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Sample records for address student difficulties

  1. Identifying and Addressing Student Difficulties and Misconceptions: Examples from Physics and from Materials Science and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblatt, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Here I present my work identifying and addressing student difficulties with several materials science and physics topics. In the first part of this thesis, I present my work identifying student difficulties and misconceptions about the directional relationships between net force, velocity, and acceleration in one dimension. This is accomplished…

  2. Identifying and Addressing Student Difficulties with the Millikan Oil Drop Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The Millikan oil drop experiment has been characterized as one of the "most beautiful" physics experiments of all time and, certainly, as one of the most frustrating of all the exercises in the undergraduate physics laboratory. A literature review reveals that work done on addressing student difficulties in performing the oil drop experiment has,…

  3. Identifying and Addressing Student Difficulties with the Millikan Oil Drop Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klassen, Stephen

    2009-05-01

    The Millikan oil drop experiment has been characterized as one of the ‘most beautiful’ physics experiments of all time and, certainly, as one of the most frustrating of all the exercises in the undergraduate physics laboratory. A literature review reveals that work done on addressing student difficulties in performing the oil drop experiment has, to date, not achieved a significant measure of success. The historical background of the oil drop experiment is well established in the literature from the perspective of historians of science, but not so from the perspective of teachers and students of science. A summary of historical details surrounding the original experiment suitable for use in revising the instructional approach is presented. Both Millikan and his graduate student, Fletcher, are featured with the view to emphasizing details that humanize the protagonists and that are likely to raise student interest. The issue of the necessary reliance on presuppositions in doing speculative research is raised, both from the historical account and from the insights of university physics students who heard the historical account and performed the experiment. Difficulties current students have in performing the experiment are discussed from the perspective of Hodson (Stud Sci Educ 22:85-142, 1993) framework and the students’ own observations. Last, further historical materials are outlined that may be used to encourage student insight into the fundamental nature of electricity. It is proposed that these aspects are essential as a basis for identifying and addressing student difficulties with the Millikan oil drop experiment.

  4. Using Research to Identify and Address Student Difficulties with Galilean and Special Relativity*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vokos, Stamatis

    1998-04-01

    The Physics Education Group at the University of Washington has been engaged in an ongoing project in which research is used as a guide for the development of curriculum on Galilean and special relativity. Results from the analysis of student interviews, pretests and examinations form the basis for the design of instructional materials to supplement the lecture and textbook of a standard introductory course and an undergraduate course on relativity. Examples of specific student difficulties and instructional strategies to address them will be presented. * This work has been funded in part by NSF grants DUE 9354501 and 9727648, which include support from other Divisions of EHR and the Physics Division of MPS.

  5. Reaching the Mountaintop: Addressing the Common Core Standards in Mathematics for Students with Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sarah R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Doug

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards provide teachers with a framework of necessary mathematics skills across grades K-12, which vary considerably from previous mathematics standards. In this article, we discuss concerns about the implications of the Common Core for students with mathematics difficulties (MD), given that students with MD, by…

  6. Workshop on Friction: Understanding and Addressing Students' Difficulties in Learning Science Through a Hermeneutical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Sangwoo; Lee, Gyoungho; Kalman, Calvin S.

    2013-06-01

    Hermeneutics is useful in science and science education by emphasizing the process of understanding. The purpose of this study was to construct a workshop based upon hermeneutical principles and to interpret students' learning in the workshop through a hermeneutical perspective. When considering the history of Newtonian mechanics, it could be considered that there are two methods of approaching Newtonian mechanics. One method is called the `prediction approach', and the other is called the `explanation approach'. The `prediction approach' refers to the application of the principles of Newtonian mechanics. We commonly use the prediction approach because its logical process is natural to us. However, its use is correct only when a force, such as gravitation, is exactly known. On the other hand, the `explanation approach' could be used when the nature of a force is not exactly known. In the workshop, students read a short text offering contradicting ideas about whether to analyze a friction situation using the explanation approach or the prediction approach. Twenty-two college students taking an upper-level mechanics course wrote their ideas about the text. The participants then discussed their ideas within six groups, each composed of three or four students. Through the group discussion, students were able to clarify their preconceptions about friction, and they responded to the group discussion positively. Students started to think about their learning from a holistic perspective. As students thought and discussed the friction problems in the manner of hermeneutical circles, they moved toward a better understanding of friction.

  7. Workshop on Friction: Understanding and Addressing Students' Difficulties in Learning Science through a Hermeneutical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Sangwoo; Lee, Gyoungho; Kalman, Calvin S.

    2013-01-01

    Hermeneutics is useful in science and science education by emphasizing the process of understanding. The purpose of this study was to construct a workshop based upon hermeneutical principles and to interpret students' learning in the workshop through a hermeneutical perspective. When considering the history of Newtonian mechanics, it could be…

  8. Addressing Students' Difficulties with Faraday's Law: A Guided Problem Solving Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuza, Kristina; Almudí, José-Manuel; Leniz, Ane; Guisasola, Jenaro

    2014-01-01

    In traditional teaching, the fundamental concepts of electromagnetic induction are usually quickly analyzed, spending most of the time solving problems in a more or less rote manner. However, physics education research has shown that the fundamental concepts of the electromagnetic induction theory are barely understood by students. This article…

  9. Research as a guide for curriculum development: An example from introductory spectroscopy. II. Addressing student difficulties with atomic emission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanjek, L.; Shaffer, P. S.; McDermott, L. C.; Planinic, M.; Veza, D.

    2015-02-01

    This is the second of two closely related articles (Paper I and Paper II) that together illustrate how research in physics education has helped guide the design of instruction that has proved effective in improving student understanding of atomic spectroscopy. Most of the more than 1000 students who participated in this four-year investigation were science majors enrolled in the introductory calculus-based physics course at the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle, WA, USA. The others included graduate and undergraduate teaching assistants at UW and physics majors in introductory and advanced physics courses at the University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. About half of the latter group were preservice high school physics teachers. Paper I describes how several conceptual and reasoning difficulties were identified among university students as they tried to relate a discrete line spectrum to the energy levels of atoms in a light source. This second article (Paper II) illustrates how findings from this research informed the development of a tutorial that led to improvement in student understanding of atomic emission spectra.

  10. Genetics at school level: addressing the difficulties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Yu-Chien; Reid, Norman

    2012-11-01

    Background : A wide range of studies has offered suggestions why genetics is difficult and some of their key findings are summarised. Underpinning all of this is the way the brain works when handling information. The limitations of working memory capacity offer an interpretation of these difficulties Purpose : The aim is to confirm that working memory capacity (and the related concept of field dependency) controls performance in understanding genetics and whether it is possible to improve performance by changing the teaching approach to mininise overload. Programme description : The curriculum in Taiwan in genetics is outlined briefly. A wide range of measurements were made. Using a diagnostic test of understanding of underpinning ideas, the key areas of weakness were detected before the pupils started the course. Sample : Stage 1: 141 students in Taiwan, aged 13, boys and girls, drawn from a cross-section of Taiwanese pupils at this age, following their first course in genetics. Stage 2: 361 students, drawn from a cross-section of Taiwanese pupils at the same age, and divided into two groups (experimental-control) which both encompass the same ability range. Design and methods : Stage 1: test of pre-knowledge using structural communication grids, applied before the course commenced; working memory capacity using the figural intersection test; extent of field dependency using the group embedded figure test; understanding of genetics was measured at end of course; school test data collated. Stage 2: following a completely revised approach, performance in genetics was measured using traditional school tests and a word association test. Student perspectives were measured. Results : The test of pre-knowledge revealed key areas of difficulty. In addition, it was found that working memory capacity and extent of field dependency both correlated extremely highly with all measures of performance. Given that it has been established that working memory capacity controls

  11. Difficulties that Students Face with Two-Dimensional Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihas, P.; Gemousakakis, T.

    2007-01-01

    Some difficulties that students face with two-dimensional motion are addressed. The difficulties addressed are the vectorial representation of velocity, acceleration and force, the force-energy theorem and the understanding of the radius of curvature.

  12. Genetics at School Level: Addressing the Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Yu-Chien; Reid, Norman

    2012-01-01

    Background: A wide range of studies has offered suggestions why genetics is difficult and some of their key findings are summarised. Underpinning all of this is the way the brain works when handling information. The limitations of working memory capacity offer an interpretation of these difficulties. Purpose: The aim is to confirm that working…

  13. Supporting New Students from Vocational Education and Training: Finding a Reusable Solution to Address Recurring Learning Difficulties in e-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Dai Fei; Catterall, Janice; Davis, Janelle

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a project that investigated the first year, online experiences of vocational education and training (VET) pathway students studying at university. It was found that, although some students embraced online learning, more than twenty percent of new VET students suffered from high levels of anxiety and frustration when learning…

  14. Addressing the difficulty of changing fields in geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civilini, F.; Savage, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    Geophysics is a wonderfully diverse field of study, encompassing a variety of disciplines greatly different from one other. Even within the same discipline, various branches of study can have drastically different vocabulary and methodologies. The difficulty of breaking this "jargon" barrier is also an important reminder for scientists of how critical it is to clearly and concisely convey information. This presentation will focus on strategies that students can focus on to ease a transition between fields in geophysics. I believe that a student changing disciplines should proceed in the following steps: [1] Do a cursory literature review to find a review paper of the desired topic and work backwards through the details until a level of understanding or recognition is reached, [2] Obtain a clear physical understanding of the data and methods of the proposed study, and [3] Establish a support network through the research group or elsewhere which will recognize the areas in which the student is behind and offer remedies in a supportive and productive manner. These strategies are based on my own personal experience changing from music to geophysics in my undergrad and working on projects spanning various subdisciplines of geophysics during my Masters and PhD. It is worthwhile for research groups to spend the time to mentor students switching from other disciplines because those students will in time be able to observe the research in a different way than their peers, and easily adapt to changes of direction within the research.

  15. Addressing Individual Difficulties in Reading: Issues Relating to Reading Recovery and Pause, Prompt, Praise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wearmouth, Janice

    2004-01-01

    Recently the DfES has issued guidance on ways to address the needs of students who experience difficulties in literacy through Wave Three provision in the National Literacy Strategy (DfES, 2002). This guidance raises the issue of what kind of programmes might be initiated in mainstream schools that will improve what is available generally for…

  16. Addressing Student Life Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolvitz, Marcia, Ed.

    These two conference papers from the Biennial Conference on Postsecondary Education for Persons who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing focus on campus life issues for individuals with deafness or hard of hearing. The first paper, "A Customized Residence Hall Experience for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing" (Nancy Kasinski and others), describes…

  17. Student Difficulties with Linearity and Linear Functions and Teachers' Understanding of Student Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postelnicu, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    The focus of the study was to identify secondary school students' difficulties with aspects of linearity and linear functions, and to assess their teachers' understanding of the nature of the difficulties experienced by their students. A cross-sectional study with 1561 Grades 8-10 students enrolled in mathematics courses from Pre-Algebra to…

  18. Students' Difficulties with Integration in Electricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the common difficulties that students in introductory physics experience when solving problems involving integration in the context of electricity. We conducted teaching-learning interviews with 15 students in a second-semester calculus-based introductory physics course on several problems involving integration. We found…

  19. Students' Difficulties with Vector Calculus in Electrodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; De Cock, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven…

  20. Supporting Students with Literacy Difficulties: A Responsive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Ted; Wearmouth, Janice; Berryman, Mere

    2005-01-01

    In many countries, school populations are becoming increasingly socially and culturally diverse, and delivering effective literacy programmes is becoming more challenging and complex. This book shows schools how to address difficulties with literacy learning experienced by students of diverse backgrounds, by employing strategies that respond to…

  1. Selecting Students at Risk of Academic Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Kelli D.; Smolkowski, Keith

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to translate for practitioners the principles and methods for evaluating screening measures in education, including benchmark goals and cut points, from our technical manuscript "Evaluation of Diagnostic Systems: The Selection of Students at Risk of Academic Difficulties" (this issue). We offer a brief description of…

  2. Students' difficulties with vector calculus in electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; De Cock, Mieke

    2015-12-01

    Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven encounter with the divergence and curl of a vector field in mathematical and physical contexts. We have found that they are quite skilled at doing calculations, but struggle with interpreting graphical representations of vector fields and applying vector calculus to physical situations. We have found strong indications that traditional instruction is not sufficient for our students to fully understand the meaning and power of Maxwell's equations in electrodynamics.

  3. Part I. Development of a concept inventory addressing students' beliefs and reasoning difficulties regarding the greenhouse effect, Part II. Distribution of chlorine measured by the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, John Michael

    This work presents two research efforts, one involving planetary science education research and a second involving the surface composition of Mars. In the former, student beliefs and reasoning difficulties associated with the greenhouse effect were elicited through student interviews and written survey responses from >900 US undergraduate non-science majors. This guided the development of the Greenhouse Effect Concept Inventory (GECI), an educational research tool designed to assess pre- and post-instruction conceptual understanding of the greenhouse effect. Three versions of this multiple-choice instrument were administered to >2,500 undergraduates as part of the development and validation process. In contrast to previous research efforts regarding causes, consequences, and solutions to the enhanced greenhouse effect, the GECI focuses primarily on the physics of energy flow through Earth's atmosphere. The GECI is offered to the science education community as a research tool for assessing instructional strategies on this topic. It was confirmed that the study population subscribes to several previously identified beliefs. These include correct understandings that carbon dioxide is an important greenhouse gas and the greenhouse effect increases planetary surface temperatures. Students also commonly associate the greenhouse effect with increased penetration of sunlight into and trapping of solar energy in the atmosphere. Students intermix concepts associated with the greenhouse effect, global warming, and ozone depletion. Reinforcing the latter concept, a majority believe that the Sun radiates most of its energy as ultraviolet light. Students also describe inaccurate and incomplete trapping models, which include permanent trapping, trapping through reflection, and trapping of gases and pollution. Another reasoning difficulty involves the idea that Earth's surface radiates energy primarily during the nighttime. The second research effort describes the distribution of

  4. Laptops Meet Schools, One-One Draw: M-Learning for Secondary Students with Literacy Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Paul F.; Amberson, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Mobile technology-enhanced literacy initiatives have become a focus of efforts to support learning for students with literacy difficulties. The "Laptops Initiative for Post-Primary Students with Dyslexia or other Reading/Writing Difficulties" offers insights into and addresses questions about ICT policy making regarding m-learning technologies for…

  5. Reasons Why Students Have Difficulties with Mathematical Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Lane

    2007-01-01

    Many difficulties surrounding mathematical induction have been described by researchers. In this paper, I describe several underlying causes for these difficulties. In particular, the symbolic nature of induction is discussed, along with student cognitive levels, validation abilities, and proof schemes.

  6. Does Early Algebraic Reasoning Differ as a Function of Students' Difficulty with Calculations versus Word Problems?

    PubMed

    Powell, Sarah R; Fuchs, Lynn S

    2014-08-01

    According to national mathematics standards, algebra instruction should begin at kindergarten and continue through elementary school. Most often, teachers address algebra in the elementary grades with problems related to solving equations or understanding functions. With 789 2(nd)- grade students, we administered (a) measures of calculations and word problems in the fall and (b) an assessment of pre-algebraic reasoning, with items that assessed solving equations and functions, in the spring. Based on the calculation and word-problem measures, we placed 148 students into 1 of 4 difficulty status categories: typically performing, calculation difficulty, word-problem difficulty, or difficulty with calculations and word problems. Analyses of variance were conducted on the 148 students; path analytic mediation analyses were conducted on the larger sample of 789 students. Across analyses, results corroborated the finding that word-problem difficulty is more strongly associated with difficulty with pre-algebraic reasoning. As an indicator of later algebra difficulty, word-problem difficulty may be a more useful predictor than calculation difficulty, and students with word-problem difficulty may require a different level of algebraic reasoning intervention than students with calculation difficulty. PMID:25309044

  7. Defining Grammatical Difficulty: A Student Teacher Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graus, Johan; Coppen, Peter-Arno

    2015-01-01

    Numerous second language acquisition (SLA) researchers have tried to define grammatical difficulty in second and foreign language acquisition--often as part of an attempt to relate the efficacy of different types of instruction to the degree of difficulty of grammatical structures. The resulting proliferation of definitions and the lack of a…

  8. Student Perception of Topic Difficulty: Lecture Capture in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCunn, Patrick; Newton, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    Perception of topic difficulty is a likely predictor of lecture capture video use, as student perception of difficulty has been shown to affect a variety of outcomes in academic settings. This study measured the relationship between perceived difficulty and the use of lecture capture technology in a second year biochemistry course while…

  9. Improving Students' Understanding of Quantum Measurement. I. Investigation of Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha

    2012-01-01

    We describe the difficulties that advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with quantum measurement within the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics. We explore the possible origins of these difficulties by analyzing student responses to questions from both surveys and interviews. Results from this research are applied to develop…

  10. Response to Intervention with Secondary School Students with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2012-01-01

    The authors summarize evidence from a multiyear study with secondary students with reading difficulties on (a) the potential efficacy of primary-level (Tier 1), secondary-level (Tier 2), and tertiary-level (Tier 3) interventions in remediating reading difficulties with middle school students, (b) the likelihood of resolving reading disabilities…

  11. Addressing Student Debt in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, David; Johnston, Tim; Lytle, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Student debt is a national concern. The authors address debt in the classroom to enhance students' understanding of the consequences of debt and the need for caution when financing their education. However, student feedback indicates this understanding has a delayed effect on borrowing behavior and underscores the importance of making difficult…

  12. Upper-Division Students' Difficulties with Ampere's Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Colin S.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents and interprets some conceptual difficulties junior-level physics students experience with Ampere's law. We present both quantitative data, based on students' written responses to conceptual questions, and qualitative data, based on interviews of students solving Ampere's law problems. We find that some students struggle to…

  13. Difficulties in the Recruitment of Black Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnes, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    Attempts to recruit black students for a rehabilitation-education program are described. Following a discussion of the problems encountered, the author proposes guidelines for the recruitment and retention of black students. (Author)

  14. Building technology services that address student needs.

    PubMed

    Le Ber, Jeanne M; Lombardo, Nancy T; Wimmer, Erin

    2015-01-01

    A 16-question technology use survey was conducted to assess incoming health sciences students' knowledge of and interest in current technologies, and to identify student device and tool preferences. Survey questions were developed by colleagues at a peer institution and then edited to match this library's student population. Two years of student responses have been compiled, compared, and reviewed as a means for informing library decisions related to technology and resource purchases. Instruction and event programming have been revised to meet student preferences. Based on the number of students using Apple products, librarians are addressing the need to become more proficient with this platform. PMID:25611437

  15. Improving Algebra Preparation: Implications from Research on Student Misconceptions and Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welder, Rachael M.

    2012-01-01

    Through historical and contemporary research, educators have identified widespread misconceptions and difficulties faced by students in learning algebra. Many of these universal issues stem from content addressed long before students take their first algebra course. Yet elementary and middle school teachers may not understand how the subtleties of…

  16. [Sleep difficulties and psychological symptoms in medicine students in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Tafoya, Silvia A; Jurado, María M; Yépez, Norma J; Fouilloux, Mariana; Lara, María C

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe sleep difficulties in first year medical students associated with psychopathological symptoms. A cross-sectional study in 572 Medicine students, who were assessed by the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90), was performed. A 3.5% of students reported having a hard time sleeping, 6.3% had difficulty staying asleep and 11.4% waking up very early. Sleep difficulties were significantly associated with all psychopathological symptoms. The best predictors of sleep difficulties were anxiety, hostility and interpersonal sensitivity. In conclusion, the symptoms associated with stress, anger, worry, cognitive hyperarousal and hypervigilance are the best predictors for sleep difficulties in this population. PMID:23732201

  17. Students' Difficulties With Multiple Representations in Introductory Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Research in physics education indicates that the use of multiple representations in teaching and learning helps students become better problem-solvers. We report on a study to investigate students' difficulties in solving mechanics problems presented in multiple representations. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a…

  18. Linear Algebra Revisited: An Attempt to Understand Students' Conceptual Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Sandra; Henderson, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    This article looks at some of the conceptual difficulties that students have in a linear algebra course. An overview of previous research in this area is given, and the various theories that have been espoused regarding the reasons that students find linear algebra so difficult are discussed. Student responses to two questions testing the ability…

  19. Secondary 2 Students' Difficulties in Solving Non-Routine Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Kai Kow Joseph

    2009-01-01

    As part of a study on mathematical problem solving of secondary 2 (13- to 14-years old) students in Singapore, 56 Secondary two students from ten secondary schools participated in this study. The purpose of this paper is to explore difficulties faced by 56 Secondary 2 students when solving problems. These interviews were analysed using the…

  20. Multimedia Cai Program for Students with Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, You-Jin; Bryant, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of "Math Explorer" at enhancing the word problem-solving skills of students with mathematics difficulties (MD). The study, which had a multiple-probe-across-subjects design, was conducted over 18 weeks. Four students with MD in Grades 2 and 3 participated. All students were able to use the four-step…

  1. Student Difficulties in Mathematizing Word Problems in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul

    2016-01-01

    To investigate student difficulties in solving word problems in algebra, we carried out a teaching experiment involving 51 Indonesian students (12/13 year-old) who used a digital mathematics environment. The findings were backed up by an interview study, in which eighteen students (13/14 year-old) were involved. The perspective of mathematization,…

  2. Student Difficulties in Learning Quantum Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, I. D.; Crawford, K.; Fletcher, P. R.

    1998-01-01

    Reports on a preliminary project that uses a phenomenographic approach to explore the ways in which a small number of fundamental ideas are conceptualized by students who are judged to have mastered quantum mechanics material. (DDR)

  3. Response to intervention with secondary school students with reading difficulties.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Sharon; Fletcher, Jack M

    2012-01-01

    The authors summarize evidence from a multiyear study with secondary students with reading difficulties on (a) the potential efficacy of primary-level (Tier 1), secondary-level (Tier 2), and tertiary-level (Tier 3) interventions in remediating reading difficulties with middle school students, (b) the likelihood of resolving reading disabilities with older students with intractable reading disabilities, (c) the reliability, validity, and use of screening and progress monitoring measures with middle school students, and (d) the implications of implementing response to intervention (RTI) practices at the middle school level. The authors provide guidance about prevailing questions about remediating reading difficulties with secondary students and discuss future directions for research using RTI frameworks for students at the secondary level. PMID:22491811

  4. Response to Intervention With Secondary School Students With Reading Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Sharon; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2012-01-01

    The authors summarize evidence from a multiyear study with secondary students with reading difficulties on (a) the potential efficacy of primary-level (Tier 1), secondary-level (Tier 2), and tertiary-level (Tier 3) interventions in remediating reading difficulties with middle school students, (b) the likelihood of resolving reading disabilities with older students with intractable reading disabilities, (c) the reliability, validity, and use of screening and progress monitoring measures with middle school students, and (d) the implications of implementing response to intervention (RTI) practices at the middle school level. The authors provide guidance about prevailing questions about remediating reading difficulties with secondary students and discuss future directions for research using RTI frameworks for students at the secondary level. PMID:22491811

  5. Response to Intervention with Older Students with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Fletcher, Jack M.; Francis, David J.; Denton, Carolyn A.; Wanzek, Jeanne; Wexler, Jade; Cirino, Paul T.; Barth, Amy E.; Romain, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Addressing the literacy needs of secondary school students involves efforts to raise the achievement levels of all students and to address specifically the needs of struggling readers. One approach to this problem is to consider the application of a Response to Intervention (RTI) model with older students. We describe an approach to enhanced…

  6. Review of student difficulties in upper-level quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Chandralekha; Marshman, Emily

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Learning advanced physics, in general, is challenging not only due to the increased mathematical sophistication but also because one must continue to build on all of the prior knowledge acquired at the introductory and intermediate levels. In addition, learning quantum mechanics can be especially challenging because the paradigms of classical mechanics and quantum mechanics are very different. Here, we review research on student reasoning difficulties in learning upper-level quantum mechanics and research on students' problem-solving and metacognitive skills in these courses. Some of these studies were multiuniversity investigations. The investigations suggest that there is large diversity in student performance in upper-level quantum mechanics regardless of the university, textbook, or instructor, and many students in these courses have not acquired a functional understanding of the fundamental concepts. The nature of reasoning difficulties in learning quantum mechanics is analogous to reasoning difficulties found via research in introductory physics courses. The reasoning difficulties were often due to overgeneralizations of concepts learned in one context to another context where they are not directly applicable. Reasoning difficulties in distinguishing between closely related concepts and in making sense of the formalism of quantum mechanics were common. We conclude with a brief summary of the research-based approaches that take advantage of research on student difficulties in order to improve teaching and learning of quantum mechanics.

  7. Upper-Division Student Difficulties with Separation of Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Separation of variables can be a powerful technique for solving many of the partial differential equations that arise in physics contexts. Upper-division physics students encounter this technique in multiple topical areas including electrostatics and quantum mechanics. To better understand the difficulties students encounter when utilizing the…

  8. Student Difficulties in Analyzing Thin-Film Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburgh, Ronald; Goodale, Douglass

    2009-01-01

    A question we posed in a recent final examination has uncovered a fundamental difficulty for students in understanding destructive interference. The problem stated that glass of index n[subscript 3] was coated with a thin film of a substance with index n[subscript 2]. The question then asked the student to calculate (a) the minimum coating…

  9. Blended Learning for College Students with English Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yu-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Most previous studies in blended learning simply involved on-site and online instruction without considering students' control of their own learning in these two different modalities. The purpose of this study was to investigate how college students with English reading difficulties integrate their conceptions of and approaches to blended learning…

  10. Student Difficulties in Learning Density: A Distributed Cognition Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Lihua; Clarke, David

    2012-01-01

    Density has been reported as one of the most difficult concepts for secondary school students (e.g. Smith et al. 1997). Discussion about the difficulties of learning this concept has been largely focused on the complexity of the concept itself or student misconceptions. Few, if any, have investigated how the concept of density was constituted in…

  11. Students with Reading Difficulties/Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Swedish Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Eva Heimdahl; Fischbein, Siv; Roll-Pettersson, Lise

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal development of students having difficulties with reading and their decoding ability in Swedish compulsory school. Another aim was to relate this to the experiences of educational activities expressed by students and parents. The decoding ability was assessed by a word chain test given at…

  12. Identifying and Teaching Accounting Students with Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Ellen D.; Alexander, Paul

    1985-01-01

    Suggests ways that teachers can identify students with mild learning problems, determine the assistance the students require, and alter their own teaching style to accommodate the students' learning needs. Recommends instructional techniques to address poor organizational skills, poor writing skills, long- or short-term memory problems, and…

  13. Teaching HE Students with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, M. J.; Baskett, M.; Duffy, S.; Wren, C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of the types of adjustments appropriate to university teaching practices for students with emotional and behavioural difficulties in the UK higher education (HE) sector. Design/methodology/approach: A case study in a UK university was undertaken over a two-year period. Findings: A variety…

  14. Students' Conceptual Difficulties in Quantum Mechanics: Potential Well Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozcan, Ozgur; Didis, Nilufer; Tasar, Mehmet Fatih

    2009-01-01

    In this study, students' conceptual difficulties about some basic concepts in quantum mechanics like one-dimensional potential well problems and probability density of tunneling particles were identified. For this aim, a multiple choice instrument named Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Test has been developed by one of the researchers of this study…

  15. Screening for Mathematics Difficulties in K-3 Students. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersten, Russell; Clarke, Benjamin S.; Haymond, Kelly; Jordan, Nancy C.

    2011-01-01

    Since 2007, when this technical report was originally issued, the assessment field has made considerable progress in developing valid and reliable screening measures for early mathematics difficulties. This update includes new research published since 2007. It focuses on valid and reliable screening measures for students in kindergarten and first…

  16. Gifted Students' Characteristics, Persistence, and Difficulties in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conejeros-Solar, M. Leonor; Gómez-Arízaga, María P.

    2015-01-01

    This study is about persistence and perceived difficulties of gifted students in college explored through sociodemographic and academic characteristics. Two hundred and nine nongifted and 45 gifted participated in the study. A persistence scale along with sociodemographic variables were used to compare both groups. The groups shared many…

  17. Response to Intervention with Older Students with Reading Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Sharon; Fletcher, Jack M; Francis, David J; Denton, Carolyn A; Wanzek, Jeanne; Wexler, Jade; Cirino, Paul T; Barth, Amy E; Romain, Melissa A

    2008-01-01

    Addressing the literacy needs of secondary school students involves efforts to raise the achievement levels of all students and to address specifically the needs of struggling readers. One approach to this problem is to consider the application of a Response to Intervention (RTI) model with older students. We describe an approach to enhanced literacy instruction for middle school students that includes the essential components of any RTI model: universal screening, progress monitoring, and multi-tiered instructional service delivery. We use screening and progress-monitoring tools specifically tied to state accountability tests and a multi-tiered instructional framework that addresses the literacy needs of all middle school students, including struggling readers. Presently a large-scale, multi-site randomized trial is under way to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of this RTI model for middle school students. PMID:19129920

  18. Upper-division student difficulties with the Dirac delta function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2015-06-01

    The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool that appears repeatedly in the undergraduate physics curriculum in multiple topical areas including electrostatics, and quantum mechanics. While Dirac delta functions are often introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students still struggle to manipulate and interpret them. To characterize student difficulties with the delta function at the upper-division level, we examined students' responses to traditional exam questions and a standardized conceptual assessment, and conducted think-aloud interviews. Our analysis was guided by an analytical framework that focuses on how students activate, construct, execute, and reflect on the Dirac delta function in the context of problem solving in physics. Here, we focus on student difficulties using the delta function to express charge distributions in the context of junior-level electrostatics. Common challenges included invoking the delta function spontaneously, translating a description of a charge distribution into a mathematical expression using delta functions, integrating 3D or non-Cartesian delta function expressions, and recognizing that the delta function can have units. We also briefly discuss implications of these difficulties for instruction.

  19. Career Decision-Making Difficulties among High School Students: From the Perception of Career Counselors and High School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kellie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this comparative research study was to determine the perceptions of career counselors and principals on the types of career decision-making difficulties experienced by high school students and the extent to which a large-scale high school technology-based career development program addresses these difficulties, using the…

  20. Upper-division student difficulties with separation of variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2015-12-01

    Separation of variables can be a powerful technique for solving many of the partial differential equations that arise in physics contexts. Upper-division physics students encounter this technique in multiple topical areas including electrostatics and quantum mechanics. To better understand the difficulties students encounter when utilizing the separation of variables technique, we examined students' responses to midterm exam questions and a standardized conceptual assessment and conducted think-aloud, problem-solving interviews. Our analysis was guided by an analytical framework that focuses on how students activate, construct, execute, and reflect on the separation of variables technique when solving physics problems. Here we focus on student difficulties with separation of variables as a technique to solve Laplace's equation in both Cartesian and spherical coordinates in the context of junior-level electrostatics. Challenges include recognizing when separation of variables is the appropriate tool, recalling or justifying the separated form of the potential and the need for the infinite sum, identifying implicit boundary conditions, and spontaneously reflecting on their solutions. Moreover, the type and frequency of errors was often different for separation of variables problems in Cartesian and spherical geometries. We also briefly discuss implication of these findings for instruction.

  1. Exploring Student Difficulties with Multiplicity and Probability in Statistical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountcastle, Donald; Thompson, John; Smith, Trevor

    2010-03-01

    We continue our research program on the teaching and learning of concepts in upper-division thermal physics at the University of Maine. Typical statistical physics textbooks introduce entropy (S) and multiplicity (w) [S = k ln(w)] with binary events such as flipping coins N times. Inherent confusion with probability and statistics, macrostates and microstates, and their varying dependence on N leads to student conceptual difficulties that persist after textbook-centered activities. We developed and implemented a guided-inquiry tutorial on the binomial distribution with student use of computational software to produce calculations of multiplicities, outcome probabilities, and graphs of their distributions as functions of N. This allows convenient exploration of statistics over more than seven orders of magnitude in N. Comparing student answers to pre- and post-tutorial questions, we find some, but not all of the intended learning results are achieved.

  2. University Students with Reading Difficulties: Do Perceived Supports and Comorbid Difficulties Predict Well-being and GPA?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack-Cutler, Holly L.; Parrila, Rauno K.; Torppa, Minna

    2016-01-01

    We examined the impact of the number of comorbid difficulties, social support, and community support on life satisfaction and academic achievement among 120 university students or recent graduates with self-reported reading difficulties. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing perceived social support, perceived community support, the…

  3. Effects of Fact Retrieval Tutoring on Third-Grade Students with Math Difficulties with and without Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sarah R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Cirino, Paul T.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of fact retrieval tutoring as a function of math difficulty (MD) subtype, that is, whether students have MD alone (MD-only) or have concurrent difficulty with math and reading (MDRD). Third graders (n = 139) at two sites were randomly assigned, blocking by site and MD subtype, to four tutoring…

  4. Intervention for Co-Occurring Speech and Language Difficulties: Addressing the Relationship between the Two Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeff-Gabriel, Belinda; Chiat, Shula; Pring, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Although many children are referred with difficulties in both their speech and their language, the literature offers relatively little guidance on their therapy. Should clinicians treat these difficulties independently? Or should treatment depend on the potential impact of one domain on the other? This study aimed to investigate the relationship…

  5. Students without Voices: The Unheard Accounts of Secondary School Students with Social, Emotional and Behaviour Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cefai, Carmel; Cooper, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The student voice is growing rapidly in education, driving many educational initiatives and policies as well as research. The voice of students with social, emotional and behaviour difficulties, however, is one of the least heard, with relatively few studies that sought to capture the voice of these students in an authentic and emancipatory way.…

  6. Relating Difficulty in School Mathematics to Nature of Mathematics: Perception of High School Students from Kerala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Sarabi, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    This study relates factors in nature of Mathematics and its teaching learning to student difficulties for diverse mathematics tasks. Descriptive survey was done on a sample of 300 high school students in Kerala with a questionnaire on difficulties in learning. Student perception of difficulty on 26 types of tasks, under five heads that students…

  7. Assessing and Addressing Students' Scientific Literacy Needs in Physical Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell-Stone, E. A.; Myers, J. D.

    2005-12-01

    Exacting excellence equally from university students around the globe can be accomplished by providing all students with necessary background tools to achieve mastery of their courses, even if those tools are not part of normal content. As instructors we hope to see our students grasp the substance of our courses, make mental connections between course material and practical applications, and use this knowledge to make informed decisions as citizens. Yet many educators have found that students enter university-level introductory courses in mathematics, science and engineering without adequate academic preparation. As part of a FIPSE-funded project at the University of Wyoming, the instructors of the Physical Geology course have taken a new approach to tackling the problem of lack of scientific/mathematic skills in incoming students. Instead of assuming that students should already know or will learn these skills on their own, they assess students' needs and provide them the opportunity to master scientific literacies as they learn geologic content. In the introductory geology course, instructors identified two categories of literacies, or basic skills that are necessary for academic success and citizen participation. Fundamental literacies include performing simple quantitative calculations, making qualitative assessments, and reading and analyzing tables and graphs. Technical literacies are those specific to understanding geology, and comprise the ability to read maps, visualize changes through time, and conceptualize in three dimensions. Because these skills are most easily taught in lab, the in-house lab manual was rewritten to be both literacy- and content-based. Early labs include simple exercises addressing literacies in the context of geological science, and each subsequent lab repeats exposure to literacies, but at increasing levels of difficulty. Resources available to assist students with literacy mastery include individual instruction, a detailed

  8. Faculty Perceptions of Student Credibility Based on Email Addresses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Wiechowski, Linda S.; Scafe, Marla G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate faculty perceptions of student credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at an upper division business school in Michigan where all students have completed at least two years of college courses. The survey results show that a student's selection of an email address does influence the…

  9. Student Perceptions of Peer Credibility Based on Email Addresses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Scafe, Marla G.; Wiechowski, Linda S.; Maier, David J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate students' perceptions of their peer's credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at a community college in Michigan where all students were registered and actively taking at least one course. The survey results show that a student's selection of an email address does influence other…

  10. Utilizing a Web-Based Career Development Workshop to Address Career Decision-Making Difficulty among Community College Distance Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Johanna Michele

    2011-01-01

    Career decision making difficulty, as it relates to undecided college students and career indecision, has been a concern for counselors and academic advisors for decades (Gordon, 2006; Mau, 2004). Individuals struggling with career indecision often seek assistance via career counseling, self-help tools, and/or computer-assisted career guidance…

  11. Addressing the Needs of Diverse Distributed Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimoni, Rena; Barrington, Gail; Wilde, Russ; Henwood, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Two interrelated studies were undertaken to assist Alberta post-secondary institutions with meeting challenges associated with providing services to diverse distributed students that are of similar quality to services provided to traditional classroom students. The first study identified and assessed best practices in distributed learning; the…

  12. Task difficulty and aberrant behavior in severely handicapped students.

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, M; Gaylord-Ross, R

    1981-01-01

    The influence of task difficulty on aberrant behavior was investigated with three severely handicapped students. Noticeably higher rates of problem behavior occurred in demand compared to no-demand conditions. In addition, there were higher rates of problem behaviors on difficult versus easy tasks. Both these findings were validated with visual discrimination and perceptual motor tasks. An errorless learning procedure effectively minimized errors and aberrant behavior in visual discrimination tasks but not in perceptual motor tasks. It was conceptualized that aberrant behavior was maintained by negative reinforcement contingencies. Difficult tasks were aversive to the children, who emitted aberrant responses to escape or avoid such tasks. By contrast, conditions in which no demands were made, easy tasks, and, in visual discrimination learning, errorless tasks, were less aversive and resulted in little or no problem behavior. Implications for reducing maladaptive behaviors through curricular modifications are discussed and contrasted to more traditional consequence manipulation approaches. PMID:7328069

  13. Addressing the challenges of nursing student attrition.

    PubMed

    Harris, Robin C; Rosenberg, Lisa; Grace O'Rourke, Marilyn E

    2014-01-01

    With the passage of the Affordable Care Act and as the number of aging and diverse individuals in society increases, access to health care will expand and the need for more competent and diverse nursing graduates will increase. An adequate number of nurse graduates is imperative to meet societal demands; however, this is complicated by high nursing student attrition rates. This article examines the need for more nurses (including those from diverse backgrounds), current attrition rates among schools of nursing, at-risk student characteristics, and previous attempts to increase student success. Applying the evidence to practice, findings from a multipronged approach to increase student success within an associate degree nursing program located within a historically Black college and university in the midwestern United States are discussed. The program's successes and opportunities for improvement are examined, as well as the recommendations for other nursing programs facing issues with student attrition. PMID:24328250

  14. Remediating Number Combination and Word Problem Deficits among Students with Mathematics Difficulties: A Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Powell, Sarah R.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Cirino, Paul T.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Zumeta, Rebecca O.

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess the efficacy of remedial tutoring for 3rd graders with mathematics difficulty, to investigate whether tutoring is differentially efficacious depending on students' math difficulty status (mathematics difficulty alone vs. mathematics plus reading difficulty), to explore transfer from number combination (NC)…

  15. Addressing Students with Disabilities in School Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Karen Kow Yip; Beigi, Amir Biglar

    2011-01-01

    Inclusive education can help facilitate the inclusion of students with disabilities in mainstream schools. Inclusive education has proven to be a key benefit for disabled children as an end in itself and as a means to an end of greater social acceptance of difference and disability. However there needs to be greater awareness-raising measures at…

  16. Addressing Student Cynicism through Transformative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Fernanda

    2010-01-01

    This paper reflects on insights that emerged from the findings of a qualitative study conducted by the author in 2007 with third year management students from an Australian university on their perceptions in relation to business ethics. The findings revealed an attitude of cynicism with regard to the application of ethical principles beyond…

  17. Addressing the nutritional needs of university students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Delta Obesity Prevention Research Project seeks to identify and evaluate dietary and physical activity patterns in African American students to develop an educational intervention that is nutritionally adequate and culturally relevant for 18- to 24-year-old African-American university stude...

  18. Addressing Student Needs: Teaching on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubala, Tom

    1998-01-01

    Describes the experiences of a university professor who has been teaching graduate courses in Florida via the Internet. Topics include course preparation, including an initial face-to-face session; Netiquette for working on the Internet; the importance of technical staff; assignments and exams; and student evaluations. (LRW)

  19. Student Perceptions of Faculty Credibility Based on Email Addresses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Scafe, Marla G.; Wiechowski, Linda S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate students' perceptions of faculty credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at an upper division business school in Michigan where all students have completed at least two years of college courses. The survey results show that a faculty member's selection of an email address does…

  20. Intervention Provided to Linguistically Diverse Middle School Students with Severe Reading Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Denton, Carolyn A.; Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Bryan, Deanna

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a multicomponent reading intervention implemented with middle school students with severe reading difficulties, all of whom had received remedial and/or special education for several years with minimal response to intervention. Participants were 38 students in grades 6–8 who had severe deficits in word reading, reading fluency, and reading comprehension. Most were Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) with identified disabilities. Nearly all demonstrated severely limited oral vocabularies in English and, for ELLs, in both English and Spanish. Students were randomly assigned to receive the research intervention (n = 20) or typical instruction provided in their school’s remedial reading or special education classes (n = 18). Students in the treatment group received daily explicit and systematic small-group intervention for 40 minutes over 13 weeks, consisting of a modified version of a phonics-based remedial program augmented with English as a Second Language practices and instruction in vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension strategies. Results indicated that treatment students did not demonstrate significantly higher outcomes in word recognition, comprehension, or fluency than students who received the school’s typical instruction and that neither group demonstrated significant growth over the course of the study. Significant correlations were found between scores on teachers’ ratings of students’ social skills and problem behaviors and posttest decoding and spelling scores, and between English oral vocabulary scores and scores in word identification and comprehension. The researchers hypothesize that middle school students with the most severe reading difficulties, particularly those who are ELLs and those with limited oral vocabularies, may require intervention of considerably greater intensity than that provided in this study. Further research directly addressing features of effective remediation

  1. A Study of ELL Students' Writing Difficulties: A Call for Culturally, Linguistically, and Psychologically Responsive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Show Mei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the difficulties ELL students experience in their writing development from the perspective of twenty ELL students. Through the use of questionnaires and in depth interviews, this study attempted to explore the writing needs or difficulties of ELL students. The findings indicated that…

  2. Response to Specific Training for Students with Different Levels of Mathematical Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Re, Anna Maria; Pedron, Martina; Tressoldi, Patrizio Emanuele; Lucangeli, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of specific, individualized training for students with different levels of mathematical difficulties. Fifty-four students, with either severe or mild math difficulties, were assigned to individualized training or to a control condition. Ten students with severe math difficulties…

  3. Addressing the Developmental Issues of Lesbian and Gay College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marso, Joan L.

    This paper addresses the developmental stages and issues faced by lesbian and gay college students between the ages of 18 and 25. Over and above the developmental stages faced by all students, lesbian and gay students frequently struggle with their sexual identity and development and the range of problems and emotions associated with coming to…

  4. High School Students' Career-Related Decision-Making Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gati, Itamar; Saka, Noa

    2001-01-01

    Examines the construct of career-related decision-making difficulties among 1,843 Israeli adolescents. Three versions of the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ) were constructed to match three decision situations. The structures of the revised CDDQ were found similar to that proposed by I. Gati et al. (1996). Boys reported…

  5. Observations on Student Difficulties with Mathematics in Upper-Division Electricity and Magnetism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepper, Rachel E.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.; Pollock, Steven J.; Perkins, Katherine K.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss common difficulties in upper-division electricity and magnetism (E&M) in the areas of Gauss's law, vector calculus, and electric potential using both quantitative and qualitative evidence. We also show that many of these topical difficulties may be tied to student difficulties with mathematics. At the junior level, some students…

  6. The Relationship between Learning Difficulties in Foreign Language and Math in a Sample of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevatt, Frances; Proctor, Briley

    2003-01-01

    Two hundred four (204) college students who had difficulties in both foreign language and math (FLD/MD), only math difficulties (MD), or only foreign language difficulties (FLD) were studied. Analysis of prevalence of presenting problems indicated that FLD and FLD/MD are relatively uncommon, compared to MD. Comparisons among the three groups…

  7. Emergence, Learning Difficulties, and Misconceptions in Chemistry Undergraduate Students' Conceptualizations of Acid Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tümay, Halil

    2016-03-01

    Philosophical debates about chemistry have clarified that the issue of emergence plays a critical role in the epistemology and ontology of chemistry. In this article, it is argued that the issue of emergence has also significant implications for understanding learning difficulties and finding ways of addressing them in chemistry. Particularly, it is argued that many misconceptions in chemistry may derive from students' failure to consider emergence in a systemic manner by taking into account all relevant factors in conjunction. Based on this argument, undergraduate students' conceptions of acids, and acid strength (an emergent chemical property) were investigated and it was examined whether or not they conceptualized acid strength as an emergent chemical property. The participants were 41 third- and fourth-year undergraduate students. A concept test and semi-structured interviews were used to probe students' conceptualizations and reasoning about acid strength. Findings of the study revealed that the majority of the undergraduate students did not conceptualize acid strength as an emergent property that arises from interactions among multiple factors. They generally focused on a single factor to predict and explain acid strength, and their faulty responses stemmed from their failure to recognize and consider all factors that affect acid strength. Based on these findings and insights from philosophy of chemistry, promoting system thinking and epistemologically sound argumentative discourses among students is suggested for meaningful chemical education.

  8. Assessing and helping challenging students: Part One, Why do some students have difficulty learning?

    PubMed

    Hendricson, William D; Kleffner, John H

    2002-01-01

    When students struggle with routine assignments and fall behind classmates, a busy teacher may pigeonhole them as slow, give up on them, or become frustrated from failed efforts to bring them up to speed. Well-intentioned efforts to help struggling students by providing repetitions of the same experiences may fail because the specific cause of the sub-par performance was not identified. Six potential causes of inadequate student performance can serve as a diagnostic framework to help teachers pinpoint why a student is struggling academically: 1) cognitive factors, including poorly integrated, compartmentalized information, poor metacognition that hinders the student's ability to monitor and self-correct performance, bona fide learning disabilities that require professional assessment and treatment, and sensory-perceptual difficulties that may hinder performance in certain health care disciplines; 2) ineffective study habits, which are more common among professional students than faculty realize; 3) an inadequate educational experience (unclear objectives, poorly organized instruction, absence of coaching and timely feedback) or a punitive environment in which students avoid approaching instructors for assistance; 4) distraction due to nonacademic issues such as social relationships, health of a spouse, or employment; 5) dysfunctional levels of defensiveness that hinder student-teacher communication; and 6) underlying medical conditions that may affect student attentiveness, motivation, energy, and emotional balance. The objective of this article is to help faculty recognize potential underlying causes of a student's learning problems. Strategies for helping the academically struggling student are also introduced for several of these etiologies. PMID:12358100

  9. Classification of Students with Reading Comprehension Difficulties: The Roles of Motivation, Affect, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Mouzaki, Angeliki; Simos, Panagiotis; Protopapas, Athanassios

    2006-01-01

    Attempts to evaluate the cognitive-motivational profiles of students with reading comprehension difficulties have been scarce. The purpose of the present study was twofold: (a) to assess the discriminatory validity of cognitive, motivational, affective, and psychopathological variables for identification of students with reading difficulties, and…

  10. Academic Responding during Instruction and Reading Outcomes for Kindergarten Students At-Risk for Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the academic responding of students at-risk for reading difficulties in beginning reading instruction. Opportunities for kindergarten students at-risk for reading difficulties to respond academically during teacher-facilitated reading instruction in the general education classroom were examined in…

  11. Difficulties for University Students with Mental Health Problems: A Critical Interpretive Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markoulakis, Roula; Kirsh, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    Postsecondary institutions are witnessing an increase in the number and severity of student mental health problems, necessitating an understanding of the difficulties these students encounter in striving for higher education. The authors conducted a critical interpretive synthesis of 10 articles pertaining to difficulties experienced by students…

  12. Learning and Study Strategies of University Students Who Report a Significant History of Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkett, Julie K.; Parrila, Rauno; Hein, Serge F.

    2006-01-01

    The self-reported study and learning strategies used by university students reporting a significant history of reading difficulties (HRD; N = 29) were compared to those of university students who reported no history of reading difficulties (NRD; N = 38). All participants were given a battery of standardized tests and completed a questionnaire that…

  13. Compensating for Reading Difficulties: A Qualitative Investigation of University Students' Experiences of Influential Personal Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkett, Julie K.; Hein, Serge F.; Parrila, Rauno

    2008-01-01

    This study involved a qualitative examination of the personal characteristics that university students saw as important in helping them to compensate for their reading difficulties at various stages of their education. The sample consisted of 10 undergraduate students or recent graduates who reported a significant history of reading difficulties.…

  14. The Difficulties That Seventh Grade Students Face in Comprehensive Reading Skill for English Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albdour, Waddah Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    The study aims at identifying the difficulties affecting the student in the area of reading comprehension skill in English language curricula, measuring the differences in English language teachers' attitudes towards difficulties that seventh grade students face in reading comprehension skill for English language according to personal variables.…

  15. Explicit Mathematics Instruction: What Teachers Can Do for Teaching Students With Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doabler, Christian T.; Fien, Hank

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the essential instructional elements necessary for delivering explicit mathematics instruction to students with mathematics difficulties. Mathematics intervention research indicates that explicit instruction is one of the most effective instructional approaches for teaching students with or at risk for math difficulties.…

  16. Addressing Common Student Errors with Classroom Voting in Multivariable Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Kelly; Parker, Mark; Zullo, Holly; Stewart, Ann

    2012-01-01

    One technique for identifying and addressing common student errors is the method of classroom voting, in which the instructor presents a multiple-choice question to the class, and after a few minutes for consideration and small group discussion, each student votes on the correct answer, often using a hand-held electronic clicker. If a large number…

  17. Addressing the Needs of Students with Rett Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ellenburg, Jennifer S.; Acton, Olivia M.; Torrey, Gregory

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses symptoms of students with Rett Syndrome, a disability in females characterized by the development of multiple specific deficits following a period of normal functioning after birth. Specific interventions for students with Rett syndrome are provided and address communication, stereotypic movements, self-injurious behaviors,…

  18. Forms of Generalization in Students Experiencing Mathematical Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santi, George; Baccaglini-Frank, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We shift the view of a special needs student away from the acknowledged view, that is as a student who requires interventions to restore a currently expected functioning behaviour, introducing a new paradigm to frame special needs students' learning of mathematics. We use the theory of objectification and the new paradigm to look at (and…

  19. Using Student Performance to Judge the Difficulty of Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roegner, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This contribution focuses on a scheme developed to characterize the level of difficulty of an examination in the course "Linear Algebra for Engineers" and on the transfer of the underlying idea to a similar scheme for examinations in the course "Analysis I for Engineers". Using these schemes, it is possible to define standards…

  20. Goal importance and students at risk of having language difficulties: an underexplored aspect of student motivation.

    PubMed

    Sideridis, Georgios D

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the motivational determinants of students at risk of language difficulties (in reading and spelling) and students with high language skills. Teachers' evaluations in language and mathematics at the end of the academic year constituted the dependent variable. Motivational orientations were examined using the constructs that reflect the theory of planned behavior and goal importance. Participants were 202 elementary school students-22 at risk of language difficulties and 180 with high language skills-drawn from 30 elementary schools in northern Greece. The results indicated that the two groups differed significantly, with the at-risk students exhibiting significantly lower perceptions of goal importance, intention to achieve, belief strength, outcome evaluation, and normative beliefs, and eventually scoring lower in language and mathematics at the end of the academic year. A finer analysis of students' motivational orientations was conducted using covariance structural modeling (CSM) and EQS 5.7b. The planned behavior model with goal importance produced a comparative fit index (CFI) of 1.00 in language and mathematics for the at-risk group. The respective CFIs for the high language skills group were .97 and 1.00 in language and mathematics, respectively. Although model fit was excellent across samples, different weights and signs linking motivational orientations to achievement partly explained the observed differences in language and mathematics manifested in the two groups. PMID:15493243

  1. Student Difficulties with Units in Differential Equations in Modelling Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, David R.

    2006-01-01

    First-year undergraduate engineering students' understanding of the units of factors and terms in first-order ordinary differential equations used in modelling contexts was investigated using diagnostic quiz questions. Few students appeared to realize that the units of each term in such equations must be the same, or if they did, nevertheless…

  2. Difficulties Associated with the Coding and Categorization of Students with Emotional and Behavioural Disabilities in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, Diane; Jahnukainen, Markku

    2010-01-01

    In Canada, there is a recent trend toward non-categorization of services of students with emotional and behavioural disabilities (EBD). Yet in Alberta, the coding of students with EBD provides opportunities to diagnose students' learning difficulties but is hindered in this process, in large part, by being tied into special needs funding. Current…

  3. Perceptions of the Difficulties of Postgraduate L2 Thesis Students Writing the Discussion Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitchener, John; Basturkmen, Helen

    2006-01-01

    In postgraduate study, students including L2 students are often required to write a thesis and, as a growing literature reveals, L2 students often experience difficulties in the writing of this genre. While most of this research has involved surveys (questionnaires and interviews) and case studies of supervisor perceptions, only a few studies have…

  4. The Influence of Circadian Type, Time of Day and Class Difficulty on Students' Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElroy, Todd; Mosteller, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper we investigate how students' class grades are affected by individual differences in circadian rhythm, class time-of-day and class difficulty. Method: Using a sample of university students, we assessed morningness and eveningness personality type, and then obtained students recalled classes as well as their…

  5. Difficulties EFL Jordanian University Students Encounter in Translating English Idioms into Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrishan, Amal; Smadi, Oqlah

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the difficulties that Jordanian EFL University students encounter in translating English idioms into Arabic. The participants of the study were all M.A translation students at Yarmouk University and the University of Jordan who were selected purposefully. The total number of the students who participated in the…

  6. Early Numeracy Intervention Program for First-Grade Students with Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Bryant, Brian R.; Roberts, Greg; Vaughn, Sharon; Pfannenstiel, Kathleen Hughes; Porterfield, Jennifer; Gersten, Russell

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an early numeracy preventative Tier 2 intervention on the mathematics performance of first-grade students with mathematics difficulties. Researchers used a pretest-posttest control group design with randomized assignment of 139 students to the Tier 2 treatment condition and 65 students to…

  7. Difficulties in Academic Writing: From the Perspective of King Saud University Postgraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Fadda, Hind

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what difficulties King Saud University students encounter when learning to write academic English and to differentiate between students' learning needs and objectives. The sample consisted of 50 postgraduate students enrolled in King Saud University during the academic year 2009-2010. Analysis of the data…

  8. Using Story Grammar to Assist Students with Learning Disabilities and Reading Difficulties Improve Their Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetter, Maria Earman; Hughes, Marie Tejero

    2010-01-01

    With the majority of students with learning disabilities (LD) having difficulties in reading, teachers at all grade levels need to incorporate comprehension strategies into their instruction to explicitly teach students with LD how to use the strategies to enhance their comprehension. One way for teachers to support students' comprehension of…

  9. Academic Difficulties Encountered by East Asian International University Students in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Boram; Farruggia, Susan P.; Brown, Gavin T. L.

    2013-01-01

    The study focused on learning difficulties experienced by East Asian International (EAI) students. Participants were 117 EAI students undertaking tertiary study at a major university, all were surveyed and 21 students were interviewed. The findings suggest that language limitations, academic content and learning styles were associated with…

  10. Assistance of Students with Mathematical Learning Difficulties: How Can Research Support Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Petra; Beswick, Kim; DeBlois, Lucie; Healy, Lulu; Opitz, Elisabeth Moser

    2016-01-01

    When looking at teaching and learning processes in mathematics education students with mathematical learning difficulties or disabilities are of great interest. To approach the question of how research can support practice to assist these students one has to clarify the group or groups of students that we are talking about. The following…

  11. Dental Students' Perceptions of the Difficulty of Faculty Positions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Christopher H.; Eisner, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    A study of dental student perceptions of faculty responsibilities and roles, such as administrative duties, part-time teaching, and research, concludes that these perceptions must be considered if positive changes are to made in the teaching environment. (MSE)

  12. Addressing gaps in abortion education: a sexual health elective created by medical students.

    PubMed

    Caro-Bruce, Emily; Schoenfeld, Elizabeth; Nothnagle, Melissa; Taylor, Julie

    2006-05-01

    Medical school curricula frequently contain gaps in the areas of abortion and sexual health. A group of first- and second-year medical students at the authors' institution organized a collaborative, multidisciplinary elective course to address such omissions in the preclinical curriculum. This paper describes the process of creating and implementing the elective. Medical students identified curricular gaps in the areas of abortion, sexual assault, lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender health, and HIV counseling. Clinical faculty and community-based professionals were invited to address these topics in a weekly lecture series organized by students. The course also included a half-day experience shadowing at a local abortion clinic. Collaboration with several student groups helped broaden student interest in and increase financial support for the elective. Some 37% of all first- and second-year students enrolled in the elective and received institutional credit for the course. Written and verbal evaluations confirmed student satisfaction with the lectures and the clinical experience. Dynamic and well-prepared speakers who presented interesting medical content received the highest ratings from students. Student leaders identified several challenges in implementing the elective. Ultimately the elective proved to be a successful collaboration among students, faculty, and healthcare providers, and resulted in permanent changes in the standard medical school curriculum. Challenges for student-initiated electives include difficulty in finding administrative support, securing funding and ensuring sustainability. This paper aims to make this process accessible and applicable to other students and faculty interested in addressing curricular gaps at their respective medical schools. PMID:16753723

  13. What Teachers of Students with SEBD Need to Know about Speech and Language Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tommerdahl, Jodi

    2009-01-01

    It is recognised increasingly that a large proportion of students in social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD) settings have speech and language difficulties (SLD). It is therefore important for school administrators and teachers to understand the links between language and behaviour. This article provides teachers with theoretical…

  14. Identifying Students Difficulties in Understanding Concepts Pertaining to Cell Water Relations: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedler, Y.; And Others

    This study identified students' conceptual difficulties in understanding concepts and processes associated with cell water relationships (osmosis), determined possible reasons for these difficulties, and pilot-tested instruments and research strategies for a large scale comprehensive study. Research strategies used included content analysis of…

  15. What Is Literacy for Students with Severe Learning Difficulties? Exploring Conventional and Inclusive Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacey, Penny; Layton, Lyn; Miller, Carol; Goldbart, Juliet; Lawson, Hazel

    2007-01-01

    This paper arises from research into inclusive literacy for pupils with severe learning difficulties who do not learn to read and write conventionally. The ultimate aim of the study was to seek out examples of good practice in teaching and learning literacy that includes students with severe learning difficulties and disseminate them as widely as…

  16. English Academic Language Skills: Perceived Difficulties by Undergraduate and Graduate Students, and Their Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Robert; Cheng, Liying

    2001-01-01

    An English for academic purposes needs survey conducted at a Canadian university among first-year Bachelor's and Master's level students reveals native speakers (NS) and nonnative speakers (NNS) of English perceive that the language skills necessary for academic study are of different levels of difficulty. English language difficulties appear to…

  17. Students with Learning Difficulties Meet Shakespeare: Using a Scaffolded Reading Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Sally Sue; Watts, Susan M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes teaching a Shakespearean play ("Macbeth") to eighth and ninth graders with learning difficulties. Describes combining a scaffolded reading experience with an interdisciplinary unit approach to maximize student engagement and success. (SR)

  18. Student Perceptions of Using Games to Address Science Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Cara M.

    The purpose of this qualitative evaluative case study was to gain insight into how students perceived the efficacy of using games to address their science literacy concerns. Scientists in the United States are concerned with the lack of science literacy. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 requires proficiency in reading, mathematics, language arts, and science by the completion of the 2013--2014 school year. The high school participating in this study received substandard test scores on both the 2009 state graduation test and the science portion of the ACT test. The research question included understanding how students perceive the use of games in addressing their science literacy needs. The data from the student journals, field notes, and transcribed class discussions were analyzed using a 6 step method that included coding the data into main themes. The triangulated data were used to both gain insight into student perspective and inform game development. Constructivist theories formed the conceptual framework of the study. The findings of the study suggested that games may prove a valuable tool in science literacy attainment. The study indicated that games were perceived by the students to be effective tools in meeting their learning needs. Implications for positive social change included providing students, educators, and administrators with game resources that can be used to meet the science learning needs of struggling students, thereby improving science scores on high stakes tests.

  19. Student Perceptions of Using Games to Address Science Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Cara M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative evaluative case study was to gain insight into how students perceived the efficacy of using games to address their science literacy concerns. Scientists in the United States are concerned with the lack of science literacy. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 requires proficiency in reading, mathematics, language…

  20. Community Forays: Addressing Students' Functional Skills in Inclusive Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burcroff, Teri L.; Radogna, Daniel M.; Wright, Erika H.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes how one inclusive middle school addressed needs of students with significant disabilities for functional community-referenced skills including clothing purchases, buying groceries, eating out, crossing the street, doing laundry, and using a microwave. Program development, program organization, and involvement of peers…

  1. Upper-Division Student Difficulties with the Dirac Delta Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool that appears repeatedly in the undergraduate physics curriculum in multiple topical areas including electrostatics, and quantum mechanics. While Dirac delta functions are often introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students still struggle to manipulate and interpret them.…

  2. Gender Fair Efficacy of Concept Mapping Tests in Identifying Students' Difficulties in High School Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Shilna, V.

    2014-01-01

    In view of the perceived difficulty of organic chemistry unit for high schools students, this study examined the usefulness of concept mapping as a testing device to assess students' difficulty in the select areas. Since many tests used for identifying students misconceptions and difficulties in school subjects are observed to favour one or…

  3. Observations on student difficulties with mathematics in upper-division electricity and magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepper, Rachel E.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.; Pollock, Steven J.; Perkins, Katherine K.

    2012-06-01

    We discuss common difficulties in upper-division electricity and magnetism (E&M) in the areas of Gauss’s law, vector calculus, and electric potential using both quantitative and qualitative evidence. We also show that many of these topical difficulties may be tied to student difficulties with mathematics. At the junior level, some students struggle to combine mathematical calculations and physics ideas, to account for the underlying spatial situation when doing a mathematical calculation, and to access appropriate mathematical tools. We discuss the implications of our findings for E&M instruction at the junior level.

  4. Difficulties of students with limited english language skills in pre-service mathematics education courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, Kaye; MacGregor, Mollie

    1991-06-01

    Student teachers who are recent migrants to Australia from non-English-speaking countries experience difficulties in mathematics method courses and in teaching practice, but there are no published reports of research into their difficulties. This paper reports on a preliminary investigation into how students with limited English skills perceive their problems and how they think courses could be adapted to meet their needs. Information was obtained from a questionnaire, by conversation with individual students, by observation of micro-teaching sessions and teaching practice, and from a student counsellor. The factor which most concerned the repondents to the questionnaire was the difficulty which pupils might have in understanding their speech. The results of the study highlight the present lack of resources to provide intensive training for student teachers in the use of specifically mathematical English. The teacher education course was identified as the only vehicle available to them for improving their English.

  5. Perceived discrimination, social connectedness, and other predictors of adjustment difficulties among Turkish international students.

    PubMed

    Duru, Erdinc; Poyrazli, Senel

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the role of perceived discrimination, social connectedness, age, gender, years of study in the US, English language competency, and social contact patterns on adjustment difficulties among a sample of 229 Turkish international students studying in the United States. Findings indicated that students who reported higher levels of social connectedness, lower levels of perceived discrimination, more years of study in the US, and higher levels of English language competency reported lower levels of adjustment difficulties. Other results showed that (lack of) social connectedness and perceived discrimination were predictors of adjustment difficulties. In addition, results indicated that students who socialized with individuals from the US had lower levels of adjustment difficulties than did those who socialized with coculture members. Implications are discussed and suggestions for interventions are provided. PMID:22046992

  6. Case Studies on Using Strengths and Interests to Address the Needs of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanou, Aaron; Hough, Lauren; Powell, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Students on the autism spectrum present with difficulties in a variety of areas, including social understanding, emotional regulation, academics, and behavior. Professionals working in the field of autism must identify and address these areas of need given each individual child's specific cognitive profiles. In this article the authors highlight…

  7. Three innovative curricula for addressing medical students' career development.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Anita M; Taylor, Anita D; Pokorny, Anita P

    2011-01-01

    Medical students make specialty decisions that are critically important to their long-term career satisfaction and overall well-being. The dynamic of larger class sizes set against stagnant numbers of residency positions creates an imperative for students to make and test specialty decisions earlier in medical school. Ideally, formal career advising begins in medical school. Medical schools typically offer career development programs as extracurricular offerings. The authors describe three curricular approaches and the innovative courses developed to address medical students' career development needs. The models differ in complexity and cost, but they share the goals of assisting students to form career identities and to use resources effectively in their specialty decision processes. The first model is a student-organized specialties elective. To earn course credit, students must complete questionnaires for the sessions, submit results from two self-assessments, and report on two physician informational interviews. The second model comprises two second-year career development courses that have evolved into a longitudinal career development program. The third model integrates career topics through a doctoring course and advising teams. The authors discuss challenges and lessons learned from implementing each of the programs, including marshaling resources, achieving student buy-in, and obtaining time in the curriculum. Invoking a curricular approach seems to normalize the tasks associated with career development and puts them on par in importance with other medical school endeavors. PMID:21099397

  8. Word-Problem-Solving Strategy for Minority Students at Risk for Math Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Jennifer E.; Orosco, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Minority students at risk for math difficulties (MD) struggle with word problems for various reasons beyond procedural or calculation challenges. As a result, these students require support in reading and language development in addition to math. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a math comprehension strategy based on a…

  9. The Difficulties That the Undergraduate Students Face about Inner Product Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burhanzade, Hülya; Aygör, Nilgün

    2016-01-01

    In this qualitative research, we studied difficulties that undergraduate students face while learning the concept of inner product space. Participants were 35 first-year mathematics students from Yildiz Technical University in the 2011 and 2012 academic years. We asked participants to solve 5 inner product space questions. Data were jointly…

  10. Beyond Epistemological Deficits: Dynamic Explanations of Engineering Students' Difficulties with Mathematical Sense-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have argued against deficit-based explanations of students' difficulties with mathematical sense-making, pointing instead to factors such as epistemology. Students' beliefs about knowledge and learning can hinder the activation and integration of productive knowledge they have. Such explanations, however, risk falling into a "deficit…

  11. Intervention Provided to Linguistically Diverse Middle School Students with Severe Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Carolyn A.; Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Bryan, Deanna

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a multicomponent reading intervention implemented with middle school students with severe reading difficulties, all of whom had received remedial and/or special education for several years with minimal response to intervention. Participants were 38 students in grades 6-8 who had severe deficits in word…

  12. "Why Do I Slog through the Physics?" Understanding High School Students' Difficulties in Learning Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekici, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable instrument to assess why physics courses are perceived as one of the most difficult courses among high school students and to investigate the reasons why students have difficulty in learning physics through this scale. This study includes the development and validation studies of the…

  13. Career Decision-Making Difficulties of British and Chinese International University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Dingyuan; Santos, Angeli

    2007-01-01

    This study explored cultural and gender differences in career decision-making difficulties (CDMD) experienced by 109 British and 86 Chinese international university students, and the impact of cross-cultural adjustment on the CDMD of Chinese international students. Results showed no significant cultural differences in overall CDMD, and that the…

  14. Framework for Understanding the Patterns of Student Difficulties in Quantum Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2015-01-01

    Compared with introductory physics, relatively little is known about the development of expertise in advanced physics courses, especially in the case of quantum mechanics. Here, we describe a framework for understanding the patterns of student reasoning difficulties and how students develop expertise in quantum mechanics. The framework posits that…

  15. The Relationship between Social-Emotional Difficulties and Underachievement of Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaas, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Gifted students are a diverse minority group with high intelligence and talent whose needs are often unrecognised and unmet. It is believed that this group of students, from a range of backgrounds, socio-economic statuses and abilities, may experience a range of social-emotional difficulties, including peer exclusion, isolation, stress, anxiety,…

  16. The Impact of Task Difficulty and Performance Scores on Student Engagement and Progression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Raymond; Patten, James Vincent; Hennessy, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background: This article considers the impact of differential task difficulty on student engagement and progression within an Irish primary school context. Gaining and maintaining student engagement during learning tasks such as homework is a significant and understandable on-going challenge for teachers. The findings of this study hold the…

  17. Rhetoric, Accountability, Advocacy: Postschool Transition of Students with Specific Learning Difficulties in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon-McBrayer, Kim Fong

    2013-01-01

    The international literature reflects the significance of transition services for postschool outcomes of students with disabilities. In 2008, the Hong Kong Government introduced a policy to support students with disabilities, especially those with specific learning difficulties (SLD), to transition to postschool life in inclusive settings. This…

  18. Single Student Parents Face Financial Difficulties, Debt, without Adequate Aid. Fact Sheet #C394

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Parents with dependent children were nearly one quarter of students enrolled for credit at American postsecondary institutions in 2008. These students face significant challenges to remaining enrolled and graduating, including limited access to affordable child care, difficulty balancing the demands of school with the demands of work and family,…

  19. Building Word Knowledge: Opportunities for Direct Vocabulary Instruction in General Education for Students with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Direct vocabulary instruction is 1 critical component of reading instruction. Although most students in the elementary grades need to continue building their vocabulary knowledge, students with reading difficulties are at the greatest risk of falling further behind each year in vocabulary and concept knowledge without effective instruction. This…

  20. Lessons Learned: Student Voice at a School for Pupils Experiencing Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellman, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Student voice and pupil empowerment projects are common in many mainstream schools. However, such initiatives are more challenging to implement in provision for students experiencing (social), emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD). As a consequence, they are less frequently attempted. This article reports one such attempt at an SEBD…

  1. Evaluation of Horizon Multimedia Learning Materials for Students with Learning Difficulties and Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Trevor; Jones, Sara; Britton, Carol; Messer, David

    This paper describes the different methods used to evaluate individually configurable multimedia materials developed for the Horizon project, a program designed to increase employment opportunities for students with disabilities or learning difficulties. The project established a working cafe/restaurant in East London staffed by the students. Part…

  2. Building Math Fluency for Students with Developmental Disabilities and Attentional Difficulties Using "Great Leaps Math"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolivette, Kristine; Lingo, Amy S.; Houchins, David E.; Barton-Arwood, Sally M.; Shippen, Margaret E.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a fluency building math program on addition and subtraction computational skills were evaluated using a multiple probe across subjects design. Two students with developmental disabilities and one student with attentional difficulties participated in a supplemental intervention using the Great Leaps Math program. Analyses indicated…

  3. Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Equivalence Tasks: The Influence of Symbols on Students with Mathematics Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driver, Melissa K.; Powell, Sarah R.

    2015-01-01

    Students often experience difficulty with attaching meaning to mathematics symbols. Many students react to symbols, such as the equal sign, as a command to "do something" or "write an answer" without reflecting upon the proper relational meaning of the equal sign. One method for assessing equal-sign understanding is through…

  4. An Investigation of Difficulties Experienced by Students Developing Unified Modelling Language (UML) Class and Sequence Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sien, Ven Yu

    2011-01-01

    Object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) is not an easy subject to learn. There are many challenges confronting students when studying OOAD. Students have particular difficulty abstracting real-world problems within the context of OOAD. They are unable to effectively build object-oriented (OO) models from the problem domain because they…

  5. Students with Disabilities, Learning Difficulties and Disadvantages: Policies, Statistics and Indicators--2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This book provides an internationally comparable set of indicators on educational provision for students with disabilities, learning difficulties and disadvantages (DDD). It highlights the number of students involved, where they are educated--special schools, special classes or regular classes--and in what phases of education--pre-primary,…

  6. Decided and Undecided Students: Career Self-Efficacy, Negative Thinking, and Decision-Making Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock-Yowell, Emily; McConnell, Amy E.; Schedin, Emily A.

    2014-01-01

    The career concern differences between undecided and decided college students (N = 223) are examined. Undecided college students (n = 83) reported lower career decision-making self-efficacy, higher incidences of negative career thoughts, and more career decision-making difficulties than their decided peers (n = 143). Results reveal that undecided…

  7. Is Mathematics to Blame? An Investigation into High School Students' Difficulty in Performing Calculations in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Fraser J.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical ability is a major contributory factor to the success of a student in any science course. This paper aims to determine the source of the difficulty that students often find when performing calculations in chemistry. Through the design and analysis of a set of chemistry questions and analogous mathematics questions, set in a Standard…

  8. A Framework for Understanding the Patterns of Student Difficulties in Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2015-04-01

    Compared with introductory physics, relatively little is known about the development of expertise in advanced physics courses, especially in the case of quantum mechanics. We describe a theoretical framework for understanding the patterns of student reasoning difficulties and how students develop expertise in quantum mechanics. The framework posits that the challenges many students face in developing expertise in quantum mechanics are analogous to the challenges introductory students face in developing expertise in introductory classical mechanics. This framework incorporates the effects of diversity in students' prior preparation, goals and motivation for taking upper-level physics courses in general as well as the ``paradigm shift'' from classical mechanics to quantum mechanics. The framework is based on empirical investigations demonstrating that the patterns of reasoning, problem-solving, and self-monitoring difficulties in quantum mechanics bear a striking resemblance to those found in introductory classical mechanics. Examples from research in quantum mechanics and introductory classical mechanics will be discussed to illustrate how the patterns of difficulties are analogous as students learn to unpack the respective principles and grasp the formalism in each knowledge domain during the development of expertise. Embracing such a theoretical framework and contemplating the parallels between the difficulties in these two knowledge domains can enable researchers to leverage the extensive literature for introductory physics education research to guide the design of teaching and learning tools for helping students develop expertise in quantum mechanics. Support from the National Science Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

  9. Remediating Number Combination and Word Problem Deficits Among Students With Mathematics Difficulties: A Randomized Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Lynn S; Powell, Sarah R; Seethaler, Pamela M; Cirino, Paul T; Fletcher, Jack M; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L; Zumeta, Rebecca O

    2009-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess the efficacy of remedial tutoring for 3rd graders with mathematics difficulty, to investigate whether tutoring is differentially efficacious depending on students' math difficulty status (mathematics difficulty alone vs. mathematics plus reading difficulty), to explore transfer from number combination (NC) remediation, and to examine the transportability of the tutoring protocols. At 2 sites, 133 students were stratified on mathematics difficulty status and site and then randomly assigned to 3 conditions: control (no tutoring), tutoring on automatic retrieval of NCs (i.e., Math Flash), or tutoring on word problems with attention to the foundational skills of NCs, procedural calculations, and algebra (i.e., Pirate Math). Tutoring occurred for 16 weeks, 3 sessions per week and 20-30 min per session. Math Flash enhanced fluency with NCs with transfer to procedural computation but without transfer to algebra or word problems. Pirate Math enhanced word problem skill as well as fluency with NCs, procedural computation, and algebra. Tutoring was not differentially efficacious as a function of students' mathematics difficulty status. The tutoring protocols proved transportable across sites. PMID:19865600

  10. The Effects of Schema-Based Instruction on the Proportional Thinking of Students With Mathematics Difficulties With and Without Reading Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Jitendra, Asha K; Dupuis, Danielle N; Star, Jon R; Rodriguez, Michael C

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the effect of schema-based instruction (SBI) on the proportional problem-solving performance of students with mathematics difficulties only (MD) and students with mathematics and reading difficulties (MDRD). Specifically, we examined the responsiveness of 260 seventh grade students identified as MD or MDRD to a 6-week treatment (SBI) on measures of proportional problem solving. Results indicated that students in the SBI condition significantly outperformed students in the control condition on a measure of proportional problem solving administered at posttest (g = 0.40) and again 6 weeks later (g = 0.42). The interaction between treatment group and students' difficulty status was not significant, which indicates that SBI was equally effective for both students with MD and those with MDRD. Further analyses revealed that SBI was particularly effective at improving students' performance on items related to percents. Finally, students with MD significantly outperformed students with MDRD on all measures of proportional problem solving. These findings suggest that interventions designed to include effective instructional features (e.g., SBI) promote student understanding of mathematical ideas. PMID:25312518

  11. Identifying student difficulties with entropy, heat engines, and the Carnot cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Trevor I.; Christensen, Warren M.; Mountcastle, Donald B.; Thompson, John R.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] We report on several specific student difficulties regarding the second law of thermodynamics in the context of heat engines within upper-division undergraduate thermal physics courses. Data come from ungraded written surveys, graded homework assignments, and videotaped classroom observations of tutorial activities. Written data show that students in these courses do not clearly articulate the connection between the Carnot cycle and the second law after lecture instruction. This result is consistent both within and across student populations. Observation data provide evidence for myriad difficulties related to entropy and heat engines, including students' struggles in reasoning about situations that are physically impossible and failures to differentiate between differential and net changes of state properties of a system. Results herein may be seen as the application of previously documented difficulties in the context of heat engines, but others are novel and emphasize the subtle and complex nature of cyclic processes and heat engines, which are central to the teaching and learning of thermodynamics and its applications. Moreover, the sophistication of these difficulties is indicative of the more advanced thinking required of students at the upper division, whose developing knowledge and understanding give rise to questions and struggles that are inaccessible to novices.

  12. Extensive Reading Interventions for Students with Reading Difficulties after Grade 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Vaughn, Sharon; Scammacca, Nancy K.; Metz, Kristina; Murray, Christy S.; Roberts, Greg; Danielson, Louis

    2013-01-01

    This synthesis extends a report of research on extensive interventions in kindergarten through third grade (Wanzek & Vaughn, 2007) to students in Grades 4 through 12, recognizing that many of the same questions about the effectiveness of reading interventions with younger students are important to address with older students, including (a) how…

  13. Emergence, Learning Difficulties, and Misconceptions in Chemistry Undergraduate Students' Conceptualizations of Acid Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tümay, Halil

    2016-01-01

    Philosophical debates about chemistry have clarified that the issue of emergence plays a critical role in the epistemology and ontology of chemistry. In this article, it is argued that the issue of emergence has also significant implications for understanding learning difficulties and finding ways of addressing them in chemistry. Particularly, it…

  14. The Effects on Students' Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties of Teacher-Student Interactions, Students' Social Skills and Classroom Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Children's emotional and behavioural difficulties are the result of multiple individual, social and contextual factors working in concert. The current paper proposes a theoretical framework for interpreting students' emotional and behavioural difficulties in classrooms, by taking into consideration teacher-student interactions,…

  15. Academic Responding During Instruction and Reading Outcomes for Kindergarten Students At-risk for Reading Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the academic responding of students at-risk for reading difficulties in beginning reading instruction. Opportunities for kindergarten students at-risk for reading difficulties to respond academically during teacher-facilitated reading instruction in the general education classroom were examined in relation to student reading achievement as well as social behaviors. Student academic responding during teacher-facilitated instruction significantly predicted end of year reading achievement. Teacher perceptions of students’ social skills (positive correlation) and problem behaviors (negative correlation) were significantly correlated with academic responding. When academic responding and teacher perceptions of social behaviors were examined together, only teacher perceptions of academic competence and problem behaviors predicted spring outcomes. PMID:24665162

  16. An investigation of difficulties experienced by students developing unified modelling language (UML) class and sequence diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sien, Ven Yu

    2011-12-01

    Object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) is not an easy subject to learn. There are many challenges confronting students when studying OOAD. Students have particular difficulty abstracting real-world problems within the context of OOAD. They are unable to effectively build object-oriented (OO) models from the problem domain because they essentially do not know "what" to model. This article investigates the difficulties and misconceptions undergraduate students have with analysing systems using unified modelling language analysis class and sequence diagrams. These models were chosen because they represent important static and dynamic aspects of the software system under development. The results of this study will help students produce effective OO models, and facilitate software engineering lecturers design learning materials and approaches for introductory OOAD courses.

  17. The Relationship of Print Reading in Tier I Instruction and Reading Achievement for Kindergarten Students at Risk of Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kent, Shawn C.

    2014-01-01

    For many students at risk of reading difficulties, effective, early reading instruction can improve reading outcomes and set them on a positive reading trajectory. Thus, response-to-intervention models include a focus on a student's Tier I reading instruction as one element for preventing reading difficulties and identifying students with a…

  18. Framework for understanding the patterns of student difficulties in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Compared with introductory physics, relatively little is known about the development of expertise in advanced physics courses, especially in the case of quantum mechanics. Here, we describe a framework for understanding the patterns of student reasoning difficulties and how students develop expertise in quantum mechanics. The framework posits that the challenges many students face in developing expertise in quantum mechanics are analogous to the challenges introductory students face in developing expertise in introductory classical mechanics. This framework incorporates both the effects of diversity in upper-level students' prior preparation, goals, and motivation in general (i.e., the facts that even in upper-level courses, students may be inadequately prepared, have unclear goals, and have insufficient motivation to excel) as well as the "paradigm shift" from classical mechanics to quantum mechanics. The framework is based on empirical investigations demonstrating that the patterns of reasoning, problem-solving, and self-monitoring difficulties in quantum mechanics bear a striking resemblance to those found in introductory classical mechanics. Examples from research in quantum mechanics and introductory classical mechanics are discussed to illustrate how the patterns of difficulties are analogous as students learn to unpack the respective principles and grasp the formalism in each knowledge domain during the development of expertise. Embracing such a framework and contemplating the parallels between the difficulties in these two knowledge domains can enable researchers to leverage the extensive literature for introductory physics education research to guide the design of teaching and learning tools for helping students develop expertise in quantum mechanics.

  19. EFL College Students' Perceptions of the Difficulties in Oral Presentation as a Form of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Nouh, Nowreyah A.; Abdul-Kareem, Muneera M.; Taqi, Hanan A.

    2015-01-01

    Oral presentation skills are considered one of the most important proficiencies needed for higher education and future careers. Thus, the present study is interested in eliciting English as a Foreign Language (EFL) college students' perceptions of the difficulties they face in oral presentation as a form of assessment. Participants were 500 female…

  20. A Meta-Analysis of Empirical Research on Teaching Students with Mathematics Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Minyi Shih; Sharp, Emily; Chovanes, Jacquelyn; Thomas, Amanda; Burns, Raquel M.; Custer, Beth; Park, Junkoung

    2016-01-01

    This article quantitatively summarizes experimental and quasi-experimental studies on teaching students with mathematics difficulties (MD) published between 2000 and 2014, research that was available following earlier syntheses. It reports the analysis of effect sizes of 25 intervention studies on participant characteristics, intervention…

  1. A Positive and Proactive Approach to Teaching Students with Behavior Difficulties in Junior High

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebetka, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the implementation of a Positive Behavior Support (PBS) program on students with behavior difficulties in junior high according to the perceptions of the principal and teachers. A qualitative research design was used in order to produce a reliable and valid study that answered the research…

  2. A Historical Study to Understand Students' Current Difficulties about RMS Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khantine-Langlois, Françoise; Munier, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Several studies show that students experience more and more difficulties managing the measurements of electrical values in alternating current and that they have trouble making links between theory and practice. They find it difficult to give meaning to root mean square (RMS; or effective) values, which are not understood as average values and are…

  3. Self-Reported Substance Use among High School Students with and without Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Stephen; Bourgeois, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    A total of 197 Year 9 and 10 students, 74 of whom had learning difficulties (LD), from two high schools in Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland, Australia, self-reported their substance use. Seventeen substances, including two fictitious ones to detect over-reporting, were presented to participants for them to indicate their current usage,…

  4. Assessment of Leisure Preferences for Students with Severe Developmental Disabilities and Communication Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreiner, Janice; Flexer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and to evaluate the Preferences for Leisure Attributes (PLA) Assessment, a forced-choice computer software program for students with severe disabilities and communication difficulties. In order to determine content validity of the PLA Assessment, four experts in related fields assigned critical attributes…

  5. Identifying Students' Difficulties When Learning Technical Skills via a Wireless Sensor Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jingying; Wen, Ming-Lee; Jou, Min

    2016-01-01

    Practical training and actual application of acquired knowledge and techniques are crucial for the learning of technical skills. We established a wireless sensor network system (WSNS) based on the 5E learning cycle in a practical learning environment to improve students' reflective abilities and to reduce difficulties for the learning of technical…

  6. An Analytic Study of the Postgraduate Students' Difficulties in Writing Abstracts in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aly, Mahsoub Abdul-Sadeq

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the Egyptian postgraduate students' difficulties in writing abstracts in English. In order to achieve the objectives of this study, a list of criteria for writing a good and effective abstract has been developed in the light of the review of literature. Besides, a content analysis of 35 abstracts written in English…

  7. How University Students with Reading Difficulties Are Supported in Achieving Their Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack-Cutler, Holly L.; Parrila, Rauno K.; Jokisaari, Markku; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    We examine (a) what social ties university students with a history of reading difficulty (RD) report assisting them to achieve their goals, (b) outlets available for developing social ties, (c) resources mobilized within these relationships, and (d) the impact of social ties' status on academic achievement. Participants were 107 university…

  8. Student Difficulties Measuring Distances in Terms of Wavelength: Lack of Basic Skills or Failure to Transfer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kryjevskaia, Mila; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.; Heron, Paula R. L.

    2013-01-01

    In a previous paper that focused on the transmission of periodic waves at the boundary between two media, we documented difficulties with the basic concepts of wavelength, frequency, and propagation speed, and with the relationship v=f[lambda]. In this paper, we report on student attempts to apply this relationship in problems involving two-source…

  9. Identifying Student Difficulties with Entropy, Heat Engines, and the Carnot Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Trevor I.; Christensen, Warren M.; Mountcastle, Donald B.; Thompson, John R.

    2015-01-01

    We report on several specific student difficulties regarding the second law of thermodynamics in the context of heat engines within upper-division undergraduate thermal physics courses. Data come from ungraded written surveys, graded homework assignments, and videotaped classroom observations of tutorial activities. Written data show that students…

  10. English Language Learning Difficulty of Korean Students in a Philippine Multidisciplinary University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Albela, Emmanuel Jeric A.; Nieto, Deborah Rosalind D.; Ferrer, John Bernard F.; Santos, Rior N.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study analyzed the English language learning difficulties of 13 purposively chosen Korean students relative to their sociolinguistic competence, motivation in using the English language, and cultural factors. Interview responses were transcribed, categorized and thematised according to saliency, meaning and homogeneity. The…

  11. Teaching Writing to Students with Learning Difficulties in Inclusive English Classrooms: Lessons from an Exemplary Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kraayenoord, Christina E.; Miller, Robyn; Moni, Karen B.; Jobling, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a case study of an exemplary teacher who was a participant in a professional learning project, WriteIdeas. The teacher provided instructional support in writing to a targeted student with learning difficulties in an inclusive Year 8 English classroom. Analytical frameworks were developed and applied to the data that had…

  12. Difficulties Encountered by Students in the Learning and Usage of Mathematical Terminology: A Critical Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulwa, Ednah Chebet

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to review literature pertinent to difficulties encountered by students in the learning and usage of mathematical terminology. The need to carry out this study arose from the concern by the Kenya National Examinations Council, and the general public, over the poor annual results in mathematics. Therefore, the objective of this…

  13. Teaching Students with Reading Difficulties to Be Close Readers: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lauren A.; Carlisle, Joanne F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article describes a program that was designed to help upper elementary students read and understand words as they read texts independently. As a first step in helping middle-to-upper elementary children with mild-to-moderate language and/or reading difficulties engage in textual analysis during reading, the Close Reading program…

  14. The Use of the Ombudsman's Services for Alleviating International Students' Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsara, Ourania

    2015-01-01

    This article offers some suggestions regarding the development of a support strategy by ombudsmen in order to alleviate international students' difficulties when studying in host universities. It is also shown how the Organisational Justice Theory can be used as a framework for understanding the role of ombudsman in higher education settings and…

  15. Addressing Pre-Service Teachers' Understandings and Difficulties with Some Core Concepts in the Special Theory of Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate pre-service teachers' understanding of and difficulties with some core concepts in the special theory of relativity. The pre-service teachers (n = 185) from the Departments of Physics Education and Elementary Science Education at Dokuz Eylul University (in Turkey) participated. Both quantitative and…

  16. QuickSmart: a basic academic skills intervention for middle school students with learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Graham, Lorraine; Bellert, Anne; Thomas, Jenny; Pegg, John

    2007-01-01

    QuickSmart is a basic academic skills intervention designed for persistently low-achieving students in the middle years of schooling that aims to improve the automaticity of basic skills to improve higher-order processes, such as problem solving and comprehension, as measured on standardized tests. The QuickSmart instructional program consists of three structured, teacher- or teacher aide-directed, 30-minute, small-group lessons each week for approximately 26 weeks. In this study, 42 middle school students experiencing learning difficulties (LD) completed the QuickSmart reading program, and a further 42 students with LD took part in the QuickSmart mathematics program. To investigate the effects of the intervention, comparisons were made between the reading and mathematics progress of the intervention group and a group of 10 high-achieving and 10 average-achieving peers. The results indicated that although the standardized reading comprehension and mathematics scores of QuickSmart students remained below those of comparison students, they improved significantly from pretest to posttest. In contrast, the standardized scores of comparison students were not significantly different from pretest to posttest. On measures of response speed and accuracy gathered using the Cognitive Aptitude Assessment System (CAAS), QuickSmart students were able to narrow the gap between their performance and that of their high- and average-achieving peers. Implications are drawn regarding the importance of interventions that emphasize the automaticity of basic academic skills for students with learning difficulties. PMID:17915495

  17. Student Cognitive Difficulties and Mental Model Development of Complex Earth and Environmental Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sell, K.; Herbert, B.; Schielack, J.

    2004-05-01

    Students organize scientific knowledge and reason about environmental issues through manipulation of mental models. The nature of the environmental sciences, which are focused on the study of complex, dynamic systems, may present cognitive difficulties to students in their development of authentic, accurate mental models of environmental systems. The inquiry project seeks to develop and assess the coupling of information technology (IT)-based learning with physical models in order to foster rich mental model development of environmental systems in geoscience undergraduate students. The manipulation of multiple representations, the development and testing of conceptual models based on available evidence, and exposure to authentic, complex and ill-constrained problems were the components of investigation utilized to reach the learning goals. Upper-level undergraduate students enrolled in an environmental geology course at Texas A&M University participated in this research which served as a pilot study. Data based on rubric evaluations interpreted by principal component analyses suggest students' understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry is limited and the ability to cross scales and link systems proved problematic. Results categorized into content knowledge and cognition processes where reasoning, critical thinking and cognitive load were driving factors behind difficulties in student learning. Student mental model development revealed multiple misconceptions and lacked complexity and completeness to represent the studied systems. Further, the positive learning impacts of the implemented modules favored the physical model over the IT-based learning projects, likely due to cognitive load issues. This study illustrates the need to better understand student difficulties in solving complex problems when using IT, where the appropriate scaffolding can then be implemented to enhance student learning of the earth system sciences.

  18. Students' difficulties with unit vectors and scalar multiplication of a vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2012-02-01

    In this article we report an investigation on students' understanding of: 1) unit vectors and, 2) scalar multiplication of a vector. We administered two different tests to a total of 850 students after taking their first introductory physics course on mechanics at a large private Mexican university. The first test about unit vectors was taken by 270 students and the second test about scalar multiplication of a vector by 580 students. In the first part of this article, we analyze students' difficulties sketching the unit vector in the direction of a vector in the Cartesian coordinate plane. In the second part, we analyze students' responses in two types of problems: positive and negative scalar multiplication of a vector. In both parts of this article we describe frequent errors that have not been reported in the literature.

  19. Achieving Success with More Students: Addressing the Problem of Students At Risk, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    This resource book was developed to provide information that state and local leaders can use to stimulate discussion of the problem of students at risk and support the planning of initiatives that address the problem. An overview defines students at risk, summarizes the content of the book, and lists recent reports and publications on the problem…

  20. Development and Validation of a Rubric for Diagnosing Students' Experimental Design Knowledge and Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P; Anderson, Trevor R; Pelaez, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to teach students about experimental design, as this facilitates their deeper understanding of how most biological knowledge was generated and gives them tools to perform their own investigations. Despite the importance of this area, surprisingly little is known about what students actually learn from designing biological experiments. In this paper, we describe a rubric for experimental design (RED) that can be used to measure knowledge of and diagnose difficulties with experimental design. The development and validation of the RED was informed by a literature review and empirical analysis of undergraduate biology students' responses to three published assessments. Five areas of difficulty with experimental design were identified: the variable properties of an experimental subject; the manipulated variables; measurement of outcomes; accounting for variability; and the scope of inference appropriate for experimental findings. Our findings revealed that some difficulties, documented some 50 yr ago, still exist among our undergraduate students, while others remain poorly investigated. The RED shows great promise for diagnosing students' experimental design knowledge in lecture settings, laboratory courses, research internships, and course-based undergraduate research experiences. It also shows potential for guiding the development and selection of assessment and instructional activities that foster experimental design. PMID:26086658

  1. Randomized Controlled Trial of Online Expressive Writing to Address Readjustment Difficulties Among U.S. Afghanistan and Iraq War Veterans.

    PubMed

    Sayer, Nina A; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Frazier, Patricia A; Pennebaker, James W; Orazem, Robert J; Schnurr, Paula P; Murdoch, Maureen; Carlson, Kathleen F; Gravely, Amy; Litz, Brett T

    2015-10-01

    We examined the efficacy of a brief, accessible, nonstigmatizing online intervention-writing expressively about transitioning to civilian life. U.S. Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans with self-reported reintegration difficulty (N = 1,292, 39.3% female, M = 36.87, SD = 9.78 years) were randomly assigned to expressive writing (n = 508), factual control writing (n = 507), or no writing (n = 277). Using intention to treat, generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that 6-months postintervention, veterans who wrote expressively experienced greater reductions in physical complaints, anger, and distress compared with veterans who wrote factually (ds = 0.13 to 0.20; ps < .05) and greater reductions in PTSD symptoms, distress, anger, physical complaints, and reintegration difficulty compared with veterans who did not write at all (ds = 0.22 to 0.35; ps ≤ .001). Veterans who wrote expressively also experienced greater improvement in social support compared to those who did not write (d = 0.17). Relative to both control conditions, expressive writing did not lead to improved life satisfaction. Secondary analyses also found beneficial effects of expressive writing on clinically significant distress, PTSD screening, and employment status. Online expressive writing holds promise for improving health and functioning among veterans experiencing reintegration difficulty, albeit with small effect sizes. PMID:26467326

  2. A Study of General Education Astronomy Students' Understandings of Cosmology. Part IV. Common Difficulties Students Experience with Cosmology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Duncan, Douglas K.

    2012-01-01

    This is our fourth paper in our five paper series describing our national study of general education astronomy students' conceptual and reasoning difficulties with cosmology. While previous papers in this series focused on the processes by which we collected and quantitatively analyzed our data, this paper presents the most common pre-instruction…

  3. English Related Difficulties Experienced by Turkish Students Studying in a Dual Diploma ELT Program in the U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate English language related difficulties experienced by 30 Turkish dual diploma students studying in an ELT (English Language Teaching) program established between a Turkish and an American university, and to see the effects of those difficulties on the students' adjustment process in the U.S.A. The data…

  4. Learning Difficulties in Mathematics (LDM) of Secondary School Students with Respect to Their Personal and Background Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarsani, Mahender Reddy; Maddini, Ravi

    2009-01-01

    The investigation was aimed to study the learning difficulties in mathematics among the secondary school students. The study proposed to measure the Learning Difficulties in Mathematics with respect to the students' personal and background variables such as sex, type of school, locality and medium of instruction; and also to explore the…

  5. Print Reading in General Education Kindergarten Classrooms: What Does It Look Like for Students At-Risk for Reading Difficulties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Shawn C.; Wanzek, Jeanne; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the amount of time spent actively engaged in reading sounds, words, and connected text for students at-risk for reading difficulties in the first formal grade of reading instruction, kindergarten. Observational data of 109 kindergarten students at high-risk for later reading difficulties were collected…

  6. The Effects of Strategic Counting Instruction, with and without Deliberate Practice, on Number Combination Skill among Students with Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Powell, Sarah R.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Cirino, Paul T.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effects of strategic counting instruction, with and without deliberate practice with those counting strategies, on number combination (NC) skill among students with mathematics difficulties (MD). Students (n = 150) were stratified on MD status (i.e., MD alone versus MD with reading difficulty)…

  7. High School Students with Reading Comprehension Difficulties: Results of a Randomized Control Trial of a Two-Year Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Michael G.; Fall, Anna-Mária; Schnakenberg, Jennifer B.

    2015-01-01

    A 2-year, randomized control trial with 9th to 10th grade students with significant reading problems was provided for 50 minutes a day in small groups. Comparison students were provided an elective class and treatment students the reading intervention. Students were identified as demonstrating reading difficulties through failure on their state…

  8. Student assistance program: a new approach for student success in addressing behavioral health and life events.

    PubMed

    Veeser, Peggy Ingram; Blakemore, Carol Warren

    2006-01-01

    College health centers, whether large or small, often find it challenging to provide counseling and supportive services for all students (including remotely located students) 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Student assistance programs (SAPs) are services provided to students through a contractual arrangement to the university or college as a part of student services. The goal is to address psychosocial concerns that may interfere with academic performance within the realm of short-term counseling. These services range from traditional behavioral health concerns about stress and depressive reactions to how to find child care with foreign-speaking services. In this article, the authors describe a method to provide such short-term counseling to a 2,200-student health-science campus. They present data from 1 year of service as well as the benefits and limitations. PMID:16789654

  9. Schoolwide Collaboration to Prevent and Address Reading Difficulties: Opportunities for School Psychologists and Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nellis, Leah M.; Sickman, Linda Sue; Newman, Daniel S.; Harman, Deborah R.

    2014-01-01

    With the increase in schoolwide practices to improve reading instruction for all students and provide supplemental interventions for struggling readers, the need for collaboration among education professionals has become increasingly important. This article focuses on the expanding opportunities for collaboration between school psychologists and…

  10. Address Terms among University Students in Ghana: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afful, Joseph Benjamin Archibald

    2006-01-01

    An important feature of the interface between language and society is the use of address terms. Following Brown and Gilman (1960), research studies of address terms have been extended to several cultural settings. This study contributes to this fertile area of sociolinguistic studies by describing the address terms used among undergraduates in an…

  11. Addressing the Community Research Needs of Baccalaureate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Carol; Cannon, Sharon B.

    2001-01-01

    In an online course to prepare nursing students to use research in practice, 12 students developed research proposals for community-based projects. The activity forged bonds with community agencies and showed students how research-based practice has a direct impact on patient care. (SK)

  12. Identifying student difficulties with basic scientific reasoning skills: An example from control of variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreaux, Andrew

    2006-05-01

    Current national and local standards for the science learning of K-12 students emphasize both basic concepts (such as density) and fundamental reasoning skills (such as proportional reasoning, the interpretation of graphs, and the use of control of variables). At Western Washington University (WWU) and the University of Washington (UW), an effort is underway to examine the ability of university students to apply these same concepts and skills. Populations include students in liberal arts physics courses, introductory calculus-based physics courses, and special courses for the preparation of teachers. One focus of the research has been on the idea of control of variables. This topic is studied by students at all levels, from the primary grades, in which the notion of a ``fair test,'' is sometimes used, to university courses. This talk will discuss research tasks in which students are expected to infer from experimental data whether a particular variable influences (i.e., affects) or by itself determines (i.e., predicts) a given result. Student responses will be presented to identify specific difficulties.

  13. The Influence of Mathematics Vocabulary Instruction Embedded within Addition Tutoring for First-Grade Students with Mathematics Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sarah R.; Driver, Melissa K.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners indicate students require explicit instruction on mathematics vocabulary terms, yet no study has examined the effects of an embedded vocabulary component within mathematics tutoring for early elementary students. First-grade students with mathematics difficulty (MD; n = 98) were randomly assigned to addition tutoring…

  14. Exploring Students at Risk for Reading Comprehension Difficulties in South Korea: The RTI Approach Applying Latent Class Growth Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongil; Kim, Woori; Koh, Hyejung; Lee, Jaeho; Shin, Jaehyun; Kim, Heeju

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify students at risk of reading comprehension difficulties by using the responsiveness to intervention (RTI) approach. The participants were 177 students in Grades 1-3 in three elementary schools in South Korea. The students received Tier 1 instruction of RTI from March to May 2011, and their performance was…

  15. Difficulties First-Year University Mathematics Students Have in Reading Their Mathematics Textbook. Technical Report. No. 2009-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Mary D.; Selden, Annie; Selden, John

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the experiences and difficulties certain first-year university students displayed in reading new passages from their mathematics textbooks. We interviewed eleven precalculus and calculus students who were considered to be good at mathematics, as indicated by high ACT mathematics scores. These students were also …

  16. Reading Comprehension Difficulties among Students with Disabilities and Students At-Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blinkhorn, Donna L.

    2009-01-01

    The quantitative method and quasi-experimental design examined the effects of multimodal-multisensory instructional strategies (MMIS) on vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension among students at-risk and students with disabilities in an inclusive environment. To discover the efficacy of multimodal-multisensory instructional strategies,…

  17. Assessing and Helping Challenging Students: Part One, Why Do Some Students Have Difficulty Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricson, William D.; Kleffner, John H.

    2002-01-01

    Seeks to help dental educators recognize potential causes of students' learning problems by presenting a series of diagnostic questions designed to identify the underlying etiology of the learning deficiency. Introduces strategies for helping the academically struggling student based on these etiologies. (EV)

  18. Use of Student Support Services among University Students: Associations with Problem-Focused Coping, Experience of Personal Difficulty and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julal, F. S.

    2013-01-01

    Universities provide a range of problem-focused social support services to help students who are experiencing personal difficulties. The current study examines how the effectiveness of students' ("N" = 131) problem-coping style, experience of personal difficulty and psychological distress are associated with actual use of support…

  19. Identifying College Students at Risk for Learning Disabilities: Evidence for Use of the Learning Difficulties Assessment in Postsecondary Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Steven T.; Roy, Soma; Medina, Steffanie

    2013-01-01

    This article describes research supporting the use of the Learning Difficulties Assessment (LDA), a normed and no-cost, web-based survey that assesses difficulties with reading, writing, spelling, mathematics, listening, concentration, memory, organizational skills, sense of control, and anxiety in college students. Previous research has supported…

  20. Verbal Query Intervention: Addressing Stereotypy in Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caltabiano, Leonard F.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a Verbal Query Intervention (VQI) procedure in decreasing motor and vocal stereotypy in four elementary students with autism. The VQI procedure involved the presentation of behavior-related questions that the students were required to respond to in an appropriate fashion. An ABC multiple-baseline across…

  1. Addressing Students' Misconceptions about Gases, Mass, and Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Much research has been published that describes the misconceptions students have about gases; however, not much research has been published that suggests how to change these misconceptions. The action research presented in this article examined how using laboratories to contradict students' preconceived ideas would affect their learning. High…

  2. Experiences of Australian School Staff in Addressing Student Cannabis Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Peter J.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit drug by Australian secondary school students yet there is scant research investigating school staff responses to student cannabis use. As such, this study surveyed 1,692 school staff who attended "Generation Next" seminars throughout Australia. The self-complete survey identified that the…

  3. Nonfiction Book Apps: Addressing CCSS and Engaging Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Cathy; Scheuer, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    As schools around the country implement the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), teachers and school librarians are looking for ways to incorporate more engaging nonfiction reading. The quantity of informational texts students will be required to read will increase drastically, and students will be asked to apply higher-level thinking skills to…

  4. The President's Task Force on Retention: Addressing Student Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujita, Eleanor; Alston, C. Frank

    Over the past decade, retention studies at Hudson County Community College (HCCC), in New Jersey, have consistently placed the college at or near the bottom of a group of 19 New Jersey community colleges in terms of retention. In an effort to determine why students were leaving and develop responses to student attrition, a presidential task force…

  5. Which Instructional Practices Most Help First Grade Students with and without Mathematics Difficulties?

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2015-01-01

    We used population-based, longitudinal data to investigate the relation between mathematics instructional practices used by 1st grade teachers in the U.S. and the mathematics achievement of their students. Factor analysis identified four types of instructional activities (i.e., teacher-directed, student-centered, manipulatives/calculators, movement/music) and eight types of specific skills taught (e.g., adding two-digit numbers). First-grade students were then classified into five groups on the basis of their fall and/or spring of kindergarten mathematics achievement—three groups with mathematics difficulties (MD) and two without MD. Regression analysis indicated that a higher percentage of MD students in 1st grade classrooms was associated with greater use by teachers of manipulatives/calculators and movement/music to teach mathematics. Yet follow-up analysis for each of the MD and non-MD groups indicated that only teacher-directed instruction was significantly associated with the achievement of students with MD (covariate-adjusted ESs = .05–.07). The largest predicted effect for a specific instructional practice was for routine practice and drill. In contrast, for both groups of non-MD students, teacher-directed and student-centered instruction had approximately equal, statistically significant positive predicted effects (covariate-adjusted ESs = .03–.04). First-grade teachers in the U.S. may need to increase their use of teacher-directed instruction if they are to raise the mathematics achievement of students with MD. PMID:26180268

  6. An evaluation of intensive intervention for students with persistent reading difficulties.

    PubMed

    Denton, Carolyn A; Fletcher, Jack M; Anthony, Jason L; Francis, David J

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of an intensive tertiary reading intervention, 27 students with severe reading difficulties and disabilities, 14 of whom had demonstrated an inadequate response to 1-2 tiers of prior reading instruction, received a 16-week intervention package involving decoding and fluency skills. The decoding intervention was provided for 2 hours per day for 8 weeks and was based on the Phono-Graphix program. The fluency intervention followed the decoding intervention and involved 1 hour of daily instruction for 8 weeks based on the Read Naturally program. The 16-week intervention resulted in significant improvement in reading decoding, fluency, and comprehension. Although individual responses to the intervention were variable, 12 of the 27 students showed a significant response to these interventions. Students who had participated in previous Tier 1 plus Tier 2 interventions but remained impaired had a stronger response to intervention in the current study than students who had previously participated only in Tier 1 intervention and students who had not received prior intervention outside of special education. PMID:17004676

  7. Allocation of Study Time in Chinese Junior School Students: Habitual Responding, Item Difficulty, and Time Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fuyun; Qin, Qiwen; Jiang, Yanju

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated factors influencing Chinese junior school students’ study time allocation and the age difference in the effect of habitual responding. Participants were 240 junior school students (120 girls, 120 boys; aged 13–15 years) with half taking part in Experiment 1 and half in Experiment 2, and 240 young adults aged 18–23 years, (120 women and 120 men,) involved in Experiments 3a and 3b, all native Chinese speakers. In Experiments 1 and 3a, Chinese word pairs (e.g., moon–star) were presented on the screen with three items in one array. In each trial, the items were arranged from left to right, either easy, moderate, then difficult, or the reverse. Participants had either 5 s or no time limits to study the word pairs. In Experiments 2 and 3b, word pairs were ordered in a column with the easiest items either at the top or bottom position. Results showed interactions among item difficulty, item order, and time limitation in terms of effects on study time allocation of junior school students. Participants tended to learn the items in order (from left to right and from top to bottom), but the effect of item difficulty was greater than that of item order on item selection. Results indicated that agenda and habitual responding have a combined effect on study time allocation and that the contribution of agenda is greater than that of habitual responding. The effect of habitual responding on the self-paced study and recall performance of junior school students is greater than its effect on young adults, and the study time allocation of junior school students is more likely to be affected by external conditions. PMID:27199865

  8. Beyond Epistemological Deficits: Dynamic explanations of engineering students' difficulties with mathematical sense-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Researchers have argued against deficit-based explanations of students' difficulties with mathematical sense-making, pointing instead to factors such as epistemology. Students' beliefs about knowledge and learning can hinder the activation and integration of productive knowledge they have. Such explanations, however, risk falling into a 'deficit trap'-substituting a concepts/skills deficit with an epistemological one. Our interview-based case study of a freshman engineering major, 'Jim,' explains his difficulty solving a physics problem (on hydrostatic pressure) in terms of his epistemology, but avoids a deficit trap by modeling the dynamics of his epistemological stabilities and shifts in terms of fine-grained cognitive elements that include the seeds of epistemological expertise. Specifically, during a problem-solving episode in the interview, Jim reaches and sticks with an incorrect answer that violates common sense. We show that Jim has all the mathematical skills and physics knowledge he would need to resolve the contradiction. We argue that his difficulty doing so stems in part from his epistemological views that (i) physics equations are much more trustworthy than everyday reasoning, and (ii) physics equations do not express meaning that tractably connects to common sense. For these reasons, he does not view reconciling between common sense and formalism as either necessary or plausible to accomplish. But Jim's in-the-moment shift to a more sophisticated epistemological stance highlights the seeds of epistemological expertise that were present all along: he does see common sense as connected to formalism (though not always tractably so), and in some circumstances, this connection is both salient and valued.

  9. Early Numerical Competencies of Students with Different Forms of Mathematics Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namkung, Jessica M.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine differences in early numerical competencies, as well as subtraction skill, as a function of children's mathematics difficulty (MD) status: computational difficulty (CD), word problem-solving difficulty (PD), concurrent difficulty (CDPD), or neither difficulty (i.e., typically developing; TYP). Based on…

  10. How university students with reading difficulties are supported in achieving their goals.

    PubMed

    Stack-Cutler, Holly L; Parrila, Rauno K; Jokisaari, Markku; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    We examine (a) what social ties university students with a history of reading difficulty (RD) report assisting them to achieve their goals, (b) outlets available for developing social ties, (c) resources mobilized within these relationships, and (d) the impact of social ties' status on academic achievement. Participants were 107 university students with RD who were currently completing or had recently completed a university degree. Results showed that university students with RD named friends, parents, and significant others (e.g., boy/girlfriend, spouse) as social ties most often. Personal social ties were developed through social media networking sites and within close relationships, and institutional social ties through academic centers and university general services, among others. Resources mobilized among personal and institutional social ties included emotional and social support, advice and planning, writing and studying help, and goal setting. Institutional social ties also afforded job search assistance, accommodations, skill development, financial support, and mental health services. Finally, the status of employed, but not student, social ties explained academic achievement. PMID:24127482

  11. Teachers' and Students' Perceptions of Students' Problem-Solving Difficulties in Physics: Implications for Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunleye, Ayodele O.

    2009-01-01

    In recent times, science education researchers have identified a lot of instruments for evaluating conceptual understanding as well as students' attitudes and beliefs about physics; unfortunately however, there are no broad based evaluation instruments in the field of problem-solving in physics. This missing tool is an indication of the complexity…

  12. Addressing Reticence: The Challenge of Engaging Reluctant Adult ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Steven J.; Henrichsen, Lynn E.

    2015-01-01

    Reticence frequently prevents adult ESL learners from learning as much as they otherwise might. The nature of second-language learning requires frequent performance that may challenge students' self-concepts, leading to reticence and self-consciousness. To reduce or prevent this problem, teachers must employ appropriate pedagogical and classroom…

  13. Addressing Student Trauma in the Wake of the California Wildfires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Valerie Ooka; Madueno, Marcelina; Atlas, Miriam; Stratton, Tamiko; Oliger, Jennifer; Page, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    Presidents George W. Bush and Bill Clinton declared natural disasters somewhere in the United States on average of about one per week between 1998 and 2005. Despite this frequency, most citizens are unprepared when a natural disaster occurs in their city or neighborhood. In particular, teachers and students can become paralyzed by the overwhelming…

  14. Student Generated Case Studies: Addressing the Standard of Ethical Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrington, Mary Lynne; Larsen, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Educational administration instructors seek methods that will engage students' interest in the subject matter and also link educational theory to realities experienced on the job. An equally important goal and a most important lesson to impart to aspiring education administrators are the competencies exhibited in ISLLC Standard 5, act with…

  15. Addressing Information Literacy through Student-Centered Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This case study describes several courses that resulted from a teaching partnership between an instructional technologist/professor and a librarian that evolved over several semesters, and the information literacy implications of the course formats. In order to increase student engagement, active learning and inquiry-based learning techniques were…

  16. Addressing Changing Times: Teaching Disability Etiquette to PETE Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kelle L.

    2007-01-01

    The behaviors of many college students have changed over the past 10 years. These behavioral changes include a rise in poor social skills, such as inappropriate actions and comments in social situations. It has become increasingly important for educators to incorporate proper behaviors and professional etiquette in their curricula for physical…

  17. Addressing the Concerns of Conservatoire Students about School Music Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Janet

    2005-01-01

    While most of the students who graduate each year from the Royal College of Music (RCM) in London build performance-based portfolio careers that include some teaching, very few of them enter secondary school class music teaching. This article describes how young musicians' concerns about the career of secondary class music teacher develop as they…

  18. Addressing Student Debt: A New Post Secondary Learning Support System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Access and affordability are bountiful concepts and key words used by policy makers in defining the role of post-secondary education and training in Canada. However, these words have not translated into action for many learners due to student debt. Incurred from high tuition fees, costly and complex payback schemes and under-funding, chronic…

  19. Leadership Matters: Addressing the Student Success and Completion Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClenney, Byron N.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes a movement to significantly increase student attainment in community and technical colleges. The observations of Leadership Coaches in Achieving the Dream, developed over a nine-year period of involvement, provide insight into the leadership required to transform institutional culture.

  20. Keeping Current. Library Media Specialists: Addressing the Student Health Epidemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddy, Juanita

    2005-01-01

    Health and educational leaders are sounding the alarm about the unhealthy condition of many students in America's K-12 schools. Each day, new scientific studies confirm that "The majority of American youth are sedentary and do not eat well. Sixteen percent of school-aged children and adolescents--or nine million--are overweight, a figure that has…

  1. Addressing Perceived Skill Deficiencies in Student Affairs Graduate Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Jay; Mitchell, Donald, Jr.; Eckerle, Kayle; Martin, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    This article explores existing literature on perceived skill deficiencies among entry-level student affairs practitioners. Through a review of recent literature, seven perceived skill deficiencies were identified, including budgeting and financial management, strategic planning, research and assessment, legal knowledge and standards, supervision,…

  2. What do Cells Really Look Like? An Inquiry into Students' Difficulties in Visualising a 3-D Biological Cell and Lessons for Pedagogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijapurkar, Jyotsna; Kawalkar, Aisha; Nambiar, Priya

    2014-04-01

    In our explorations of students' concepts in an inquiry science classroom with grade 6 students from urban schools in India, we uncovered a variety of problems in their understanding of biological cells as structural and functional units of living organisms. In particular, we found not only that they visualised the cell as a two-dimensional (2-D) structure, instead of a closed three-dimensional (3-D) functional unit, but that they had a strong resistance to changing their 2-D conception to a 3-D one. Based on analyses of students' oral as well as written descriptions of cells in the classroom, and of models they made of the cell, we were able to identify the causes of students' difficulties in correctly visualising the cell. These insights helped us design a pedagogy involving guided discussions and activities that challenges students' 2-D conceptions of the cell. The activities entail very simple, low-cost, easily doable techniques to help students visualise the cell and to understand that it would not be able to function if its structure were 2-D. We also present the results of our investigations of conceptions of grade 7 students and biology undergraduates, revealing that the incorrect 2-D mental model can persist right up to the college level if it is not explicitly addressed. The classroom interactions described in this study illustrate how students' ideas can be probed and addressed in the classroom using pedagogical action research.

  3. Experiences of Australian school staff in addressing student cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Gates, Peter J; Norberg, Melissa M; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit drug by Australian secondary school students yet there is scant research investigating school staff responses to student cannabis use. As such, this study surveyed 1,692 school staff who attended Generation Next seminars throughout Australia. The self-complete survey identified that the majority of school staff had discussed cannabis use at least once in the past year, although teachers were less likely to report having cannabis-related discussions compared to other school staff. Staff drug education training was consistently associated with an increased prevalence of cannabis-related discussion and assistance. These findings highlight a need for drug education among school staff and particularly among teachers. PMID:25068166

  4. Conceptual Difficulties Experienced by Senior High School Students of Electrochemistry: Electric Circuits and Oxidation-Reduction Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnett, Pamela J.; Treagust, David F.

    1992-01-01

    Interview data exemplify students' attempts to integrate the concepts of electrochemistry with related knowledge that they had previously constructed or acquired in other classes. The implications for minimizing potential misconceptions center on the difficulties students experience when using more than one model for explaining scientific…

  5. Emotional/Behavioral Difficulties and Mental Health Service Contacts of Students in Special Education for Non-Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastor, Patricia N.; Reuben, Cynthia A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Emotional/behavioral difficulties and mental health (MH) service contacts of 3 groups of youth were compared: students in special education for non-MH problems, students in special education for MH problems, and youth not in special education. Methods: Parents reported the characteristics, special education placement,…

  6. Perry's Scheme of Intellectual and Epistemological Development as a Framework for Describing Student Difficulties in Learning Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Nathaniel P.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated student difficulties with the learning of organic chemistry. Using Perry's Model of Intellectual Development as a framework revealed that organic chemistry students who function as dualistic thinkers struggle with the complexity of the subject matter. Understanding substitution/elimination reactions and multi-step syntheses is…

  7. A Model of Academic Self-Concept: Perceived Difficulty and Social Comparison among Academically Accelerated Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Hope E.; Siegle, Del; McCoach, D. Betsy; Little, Catherine A.; Reis, Sally M.

    2014-01-01

    Academic self-concept predicts students' future goals and is affected by a student's relative success compared with his or her peer group. This exploratory study used structural equation modeling to examine the contributions of the perceived level of difficulty of the curriculum, in addition to the contributions of social comparison and…

  8. Cross-Informant Agreement and Stability of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire among Finnish Mainstream and Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappalainen, Kristiina; Savolainen, Hannu; Sointu, Erkko T.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-informant agreement among student self-report, teacher report, and parent report on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire translated into Finnish (SDQ-Fin) and estimated mean convergent and divergent correlations with a sample of fifth-grade Finnish students (N = 588) and the cross-informant agreement among…

  9. Identifying Student and Teacher Difficulties in Interpreting Atomic Spectra Using a Quantum Model of Emission and Absorption of Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savall-Alemany, Francisco; Domènech-Blanco, Josep Lluís; Guisasola, Jenaro; Martínez-Torregrosa, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    Our study sets out to identify the difficulties that high school students, teachers, and university students encounter when trying to explain atomic spectra. To do so, we identify the key concepts that any quantum model for the emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation must include to account for the gas spectra and we then design two…

  10. Effects of Preventative Tutoring on the Mathematical Problem Solving of Third-Grade Students with Math and Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Powell, Sarah R.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of preventative tutoring on the math problem solving of third-grade students with math and reading difficulties. Students (n = 35) were assigned randomly to continue in their general education math program or to receive secondary preventative tutoring 3 times per week, 30 min per session, for 12 weeks.…

  11. Probing High School Students' Cognitive Structures and Key Areas of Learning Difficulties on Ethanoic Acid Using the Flow Map Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Tingting; Zheng, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was primarily to explore high school students' cognitive structures and to identify their learning difficulties on ethanoic acid through the flow map method. The subjects of this study were 30 grade 1 students from Dong Yuan Road Senior High School in Xi'an, China. The interviews were conducted a week after the students…

  12. Adjustment Difficulties and Caregiving Burdens Faced by College Students with a Parent with Bipolar or Depressive Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crandall, Erin K.; Ruggero, Camilo J.; Bain, Kathleen; Kilmer, Jared

    2014-01-01

    College campuses often host students who come from families where one or more parent has been affected by a bipolar or depressive disorder. The present study sought to determine whether these students face unique challenges in college, including increased adjustment difficulties as well as greater caregiving burden associated with their…

  13. The Creation of Task-Based Differentiated Learning Materials for Students with Learning Difficulties and/or Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Trevor; Jones, Sara; Britton, Carol; Messer, David

    This paper describes Horizon, a European-funded project designed to increase employment opportunities for students with disabilities or learning difficulties. The project established a working cafe/restaurant (Cafe Horizon) in East London staffed by students. Part of the project involved the creation of multimedia units linked directly to Level 1…

  14. "Do I Need Research Skills in Working Life?": University Students' Motivation and Difficulties in Quantitative Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtonen, Mari; Olkinuora, Erkki; Tynjala, Paivi; Lehtinen, Erno

    2008-01-01

    This study explored university students' views of whether they will need research skills in their future work in relation to their approaches to learning, situational orientations on a learning situation of quantitative methods, and difficulties experienced in quantitative research courses. Education and psychology students in both Finland (N =…

  15. Proofreading Using an Assistive Software Homophone Tool: Compensatory and Remedial Effects on the Literacy Skills of Students with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Alissa A.; Mulhern, Gerry; Wylie, Judith

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of using an assistive software homophone tool on the assisted proofreading performance and unassisted basic skills of secondary-level students with reading difficulties. Students aged 13 to 15 years proofread passages for homophonic errors under three conditions: with the homophone tool, with homophones…

  16. Identifying student and teacher difficulties in interpreting atomic spectra using a quantum model of emission and absorption of radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savall-Alemany, Francisco; Domènech-Blanco, Josep Lluís; Guisasola, Jenaro; Martínez-Torregrosa, Joaquín

    2016-06-01

    Our study sets out to identify the difficulties that high school students, teachers, and university students encounter when trying to explain atomic spectra. To do so, we identify the key concepts that any quantum model for the emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation must include to account for the gas spectra and we then design two questionnaires, one for teachers and the other for students. By analyzing the responses, we conclude that (i) teachers lack a quantum model for the emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation capable of explaining the spectra, (ii) teachers and students share the same difficulties, and (iii) these difficulties concern the model of the atom, the model of radiation, and the model of the interaction between them.

  17. Darwin's Difficulties and Students' Struggles with Trait Loss: Cognitive-Historical Parallelisms in Evolutionary Explanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Minsu; Nehm, Ross H.

    2014-05-01

    Although historical changes in scientific ideas sometimes display striking similarities with students' conceptual progressions, some scholars have cautioned that such similarities lack meaningful commonalities. In the history of evolution, while Darwin and his contemporaries often used natural selection to explain evolutionary trait gain or increase, they struggled to use it to convincingly account for cases of trait loss or decrease. This study examines Darwin's evolutionary writings about trait gain and loss in the Origin of Species (On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. D. Appleton, New York, 1859) and compares them to written evolutionary explanations for trait gain and loss in a large (n > 500), cross-cultural and cross-sectional sample (novices and experts from the USA and Korea). Findings indicate that significantly more students and experts applied natural selection to cases of trait gain, but like Darwin and his contemporaries, they more often applied `use and disuse' and `inheritance of acquired characteristics' to episodes of trait loss. Although the parallelism between Darwin's difficulties and students' struggles with trait loss are striking, significant differences also characterize explanatory model structure. Overall, however, students and scientists struggles to explain trait loss—which is a very common phenomenon in the history of life—appear to transcend time, place, and level of biological expertise. The significance of these findings for evolution education are discussed; in particular, the situated nature of biological reasoning, and the important role that the history of science can play in understanding cognitive constraints on science learning.

  18. School Nurses' Perceived Prevalence and Competence to Address Student Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…

  19. Overcoming Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arreguin-Anderson, Maria Guadalupe; Esquierdo, Jennifer Joy

    2011-01-01

    Learning science for bilingual students involves much more than mastering concepts and science process skills. Although classroom investigations and hands-on activities promote comprehension, bilingual learners still experience specific language difficulties related to unfamiliar discourse structures and grammatical forms that must be used while…

  20. A Student-Led Health Education Initiative Addressing Health Disparities in a Chinatown Community

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Benjamin J.; So, Chunkit; Chiu, Brandon G.; Polisetty, Radhika; Quiñones-Boex, Ana; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Together with community advocates, professional student organizations can help improve access to health care and sustain services to address the health disparities of a community in need. This paper examines the health concerns of an underserved Chinese community and introduces a student-led health education initiative that fosters service learning and student leadership. The initiative was recognized by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) and received the 2012-2013 Student Community Engaged Service Award. PMID:26839422

  1. A Student-Led Health Education Initiative Addressing Health Disparities in a Chinatown Community.

    PubMed

    Lee, Benjamin J; Wang, Sheila K; So, Chunkit; Chiu, Brandon G; Wang, Wesley Y; Polisetty, Radhika; Quiñones-Boex, Ana; Liu, Hong

    2015-11-25

    Together with community advocates, professional student organizations can help improve access to health care and sustain services to address the health disparities of a community in need. This paper examines the health concerns of an underserved Chinese community and introduces a student-led health education initiative that fosters service learning and student leadership. The initiative was recognized by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) and received the 2012-2013 Student Community Engaged Service Award. PMID:26839422

  2. Teaching assistants' performance at identifying common introductory student difficulties in mechanics revealed by the Force Concept Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-06-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has been widely used to assess student understanding of introductory mechanics concepts by a variety of educators and physics education researchers. One reason for this extensive use is that many of the items on the FCI have strong distractor choices which correspond to students' alternate conceptions in mechanics. Instruction is unlikely to be effective if instructors do not know the common alternate conceptions of introductory physics students and explicitly take into account students' initial knowledge states in their instructional design. Here, we discuss research involving the FCI to evaluate one aspect of the pedagogical content knowledge of teaching assistants (TAs): knowledge of introductory student alternate conceptions in mechanics as revealed by the FCI. For each item on the FCI, the TAs were asked to identify the most common incorrect answer choice of introductory physics students. This exercise was followed by a class discussion with the TAs related to this task, including the importance of knowing student difficulties in teaching and learning. Then, we used FCI pretest and post-test data from a large population (˜900 ) of introductory physics students to assess the extent to which TAs were able to identify alternate conceptions of introductory students related to force and motion. In addition, we carried out think-aloud interviews with graduate students who had more than two semesters of teaching experience in recitations to examine how they reason about the task. We find that while the TAs, on average, performed better than random guessing at identifying introductory students' difficulties with FCI content, they did not identify many common difficulties that introductory physics students have after traditional instruction. We discuss specific alternate conceptions, the extent to which TAs are able to identify them, and results from the think-aloud interviews that provided valuable information about why TAs sometimes

  3. Experiences and difficulties encountered during a course on veterinary public health with students of different nationalities.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, Mauro; de Balogh, Katinka K I M

    2005-01-01

    Veterinary public health (VPH) issues have received increased attention over the last few years as a result of the rising threat of emerging zoonoses (i.e., those due to globalized trade in animal and animal products and to changes in livestock production systems and the environment). The international dimension of VPH is gradually becoming recognized, and there is a growing need for veterinarians with experience in this field. In order to familiarize (future) veterinarians with the international dimension of VPH, the Department of Public Health and Food Safety of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, has been organizing a course in Veterinary Public Health and Animal Production for over the last 10 years. This course has been intended for Dutch as well as foreign final-year veterinary students and recent veterinary graduates. By bringing together participants from different countries, the course reinforces the international dimension of the issues addressed through the exchange of experiences by the participants themselves. The present article provides information about this course on Veterinary Public Health (VPH): it discusses logistics, didactical approaches, the course program, and the use of information and communication technology (ICT). Special attention is given to the intercultural aspects of higher education, all of which play an important role in the efficient exchange of knowledge between lecturers and students. International courses are an important tool to enable participants to interact in a multicultural environment and address issues that demand international cooperation and a global public health focus. PMID:16261501

  4. An Investigation into the Performance, Solution Strategies and Difficulties in Middle School Students' Calculation of the Volume of a Rectangular Prism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekin-Sitrava, Reyhan; Isiksal-Bostan, Mine

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined middle school students' performance, solution strategies, difficulties and the underlying reasons for their difficulties in calculating the volume of a rectangular prism. The data was collected from 35 middle school students (6th, 7th and 8th grade students) enrolled in a private school in Istanbul, Turkey. The…

  5. Addressing the Academic and Social Needs of Young Male Students through School-Based Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Curtis E.

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed the problem within the U.S. public school system to sustainably meet the academic and social needs of its African American male students. The administrative team of the elementary school in this study desired an evaluation of a school-based male mentoring program that was designed to address these needs. The program, Gentlemen…

  6. An Investigation into Students' Difficulties in Numerical Problem Solving Questions in High School Biology Using a Numeracy Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Fraser J.

    2016-01-01

    The "mathematics problem" is a well-known source of difficulty for students attempting numerical problem solving questions in the context of science education. This paper illuminates this problem from a biology education perspective by invoking Hogan's numeracy framework. In doing so, this study has revealed that the contextualisation of…

  7. Effects of Parental Expectations and Cultural-Values Orientation on Career Decision-Making Difficulties of Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, S. Alvin; Hou, Zhi-Jin; Gati, Itamar; Li, Xixi

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of cultural-values conflict and parental expectations on the career decision-making difficulties of university students in three cities in China (Beijing, Wuhan, and Hong Kong, N = 1342). The Multidimensional Scales of Individual Traditionality and Modernity (Yang, Yu, & Ye, 1989) were used as a measure of…

  8. Teachers' Teaching Practices and Beliefs Regarding Context-Based Tasks and Their Relation with Students' Difficulties in Solving These Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijaya, Ariyadi; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Doorman, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated teachers' teaching practices and their underlying beliefs regarding context-based tasks to find a possible explanation for students' difficulties with these tasks. The research started by surveying 27 Junior High School teachers from seven schools in Indonesia through a written questionnaire. Then, to further examine…

  9. The Impact of Academic Self-Efficacy, Acculturation Difficulties, and Language Abilities on Procrastination Behavior in Chinese International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowinger, Robert Jay; He, Zhaomin; Lin, Miranda; Chang, Mei

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role of academic self-efficacy, acculturation difficulties, and language abilities on procrastination behavior using a convenience sample of 264 Chinese international students studying at three public universities in the United States. While there were no significant mean gender differences on any of the measures, results…

  10. The Construction of a Double-Entry Table: A Study of Primary and Secondary School Students' Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marti, Eduardo; Garcia-Mila, Merce; Gabucio, Fernando; Konstantinidou, Katerina

    2011-01-01

    Tables are a presentation format that is commonly used to organize information, and they are widely present in many scenarios of our students' everyday activities; however, there is a scarcity of studies devoted to their analysis. Some of these studies point out that the organization of data into a double-entry table presents difficulties for…

  11. The Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire: Russian Validation of the Teacher Version and Comparison of Teacher and Student Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruchkin, Vladislav; Koposov, Roman; Vermeiren, Robert; Schwab-Stone, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To confirm factor structure of the teacher Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and to compare teacher and student reports in Russian youth. Method: The SDQ and psychopathology measures were completed by teachers in a representative sample of urban adolescents (N = 528). The factor structure was examined on two randomly…

  12. A Study on the Development of Reading Skills of the Students Having Difficulty in Reading: Enrichment Reading Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyol, Hayati; Çakiroglu, Ahmet; Kuruyer, Hayriye Gül

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to improve the reading skills of the students having difficulty in reading through an enrichment reading program. The current study was conducted by means of one-subject research technique and between-subjects multiple-baseline levels model belonging to this technique. The study was carried out with three participants from…

  13. A Review of Teaching Sentence-Level Writing Skills to Students with Writing Difficulties and Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datchuk, Shawn M.; Kubina, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Students with writing difficulties and learning disabilities struggle with many aspects of the writing process, including use of sentence-level skills. This literature review summarizes results from 19 published articles that used single-case or group-experimental and quasi-experimental designs to investigate effects of intervention on the…

  14. Difficulties of Student Teachers in the Engineering Graphics and Design Course at a South African University: Snapshot on Sectional Drawing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makgato, Moses; Khoza, Samuel D.

    2016-01-01

    Engineering Graphics and Design (EGD) is a university course that teaches a medium of communication in the form of drawings. This study was undertaken to investigate factors associated with the difficulties experienced by student teachers in the sectional drawing component of the EGD course. Purposive sampling was used to select 40 students…

  15. Word Prediction Programs with Phonetic Spelling Support: Performance Comparisons and Impact on Journal Writing for Students with Writing Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evmenova, Anna S.; Graff, Heidi J.; Jerome, Marci Kinas; Behrmann, Michael M.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of currently available word prediction software programs that support phonetic/inventive spelling on the quality of journal writing by six students with severe writing and/or spelling difficulties in grades three through six during a month-long summer writing program. A changing conditions single-subject…

  16. The Usability Evaluation of Fakih Method Based on Technology for Students with Hearing Difficulties: The User's Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabdan, Muhammad Sayuti Bin; Alias, Norlidah; Jomhari, Nazean; Jamaludin, Khairul Azhar; DeWitt, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    The study is aimed at evaluating the FAKIH method based on technology in teaching al-Quran, based on the user's retrospective. The participants of this study were five students selected based on hearing difficulties. The study employed the user evaluation framework. Teacher's journals were used to determine the frequency and percentage of…

  17. Aspects of Cohesion and Coherence in Context: Investigating Causes of Difficulty for Israeli University Students Reading Texts in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensoussan, Marsha

    A study investigating the influence of certain features of cohesion and coherence on Israeli college students' difficulty in reading English expository texts examined the reader's ability to understand sequences of propositions and familiarity with markers of cohesion. Three methods were used to investigate the problem: application of a…

  18. Challenges and Management Frameworks of Residential Schools for Students with Severe Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Stella Suk-ching; Leung, Ka-wai

    2012-01-01

    This study by Stella Suk-Ching Chong, an assistant professor, and Ka-wai Leung, a teaching fellow, both at the Hong Kong Institute of Education, focuses on the perspectives of hostel staff from six residential schools for students with severe emotional and behavioural difficulties. Individual or focus group interviews were conducted to explore the…

  19. Effect of Self-Instruction Strategy on the Achievement in Algebra of Students with Learning Difficulty in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adani, Anthony; Eskay, Michael; Onu, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study examined the effect of self-instruction strategy on the achievement in algebra of students with learning difficulty in mathematics. Two research questions and one null hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted a non-randomized pre-test and post-test control group design with one experimental…

  20. Formative Assessment Pre-Test to Identify College Students' Prior Knowledge, Misconceptions and Learning Difficulties in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Lieb, Carl

    2006-01-01

    A formative assessment pretest was administered to undergraduate students at the beginning of a science course in order to find out their prior knowledge, misconceptions and learning difficulties on the topic of the human respiratory system and energy issues. Those findings could provide their instructors with the valuable information required in…

  1. Seventeen Projects Carried out by Students Designing for and with Disabled Children: Identifying Designers' Difficulties during the Whole Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnier, Cecile; Thomann, Guillaume; Villeneuve, Francois

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to identify the difficulties that may arise when designing assistive devices for disabled children. Seventeen design projects involving disabled children, engineering students, and special schools were analysed. A content analysis of the design reports was performed. For this purpose, a coding scheme was built based on a review…

  2. Reentry Difficulty, Life Satisfaction and Psychological Well-Being of Taiwanese Students Who Have Returned from the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pai, Hui-Chuan

    This article examines the relationship among 11 selected factors and reentry difficulty, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being of Taiwanese students returning home from the United States. The results of the questionnaire showed that returnees' reentry adjustment was affected by gender, willingness to return home, overall satisfaction…

  3. Addressing Task Avoidance in Middle School Students: Academic Behavior Check-In/Check-Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turtura, Jessica E.; Anderson, Cynthia M.; Boyd, R. Justin

    2014-01-01

    Multitier prevention systems consist of a continuum of interventions to address the needs of all students. Within such systems, Tier I supports are in place for all students and are designed to enhance prosocial (social behavior interventions) and academic (instructional interventions) skills. Tier II interventions supplement the Tier I…

  4. Applying Universal Design to Address the Needs of Postsecondary Students on the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgstahler, Sheryl; Russo-Gleicher, Rosalie J.

    2015-01-01

    Legislation and contemporary social policies that favor inclusion and academic accommodations have contributed to a rise in the enrollment of students with disabilities, including students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), on postsecondary campuses today. However, the literature is scarce about how instructors can routinely address the needs of…

  5. Persistence of Latino Students in Community Colleges: An Empowerment Model Addressing Acculturative Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    College student persistence has been a concern of researchers and practitioners since the early 1960s. Traditional models have addressed the need for students to be integrated into the academic and social domains of the college campus. Recently, critical theorists and researchers have been questioning the relevance of the traditional models for…

  6. Strategies Reported Used by Instructors to Address Student Alternate Conceptions in Chemical Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piquette, Jeff S.; Heikkinen, Henry W.

    2005-01-01

    This study explores general-chemistry instructors' awareness of and ability to identify and address common student learning obstacles in chemical equilibrium. Reported instructor strategies directed at remediating student alternate conceptions were investigated and compared with successful, literature-based conceptual change methods. Fifty-two…

  7. Addressing Students' Language Needs in a Bilingual ASL and English Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadow, C. Michelle; Kite, Bobbie Jo; Drew, Jen

    2010-01-01

    In the fall of 2008, the authors began team teaching in a bilingual American Sign Language (ASL)/English classroom. They faced the same challenge teachers everywhere face: a new year with new goals and a classroom of students with diverse learning needs. This article discusses how the authors address students' language needs in a bilingual ASL and…

  8. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…

  9. An Integrated Approach to Addressing Addiction and Depression in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Arri; Kushner, Howard; McLeod, Mark; Queen, Edward; Gordon, Jonathan; Ford, John L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present an integrated, interdisciplinary approach to address the problem of increasing student mental health issues on college campuses. The model uses addiction and depression as lenses into the problem and links residence life and academic and community internship experiences. The project has a positive impact on student attitudes…

  10. Addressing the Challenges and Needs of English-Speaking Caribbean Immigrant Students: Guidelines for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Stephaney; Bryan, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Caribbean students are among the distinct immigrant groups in U.S. public schools with particular needs to be addressed by school counselors. This article discusses the challenges Caribbean immigrant students face that create obstacles to their academic and personal/social success. Guidelines for school counselors are outlined, which can be used…

  11. Addressing the Needs of Students Who Speak a Nonstandard English Dialect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Milton; Holland, Rochelle

    2007-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study was conducted to assess and address the instructional needs of students who use a nonstandard English dialect for subject-verb agreement in their writing. Fifty-four students of diverse ethnicities in remedial English courses were divided into control and experimental groups. The researchers used four different…

  12. Bridging the Gap: Essential Issues to Address in Recurring Writing Center Appointments with Chinese ELL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nan, Frances

    2012-01-01

    As the population of international--and particularly Chinese--students grows in US academic institutions, it is critical that writing center tutors be able to address these students' needs. However, whereas writing tutors at the author's institution are often taught to be indirect and focus on higher order concerns, such strategies are not always…

  13. Perceived Competence in Addressing Student Substance Abuse: A National Survey of Middle School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J.; Lopez, Adriana L.; Slagle, Clark P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Student substance abuse is a serious concern for middle school personnel. School counselors are most likely to deliver mental health services, including substance abuse, in school settings. However, limited research is available on the perceived competence of middle school counselors for addressing student substance abuse concerns. The…

  14. Addressing the Marginalized Student: The Secondary Principal's Role in Eliminating Deficit Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simone, Joseph Anthony

    2012-01-01

    As federal mandates purport to improve the academic achievement of all students, the achievement gap between White students and their marginalized peers has not closed. The persistency of the gap raises the notion that the answer to addressing the achievement gap may not lie in policies or practices. The alternative then is to explore the…

  15. Recollection but Not Familiarity Differentiates Memory for Text in Students with and without Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirandola, Chiara; Del Prete, Francesco; Ghetti, Simona; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2011-01-01

    The present research was aimed at investigating recognition memory and recollective experience for a text in adolescents with and without learning difficulties. Adolescents (age 15 to 19) with learning difficulties were selected based on their performance on a standardized test for text comprehension and on the teachers' evaluations of their…

  16. Twelve tips for addressing medical student and resident physician lapses in professionalism.

    PubMed

    Rougas, Steven; Gentilesco, Bethany; Green, Emily; Flores, Libertad

    2015-01-01

    Medical educators have gained significant ground in the practical and scholarly approach to professionalism. When a lapse occurs, thoughtful remediation to address the underlying issue can have a positive impact on medical students and resident physicians, while failure to address lapses, or to do so ineffectively, can have long-term consequences for learners and potentially patients. Despite these high stakes, educators are often hesitant to address lapses in professionalism, possibly due to a lack of time and familiarity with the process. Attention must be paid to generalizable, hands-on recommendations for daily use so that clinicians and administrators feel well equipped to tackle this often difficult yet valuable task. This article reviews the literature related to addressing unprofessional behavior among trainees in medicine and connects it to the shared experience of medical educators at one institution. The framework presented aims to provide practical guidance and empowerment for educators responsible for addressing medical student and resident physician lapses in professionalism. PMID:25665630

  17. Understanding and Addressing the Challenges of Assessing College Student Growth in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    Asking college students how much they have learned or grown is a common assessment practice in student affairs and elsewhere. Unfortunately, recent research suggests that these self-reported gains do a very poor job of measuring actual student learning and growth. This paper provides an overview of the psychological process of how students likely…

  18. Addressing Student Teachers Self-Identified Needs through the Student Teaching Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawser, Tammy L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to identify and describe perceived individual needs of California elementary student teachers about their impending student teaching experience. The study also recognized how well student teachers identified needs were met by the student teaching experience. Methodology: The study involved two phases. In the…

  19. Medical Student Volunteerism Addresses Patients' Social Needs: A Novel Approach to Patient-Centered Care

    PubMed Central

    Onyekere, Chinwe; Ross, Sandra; Namba, Alexa; Ross, Justin C.; Mann, Barry D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Healthcare providers must be equipped to recognize and address patients' psychosocial needs to improve overall health outcomes. To give future healthcare providers the tools and training necessary to identify and address psychosocial issues, Lankenau Medical Center in partnership with the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine designed the Medical Student Advocate (MSA) program. Methods: The MSA program places volunteer second-year osteopathic medical students in care coordination teams at Lankenau Medical Associates, a primary care practice serving a diverse patient population in the Philadelphia, PA, region. As active members of the team, MSAs are referred high-risk patients who have resource needs such as food, employment, child care, and transportation. MSAs work collaboratively with patients and the multidisciplinary team to address patients' nonmedical needs. Results: From August 2013 to August 2015, 31 osteopathic medical students volunteered for the MSA program and served 369 patients with 720 identified needs. Faculty and participating medical students report that the MSA program provided an enhanced understanding of the holistic nature of patient care and a comprehensive view of patient needs. Conclusion: The MSA program provides students with a unique educational opportunity that encompasses early exposure to patient interaction, social determinants of health, population health, and interdisciplinary collaboration. Students develop skills to help them build patient relationships, understand the psychosocial factors shaping health outcomes, and engage with other healthcare professionals. This work in the preclinical years provides students with the knowledge to help them perform more effectively in the changing healthcare environment. PMID:27046404

  20. How Does an Environmental Educator Address Student Engagement in a Meaningful Watershed Educational Experience (MWEE)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Char, Chelia

    Children represent the future and thus by providing them with effective environmental educational experiences, educators may be taking a critical step in preventing "the probable serious environmental problems in the future" (Gokhan, 2010, p. 56). The Meaningful Watershed Educational Experience (MWEE) is an excellent example of one such education program. MWEEs aim to educate and enhance the students' relationship with the Chesapeake Bay Watershed through an integration of classroom activities and fieldwork. As environmental educators and role models, field interpreters are a major component and significant influence on the local MWEE programs, however their perspective as to how they have impacted the programs has yet to be examined. Through a qualitative analysis and specific focus on the behavioral, emotional, and cognitive dimensions of student engagement, the researcher intended to address this void. The focus of the study was to examine how the local MWEE field interpreters understood and addressed student engagement in a field setting. This was measured via data collected from observations of and semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with each field interpreter involved with the local MWEE programs. Data analysis uncovered that field interpreters demonstrated a strong awareness of student engagement. Furthermore, they defined, recognized, and addressed student engagement within the constructs of the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive dimensions. Ultimately, the individual experiences of each MWEE field interpreter provides insight into the phenomenon, however further research is required to strengthen the awareness of how, if at all, their perspectives of student engagement directly impact student outcomes.

  1. Teachers' teaching practices and beliefs regarding context-based tasks and their relation with students' difficulties in solving these tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijaya, Ariyadi; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Doorman, Michiel

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated teachers' teaching practices and their underlying beliefs regarding context-based tasks to find a possible explanation for students' difficulties with these tasks. The research started by surveying 27 Junior High School teachers from seven schools in Indonesia through a written questionnaire. Then, to further examine teachers' teaching practices related to context-based tasks, four teachers were observed and video recorded in two mathematics lessons in which they were asked to deal with context-based tasks. The questionnaire data revealed that the teachers had a tendency toward a view on teaching and learning mathematics which includes encouraging students to be actively involved in solving problems in various contexts. Although this finding suggests that the teachers may offer opportunities to learn context-based tasks to students, the questionnaire data also revealed that the teachers saw context-based tasks as plain word problems. Furthermore, the observations disclosed that their teaching was mainly teacher-centered and directive, which is not considered to be supportive for learning to solve context-based tasks. Combining the findings of this study with the results from our earlier study on Indonesian students' errors when solving context-based tasks, we found a relationship between how Indonesian teachers teach context-based tasks and the errors Indonesian students make in solving these tasks. These findings support the conclusion that insufficient opportunity-to-learn to solve context-based tasks offered by teachers is a possible explanation for students' difficulties in solving these tasks.

  2. The Effects of a Growth Mindset Intervention on the Beliefs about Intelligence, Effort Beliefs, Achievement Goal Orientations, and Academic Self-Efficacy of LD Students with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldridge, Mary Caufield

    2010-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a "growth mindset" intervention on the beliefs about intelligence, effort beliefs, achievement goals, and academic self-efficacy of learning disabled (LD) students with reading difficulties. The treatment group consisted of 12 high school LD students with reading difficulties. This…

  3. The Effect of Direct Instruction Strategy on Math Achievement of Primary 4th and 5th Grade Students with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Makahleh, Ahmad Abdulhameed Aufan

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to verify the effect of direct instruction strategy on Math achievment of students with learning difficulties in the fourth and fifth grade levels and measure the improvement in their attitudes to Mathematics. Sample consisted of sixty (60) students with Math learning difficulties attending 4th and 5th grade level resource rooms…

  4. Conceptual difficulties experienced by senior high school students of electrochemistry: Electric circuits and oxidation-reduction equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnett, Pamela J.; Treagust, David F.

    The purpose of this research was to investigate students' understanding of electrochemistry following a course of instruction. A list of conceptual and propositional knowledge statements was formulated to identify the knowledge base necessary for students to understand electric circuits and oxidation-reduction equations. The conceptual and propositional knowledge statements provided the framework for the development of a semistructured interview protocol which was administered to 32 students in their final year of high school chemistry. The interview questions about electric circuits revealed that several students in the sample were confused about the nature of electric current both in metallic conductors and in electrolytes. Students studying both physics and chemistry were more confused about current flow in metallic conductors than students who were only studying chemistry. In the section of the interview which focused on oxidation and reduction, many students experienced problems in identifying oxidation-reduction equations. Several misconceptions relating to the inappropriate use of definitions of oxidation and reduction were identified. The data illustrate how students attempted to make sense of the concepts of electrochemistry with the knowledge they had already developed or constructed. The implications of the research are that teachers, curriculum developers, and textbook writers, if they are to minimize potential misconceptions, need to be cognizant of the relationship between physics and chemistry teaching, of the need to test for erroneous preconceptions about current before teaching about electrochemical (galvanic) and electrolytic cells, and of the difficulties experienced by students when using more than one model to explain scientific phenomena.

  5. Emotion Regulation Difficulties, Youth-Adult Relationships, and Suicide Attempts Among High School Students in Underserved Communities

    PubMed Central

    Pisani, Anthony R.; Wyman, Peter A.; Petrova, Mariya; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Goldston, David B.; Xia, Yinglin; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2013-01-01

    To develop and refine interventions to prevent youth suicide, knowledge is needed about specific processes that reduce risk at a population level. Using a cross-sectional design, the present study tested hypotheses regarding associations between self-reported suicide attempts, emotion regulation difficulties, and positive youth-adult relationships among 7,978 high-school students (48.6% male, 49.9% female) in 30 high schools from predominantly rural, low-income communities. 683 students (8.6%) reported a past-year suicide attempt. Emotion regulation difficulties and a lack of trusted adults at home and school were associated with increased risk for making a past-year suicide attempt, above and beyond the effects of depressive symptoms and demographic factors. The association between emotion regulation difficulties and suicide attempts was modestly lower among students who perceived themselves as having higher levels of trusted adults in the family, consistent with a protective effect. Having a trusted adult in the community (outside of school and family) was associated with fewer suicide attempts in models that controlled only for demographic covariates, but not when taking symptoms of depression into account. These findings point to adolescent emotion regulation and relationships with trusted adults as complementary targets for suicide prevention that merit further intervention studies. Reaching these targets in a broad population of adolescents will require new delivery systems and “option rich” intervention designs. PMID:23666604

  6. Emotion regulation difficulties, youth-adult relationships, and suicide attempts among high school students in underserved communities.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Anthony R; Wyman, Peter A; Petrova, Mariya; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Goldston, David B; Xia, Yinglin; Gould, Madelyn S

    2013-06-01

    To develop and refine interventions to prevent youth suicide, knowledge is needed about specific processes that reduce risk at a population level. Using a cross-sectional design, the present study tested hypotheses regarding associations between self-reported suicide attempts, emotion regulation difficulties, and positive youth-adult relationships among 7,978 high-school students (48.6% male, 49.9% female) in 30 high schools from predominantly rural, low-income communities. 683 students (8.6%) reported a past-year suicide attempt. Emotion regulation difficulties and a lack of trusted adults at home and school were associated with increased risk for making a past-year suicide attempt, above and beyond the effects of depressive symptoms and demographic factors. The association between emotion regulation difficulties and suicide attempts was modestly lower among students who perceived themselves as having higher levels of trusted adults in the family, consistent with a protective effect. Having a trusted adult in the community (outside of school and family) was associated with fewer suicide attempts in models that controlled only for demographic covariates, but not when taking symptoms of depression into account. These findings point to adolescent emotion regulation and relationships with trusted adults as complementary targets for suicide prevention that merit further intervention studies. Reaching these targets in a broad population of adolescents will require new delivery systems and "option rich" (OR) intervention designs. PMID:23666604

  7. Relations among Student Effort, Perceived Class Difficulty Appropriateness, and Student Evaluations of Teaching: Is It Possible to "Buy" Better Evaluations through Lenient Grading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckert, Teresa M.; Latier, Amanda; Ringwald-Burton, Amy; Drazen, Colleen

    2006-01-01

    Some professors argue that it is possible to "buy" higher course evaluations by grading more leniently and requiring less work. This study investigated the relations of student effort, appropriateness of class difficulty, and course evaluations with a sample of 463 undergraduates from a mid-sized, Midwestern university. Findings support the…

  8. The Gauss and Ampere Laws: Different Laws but Similar Difficulties for Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guisasola, Jenaro; Almudi, Jose M.; Salinas, Julia; Zuza, Kristina; Ceberio, Mikel

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to analyse university students' reasoning regarding two laws of electromagnetism: Gauss's law and Ampere's law. It has been supposed that the problems seen in understanding and applying both laws do not spring from students' misconceptions. Students habitually use reasoning known in the literature as 'common sense' methodology that…

  9. Coming to America: Challenges and Difficulties Faced by African Student Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jenny; Opio, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    There is a considerable lack of literature on international student athletes despite the extent to which colleges and universities are increasingly relying on them to heighten the winning reputation of their sports programs. This research focuses on international student athletes from Africa. Based on interviews of 16 student athletes from seven…

  10. Difficulties Encountered by Both Teachers and Students in Teaching and Learning Turkish as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canbulat, Mehmet; Dilekçi, Atilla

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to identify and suggest solutions to the problems experienced by students learning Turkish as a second language according to the opinions of both teachers and students evaluated. The research has been conducted among the classroom teachers, Turkish language teachers and the students attending the schools in…

  11. First Publications in Refereed English Journals: Difficulties, Coping Strategies, and Recommendations for Student Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Yin Ling

    2010-01-01

    This research studies the first attempts by applied linguistics doctoral students in Hong Kong to publish their work in a refereed journal in English. Interviews were conducted with students to learn about their experience in the publication process. The interview data indicate that the applied linguistics doctoral students adopted specific…

  12. Metacognitive Components of Students' Difficulties in the First Year of University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costabile, Angela; Cornoldi, Cesare; De Beni, Rossana; Manfredi, Paola; Figliuzzi, Sante

    2013-01-01

    Metacognition is a good predictor of University students' achievement and should be more systematically considered since it might also help reduce student drop outs. In particular drop out is a dramatic problem for Italian Universities since it may concern more than 40% of students. The identification of factors that lead to academic failure and…

  13. Measuring Sixth-Grade Students' Problem Solving: Validating an Instrument Addressing the Mathematics Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostic, Jonathan David; Sondergeld, Toni A.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development of a problem-solving instrument intended for classroom use that addresses the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. In this study, 137 students completed the assessment, and their responses were analyzed. Evidence for validity was collected and examined using the current standards for educational and…

  14. Faculty Attitudes toward Addressing Mental Health Conditions and Substance Abuse among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor-Merrigan, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    The continued prevalence of mental health conditions and substance abuse among students enrolled in institutions of higher education is a significant and progressing concern, with marked impact on retention, academic success, graduation rate, and alarming personal consequences. Yet, many institutions struggle with successfully addressing these…

  15. Addressing Barriers to Student Learning & Promoting Healthy Development: A Usable Research-Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2004

    2004-01-01

    As schools evolve improvement plans in keeping with higher standards and expectations and increased accountability, most planners recognize they must include a comprehensive focus on addressing barriers to student learning and promoting healthy development. A growing volume of research on the value of schools, families, and communities working…

  16. Addressing Students' Alternative Conceptions on the Propagation of Periodic Waves Using a Refutational Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caleon, Imelda; Subramaniam, R.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of a refutational text in addressing the alternative conceptions held by secondary school students on the topic of wave propagation in an elastic medium was explored in this study. The refutational text, which was 816 words long and featured the particle-spring model, was found to be more effective in promoting conceptual change…

  17. Addressing the Religious and Spiritual Diversity of Students with Disabilities and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elhoweris, Hala; Whittaker, Catharine; Salend, Spencer J.

    2007-01-01

    It is critical for educators to understand the influence of religion or spirituality on students and their families. This article reviews the literature addressing religious, spiritual, and cultural beliefs with an emphasis on quality-of-life issues and provides suggestions educators can use to enhance the services that they provide.

  18. Addressing Barriers to Student Learning & Promoting Healthy Development: A Usable Research-Base. A Center Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    This report discusses the importance of and bases for initiatives to enhance students' social, emotional, and behavioral performance as an essential facet of improving academic performance. Research on comprehensive approaches for addressing barriers to learning is still in development. Data from natural experiments underscore societal inequities…

  19. Teach, but Don't Preach: Practical Guidelines for Addressing Spiritual Concerns of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, James T.

    2004-01-01

    Guidelines based on the American School Counselor Association's ethical codes and various social studies teaching techniques are presented for school counselors to use as they address the spiritual concerns of students. The role of the First Amendment in "spiritual" counseling in public schools and various multicultural considerations are explored…

  20. Addressing Peer Death by Suicide: The School's Role in the Aftermath of Student Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxson, Sarah A.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent suicide devastates family, friends, and the larger community of the deceased. This dissertation seeks to explore the impact of peer death by suicide on students in the school system, and the policies that schools have put in place to address these effects. This work will critically evaluate current suicide bereavement interventions, and…

  1. Beyond school re-entry: addressing the long-term needs of students with brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Janus, P L; Mishkin, L W; Pearson, S

    1997-01-01

    Educators today face the challenge of providing appropriate programs for students with a wide variety of needs. Students with acquired brain injuries may sustain permanent physical, cognitive, and psycho-social sequelae which can significantly impact their ability to function at home, in school, and in the community. After discharge from a rehabilitation facility, the educational system becomes critical in facilitating the student's ongoing progress. Addressing the long-term needs of students with brain injuries requires that educational personnel become knowledgeable about appropriate learning strategies and program modifications. This article describes the educational outcomes of students with acquired brain injuries, discusses critical features of effective programs, and suggests interventions for consideration in instructional planning. PMID:24526106

  2. Development and Validation of Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) for Identifying Students with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valladolid, Violeta C.

    2015-01-01

    The role of classroom teachers in the early detection of learning difficulty/disability in school children cannot be ignored. When it comes to young children's literacy learning, there is substantial consensus that the teacher is the primary assessment agent (Johnston & Rogers, 2002). But classroom teachers also have a lot of responsibilities…

  3. The Relative Effects of Group Size on Reading Progress of Older Students with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Wanzek, Jeanne; Wexler, Jade; Barth, Amy; Cirino, Paul T.; Fletcher, Jack; Romain, Melissa; Denton, Carolyn A.; Roberts, Greg; Francis, David

    2010-01-01

    This study reports findings on the relative effects from a yearlong secondary intervention contrasting large-group, small-group, and school-provided interventions emphasizing word study, vocabulary development, fluency, and comprehension with seventh- and eighth-graders with reading difficulties. Findings indicate that few statistically…

  4. Bullying Experiences of Students with Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (SEBD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Hajdukova, Eva; Hornby, Garry; Cushman, Penni

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on the accounts of 29 boys identified as having severe social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD) who were attending a residential school in New Zealand. Through in-depth, semi-structured and focus group interviews, a number of salient features of their schooling experiences emerged. One of these features was the…

  5. Genius Is Not Immune to Persistent Misconceptions: Conceptual Difficulties Impeding Isaac Newton and Contemporary Physics Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Melvin S.; And Others

    Recent research has shown that serious misconceptions frequently survive high school and university instruction in mechanics. It is interesting to inquire whether Newton himself encountered conceptual difficulties before he wrote the "Principia." This paper compares Newton's pre-"Principia" beliefs, based upon his writings, with those of…

  6. Teaching Cell Division to Secondary School Students: An Investigation of Difficulties Experienced by Turkish Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oztap, Haydar; Ozay, Esra; Oztap, Fulya

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the difficulties biology teachers face when teaching cell division in the secondary schools of the central part of the Erzurum province in Turkey. During this research, a questionnaire was distributed to a total of 36 secondary school biology teachers. Findings of the study indicate biology teachers perceive cell division as…

  7. Using Student Ability and Item Difficulty for Making Defensible Pass/Fail Decisions for Borderline Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulruf, Boaz; Jones, Phil; Turner, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    The determination of Pass/Fail decisions over Borderline grades, (i.e., grades which do not clearly distinguish between the competent and incompetent examinees) has been an ongoing challenge for academic institutions. This study utilises the Objective Borderline Method (OBM) to determine examinee ability and item difficulty, and from that…

  8. Students' Behaviour Difficulties, Sense of Coherence and Adjustment at School: Risk and Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efrati-Virtzer, M.; Margalit, M.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to examine the characteristics of non-referred children with behaviour difficulties (BD) (such as verbal and physical aggression towards children and objects), aged 9-12 years and attending mainstream schools, and to compare them with children with no BD. The second objective was to evaluate the contribution of a…

  9. Changing Attitudes: Supporting Teachers in Effectively Including Students with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Mainstream Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Geraldine; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Pupils with emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) are often considered the most challenging group to manage within mainstream education. The challenges perceived by teachers may be due, in part, to negative attitudes towards this cohort of pupils, which may exacerbate feelings of inadequacy and impact negatively upon direct interactions…

  10. Providing Effective Support to Teachers in Addressing Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Mainstream Classrooms in a Bangalore Pre-Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Souza, Mildred; Jament, Johnson

    2015-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted on children's social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD) in a single pre-primary school in Bangalore, with the objective of developing a behaviour management policy for use by teachers. Limited evidence is available in the Indian literature in the area of SEBD and it remains important to know how…

  11. The inadequacy of Individual Educational Program (IEP) goals for high school students with word-level reading difficulties.

    PubMed

    Catone, William V; Brady, Susan A

    2005-06-01

    This investigation analyzed goals from the Individual Educational Programs (IEPs) of 54 high school students with diagnosed reading disabilities in basic skills (decoding and/or word identification). Results showed that for 73% of the students, the IEPs written when they were in high school failed to specify any objectives regarding their acute difficulties with basic skills. IEPs from earlier points in the students' educations were also reviewed, as available. For 23 of the students, IEPs were present in the students' files for three time points: elementary school (ES), middle school (MS), and high school (HS). Another 20 students from the sample of 54 had IEPs available for two time points (HS and either MS or ES). Comparisons with the IEPs from younger years showed a pattern of decline from ES to MS to HS in the percentage of IEPs that commented on or set goals pertaining to weaknesses in decoding. These findings suggest that basic skills deficits that persist into the upper grade levels are not being sufficiently targeted for remediation, and help explain why older students frequently fail to resolve their reading problems. PMID:16107780

  12. Conceptual difficulties experienced by senior high school students of electrochemistry: Electrochemical (galvanic) and electrolytic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnett, Pamela J.; Treagust, David F.

    This research investigated students' understanding of electrochemistry following a 7-9-week course of instruction. A list of conceptual and propositional knowledge statements was formulated, and this provided the framework for semistructured interviews that were conducted with 32 students in their final year of high school chemistry, following instruction in electrochemistry. Three misconceptions identified in this study and five which have been reported earlier are incorporated into an alternative framework about electric current. The framework is grounded on the notion that a current always involves drifting electrons, even in solution. Another area where students' misconceptions were prevalent was in relation to the sign of the anode and cathode. Students who thought the anode was negatively charged believed cations would move toward it, and those who thought it was positively charged were unable to explain why electrons move away from it. Electrolytic cells also proved troublesome for students. Many students did not associate the positions of the anode and cathode with the polarity of the applied electromotive force (e.m.f.). Other students attempted to reverse features of electrochemical cells and apply the reversals to electrolytic cells. The implications of the research relate to students' interpretation of the language that is used to describe scientific phenomena and the tendency for students to overgeneralize, due to comments made by teachers or statements in textbooks.

  13. Writing Position Vectors in 3-d Space: A Student Difficulty With Spherical Unit Vectors in Intermediate E&M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichs, Brant E.

    2010-10-01

    An intermediate E&M course (i.e. based on Griffiths [1]) involves the extensive integration of vector calculus concepts and notation with abstract physics concepts like field and potential. We hope that students take what they have learned in their math courses and apply it to help represent and make sense of the physics. To assess how well students are able to do this integration and application I have developed several simple concept tests on position and unit vectors in non-Cartesian coordinate systems as they are used in intermediate E&M. In this paper I describe one of these concept tests and present results that show both undergraduate physics majors and physics graduate students have difficulty using spherical unit vectors to write position vectors in 3-d space.

  14. Mislabeled Reading and Learning Disabilities: Assessment and Treatment for Reading Difficulties in Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sze, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Reading affects a plethora of areas in life. Students with learning disabilities often fall into this category due to a lack of practice with reading and less time to focus on building skills. This paper examines the background, the relationship between reading and learning disabilities, the characteristics of students with learning disabilities…

  15. Development and Validation of a Rubric for Diagnosing Students' Experimental Design Knowledge and Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P.; Anderson, Trevor R.; Pelaez, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to teach students about experimental design, as this facilitates their deeper understanding of how most biological knowledge was generated and gives them tools to perform their own investigations. Despite the importance of this area, surprisingly little is known about what students actually learn from designing biological…

  16. Performance and Difficulties of Students in Formulating and Solving Quadratic Equations with One Unknown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didis, Makbule Gozde; Erbas, Ayhan Kursat

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to investigate the performance of tenth-grade students in solving quadratic equations with one unknown, using symbolic equation and word-problem representations. The participants were 217 tenth-grade students, from three different public high schools. Data was collected through an open-ended questionnaire comprising eight…

  17. Scaffolded Problem-Solving in the Physics and Chemistry Laboratory: Difficulties Hindering Students' Assumption of Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reigosa, Carlos; Jimenez-Aleixandre, Maria-Pilar

    2007-01-01

    This case study examines the performances of 18 10th-grade students (age 15-16 years) in the process of performing problem-solving tasks in the physics and chemistry laboratory. The study focuses on different types of problems arising in the process of transferring responsibility to students in a context of teacher assistance to autonomous…

  18. Why Do Students Have Difficulties Completing Homework? The Need for Homework Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jianzhong

    2013-01-01

    Homework is a common and widespread educational activity. Yet, as homework often takes place amidst the pull of more attractive and competing after-school activities, doing homework presents multiple challenges for many students, even for those students who find their assignments meaningful and interesting. In this article, I first examine five…

  19. Bringing ICT to Teach Science Education for Students with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harish, H. G. Jeya; Kumar, R. Krishna; Raja, B. William Dharma

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the following study was to examine the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Science classrooms of students with Learning Disabilities. Teachers were positive about the learning benefits and design of the Science curriculum. Students were more critical but still positive about these features. Learning Science…

  20. Science Inquiry and Student Diversity: Enhanced Abilities and Continuing Difficulties after an Instructional Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okhee; Buxton, Cory; Lewis, Scott; LeRoy, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    This study examines elementary students' abilities to conduct science inquiry through their participation in an instructional intervention over a school year. The study involved 25 third and fourth grade students from six elementary schools representing diverse linguistic and cultural groups. Prior to and at the completion of the intervention, the…

  1. International Graduate Students' Difficulties: Graduate Classes as a Community of Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hye Yeong

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the factors that cause international graduate students to struggle and these students' ways of dealing with such problems in light of sociocultural theory, which views learning as a social and cultural act. The findings show that graduate classes function as communities of practices in which classmates and professors mutually…

  2. Remediating Reading Difficulties in a Response to Intervention Model with Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyle, Nicole; Vaughn, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    The research on Response to Intervention (RtI) with secondary students is scant; however, a recently conducted, multiyear, large-scale implementation of RtI with middle-school students provides findings that inform practices and future directions for research. This article provides an overview of the findings from each of the 3 years of an…

  3. Social and Psychological Characteristics of Greek Secondary School Students with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zafiriadis, Kiriakos; Livaditis, Miltos; Xenitidis, Kiriakos; Diamanti, Miranta; Tsatalmpasidou, Evgenia; Sigalas, Ioannis; Polemikos, Nikitas

    2005-01-01

    In Greece there is an almost total lack of special education after the primary school (6th grade). This is a descriptive study that aimed to examine social, academic and psychological characteristics of secondary school students with a history of special placement during primary school. It compared 86 students with a placement (group A) with their…

  4. "Everything Is in Parables": An Exploration of Students' Difficulties in Understanding Christian Beliefs Concerning Jesus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freathy, Rob; Aylward, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the findings of interviews conducted with students (aged 11-13) in four English secondary schools, examining reasons why young people find it difficult to understand Christian beliefs regarding Jesus' miracles, resurrection, and status as the Son of God. For the students in this sample, understanding and belief are closely…

  5. Challenges for Global Learners: A Qualitative Study of the Concerns and Difficulties of International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gautam, Chetanath; Lowery, Charles L.; Mays, Chance; Durant, Dayan

    2016-01-01

    The authors in this study seek to inform academia about international students' experiences and challenges while attending universities in Small Town USA. Despite their eagerness to study in the United States (U.S.), international students are faced with setbacks that many universities fail to recognize or realize. The researchers conducted…

  6. The Effect of Tutoring with Nonstandard Equations for Students with Mathematics Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sarah R.; Driver, Melissa K.; Julian, Tyler E.

    2015-01-01

    Students often misinterpret the equal sign (=) as operational instead of relational. Research indicates misinterpretation of the equal sign occurs because students receive relatively little exposure to equations that promote relational understanding of the equal sign. No study, however, has examined effects of nonstandard equations on the equation…

  7. Effects of Matching Instruction Difficulty to Reading Level for Students with Escape-Maintained Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Amanda K.; Horner, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of a literacy intervention matching student skill level with academic performance demands were examined through a multiple baseline across participants design. The dual dependent variables were problem behavior and academic engagement. Four students in Grades 2 or 3 who exhibited low academic performance and problem behavior during…

  8. Investigating Secondary School Students' Difficulties in Modeling Problems PISA-Model Level 5 and 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edo, Sri Imelda; Hartono, Yusuf; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra

    2013-01-01

    The chart of Indonesian student of mathematical ability development in Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) event during the last 4 periods shows an unstable movement. PISA aims to examine the ability of children aged 15 years in reading literacy, mathematics literacy, and science literacy. The concept of mathematical literacy is…

  9. Understanding Middle School Students' Difficulties in Explaining Density Differences from a Language Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seah, Lay Hoon; Clarke, David; Hart, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how a class of Grade 7 students employed linguistic resources to explain density differences. Drawing from the same data-set as a previous study by, we take a language perspective to investigate the challenges students face in learning the concept of density. Our study thus complements previous research on learning about…

  10. High-Stakes Testing for Students with Mathematics Difficulty: Response Format Effects in Mathematics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sarah R.

    2012-01-01

    Students with disabilities are frequently granted accommodations for high-stakes standardized tests to provide them an opportunity to demonstrate their academic knowledge without interference from their disability. One type of possible accommodation, test response format, concerns whether students respond in multiple-choice or constructed-response…

  11. Which Instructional Practices Most Help First-Grade Students with and without Mathematics Difficulties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2015-01-01

    We used population-based, longitudinal data to investigate the relation between mathematics instructional practices used by first-grade teachers in the United States and the mathematics achievement of their students. Factor analysis identified four types of instructional activities (i.e., teacher-directed, student-centered,…

  12. Do Students with Well-Aligned Perceptions of Question Difficulty Perform Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Jennifer; Minasian-Batmanian, Laura; Vella, Gilbert; Cathers, Ian; Gonzalez, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Effective criterion referenced assessment requires grade descriptors to clarify to students what skills are required to gain higher grades. But do students and staff actually have the same perception of the grading system, and if so, do they perform better than those whose perceptions are less accurately aligned with those of staff? Since…

  13. Effects of Using Modified Items to Test Students with Persistent Academic Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stephen N.; Kettler, Ryan J.; Beddow, Peter A.; Kurz, Alexander; Compton, Elizabeth; McGrath, Dawn; Bruen, Charles; Hinton, Kent; Palmer, Porter; Rodriguez, Michael C.; Bolt, Daniel; Roach, Andrew T.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of using modified items in achievement tests to enhance accessibility. An experiment determined whether tests composed of modified items would reduce the performance gap between students eligible for an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) and students not eligible, and the…

  14. Learning through Inquiry: Student Difficulties with Online Course-Based Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, R. A.; Marcus, G.; Taylor, R.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the case-based learning experience of 133 undergraduate veterinarian science students. Using qualitative methodologies from relational Student Learning Research, variation in the quality of the learning experience was identified, ranging from coherent, deep, quality experiences of the cases, to experiences that separated…

  15. Does Early Algebraic Reasoning Differ as a Function of Students' Difficulty with Calculations versus Word Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sarah R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2014-01-01

    According to national mathematics standards, algebra instruction should begin at kindergarten and continue through elementary school. Most often, teachers address algebra in the elementary grades with problems related to solving equations or understanding functions. With 789 second-grade students, we administered: (1) measures of calculations and…

  16. Implementing a Culturally Attuned Functional Behavioural Assessment to Understand and Address Challenging Behaviours Demonstrated by Students from Diverse Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Gerardo; Wong-Lo, Mickie; Short, Maureen; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2014-01-01

    As the US student population continues to become increasingly diverse, educators have encountered difficulties in distinguishing between cultural differences and genuine disability indicators. This concern is clearly evident in assisting students from diverse backgrounds who demonstrate chronic challenging behaviours. Past practices (e.g.…

  17. Understanding Middle School Students' Difficulties in Explaining Density Differences from a Language Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seah, Lay Hoon; Clarke, David; Hart, Christina

    2015-09-01

    This study examines how a class of Grade 7 students employed linguistic resources to explain density differences. Drawing from the same data-set as a previous study by, we take a language perspective to investigate the challenges students face in learning the concept of density. Our study thus complements previous research on learning about density which has mostly focussed on the conceptual challenges. The data consist of transcripts of lessons on density and students' written assignments. Using selected analytical categories from the Systemic Functional Linguistics framework, we first examined students' use of linguistic resources in their written reports of a practical activity. We then compared the language employed by the students with the instructional language, identifying possible links. Our analysis identified specific aspects of language that the students need to appropriate in order to express an understanding of density that aligns with a scientific perspective. The findings from this study illuminate ways by which teachers could assist students in overcoming the linguistic challenges in explaining density differences, which complement those made by existing studies that focus on conceptual challenges.

  18. Characteristics of test anxiety among medical students and congruence of strategies to address it

    PubMed Central

    Encandela, John; Gibson, Crystal; Angoff, Nancy; Leydon, Gary; Green, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Medical students may experience test anxiety associated with ‘high stakes’ exams, such as Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination. Methods We collected qualitative responses about test anxiety at three points in time from 93 second-year medical students engaged in studying for and taking Step 1. Results Causes of test anxiety as reported by students were related to negative self-talk during preparation for the exam. Effects of anxiety had to do with emotional well-being, cognitive functioning, and physical well-being. Strategies included socializing with others and a variety of cognitive and physical approaches. Comparison of individuals’ strategies with causes and effects showed some congruence, but substantial incongruence between the types of strategies chosen and the reported causes and effects of test anxiety. Discussion Students’ adoption of a ‘menu’ of strategies rather than one or two carefully selected strategies suggest inefficiencies that might be addressed by interventions, such as advisor-directed conversations with students and incorporating student self-assessment and strategies for managing anxiety within courses on test-taking. Such interventions are in need of further study. An annotated list of evidence-based strategies would be helpful to students and educators. Most important, test anxiety should be viewed by medical educators as a ‘real’ experience, and students would benefit from educator support. PMID:25128804

  19. On the Roots of Difficulties in Learning about Cell Division: Process-Based Analysis of Students' Conceptual Development in Teaching Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riemeier, Tanja; Gropengiesser, Harald

    2008-01-01

    Empirical investigations on students' conceptions of cell biology indicate major misunderstandings of scientific concepts even after thorough teaching. Therefore, the main aim of our research project was to investigate students' difficulties in learning this topic and to study the impact of learning activities on students' conceptions. Using the…

  20. Evaluation of Reading Fluency and Reading Errors of 9th Grade Students with a View to Diagnosing the Sources of Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Üstten, Aliye Uslu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the sources of reading difficulties and to evaluate reading fluency of 9th grade students which aims to improve students' reading and their understanding of complex literary texts. The sample is composed of 120 students selected from 9th grade of 10 different high schools in central province of Ankara…

  1. NASA DEVELOP Program: Students Extending Earth Science Research to Address Community Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, A. L.; Ross, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    Eight years ago, several students at NASA Langley Research Center launched the DEVELOP Program. DEVELOP is now at six NASA centers and is a program element of the NASA Applied Sciences Human Capital Development Program that extends the use of Earth observation sources to address Earth science issues in local communities. Students in the program strengthen their leadership and academic skills by analyzing scientific data, experimenting with novel technology, and engaging in cooperative interactions. Graduate, undergraduate and high school students from across the United States collaborate to integrate NASA space-based Earth observation sources and partner agencies' science data, models and decision support tools. Information from these collaborations result in rapid prototype projects addressing local policy and environmental issues. Following a rigorous 10-week term, DEVELOP students present visual products demonstrating the application of NASA scientific information to community leaders at scientific and public policy forums such as the American Geophysical Union (AGU), the American Meteorological Society (AMS), and the Southern Growth Policies Board (SGPB). Submission of written products to peer-reviewed scientific publications and other public databases is also done. Student experiences and interactions working with NASA data, advanced technological programs and community leaders have, and continue to prove, beneficial to student professional development. DEVELOP's human capital development focus affords students real world experience, making them a valuable asset to the scientific and global community and to the continuation of a scientifically aware society. NASA's DEVELOP Program is more than scientific exploration and valuable results; DEVELOP fosters human capital development by bridging the gap between NASA science research and federal, state, local and tribal resource managers.

  2. REMEDIATING READING DIFFICULTIES IN A RESPONSE TO INTERVENTION MODEL WITH SECONDARY STUDENTS.

    PubMed

    Pyle, Nicole; Vaughn, Sharon

    2012-03-01

    The research on Response to Intervention (RtI) with secondary students is scant; however, a recently conducted, multiyear, large-scale implementation of RtI with middle-school students provides findings that inform practices and future directions for research. This article provides an overview of the findings from each of the 3 years of an intensive, tiered reading intervention with middle-school students. In Year 1, students were provided with a Tier 1 and Tier 2 intervention. In Year 2, minimal responders were provided with another year of intervention (Tier 3), and again in Year 3, minimal responders to the 2-year intervention were provided with a third year of intervention (Tier 4). Using students' responsiveness to intervention as a prerequisite for a subsequent year of intensive instruction, minimal responders received a total of up to 3 years of intervention. The efficacy of an enhanced primary (Tier 1), secondary (Tier 2), and tertiary (Tier 3) intervention, and an individualized, intensive reading intervention (Tier 4) are discussed, as well as the logistics of implementing an RtI model with secondary students. PMID:23100631

  3. Effects of Tier 3 Intervention for Students With Persistent Reading Difficulties and Characteristics of Inadequate Responders

    PubMed Central

    Denton, Carolyn A.; Tolar, Tammy D.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Barth, Amy E.; Vaughn, Sharon; Francis, David J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a randomized controlled trial conducted to evaluate the effects of an intensive, individualized, Tier 3 reading intervention for second grade students who had previously experienced inadequate response to quality first grade classroom reading instruction (Tier 1) and supplemental small-group intervention (Tier 2). Also evaluated were cognitive characteristics of students with inadequate response to intensive Tier 3 intervention. Students were randomized to receive the research intervention (N = 47) or the instruction and intervention typically provided in their schools (N = 25). Results indicated that students who received the research intervention made significantly better growth than those who received typical school instruction on measures of word identification, phonemic decoding, and word reading fluency and on a measure of sentence- and paragraph-level reading comprehension. Treatment effects were smaller and not statistically significant on phonemic decoding efficiency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension in extended text. Effect sizes for all outcomes except oral reading fluency met criteria for substantive importance; however, many of the students in the intervention continued to struggle. An evaluation of cognitive profiles of adequate and inadequate responders was consistent with a continuum of severity (as opposed to qualitative differences), showing greater language and reading impairment prior to the intervention in students who were inadequate responders. PMID:25308995

  4. Improvement of Word Problem Solving and Basic Mathematics Competencies in Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Mathematical Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Castro, Paloma; Cueli, Marisol; Areces, Débora; Rodríguez, Celestino; Sideridis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Problem solving represents a salient deficit in students with mathematical learning difficulties (MLD) primarily caused by difficulties with informal and formal mathematical competencies. This study proposes a computerized intervention tool, the integrated dynamic representation (IDR), for enhancing the early learning of basic mathematical…

  5. Eye Movements of University Students with and without Reading Difficulties during Naming Speed Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Dahhan, Noor; Georgiou, George K.; Hung, Rickie; Munoz, Douglas; Parrila, Rauno; Kirby, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Although naming speed (NS) has been shown to predict reading into adulthood and differentiate between adult dyslexics and controls, the question remains why NS is related to reading. To address this question, eye movement methodology was combined with three letter NS tasks (the original letter NS task by Denckla & Rudel, "Cortex"…

  6. "It's Just a Story": "White" Students' Difficulties in Reading the Apartheid Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    This article presents classroom-based research conducted in a first-year undergraduate English and Cultural Studies course at an historically 'white' and Afrikaans university in South Africa. I document my attempt to address issues of social inequality, especially racism and the apartheid past, in a South African literature course. Drawing on…

  7. STaRRS in Yellowstone: Addressing Challenges Facing Student-Teacher-Scientist Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houseal, A.; Gallagher, R.; Fuhrmann, B.; Sanford, R.

    2010-12-01

    The literature outlines many challenges faced by Student-Teacher-Scientist Partnerships (STSPs) including cultural differences between the scientific research and education communities. For example, shared vocabulary terms with dissimilar definitions can create communication problems. Other issues include accuracy in data collection, meeting the needs of a very diverse group of partners, connecting students with research science in a meaningful way, and maintaining the infrastructure necessary to develop and maintain these partnerships. Additionally, evidence, other than anecdotal, of the success of these partnerships is limited, especially as school year and research cycles are often on different schedules or have very different goals. Students, Teachers, and Rangers & Research Scientists: Investigating Systems at Mammoth Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park (STaRRS) was an STSP developed to address some of these challenges, model some solutions within an STSP, and identify some possible outcomes for participating teachers and their students. Three strategies used to address some of these challenges that will be discussed briefly in this presentation include: (a) embedding the STSP in an already existing National Park Service environmental education program; (b) development of three types of research activities connecting teachers, students, and scientists to the research, and (c) a professional development (PD) model that included all partners in an on-going year-long process. Results from an accompanying research study will also be presented. Using a pretest-intervention-posttest design, this study revealed significant changes in attitude regarding science and scientists of participating STaRRS teachers. Student data gathered using a quasi-experimental pretest-intervention-posttest treatment and comparison group design also demonstrated significant changes in their attitudes and gains in earth science content knowledge.

  8. The relative effects of group size on reading progress of older students with reading difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Wexler, Jade; Barth, Amy; Cirino, Paul T.; Fletcher, Jack; Romain, Melissa; Denton, Carolyn A.; Roberts, Greg; Francis, David

    2010-01-01

    This study reports findings on the relative effects from a yearlong secondary intervention contrasting large-group, small-group, and school-provided interventions emphasizing word study, vocabulary development, fluency, and comprehension with seventh- and eighth-graders with reading difficulties. Findings indicate that few statistically significant results or clinically significant gains were associated with group size or intervention. Findings also indicate that a significant acceleration of reading outcomes for seventh- and eighth-graders from high-poverty schools is unlikely to result from a 50 min daily class. Instead, the findings indicate, achieving this outcome will require more comprehensive models including more extensive intervention (e.g., more time, even smaller groups), interventions that are longer in duration (multiple years), and interventions that vary in emphasis based on specific students’ needs (e.g., increased focus on comprehension or word study). PMID:21072131

  9. The Effects of Strategic Counting Instruction, with and without Deliberate Practice, on Number Combination Skill among Students with Mathematics Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Lynn S; Powell, Sarah R; Seethaler, Pamela M; Cirino, Paul T; Fletcher, Jack M; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L

    2010-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effects of strategic counting instruction, with and without deliberate practice with those counting strategies, on number combination (NC) skill among students with mathematics difficulties (MD). Students (n = 150) were stratified on MD status (i.e., MD alone vs. MD with reading difficulty) and site (proximal vs. distal to the intervention developer) and then randomly assigned to control (no tutoring) or 1 of 2 variants of NC remediation. Both remediations were embedded in the same validated word-problem tutoring protocol (i.e., Pirate Math). In 1 variant, the focus on NCs was limited to a single lesson that taught strategic counting. In the other variant, 4-6 min of practice per session was added to the other variant. Tutoring occurred for 16 weeks, 3 sessions per week for 20-30 min per session. Strategic counting without deliberate practice produced superior NC fluency compared to control; however, strategic counting with deliberate practice effected superior NC fluency and transfer to procedural calculations compared with both competing conditions. Also, the efficacy of Pirate Math word-problem tutoring was replicated. PMID:20383313

  10. The Effects of Strategic Counting Instruction, with and without Deliberate Practice, on Number Combination Skill among Students with Mathematics Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Powell, Sarah R.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Cirino, Paul T.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effects of strategic counting instruction, with and without deliberate practice with those counting strategies, on number combination (NC) skill among students with mathematics difficulties (MD). Students (n = 150) were stratified on MD status (i.e., MD alone vs. MD with reading difficulty) and site (proximal vs. distal to the intervention developer) and then randomly assigned to control (no tutoring) or 1 of 2 variants of NC remediation. Both remediations were embedded in the same validated word-problem tutoring protocol (i.e., Pirate Math). In 1 variant, the focus on NCs was limited to a single lesson that taught strategic counting. In the other variant, 4–6 min of practice per session was added to the other variant. Tutoring occurred for 16 weeks, 3 sessions per week for 20–30 min per session. Strategic counting without deliberate practice produced superior NC fluency compared to control; however, strategic counting with deliberate practice effected superior NC fluency and transfer to procedural calculations compared with both competing conditions. Also, the efficacy of Pirate Math word-problem tutoring was replicated. PMID:20383313

  11. Evaluation of Diagnostic Systems: The Selection of Students at Risk of Academic Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolkowski, Keith; Cummings, Kelli D.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic tools can help schools more consistently and fairly match instructional resources to the needs of their students. To ensure the best educational outcome for each child, diagnostic decision-making systems seek to balance time, clarity, and accuracy. However, recent research notes that many educational decisions tend to be made using…

  12. Lost in Lewis Structures: An Investigation of Student Difficulties in Developing Representational Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Melanie M.; Grove, Nathaniel; Underwood, Sonia M.; Klymkowsky, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    Because Lewis structures provide a direct connection between molecular structure and properties, the ability to construct and use them is an integral component of many chemistry courses. Although a great deal of time and effort has been dedicated to development of "foolproof" rules, students still have problems with the skill. What is more, many…

  13. Students' Difficulties with Applying a Familiar Formula in an Unfamiliar Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, Maureen; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses problems many tenth grade students have when asked to apply a familiar formula in an unfamiliar context: specifically factoring a compound expression. Some of their attempts at solution are presented and discussed in terms of structure sense. (Contains 1 table.) [For complete proceedings, see ED496848.

  14. Evaluation of the Double-Deficit Hypothesis in College Students Referred for Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirino, Paul T.; Israelian, Marlyne K.; Morris, Mary K.; Morris, Robin D.

    2005-01-01

    The present study explored the double-deficit hypothesis (DDH) in a sample of 146 college students with and without reading disabilities (RD). The results indicated that although both phonological awareness (PA) and visual naming speed (VNS) contributed to performance on measures of decoding and comprehension, their relative contribution was…

  15. Handling the Difficulties of Technical School Students in the Construction and Interpretation of Graphic Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinos, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In this work, an attempt is made to evaluate the errors that have to do with the interpretation and construction of graphic representations. Although the students are studying in the second year of technical high school (secondary education), i.e. in schools with an emphasis in technical subjects (post junior secondary), it is observed that they…

  16. Distinctiveness of Curriculum Provision at 14 to 16 for Students with Learning Difficulties: Opportunities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Hazel; Waite, Sue; Robertson, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    In this article, Hazel Lawson, principal lecturer in education at the University of Plymouth, Sue Waite, a researcher at the University of Plymouth, and Christopher Robertson, lecturer in special and inclusive education at the University of Birmingham, discuss the curriculum for students with severe and profound and multiple learning difficulties…

  17. Preschool Matters: Predicting Reading Difficulties for Spanish-Speaking Bilingual Students in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldi, Claudia; Paez, Mariela

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal analysis of factors that predict the word reading skills in English and Spanish for a sample of 234 Spanish-speaking students in first grade. The children were assessed at the end of preschool, kindergarten, and first grade. Data include three subtests of the Woodcock Language Proficiency Battery and a…

  18. Social Skills Difficulty: Model of Culture Shock for International Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapdelaine, Raquel Faria; Alexitch, Louise R.

    2004-01-01

    This study expanded and tested Furnham and Bochner's (1982) model of culture shock, employing a sample of 156 male international students in a Canadian university. Path analysis was used to assess the effects of cultural differences, size of co-national group, family status, cross-cultural experience, and social interaction with hosts on culture…

  19. Difficulties in Initiating and Sustaining Peer Friendships: Perspectives on Students Diagnosed with AD/HD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Myra; Houghton, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Myra Taylor, research fellow, and Professor Stephen Houghton of the Centre for Child and Adolescent Related Disorders at the University of Western Australia, report theory generated from interviews with teachers, students and mothers residing in Perth, Western Australia, on how children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity…

  20. "QuickSmart": A Basic Academic Skills Intervention for Middle School Students with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Lorraine; Bellert, Anne; Thomas, Jenny; Pegg, John

    2007-01-01

    "QuickSmart" is a basic academic skills intervention designed for persistently low-achieving students in the middle years of schooling that aims to improve the automaticity of basic skills to improve higher-order processes, such as problem solving and comprehension, as measured on standardized tests. The "QuickSmart" instructional program consists…

  1. Conceptual Difficulties Experienced by Senior High School Students of Electrochemistry: Electrochemical (Galvanic) and Electrolytic Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnett, Pamela J.; Treagust, David F.

    1992-01-01

    This research used semistructured interviews to investigate students' (n=32) understanding of electrochemistry following a 7-9 week course of instruction. Three misconceptions were identified and incorporated with five previously reported into an alternative framework about electric current involving drifting electrons. Also noted was the tendency…

  2. The Difficulty in Implementing TQM in Higher Education Instruction: The Duality of Instructor/Student Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meirovich, Gavriel; Romar, Edward J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The applicability of total quality management (TQM) to higher education instruction is controversial. The purpose of this paper is to help clarify the application of TQM to higher education instruction by identifying and analyzing the dual roles played by both students and instructors. The authors also offer an improvement to the…

  3. A Force Concept Correlation Study with Instructional Methods, Anxiety, Perceptions of Difficulty and Student Background Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grim, Nancy C.

    This paper reports on a study that used Hestenes' Force Concept Inventory (FCI) to describe Newtonian force concepts and misconception belief systems held by preservice teachers in physical science and physics students attending an urban university in Chicago, Illinois. Results indicate that constructivist instruction in force concepts was of…

  4. Effects of Tier 3 Intervention for Students with Persistent Reading Difficulties and Characteristics of Inadequate Responders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Carolyn A.; Tolar, Tammy D.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Barth, Amy E.; Vaughn, Sharon; Francis, David J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a randomized controlled trial conducted to evaluate the effects of an intensive, individualized, Tier 3 reading intervention for second grade students who had previously experienced inadequate response to quality first grade classroom reading instruction (Tier 1) and supplemental small-group intervention (Tier 2). Also…

  5. Divergence in Curricular-Weight Teacher-Efforts and Student-Difficulties in Secondary School ESL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul Gafoor, K.; Sreeja, C.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing importance of English as a global language, calls for an equally vigorous attempt to improving teaching and learning it in schools as a second language within and outside India. Highlighting the relevance of contextualising ESL learning by allowing for the needs of students and teachers in undertaking reforms to ESL learning, this…

  6. Pedagogical Red Tape: Difficulties in Teaching the Bureaucracy to Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, William J.; Kaltenthaler, Karl; Feuerstein, Derek

    2010-01-01

    Americans are often perceived as holding extremely negative views of governmental bureaucrats. Phrases like bureaucratic waste and unresponsive bureaucracy fill the mainstream media and taint the image of bureaucrats. Beginning in basic high school civics classes, students are taught to respect the lawmaking process, the executive power of the…

  7. Difficulties of Academic Achievement in Principles of Accounting Courses from the Student Perspective: Evidence from Libya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tailab, Mohamed M.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies by researchers and accounting educators explore various factors associated with the success or failure of accounting majors in college level accounting courses. This paper identifies and summarizes the main obstacles associated with low student academic achievement in introductory courses in the College of Accounting at Al-Jabal…

  8. Equivalent Fraction Learning Trajectories for Students with Mathematical Learning Difficulties When Using Manipulatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westenskow, Arla

    2012-01-01

    This study identified variations in the learning trajectories of Tier II students when learning equivalent fraction concepts using physical and virtual manipulatives. The study compared three interventions: physical manipulatives, virtual manipulatives, and a combination of physical and virtual manipulatives. The research used a sequential…

  9. Difficulties in Metaphor Comprehension Faced by International Students Whose First Language Is Not English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlemore, Jeannette; Chen, Phyllis Trautman; Koester, Almut; Barnden, John

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a study on metaphor comprehension by the international students whose first language is not English, while attending undergraduate lectures at a British university. Study participants identified words or multiword items that they found difficult in extracts from four academic lectures, and they interpreted metaphors from those…

  10. Young Students Learning Formal Algebraic Notation and Solving Linear Equations: Are Commonly Experienced Difficulties Avoidable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Dave

    2012-01-01

    This study looks at a mixed ability group of 21 Year 5 primary students (aged 9-10 years old) who had previously never had formal instruction using letters to stand for unknowns or variables in a mathematics context; nor had they been introduced to formal algebraic notation. Three lessons were taught using the computer software "Grid Algebra"…

  11. Describing the What and Why of Students' Difficulties in Boolean Logic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Geoffrey L.; Loui, Michael C.; Kaczmarczyk, Lisa; Zilles, Craig

    2012-01-01

    The ability to reason with formal logic is a foundational skill for computer scientists and computer engineers that scaffolds the abilities to design, debug, and optimize. By interviewing students about their understanding of propositional logic and their ability to translate from English specifications to Boolean expressions, we characterized…

  12. Understanding the Difficulties Hindering Inter-Agency Collaboration for Students with Special Needs in Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetreault, Sylvie; Patenaude, David; McLaughlin, Dayna; Freeman, Andrew; Gascon, Hubert; Beaupré, Pauline; Carrière, Monique; Deschênes, Pascale Marier

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, the government of Quebec established the "Agreement for the Complementarity of Services Between the Health and Social Services Network and the Education Network" to define principles and obligations for inter-agency collaboration aimed at students with special needs and their families. This study documents the perspectives of…

  13. Research as a guide for curriculum development: An example from introductory spectroscopy. I. Identifying student difficulties with atomic emission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanjek, L.; Shaffer, P. S.; McDermott, L. C.; Planinic, M.; Veza, D.

    2015-01-01

    This is the first of two closely related articles (Paper I and Paper II) that together illustrate how research in physics education has helped guide the design of instruction that has proved effective in improving student understanding of atomic spectroscopy. Most of the more than 1000 students who participated in this four-year investigation were science majors enrolled in the introductory calculus-based physics course at the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle, WA, USA. The others included graduate and undergraduate teaching assistants at UW and physics majors in introductory and advanced physics courses at the University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. About half of the latter group were preservice high school physics teachers. This article (Paper I) describes how several serious conceptual and reasoning difficulties were identified among students as they tried to relate a discrete line spectrum to the energy levels of atoms in a light source. Paper II illustrates how findings from this research informed the development of a tutorial that led to significant improvement in student understanding of atomic emission spectra.

  14. Event-Specific Prevention: addressing college student drinking during known windows of risk.

    PubMed

    Neighbors, Clayton; Walters, Scott T; Lee, Christine M; Vader, Amanda M; Vehige, Tamara; Szigethy, Thomas; DeJong, William

    2007-11-01

    The unique drinking patterns of college students call for Event-Specific Prevention (ESP) strategies that address college student drinking associated with peak times and events. Despite limited research evaluating ESP, many college campuses are currently implementing programming for specific events. The present paper provides a review of existing literature related to ESP and offers practical guidance for research and practice. The prevention typology proposed by DeJong and Langford [DeJong, W. & Langford, L. M. (2002). A typology for campus-based alcohol prevention: Moving toward environmental management strategies. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 140-147.] provides a framework for strategic planning, suggesting that programs and policies should address problems at the individual, group, institution, community, state, and society level, and that these interventions should focus on knowledge change, environmental change, health protection, and intervention and treatment services. From this typology, specific examples are provided for comprehensive program planning related to orientation/beginning of school year, homecoming, 21st birthday celebrations, spring break, and graduation. In addition, the University of Connecticut's efforts to address problems resulting from its annual Spring Weekend are described as an illustration of how advance planning by campus and community partners can produce a successful ESP effort. PMID:17616260

  15. Event-Specific Prevention: Addressing College Student Drinking During Known Windows of Risk

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Walters, Scott T.; Lee, Christine M.; Vader, Amanda M.; Vehige, Tamara; Szigethy, Thomas; DeJong, William

    2007-01-01

    The unique drinking patterns of college students call for Event-Specific Prevention (ESP) strategies that address college student drinking associated with peak times and events. Despite limited research evaluating ESP, many college campuses are currently implementing programming for specific events. The present paper provides a review of existing literature related to ESP and offers practical guidance for research and practice. The prevention typology proposed by DeJong and Langford (2002) provides a framework for strategic planning, suggesting that programs and policies should address problems at the individual, group, institution, community, state, and society level, and that these interventions should focus on knowledge change, environmental change, health protection, and intervention and treatment services. From this typology, specific examples are provided for comprehensive program planning related to orientation/beginning of school year, homecoming, 21st birthday celebrations, spring break, and graduation. In addition, the University of Connecticut’s efforts to address problems resulting from its annual Spring Weekend are described as an illustration of how advance planning by campus and community partners can produce a successful ESP effort. PMID:17616260

  16. Do university students really have difficulty in duration judgments? Comment on Okazaki and Matsuda (2008, 2010).

    PubMed

    Francuz, Piotr; Oleś, Piotr

    2011-12-01

    Reinterpretation suggests that low performance of the participants studied by Okazaki and Matsuda (2008, 2010) may have been caused by using a procedure which overloads the cognitive capacities of undergraduate students. The questions asked participants about their reasoning could have led to cognitive overload because they performed two tasks: judgment of movement duration and paying attention to what kind of knowledge should be used (alpha or beta). Some interpretations are offered referring to possible effects of training procedures for applying both kinds of knowledge. PMID:22403918

  17. Addressing Student Mental Health Needs by Providing Direct and Indirect Services and Building Alliances in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaffenberger, Carol J.; O'Rorke-Trigiani, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Given that 20% of students experience mental health issues that interfere with school performance and most of these students will turn first to their school for help, school counselors need to consider how they can best serve this population. This article describes how school counselors can address the mental health needs of students by providing…

  18. What Learning Environments Best Address 21st-Century Students' Perceived Needs at the Secondary Level of Instruction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemley, J. Brett; Schumacher, Gary; Vesey, Winona

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of a recent study was to determine what learning environments best address the needs of 21st-century students at the secondary level. This study concluded that the presence of a positive 21st-century learning environment is related to student satisfaction and student-teacher relationships. While the majority of the literature on…

  19. Comparative Difficulties with Non-Scientific General Vocabulary and Scientific/Medical Terminology in English as a Second Language (ESL) Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Heming, Thomas A.; Nandagopal, Shobha

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Medical education requires student comprehension of both technical (scientific/medical) and non-technical (general) vocabulary. Our experience with “English as a second language” (ESL) Arab students suggested they often have problems comprehending scientific statements because of weaknesses in their understanding of non-scientific vocabulary. This study aimed to determine whether ESL students have difficulties with general vocabulary that could hinder their understanding of scientific/medical texts. Methods: A survey containing English text was given to ESL students in the premedical years of an English-medium medical school in an Arabic country. The survey consisted of sample questions from the Medical College Admission Test (USA). Students were instructed to identify all unknown words in the text. Results: ESL students commenced premedical studies with substantial deficiencies in English vocabulary. Students from English-medium secondary schools had a selective deficiency in scientific/medical terminology which disappeared with time. Students from Arabic-medium secondary schools had equal difficulty with general and scientific/medical vocabulary. Deficiencies in both areas diminished with time but remained even after three years of English-medium higher education. Conclusion: Typically, when teaching technical subjects to ESL students, attention is focused on subject-unique vocabulary and associated modifiers. This study highlights that ESL students also face difficulties with the general vocabulary used to construct statements employing technical words. Such students would benefit from increases in general vocabulary knowledge. PMID:23275846

  20. Analytical decision-making model for addressing the needs of allied health students with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Sharby, Nancy; Roush, Susan E

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to (1) review the literature on students with disabilities (SWD) in higher education with a particular focus on allied health and related professions, and (2) propose an analytical decision-making model for assessing students' needs and providing reasonable accommodations in allied health education. Increasing numbers of SWD are entering higher education, but the rate of success for these students is lower than the rate for their nondisabled peers. A multitude of factors impact SWD, including the direct effects of the disabilities on learning and performing essential functions, academic and clinical faculty knowledge of the impact of disability in educational settings and their experience implementing accommodations, and the impact of legislation and institutional policies on service delivery. While all of these are important, the most critical issues appear to be academic and clinical faculty knowledge about how to address disability-related challenges in the educational environment and the support of SWD by those faculty. The proposed analytical decision-making model will assist allied health faculty in assessing students' needs and providing reasonable accommodations. This, in turn, will enable allied health faculty to support SWD to meet essential components while upholding academic integrity and meeting the requirements of the law. PMID:19361024

  1. Building nursing research capacity to address health disparities: engaging minority baccalaureate and master's students.

    PubMed

    Goeppinger, Jean; Miles, Margaret Shandor; Weaver, Wanda; Campbell, Lenora; Roland, E Joyce

    2009-01-01

    In order to decrease health disparities, nursing needs to promote opportunities for minority nursing students to incorporate the conduct, as well as the utilization, of research into their professional careers. This article describes a model program to facilitate minority research career development, the Research Enrichment and Apprenticeship Program (REAP). REAP was developed and implemented by a federally funded partnership between 2 historically Black universities and a research-intensive university. Fifty-five (N = 55) baccalaureate and master's nursing students and 35 faculty members from the 3 schools participated in an intensive research mentorship program guided by learner-centered pedagogical approaches that culminated in the public presentation of students' research projects at a scientific poster session. Student, faculty, and institutional achievements, as well as challenges, were identified and addressed as the partnership evolved. Recognizing and building upon the strengths of both minority-serving and research-intensive institutions allowed the development of an exemplar program. While process measures provided many indicators of success, long-term evaluation of research career-related outcomes are needed. PMID:19447236

  2. Teachers' Perceptions of the Availability and Need of a Support Program for Students with Learning Difficulties Attending Elementary Schools in the Atlantic Union Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coke, Lileth Althea

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study. Support programs have been known to be very effective in helping students succeed academically, socially, behaviorally, and emotionally. The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' perceptions of the availability and need of a support program for students with learning difficulties who attend elementary schools…

  3. Characteristics of Students at Risk for Mathematics Difficulties Predicting Arithmetic Word Problem Solving Performance: The Role of Attention, Behavior, and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Corroy, Kelly Cozine; Dupuis, Danielle N.

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to evaluate differences in arithmetic word problem solving between high and low at-risk students for mathematics difficulties (MD) and (b) to assess the influence of attention, behavior, reading, and socio-economic status (SES) in predicting the word problem solving performance of third-grade students with MD.…

  4. An Investigation into Introductory Astronomy Students' Difficulties with Cosmology, and the Development, Validation, and Efficacy of a New Suite of Cosmology Lecture-Tutorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Colin S.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the results of the first systematic investigation into Astro 101 students' conceptual and reasoning difficulties with cosmology. We developed four surveys with which we measured students' conceptual knowledge of the Big Bang, the expansion and evolution of the universe, and the evidence for dark matter. Our classical test theory…

  5. MOTIVATIONAL VARIABLES IN PROGRAMMED LEARNING. THE ROLE OF NEED ACHIEVEMENT, FEAR OF FAILURE, AND STUDENT ESTIMATE OF ACHIEVEMENT AS A FUNCTION OF PROGRAM DIFFICULTY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOORE, J. WILLIAM; AND OTHERS

    STUDENTS' LOSS OF INTEREST IN LEARNING AS THE NOVELTY OF PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION WEARS OFF SUGGESTED THIS STUDY OF MOTIVATION AND ABILITY AS RELATED TO LEARNING RATE. STEP SIZE, ITEM DIFFICULTY, AND PERSONALITY VARIABLES WERE CONSIDERED BEFORE HYPOTHESIZING THAT STUDENTS OF EQUAL ABILITY WHO ARE STRONGLY MOTIVATED TO ACHIEVE WILL PREFER MORE…

  6. "Achtung" Maybe: A Case Study of the Role of Personal Connection and Art in the Literary Engagement of Students with Attentional Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smagorinsky, Peter; Cameron, Tricia; O'Donnell-Allen, Cindy

    2007-01-01

    This study examines a collaborative reading of John Keats's poem, "When I Have Fears That I May Cease to Be," by two high school seniors with attentional difficulties in a mainstream British Literature class, with a focus on one of the students, Rita. The data consist of a retrospective verbal protocol during which the students recounted their…

  7. Pre-Service Science Teachers' PCK: Inconsistency of Pre-Service Teachers' Predictions and Student Learning Difficulties in Newton's Third Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Shaona; Wang, Yanlin; Zhang, Chunbin

    2016-01-01

    There is widespread agreement that science learning always builds upon students' existing ideas and that science teachers should possess knowledge of learners. This study aims at investigating pre-service science teachers' knowledge of student misconceptions and difficulties, a crucial component of PCK, on Newton's Third Law. A questionnaire was…

  8. An Evaluation of "Number Rockets": A Tier-2 Intervention for Grade 1 Students at Risk for Difficulties in Mathematics. Final Report. NCEE 2012-4007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfhus, Eric; Gersten, Russell; Clarke, Ben; Decker, Lauren E.; Wilkins, Chuck; Dimino, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The 2004 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) approved schools' use of alternative methods for determining student eligibility for special education services. IDEA encourages schools to intervene as soon as there is a valid indication that a student might experience academic difficulties, rather than after…

  9. Curriculum-Based Measurement and Standards-Based Mathematics: Monitoring the Arithmetic Word Problem-Solving Performance of Third-Grade Students at Risk for Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Zaslofsky, Anne F.

    2014-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of a curriculum-based measure of word problem solving (CBM-WPS) as an indicator of performance and progress in a sample of 136 third-grade students at risk for mathematics difficulties (MDs) instructed in a standards-based mathematics curriculum. Students completed the CBM-WPS…

  10. The Effects of a Tier 3 Intervention on the Mathematics Performance of Second Grade Students With Severe Mathematics Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Brian R; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Porterfield, Jennifer; Dennis, Minyi Shih; Falcomata, Terry; Valentine, Courtney; Brewer, Chelsea; Bell, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a systematic, explicit, intensive Tier 3 (tertiary) intervention on the mathematics performance of students in second grade with severe mathematics difficulties. A multiple-baseline design across groups of participants showed improved mathematics performance on number and operations concepts and procedures, which are the foundation for later mathematics success. In the previous year, 12 participants had experienced two doses (first and second semesters) of a Tier 2 intervention. In second grade, the participants continued to demonstrate low performance, falling below the 10th percentile on a researcher-designed universal screener and below the 16th percentile on a distal measure, thus qualifying for the intensive intervention. A project interventionist, who met with the students 5 days a week for 10 weeks (9 weeks for one group), conducted the intensive intervention. The intervention employed more intensive instructional design features than the previous Tier 2 secondary instruction, and also included weekly games to reinforce concepts and skills from the lessons. Spring results showed significantly improved mathematics performance (scoring at or above the 25th percentile) for most of the students, thus making them eligible to exit the Tier 3 intervention. PMID:24968860

  11. An Experimental Evaluation of Guided Reading and Explicit Interventions for Primary-Grade Students At-Risk for Reading Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Denton, Carolyn A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Taylor, W. Pat; Barth, Amy E.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Considerable research evidence supports the provision of explicit instruction for students at risk for reading difficulties; however, one of the most widely implemented approaches to early reading instruction is Guided Reading (GR; Fountas & Pinnel, 1996), which deemphasizes explicit instruction and practice of reading skills in favor of extended time reading text. This study evaluated the two approaches in the context of supplemental intervention for at-risk readers at the end of Grade 1. Students (n = 218) were randomly assigned to receive GR intervention, explicit intervention (EX), or typical school instruction (TSI). Both intervention groups performed significantly better than TSI on untimed word identification. Significant effects favored EX over TSI on phonemic decoding and one measure of comprehension. Outcomes for the intervention groups did not differ significantly from each other; however, an analysis of the added value of providing each intervention relative to expected growth with typical instruction indicated that EX is more likely to substantially accelerate student progress in phonemic decoding, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension than GR. Implications for selection of Tier 2 interventions within a response-to-intervention format are discussed. PMID:26779296

  12. Advanced Undergraduate and Early Graduate Physics Students' Misconception about Solar Wind Flow: Evidence of Students' Difficulties in Distinguishing Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Nicholas A.; Lopez, Ramon E.

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence has suggested that advanced undergraduate students confuse the spiral structure of the interplanetary magnetic field with the flow of the solar wind. Though it is a small study, this paper documents this misconception and begins to investigate the underlying issues behind it. We present evidence that the traditional presentation…

  13. An investigation into introductory astronomy students' difficulties with cosmology, and the development, validation, and efficacy of a new suite of cosmology lecture-tutorials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Colin S.

    This study reports the results of the first systematic investigation into Astro 101 students' conceptual and reasoning difficulties with cosmology. We developed four surveys with which we measured students' conceptual knowledge of the Big Bang, the expansion and evolution of the universe, and the evidence for dark matter. Our classical test theory and item response theory analyses of over 2300 students' pre- and post-instruction responses, combined with daily classroom observations, videotapes of students working in class, and one-on-one semi-structured think-aloud interviews with nineteen Astro 101 students, revealed several common learning difficulties. In order to help students overcome these difficulties, we used our results to inform the development of a new suite of cosmology lecture-tutorials. In our initial testing of the new lecture-tutorials at the University of Colorado at Boulder and the University of Arizona, we found many cases in which students who used the lecture-tutorials achieved higher learning gains (as measured by our surveys) at statistically significant levels than students who did not. Subsequent use of the lecture-tutorials at a variety of colleges and universities across the United States produced a wide range of learning gains, suggesting that instructors' pedagogical practices and implementations of the lecture-tutorials significantly affect whether or not students achieve high learning gains.

  14. Addressing the Social and Academic Behavior of a Student with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in an Alternative Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swoszowski, N. C.; Jolivette, K.; Frederick, L. D.

    2013-01-01

    Check-In/Check-Out is a secondary tier positive behavior support program in which an adult mentor is paired with a student to address problem behavior and support appropriate behavior. This case study extended the implementation of the Check-In/Check-Out strategy to a residential facility for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. The…

  15. The Efficacy of Screencasts to Address the Diverse Academic Needs of Students in a Large Lecture Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinder-Grover, Tershia; Green, Katie R.; Millunchick, Joanna Mirecki

    2011-01-01

    In large lecture courses, it can be challenging for instructors to address student misconceptions, supplement background knowledge, and identify ways to motivate the various interests of all students during the allotted class time. Instructors can harness instructional technology such as screencasts, recordings that capture audio narration along…

  16. Visitor or Inhabitant? Addressing the Needs of Undergraduate Transnational Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Jennifer; McCall, Louise; Abu-Arab, Adela

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify key issues for students in an undergraduate medical course with cross border delivery and the impact of these issues on the students' ability to learn. Data relating to the student experience and perceived student needs were collected from transnational students and teaching staff from Australia and Malaysia.…

  17. Breathing difficulty

    MedlinePlus

    ... pulmonary disease (COPD), such as chronic bronchitis or emphysema Other lung disease Pneumonia Pulmonary hypertension Problems with ... of breath; Breathlessness; Difficulty breathing; Dyspnea Images Lungs Emphysema References Kraft M. Approach to the patient with ...

  18. Stereotype Threat in Classroom Settings: The Interactive Effect of Domain Identification, Task Difficulty and Stereotype Threat on Female Students' Maths Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Background: Stereotype threat research revealed that negative stereotypes can disrupt the performance of persons targeted by such stereotypes. This paper contributes to stereotype threat research by providing evidence that domain identification and the difficulty level of test items moderate stereotype threat effects on female students' maths…

  19. An Analysis of Attitudes towards the Gifted Students with Learning Difficulties Using Two Samples of Greek and Czech Primary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gari, Aikaterini; Mylonas, Kostas; Portešová, Sarka

    2015-01-01

    The provision of gifted students with learning difficulties (GSLD) composes a complicated educational problem that deserves special care. This study explores teachers' attitudes towards the GSLD in two samples of primary school teachers: 225 Greek teachers and 158 teachers in the Czech Republic, 40-59 years of age and with 14-28 years of teaching…

  20. Perspectives of SENCos and Support Staff in England on Their Roles, Relationships and Capacity to Support Inclusive Practice for Students with Behavioural Emotional and Social Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Diana; Goodman, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    With teachers under pressure to meet curriculum targets, responsibility for including students with behavioural emotional and social difficulties (BESD) in mainstream schools falls heavily on non-teaching staff. In this article, semi-structured interviews were conducted with special educational needs coordinators (SENCos) and support staff in a…

  1. How My Involvement with an Inclusive, Educational, Gifted and Talented Programme Has Influenced My Work with Students Who Have Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Vicky M.

    2013-01-01

    This is a response as to how my involvement with the Gifted and Talented Programme initiated by Bath and North East Somerset made me reassess my living educational values and beliefs, thus influencing my delivery and provision for the students with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties with whom I work. As I consider the issues implicit…

  2. Self-Regulated Strategy Development at Tier 2 for Second-Grade Students with Writing and Behavioral Difficulties: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Harris, Karen; Graham, Steve; Driscoll, Steven; Sandmel, Karin; Morphy, Paul; Hebert, Michael; House, Emily; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    We examined the extent to which strategies instruction, using the Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) model, would enhance the writing, engagement during writing, and behavior of 44 second-grade students identified as having behavioral and writing difficulties. This study occurred within a comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered model of…

  3. Fifth through Eighth Grade Students' Difficulties in Constructing Bar Graphs: Data Organization, Data Aggregation, and Integration of a Second Variable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Mila, Merce; Marti, Eduard; Gilabert, Sandra; Castells, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Studies that consider the displays that students create to organize data are not common in the literature. This article compares fifth through eighth graders' difficulties with the creation of bar graphs using either raw data (Study 1, n = 155) or a provided table (Study 2, n = 152). Data in Study 1 showed statistical differences for the type…

  4. Lesson Study Practices in the Development of Secondary Teaching of Students with Moderate Learning Difficulties: A Systematic Qualitative Analysis in Relation to Context and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwich, Brahm; Ylonen, Annamari

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines data from the novel use of Lesson Study (LS), an internationally known strategy for professional development, to improve the teaching of students (11-14 years old) with moderate learning difficulties (MLD). The paper aims to use a systematic qualitative analytic approach to identify variations in LS practice in a development…

  5. Addressing Diversity in Health Science Students by Enhancing Flexibility through e-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penman, Joy; Thalluri, Jyothi

    2014-01-01

    The technological advancements for teaching and learning sciences for health science students are embedded in the Thalluri-Penman Good Practice Model, which aims to improve the learning experiences of science students and increase student retention and success rates. The model also links students from urban and rural areas, studying both on-and…

  6. Using Student Success Skills to Address ASCA Behavior Standards in Grades K-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Nicholas R.; Oliver, Brandie M.; Keller, Thomas J.; McAulay, Andrew; Piatek, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated relationships between a school counselor's implementation of the Student Success Skills (SSS) program with 203 students in grades K-3 and teacher ratings of student competency on five learning behaviors from the ASCA Mindsets & Behaviors for Student Success (American School Counselor Association, 2014). Using a paired…

  7. Addressing the Misconceptions of Middle School Students About Becoming a Scientist or Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, H. E.; Sorge, C.; Hagerty, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of our educational outreach program shows that students and their parents are excited about space science, but stereotypes about science and scientists drastically effect student attitudes about science and pursuing a technical career.

  8. Addressing Helping Competencies in Student Affairs: Analysis of Helping Skills Course Syllabi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Amy L.; Altabef, David

    2015-01-01

    Helping skills are increasingly viewed as essential competencies for student affairs practitioners. The purpose of this study was to examine the helping competencies covered in student affairs professional preparation programs. The authors examined 16 syllabi of helping-skills courses in student affairs programs and compared this analysis to…

  9. Participatory Sketching as a Tool to Address Student's Public Speaking Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rattine-Flaherty, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In a diverse, interconnected, and results-oriented world, students need to be confident and well-prepared public speakers. However, many students entering public speaking classrooms feel anxious and dread having to perform publicly (Bodie, 2010). Students' sense of Communication Apprehension (CA) is likely to increase for any of several…

  10. Attention to Retention: Exploring and Addressing the Needs of College Students in STEM Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yonghong Jade

    2016-01-01

    Guided by well-established theories on student retention, a survey was developed and implemented to collect data about the college experience of STEM students at a four-year research university. Analysis of the survey data confirms ten constructs that captured different aspects of students' academic and social experiences. Among them, academic…

  11. Creating a Culture of Student Philanthropy to Address Financial Challenges in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottick, Kathleen J.; Giordano, Stephanie; Chirico, Danielle E.

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about the cost of higher education and student loan debt have resulted in increasing efforts by policymakers and university administrators to find alternative ways to support the financing of higher education for students. The authors present a case study of a student-led philanthropy campaign to generate funding for social work student…

  12. A Framework for Addressing the Needs of Students Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol and Other Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Silvana M. R.; Westby, Carol E.; Gable, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors review learning and behavioral problems of children exposed prenatally to alcohol and other drugs, focusing on executive-function deficits such as difficulty shifting tasks, maintaining attention, and manipulating information in working memory. They discuss various risk factors associated with prenatal drug exposure so…

  13. The American Competitiveness Initiative: Addressing the STEM Teacher Shortage and Improving Student Academic Readiness. BHEF Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business-Higher Education Forum (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    America's leaders are increasingly concerned about U.S. competitiveness in a rapidly globalizing world. In response, during the 2006 State of the Union Address, President Bush introduced the American Competitiveness Initiative (ACI) to promote policy that bolsters student achievement in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and…

  14. How Schools Address Students' Mental Health and Drug and Alcohol Concerns and Problems: Lessons from Student Assistance Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fertman, Carl I.; Tarasevich, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Conversations with school superintendents, board members, principals, teachers, counselors, and nurses about their students' social and emotional health show how actively they are working to help students confront difficult issues. Topping the list of issues are drug and alcohol use and abuse, depression, and violence among students. Equally…

  15. Breaking through barriers: using technology to address executive function weaknesses and improve student achievement.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, David M

    2014-01-01

    Assistive technologies provide significant capabilities for improving student achievement. Improved accessibility, cost, and diversity of applications make integration of technology a powerful tool to compensate for executive function weaknesses and deficits and their impact on student performance, learning, and achievement. These tools can be used to compensate for decreased working memory, poor time management, poor planning and organization, poor initiation, and decreased memory. Assistive technology provides mechanisms to assist students with diverse strengths and weaknesses in mastering core curricular concepts. PMID:25010083

  16. Reconsidering Learning Difficulties and Misconceptions in Chemistry: Emergence in Chemistry and Its Implications for Chemical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tümay, Halil

    2016-01-01

    Identifying students' misconceptions and learning difficulties and finding effective ways of addressing them has been one of the major concerns in chemistry education. However, the chemistry education community has paid little attention to determining discipline-specific aspects of chemistry that can lead to learning difficulties and…

  17. A Tailored Approach to Identifying and Addressing College Students' Online Health Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banas, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Background: College students may fail to practice information literacy skills because they are unaware of their skill level or are not concerned with the risks. Purpose: In order to develop an effective message that motivates college students to learn online health information literacy skills, a better understanding of perceptions about such…

  18. The Role of HBCUs in Addressing the Unique Needs of LGBT Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobley, Steve D., Jr.; Johnson, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter highlights some of the extant literature on LGBT students at HBCUs and discusses some of the challenges they encounter at these institutions. Furthermore, it offers recommendations to help HBCUs be more intentional about creating a more affirming and inclusive campus environment for LGBT students.

  19. Addressing the Needs of Students with Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Problems: Reflections and Visions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders continue to challenge educators, and their progress in school has not been favorable. In my experience, we have failed to implement some of the most promising practices with this group of students. In this article, I discuss three approaches, positive supports, mentoring and relationship building,…

  20. Advising Financially At-Risk Students: Detecting and Addressing Premature Affluence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Leigh S.

    2014-01-01

    Academic advisors likely will encounter financially at-risk (FAR) students who jeopardize their chances of completing a college education and compromise their economic futures by accruing burdensome debt. Students may use loans and credit cards to pay for the necessities of a college education, but many also generate personal debt by financing…

  1. Effective Educational Practice: A Crucial First Step in Addressing the Needs of Traditionally Overlooked Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimeo, Jennifer Kumpost

    2013-01-01

    Students who are traditionally overlooked in academic settings (e.g. poor, Black, Hispanic American, Latino/Latina) are not likely to have educational experiences that reflect equity in access to excellence in education. These students regularly encounter challenges that reflect a poor educational fit and their key needs are often overlooked in…

  2. Training Library Work Study Students for Academic Credit: A Way To Address the Accountability Factor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothlisberg, Allen P.

    Work study students at Northland Pioneer College's Learning Resource Centers in Arizona are required to take a one-unit class entitled Learning Resource Center Survival Skills. Students who successfully complete the course will have mastered 18 skills needed to perform their duties at the resource centers. Assignment of a grade for this course…

  3. "Holes" in Student Understanding: Addressing Prevalent Misconceptions regarding Atmospheric Environmental Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Sara C.; Walz, Kenneth A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a misconception among undergraduate students that global warming is caused by holes in the ozone layer. In this study, we evaluated the presence of this and other misconceptions surrounding atmospheric chemistry that are responsible for the entanglement of the greenhouse effect and the ozone hole in students' conceptual frameworks. We…

  4. Health care voluntourism: addressing ethical concerns of undergraduate student participation in global health volunteer work.

    PubMed

    McCall, Daniel; Iltis, Ana S

    2014-12-01

    The popularity and availability of global health experiences has increased, with organizations helping groups plan service trips and companies specializing in "voluntourism," health care professionals volunteering their services through different organizations, and medical students participating in global health electives. Much has been written about global health experiences in resource poor settings, but the literature focuses primarily on the work of health care professionals and medical students. This paper focuses on undergraduate student involvement in short term medical volunteer work in resource poor countries, a practice that has become popular among pre-health professions students. We argue that the participation of undergraduate students in global health experiences raises many of the ethical concerns associated with voluntourism and global health experiences for medical students. Some of these may be exacerbated by or emerge in unique ways when undergraduates volunteer. Guidelines and curricula for medical student engagement in global health experiences have been developed. Guidelines specific to undergraduate involvement in such trips and pre-departure curricula to prepare students should be developed and such training should be required of volunteers. We propose a framework for such guidelines and curricula, argue that universities should be the primary point of delivery even when universities are not organizing the trips, and recommend that curricula should be developed in light of additional data. PMID:25079381

  5. Assessing Student Orientation to School to Address Low Achievement and Dropping Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadirova, Anna; Burger, John Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study contributes to applied and theoretical research for schools and districts by helping inform programs and policies directed at school improvement, raising student achievement, and high school completion. The paper features recent results of ongoing research on student orientation to school that was assessed via a multidimensional Student…

  6. Addressing Bullying of Students with Autism: Suggestions for Families and Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Ee Rea; Neely, Leslie; Lund, Emily M.

    2015-01-01

    Bullying or any aggressive behavior of a more powerful person or group toward a less powerful person is a widespread problem in the U.S. educational system. While bullying is a significant problem for all students, students with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a particularly high incidence rate of becoming victims of bullying. The social…

  7. Athletic Training Educators' Pedagogical Strategies for Preparing Students to Address Sudden Death in Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pagnotta, Kelly D.; Salvatore, Anthony C.; Casa, Douglas J.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Educational training programs both impart knowledge and allow students to practice skills to gain clinical competence. Objective: Understand the educational training provided to athletic training students regarding sudden death in sport beyond exertional heat stroke. Design: An exploratory, qualitative study using telephone interviews and…

  8. Pursuing Justice for Refugee Students: Addressing Issues of Cultural (Mis)Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    In this paper Nancy Fraser's conceptual tools are drawn on to theorise issues of justice in a culturally diverse primary school in Australia where approximately 30% of the student population are immigrant/refugees. The paper examines justice issues of cultural recognition in relation to refugee student identity, behaviour and assessment. Drawing…

  9. Student Growth within the School Garden: Addressing Personal/Social, Academic, and Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swank, Jacqueline M.; Swank, David E.

    2013-01-01

    School counselors have the challenging task of implementing a comprehensive, developmental school counseling program to serve a large number of students. We present the creative use of a garden program to promote the development of students through the integration of the natural environment. Additionally, we describe activities and metaphors…

  10. The Seven False Beliefs: Addressing the Psychosocial Underpreparedness of the Community College Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Michael V.

    2014-01-01

    Through an analysis of student reactions to several classroom interventions, this article suggests that the single, most important personal characteristic which interferes with the attainment of academic success for the typical community college student is what he or she has already learned about himself or herself and, also, about the process of…

  11. Addressing Educational Reform: Exploring PE Metrics as a System to Measure Student Achievement in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hushman, Glenn; Hushman, Carolyn; Carbonneau, Kira

    2015-01-01

    The current educational reform movement in the United States is focused on measuring the effectiveness of teachers. One component of teacher effectiveness is student achievement. The effectiveness of using PE Metrics as a measure of student achievement in a physical activity setting with a low socioeconomic, culturally diverse population was…

  12. Addressing Alcohol Use and Problems in Mandated College Students: A Randomized Clinical Trial Using Stepped Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borsari, Brian; Hustad, John T. P.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Barnett, Nancy P.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Short, Erica Eaton; Monti, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Over the past 2 decades, colleges and universities have seen a large increase in the number of students referred to the administration for alcohol policies violations. However, a substantial portion of mandated students may not require extensive treatment. Stepped care may maximize treatment efficiency and greatly reduce the demands on…

  13. Addressing K-5 Students' and Preservice Elementary Teachers' Conceptions of Seasonal Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starakis, Ioannis; Halkia, Krystallia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, primary school students' and pre-service teachers' ideas of seasonal change are investigated. The research was carried out in nine primary schools in Athens and in the Primary Education Department of the University of Athens. Written reports were used for gathering data while students also had the opportunity to support…

  14. Obstacles and Opportunities: Addressing the Growing Pains of Summative Student Evaluation of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surgenor, P.W.G.

    2013-01-01

    Summative student evaluation of teaching (SET) is a contentious process, but given the increasing emphasis on quality and accountability, as well as national and international calls for centralised student feedback systems, is likely to become an inevitable aspect of teaching. This research aimed to clarify academics' attitudes to SET in a large…

  15. Using a Concept Cartoon© Method to Address Elementary School Students' Ideas about Natural Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minárechová, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the identification and subsequent development or modification of students´ ideas about scientific phenomena by teaching by concept cartoons© method. We found out ideas of students of the fourth grade of primary school by conceptual tasks which were parts of quasi-experiment (pretest and posttest design). For triangulation…

  16. Using Invitational Learning to Address Writing Competence for Middle School Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornelles, Cecily; Black, Rhonda S.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the process of creating an Invitational Learning environment to improve the writing competence of middle school students in two special education classes. Teacher-student interactions were coded according to Purkey and Novak's (1996) Intentionality/Invitation Quadrant with levels corresponding to intentionally disinviting,…

  17. Resources for Addressing Assessment and Accountability Challenges in Providing Services to Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnsen, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    This column focuses on the challenge of assessment and accountability in providing services to gifted students.The new Common Core State Standards in mathematics and language arts require new assessments for measuring student progress. The gifted field must be a part of the conversation in designing these tools. The National Association for Gifted…

  18. Using Movement-Based Sensory Interventions to Address Self-Stimulatory Behaviors in Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Nicole M.; Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer; Jolivette, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines a three-step process to help teachers determine whether or not the function of a student's stereotypical behavior is sensory-based and if so, how to select and monitor an appropriate sensory intervention to promote instructional engagement. In particular, characteristics of students who are seeking to gain sensory input in…

  19. 2014 AERA Presidential Address: The College Ambition Program: A Realistic Transition Strategy for Traditionally Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The College Ambition Program (CAP) is designed to encourage low-income and minority students to enroll in college. The following analysis presents updated results from my AERA presidential talk in 2014. Results indicate that CAP, which is a schoolwide intervention, increased college attendance for low-income and minority students in seven…

  20. Addressing the Crisis in College Mathematics: Designing Courses for Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Teresa; Peterman, Shahla; Brown, Monica

    2008-01-01

    College students' success in a course depends on many factors, including their ability and previous knowledge of the subject, the effectiveness of the instruction, and their motivation to work hard enough to succeed. Introductory courses, including many that satisfy general-education requirements, often pose a particular problem for students who…

  1. Teacher Strategies for Effective Intervention with Students Presenting Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties: Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this paper some key practice and policy implications emerging from a review of literature on effective teacher strategies for social, emotional and behavioural difficulties are set out. Particular attention is given to implications in relation to the development of teachers' skills.

  2. Emotion Regulation Difficulties, Youth-Adult Relationships, and Suicide Attempts among High School Students in Underserved Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisani, Anthony R.; Wyman, Peter A.; Petrova, Mariya; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Goldston, David B.; Xia, Yinglin; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2013-01-01

    To develop and refine interventions to prevent youth suicide, knowledge is needed about specific processes that reduce risk at a population level. Using a cross-sectional design, the present study tested hypotheses regarding associations between self-reported suicide attempts, emotion regulation difficulties, and positive youth-adult relationships…

  3. Teaching Word Recognition: Effective Strategies for Students with Learning Difficulties. What Works for Special-Needs Learners Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2006-01-01

    Most struggling readers, including those with reading disabilities, have difficulties recognizing printed words. This unique, lucidly written book synthesizes the research on how children learn to read words skillfully and translates it into step-by-step strategies for the classroom. The author demonstrates how to plan and implement a coordinated…

  4. Addressing Library Anxiety (LA) in student nurses: a study in an NHS Foundation Trust Hospital library and information service.

    PubMed

    Still, Madeleine

    2015-12-01

    Library anxiety is a concept which has been recognised in academic library circles since the early 1990s. It can result in students actively avoiding the library for the duration of their studies. Madeleine Still is Trust Librarian at North Tees & Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust and while studying for an MSc, recognised that some student nurses were exhibiting signs of library anxiety. She decided to make it the focus of her MSc dissertation, and this article discusses her research project as well as highlighting the measures she has taken to address the issues she uncovered. Madeleine graduated in July 2013 with an MSc in Information & Library Studies from Robert Gordon University. PMID:26768906

  5. Screening for specific learning difficulties (SpLD): the impact upon the progression of pre-registration nursing students.

    PubMed

    Wray, Jane; Aspland, Jo; Taghzouit, Jayne; Pace, Kerry; Harrison, Paula

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the impact of screening pre-registration nursing students for an SpLD at entry to an education programme, and the provision of specialist support for those identified as 'at risk'. Progression was monitored using a multiple method approach. 242 (98%) students completed and returned the Adult Dyslexia Check List (ADCL). 69 scored 7 or above (28.5% of responses) and 36 (52%) went on for further assessment. 48% of students who scored 7+ did not go on to contact Disability Services at all. 11% of the cohort was formally identified as having a SpLD at the end of the year compared to 3.9% of students with a declared disability entering pre-registration nurse education in 2007. 54% of the students who scored 7+ successfully progressed into year two, compared with 41% of students with SpLD from a previous cohort. PMID:21353730

  6. Assessment of Self-Reported Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties Among Pre-University College Students in Bangalore, India

    PubMed Central

    Bhola, Poornima; Sathyanarayanan, Vidya; Rekha, Dorothy P; Daniel, Sheila; Thomas, Tinku

    2016-01-01

    Background: The understanding of youth mental health needs and development of service delivery models is a national public health challenge. Objectives: The rates and predictors of emotional and behavioral problems among 1087 youth were assessed in a pre-university college in Bangalore, India. Variations in rates of disturbance, identified by using different cut-off points, were also examined. Materials and Methods: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used as a self-report screening tool. Results: Results indicated that 10.1% of adolescents had total difficulty levels in the abnormal range, with 9% at risk for emotional symptoms, 13% for conduct problems, 12.6% for hyperactivity/inattention and 9.4% for peer problems. Select gender differences were present. Cut-off scores derived from the sample yielded lower estimates of disturbance than the published cut-offs. Regression analysis identified predictors of total difficulty levels. Conclusions: Implications for assessment of youth mental health and planning targeted services in educational institutions are discussed. PMID:27051090

  7. Intake Procedures as a Factor in Identifying and Addressing Barriers to Attendance of Adult Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubble, Judy Hafley

    A study explored the nature of intake procedures of Texas adult education programs. Research on barriers to attendance and strategies for retention were reviewed, and the current use of intake procedures to identify and address barriers to attendance was summarized through a survey of 374 Literacy, Even Start Family Literacy, Adult Basic Education…

  8. Improving the Writing Performance of High School Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Writing Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Laura Thompson; Reid, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of persuasive writing instruction using the Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) model with high school students identified with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using a multiple baseline design across participants, four students in grades 10 and 11 received one-to-one instruction in…

  9. Characteristics, Assessment, and Treatment of Writing Difficulties in College Students with Language Disorders and/or Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Many students currently are enrolled in colleges and universities across the country with language disorders and/or learning disabilities (LLD). The majority of these students struggle with writing, creating a need to identify and provide them with writing intervention services. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) may provide this intervention;…

  10. High-School Students' Conceptual Difficulties and Attempts at Conceptual Change: The Case of Basic Quantum Chemical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaparlis, Georgios; Papaphotis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    This study tested for deep understanding and critical thinking about basic quantum chemical concepts taught at 12th grade (age 17-18). Our aim was to achieve conceptual change in students. A quantitative study was conducted first (n = 125), and following this 23 selected students took part in semi-structured interviews either individually or in…

  11. Evaluating an Electronic Plagiarism Detection Service: The Importance of Trust and the Difficulty of Proving Students Don't Cheat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Plagiarism by students is seen as an increasing problem. The fear is that students will use the internet to obtain analysis, interpretation or even complete assignments and then submit these as their own work. Electronic plagiarism detection services may help to prevent such unfair practice but, in doing so, they create a new problem: certifying…

  12. Teaching Assistants' Performance at Identifying Common Introductory Student Difficulties in Mechanics Revealed by the Force Concept Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has been widely used to assess student understanding of introductory mechanics concepts by a variety of educators and physics education researchers. One reason for this extensive use is that many of the items on the FCI have strong distractor choices which correspond to students' alternate conceptions in…

  13. Student Difficulties in Socio-Scientific Argumentation and Decision-Making Research Findings: Crossing the Borders of Two Research Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Omer; Turkmen, Lutfullah; Roychoudhury, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Students' poor argumentation in the context of socio-scientific issues has become a concern in science education. Identified problems associated with student argumentation in socio-scientific issues are misevaluation of evidence, naive nature of science conceptualizations, and inappropriate use of value-based reasoning. In this theoretical paper,…

  14. Response to Intervention for Middle School Students With Reading Difficulties: Effects of a Primary and Secondary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Sharon; Cirino, Paul T.; Wanzek, Jeanne; Wexler, Jade; Fletcher, Jack M.; Denton, Carolyn D.; Barth, Amy; Romain, Melissa; Francis, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a yearlong, researcher-provided, Tier 2 (secondary) intervention with a group of sixth-graders. The intervention emphasized word recognition, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension, Participants scored below a proficiency level on their slate accountability test and were compared to a similar group of struggling readers receiving school-provided instruction. All students received the benefits of content area teachers who participated in researcher-provided professional development designed to integrate vocabulary and comprehension practices throughout the school day (Tier 1). Students who participated in the Tier 2 intervention showed gains on measures of decoding, fluency, and comprehension, but differences relative to students in the comparison group were small (median d = +0.16). Students who received the re searcher-provided intervention scored significantly higher than students who received comparison intervention on measures of word attack, spelling, the state accountability measure, passage comprehension, and phonemic decoding efficiency, although most often in particular subgroups. PMID:21479079

  15. Addressing weight-related issues in an elementary school: what do students, parents, and school staff recommend?

    PubMed

    Haines, Jess; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Thiel, Lynnell

    2007-01-01

    This study examined weight-related issues affecting elementary school children to gain insight into how best to address these issues within a school-based intervention. The study population included 21 students, 12 school staff members, and 21 parents from a school that serves an ethnically-diverse population. Data were collected using focus groups and individual interviews and were analyzed using qualitative research methodology. Weight-related teasing and poor body image emerged as prominent issues affecting students. Results suggest that programs aimed at the prevention of weight-related disorders should go beyond issues of nutrition and physical activity and include strategies to reduce weight-related mistreatment and to improve students' body image. PMID:17162638

  16. Assessing and Addressing Student Barriers: Implications for Today's College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterholt, Dorothy A.; Dennis, Sophie Lampard

    2014-01-01

    The increasingly diverse set of learners in colleges and universities poses considerable challenges for educators. Dorothy A. Osterholt and Sophie Lampard Dennis explain the four domains of learning they have identified and suggest ways to apply them to help students overcome a variety of obstacles to learning.

  17. Addressing the Needs of Students with Autism and Other Disabilities in China: Perspectives from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dorothy; Spencer, Vicky G.

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disability that has gained increasing attention during the past several decades in China. The two case studies presented in this article examined the perspectives of two school leaders on educating students with autism in China. Two school principals, one from a public school and one from a private school, were…

  18. Orchestration: Providing Teachers with Scaffolding to Address Curriculum Standards and Students' Pace of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Díaz, Anita; Nussbaum, Miguel; Ñopo, Hugo; Maldonado-Carreño, Carolina; Corredor, Javier

    2015-01-01

    While investment in technology for use in the classroom is increasing, studies still do not reveal significant improvements in learning. Investigations have shown that aligning the design of learning experiences with students' needs creates synergy in the teaching and learning classroom processes. This can be achieved through orchestration, the…

  19. Addressing Group Dynamics in a Brief Motivational Intervention for College Student Drinkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faris, Alexander S.; Brown, Janice M.

    2003-01-01

    Previous research indicates that brief motivational interventions for college student drinkers may be less effective in group settings than individual settings. Social psychological theories about counterproductive group dynamics may partially explain this finding. The present study examined potential problems with group motivational interventions…

  20. Addressing Physical Inactivity among Developmentally Disabled Students through Visual Schedules and Social Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimbelman, Merilee; Paschal, Angelia; Hawley, Suzanne R.; Molgaard, Craig A.; St. Romain, Theresa

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: This project tested visual schedules and social stories in a physical education setting in order to increase the physical activity of developmentally disabled students. Method: This cohort study design involved 17 physical education teachers in a training course with an initial survey and 7-month post-survey. The initial survey…

  1. Addressing the Needs of Students with Learning Disabilities during Their Interaction with the Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curcic, Svjetlana

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of instruction in information problem solving within the world wide web (the web) environment. The participants were 20 seventh and eighth grade students with a learning disability (LD) in reading. An experimental pretest-posttest control group method was used to investigate the…

  2. Addressing Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Student Overrepresentation in Special Education: Guidelines for Parents. NCCREST Practitioner Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artiles, Alfredo J.; Harry, Beth

    2006-01-01

    This brief, also available in Spanish, defines the concept of overrpresentation, identifies possible causes for the problem, and offers a variety of ways that parents and families can help prevent or decrease overrpresentation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in special education programs. (Contains 2 tables.) [This brief was…

  3. How Service Learning Addresses the Mental Health Needs of Students in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilczenski, Felicia L.; Cook, Amy L.

    2009-01-01

    Service learning promotes social-emotional and academic development through active engagement in community activities. It empowers students to think beyond themselves and to develop a commitment to serve others. In so doing, service learning builds connections with school and community that are critically important in urban settings. This paper…

  4. Addressing the Needs of Underprepared Students in Higher Education: Does College Remediation Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettinger, Eric P.; Long, Bridget Terry

    2009-01-01

    Each year , thousands graduate high school academically underprepared for college. Many must take remedial or developmental postsecondary coursework, and there is a growing debate about the effectiveness of such programs. This paper examines the effects of remediation using a unique data set of over 28,000 students. To account for selection…

  5. Teachers' Silences about Racist Attitudes and Students' Desires to Address These Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosvall, Per-Åke; Öhrn, Elisabet

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we use ethnographic data to explore school-based perceptions of racism. We draw on the findings of a one-year study conducted in two upper secondary classes in a Swedish school. The starting point of the analysis was student discussions of racism in the school and the surrounding neighbourhood, which prompted an examination of…

  6. Perceived Role Legitimacy and Role Importance of Australian School Staff in Addressing Student Cannabis Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Peter J.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of cannabis use by Australian secondary school students makes schools an ideal setting for the delivery of substance use prevention programs. Although efficacious school-based cannabis prevention programs exist, there is scant research investigating the perceived role legitimacy and role importance of school staff. As such,…

  7. Citing Internet Addresses: A How-To Guide for Referencing Online Sources in Student Bibliographies. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Tim

    This paper provides easy-to-understand guidelines for citing online information in student bibliographies. Citation structure and examples are provided for each type of Internet source. Guidelines are included for the following Internet sources: electronic mail; Gopher; File Transfer Protocol (FTP); Telnet; World Wide Web; Usenet Newsgroups;…

  8. Helicopter Parents of Community College Students: How Community College Professionals Operationally Define and Address This Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hightower, Helen C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the phenomenon of "parental over-involvement" occurred in the Virginia Community College System. Concern has been expressed in the popular and academic literature in recent years over the increased level of parental involvement at four year institutions whose student bodies consist almost exclusively of…

  9. The Transformative Potential of Humanizing Pedagogy: Addressing the Diverse Needs of Chicano/Mexicano Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franquiz, Maria E.; Salazar, Maria del Carmen

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an argument for understanding the factors that support or constrain the development of Chicana/o students' academic identities and consequently, their academic resiliency in high school. The article draws on a larger study investigating ways that schooling structures and teacher mind-sets can sustain…

  10. Analysis of Arguments Constructed by First-Year Engineering Students Addressing Electromagnetic Induction Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almudi, Jose Manuel; Ceberio, Mikel

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the quality of arguments used by first-year engineering university students enrolled in a traditional physics course dealing with electromagnetic induction and related problem solving where they had to assess whether the electromagnetic induction phenomenon would occur. Their conclusions were analyzed for the relevance of the…

  11. Crafting Instructions Collaboratively: Student Questions and Dual Addressivity in Classroom Task Instructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Oliver; Cromdal, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    This study examines classroom task instructions--phases traditionally associated with noninteractional objectives and operations--and reveals their composition as interactionally complex and cocrafted. Analyses of video sequences of task instructional activity from three different secondary school lessons show that student questions routinely…

  12. Moving Forward? Addressing the Needs of Young At-Risk Students in the Dutch Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Aalsvoort, Geerdina M.

    2007-01-01

    Inclusive education in the Dutch education system has achieved new meaning in the last decade or so. Until 1998, the Netherlands recognized 19 types of special education. Then, two Educational Acts were passed, in 1998 and 2003, that decreased the types of special education by including measures to enhance inclusion of students with special…

  13. College Students' Views of Work-Life Balance in STEM Research Careers: Addressing Negative Preconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan-Wilson, Anna; Stamp, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    In career discussions, female undergraduates said that if they were to attend graduate school in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and were to follow a career based on their research training, they would have to give up having a family. A subsequent survey showed that many students, both men and women, thought work-life…

  14. Addressing Dilemmas of Social Justice Mathematics Instruction through Collaboration of Students, Educators, and Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokka, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Social justice mathematics educators explicitly aim to develop students' sociopolitical consciousness in addition to teaching mathematics content (Gutiérrez 2013; Gutstein 2006). Sociopolitical consciousness refers to Paulo Freire's (1970) concept of "conscientização," or learning to perceive social, political, and economic…

  15. Addressing University Students' Anti-Gay Bias: An Extension of the Contact Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Span, Sherry A.

    2011-01-01

    One method frequently employed as an intervention to reduce anti-gay bias is a lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) speaker panel. These speakers share brief biographical sketches about their coming out experiences and then answer questions. A pretest/posttest control group design examined the impact of LGB speaker panels on university students'…

  16. Address Forms among University Students in Ghana: A Case of Gendered Identities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afful, Joseph Benjamin Archibald

    2010-01-01

    In the last two decades, scholars in discourse studies and sociolinguistics have shown considerable interest in how identity is encoded in discourses across various facets of life such as academia, home, politics and workplace. By adopting an ethnographic-style approach, this study shows how students in a Ghanaian university construct their…

  17. The Modern Middle School: Addressing Standards and Student Needs. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Gilbert H.; Wiseman, Dennis G.; Bowden, Sandra Pope

    Middle school educators face many challenges in today's education and political environment due to the focus on excellence as measured by achievement tests. This book discusses how middle schools can provide a strong standards-based academic program while, at the same time, remaining focused on the student-centered principles upon which the middle…

  18. Extending Transition to Address Guardianship Alternatives: An Issue Concerning Students Who Have Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Dorothy Squatrito

    2014-01-01

    As students who have intellectual disability reach or have reached the age of majority, concerns regarding their competence to make informed decisions are often raised, as is the issue of adult guardianship. Guardianship refers to when a judge appoints an adult to be the guardian of another adult (ward) who has been determined to be unable to care…

  19. Addressing the Foundations for Improved Indigenous Secondary Student Outcomes: A South Australian Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Kiara

    2010-01-01

    It is well documented, that Indigenous students, compared with their non-Indigenous counterparts, attend school less frequently, and are more likely to develop anti-schooling attitudes leading to their early exit from school (Hayes et al., 2009; Gray & Partington, 2003; Hunter & Schwad, 2003). Although research does suggest that there has been…

  20. Helping Students with Disabilities Better Address Teasing and Bullying Situations: A MASNRN Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vessey, Judith A.; O'Neill, Katherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Students with disabilities are more likely to be chronically teased or bullied and develop related psychosocial problems. Proactive interventions help these youths develop coping skills and become more resilient in handling such situations. The specific aims of this study were to (a) identify children with disabilities, who are at risk for being…

  1. Addressing Student Problem Behavior: An IEP Team's Introduction to Functional Behavioral Assessment and Behavior Intervention Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Mary Magee; Gable, Robert A.; Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.; Nelson, C. Michael; Howell, Kenneth W.

    This paper provides guidelines for conducting a functional behavioral assessment and developing positive behavior intervention plans with students who have behavior disorders or other disabilities in the context of requirements of the 1997 Amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). After an introduction, rights and…

  2. Forum on Addressing Performance Gaps of Low-Performing Students: Implications for Assessment and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, S.; Christensen, L.; Shyyan, V.; Thurlow, M.

    2013-01-01

    Sixty-two individuals representing sixteen states, three school districts, eleven testing and testing-related companies, and eleven other organizations participated in a forum on June 19, 2013, in National Harbor, Maryland, to discuss the performance gaps of low-performing students and their implications for assessment and instruction. The forum…

  3. Pedagogical Tools to Address Clinical Anatomy and Athletic Training Student Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie; Yeargin, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Context: A thorough knowledge of anatomy is needed in four of the six domains of athletic training: prevention, injury/condition recognition, immediate care, and treatment/rehabilitation. Students with a solid foundation can achieve competency in these specific domains. Objective: To provide educators with pedagogical tools to promote a deeper…

  4. Identifying and Addressing the Mental Health Needs of Online Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Bonny

    2014-01-01

    89% of colleges and universities in the United States offer online courses and of those institutions 58% offer degree programs that are completely online (Parker, Lenhart & Moore, 2011).Providing online student services is an important component of these distance programs and is often required by accrediting bodies. Health and wellness…

  5. Reading, Mathematics, and Behavioral Difficulties Interrelate: Evidence from a Cross-Lagged Panel Design and Population-Based Sample of US Upper Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yu-Chu; Morgan, Paul L.; Hillemeier, Marianne; Cook, Michael; Maczuga, Steve; Farkas, George

    2013-01-01

    We examined three questions. First, do reading difficulties increase children's risk of behavioral difficulties? Second, do behavioral difficulties increase children's risk of reading difficulties? Third, do mathematics difficulties increase children's risk of reading or behavioral difficulties? We investigated these questions using…

  6. Addressing the role of medical students using community mobilization and social media in the Ebola response.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Helena J; Animasahun, Victor J; Tade, Adesoji E; Naveed, Asad

    2016-06-01

    Health professions education in the 21st century should incorporate both community mobilization and social media strategies. First, community mobilization facilitates change by educating community members with evidence-based, high-quality and up-to-date health information and empowering their active participation in target health initiatives. Second, advancements in technology and globalization foster the development of innovative communication technologies used as a key tool in the 'roll out' of community health initiatives during epidemics such as Ebola virus disease. In August 2014, medical students of Sierra Leone and Guinea used these dual health promotional strategies in the Kick Ebola Out campaign to educate community members about transmission of the Ebola virus and preventive measures, as well as to reduce perceptions related to stigma or fear of disease transmission. In this report, we describe how medical students, who are trained in basic and clinical sciences, evidence-based practices, and social determinants of health, can serve as human resources for health and facilitate dynamic communication strategies to educate and empower both medical students and community members for local or national health initiatives. PMID:27216169

  7. Policy Responses to Address Student "Brain Drain": An Assessment of Measures Intended to Reduce the Emigration of Singaporean International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziguras, Christopher; Gribble, Cate

    2015-01-01

    For several decades, Singapore has experienced a high rate of outbound degree mobility with around 1 in 10 higher education students currently studying outside the country according to UNESCO figures. Singapore's successful economic development strategy, which has seen it become a key Asian hub for knowledge-intensive industries for…

  8. Cognitive Difficulty and Format of Exams Predicts Gender and Socioeconomic Gaps in Exam Performance of Students in Introductory Biology Courses

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Christian D.; Eddy, Sarah L.; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Abshire, Elizabeth; Blankenbiller, Margaret; Brownell, Sara E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent reform efforts in undergraduate biology have recommended transforming course exams to test at more cognitively challenging levels, which may mean including more cognitively challenging and more constructed-response questions on assessments. However, changing the characteristics of exams could result in bias against historically underserved groups. In this study, we examined whether and to what extent the characteristics of instructor-generated tests impact the exam performance of male and female and middle/high- and low-socioeconomic status (SES) students enrolled in introductory biology courses. We collected exam scores for 4810 students from 87 unique exams taken across 3 yr of the introductory biology series at a large research university. We determined the median Bloom’s level and the percentage of constructed-response questions for each exam. Despite controlling for prior academic ability in our models, we found that males and middle/high-SES students were disproportionately favored as the Bloom’s level of exams increased. Additionally, middle/high-SES students were favored as the proportion of constructed-response questions on exams increased. Given that we controlled for prior academic ability, our findings do not likely reflect differences in academic ability level. We discuss possible explanations for our findings and how they might impact how we assess our students. PMID:27252299

  9. Cognitive Difficulty and Format of Exams Predicts Gender and Socioeconomic Gaps in Exam Performance of Students in Introductory Biology Courses.

    PubMed

    Wright, Christian D; Eddy, Sarah L; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Abshire, Elizabeth; Blankenbiller, Margaret; Brownell, Sara E

    2016-01-01

    Recent reform efforts in undergraduate biology have recommended transforming course exams to test at more cognitively challenging levels, which may mean including more cognitively challenging and more constructed-response questions on assessments. However, changing the characteristics of exams could result in bias against historically underserved groups. In this study, we examined whether and to what extent the characteristics of instructor-generated tests impact the exam performance of male and female and middle/high- and low-socioeconomic status (SES) students enrolled in introductory biology courses. We collected exam scores for 4810 students from 87 unique exams taken across 3 yr of the introductory biology series at a large research university. We determined the median Bloom's level and the percentage of constructed-response questions for each exam. Despite controlling for prior academic ability in our models, we found that males and middle/high-SES students were disproportionately favored as the Bloom's level of exams increased. Additionally, middle/high-SES students were favored as the proportion of constructed-response questions on exams increased. Given that we controlled for prior academic ability, our findings do not likely reflect differences in academic ability level. We discuss possible explanations for our findings and how they might impact how we assess our students. PMID:27252299

  10. Implementing Smokeless Tobacco Instruction into Medical Student Education: Addressing the Gap

    PubMed Central

    Spangler, John; Foley, Kristie Long; Crandall, Sonia; Lane, Chan; Walker, Kathy; MacRae, Marla; Vaden, Karen; Marion, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the unique health and epidemiological aspects of smokeless tobacco use, medical education regarding this topic is virtually lacking. Methods Using a National Cancer Institute cancer education grant, we have developed a model curriculum for medical schools that includes specific instruction in basic and clinical sciences as they relate to both smoked and smokeless tobacco. The curriculum was informed by a thorough review of the literature and includes eight modules in basic and clinical sciences that are evaluated by pre-test/post-test increases in knowledge as well as standardized patient encounters and process evaluation. We report preliminary data analysis. Results Pre-test/posttest data indicate that students increased knowledge on specific smokeless tobacco questions (e.g, correct answers on prevalence of smokeless, nicotine dosage in smokeless tobacco, cancer risk, and carcinogen components; all increased at p<0.001) Students also scored well on interactions with standardized patients using the Tobacco Intervention Risk Factor Interview Scale, a validated instrument to assess medical students’ tobacco counseling skills. Process evaluation data indicate that modules were generally well received. Conclusion This Web-based, comprehensive curriculum—the only curriculum we are aware of treating the topic of smokeless tobacco use—appears to be effective and well-received. Medical education must devote more attention to instruction in smokeless tobacco use, given its adverse health effects including cancer and cardiovascular disease. PMID:19130384

  11. Qualitative Contributions to a Randomized Controlled Trial Addressing HIV/AIDS-Stigma in Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Marzán-Rodríguez, Melissa; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Specialized training for healthcare professionals (HCP) in order to reduce HIV/AIDS related stigma must be part of a public health model for HIV/AIDS. Tested interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS related stigma among HCP have been mostly absent from these efforts. A qualitative approach was used to assess stigma reduction within a traditional randomized controlled design in order to better understand how our current stigma intervention worked and was understood by 2nd year medical students. After conducting a quantitative follow up survey one-year post intervention we conducted 20 in-depth qualitative interviews with a subsample of our intervention group participants as part of the overall evaluation process. Once the interviews were finished, we transcribed them and used NVivo (v.8) to organized the qualitative data. In the process of analyzing the qualitative data we identified core intervention areas participants described as useful for their training and development: (1) acquiring more HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, (2) increased skills for management of high stigma situations, and (3) the ability to identify socio-structural factors that foster HIV infection among clients. The gathered information is important in order to have a deep understanding of how attitudinal change happens as part of our intervention strategies. Keywords: HIV/AIDS, Stigma, Randomized Controlled Trial, Qualitative Evaluation, Medical Students, Puerto Rico PMID:26855975

  12. College Students' Views of Work-Life Balance in STEM Research Careers: Addressing Negative Preconceptions.

    PubMed

    Tan-Wilson, Anna; Stamp, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    In career discussions, female undergraduates said that if they were to attend graduate school in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and were to follow a career based on their research training, they would have to give up having a family. A subsequent survey showed that many students, both men and women, thought work-life balance would be more difficult to achieve in a STEM research path than in other professions they were considering. Their views of STEM research being less family-friendly were more pronounced on issues of parental leaves and caring for children than finding a spouse/partner and landing two jobs in the same locality. To provide role models of work-life balance in STEM professions, we convened panels of dual-career couples who described how they worked together to raise their children while advancing their scientific careers. Our selection of panelists and topics of discussion were based on findings of social science research on work-life balance. On a survey with the same questions administered afterward, the changes in paired responses of male and female students with respect to all four issues showed a significant shift toward thinking that a research-based STEM career would be no more difficult than other careers they were considering. PMID:26163564

  13. Association of academic stress with sleeping difficulties in medical students of a Pakistani medical school: a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Ahmed; Khan, Spogmai; Sharif, Waqar; Khalid, Uzma; Ali, Asad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Medicine is one of the most stressful fields of education because of its highly demanding professional and academic requirements. Psychological stress, anxiety, depression and sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in medical students. Methods. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the Combined Military Hospital Lahore Medical College and the Institute of Dentistry in Lahore (CMH LMC), Pakistan. Students enrolled in all yearly courses for the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) degree were included. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: (1) demographics (2) a table listing 34 potential stressors, (3) the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14), and (4) the Pittsburgh Quality of Sleep Index (PSQI). Logistic regression was run to identify associations between group of stressors, gender, year of study, student's background, stress and quality of sleep. Results. Total response rate was 93.9% (263/280 respondents returned the questionnaire). The mean (SD) PSS-14 score was 30 (6.97). Logistic regression analysis showed that cases of high-level stress were associated with year of study and academic-related stressors only. Univariate analysis identified 157 cases with high stress levels (59.7%). The mean (SD) PSQI score was 8.1 (3.12). According to PSQI score, 203/263 respondents (77%) were poor sleepers. Logistic regression showed that mean PSS-14 score was a significant predictor of PSQI score (OR 1.99, P < 0.05). Conclusion. We found a very high prevalence of academic stress and poor sleep quality among medical students. Many medical students reported using sedatives more than once a week. Academic stressors contributed significantly to stress and sleep disorders in medical students. PMID:25802809

  14. Addressing group dynamics in a brief motivational intervention for college student drinkers.

    PubMed

    Faris, Alexander S; Brown, Janice M

    2003-01-01

    Previous research indicates that brief motivational interventions for college student drinkers may be less effective in group settings than individual settings. Social psychological theories about counterproductive group dynamics may partially explain this finding. The present study examined potential problems with group motivational interventions by comparing outcomes from a standard group motivational intervention (SGMI; n = 25), an enhanced group motivational intervention (EGMI; n = 27) designed to suppress counterproductive processes, and a no intervention control (n = 23). SGMI and EGMI participants reported disruptive group dynamics as evidenced by low elaboration likelihood, production blocking, and social loafing, though the level of disturbance was significantly lower for EGMI individuals (p = .001). Despite counteracting group dynamics in the EGMI condition, participants in the two interventions were statistically similar in post-intervention problem recognition and future drinking intentions. The results raise concerns over implementing individually-based interventions in group settings without making necessary adjustments. PMID:15022862

  15. The Issue of Accommodations, Waivers, and Course Substitutions for Students Who have Difficulties Learning a Foreign Language: An Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganschow, Lenore; Sparks, Richard L.; Shaw, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Gives an overview of the aspects of learning disabilities in regard to teaching approaches and course substitutions for language requirements that foreign language department chairs should attend to including the following: definitions of learning disabilities, diagnosis of learning disabilities, teaching methodology for the struggling student,…

  16. Darwin's Difficulties and Students' Struggles with Trait Loss: Cognitive-Historical Parallelisms in Evolutionary Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Minsu; Nehm, Ross H.

    2014-01-01

    Although historical changes in scientific ideas sometimes display striking similarities with students' conceptual progressions, some scholars have cautioned that such similarities lack meaningful commonalities. In the history of evolution, while Darwin and his contemporaries often used natural selection to explain evolutionary trait gain or…

  17. Perceived Difficulty of Chemistry Units in Std IX for Students in Kerala Stream Calls for Further Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Shilna, V.

    2013-01-01

    Chemistry is widely perceived as difficult. Specialized language, mathematical and abstract conceptual nature, and the amount of content are often cited reasons. Researchers have been trying to explain how students should be helped in learning chemistry better. This paper reports the results of a survey to identify the chemistry units in standard…

  18. A Follow-Up Meta-Analysis for Word-Problem-Solving Interventions for Students with Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dake; Xin, Yan Ping

    2012-01-01

    Following a meta-analysis study conducted by Y. P. Xin and A. Jitendra (1999), the authors carried out a follow-up meta-analysis of word problem-solving interventions published from 1996 to 2009 for students with learning problems in mathematics. The authors examined the influence of education reforms as moderator variables on intervention…

  19. Association of academic stress with sleeping difficulties in medical students of a Pakistani medical school: a cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Spogmai; Sharif, Waqar; Khalid, Uzma; Ali, Asad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Medicine is one of the most stressful fields of education because of its highly demanding professional and academic requirements. Psychological stress, anxiety, depression and sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in medical students. Methods. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the Combined Military Hospital Lahore Medical College and the Institute of Dentistry in Lahore (CMH LMC), Pakistan. Students enrolled in all yearly courses for the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) degree were included. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: (1) demographics (2) a table listing 34 potential stressors, (3) the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14), and (4) the Pittsburgh Quality of Sleep Index (PSQI). Logistic regression was run to identify associations between group of stressors, gender, year of study, student’s background, stress and quality of sleep. Results. Total response rate was 93.9% (263/280 respondents returned the questionnaire). The mean (SD) PSS-14 score was 30 (6.97). Logistic regression analysis showed that cases of high-level stress were associated with year of study and academic-related stressors only. Univariate analysis identified 157 cases with high stress levels (59.7%). The mean (SD) PSQI score was 8.1 (3.12). According to PSQI score, 203/263 respondents (77%) were poor sleepers. Logistic regression showed that mean PSS-14 score was a significant predictor of PSQI score (OR 1.99, P < 0.05). Conclusion. We found a very high prevalence of academic stress and poor sleep quality among medical students. Many medical students reported using sedatives more than once a week. Academic stressors contributed significantly to stress and sleep disorders in medical students. PMID:25802809

  20. Epidemiology of insomnia in college students: relationship with mental health, quality of life, and substance use difficulties.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Daniel J; Bramoweth, Adam D; Grieser, Emily A; Tatum, Jolyn I; Roane, Brandy M

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and correlates of insomnia using rigorous diagnostic criteria and a comprehensive assessment battery. In a large sample (N=1,074) of college students (mean age 20.39years), participants were asked to complete a week-long sleep diary and comprehensive questionnaire packet assessing recommended daytime functioning domains (i.e., fatigue, quality of life, depression, anxiety, stress, academic performance, substance use) during the academic year. A significant portion of this sample of college students met proposed DSM-5 criteria for chronic insomnia (9.5%). The chronic insomnia group reported significantly worse sleep, fatigue, depression, anxiety, stress, and quality of life, and greater hypnotic and stimulant use for sleep problems. There were no differences between groups on excessive daytime sleepiness, academic performance, or substance use. This was a rigorous and comprehensive assessment of the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of insomnia. Insomnia is a significant problem in college students and should be regularly assessed. More research is also needed to guide treatment in this population. PMID:23768662