374.6 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addresses. 374.6 Section 374.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND... Administrator, Region VII, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 726 Minnesota Avenue, Kansas City, KS...

  16. 40 CFR 374.6 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Addresses. 374.6 Section 374.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND... Administrator, Region VII, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 726 Minnesota Avenue, Kansas City, KS...

  17. Opening Address of Chairman Michael Pertschuk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pertschuk, Michael

    Presented to a symposium sponsored by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to consider some of the issues involved in the continuing growth of a few large companies in the field of communication, this address cites statements of concern, made by the Supreme Court and by some periodicals, that excessive concentrations of power threaten First…

  18. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 301.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS GENERAL...., and be addressed as follows: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial... Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, 101 Independence Avenue,...

  19. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 301.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS GENERAL...., and be addressed as follows: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial... Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, 101 Independence Avenue,...

  20. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 301.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS GENERAL...., and be addressed as follows: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial... Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, 101 Independence Avenue,...

  1. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 301.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS GENERAL...., and be addressed as follows: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial... Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, 101 Independence Avenue,...

  2. The Conversational Frame in Public Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branham, Robert James; Pearce, W. Barnett

    1996-01-01

    Explores the diverse forms and motives of the conversational frame in public address. Argues that, by framing their remarks and transactions with their listeners as conversational, orators may attempt to reconstruct or seem to reconstruct speaker-audience relationships and to position themselves and their audiences within networks of reciprocal…

  3. Comprehensive Planning To Address Homelessness. City Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawisza, Kris

    This packet contains documents that provide information about the planning and implementation of a comprehensive plan to address homelessness in cities throughout the U.S. Information on the following components of a comprehensive strategy are included: (1) "Task Forces"; (2) "Assessment Studies"; (3) "Emergency Services"; (4) "Transitional…

  4. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  5. 40 CFR 98.9 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... submitted to the following address: (a) For U.S. mail. Director, Climate Change Division, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Mail Code: 6207J, Washington, DC 20460. (b) For package deliveries. Director, Climate Change Division, 1310 L St, NW., Washington, DC 20005....

  6. 40 CFR 98.9 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... submitted to the following address: (a) For U.S. mail. Director, Climate Change Division, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Mail Code: 6207J, Washington, DC 20460. (b) For package deliveries. Director, Climate Change Division, 1310 L St, NW., Washington, DC 20005....

  7. 37 CFR 251.1 - Official addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels (CARPs) must be addressed as follows: (a) If hand delivered by a... Friday between 8:30 a.m. and 5 p.m. (b) If hand delivered by a commercial courier (excluding Federal...) located at Second and D Street, NE., Washington, DC. The CCAS will accept items from couriers with...

  8. Addressing Disruptive Behaviors in an after School Program Classroom: The Effects of the Daily Behavior Report Card

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorvey, Zamecia J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to address behavior discipline problems in special and general education setting classrooms. Disruptive behaviors are a major concern as they create excessive stress and demands for classroom teachers and school administrators to address them. Effective interventions are needed to properly address them. Moreover, classroom…

  9. Mapping virtual addresses to different physical addresses for value disambiguation for thread memory access requests

    DOEpatents

    Gala, Alan; Ohmacht, Martin

    2014-09-02

    A multiprocessor system includes nodes. Each node includes a data path that includes a core, a TLB, and a first level cache implementing disambiguation. The system also includes at least one second level cache and a main memory. For thread memory access requests, the core uses an address associated with an instruction format of the core. The first level cache uses an address format related to the size of the main memory plus an offset corresponding to hardware thread meta data. The second level cache uses a physical main memory address plus software thread meta data to store the memory access request. The second level cache accesses the main memory using the physical address with neither the offset nor the thread meta data after resolving speculation. In short, this system includes mapping of a virtual address to a different physical addresses for value disambiguation for different threads.

  10. Network problem threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gejji, Raghvendra, R.

    1992-01-01

    Network transmission errors such as collisions, CRC errors, misalignment, etc. are statistical in nature. Although errors can vary randomly, a high level of errors does indicate specific network problems, e.g. equipment failure. In this project, we have studied the random nature of collisions theoretically as well as by gathering statistics, and established a numerical threshold above which a network problem is indicated with high probability.

  11. Partnerships to Address Obesity Disparities in Hawai`i: The PILI `Ohana Project

    PubMed Central

    Nacapoy, Andrea H.; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe`aimoku; West, Margaret R.; Dillard, Adrienne Y.; Leake, Anne; Kekauoha, B. Puni; Palakiko, Donna-Marie; Siu, Andrea; Mosier, Sean W.; Mau, Marjorie K.

    2008-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an approach to scientific research that is gaining broader application to address persistent problems in health care disparities and other hypothesis-driven research. However, information on how to form CBPR community-academic partnerships and how to best involve community partners in scientific research is not well-defined. The purpose of this paper is to share the experience of the Partnership for Improving Lifestyle Interventions (PILI) `Ohana Project in forming a co-equal CBPR community-academic partnership that involved 5 different community partners in a scientific research study to address obesity disparities in Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Peoples (i.e., Samoans, Chuukese, and Filipinos). Specifically, the paper discusses 1) the formation of our community-academic partnership including identification of the research topic; 2) the development of the CBPR infrastructure to foster a sustainable co-equal research environment; and 3) the collaboration in designing a community-based and community-led intervention. The paper concludes with a brief summary of the authors' thoughts about CBPR partnerships from both the academic and community perspectives. PMID:18853898

  12. An Integrated Approach to Addressing Addiction and Depression in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Arri; Kushner, Howard; McLeod, Mark; Queen, Edward; Gordon, Jonathan; Ford, John L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present an integrated, interdisciplinary approach to address the problem of increasing student mental health issues on college campuses. The model uses addiction and depression as lenses into the problem and links residence life and academic and community internship experiences. The project has a positive impact on student attitudes…

  13. Teaching Water: Connecting across Disciplines and into Daily Life to Address Complex Societal Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Arri; Hall, Anne; Lee, Tong Soon; Zupko, Jack

    2009-01-01

    A central problem in higher education is how to best develop in students interdisciplinary thinking and application skills necessary to work and engage effectively in the twenty-first century. Traditional university structures make addressing this problem especially challenging. Using as a model courses with diverse perspectives on water taught by…

  14. [Reflections on the limits of specific treatments in thoracic oncology].

    PubMed

    Dansin, E; Lauridant, G; Reich, M; Villet, S; Fournel, P

    2015-02-01

    The modest impact of specific treatments is a major problem in oncology and particularly for metastatic lung cancer patients. Therapeutic progress achieved by some targeted therapies is, in fact, only relevant for a small proportion of patients. The vast majority of people with this condition are rapidly confronted by the limits of specific therapies and management is or becomes entirely palliative. This article addresses therapeutic limitations in the management of metastatic lung cancer, as well as legislative aspects and guidelines for practitioners when discussing these issues with patients, together with a discussion of the psychological consequences for patients. PMID:25765121

  15. Problem Solving in the General Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troutman, Andria Price; Lichtenberg, Betty Plunkett

    1974-01-01

    Five steps common to different problem solving models are listed. Next, seven specific abilities related to solving problems are discussed and examples given. Sample activities, appropriate to help in developing these specific abilities, are suggested. (LS)

  16. Intent Specifications: An Approach to Building Human-Centered Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines and proposes an approach to writing software specifications, based on research in systems theory, cognitive psychology, and human-machine interaction. The goal is to provide specifications that support human problem solving and the tasks that humans must perform in software development and evolution. A type of specification, called intent specifications, is constructed upon this underlying foundation.

  17. Urination Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... back or groin? Yes You may have a KIDNEY STONE or another serious problem. EMERGENCY See your doctor ... the bladder, called INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS, or from a KIDNEY STONE stuck in the bladder, or a chemical in ...

  18. Kidney Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & Information The kidneys are two ... the production of red blood cells. What are Kidney Diseases? For about one-third of older people, ...

  19. Hearing Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... This flow chart will help direct you if hearing loss is a problem for you or a family ... may damage the inner ear. This kind of hearing loss is called OCCUPATIONAL. Prevent occupational hearing loss by ...

  20. Sleep Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... PDF 474KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...